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Sample records for portosystemic shunt histologic

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Histologic and Immunohistochemical Study of Autopsy Cases

    SciTech Connect

    Terayama, Noboru; Matsui, Osamu; Kadoya, Masumi; Yoshikawa, Jun; Gabata, Toshifumi; Miyayama, Shiro; Takashima, Tsutomu; Kobayashi, Kenichi; Nakanishi, Isao; Nakanuma, Yasuni

    1997-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the histologic findings associated with stenosed and occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) tracts. Methods: Four TIPS tracts within three autopsy livers were histologically studied for vascular components by routine staining and immunohistochemical staining. TIPS had been performed for bleeding from esophageal varices in patients with cirrhosis of the liver. Results: Two TIPS, examined on days 4 and 53, showed occlusion by fibrin thrombus. In the former, no endothelial cells were detected, but coagulative necrosis of hepatocytes was found in the surrounding liver. In the latter, bile pigments were seen on the luminal surface. In the two other TIPS without tract occlusion, examined on days 49 and 293, a layer of endothelial cells, proliferation of smooth muscle cells, and deposition of an extracellular matrix such as collagen were confirmed. In the tract examined on day 293, there was protrusion of hepatocytes into the lumen through the stent wires. Conclusion: Short- and midterm TIPS occlusions were caused by thrombus forming after necrosis of hepatocytes and bile leakage, respectively. Long-term TIPS stenosis was associated with a combination of pseudointimal hyperplasia and ingrowth of hepatocytes.

  2. TRANSJUGULAR INTRAHEPATIC PORTOSYSTEMIC SHUNT

    PubMed Central

    Patidar, Kavish R.; Sydnor, Malcolm; Sanyal, Arun J.

    2014-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an established procedure for the complications of portal hypertension. The largest body of evidence for its use has been supported for recurrent or refractory variceal bleeding and refractory ascites. Its use has also been advocated for acute variceal bleed, hepatic hydrothorax, and hepatorenal syndrome. With the replacement of bare metal stents with polytetrafluoroethylen (PTFE) covered stents, shunt patency has improved dramatically thus improving outcomes. Therefore, reassessment of its utility, management of its complications, and understanding of various TIPS techniques is important. PMID:25438287

  3. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt. In: Mauro MA, Murphy KPJ, Thomson KR, Venbrux AC, Morgan RA, eds. Image- ... of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, ...

  4. Congenital Portosystemic Shunt: Our Experience

    PubMed Central

    Timpanaro, Tiziana; Passanisi, Stefano; Sauna, Alessandra; Trombatore, Claudia; Pennisi, Monica; Petrillo, Giuseppe; Smilari, Pierluigi; Greco, Filippo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Congenital portosystemic venous malformations are rare abnormalities in which the portal blood drains into a systemic vein and which are characterized by extreme clinical variability. Case Presentations. The authors present two case reports of a congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (Type II). In the first patient, apparently nonspecific symptoms, such as headache and fatigue, proved to be secondary to hypoglycemic episodes related to the presence of a portosystemic shunt, later confirmed on imaging. During portal vein angiography, endovascular embolization of the portocaval fistula achieved occlusion of the anomalous venous tract. In the second patient, affected by Down's syndrome, the diagnosis of a portosystemic malformation was made by routine ultrasonography, performed to rule out concurrent congenital anomalies. Because of the absence of symptoms, we chose to observe this patient. Conclusions. These two case reports demonstrate the clinical heterogeneity of this malformation and the need for a multidisciplinary approach. As part of a proper workup, clinical evaluation must always be followed by radiographic diagnosis. PMID:25709849

  5. Embolization of nonvariceal portosystemic collaterals in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Arias, Mercedes; Longo, Jesus Maria; Alejandre, Pedro Luis; Betes, Maria Teresa; Elizalde, Arlette Maria

    1997-03-15

    Percutaneous embolization of large portosystemic collaterals was performed in three patients following placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in order to improve hepatopetal portal flow. Improved hepatic portal perfusion was achieved in these cases, thereby theoretically reducing the risk of chronic hepatic encephalopathy.

  6. Hepatic encephalomyelopathy in a calf with congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS).

    PubMed

    Marçal, Valéria Café; Oevermann, Anna; Bley, Tim; Pfister, Patrizia; Miclard, Julien

    2008-03-01

    A 4-month-old female Holstein Friesian calf was referred to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Berne, Switzerland for evaluation of ataxia, weakness, apathy and stunted growth. Clinical examination revealed generalized ataxia, propioceptive deficits, decreased menace response and sensibility. Postmortem examination did not reveal macroscopic changes of major organs. Histologically, the brain and the spinal cord lesions were characterized by polymicrocavitation, preferentially affecting the white matter fibers at the junction of grey and white matter and by the presence of Alzheimer type II cells. The liver revealed lesions consistent with a congenital portosystemic shunt, characterized by increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplasia to absence of portal veins. The pathological investigations along with the animal history and clinical signs indicated a hepatic encephalomyelopathy due to a congenital portosystemic shunt.

  7. [Transjugular portosystemic shunt. The current concepts].

    PubMed

    Ferral, H; Alcántara-Peraza, A; Kimura-Fujikami, Y; Castañeda-Zúñiga, W

    1994-01-01

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an alternative therapeutic approach in the treatment of hemorrhagic portal hypertension. The use of this procedure was established in 1988 and since then, its use has extended impressively. Currently, the accepted indication for TIPS is the variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension refractory to medical management or sclerotherapy. In this paper the basic concepts of the TIPS procedure are reviewed, including historical perspective, technical aspects, indications, contraindications and complications.

  8. Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic shunt diagnosed during intrauterine life

    PubMed Central

    Bellettini, Camila Vieira; Wagner, Rafaela; Balzanelo, Aleocídio Sette; Andretta, André Luis de Souza; de Moura, Arthur Nascimento; Fabris, Catia Carolina; Gubert, Eduardo Maranhão

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: To report a patient with prenatal diagnosis of portosystemic shunt; a rare condition in humans. Case description: 17-Day-old female infant admitted for investigation of suspected diagnosis of portosystemic shunt, presumed in obstetric ultrasound. The hypothesis was confirmed after abdominal angiography and liver Doppler. Other tests such as echocardiography and electroencephalogram were performed to investigate possible co-morbidities or associated complications, and were normal. We chose conservative shunt treatment, as there were no disease-related complications and this was intrahepatic shunt, which could close spontaneously by the age of 2 years. Comments: Portosystemic shunt can lead to various complications such as hepatic encephalopathy, hypergalactosemia, liver tumors, and hepatopulmonary syndrome. Most diagnoses are done after one month of age, after such complications occur. The prenatal diagnosis of this patient provided greater security for the clinical picture management, as well as regular monitoring, which allows the anticipation of possible complications and perform interventional procedures when needed. PMID:27133713

  9. Liver transplantation and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Moreno, A; Meneu, J C; Moreno, E; Fraile, M; García, I; Loinaz, C; Abradelo, M; Jiménez, C; Gomez, R; García-Sesma, A; Manrique, A; Gimeno, A

    2003-08-01

    Describe the results of liver transplantation after installing Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) and compare them with those of a control group in a comparative, longitudinal, retrospective study. Between April 1986 and October 2002, we performed 875 liver transplantations. Between January 1996 and October 2002, 26 transplantations were performed on TIPS carriers. This group was compared with a control cohort of 50 randomly selected patients who underwent transplantation in this period (non-TIPS carriers). Both groups were homogeneous with no significant differences between age, sex United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) score, Child stage, or etiology. Actuarial survival rates at 1 and 3 years: TIPS group 96.15% and 89.29% versus control cohort 87.8% and 81%, respectively. In 73.9%, the TIPS was clearly effective; in 88.9%, a postoperative Doppler revealed normal flow. There were no statistically significant differences compared with time on the waiting list for transplant, duration of the operation, ischemia times, intraoperative consumption of hemoderivates, vascular or nonvascular postoperative complications, duration of stay in the intensive care unit, hospital stay, or retransplantation rate. In our experience, TIPS insertion does not affect either the intraoperative or postoperative evolution and is not associated with an increased time on the liver transplant waiting list.

  10. The presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunts increases the risk of complications after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement.

    PubMed

    Borentain, P; Soussan, J; Resseguier, N; Botta-Fridlund, D; Dufour, J-C; Gérolami, R; Vidal, V

    2016-06-01

    The goal of this study was to identify clinical and imaging variables that are associated with an unfavorable outcome during the 30 days following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. Fifty-four consecutive patients with liver cirrhosis (Child-Pugh 6-13, Model for End-stage Liver Disease 7-26) underwent TIPS placement for refractory ascites (n=25), recurrent or uncontrolled variceal bleeding (n=23) or both (n=6). Clinical, biological and imaging variables including type of stent (covered n=40; bare-stent n=14), presence of spontaneous portosystemic shunt (n=31), and variations in portosystemic pressure gradient were recorded. Early severe complication was defined as the occurrence of overt hepatic encephalopathy or death within the 30days following TIPS placement. Sixteen patients (30%) presented with early severe complication after TIPS placement. Child-Pugh score was independently associated with complication (HR=1.52, P<0.001). Among the imaging variables, opacification of spontaneous portosystemic shunt during TIPS placement but before its creation was associated with an increased risk of early complication (P=0.04). The other imaging variables were not associated with occurrence of complication. Identification of spontaneous portosystemic shunt during TIPS placement reflects the presence of varices and is associated with an increased risk of early severe complication. Copyright © 2016 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Portosystemic Shunts: Stable Utilization and Improved Outcomes, Two Decades After the Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt.

    PubMed

    Perry, Brandon C; Kwan, Sharon W

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess national trends in utilization, demographics, hospital characteristics, and outcomes of patients undergoing surgical or percutaneous portal decompression since the introduction of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). A retrospective analysis of patients undergoing surgical portal decompression and TIPS procedures was conducted using Medicare Physician/Supplier Procedure Summary Master Files from January 2003 through December 2013 and National (Nationwide) Inpatient Sample data from 1993, 2003, and 2012. Utilization rates normalized to the annual number of Medicare enrollees, estimated means, and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The Medicare total annual utilization rate per million for all portosystemic decompression procedures decreased by 6.5% during the study period, from 15.3 in 2003 to 14.3 in 2013. TIPS utilization increased by 19.4% (from 10.3 to 12.3 per million), whereas open surgical shunt utilization decreased by 60.0% (from 5.0 to 2.0 per million). TIPS procedures represented 86% of all procedures in 2013. From 1993 to 2012, mean age increased slightly (from 53.0 to 55.5 years, P < .05). The percentage of procedures performed at teaching hospitals increased, whereas in-hospital mortality and length of stay decreased by 42% (P < .05) and 20% (P < .05), respectively. Of factors evaluated, the performance of procedures on an elective basis was the most influential on in-hospital mortality (P < .01, all years studied) and length of stay (P < .0001, all years studied). Approximately two decades after the introduction of TIPS, the utilization of all portal decompression procedures has remained relatively stable. The TIPS procedure represents the dominant portal decompression technique. In-hospital mortality and mean length of stay after decompression have decreased, partially because of the performance of procedures during elective admissions. Copyright © 2015 American College of Radiology

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Complications: Prevention and Management

    PubMed Central

    Suhocki, Paul V.; Lungren, Matthew P.; Kapoor, Baljendra; Kim, Charles Y.

    2015-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion has been well established as an effective treatment in the management of sequelae of portal hypertension. There are a wide variety of complications that can be encountered, such as hemorrhage, encephalopathy, TIPS dysfunction, and liver failure. This review article summarizes various approaches to preventing and managing these complications. PMID:26038620

  13. Predictors of mortality after transjugular portosystemic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Ascha, Mona; Abuqayyas, Sami; Hanouneh, Ibrahim; Alkukhun, Laith; Sands, Mark; Dweik, Raed A; Tonelli, Adriano R

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate if echocardiographic and hemodynamic determinations obtained at the time of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can provide prognostic information that will enhance risk stratification of patients. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 467 patients who underwent TIPS between July 2003 and December 2011 at our institution. We recorded information regarding patient demographics, underlying liver disease, indication for TIPS, baseline laboratory values, hemodynamic determinations at the time of TIPS, and echocardiographic measurements both before and after TIPS. We recorded patient comorbidities that may affect hemodynamic and echocardiographic determinations. We also calculated Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) score and Child Turcotte Pugh (CTP) class. The following pre- and post-TIPS echocardiographic determinations were recorded: Left ventricular ejection fraction, right ventricular (RV) systolic pressure, subjective RV dilation, and subjective RV function. We recorded the following hemodynamic measurements: Right atrial (RA) pressure before and after TIPS, inferior vena cava pressure before and after TIPS, free hepatic vein pressure, portal vein pressure before and after TIPS, and hepatic venous pressure gradient (HVPG). RESULTS: We reviewed 418 patients with portal hypertension undergoing TIPS. RA pressure increased by a mean ± SD of 4.8 ± 3.9 mmHg (P < 0.001), HVPG decreased by 6.8 ± 3.5 mmHg (P < 0.001). In multivariate linear regression analysis, a higher MELD score, lower platelet count, splenectomy and a higher portal vein pressure were independent predictors of higher RA pressure (R = 0.55). Three variables predicted 3-mo mortality after TIPS in a multivariate analysis: Age, MELD score, and CTP grade C. Change in the RA pressure after TIPS predicted long-term mortality (per 1 mmHg change, HR = 1.03, 95%CI: 1.01-1.06, P < 0.012). CONCLUSION: RA pressure increased immediately after TIPS particularly in

  14. Cardiac Perforation and Tamponade During Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement

    SciTech Connect

    McCowan, Timothy C.; Hummel, Michael M.; Schmucker, Tracey; Goertzen, Timothy C.; Culp, William C.; Habbe, Thomas G.

    2000-07-15

    A patient developed acute severe hemodynamic compromise during a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure for intractable ascites. Rapid clinical and radiographic evaluation of the patient disclosed pericardial blood and cardiac tamponade as the cause, probably due to right heart perforation from guidewire and catheter manipulation. The tamponade was successfully treated percutaneously, and the patient survived. Cardiac tamponade should be considered in the differential diagnosis of patients who develop hypotension during TIPS placement.

  15. Characterization of multiple acquired portosystemic shunts using transplenic portal scintigraphy.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Federica; Sura, Patricia A; Sharp, Dorothy; Daniel, Gregory B

    2010-01-01

    We describe the scintigraphic patterns observed in 14 patients with confirmed multiple portosystemic shunts imaged via transplenic portal scintigraphy. Parameters evaluated included presence of multiple anomalous vessels, presence of hepatofugal flow caudal to spleen, and/or to cranial margin of the kidneys, slow absorption resulting in longer spleen to heart transit time, and presence of biphasic or fragmented bolus. Twenty-eight additional patients, 14 with a confirmed single portocaval and 14 with a portoazygos shunt, were used for comparison. Nine of 14 (64.3%) patients with multiple shunts had multiple vessels, five (35.7%) had a biphasic bolus, 13 (92.9%) had hepatofugal flow caudal to the cranial margin of the kidneys. In all single portocaval shunts, a single anomalous vessel was identified. None had hepatofugal flow caudal to the border of the kidneys. Among portoazygos shunts, 4/14 (28.6%) had flow caudal to the injection site. Six portoazygos and one portocaval shunts had biphasic bolus. Median transit time from spleen to heart was significantly longer (1.9 s) in patients with multiple shunts than in patients with a portocaval shunt (1.0 s), but not in patients with a portoazygos shunt (1.3 s). Although a distinct plexus of anomalous vessels is not detected in all patients with multiple shunts imaged using transplenic portal scintigraphy, findings of hepatofugal flow caudal to the margin of the kidneys, and longer transit time compared with single portocaval shunts were characteristic. Flow caudal to the splenic injection site but cranial to the kidneys and biphasic bolus can also be seen with a single congenital shunt.

  16. Refractory hepatic encephalopathy due to concomitant transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and spontaneous mesocaval shunt controlled by embolization of the competitive portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Cura, Marco

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneous mesocaval shunt (SMCS) is an uncommon cause of refractory encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation. We report a patient who presented with refractory hepatic encephalopathy (HE) post-TIPS creation for variceal bleeding in whom a SMCS was found. Percutaneous transhepatic occlusion of the SMCS reduced the portal vein flow diverted from the liver and provided sufficient liver perfusion to reverse the HE while maintaining satisfactory decompression of esophageal varices.

  17. [Congenital portosystemic shunt in dogs and cats].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V; Schmidt, S; Lettow, E; Suter, P F; Schmidt, G U

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the circulation of the liver and of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy as a result of portal vascular anomalies is given. Clinical signs associated with portal systemic shunts are described on the basis of 16 cases, 14 dogs and 2 cats. These animals ranged in age at the time of presentation from 4 months to 7 years. The predominant abnormality observed were central nervous signs, which differed in severity. The different techniques of contrast angiography allowing demonstration of a portal systemic shunt are presented along with a discussion of the pros and cons of each. Additionally the significance of making portal venous pressure measurements prior to each angiography is also explained. In most cases mesenteric portography was chosen. Based on their location the anomalies could be categorized as intrahepatic (4 dogs) or extrahepatic (10 dogs, 2 cats). In both groups breeds of various size are represented. The extrahepatic shunts could be further described as portal-caval (n = 5), portal-phrenic (n = 4) and portal-azygos (n = 3). In five of the older animals angiography showed in addition some hepatic perfusion by the portal vein. Laboratory evaluation revealed increased resting blood ammonia concentrations (greater than 200-912 micrograms/100 ml) in all animals. Seven dogs had definitely subnormal BUN concentrations (less than 10 mg%) and ten dogs low total plasma protein levels (less than 5.4 g%). Free amino acids (24) were determined in four dogs and a lowered hepatic encephalopathy index (less than 1.64) found. Medical palliative therapy to control the clinical signs is discussed. The only effective long term therapy is, however, surgery. The shunt vessel is narrowed so that a greater volume of portal blood reaches the liver. Experience gained from the surgical therapy of 14 animals is presented. Ten of these survived well without requiring further therapy at a later time. Finally the etiology, prognosis, and differential diagnosis are

  18. Valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma and unrecognised portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Nzwalo, Hipólito; Carrapatoso, Leonor; Ferreira, Fátima; Basilio, Carlos

    2013-06-01

    Hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is a rare and potentially fatal complication of valproic acid treatment. The clinical presentation of hyperammonaemic encephalopathy is wide and includes seizures and coma. We present a case of hyperammonaemic coma precipitated by sodium valproate use for symptomatic epilepsy in a patient with unrecognised portosystemic shunt, secondary to earlier alcoholism. The absence of any stigmata of chronic liver disease and laboratory markers of liver dysfunction delayed the recognition of this alcohol-related complication. The portal vein bypass led to a refractory, valproic acid-induced hyperammonaemic coma. The patient fully recovered after dialysis treatment.

  19. The Evolution of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Tips

    PubMed Central

    Fanelli, Fabrizio

    2014-01-01

    Since Richter's description in the literature in 1989 of the first procedure on human patients, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been worldwide considered as a noninvasive technique to manage portal hypertension complications. TIPS succeeds in lowering the hepatic sinusoidal pressure and in increasing the circulatory flow, thus reducing sodium retention, ascites recurrence, and variceal bleeding. Required several revisions of the shunt TIPS can be performed in case of different conditions such as hepatorenal syndrome, hepatichydrothorax, portal vein thrombosis, and Budd-Chiari syndrome. Most of the previous studies on TIPS procedure were based on the use of bare stents and most patients chose TIPS 2-3 years after traditional treatment, thus making TIPS appear to be not superior to endoscopy in survival rates. Bare stents were associated with higher incidence of shunt failure and consequently patients required several revisions during the follow-up. With the introduction of a dedicated e-PTFE covered stent-graft, these problems were completely solved, No more reinterventions are required with a tremendous improvement of patient's quality of life. One of the main drawbacks of the use of e-PTFE covered stent-graft is higher incidence of hepatic encephalopathy. In those cases refractory to the conventional medical therapy, a shunt reduction must be performed. PMID:27335841

  20. [Small-diameter portosystemic shunts: indications and limitations].

    PubMed

    Angel Mercado, M; Granados-García, J; Barradas, F; Chan, C; Contreras, J L; Orozco, H; Angel-Mercado, M

    1998-01-01

    Low diameter porto-systemic shunts for the treatment of portal hypertension bleeding have emerged as a consequence of the technical development of vascular grafts (PTFE) that allow the use of a narrow lumen. The experience with this kind of operation at the Instituto Nacional de la Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City during a 6-year period is reported. There were twenty-seven patients with good liver function (Child-Pugh A-B) were operated or electively, average Age 47.5 years (range 17-71), twenty three patients with liver cirrhosis, one with portal fibrosis and three with idiopathic portal hypertension. Operative mortality: 4%. Rebleeding: 14%. Postoperative encephalopathy was observed in 14 of 27, three of them being grade III-IV (11%). In the remaining 11 cases, it was mild and easily controlled. Postoperative angiography showed shunt patency in 81% of the cases; in 33% of the cases, portal vein diameter reduction was shown, as well as two cases with portal vein thrombosis. In 77% of the cases, adequate postoperative quality of life was observed. Survival (Kaplan-Meier): 86% at 12 months and 56% at 60 months. These kinds of shunts are a good alternate choice for patients considered for surgery, in which other portal blood flow preserving procedures (selective shunts, devascularization with transection) are not feasible.

  1. Emphysematous pyonephrosis associated with extrahepatic portosystemic shunt in a dog

    PubMed Central

    LIM, Jongsu; YOON, Youngmin; JUNG, Dongin; YEON, Seongchan; LEE, Heechun

    2015-01-01

    A 16-month-old intact female Maltese dog was referred for examination of depression and vomiting. Ultrasonography revealed dilated right renal pelvis containing echogenic fluid with free gas. A hyperechoic material suspected of urolith was identified in the right ureter. Computed tomography revealed emphysematous change of the right kidney associated with ureteral obstruction and extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (EHPSS). Ureteronephrectomy and surgical correction were performed for the EHPSS. Escherichia coli was isolated from pus from the right kidney. Quantitative analysis revealed that the urolith was an ammonium urate stone. After 5 months follow-up, no complication was observed. This is the first report of emphysematous pyonephrosis associated with EHPSS in a dog. PMID:26668166

  2. Pathological Predictors of Shunt Stenosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt.

    PubMed

    He, Fuliang; Dai, Shan; Xiao, Zhibo; Wang, Lei; Yue, Zhendong; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhao, Mengfei; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun; Liu, Fuquan

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an artificial channel from the portal vein to the hepatic vein or vena cava for controlling portal vein hypertension. The major drawbacks of TIPS are shunt stenosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE); previous studies showed that post-TIPS shunt stenosis and HE might be correlated with the pathological features of the liver tissues. Therefore, we analyzed the pathological predictors for clinical outcome, to determine the risk factors for shunt stenosis and HE after TIPS. Methods. We recruited 361 patients who suffered from portal hypertension symptoms and were treated with TIPS from January 2009 to December 2012. Results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of shunt stenosis was increased with more severe inflammation in the liver tissue (OR, 2.864; 95% CI: 1.466-5.592; P = 0.002), HE comorbidity (OR, 6.266; 95% CI, 3.141-12.501; P < 0.001), or higher MELD score (95% CI, 1.298-1.731; P < 0.001). Higher risk of HE was associated with shunt stenosis comorbidity (OR, 6.266; 95% CI, 3.141-12.501; P < 0.001), higher stage of the liver fibrosis (OR, 2.431; 95% CI, 1.355-4.359; P = 0.003), and higher MELD score (95% CI, 1.711-2.406; P < 0.001). Conclusion. The pathological features can predict individual susceptibility to shunt stenosis and HE.

  3. Treatment of Portosystemic Shunt Myelopathy with a Stent Graft Deployed through a Transjugular Intrahepatic Route

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Deepak Arora, Ankur; Deka, Pranjal; Mukund, Amar Bhatnagar, Shorav; Jindal, Deepti Kumar, Niteen Pamecha, Viniyendra

    2013-08-01

    A case of surgically created splenorenal shunt complicated with shunt myelopathy was successfully managed by placement of a stent graft within the splenic vein to close the portosystemic shunt and alleviate myelopathy. To our knowledge, this is the first report of a case of shunt myelopathy in a patient with noncirrhotic portal fibrosis without cirrhosis treated by a novel technique wherein a transjugular intrahepatic route was adopted to deploy the stent graft.

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): Current Status and Future Possibilities

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose Ignacio; Quiroga, Jorge; Herrero, Jose Ignacio; Benito, Alberto

    2002-08-15

    Since the insertion of the first TIPS in 1989 much has been learned about this therapeutic procedure. It has an established role for the treatment of some complications of portal hypertension: prevention of recurrent variceal bleeding and rescue of patients with acute uncontrollable variceal bleeding. In addition TIPS is useful for Budd-Chiari syndrome, refractory ascites and hepatorenal syndrome, although its specific role in these indications remains to be definitively established. However, the decrease in sinusoidal blood flow induced by TIPS can lead to the patient developing hepatic encephalopathy and liver failure in some cases. Therefore, TIPS should be used with caution in patients with very poor liver function. From a technical point of view, successful placement of TIPS is achieved in more than 98% of cases by experienced groups. At present, evaluation of TIPS dysfunction based on morphology probably leads to an overdiagnosis of this complication since most of these cases are not associated with clinical manifestations (recurrent bleeding or refractory ascites). The major disadvantage of TIPS remains its poor long-term patency requiring a mandatory surveillance program. The indicator for shunt function/malfunction should be the portosystemic pressure gradient, which is best assessed by intravascular measurements. Shunt obstructions may be prevented or reduced by the use of stent-grafts in the future.

  5. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts in Children with Biliary Atresia

    SciTech Connect

    Huppert, Peter E.; Goffette, Pierre; Sokal, Emil M.; Schweizer, Paul; Claussen, Claus D.

    2002-12-15

    Purpose: We retrospectively evaluated the technical and long-term clinical results of transjugularintrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in children with portal hypertension and biliary atresia (BA). Methods: Nine children with BA and recurrent bleeding from esophagogastric and/or intestinal varices were treated by TIPS at the age of 34-156 months and followed-up in two centers. Different types of stents were used. Results: Shunt insertion succeeded in all patients, but in two a second procedure was necessary. Seven procedures lasted more than 3 hr, mainly due to difficult portal vein puncture.Variceal bleeding ceased in all patients; however, 16 reinterventions were performed in eight patients for clinical reasons (n =11) and sonographically suspected restenosis (n =5). Four patients underwent successful liver transplantation 4-51 months after TIPS and five are in good clinical conditions 64-75 months after TIPS. Conclusions: TIPS in children with BA is technically difficult, mainly due to periportal fibrosis and small portal veins. Frequency of reinterventions seems to be higher compared with adults.

  6. Pathological Predictors of Shunt Stenosis and Hepatic Encephalopathy after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    PubMed Central

    He, Fuliang; Dai, Shan; Xiao, Zhibo; Wang, Lei; Yue, Zhendong; Zhao, Hongwei; Zhao, Mengfei; Lin, Qiushi; Dong, Xiaoqun

    2016-01-01

    Background. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an artificial channel from the portal vein to the hepatic vein or vena cava for controlling portal vein hypertension. The major drawbacks of TIPS are shunt stenosis and hepatic encephalopathy (HE); previous studies showed that post-TIPS shunt stenosis and HE might be correlated with the pathological features of the liver tissues. Therefore, we analyzed the pathological predictors for clinical outcome, to determine the risk factors for shunt stenosis and HE after TIPS. Methods. We recruited 361 patients who suffered from portal hypertension symptoms and were treated with TIPS from January 2009 to December 2012. Results. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the risk of shunt stenosis was increased with more severe inflammation in the liver tissue (OR, 2.864; 95% CI: 1.466–5.592; P = 0.002), HE comorbidity (OR, 6.266; 95% CI, 3.141–12.501; P < 0.001), or higher MELD score (95% CI, 1.298–1.731; P < 0.001). Higher risk of HE was associated with shunt stenosis comorbidity (OR, 6.266; 95% CI, 3.141–12.501; P < 0.001), higher stage of the liver fibrosis (OR, 2.431; 95% CI, 1.355–4.359; P = 0.003), and higher MELD score (95% CI, 1.711–2.406; P < 0.001). Conclusion. The pathological features can predict individual susceptibility to shunt stenosis and HE. PMID:27975051

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation With Embolization or Obliteration for Variceal Bleeding.

    PubMed

    Gaba, Ron C

    2016-03-01

    Variceal hemorrhage is a life-threatening sequela of liver cirrhosis that requires a careful and comprehensive approach to management. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation with or without variceal embolization or obliteration represents a minimally invasive image-guided intervention used for the management of varices. This review focuses on the role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and embolization or obliteration in the setting of variceal hemorrhage, with an emphasis on the useful aspects of patient evaluation and selection, practical approaches to procedure planning and valuable elements of interventional technique, and clinical outcomes as they pertain to portal venous decompression and variceal embolotherapy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Current diagnosis and management of post-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt refractory hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Keith; Carrion, Andres F; Martin, Paul; Vaheesan, Kirubahara; Salsamendi, Jason; Doshi, Mehul; Yrizarry, Jose M

    2015-12-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt has evolved into an important option for management of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene covered stents enhances shunt patency. Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) remains a significant problem after TIPS placement. The approach to management of patients with refractory hepatic encephalopathy typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Patient selection for TIPS requires careful evaluation of risk factors for HE. TIPS procedure-related technical factors like stent size, attention to portosystemic pressure gradient reduction and use of adjunctive variceal embolization maybe important. Conservative medical therapy in combination with endovascular therapies often results in resolution or substantial reduction of symptoms. Liver transplantation is, however, the ultimate treatment.

  9. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts and portal hypertension-related complications

    PubMed Central

    Siramolpiwat, Sith

    2014-01-01

    Portal hypertension (PH) plays an important role in the natural history of cirrhosis, and is associated with several clinical consequences. The introduction of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in the 1980s has been regarded as a major technical advance in the management of the PH-related complications. At present, polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents are the preferred option over traditional bare metal stents. TIPS is currently indicated as a salvage therapy in patients with bleeding esophageal varices who fail standard treatment. Recently, applying TIPS early (within 72 h after admission) has been shown to be an effective and life-saving treatment in those with high-risk variceal bleeding. In addition, TIPS is recommended as the second-line treatment for secondary prophylaxis. For bleeding gastric varices, applying TIPS was able to achieve hemostasis in more than 90% of patients. More trials are needed to clarify the efficacy of TIPS compared with other treatment modalities, including cyanoacrylate injection and balloon retrograde transvenous obliteration of gastric varices. TIPS should also be considered in bleeding ectopic varices and refractory portal hypertensive gastropathy. In patients with refractory ascites, there is growing evidence that TIPS not only results in better control of ascites, but also improves long-term survival in appropriately selected candidates. In addition, TIPS is a promising treatment for refractory hepatic hydrothorax. However, the role of TIPS in the treatment of hepatorenal and hepatopulmonary syndrome is not well defined. The advantage of TIPS is offset by a risk of developing hepatic encephalopathy, the most relevant post-procedural complication. Emerging data are addressing the determination the optimal time and patient selection for TIPS placement aiming at improving long-term treatment outcome. This review is aimed at summarizing the published data regarding the application of TIPS in the management of

  10. Surgical attenuation of spontaneous congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs resolves hepatic encephalopathy but not hypermanganesemia.

    PubMed

    Gow, Adam G; Frowde, Polly E; Elwood, Clive M; Burton, Carolyn A; Powell, Roger M; Tappin, Simon W; Foale, Rob D; Duncan, Andrew; Mellanby, Richard J

    2015-10-01

    Hypermanganesemia is commonly recognized in human patients with hepatic insufficiency and portosystemic shunting. Since manganese is neurotoxic, increases in brain manganese concentrations have been implicated in the development of hepatic encephalopathy although a direct causative role has yet to be demonstrated. Evaluate manganese concentrations in dogs with a naturally occurring congenital shunt before and after attenuation as well as longitudinally following the changes in hepatic encephalopathy grade. Our study demonstrated that attenuation of the shunt resolved encephalopathy, significantly reduced postprandial bile acids, yet a hypermanganasemic state persisted. This study demonstrates that resolution of hepatic encephalopathy can occur without the correction of hypermanganesemia, indicating that increased manganese concentrations alone do not play a causative role in encephalopathy. Our study further demonstrates the value of the canine congenital portosystemic shunt as a naturally occurring spontaneous model of human hepatic encephalopathy.

  11. Three-dimensional multislice helical computed tomography techniques for canine extra-hepatic portosystemic shunt assessment.

    PubMed

    Bertolini, Giovanna; Rolla, Edoardo C; Zotti, Alessandro; Caldin, Marco

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the feasibility and usefulness of three-dimensional (3D) multislice computed tomography (CT) angiography with maximum intensity projection (MIP) and volume rendering (VR) in six dogs with clinical and sonographic findings suggestive of portosystemic shunt. Furthermore, we aimed to estimate the diameter of the portal vein and shunt vessels. MIP and VR reconstructions were performed for each patient and the origin and insertion of all shunt vessels were detected. In addition, 3D reconstructions allowed excellent depiction of vascular morphology and topography. All diagnoses and vessel measurements were confirmed by surgery. 3D multidetector CT angiography is a promising, noninvasive, and accurate method of evaluating dogs with suspected portosystemic shunts.

  12. Diagnostic value of fasting plasma ammonia and bile acid concentrations in the identification of portosystemic shunting in dogs.

    PubMed

    Gerritzen-Bruning, M J; van den Ingh, T S G A M; Rothuizen, J

    2006-01-01

    Portosystemic shunting occurs frequently either as congenital anomalies of the portal vein (PVA) or as acquired shunting (AS) due to portal hypertension secondary to parenchymal liver disease or portal vein thrombosis. The 2 most commonly used screening tests for portosystemic shunting are bile acid and plasma ammonia concentrations. The purpose of this study was to compare the 12-hour fasting plasma ammonia (AMM) and bile acid concentration (BA) as tests for diagnosing portosystemic shunting. Medical records of 337 dogs were used in which AMM and BA were measured simultaneously and in which portosystemic shunting was confirmed or excluded. These dogs were divided into 2 groups (group 1: portosystemic shunting present, n = 153, and group 2: portosystemic shunting absent, n = 184). Group 1 was subdivided into 2 subgroups (group 1a: PVA, n = 132 and group 1b: AS, n = 21). The sensitivity of AMM in detecting PVA was 100% and of BA was 92.2%. For portosystemic shunting in general (PVA or AS), the sensitivity of AMM was 98% and that of BA was 88.9%. The specificity in the total population of AMM was 89.1% and that of BA was 67.9%. If only dogs with liver diseases were included with (n = 153) or without (n = 28) shunting, the specificity of AMM to detect shunting was 89.3% and that of BA was 17.9%. In conclusion, AMM is a highly sensitive and specific parameter to detect PVA and portosystemic shunting in a general population and in dogs with liver disease, whereas BA is somewhat less sensitive and considerably less specific.

  13. Acute Budd-Chiari syndrome: Treatment with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Strunk, Holger M.; Textor, Jochen; Brensing, Karl-August; Schild, Hans H.

    1997-07-15

    The case of a 28-year-old man with acute Budd-Chiari syndrome due to veno-occlusive disease is reported. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed after upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, duplex sonographic and abdominal computed tomographic examination, inferior cavogram with hepatic venous catheterization, and transvenous biopsy. A 10-mm parenchymal tract was created. The patient did well after the procedure; ascites resolved and liver function improved markedly. The shunt has remained patent up to now for 6 months.

  14. Rheolytic Thrombectomy of an Acutely Thrombosed Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller-Huelsbeck, Stefan; Link, Johann; Hoepfner, Michael; Loeser, Christian; Heller, Martin

    1996-04-15

    As an alternative to chemical thrombolysis, an acutely occluded transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt in a 72-year-old woman was successfully recanalized using a 5 Fr rheolytic catheter system. No adjunctive thrombectomy treatment was necessary. The underlying stenotic leason was treated with percutaneous transluminal angioplasty and a Palmaz stent. Immediately after the intervention optimal shunt flow was achieved. Ascites vanished within a few days and no further bleeding complications appeared.

  15. Spontaneous echocardiographic contrast associated with portosystemic shunt due to persistent patent ductus venosus.

    PubMed

    Toib, Amir; Goldstein, Seth B; Khanna, Geetika; Canter, Charles E; Lee, Caroline K; Balzer, David T; Singh, Gautam K

    2012-01-01

    We describe a case of an infant with a single ventricle physiology, who presented with spontaneous microbubbles originating from her inferior vena cava. Imaging revealed a persistent patent ductus venosus, leading to a portosystemic shunt, streaming the microbubbles into the heart. We discuss the possible mechanisms for this rare phenomenon in a child. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Vascular Plug-Assisted Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration of Portosystemic Shunts for Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jonathan K.; Cho, Sung-Ki; Kee, Stephen; Lee, Edward W.

    2014-01-01

    While balloon-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has been used for two decades in Asia for the management of gastric variceal bleeding, it is still an emerging therapy elsewhere. Given the shunt closure brought about by the procedure, BRTO has also been used for the management of portosystemic encephalopathy with promising results. Modified versions of BRTO have been developed, including plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO), where a vascular plug is deployed within a portosystemic shunt. To our knowledge, we present the first North American case of PARTO in the setting of a large splenorenal shunt for the management of portosystemic encephalopathy. PMID:24744943

  17. Vascular plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration of portosystemic shunts for refractory hepatic encephalopathy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Park, Jonathan K; Cho, Sung-Ki; Kee, Stephen; Lee, Edward W

    2014-01-01

    While balloon-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has been used for two decades in Asia for the management of gastric variceal bleeding, it is still an emerging therapy elsewhere. Given the shunt closure brought about by the procedure, BRTO has also been used for the management of portosystemic encephalopathy with promising results. Modified versions of BRTO have been developed, including plug-assisted retrograde transvenous obliteration (PARTO), where a vascular plug is deployed within a portosystemic shunt. To our knowledge, we present the first North American case of PARTO in the setting of a large splenorenal shunt for the management of portosystemic encephalopathy.

  18. Radiation Exposure in Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi Cortis, Kelvin; D’Amico, Mario; Floridia, Gaetano Gallo, Giuseppe Tafaro, Corrado Luca, Angelo

    2016-02-15

    PurposeTransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation is considered as being one of the most complex procedures in abdominal interventional radiology. Our aim was twofold: quantification of TIPS-related patient radiation exposure in our center and identification of factors leading to reduced radiation exposure.Materials and methodsThree hundred and forty seven consecutive patients underwent TIPS in our center between 2007 and 2014. Three main procedure categories were identified: Group I (n = 88)—fluoroscopic-guided portal vein targeting, procedure done in an image intensifier-based angiographic system (IIDS); Group II (n = 48)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in an IIDS; and Group III (n = 211)—ultrasound-guided portal vein puncture, procedure done in a flat panel detector-based system (FPDS). Radiation exposure (dose-area product [DAP], in Gy cm{sup 2} and fluoroscopy time [FT] in minutes) was retrospectively analyzed.ResultsDAP was significantly higher in Group I (mean ± SD 360 ± 298; median 287; 75th percentile 389 Gy cm{sup 2}) as compared to Group II (217 ± 130; 178; 276 Gy cm{sup 2}; p = 0.002) and Group III (129 ± 117; 70; 150 Gy cm{sup 2}p < 0.001). The difference in DAP between Groups II and III was also significant (p < 0.001). Group I had significantly longer FT (25.78 ± 13.52 min) as compared to Group II (20.45 ± 10.87 min; p = 0.02) and Group III (19.76 ± 13.34; p < 0.001). FT was not significantly different between Groups II and III (p = 0.73).ConclusionsReal-time ultrasound-guided targeting of the portal venous system during TIPS creation results in a significantly lower radiation exposure and reduced FT. Further reduction in radiation exposure can be achieved through the use of modern angiographic units with FPDS.

  19. Portosplenic blood flow separation in a patient with portosystemic encephalopathy and a spontaneous splenorenal shunt.

    PubMed

    Zamora, Carlos Armando; Sugimoto, Koji; Tsurusaki, Masakatsu; Yamaguchi, Masato; Izaki, Kenta; Taniguchi, Takanori; Iwama, Yuki; Mimura, Fumitoshi; Sugimura, Kazuro

    2004-08-01

    A patient with portosystemic encephalopathy, hyperammonemia, and a spontaneous splenorenal shunt was admitted to the authors' institution after a failed attempt at transvenous retrograde shunt obliteration. As an alternative approach, the authors separated splenic and portal flows by embolizing only the proximal splenic vein while leaving the shunt intact. Thus, the splenic flow could escape into the systemic circulation and an extreme increase in portal pressure was avoided. The procedure could provide rapid decreases in blood ammonia levels and a fast resolution of symptoms, but repeated interventions were required.

  20. Extrahepatic portosystemic shunt in congenital absence of the portal vein depicted by time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

    PubMed

    Goo, Hyun Woo

    2007-07-01

    Congenital absence of the portal vein is a rare malformation in which mesenteric and splenic venous flow bypasses the liver and drains into various sites in the systemic venous system via an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt. In an 11-year-old girl with congenital absence of the portal vein, the detailed anatomy of the extrahepatic portosystemic shunt is demonstrated by time-resolved contrast-enhanced MR angiography.

  1. Reversal of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)-Induced Hepatic Encephalopathy Using a Strictured Self-Expanding Covered Stent

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, Mitchell W.; Soltes, George D.; Lin, Peter H. Bush, Ruth L.; Lumsden, Alan B.

    2003-11-15

    Hepatic encephalopathy is a known complication following percutaneous transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. We describe herein a simple and effective strategy of TIPS revision by creating an intraluminal stricture within a self-expanding covered stent, which is deployed in the portosystemic shunt to reduce the TIPS blood flow. This technique was successful in reversing a TIPS-induced hepatic encephalopathy in our patient.

  2. T1-201 per rectum: A noninvasive method for evaluating portosystemic shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Verdickt, X.; Reding, P.; Tshiamala, P.; Ham, H.R.

    1984-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt is one of the most important complications of liver cirrhosis. Unfortunately, current methods for detecting and quantifying this shunt are either non-specific or associated with significant morbidity. The aim of this work was to evaluate the clinical value of a new non-traumatic method which consisted of administrating T1-201 per rectum and monitoring the absorbed activity using a camera and a computer system. The method assumes that in the absence of portosystemic shunt, most of the absorbed activity will be fixed in the liver while in the presence of this shunt, some of the activity will be fixed in the myocardium. The ratio of heart to liver activity can therefore be used to evaluate the importance of the portosystemic shunt. 34 subjects have been studied. The ratio of heart to liver activity at the 25th minute after the tracer administration is higher in patients with liver cirrhosis (n=22, m=.9, s.d.=.37) than in patients with steatosis (n=10, m=.28, s.d.=.03). In two healthy subjects investigated the H/L ratio was .27 and .30. The reproducibility of the test was evaluated in 8 subjects and showed a good reproducibility (mean of difference =.03, range=.01 to .07). Patients with esophageal varices had always a high H/L ratio while some patients with liver cirrhosis without esophageal varices had also high H/L ratio, probably due to the presence of intrahepatic shunt. The authors' results showed the value of this new non-traumatic test for detecting and quantifying extra- as well as intrahepatic portosystematic shunt.

  3. Morphology of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the left colic vein in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    White, R N; Parry, A T

    2016-05-01

    To describe the anatomy of congenital portosystemic shunts involving the left colic vein in dogs and cats. Retrospective review of a consecutive series of dogs and cats managed for congenital portosystemic shunts. For inclusion a shunt involving the left colic vein with recorded intraoperative mesenteric portovenography or computed tomography angiography along with direct gross surgical observations at the time of surgery was required. Six dogs and three cats met the inclusion criteria. All cases had a shunt which involved a distended left colic vein. The final communication with a systemic vein was variable; in seven cases (five dogs, two cats) it was via the caudal vena cava, in one cat it was via the common iliac vein and in the remaining dog it was via the internal iliac vein. In addition, two cats showed caudal vena cava duplication. The morphology of this shunt type appeared to be a result of an abnormal communication between either the left colic vein or the cranial rectal vein and a pelvic systemic vein (caudal vena cava, common iliac vein or internal iliac vein). This information may help with surgical planning in cases undergoing shunt closure surgery. © 2016 British Small Animal Veterinary Association.

  4. Multiple extrahepatic portosystemic shunts in dogs: 30 cases (1981-1993).

    PubMed

    Boothe, H W; Howe, L M; Edwards, J F; Slater, M R

    1996-06-01

    To describe the long-term outcome in dogs with naturally developing multiple extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (PSS). Retrospective case series. 30 dogs with multiple PSS. Medical records of dogs with multiple PSS were reviewed. Follow-up data were obtained by 1 or more of the following methods: recheck at the veterinary teaching hospital (n = 6) or telephone contact with the referring veterinarian (n = 18) or owner (n = 10). The chi 2 or Mann-Whitney rank sum test was used to determine the association of clinical factors with long-term outcome. Survival curves were generated by the Kaplan-Meier product limit method. Median age at diagnosis was 1 year. Findings on exploratory surgery in 25 dogs included ascites; numerous tortuous vessels connecting the portal vein with systemic veins; a small, misshapen liver; and an enlarged portal vein. The most common lesions on histologic evaluation of hepatic tissue specimens were hepatocellular atrophy, portal vascular duplication, cirrhosis, inflammation, and bile duct proliferation. Twelve dogs were treated surgically with vena caval banding, whereas 13 dogs were treated conservatively with dietary restriction of protein and administration of antibiotics, diuretics, and other drugs. Long-term survival and quality of life were similar in dogs from both treatment groups. Median follow-up interval in dogs that survived hospitalization was 24 months (range, 1 to 54 months). On the basis of these findings, vena caval banding in dogs with multiple PSS is not superior to medical and nutritional treatment.

  5. Portosystemic shunting in portal hypertension: evaluation with portal scintigraphy with transrectally administered I-123 IMP

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwagi, T.; Azuma, M.; Ikawa, T.; Takehara, T.; Matsuda, H.; Yoshioka, H.; Mitsutani, N.; Koizumi, T.; Kimura, K.

    1988-10-01

    Portosystemic shunting was evaluated with rectal administration of iodine-123 iodoamphetamine (IMP) in seven patients without liver disease and 53 patients with liver cirrhosis. IMP (2-3 mCi (74-111 MBq)) was administered to the rectum through a catheter. Images of the chest and abdomen were obtained for up to 60 minutes with a scintillation camera interfaced with a computer. In all patients, images of the liver and/or lungs were observed within 5-10 minutes and became clear with time. In patients without liver disease, only liver images could be obtained, whereas the lung was visualized with or without the liver in all patients with liver cirrhosis. The portosystemic shunt index was calculated by dividing counts of lungs by counts of liver and lung. These values were significantly higher in liver cirrhosis, especially in the decompensated stage. Transrectal portal scintigraphy with IMP appears to be a useful method for noninvasive and quantitative evaluation of portosystemic shunting in portal hypertension.

  6. Pancreaticoportal Fistula and Disseminated Fat Necrosis After Revision of a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Klein, Seth J. Saad, Nael; Korenblat, Kevin; Darcy, Michael D.

    2013-04-15

    A 59-year old man with alcohol related cirrhosis and portal hypertension was referred for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) to treat his refractory ascites. Ten years later, two sequential TIPS revisions were performed for shunt stenosis and recurrent ascites. After these revisions, he returned with increased serum pancreatic enzyme levels and disseminated superficial fat necrosis; an iatrogenic pancreaticoportal vein fistula caused by disruption of the pancreatic duct was suspected. The bare area of the TIPS was subsequently lined with a covered stent-graft, and serum enzyme levels returned to baseline. In the interval follow-up period, the patient has clinically improved.

  7. A comparison of the Ameroid constrictor versus ligation in the surgical management of single extrahepatic portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    Murphy, S T; Ellison, G W; Long, M; Van Gilder, J

    2001-01-01

    Twenty-two dogs were managed surgically for a single extrahepatic portosystemic shunt; 12 with surgical ligation and 10 with an Ameroid constrictor. Utilization of the Ameroid constrictor significantly decreased surgery time to approximately half that of the ligation technique. A decreased intraoperative and postoperative complication rate was noted with the Ameroid constrictor group. Follow-up evaluation demonstrated comparable efficacy when comparing surgical techniques. The Ameroid constrictor offered a surgical occlusion technique for management of a single extra-hepatic portosystemic shunt that was equally effective to ligation while shortening surgical time and minimizing the risks that are commonly associated with ligation of the shunting vessel.

  8. Staging of portal hypertension and portosystemic shunts using dynamic nuclear medicine investigations

    PubMed Central

    Dragoteanu, Mircea; Balea, Ioan A; Dina, Liliana A; Piglesan, Cecilia D; Grigorescu, Ioana; Tamas, Stefan; Cotul, Sabin O

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To explore portal hypertension and portosystemic shunts and to stage chronic liver disease (CLD) based on the pathophysiology of portal hemodynamics. METHODS: Per-rectal portal scintigraphy (PRPS) was performed on 312 patients with CLD and liver angioscintigraphy (LAS) on 231 of them. The control group included 25 healthy subjects. We developed a new model of PRPS interpretation by introducing two new parameters, the liver transit time (LTT) and the circulation time between right heart and liver (RHLT). LTT for each lobe was used to evaluate the early portal hypertension. RHLT is useful in cirrhosis to detect liver areas missing portal inflow. We calculated the classical per-rectal portal shunt index (PRSI) at PRPS and the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) at LAS. RESULTS: The normal LTT value was 24 ± 1 s. Abnormal LTT had PPV = 100% for CLD. Twenty-seven non-cirrhotic patients had LTT increased up to 35 s (median 27 s). RHLT (42 ± 1 s) was not related to liver disease. Cirrhosis could be excluded in all patients with PRSI < 5% (P < 0.01). PRSI > 30% had PPV = 100% for cirrhosis. Based on PRPS and LAS we propose the classification of CLD in 5 hemodynamic stages. Stage 0 is normal (LTT = 24 s, PRSI < 5%). In stage 1, LTT is increased, while PRSI remains normal. In stage 2, LTT is decreased between 16 s and 23 s, whereas PRSI is increased between 5% and 10%. In stage 3, PRSI is increased to 10%-30%, and LTT becomes undetectable by PRPS due to the portosystemic shunts. Stage 4 includes the patients with PRSI > 30%. RHLT and HPI were used to subtype stage 4. In our study stage 0 had NPV = 100% for CLD, stage 1 had PPV = 100% for non-cirrhotic CLD, stages 2 and 3 represented the transition from chronic hepatitis to cirrhosis, stage 4 had PPV = 100% for cirrhosis. CONCLUSION: LTT allows the detection of early portal hypertension and of opening of transhepatic shunts. PRSI is useful in CLD with extrahepatic portosystemic shunts. Our hemodynamic model stages the

  9. Histopathological and immunohistochemical investigations of hepatic lesions associated with congenital portosystemic shunt in dogs.

    PubMed

    Baade, S; Aupperle, H; Grevel, V; Schoon, H-A

    2006-01-01

    Canine livers with congenital portosystemic shunt were investigated histopathologically and immunohistochemically before and 8-272 days after partial ligation of the shunt. Lesions included hypoplasia of portal veins, arteriolar and ductular proliferation, lymphangiectasis, mild to moderate fibrosis, fatty cysts, and mostly mild hepatocellular damage with frequent atrophy and steatosis, regardless of the location of the shunting vessel. Perisinusoidal hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) in normal canine liver expressed alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-SMA), but no desmin. In altered livers, however, raised expression of alpha-SMA was detected, together with expression of desmin, in varying numbers of HSCs. This was interpreted as a sign of cellular proliferation and transformation to myofibroblast-like cells. Additionally, there was an obvious perisinusoidal increase of several extracellular matrix components. Postoperative biopsy samples showed basically the same lesions as those of pre-operative samples, except that signs of resolution of hepatic changes were apparent.

  10. [Research advances in diagnosis and treatment of post-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt hepatic encephalopathy].

    PubMed

    Yang, J F; Zhang, B Q

    2016-07-20

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has become an important minimally invasive interventional technique for the treatment of complications of cirrhotic portal hypertension, and currently, it is often used in cirrhotic patients with esophagogastric variceal bleeding (EVB), intractable ascites, hepatic hydrothorax, and Budd-Chiari syndrome. On one hand, TIPS can effectively reduce portal vein pressure and the risk of EVB and intractable ascites; on the other hand, it may reduce the blood flow in liver perfusion, aggravate liver impairment, and cause porto-systemic encephalopathy. Related influencing factors should be evaluated comprehensively in order to prevent the development of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy. The diagnosis and treatment of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy is still a great challenge in current clinical practice. This article reviews the diagnosis and treatment of post-TIPS hepatic encephalopathy to enhance people's knowledge of this disease.

  11. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt combined with esophagogastric variceal embolization in the treatment of a large gastrorenal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Qin; Wang, Ming-Quan; Zhang, Guo-Bing; Wu, Qiong; Xu, Jian-Ming; Kong, De-Run

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) combined with stomach and esophageal variceal embolization (SEVE) in cirrhotic patients with a large gastrorenal vessel shunt (GRVS). METHODS: Eighty-one cirrhotic patients with gastric variceal bleeding (GVB) associated with a GRVS were enrolled in the study and accepted TIPS combined with SEVE (TIPS + SEVE), by which portosystemic pressure gradient (PPG), biochemical, TIPS-related complications, shunt dysfunction, rebleeding, and death were evaluated. RESULTS: The PPGs before TIPS were greater than 12 mmHg in 81 patients. TIPS + SEVE treatment caused a significant decrease in PPG (from 37.97 ± 6.36 mmHg to 28.15 ± 6.52 mmHg, t = 19.22, P < 0.001). The percentage of reduction in PPG was greater than 20% from baseline. There were no significant differences in albumin, alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, bilirubin, prothrombin time, or Child-Pugh score before and after operation. In all patients, rebleeding rates were 3%, 6%, 12%, 18%, and 18% at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo, respectively. Five patients (6.2%) were diagnosed as having hepatic encephalopathy. The rates of shunt dysfunction were 0%, 4%, 9%, 26%, and 26%, at 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo, respectively. The cumulative survival rates in 1, 3, 6, 12, and 18 mo were 100%, 100%, 95%, 90%, and 90%, respectively. CONCLUSION: Our preliminary results indicated that the efficacy and safety of TIPS + SEVE were satisfactory in cirrhotic patients with GVB associated with a GRVS (GVB + GRVS). PMID:27458505

  12. Percutaneous hydrodynamic thrombectomy of acute thrombosis in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS): A feasibility study in five patients

    SciTech Connect

    Raat, Henricus; Stockx, Luc; Ranschaert, Eric; Nevens, Frederik; Wilms, Guy; Baert, Albert L.

    1997-05-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the feasibility of percutaneous hydrodynamic thrombectomy in restoring patency of acutely thrombosed stent-shunts after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).MethodsPercutaneous hydrodynamic thrombectomy was performed in five consecutive patients with angiographically documented complete thrombosis of the stent-shunt which developed within 2 weeks after the TIPS procedure. Thrombectomy was performed with a hydrolytic suction thrombectomy catheter, introduced via a transjugular approach.ResultsIn all patients, immediate restoration of patency of the stent-shunt was achieved after deploying additional stent(s) to cover residual adherent mural thrombus. In two patients early reocclusion occurred.ConclusionPercutaneous hydrolytic suction thrombectomy in acutely thrombosed intrahepatic portosystemic shunts is technically feasible.

  13. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for variceal hemorrhage due to recurrent of hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia in a liver transplant.

    PubMed

    Cura, Marco A; Postoak, Darren; Speeg, Kermit V; Vasan, Rajiv

    2010-01-01

    Hepatic involvement in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) consists of vascular malformations associated with arteriovenous (AV), arterioportal, and/or portovenous shunting. Most patients with HHT have liver involvement. Symptoms, although rare, consist of cardiac failure, pulmonary hypertension, portal hypertension, portosystemic encephalopathy, cholangitis, and atypical cirrhosis. Reported treatments for symptomatic AV malformations have been associated with substantial morbidity and mortality. This report describes a case of hepatic HHT that required liver transplantation after hepatic artery embolization. Recurrent vascular malformations developed in the transplant, resulting in portal hypertension and life-threatening variceal hemorrhage that was controlled with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation.

  14. [The congenital portosystemic shunt in dogs and cats. I].

    PubMed

    Grevel, V; Schmidt, S; Lettow, E; Suter, P F; Schmidt, G U

    1987-01-01

    An overview of the circulation of the liver and of the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy as a result of portal vascular anomalies is given. Clinical signs associated with portal systemic shunts are described on the basis of 16 cases, 14 dogs and 2 cats. These animals ranged in age at the time of presentation from 4 months to 7 years. The predominant abnormality observed were central nervous signs, which differed in severity. 15 animals showed a reduction in liver size. The different techniques of contrast angiography allowing demonstration of a portal systemic shunt are presented along with a discussion of the pros and cons of each. Additionally the significance of making portal venous pressure measurements prior to each angiography is also explained. In most cases mesenteric portography was chosen. Based on their location the anomalies could be categorized as intrahepatic (4 dogs) or extrahepatic (10 dogs, 2 cats). In both groups breeds of various size are represented. The extrahepatic shunts could be further described as portal-caval (n = 5), portal-phrenic (n = 4) and portal-azygos (n = 3). In five of the older animals angiography showed in addition some hepatic perfusion by the portal vein. Laboratory evaluation revealed increased resting blood ammonia concentrations (greater than 200-912 micrograms/100 ml) in all animals. Seven dogs had definitely subnormal BUN concentrations (less than 10 mg%) and ten dogs low total plasmaprotein levels (less than 5.4 g%). Free amino acids (24) were determined in four dogs and a lowered hepatic encephalopathy index (less than 1.64) was found. Medical palliative therapy to control the clinical signs is discussed. The only effective long term therapy is, however, surgery. The shunt vessel is narrowed so that a greater volume of portal blood reaches the liver. Experience gained from the surgical therapy of 14 animals is presented. Ten of these survived well without requiring further therapy at a later time. Finally the

  15. Staged Transcatheter Treatment of Portal Hypoplasia and Congenital Portosystemic Shunts in Children

    SciTech Connect

    Bruckheimer, Elchanan Dagan, Tamir; Atar, Eli; Schwartz, Michael; Kachko, Ludmila; Superina, Riccardo; Amir, Gabriel; Shapiro, Rivka; Birk, Einat

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) with portal venous hypoplasia cause hyperammonemia. Acute shunt closure results in portal hypertension. A transcatheter method of staged shunt reduction to afford growth of portal vessels followed by shunt closure is reported. Methods: Pressure measurements and angiography in the CPSS or superior mesenteric artery (SMA) during temporary occlusion of the shunt were performed. If vessels were diminutive and the pressure was above 18 mmHg, a staged approach was performed, which included implantation of a tailored reducing stent to reduce shunt diameter by {approx}50 %. Recatheterization was performed approximately 3 months later. If the portal pressure was below 18 mmHg and vessels had developed, the shunt was closed with a device. Results: Six patients (5 boys, 1 girl) with a median age of 3.3 (range 0.5-13) years had CPSS portal venous hypoplasia and hyperammonemia. Five patients underwent staged closure. One patient tolerated acute closure. One patient required surgical shunt banding because a reducing stent could not be positioned. At median follow-up of 3.8 (range 2.2-8.4) years, a total of 21 procedures (20 transcatheter, 1 surgical) were performed. In all patients, the shunt was closed with a significant reduction in portal pressure (27.7 {+-} 11.3 to 10.8 {+-} 1.8 mmHg; p = 0.016), significant growth of the portal vessels (0.8 {+-} 0.5 to 4.0 {+-} 2.4 mm; p = 0.037), and normalization of ammonia levels (202.1 {+-} 53.6 to 65.7 {+-} 9.6 {mu}mol/L; p = 0.002) with no complications. Conclusion: Staged CPSS closure is effective in causing portal vessel growth and treating hyperammonemia.

  16. Clinical Results of the Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) for the Treatment of Variceal Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Han, Sang-Woo; Joo, Young-Eun; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun; Kim, Jae-Kyu; Kim, Sei-Jong

    2000-01-01

    Background Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has been popularized for the treatment of refractory variceal bleeding. The aim of this study was to assess the safety and long-term effect of TIPS in the treatment of variceal bleeding that is not controlled with pharmacological and endoscopic treatment. Methods Thirty-six patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) due to refractory variceal bleeding were included in the study. The effectiveness of portal decompression and bleeding control was evaluated. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was performed to analyse the degree of varices and portal hypertensive gastropathy (PHG) before TIPS procedure and one to three weeks after TIPS. Angiography was performed in surviving patients, if bleeding recurred, or if ultrasonography or endoscopy suggested stent dysfunction. Results TIPS were successfully placed in 36 of 38 patients (94.6%). TIPS achieved hemostasis of variceal bleeding in 34 patients (94.4%). Portal venous pressure decreased from an initial average of 28.7±7.9 to 23.2±9.4 mmHg after TIPS (p < 0.05). The portosystemic pressure gradient was significantly decreased from 15.5±6.3 to 7.8±4.1 mmHg (p < 0.01). The degree of esophagogastric varices and PHG was significantly improved after TIPS. The total length of follow-up was from one day to 54 months (mean: 355 days). The actuarial probability of survival was 83% at one year and 74% at two years. Overall, 16 episodes of stent dysfunction were diagnosed during follow-up. Stent revision by means of angioplasty was successfully performed in 14 of these episodes. Conclusion TIPS is an effective and reliable nonoperative means of lowering portal pressure. This procedure has proved useful in the management of acute variceal bleeding refractory to endoscopic treatment. Surveillance by ultrasonography, endoscopy, and angiographic intervention is useful for the maintenance of shunt patency. PMID:11242805

  17. Hepatic Veins and Inferior Vena Cava Thrombosis in a Child Treated by Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar Santos, Aline Cristine Barbosa; Tannuri, Uenis; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2010-06-15

    We report the case of a 9-year-old boy with portal hypertension, due to Budd-Chiari syndrome, and retrohepatic inferior vena cava thrombosis, submitted to a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) by connecting the suprahepatic segment of the inferior vena cava directly to the portal vein. After 3 months, the withdrawal of anticoagulants promoted the thrombosis of the TIPS. At TIPS revision, thrombosis of the TIPS and the main portal vein and clots at the splenic and the superior mesenteric veins were found. Successful angiography treatment was performed by thrombolysis and balloon angioplasty of a severe stenosis at the distal edge of the stent.

  18. Plasma concentration of vitamin C in dogs with a portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Hishiyama, Nobuya; Kayanuma, Hideki; Matsui, Tohru; Yano, Hideo; Suganuma, Tsunenori; Funaba, Masayuki; Fujise, Hiroshi

    2006-10-01

    Most mammals, including dogs, synthesize vitamin C in the liver. We measured the plasma concentration of vitamin C to assess the body vitamin C status in 15 dogs with a portosystemic shunt (PSS). The plasma biochemical parameters indicated liver abnormalities in all the dogs. In contrast, the plasma concentration of vitamin C ranged from 2.21 to 9.03 mg/L in the 15 dogs and was below the reference range (3.2 to 8.9 mg/L) in only 2 dogs. These findings suggest that vitamin C status is not impaired in dogs with PSS.

  19. Novel Image Guidance Techniques for Portal Vein Targeting During Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation.

    PubMed

    Farsad, Khashayar; Kaufman, John A

    2016-03-01

    The most challenging part of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation is arguably the transvenous access from the hepatic vein to the portal vein. As experience and technology have evolved, the image guidance aspect of this critical step in the procedure has become more robust. Improved means to target the portal vein include both direct and indirect methods of portal vein opacification, cross-sectional imaging for both targeting and access, and novel use of transabdominal and intravascular ultrasound guidance. These techniques are described herein.

  20. Efficacy of Doppler Ultrasonography for Assessment of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Patency

    SciTech Connect

    Kimura, Masashi; Sato, Morio; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tanaka, Kayo; Sonomura, Tetsuo; Shioyama, Kazushi; Kishi, Yasukazu; Terada, Masaki; Yamada, Ryusaku

    1996-11-15

    Purpose: To assess the efficacy of Doppler ultrasonography (US) as a noninvasive method for monitoring patency of the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Methods: Twenty-nine patients who had received TIPS for bleeding esophagogastric varices and/or refractory ascites with portal hypertension underwent Doppler US studies within 2 weeks after TIPS. Further studies were performed in 15 of them at 6 months, in 9 at 1 year, and in 4 at 2 years for a total of 57 US studies. The US findings were compared with the angiographic findings obtained at the same time. Results: In 45 of the 57 studies, shunt patency was found by Doppler US, correlating to 44 patencies and one occlusion on angiography. Doppler signal in the shunt could not be detected in 12 studies resulting in the diagnosis of shunt occlusion. This correlated with angiographic occlusion in 8 studies and patency in the remaining 4. All angiographically patent shunts that were occluded by Doppler US had various degrees of stenosis. A number of technical factors were found to be responsible for Doppler US false-positive or false-negative diagnoses, some related to the type of stent used. The Doppler US sensitivity was therefore 92%, the specificity 89%. Conclusion: Doppler US is a reliable noninvasive method to evaluate patency of TIPS.

  1. Congenital Extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts: Spectrum of Findings on Ultrasound, Computed Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Pankaj; Sinha, Anindita; Sodhi, Kushaljit Singh; Lal, Anupam; Debi, Uma; Thapa, Babu R.; Khandelwal, Niranjan

    2015-01-01

    Congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (CEPS) is a rare disorder characterised by partial or complete diversion of portomesenteric blood into systemic veins via congenital shunts. Type I is characterised by complete lack of intrahepatic portal venous blood flow due to an end to side fistula between main portal vein and the inferior vena cava. Type II on the other hand is characterised by partial preservation of portal blood supply to liver and side to side fistula between main portal vein or its branches and mesenteric, splenic, gastric, and systemic veins. The presentation of these patients is variable. Focal liver lesions, most commonly nodular regenerative hyperplasia, are an important clue to the underlying condition. This pictorial essay covers imaging characteristics in abdominopelvic region. PMID:26858845

  2. Hepatic Encephalopathy due to Congenital Multiple Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunts Successfully Treated by Percutaneous Transhepatic Obliteration

    PubMed Central

    Takenaga, Shinsuke; Narita, Kenichi; Matsui, Yo; Fukuda, Kunihiko

    2016-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy due to intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunts (IPSVS) in a non-cirrhotic condition is rare. Here we report a rare case of a patient with congenital multiple IPSVS successfully treated by percutaneous transhepatic obliteration. The patient was a 67-year-old woman who presented to our hospital with progressive episodes of consciousness disorder and vomiting. Laboratory tests revealed hyperammonemia (192.0 μg/dL), and computed tomography revealed multiple IPSVS in both lobes. There was no evidence of underlying liver disease or hepatic trauma. Transcatheter embolization for IPSVS was performed because conservative therapy was not sufficiently effective. After endovascular shunt closure, hepatic encephalopathy improved. The serum ammonia level normalized during the 5-year follow-up period. Thus, transcatheter embolization may be an effective therapy for patients with symptomatic and refractory IPSVS. Careful follow-up is necessary for portal hypertension-related complications after transcatheter embolization for IPSVS. PMID:27990104

  3. Diagnosis of an Accessory Portal Vein and Its Clinical Implications for Portosystemic Shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Jinshan; Wang Yanping; Wang Maoqiang; Yang Li; Xing Chongchong; Yu Miao; Cui Zhipeng

    1996-04-15

    Purpose: To present a peculiar anatomic portal veins variant and evaluate its clinical implications. Methods: Among 118 consecutive patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS), six male patients were found to have an accessory portal vein, which was seen during direct portography. Results: In all six patients, portograms showed an accessory small-caliber vein parallel to the trunk of the main portal vein ending in the right lobe of the liver. Two of the six accessory portal veins drained blood from coronary veins, precluding access to coronary vein embolization during TIPS. Conclusion: An accessory portal vein is a rare anatomical variation with clinical significance for both surgical shunt placement and TIPS, as well as for transportal embolization of coronary veins.

  4. Transient Hemolytic Anemia after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Rebollo, Sagrario; Santolaria-Fernández, Francisco; Diaz-Romero, Francisco; Rodriguez-Moreno, Fermin; Martinez-Riera, Antonio

    1996-01-01

    Management of variceal bleeding secondary to portal hypertension constitutes a challenging issue, particularly in child's C cirrhotic patients. Recently, transjugular placement of self-expanding metallic stents in the liver (TIPS), creating a shunt between the portal and hepatic branches has provided a safe and promising therapeutic approach in this clinical situation. We report here the case of a 66-year-old male cirrhotic patient who developed a moderately severe clinical picture of a Coombsnegative hemolytic anemia (serum hemoglobin, 93 g/l, serum bilirubin 160.74 umol/L (9.4 mg/dl), indirect 6.3 mg/dl (107.73 umol/L); serum LDH 1220 u/l, reticulocytes, 5.1%. serum ferritin, 1221 ug/1, schistocytes in peripheral blood smear) the week after undergoing a TIPS, suggesting the development ofa microangiopathic hemolytic anaemia secondary to red blood cell disruption by passing through the metallic network of the stent. PMID:8809588

  5. The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the management of cirrhotic refractory ascites.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Tsao, Guadalupe

    2006-07-01

    Cirrhotic ascites results from sinusoidal hypertension and sodium retention, which is secondary to a decreased effective arterial blood volume. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement is currently indicated in cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites who require large-volume paracentesis (LVP) more than two or three times per month. TIPS placement is associated with normalization of sinusoidal pressure and a significant improvement in urinary sodium excretion that correlates with suppression of plasma renin activity, which is, itself, indicative of an improvement in effective arterial blood volume. Compared with serial LVP, placement of an uncovered TIPS stent is more effective at preventing ascites from recurring; however, increased incidence of hepatic encephalopathy and shunt dysfunction rates after TIPS placement are important issues that increase its cost. Although evidence suggests that TIPS placement might result in better patient survival, this needs to be confirmed, particularly in light of the development of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents. Favorable results apply to centers experienced in placing the TIPS, with the aim being to decrease the portosystemic gradient to <12 mmHg but >5 mmHg. This article reviews the pathophysiologic basis for the use of a TIPS in patients with refractory ascites, the results of controlled trials comparing TIPS placement (using uncovered stents) versus LVP, and a systematic review of predictors of death after TIPS placement for refractory ascites.

  6. Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy by retrograde transcaval coil embolization of an ileal vein-to-right gonadal vein portosystemic shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Nishie, Akihiro; Yoshimitsu, Kengo; Honda, Hiroshi; Kaneko, Kuniyuki; Kuroiwa, Toshiro; Fukuya, Tatsuro; Irie, Hiroyuki; Ninomiya, Toshiharu; Yoshimitsu, Takahiro; Hirakata, Hideki; Okuda, Seiya; Masuda, Kouji

    1997-05-15

    A 43-year-old non-cirrhotic woman suffered from encephalopathy caused by an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt between the ileal vein and inferior vena cava via the right gonadal vein. Percutaneous transcatheter embolization with stainless steel coils was performed by the retrograde systemic venous approach. Encephalopathy improved dramatically.

  7. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement in Patients with Cirrhosis and Concomitant Portal Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ha, Thuong G. Van Hodge, Justin; Funaki, Brian; Lorenz, Jonathan; Rosenblum, Jordan; Straus, Christopher; Leef, Jeff

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. To determine the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation in patients with liver cirrhosis complicated by thrombosed portal vein. Methods. This study reviewed 15 cases of TIPS creation in 15 cirrhotic patients with portal vein thrombosis at our institution over an 8-year period. There were 2 women and 13 men with a mean age of 53 years. Indications were refractory ascites, variceal hemorrhage, and refractory pleural effusion. Clinical follow-up was performed in all patients. Results. The technical success rate was 75% (3/4) in patients with chronic portal vein thrombosis associated with cavernomatous transformation and 91% (10/11) in patients with acute thrombosis or partial thrombosis, giving an overall success rate of 87%. Complications included postprocedural encephalopathy and localized hematoma at the access site. In patients with successful shunt placement, the total follow-up time was 223 months. The 30-day mortality rate was 13%. Two patients underwent liver transplantation at 35 days and 7 months, respectively, after TIPS insertion. One patient had an occluded shunt at 4 months with an unsuccessful revision. The remaining patients had functioning shunts at follow-up. Conclusion. TIPS creation in thrombosed portal vein is possible and might be a treatment option in certain patients.

  8. Survival and prognostic indicators for dogs with intrahepatic portosystemic shunts: 32 cases (1990-2000).

    PubMed

    Papazoglou, Lysimachos G; Monnet, Eric; Seim, Howard B

    2002-01-01

    To determine prognostic indicators for short-term outcome and long-term survival for dogs with intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IPSS). Retrospective study. Thirty-two dogs of various breeds. Clinical data extracted from medical records of dogs with IPSS were reviewed and included gender, age at surgery, weight, preoperative packed cell volume (PCV), total plasma protein concentration (TP), albumin (ALB), serum activities of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), preprandial and postprandial bile acid concentrations (pre-BA, post-BA), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), glucose concentration, band neutrophils, per-rectal nuclear scintigraphy shunt fraction, whether an angiogram was performed, shunt location at surgery, whether a partial or complete attenuation of the shunt was performed, rectal temperature at the end of surgery, and duration of surgical procedure. Follow-up was determined from visits to the veterinary teaching hospital or by telephone communications with the owner or referring veterinarian. Median survival time was 35.68 months, and 1- and 2-year probabilities of survival were 60% and 55%, respectively. Body weight, TP, ALB, and BUN were identified as prognostic indicators for short-term outcome. PCV and TP were identified as prognostic indicators for long-term survival. PCV and TP were identified as prognostic indicators for long-term survival, whereas body weight, TP, ALB, and BUN were identified as indicators for short-term outcome in dogs with IPSS. Shunt location at surgery did not have any effect on short-term outcome and long-term survival. Total protein, ALB, BUN, and PCV can be used to determine prognosis of dogs with intrahepatic shunt. Copyright 2002 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons

  9. Hepatic Encephalopathy Secondary to Intrahepatic Portosystemic Venous Shunt: Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Embolization with n-Butyl Cyanoacrylate and Microcoils

    SciTech Connect

    Yamagami, Takuji; Nakamura, Toshiyuki; Iida, Shigeharu; Kato, Takeharu; Tanaka, Osamu; Matsushima, Shigenori; Ito, Hirotoshi; Okuyama, Chio; Ushijima, Yo; Shiga, Kensuke; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2002-06-15

    We report a 70-year-old woman with hepatic encephalopathy due to an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt that was successfully occluded by percutaneous transcatheter embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate and microcoils.

  10. An unusual cause of progressive cyanosis post Fontan operation: congenital extra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Layangool, Thanarat; Kojaranjit, Vichao; Promphan, Worakan; Kirawittaya, Tawatchai; Sangtawesin, Chaisit; Prachasilchai, Pimpak

    2014-06-01

    To report an unusual case of progressive cyanosis post Fontan operation due to porto-systemic venous shunt and the result of its treatment. A patient with diagnosis of progressive cyanosis post Fontan operation from porto-systemic venous shunt at QSNICH RESULTS: This is a case of twelve years old girl, who had diagnosis of situs solitus, levocardia, atrio-ventricular concordant, ventriculo-arterial concordant, hypoplastic right ventricle with large ventricular septal defect. She had pulmonary artery banding at 4 months of age followed by a non-fenestrated extra-cardiac conduit Fontan performed at 7 years and 7 months of age. During the first year of post operation, her systemic oxygen saturation (SpO2) was 93-94% after which it decreased to 87%, 84%, 75% at 1.5, 2.5 and 3 years after surgery, respectively. Clinically she also had progressive dyspnea on exertion. Diffuse pulmonary arterio-venous malformation was demonstrated by contrast echocardiogram during cardiac catheterization. Cardiac magnetic resonance angiography showed abnormal extra-hepatic portal vein to inferior vena cava shunt. After balloon test occlusion in the cath lab, which showed no change in the portal venous pressure, complete occlusion of this porto-systemic venous shunt was performed by using Amplatzer Vascular Plug II. Her systemic oxygen saturation increased to 83% with functional class I at one-year post occlusion. The present report an unusual case of progressive cyanosis post Fontan operation due to pulmonary arteriovenous malformation, which was secondary to congenital extra-hepatic porto-systemic shunt. The venous blood from the intestinal and splenic veins was partially bypassing the liver into inferior vena cava. The patient's clinical condition and SpO2 improved after transcatheter occlusion of the shunt with the device.

  11. Multiple acquired portosystemic shunts in a cat secondary to chronic diaphragmatic rupture

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, Andrew D; Lipscomb, Vicky J

    2015-01-01

    Case summary A cat with a chronic diaphragmatic rupture presented with neurological signs, including twitching and focal seizures. Blood ammonia level was markedly elevated and therefore neurological signs were thought to be related to hepatic encephalopathy. Exploratory laparotomy revealed that the left lateral and medial liver lobes were herniated into the thorax and multiple acquired portosystemic shunts (MAPSS) were present. The hernia was reduced and the diaphragm repaired. Neurological signs gradually resolved following surgery and 1 year postoperatively the cat was clinically normal, was not on any medication and had no evidence of hepatic dysfunction. Relevance and novel information This is the first report of a chronic diaphragmatic rupture leading to MAPSS in a cat. PMID:28491353

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Indications, Contraindications, and Patient Work-Up

    PubMed Central

    Copelan, Alexander; Kapoor, Baljendra; Sands, Mark

    2014-01-01

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure is effective in achieving portal decompression and in managing some of the major complications of portal hypertension. While many clinicians are familiar with the two most common indications for TIPS placement, secondary prophylaxis of esophageal variceal hemorrhage and treatment of refractory ascites, evidence for its usefulness is growing in other entities, where it has been less extensively studied but demonstrates promising results. Newer indications include early utilization in the treatment of esophageal variceal hemorrhage, Budd–Chiari syndrome, ectopic varices, and portal vein thrombosis. The referring clinician and interventionist must remain cognizant of the contraindications to the procedure to avoid complications and potential harm to the patient. This review is designed to provide an in-depth analysis of the most common as well as less typical indications for TIPS placement, and to discuss the contraindications and appropriate patient evaluation for this procedure. PMID:25177083

  13. Understanding the Pathophysiology of Portosystemic Shunt by Simulation Using an Electric Circuit.

    PubMed

    Kim, Moonhwan; Lee, Keon-Young

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt (PSS) without a definable cause is a rare condition, and most of the studies on this topic are small series or based on case reports. Moreover, no firm agreement has been reached on the definition and classification of various forms of PSS, which makes it difficult to compare and analyze the management. The blood flow can be seen very similar to an electric current, governed by Ohm's law. The simulation of PSS using an electric circuit, combined with the interpretation of reported management results, can provide intuitive insights into the underlying mechanism of PSS development. In this article, we have built a model of PSS using electric circuit symbols and explained clinical manifestations as well as the possible mechanisms underlying a PSS formation.

  14. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in a Patient with Cavernomatous Portal Vein Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Kawamata, Hiroshi; Kumazaki, Tatsuo; Kanazawa, Hidenori; Takahashi, Shuji; Tajima, Hiroyuki; Hayashi, Hiromitsu

    2000-03-15

    A 23-year-old woman with liver cirrhosis secondary to primary sclerosing cholangitis was referred to us for the treatment of recurrent bleeding from esophageal varices that had been refractory to endoscopic sclerotherapy. Her portal vein was occluded, associated with cavernous transformation. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was performed after a preprocedural three-dimensional computed tomographic angiography evaluation to determine feasibility. The portal vein system was recanalized and portal blood flow increased markedly after TIPS. Esophageal varices disappeared 3 weeks after TIPS. Re-bleeding and hepatic encephalopathy were absent for 3 years after the procedure. We conclude that with adequate preprocedural evaluation, TIPS can be performed safely even in patients with portal vein occlusion associated with cavernous transformation.

  15. Computed tomography angiography of situs inversus, portosystemic shunt and multiple vena cava anomalies in a dog.

    PubMed

    Oui, Heejin; Kim, Jisun; Bae, Yeonho; Oh, Juyeon; Park, Seungjo; Lee, Gahyun; Jeon, Sunghoon; Choi, Jihye

    2013-11-01

    A 5-year-old Shih Tzu was presented with intermittent vomiting and anorexia. Microhepatica and reversed position of the abdominal organs were observed on radiography. Ultrasonographically, portosystemic shunt (PSS) was tentatively diagnosed. Computed tomography (CT) revealed that the distended portal vein drained into the left hepatic vein. The caudal vena cava (CdVC) split postrenally and converged at the renal level. Cranial to this, the azygos continuation of the CdVC was confirmed. In the thorax, a persistent left cranial vena cava (CrVC) was found along with right CrVC. This is the first report of a dog with persistent left CrVC and multiple abdominal malformations. CT angiography was useful in evaluating the characteristics of each vascular anomaly and determining the required surgical correction in this complex case.

  16. Computed Tomography Angiography of Situs Inversus, Portosystemic Shunt and Multiple Vena Cava Anomalies in a Dog

    PubMed Central

    OUI, Heejin; KIM, Jisun; BAE, Yeonho; OH, Juyeon; PARK, Seungjo; LEE, Gahyun; JEON, Sunghoon; CHOI, Jihye

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT A 5-year-old Shih Tzu was presented with intermittent vomiting and anorexia. Microhepatica and reversed position of the abdominal organs were observed on radiography. Ultrasonographically, portosystemic shunt (PSS) was tentatively diagnosed. Computed tomography (CT) revealed that the distended portal vein drained into the left hepatic vein. The caudal vena cava (CdVC) split postrenally and converged at the renal level. Cranial to this, the azygos continuation of the CdVC was confirmed. In the thorax, a persistent left cranial vena cava (CrVC) was found along with right CrVC. This is the first report of a dog with persistent left CrVC and multiple abdominal malformations. CT angiography was useful in evaluating the characteristics of each vascular anomaly and determining the required surgical correction in this complex case. PMID:23842117

  17. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in refractory chylothorax due to liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Lutz, Philipp; Strunk, Holger; Schild, Hans Heinz; Sauerbruch, Tilman

    2013-02-21

    A pleural effusion containing chylomicrons is termed chylothorax and results from leakage of lymph fluid into the pleural cavity. We report on the case of a 59-year-old woman with severe dyspnea due to a large chylothorax. She was known to have liver cirrhosis but no ascites. There was no history of trauma, cardiac function was normal and thorough diagnostic work-up did not reveal any signs of malignancy. In summary, no other etiology of the chylothorax than portal hypertension could be found. Therapy with diuretics as well as parenteral feeding failed to relieve symptoms. After a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) had successfully been placed, pleural effusion decreased considerably. Eight months later, TIPS revision had to be performed because of stenosis, resulting in remission from chylothorax. This case shows that even in the absence of ascites, chylothorax might be caused by portal hypertension and that TIPS can be an effective treatment option.

  18. The use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) in the management of portal hypertensive bleeding.

    PubMed

    Lo, Gin-Ho

    2014-08-01

    Acute esophageal variceal hemorrhage is a terrible complication of portal hypertension and. rebleeding is very common in survivors of acute variceal bleeding. Traditional medical management options include the use of vasoconstrictor, balloon tamponade, and endoscopic therapy. Though endoscopic therapy has achieved successful hemostasis in the majority of acute variceal bleeding episodes, the outcome is usually dismal when such therapy fails. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunt (TIPS) was invented to decompress portal hypertension, but is now widely used in Western countries to treat patients with refractory variceal hemorrhage or refractory ascites. By contrast, TIPS has not been commonly used in Asia. In this article, I have reviewed the role of TIPS in the management of portal hypertensive bleeding, which will hopefully be useful for clinicians facing variceal bleeding that is not amenable to endoscopic therapies. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  19. Embolization of congenital intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt by n-butyl cyanoacrylate.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vivek; Kalra, Naveen; Vyas, Sameer; Sodhi, K S; Thapa, B R; Khandelwal, N

    2009-10-01

    Congenital intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (IHPSVS) is rare vascular anomaly. We present one case of a 14-month male child who presented with global developmental delay. Child had high ammonia levels with low glutamine and high bile salts on the previous investigations and had history of neonatal seizures since day 13 of life. On admission, serum ammonia levels were elevated to 112micromol/L. Other laboratory investigations including liver and renal function test, and electrolytes were normal. He was, diagnosed to have IHPSVS on the basis of Doppler and CT, and treated by embolization with n-butyl cyanoacrylate (glue). A brief review of diagnostic modalities and endovascular management for the IHPSVS is presented including the present case.

  20. Delayed liver laceration following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Kai; Fan, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xu-Lin; He, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Jiang

    2012-01-01

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an acceptable procedure that has proven benefits in the treatment of patients who have complications from portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis. Delayed liver laceration is a rare complication of the TIPS procedure. We describe a patient with portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, who suddenly presented with abdominal hemorrhage and liver laceration 8 d after TIPS. Few reports have described complications after TIPS placement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing delayed liver laceration. This potential and serious complication appears to be specific and fatal for TIPS in portal hypertension. We advocate careful attention to the technique to avoid this complication, and timely treatment is extremely important. PMID:23326153

  1. Delayed liver laceration following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Liu, Kai; Fan, Xin-Xin; Wang, Xu-Lin; He, Chang-Sheng; Wu, Xing-Jiang

    2012-12-28

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is an acceptable procedure that has proven benefits in the treatment of patients who have complications from portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis. Delayed liver laceration is a rare complication of the TIPS procedure. We describe a patient with portal hypertension due to liver cirrhosis, who suddenly presented with abdominal hemorrhage and liver laceration 8 d after TIPS. Few reports have described complications after TIPS placement. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing delayed liver laceration. This potential and serious complication appears to be specific and fatal for TIPS in portal hypertension. We advocate careful attention to the technique to avoid this complication, and timely treatment is extremely important.

  2. Understanding the Pathophysiology of Portosystemic Shunt by Simulation Using an Electric Circuit

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Moonhwan

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt (PSS) without a definable cause is a rare condition, and most of the studies on this topic are small series or based on case reports. Moreover, no firm agreement has been reached on the definition and classification of various forms of PSS, which makes it difficult to compare and analyze the management. The blood flow can be seen very similar to an electric current, governed by Ohm's law. The simulation of PSS using an electric circuit, combined with the interpretation of reported management results, can provide intuitive insights into the underlying mechanism of PSS development. In this article, we have built a model of PSS using electric circuit symbols and explained clinical manifestations as well as the possible mechanisms underlying a PSS formation. PMID:27868061

  3. Could there be light at the end of the tunnel? Mesocaval shunting for refractory esophageal varices in patients with contraindications to transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Davis, Jessica; Chun, Albert K; Borum, Marie L

    2016-01-01

    Cirrhotic patients with recurrent variceal bleeds who have failed prior medical and endoscopic therapies and are not transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt candidates face a grim prognosis with limited options. We propose that mesocaval shunting be offered to this group of patients as it has the potential to decrease portal pressures and thus decrease the risk of recurrent variceal bleeding. Mesocaval shunts are stent grafts placed by interventional radiologists between the mesenteric system, most often the superior mesenteric vein, and the inferior vena cava. This allows flow to bypass the congested hepatic system, reducing portal pressures. This technique avoids the general anesthesia and morbidity associated with surgical shunt placement and has been successful in several case reports. In this paper we review the technique, candidate selection, potential pitfalls and benefits of mesocaval shunt placement. PMID:27429715

  4. Congenital portosystemic shunts and hepatic encephalopathy in goat kids in California: 11 cases (1999-2012).

    PubMed

    Kinde, Hailu; Pesavento, Patricia A; Loretti, Alexandre P; Adaska, John M; Barr, Bradd C; Moore, Janet D; Anderson, Mark L; Rimoldi, Guillermo; Hill, Ashley E; Jones, Megan E B

    2014-01-01

    Between 1999 and 2012, 11 cases of congenital portosystemic shunts (cPSS) resulting in hepatic encephalopathy were diagnosed in goat kids necropsied at the California Animal Health and Food Safety Laboratory System and at the Department of Pathology, Immunology & Microbiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California-Davis. Affected animals included 6 females and 5 males of various breeds including Boer (5/11), Nigerian Dwarf (1/11), Saanen (1/11), Toggenburg (1/11), and mixed-breed (3/11) aged between 1.5 months and 11 months, submitted live (2/11) or dead (9/11) for necropsy. The most frequent clinical signs in these goats were ataxia, blindness, tremors, head bobbing, head pressing, seizures, circling, weakness, and ill thrift. Bile acids were measured in 2 animals, and were elevated in both cases (134 and 209 µmol/l, reference interval = 0-50 µmol/l). Necropsy findings were poor to fair body condition. Grossly, the livers of 4 animals were subjectively small. Microscopic lesions included portal spaces with increased numbers of arteriolar profiles and hypoplastic or absent portal veins, diffuse atrophy of the hepatic parenchyma with the presence of small hepatocytes and, in some cases, multifocal hepatocellular macrovesicular vacuolation. In the brain and spinal cord of all animals, there was bilateral and symmetric spongy degeneration affecting the cerebrum, mesencephalon, cerebellum, brainstem, and cervical spinal cord. In all cases, the brain lesions were consistent with hepatic encephalopathy. Congenital portosystemic shunts should be considered in the differential diagnosis of young goats with a history of ill thrift, and nonspecific neurological signs.

  5. Improvement in survival associated with embolisation of spontaneous portosystemic shunt in patients with recurrent hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    An, J; Kim, K W; Han, S; Lee, J; Lim, Y-S

    2014-06-01

    Spontaneous portosystemic shunt (SPSS) is a frequent cause of recurrent hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in patients with cirrhosis. To assess the effectiveness and optimal candidate selection for embolisation of SPSS, for the treatment of recurrent HE in patients with cirrhosis. This retrospective cohort study compared 17 patients with recurrent HE who achieved complete occlusion of SPSS by angiographic embolisation and 17 control patients. Most baseline characteristics were similar in the two groups. The 2-year HE recurrence rate was significantly lower in the embolisation than in the control group (39.9% vs. 79.9%, P = 0.02), whereas their 2-year overall survival rates were similar (64.7% vs. 53.4%, P = 0.98). Model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) and Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) score were significant predictors of 2-year patient mortality in the embolisation group. Analysis of patients with MELD <15 in the absence of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) showed that 2-year overall survival rate was significantly higher in the embolisation group than in the control group (100% vs. 60%, P = 0.03). The median changes in MELD (-1.6 vs. 2.5, P < 0.01), CTP score (-3 vs. 0, P < 0.01), and liver volume (61 mL vs. -117 mL; P = 0.046) at 1 year significantly favoured the embolisation group. Serious clinical complications after embolisation occurred only in patients who had MELD ≥15 and/or HCC at baseline, with all six dying within 1 year. Embolisation of a large spontaneous portosystemic shunt may be associated with improved survival and liver function, as well as prevention of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhotic patients with recurrent hepatic encephalopathy and modestly preserved liver function. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Passive expansion of sub-maximally dilated transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts and assessment of clinical outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Hsu, Michael C; Weber, Charles N; Stavropoulos, S William; Clark, Timothy W; Trerotola, Scott O; Shlansky-Goldberg, Richard D; Soulen, Michael C; Nadolski, Gregory J

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess for passive expansion of sub-maximally dilated transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) and compare outcomes with maximally dilated TIPS. METHODS Polytetrafluoroethylene covered TIPS (Viatorr) from July 2002 to December 2013 were retrospectively reviewed at two hospitals in a single institution. Two hundred and thirty patients had TIPS maximally dilated to 10 mm (mTIPS), while 43 patients who were at increased risk for hepatic encephalopathy (HE), based on clinical evaluation or low pre-TIPS portosystemic gradient (PSG), had 10 mm TIPS sub-maximally dilated to 8 mm (smTIPS). Group characteristics (age, gender, Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score, post-TIPS PSG and clinical outcomes were compared between groups, including clinical success (ascites or varices), primary patency, primary assisted patency, and severe post-TIPS HE. A subset of fourteen patients with smTIPS underwent follow-up computed tomography imaging after TIPS creation, and were grouped based on time of imaging (< 6 mo and > 6 mo). Change in diameter and cross-sectional area were measured with 3D imaging software to evaluate for passive expansion. RESULTS Patient characteristics were similar between the smTIPS and mTIPS groups, except for pre-TIPS portosystemic gradient, which was lower in the smTIPS group (19.4 mmHg ± 6.8 vs 22.4 mmHg ± 7.1, P = 0.01). Primary patency and primary assisted patency between smTIPS and mTIPS was not significantly different (P = 0.64 and 0.55, respectively). Four of the 55 patients (7%) with smTIPS required TIPS reduction for severe refractory HE, while this occurred in 6 of the 218 patients (3%) with mTIPS (P = 0.12). For the 14 patients with follow-up computed tomography (CT) imaging, the median imaging follow-up was 373 d. There was an increase in median TIPS diameter, median percent diameter change, median area, and median percent area change in patients with CT follow-up greater than 6 mo after TIPS placement compared to follow

  7. Usefulness of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Management of Bleeding Ectopic Varices in Cirrhotic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, V.; Joly, L.; Perreault, P.; Bouchard, L.; Lafortune, M.; Pomier-Layrargues, G.

    2006-04-15

    Purpose. To evaluate the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in the control of bleeding from ectopic varices. Methods. From 1995 to 2004, 24 cirrhotic patients, bleeding from ectopic varices, mean age 54.5 years (range 15-76 years), were treated by TIPS. The etiology of cirrhosis was alcoholic in 13 patients and nonalcoholic in 11 patients. The location of the varices was duodenal (n = 5), stomal (n = 8), ileocolic (n = 6), anorectal (n = 3), umbilical (n = 1), and peritoneal (n 1). Results. TIPS controlled the bleeding in all patients and induced a decrease in the portacaval gradient from 19.7 {+-} 5.4 to 6.4 {+-} 3.1 mmHg. Postoperative complications included self-limited intra-abdominal bleeding (n = 2), self-limited hemobilia (n = 1), acute thrombosis of the shunt (n = 1), and bile leak treated by a covered stent (n = 1). Median follow-up was 592 days (range 28-2482 days). Rebleeding occurred in 6 patients. In 2 cases rebleeding was observed despite a post-TIPS portacaval gradient lower than 12 mmHg and was controlled by variceal embolization; 1 patient underwent surgical portacaval shunt and never rebled; in 3 patients rebleeding was related to TIPS stenosis and treated with shunt dilatation with addition of a new stent. The cumulative rate of rebleeding was 23% and 31% at 1 and 2 years, respectively. One- and 2-year survival rates were 80% and 76%, respectively. Conclusion. The present series demonstrates that bleeding from ectopic varices, a challenging clinical problem, can be managed safely by TIPS placement with low rebleeding and good survival rates.

  8. Association of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt with embolization in the treatment of bleeding duodenal varix refractory to sclerotherapy.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, G; Smail, A; Azoulay, D; Castaing, D; Bismuth, H

    2000-01-01

    Bleeding from duodenal varices are often severe (mortality as high as 40%), and more difficult to sclerose than esophageal varices. We report a patient with a bleeding duodenal varix, refractory to sclerotherapy, successfully treated by the association of portosystemic shunt placement and varix embolization, via the same transjugular intrahepatic route. A 40-year-old Black male underwent emergency TIPS and duodenal varix embolization after failure of endoscopic sclerotherapy. The portosystemic pressure gradient droped from 16 to 9 mm Hg following TIPS. At 5 months from TIPS, the patient is well, with a patent shunt at Doppler ultrasound. The present report of successful control of duodenal varix, actively bleeding and refractory to sclerotherapy, by means of combined TIPS and embolization, supports the role of TIPS and suggests that its association to embolization can be valuably considered in the difficult setting of portal hypertension with bleeding duodenal varices. Copyright 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

  9. Intravascular Ultrasound Guidance for Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Procedure in a Swine Model

    SciTech Connect

    Kew, Jacqueline; Davies, Roger P.

    2004-01-15

    A new method is described for guiding hepato-portalvenous puncture using a longitudinal side-view intravascular ultrasound(L-IVUS) transducer to assist in the performance of transjugularintrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in three Australian swine.Simultaneous L-IVUS with an AcuNav (registered) 5-10 MHz 10 Fr transducer(Acuson Corporation, Mountain View, CA, USA) and fluoroscopy guidance was used to image and monitor the hepatic to portal venous puncture,dilatation of the tract, and deployment of the TIPS stent. Flow through the shunt could be demonstrated with both L-IVUS and angiography. TIPS was successful in all swine. The time for portal vein puncture once the target portal vein was identified was reduced at each attempt. The number of portal vein puncture attempts was 2, 1, and 1. No post-procedural complication was evident. L-IVUS-guided TIPS is practical and has the potential to improve safety by permitting simultaneous ultrasound and fluoroscopic imaging of the needle and target vascular structures. This technique allows for a more streamlined approach to TIPS, decreasing the fluoroscopic time (hence,decreasing the radiation exposure to the staff and patient) and anesthetic time. In addition, there are improved safety benefits obviating the need for wedged portography, facilitating avoidance of bile duct and hepatic arterial puncture, and minimizing hepatic injury by decreasing liver capsular puncture and the attendant risks.

  10. The Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Treatment of Portal Hypertension: Current Status

    PubMed Central

    Pomier-Layrargues, Gilles; Bouchard, Louis; Lafortune, Michel; Bissonnette, Julien; Guérette, Dave; Perreault, Pierre

    2012-01-01

    The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) represents a major advance in the treatment of complications of portal hypertension. Technical improvements and increased experience over the past 24 years led to improved clinical results and a better definition of the indications for TIPS. Randomized clinical trials indicate that the TIPS procedure is not a first-line therapy for variceal bleeding, but can be used when medical treatment fails, both in the acute situation or to prevent variceal rebleeding. The role of TIPS to treat refractory ascites is probably more justified to improve the quality of life rather than to improve survival, except for patients with preserved liver function. It can be helpful for hepatic hydrothorax and can reverse hepatorenal syndrome in selected cases. It is a good treatment for Budd Chiari syndrome uncontrollable by medical treatment. Careful selection of patients is mandatory before TIPS, and clinical followup is essential to detect and treat complications that may result from TIPS stenosis (which can be prevented by using covered stents) and chronic encephalopathy (which may in severe cases justify reduction or occlusion of the shunt). A multidisciplinary approach, including the resources for liver transplantation, is always required to treat these patients. PMID:22888442

  11. A simple method for the quantification of portosystemic shunting (PSS) in patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Bödvarsson, A; Verdegaal, W P; Slaats, E H; Geraedts, A A; Kehrer, D F; Silberbusch, J

    1993-12-01

    Portosystemic shunting (PSS) was evaluated in 32 patients with chronic liver disease by the rectal administration of iodine-123 I-amphetamine (IMP method), a radionuclide which is rapidly absorbed from the sigmoid and extracted by liver and lungs. Simultaneous measurement of pulmonary and hepatic uptake supplies a shunt fraction (SF) as an index of PSS. The IMP method was compared with the ammonia tolerance test (NH3TT), and there proved to be a significant correlation between these two methods (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Assuming that an increase of > 7 mumol/l in arterial ammonia concentration after NH3TT represents PSS, the IMP method had a sensitivity of 0.93. When fasting (NH3) was > 50 mumol/l, all patients showed pathological PSS with either method, but this was also the case in 50% of patients with normal basal arterial ammonia. There was also a significant correlation between the IMP method and the Child-Pugh classification (r = 0.75, p < 0.001). Endoscopy in 28 patients revealed absence of varices in 11, of whom, however, 7 (64%) had an increased SF and although all 15 patients with ascites had increased SF, this was also the case in 12 of the 17 patients without ascites. In conclusion, PSS evaluation using IMP is a non-invasive, sensitive method without patient discomfort which might be used in the staging and follow-up of chronic liver disease.

  12. Imaging and Clinical Outcomes in 20 Dogs Treated with Thin Film Banding for Extrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nathan C; Nelson, Laura L

    2016-08-01

    To prospectively evaluate the efficacy of thin film band attenuation of congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunts (CEPSS) in dogs using clinical, biochemical, and imaging-related outcome measures. Prospective case series. Dogs with CEPSS (n=20). Client-owned dogs with CEPSS were enrolled and thin film banding of the shunting vessel was performed. Before and at least 6 months after surgery, serum bile acids and computed tomography (CT) angiography were performed and owners completed a health questionnaire regarding the dog's clinical signs. Postoperative CT images were assessed for the effectiveness of band closure, change in portal vein/aorta ratio, change in liver volume/weight ratio, and whether the band was placed in the appropriate location. Preoperative and postoperative health questionnaire data and serum bile acids were compared. The band resulted in complete closure of the vessel around which it was placed in 13 dogs. In the remaining 7 dogs, the vessel lumen was narrowed but not completely closed. In 8 dogs the band location was suboptimal, allowing systemic drainage of visceral blood or secondary shunting branches to persist. Liver volume/body weight ratios and portal vein/aorta diameter ratios increased in most dogs. Serum bile acids decreased in all but 1 dog and owners reported improved health in 19 dogs. Thin film banding resulted in complete occlusion of many, but not all vessels around which it was placed. Even in dogs with inappropriate band location or with incomplete closure, clinical improvement can be expected based on our results. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  13. Shear Wave Elastography of the Spleen for Monitoring Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Function: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Gao, Jing; Zheng, Xiao; Zheng, Yuan-Yi; Zuo, Guo-Qing; Ran, Hai-Tao; Auh, Yong Ho; Waldron, Levi; Chan, Tiffany; Wang, Zhi-Gang

    2016-05-01

    To assess the feasibility of splenic shear wave elastography in monitoring transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) function. We measured splenic shear wave velocity (SWV), main portal vein velocity (PVV), and splenic vein velocity (SVV) in 33 patients 1 day before and 3 days to 12 months after TIPS placement. We also measured PVV, SVV, and SWV in 10 of 33 patients with TIPS dysfunction 1 day before and 3 to 6 days after TIPS revision. Analyses included differences in portosystemic pressure gradient (PPG), PVV, SVV, and mean SWV before and after TIPS procedures; comparison of median SWV before and after TIPS procedures; differences in PVV, SVV, and SWV before and at different times up to 12 months after TIPS placement; accuracy of PVV, SVV, and SWV in determining TIPS dysfunction; and correlation between PPG and SWV. During 12 months of follow-up, 23 of 33 patients had functioning TIPS, and 10 had TIPS dysfunction. The median SWV was significantly different before and after primary TIPS placement (3.60 versus 3.05 m/s; P = .005), as well as before and after revision (3.73 versus 3.06 m/s; P = .003). The PPG, PVV, and SVV were also significantly different before and after TIPS placement and revision (P < .001). The PPG and SWV decreased, whereas PVV and SVV increased, after successful TIPS procedures. A positive correlation was observed between PPG and SWV (r = 0.70; P < .001), and a negative correlation was observed between PPG and PVV and SVV (r = -0.65; P < .001). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for PVV, SVV, and SWV in determining TIPS dysfunction were 0.82, 0.84, and 0.81, respectively. Splenic SWV is compatible with splenoportal venous velocity in quantitatively monitoring TIPS function and determining TIPS dysfunction. © 2016 by the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine.

  14. ePTFE-Covered Stent-Grafts for Revision of Obstructed Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Cejna, Manfred; Peck-Radosavljevic, Markus; Thurnher, Siegfried; Schoder, Maria; Rand, Thomas; Angermayr, Bernhard; Lammer, Johannes

    2002-10-15

    Purpose: To determine whether transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) revisions with the Hemobahn stent-graft or the Viatorr endoprosthesis increase secondary patency rates. Methods: Between 1998 and June 1999,Hemobahn endoprostheses (W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) were used for the revision of obstructed TIPS in seven patients, 51-67 years of age(mean 59 years). From June 1999 to 2000, the Viatorr endoprosthesis(W.L. Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA) was used for revision of obstructed TIPS in nine patients, 33-64 years of age (mean 49 years). Follow-up included duplex ultrasound, clinical assessment and venousportography. Results: The technical success rate of TIPS revision with the Hemobahn stent-graft was 100%. The pressure gradient decreased from a mean of 20 mmHg to 10 mmHg. The mean follow-up was 407 days (range 81-868 days). In two patients TIPS occlusion occurred at 62 and 529 days after stent-graft placement, respectively; in another two patients outflow tract stenosis occurred at 275 and 393 days,respectively. The technical success rate of TIPS revision with the Viatorr endoprosthesis was also 100%. The pressure gradient decreased from a mean of 27 mmHg to 11 mmHg. At a mean follow-up of 201 days(range 9-426 days), all Viatorr endoprostheses are still patent without in-graft stenosis, but angioplasty was required in two patients to treat a portosystemic pressure gradient > 15 mmHg. Four of the nine patients in the Viatorr group suffered from new encephalopathy after TIPS revision. Conclusion: The Viatorrendoprosthesis yielded optimal results with 100% in-graft patency rates at follow-up but had a high incidence of new encephalopathy,whereas the use of Hemobahn stent-graft for TIPS revision did not appear to improve the secondary patency rates in our series.

  15. Combined transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and other interventions for hepatocellular carcinoma with portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bin; Zhao, Meng-Fei; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Wang, Lei; Fan, Zhen-Hua; He, Fu-Liang; Dai, Shan; Yao, Jian-Nan; Liu, Fu-Quan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate combination transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and other interventions for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and portal hypertension. METHODS: Two hundred and sixty-one patients with HCC and portal hypertension underwent TIPS combined with other interventional treatments (transarterial chemoembolization/transarterial embolization, radiofrequency ablation, hepatic arterio-portal fistulas embolization, and splenic artery embolization) from January 1997 to January 2010 at Beijing Shijitan Hospital. Two hundred and nine patients (121 male and 88 female, aged 25-69 years, mean 48.3 ± 12.5 years) with complete clinical data were recruited. We evaluated the safety of the procedure (procedure-related death and serious complications), change of portal vein pressure before and after TIPS, symptom relief [e.g., ascites, hydrothorax, esophageal gastric-fundus variceal bleeding (EGVB)], cumulative rates of survival, and distributary channel restenosis. The characteristics of the patients surviving ≥ 5 and < 5 years were also analyzed. RESULTS: The portosystemic pressure was decreased from 29.0 ± 4.1 mmHg before TIPS to 18.1 ± 2.9 mmHg after TIPS (t = 69.32, P < 0.05). Portosystemic pressure was decreased and portal hypertension symptoms were ameliorated. During the 5 year follow-up, the total recurrence rate of resistant ascites or hydrothorax was 7.2% (15/209); 36.8% (77/209) for EGVB; and 39.2% (82/209) for hepatic encephalopathy. The cumulative rates of distributary channel restenosis at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5 years were 17.2% (36/209), 29.7% (62/209), 36.8% (77/209), 45.5% (95/209) and 58.4% (122/209), respectively. No procedure-related deaths and serious complications (e.g., abdominal bleeding, hepatic failure, and distant metastasis) occurred. Moreover, Child-Pugh score, portal vein tumor thrombosis, lesion diameter, hepatic arterio-portal fistulas, HCC diagnosed before or after TIPS, stent type, hepatic encephalopathy, and type of other

  16. The Effect of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt on Platelet Counts in Patients With Liver Cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Zein, Nizar N.

    2017-01-01

    Thrombocytopenia is a well-known complication of liver cirrhosis. Although the pathogenesis of thrombocytopenia is not well understood, splenic congestion resulting from portal hypertension is considered the most significant underlying mechanism. Therapeutic measures that lower portal hypertension, such as transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), are expected to improve thrombocytopenia associated with liver cirrhosis. At present, there are few studies on the effect of TIPS on platelet counts, and the results are conflicting. This article assesses the effect of TIPS on thrombocytopenia associated with liver cirrhosis. Methods: Seventy-four patients with liver cirrhosis who were referred for TIPS were included in this study. Platelet counts were measured on 3 different occasions over a 3-month period prior to and following placement of TIPS. Thrombocytopenia was defined as a platelet count of 150,000/mm3 or less. Moderate thrombocytopenia was defined as a platelet count of 100,000/mm3 or less. Severe thrombocytopenia was defined as a platelet count of 50,000/mm3 or less. A significant increase in platelet count was defined as a 20% or higher increase from pre-TIPS values. The portosystemic pressure gradient (PSPG) was measured before and after placement of TIPS. The patency of the shunt was checked using Doppler ultrasound 24 hours and 3 months after the procedure. Results: Thirty-four of the 74 patients (46%) who underwent TIPS showed a significant increase in platelet count, with an average increase of 22% (P<.0005). Twenty-five of 40 patients (62%) with moderate thrombocytopenia showed a significant increase in platelet count, with an average increase of 36% (P<.0005). Patients with severe thrombocytopenia showed the greatest response to TIPS; 8 of 11 patients (73%) had a significant increase in platelet count (average increase, 55%; P<.0005). No correlation was found between the response to TIPS and age, sex, etiology of liver disease, pre-TIPS PSPG

  17. The role of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt prior to abdominal tumoral surgery in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension.

    PubMed

    Gil, A; Martínez-Regueira, F; Hernández-Lizoain, J L; Pardo, F; Olea, J M; Bastarrika, G; Cienfuegos, J A; Bilbao, J I

    2004-02-01

    Major abdominal surgery can be contraindicated in some cirrhotic patients because of severe portal hypertension. The present study reports our experience of three patients with abdominal tumours prepared for surgery by transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in order to reduce portal hypertension and the risk of intraoperative bleeding. Three patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension diagnosed with a right colon carcinoma, an adenocarcinoma of pancreas and a gastric and sigmoid synchronic tumours in the same patient. Because portal hypertension was the leading cause of surgical contraindication, neoadjuvant TIPS placement was proposed before surgery. TIPS placement was performed without intra-procedure complications. An average reduction of 18 mmHg was achieved in portosystemic gradients. The planned operations were performed with a delay of 14-45 days after TIPS without intraoperative bleeding. Complications occurred in one patient without operative mortality. TIPS placement allows a pre-operative portal decompression in cirrhotic patients with portal hypertension and abdominal tumours that require surgical treatment. This procedure reduces the risk of bleeding by reducing the portosystemic gradient and the varices around the tumoral area. This procedure is less invasive than conventional shunt surgery, but it is not free of complications and should be performed by experienced interventional radiologists on selected patients. This is still an experimental indication of TIPS which efficacy must be confirmed in larger series.

  18. [Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting with covered stents in children: a preliminary study of safety and patency].

    PubMed

    Zurera, L J; Espejo, J J; Canis, M; Bueno, A; Vicente, J; Gilbert, J J

    2014-01-01

    To retrospectively analyze the safety and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS) using covered stents in children. We present 6 children (mean age, 10.6 years; mean weight, 33.5kg) who underwent TIPS with 8mm diameter Viatorr(®) covered stents for acute (n=4) or recurrent (n=2) upper digestive bleeding that could not be controlled by endoscopic measures. Five of the children had cirrhosis and the other had portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation. We analyzed the relapse of upper digestive bleeding, the complications that appeared, and the patency of the TIPS shunt on sequential Doppler ultrasonography or until transplantation. A single stent was implanted in a single session in each child; none of the children died. The mean transhepatic gradient decreased from 16mmHg (range: 12-21mmHg) before the procedure to 9mmHg (range: 1-15mmHg) after TIPS. One patient developed mild encephalopathy, and the girl who had portal vein thrombosis with cavernous transformation developed an acute occlusion of the TIPS that resolved after the implantation of a coaxial stent. Three children received transplants (7, 9, and 10 months after the procedure, respectively), and the patency of the TIPS was confirmed at transplantation. In the three remaining children, patency was confirmed with Doppler ultrasonography 1, 3, and 5 months after implantation. None of the children had new episodes of upper digestive bleeding during follow-up after implantation (mean: 8.1 months). Our results indicate that TIPS with 8mm diameter Viatorr(®) covered stents can be safe and efficacious for the treatment of upper digestive bleeding due to gastroesophageal varices in cirrhotic children; our findings need to be corroborated in larger series. Copyright © 2011 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. A retrospective study of the efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    Meyer, K M; Zibari, G B; McMillan, R W; Vickers, B; Gholson, C; Marsala, A; McDonald, J C

    1996-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) are being used increasingly for complications of portal hypertension, including active and recurrent variceal hemorrhage and intractable ascites, as well as for portal decompression in patients awaiting orthotopic liver transplantation. We reviewed the initial 2-year experience with TIPS at Louisiana State University Medical Center-Shreveport and Willis-Knighton Medical Center, Shreveport, Louisiana, which involved 31 patients. Clinical findings (with some patients having more than one finding) revealed that 16 per cent (five) of the patients had active hemorrhage; 61 per cent (19), multiple episodes of (recurrent) variceal hemorrhage; and 48 per cent (15), ascites. The mean follow-up period was 6.2 months, with a patient mortality of 13 per cent. Results showed that in 87 per cent (27 of 31) of patients the TIPS procedure was successfully placed. There was 100 per cent control of active variceal hemorrhage (five patients) and ascites (12 patients; excludes three patients who died). Rebleeding occurred in 18 per cent (four of 22) of patients, all related to stenosis or occlusion of the TIPS. The overall incidence of occlusion and stenosis was 11 per cent and 22 per cent, respectively. Seventy-seven per cent (seven of nine) of the patients experiencing the latter complications underwent successful angioplasty or revision of their TIPS. The results of our experience indicate that TIPS placement can be performed successfully with low procedural morbidity. The procedure is effective in controlling active variceal hemorrhage refractory to endoscopic sclerotherapy. The use of TIPS may be particularly beneficial for patients who are either awaiting liver transplantation or poor candidates for surgical shunt procedures. TIPS may not be a long-term solution for patients with portal hypertension, given the current rates of occlusion and stenosis.

  20. Plasma Glucose Level Is Predictive of Serum Ammonia Level After Retrograde Occlusion of Portosystemic Shunts.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Tsuyoshi; Aibe, Yuki; Matsuda, Takashi; Iwamoto, Takuya; Takami, Taro; Sakaida, Isao

    2017-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate predictors of reduction in ammonia levels by occlusion of portosystemic shunts (PSS) in patients with cirrhosis. Forty-eight patients with cirrhosis (21 women, 27 men; mean age, 67.8 years) with PSS underwent balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) at one institution between February 2008 and June 2014. The causes of cirrhosis were hepatitis B in one case, hepatitis C in 20 cases, alcohol in 15 cases, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in eight cases, and other conditions in four cases. The Child-Pugh classes were A in 24 cases, B in 23 cases, and C in one case. The indication for BRTO was gastric varices in 40 cases and hepatic encephalopathy in eight cases. Testing was conducted before and 1 month after the procedure. Statistical analyses were performed to identify predictors of a clinically significant decline in ammonia levels after BRTO. Occlusion of PSS resulted in a clinically significant decrease in ammonia levels accompanied by increased portal venous flow and improved Child-Pugh score. Univariate analyses showed that a reduction in ammonia levels due to BRTO was significantly related to lower plasma glucose levels, higher RBC counts, and higher hemoglobin concentration before the treatment. Furthermore, multivariate logistic regression identified preoperative plasma glucose level as the strongest independent predictor of a significant ammonia reduction in response to BRTO. In addition, although BRTO resulted in significantly declined ammonia levels in patients with normal glucose tolerance before the procedure, ammonia levels were not significantly decreased after shunt occlusion in patients with diabetes mellitus or impaired glucose tolerance before BRTO, according to 75-g oral glucose tolerance test results. Preoperative plasma glucose level is a useful predictor of clinically significant ammonia reduction resulting from occlusion of PSS in patients with cirrhosis. Even if PSS are present, control

  1. Splenophrenic portosystemic shunt in dogs with and without portal hypertension: can acquired and congenital porto-caval connections coexist?

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardi, M.

    2016-01-01

    The possible existence of the same pattern of porto-caval connection in dogs having a single congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) and in dogs having multiple acquired portosystemic shunt (MAPSS) secondary to portal hypertension (PH) was evaluated. Retrospective evaluation of all CT examinations of patients having portosystemic shunt (PSS) was performed in a 4-year time period. All anomalous porto-caval connections were assessed for anatomical pattern and compared with published veterinary literature. Records of 25 dogs were reviewed. 16 dogs had a single CPSS (CPSS group), and 9 dogs had multiple acquired PSS secondary to PH (APSS group). The splenophrenic shunt pattern was found in 3 dogs of the CPSS group as a single congenital anomaly without PH and in 2 dogs of the APSS group associated with MAPSS and ascites due to different hepatic diseases causing PH. These findings corroborate two hypotheses: 1) Splenophrenic PSS should be considered as a classical CPSS but if this is not sufficient to alleviate a PH developed after birth because of eventual hepatic or portal diseases, in this case ascites and acquired portal collaterals may develop. In this case, MAPSS and CPSS may coexist. 2) The pattern of splenophrenic PSS, classically described among CPSS, may develop as acquired portal collateral in dogs with PH and it should also be included in the category of APSS. These preliminary findings may be helpful in reconsidering the classical haemodynamics of porto-caval diseases, enrich the classification of APSS in dogs and refine the imaging evaluation of patients with PH. PMID:27882305

  2. Radiation dose reduction during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt implantation using a new imaging technology.

    PubMed

    Spink, C; Avanesov, M; Schmidt, T; Grass, M; Schoen, G; Adam, G; Bannas, P; Koops, A

    2017-01-01

    To compare patient radiation dose in patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) implantation before and after an imaging-processing technology upgrade. In our retrospective single-center-study, cumulative air kerma (AK), cumulative dose area product (DAP), total fluoroscopy time and contrast agent were collected from an age- and BMI-matched collective of 108 patients undergoing TIPS implantation. 54 procedures were performed before and 54 after the technology upgrade. Mean values were calculated and compared using two-tailed t-tests. Two blinded, independent readers assessed DSA image quality using a four-rank likert scale and the Wilcoxcon test. The new technology demonstrated a significant reduction of 57% of mean DAP (402.8 vs. 173.3Gycm(2), p<0.001) and a significant reduction of 58% of mean AK (1.7 vs. 0.7Gy, p<0.001) compared to the precursor technology. Time of fluoroscopy (26.4 vs. 27.8min, p=0.45) and amount of contrast agent (109.4 vs. 114.9ml, p=0.62) did not differ significantly between the two groups. The DSA image quality of the new technology was not inferior (2.66 vs. 2.77, p=0.56). In our study the new imaging technology halved radiation dose in patients undergoing TIPS maintaining sufficient image quality without a significant increase in radiation time or contrast consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement During Pregnancy: A Case Series of Five Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Ingraham, Christopher R. Padia, Siddharth A. Johnson, Guy E.; Easterling, Thomas R.; Liou, Iris W.; Kanal, Kalpana M.; Valji, Karim

    2015-10-15

    Background and AimsComplications of portal hypertension, such as variceal hemorrhage and ascites, are associated with significant increases in both mortality and complications during pregnancy. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a well-established procedure for treating portal hypertension, but the safety of TIPS during pregnancy is largely unknown. In this series, we review five patients who underwent TIPS placement while pregnant and describe their clinical outcomes.MethodsFive pregnant patients with cirrhosis and portal hypertension underwent elective TIPS for complications of portal hypertension (four for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding and one for refractory ascites). Outcomes measured were recurrent bleeding episodes or need for further paracenteses during pregnancy, estimated radiation dose to the fetus and gestational age at delivery. All patients were followed after delivery to evaluate technical and clinical success of the procedure.ResultsAll five patients survived pregnancy and went on to deliver successfully. When TIPS was performed for secondary prevention of variceal bleeding (n = 4), no patients demonstrated variceal bleeding after TIPS placement. When TIPS was performed for refractory ascites (n = 1), no further paracenteses were required. All patients delivered successfully, albeit prematurely. Average radiation dose estimated to the fetus was 16.3 mGy.ConclusionsThis series suggests that TIPS can be performed in selective pregnant patients with portal hypertension, with little added risk to the mother or fetus.

  4. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for the management of acute variceal hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    Loffroy, Romaric; Estivalet, Louis; Cherblanc, Violaine; Favelier, Sylvain; Pottecher, Pierre; Hamza, Samia; Minello, Anne; Hillon, Patrick; Thouant, Pierre; Lefevre, Pierre-Henri; Krausé, Denis; Cercueil, Jean-Pierre

    2013-01-01

    Acute variceal hemorrhage, a life-threatening condition that requires a multidisciplinary approach for effective therapy, is defined as visible bleeding from an esophageal or gastric varix at the time of endoscopy, the presence of large esophageal varices with recent stigmata of bleeding, or fresh blood visible in the stomach with no other source of bleeding identified. Transfusion of blood products, pharmacological treatments and early endoscopic therapy are often effective; however, if primary hemostasis cannot be obtained or if uncontrollable early rebleeding occurs, transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is recommended as rescue treatment. The TIPS represents a major advance in the treatment of complications of portal hypertension. Acute variceal hemorrhage that is poorly controlled with endoscopic therapy is generally well controlled with TIPS, which has a 90% to 100% success rate. However, TIPS is associated with a mortality of 30% to 50% in such a setting. Emergency TIPS should be considered early in patients with refractory variceal bleeding once medical treatment and endoscopic sclerotherapy failure, before the clinical condition worsens. Furthermore, admission to specialized centers is mandatory in such a setting and regional protocols are essential to be organized effectively. This review article discusses initial management and then focuses on the specific role of TIPS as a primary therapy to control acute variceal hemorrhage, particularly as a rescue therapy following failure of endoscopic approaches. PMID:24115809

  5. Observational cohort study of hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).

    PubMed

    Routhu, Michaela; Safka, Vaclav; Routhu, Sunil Kumar; Fejfar, Tomas; Jirkovsky, Vaclav; Krajina, Antonin; Cermakova, Eva; Hosak, Ladislav; Hulek, Petr

    2017-01-01

    Introduction and Aim: Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a common complication of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunting (TIPS). It is associated with a reduced quality of life and poor prognosis. The aim of this study was to compare two groups of patients who did and did not develop overt HE after TIPS. We looked for differences between these groups before TIPS. A study of 895 patients was conducted based on a retrospective analysis of clinical data. Data was analyzed using Fisher's exact test, Chi-square, Mann Whitney test, unpaired t-test and logistic regression. After the initial analyses, we have looked at a regression models for the factors associated with development of HE after TIPS. 257 (37.9%) patients developed HE after TIPS. Patients' age, pre-TIPS portal venous pressure, serum creatinine, aspartate transaminase, albumin, presence of diabetes mellitus and etiology of portal hypertension were statistically significantly associated with the occurrence of HE after TIPS (p < 0.01). However, only the age, pre-TIPS portal venous pressure, serum creatinine, presence of diabetes mellitus and etiology of portal hypertension contributed to the regression model. Patients age, serum creatinine, presence of diabetes mellitus and portal vein pressure formed the model describing development of HE after TIPS for a subgroup of patients with refractory ascites. we have identified, using a substantial sample, several factors associated with the development of HE after TIPS. This could be helpful in further research.

  6. Combination therapy using PSE and TIO ameliorates hepatic encephalopathy due to intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt in idiopathic portal hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Kojima, Seiichiro; Ito, Hiroyuki; Takashimizu, Shinji; Ichikawa, Hitoshi; Matsumoto, Tomohiro; Hasebe, Terumitsu

    2016-01-01

    A 64-year-old woman treated for anemia and ascites exhibited hepatic encephalopathy. Abdominal ultrasonography and computed tomography (CT) showed communication between the portal vein and the middle hepatic vein, indicating an intrahepatic portosystemic venous shunt (PSS). Since hepatic encephalopathy of the patient was resistant to medical treatment, interventional radiology was performed for the treatment of shunt obliteration. Hepatic venography showed anastomosis between the hepatic vein branches, supporting the diagnosis of idiopathic portal hypertension (IPH). To minimize the increase in portal vein pressure after shunt obliteration, partial splenic artery embolization (PSE) was first performed to reduce portal vein blood flow. Transileocolic venous obliteration (TIO) was then performed, and intrahepatic PSS was successfully obliterated using coils with n-butyl-2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA). In the present case, hepatic encephalopathy due to intrahepatic PSS in the patient with IPH was successfully treated by combination therapy using PSE and TIO. PMID:27651930

  7. Effect of initial stent position on patency of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Shi-Hua; Chu, Jian-Guo; Huang, He; Yao, Ke-Chun

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of initial stent position on transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). METHODS We studied 425 patients from January 2004 to January 2015 with refractory ascites or variceal bleeding who required TIPS placement. Patients were randomly divided into group A (stent in hepatic vein, n = 57), group B (stent extended to junction of hepatic vein and inferior vena cava, n = 136), group C (stent in left branch of portal vein, n = 83) and group D (stent in main portal vein, n = 149). Primary unassisted patency was compared using Kaplan-Meier analysis, and incidence of recurrence of bleeding, ascites and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) were analyzed. RESULTS The mean primary unassisted patency rate in group B tended to be higher than in group A at 3, 6 and 12 mo (P = 0.001, 0.000 and 0.005), and in group D it tended to be lower than in group C at 3, 6 and 12 mo (P = 0.012, 0.000 and 0.028). The median shunt primary patency time for group A was shorter than for group B (5.2 mo vs 9.1 mo, 95%CI: 4.3-5.6, P = 0.013, log-rank test), while for group C it was longer than for group D (8.3 mo vs 6.9 mo, 95%CI: 6.3-7.6, P = 0.025, log-rank test). Recurrence of bleeding and ascites in group A was higher than in group B at 3 mo (P = 0.014 and 0.020), 6 mo (P = 0.014 and 0.019) and 12 mo (P = 0.024 and 0.034. Recurrence in group D was higher than in group C at 3 mo (P = 0.035 and 0.035), 6 mo (P = 0.038 and 0.022) and 12 mo (P = 0.017 and 0.009). The incidence of HE was not significantly different among any of the groups (P = 0.965). CONCLUSION The initial stent position can markedly affect stent patency, which potentially influences the risk of recurrent symptoms associated with shunt stenosis or occlusion. PMID:28765699

  8. Impact of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt implantation on liver perfusion measured by volume perfusion CT.

    PubMed

    Preibsch, Heike; Spira, Daniel; Thaiss, Wolfgang M; Syha, Roland; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Ketelsen, Dominik; Lauer, Ulrich M; Horger, Marius

    2017-10-01

    Background Implantation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) induces changes of liver perfusion. Purpose To determine the changes in arterial, portal venous, and total perfusion of the liver parenchyma induced by TIPS using the technique of volume perfusion computed tomography (VPCT) and compare results with invasively measured hepatic intravascular pressure values. Material and Methods VPCT quantification of liver perfusion was performed in 23 patients (mean age, 62.5 ± 8.8 years) with portal hypertension in the pre-TIPS and post-TIPS setting, respectively. A commercially available software package was used for post-processing, enabling separate calculation of the dual (arterial [ALP] and portal venous [PVP]) blood supply and additionally of the hepatic perfusion index (HPI) (HPI = ALP/(ALP + PVP)*100%). Invasive pressure measurements were performed during the intervention, before and after TIPS placement. Liver function tests performed before and after the procedure were compared. Results Mean decrease of pressure gradient through TIPS was 13.3 mmHg. Mean normal values for ALP, PVP, and total perfusion (ALP + PVP) before TIPS were 15.9, 37.7, and 53.5 mL/100 mL/min, respectively, mean HPI was 35.4%. After TIPS, ALP increased to a mean value of 37.7 mL/100 mL/min, PVP decreased (15.7 mL/100 mL/min, P < 0.05), whereas total perfusion remained unchanged (53.4 mL/100 mL/min, P = 0.97). HPI increased (71.9%; P < 0.05). No correlation between invasive pressure measurement and VPCT parameters was observed. After TIPS, liver function tests were found to worsen with a significant increase of bilirubin ( P < 0.05). Conclusion Following TIPS placement, ALP and HPI increased in all patients, whereas PVP markedly decreased. Interestingly, the magnitude of decrease in portosystemic pressure gradients was not found to correlate with VPCT parameters.

  9. Is color-Doppler US a reliable method in the follow-up of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)?

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, P.; Cantisani, V.; Lombardi, V.; Alfano, G.; D'Ambrosio, U.; Menichini, G.; Marotta, E.; Drudi, F.M.

    2007-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has become a widely accepted treatment for complications of portal hypertension. Shunt or hepatic vein stenoses or occlusions are common short- and mid-term complications of the procedure, with a one-year primary patency ranging from 25% to 66%. When promptly identified, shunt stenosis or occlusion may be treated before the recurrence of gastrointestinal bleeding or ascites. The revision is usually successful and the primary-assisted patency of TIPS is approximately 85% at one year. Doppler sonography is a widely accepted screening modality for TIPS patients, both as a routine follow-up in asymptomatic patients and in those cases with clinically suspected TIPS malfunction. In a routine US follow-up, a TIPS patient is scheduled for a control 24 h after the procedure, and then after one week, 1 month, 3 months, and at 3-month intervals thereafter. Venography is at present performed solely on the basis of a suspected shunt dysfunction during the sonographic examination. Color-Doppler sonography is the most reliable method for monitoring the shunt function after TIPS implantation. Several studies have shown that Doppler sonography is a sensitive and relatively specific way to detect shunt malfunction, particularly when multiple parameters are examined. Achieving high sensitivity is optimal so that malfunctioning shunts can be identified and shunt revision can be performed before symptomatic deterioration. Venous angiography is at present indicated only on the basis of US suspicion of shunt compromise. Power-Doppler US and US contrast media can be useful in particular conditions, but are not really fundamental. PMID:23396711

  10. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for severe jaundice in patients with acute Budd-Chiari syndrome

    PubMed Central

    He, Fu-Liang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Fan, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Meng-Fei; Dai, Shan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Fu-Quan

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the feasibility of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for severe jaundice secondary to acute Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). METHODS: From February 2009 to March 2013, 37 patients with severe jaundice secondary to acute BCS were treated. Sixteen patients without hepatic venule, hepatic veins (HV) obstruction underwent percutaneous angioplasty of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or HVs. Twenty-one patients with HV occlusion underwent TIPS. Serum bilirubin, liver function, demographic data and operative data of the two groups of patients were analyzed. RESULTS: Twenty-one patients underwent TIPS and the technical success rate was 100%, with no technical complications. Sixteen patients underwent recanalization of the IVC and/or HVs and the technical success rate was 100%. The mean procedure time for TIPS was 84.0 ± 12.11 min and angioplasty was 44.11 ± 5.12 min (P < 0.01). The mean portosystemic pressure in the TIPS group decreased significantly from 40.50 ± 4.32 to 16.05 ± 3.50 mmHg (P < 0.01). The mean portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 33.60 ± 2.62 to 7.30 ± 2.21 mmHg (P < 0.01). At 8 wk after the procedures, in the TIPS group, total bilirubin (TBIL) decreased significantly from 266.24 ± 122.03 before surgery to 40.11 ± 3.52 μmol/L (P < 0.01) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) decreased significantly from 194.22 ± 69.82 μmol/L to 29.82 ± 3.10 μmol/L (P < 0.01). In the angioplasty group, bilirubin returned to the normal range, with TBIL decreased significantly from 258.22 ± 72.71 μmol/L to 13.33 ± 3.54 μmol/L (P < 0.01) and DBIL from 175.08 ± 39.27 to 4.03 ± 1.74 μmol/L (P < 0.01). Liver function improved faster than TBIL. After 2 wk, in the TIPS group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased significantly from 50.33 ± 40.61 U/L to 28.67 ± 7.02 U/L (P < 0.01) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from 49.46 ± 34.33 U/L to 26.89 ± 8.68 U/L (P < 0.01). In the angioplasty group, ALT decreased

  11. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for severe jaundice in patients with acute Budd-Chiari syndrome.

    PubMed

    He, Fu-Liang; Wang, Lei; Zhao, Hong-Wei; Fan, Zhen-Hua; Zhao, Meng-Fei; Dai, Shan; Yue, Zhen-Dong; Liu, Fu-Quan

    2015-02-28

    To evaluate the feasibility of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for severe jaundice secondary to acute Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS). From February 2009 to March 2013, 37 patients with severe jaundice secondary to acute BCS were treated. Sixteen patients without hepatic venule, hepatic veins (HV) obstruction underwent percutaneous angioplasty of the inferior vena cava (IVC) and/or HVs. Twenty-one patients with HV occlusion underwent TIPS. Serum bilirubin, liver function, demographic data and operative data of the two groups of patients were analyzed. Twenty-one patients underwent TIPS and the technical success rate was 100%, with no technical complications. Sixteen patients underwent recanalization of the IVC and/or HVs and the technical success rate was 100%. The mean procedure time for TIPS was 84.0±12.11 min and angioplasty was 44.11±5.12 min (P<0.01). The mean portosystemic pressure in the TIPS group decreased significantly from 40.50±4.32 to 16.05±3.50 mmHg (P<0.01). The mean portosystemic pressure gradient decreased significantly from 33.60±2.62 to 7.30±2.21 mmHg (P<0.01). At 8 wk after the procedures, in the TIPS group, total bilirubin (TBIL) decreased significantly from 266.24±122.03 before surgery to 40.11±3.52 μmol/L (P<0.01) and direct bilirubin (DBIL) decreased significantly from 194.22±69.82 μmol/L to 29.82±3.10 μmol/L (P<0.01). In the angioplasty group, bilirubin returned to the normal range, with TBIL decreased significantly from 258.22±72.71 μmol/L to 13.33±3.54 μmol/L (P<0.01) and DBIL from 175.08±39.27 to 4.03±1.74 μmol/L (P<0.01). Liver function improved faster than TBIL. After 2 wk, in the TIPS group, alanine aminotransferase (ALT) decreased significantly from 50.33±40.61 U/L to 28.67±7.02 U/L (P<0.01) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) from 49.46±34.33 U/L to 26.89±8.68 U/L (P<0.01). In the angioplasty group, ALT decreased significantly from 51.56±27.90 to 14.22±2.59 μmol/L (P<0.01) and AST from 60

  12. Markers of hepatic regeneration associated with surgical attenuation of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs.

    PubMed

    Tivers, Michael S; Lipscomb, Victoria J; Smith, Kenneth C; Wheeler-Jones, Caroline P D; House, Arthur K

    2014-05-01

    Dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) have liver hypoplasia and hepatic insufficiency. Surgical CPSS attenuation results in liver growth associated with clinical improvement. The mechanism of this hepatic response is unknown, although liver regeneration is suspected. This study investigated whether markers of liver regeneration were associated with CPSS attenuation. Dogs treated with CPSS attenuation were prospectively recruited. Residual liver tissue was collected for gene expression analysis (seven genes) from 24 CPSS dogs that tolerated complete attenuation, 25 dogs that tolerated partial attenuation and seven control dogs. Relative gene expression was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Blood samples were collected before, 24 h and 48 h post-surgery from 36 CPSS dogs and from 10 control dogs. Serum hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) concentration was measured using a canine specific enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). HGF mRNA expression was significantly decreased in CPSS compared with control dogs (P = 0.046). There were significant increases in HGF (P = 0.050) and methionine adenosyltransferase 2 A (MAT2A; P = 0.002) mRNA expression following partial CPSS attenuation. Dogs with complete attenuation had significantly greater MAT2A (P = 0.024) mRNA expression compared with dogs with partial attenuation. Serum HGF concentration significantly increased 24 h following CPSS attenuation (P < 0.001). Hepatic mRNA expression of two markers of hepatocyte proliferation (HGF and MAT2A) was associated with the response to surgery in dogs with CPSS, and serum HGF significantly increased following surgery, suggesting hepatocyte proliferation. These findings support the concept that hepatic regeneration is important in the hepatic response to CPSS surgery. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-Dimensional Path Planning Software-Assisted Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: A Technical Modification

    SciTech Connect

    Tsauo, Jiaywei Luo, Xuefeng; Ye, Linchao; Li, Xiao

    2015-06-15

    PurposeThis study was designed to report our results with a modified technique of three-dimensional (3D) path planning software assisted transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS).Methods3D path planning software was recently developed to facilitate TIPS creation by using two carbon dioxide portograms acquired at least 20° apart to generate a 3D path for overlay needle guidance. However, one shortcoming is that puncturing along the overlay would be technically impossible if the angle of the liver access set and the angle of the 3D path are not the same. To solve this problem, a prototype 3D path planning software was fitted with a utility to calculate the angle of the 3D path. Using this, we modified the angle of the liver access set accordingly during the procedure in ten patients.ResultsFailure for technical reasons occurred in three patients (unsuccessful wedged hepatic venography in two cases, software technical failure in one case). The procedure was successful in the remaining seven patients, and only one needle pass was required to obtain portal vein access in each case. The course of puncture was comparable to the 3D path in all patients. No procedure-related complication occurred following the procedures.ConclusionsAdjusting the angle of the liver access set to match the angle of the 3D path determined by the software appears to be a favorable modification to the technique of 3D path planning software assisted TIPS.

  14. Lipopolysaccharide and toll-like receptor 4 in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    Tivers, M S; Lipscomb, V J; Smith, K C; Wheeler-Jones, C P D; House, A K

    2015-12-01

    Surgical attenuation of a congenital portosystemic shunt (CPSS) results in increased portal vein perfusion, liver growth and clinical improvement. Portal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in liver regeneration via toll-like receptor (TLR) 4 mediated cytokine activation. The aim of this study was to investigate factors associated with LPS in dogs with CPSS. Plasma LPS concentrations were measured in the peripheral and portal blood using a limulus amoebocyte lysate (LAL) assay. LPS concentration was significantly greater in the portal blood compared to peripheral blood in dogs with CPSS (P = 0.046) and control dogs (P = 0.002). LPS concentrations in the peripheral (P = 0.012) and portal (P = 0.005) blood of dogs with CPSS were significantly greater than those of control dogs. The relative mRNA expression of cytokines and TLRs was measured in liver biopsies from dogs with CPSS using quantitative PCR. TLR4 expression significantly increased following partial CPSS attenuation (P = 0.020). TLR4 expression was significantly greater in dogs that tolerated complete CPSS attenuation (P = 0.011) and those with good portal blood flow on pre-attenuation (P = 0.004) and post-attenuation (P = 0.015) portovenography. Serum interleukin (IL)-6 concentration was measured using a canine specific ELISA and significantly increased 24 h following CPSS attenuation (P < 0.001). Portal LPS was increased in dogs with CPSS, consistent with decreased hepatic clearance. TLR4 mRNA expression was significantly associated with portal blood flow and increased following surgery. These findings support the concept that portal LPS delivery is important in the hepatic response to surgical attenuation. Serum IL-6 significantly increased following surgery, consistent with LPS stimulation via TLR4, although this increase might be non-specific.

  15. Age-related Morbidity and Mortality After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts.

    PubMed

    Suraweera, Duminda; Jimenez, Melissa; Viramontes, Matthew; Jamal, Naadir; Grotts, Jonathan; Elashoff, David; Lee, Edward W; Saab, Sammy

    2017-04-01

    To compare age-related morbidity and mortality after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). We performed a retrospective chart review of patients who underwent TIPS at the University of California Los Angeles Medical Center between 2008 to 2014. Elderly patients (65 y and older) were matched with nonelderly patients (controls, below 65 y) by model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score (±3), indication for TIPS (refractory ascites vs. variceal bleeding), serum sodium level (±5), in a ratio of 1:1. Endpoints measures were hospital stay post-TIPS, rifaximin, or lactulose use, TIPS failure at 30 days, readmission at 90 days, MELD at 90 days, and mortality at 90 days. A total of 30 patient matches were included in this study: 30 control and 30 elderly patients. The median [interquartile (IQR)] MELD scores for controls and elderly were 11 (9, 13.8) for the controls and 11.5 (9, 14.8) for elderly patients (P=0.139). There were no significant differences in serum sodium and indication for TIPS. Thirty and 90-day follow-up laboratory test results were also similar between elderly and control patients. Event-free survival at 90 days was similar between controls and elderly patients [odds ratio (OR), 0.86; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.3-2.5; P>0.05]. There was a trend toward greater hospitalization (OR, 1.76; 95% CI, 0.52-5.95; P=0.546) and mortality (OR, 3.3; 95% CI, 0.3-14.01; P=0.182). The results of this study suggest event-free survival is similar between nonelderly and elderly patients. Although statistically significant, there is a tendency toward greater mortality and hospitalization in the elderly.

  16.  Risk factors contributing to early infection following transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in perioperative period.

    PubMed

    Deng, Peng; Zhou, Biao; Li, Xiao

    2016-01-01

     Introducción and aim. To investigate and identify the risk factors associated with early infection following a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS)procedure in perioperative period. The interventional radiology database at the West China Hospital in Sichuan, China was reviewed to identify all patients that underwent a TIPS procedure between January 30, 2013 and August 30, 2015. Four hundred and sixty-six TIPS patients with liver cirrhosis were enrolled in this study. Liver function was assessed using the Child-Pugh classification system and bacteremia was defined as patients that had a positive blood culture. Statistical analysis was performed using χ2 tests (include Fisher's exact tests χ2) and logistic regression analyses. A P< 0.05 was set as the threshold for statistical significance. One hundred and forty-eight of the 466 (31.7%) patients developed a fever. Eighty-three of the 148 fever patients subsequently had blood drawn for cultures and 9/83 (10.8%) patients developed bacteremia as defined by a blood culture analysis. Cholangiolithiasis (P = 0.006), Child-Pugh class A designation (P = 0.001), Child-Pugh class C designation (P = 0.005) and hepatitis C virus infection (P = 0.011) were significantly correlated with fever in these patients. No statistically significant correlations were found between the other factors (age, gender, clinical manifestation, diabetes mellitus, cholangiolithiasis, etc.) and bacteremia, with the exception of periprocedure cholangiolithiasis, which was significantly correlated with blood culture-defined bacteremia (P < 0.05). Cholangiolithiasis is a risk factor for infection after a TIPS procedure in the periprocedure period.

  17. Outcomes of Locoregional Tumor Therapy for Patients with Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Padia, Siddharth A. Chewning, Rush H. Kogut, Matthew J. Ingraham, Christopher R. Johnson, Guy E.; Bhattacharya, Renuka; Kwan, Sharon W. Monsky, Wayne L. Vaidya, Sandeep; Hippe, Daniel S.; Valji, Karim

    2015-08-15

    PurposeLocoregional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) can be challenging in patients with a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). This study compares safety and imaging response of ablation, chemoembolization, radioembolization, and supportive care in patients with both TIPS and HCC.MethodsThis retrospective study included 48 patients who had both a TIPS and a diagnosis of HCC. Twenty-nine of 48 (60 %) underwent treatment for HCC, and 19/48 (40 %) received best supportive care (i.e., symptomatic management only). While etiology of cirrhosis and indication for TIPS were similar between the two groups, treated patients had better baseline liver function (34 vs. 67 % Child-Pugh class C). Tumor characteristics were similar between the two groups. A total of 39 ablations, 17 chemoembolizations, and 10 yttrium-90 radioembolizations were performed on 29 patients.ResultsAblation procedures resulted in low rates of hepatotoxicity and clinical toxicity. Post-embolization/ablation syndrome occurred more frequently in patients undergoing chemoembolization than ablation (47 vs. 15 %). Significant hepatic dysfunction occurred more frequently in the chemoembolization group than the ablation group. Follow-up imaging response showed objective response in 100 % of ablation procedures, 67 % of radioembolization procedures, and 50 % of chemoembolization procedures (p = 0.001). When censored for OLT, patients undergoing treatment survived longer than patients receiving supportive care (2273 v. 439 days, p = 0.001).ConclusionsAblation appears to be safe and efficacious for HCC in patients with TIPS. Catheter-based approaches are associated with potential increased toxicity in this patient population. Chemoembolization appears to be associated with increased toxicity compared to radioembolization.

  18. Clinical outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt for portal hypertension: Korean multicenter real-practice data

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung Ki; Kim, Yoon Jun; Chung, Woo Jin; Kim, Soon Sun; Shim, Jae Jun; Choi, Moon Seok; Kim, Do Young; Jun, Dae Won; Um, Soon Ho; Park, Sung Jae; Woo, Hyun Young; Jung, Young Kul; Baik, Soon Koo; Kim, Moon Young; Park, Soo Young; Lee, Jae Myeong

    2014-01-01

    Background/Aims This retrospective study assessed the clinical outcome of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure for managing portal hypertension in Koreans with liver cirrhosis. Methods Between January 2003 and July 2013, 230 patients received a TIPS in 13 university-based hospitals. Results Of the 229 (99.6%) patients who successfully underwent TIPS placement, 142 received a TIPS for variceal bleeding, 84 for refractory ascites, and 3 for other indications. The follow-up period was 24.9±30.2 months (mean±SD), 74.7% of the stents were covered, and the primary patency rate at the 1-year follow-up was 78.7%. Hemorrhage occurred in 30 (21.1%) patients during follow-up; of these, 28 (93.3%) cases of rebleeding were associated with stent dysfunction. Fifty-four (23.6%) patients developed new hepatic encephalopathy, and most of these patients were successfully managed conservatively. The cumulative survival rates at 1, 6, 12, and 24 months were 87.5%, 75.0%, 66.8%, and 57.5%, respectively. A high Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score was significantly associated with the risk of death within the first month after receiving a TIPS (P=0.018). Old age (P<0.001), indication for a TIPS (ascites vs. bleeding, P=0.005), low serum albumin (P<0.001), and high MELD score (P=0.006) were associated with overall mortality. Conclusions A high MELD score was found to be significantly associated with early and overall mortality rate in TIPS patients. Determining the appropriate indication is warranted to improve survival in these patients. PMID:24757655

  19. Hyponatremia: A Risk Factor for Early Overt Encephalopathy after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation

    PubMed Central

    Merola, Jonathan; Chaudhary, Noami; Qian, Meng; Jow, Alexander; Barboza, Katherine; Charles, Hearns; Teperman, Lewis; Sigal, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a frequent complication in cirrhotic patients undergoing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Hyponatremia (HN) is a known contributing risk factor for the development of HE. Predictive factors, especially the effect of HN, for the development of overt HE within one week of TIPS placement were assessed. A single-center, retrospective chart review of 71 patients with cirrhosis who underwent TIPS creation from 2006–2011 for non-variceal bleeding indications was conducted. Baseline clinical and laboratory characteristics were collected. Factors associated with overt HE within one week were identified, and a multivariate model was constructed. Seventy one patients who underwent 81 TIPS procedures were evaluated. Fifteen patients developed overt HE within one week. Factors predictive of overt HE within one week included pre-TIPS Na, total bilirubin and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD)-Na. The odds ratio for developing HE with pre-TIPS Na <135 mEq/L was 8.6. Among patients with pre-TIPS Na <125 mEq/L, 125–129.9 mEq/L, 130–134.9 mEq/L and ≥135 mEq/L, the incidence of HE within one week was 37.5%, 25%, 25% and 3.4%, respectively. Lower pre-TIPS Na, higher total bilirubin and higher MELD-Na values were associated with the development of overt HE post-TIPS within one week. TIPS in hyponatremic patients should be undertaken with caution. PMID:26237379

  20. Percutaneous Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Tesdal, I. Kaare Wikstroem, Mats; Flechtenmacher, Christa; Filser, Thomas; Dueber, Christoph

    2006-10-15

    Purpose. To assess the role of transcatheter arterial chemoembolization (TACE) and percutaneous ethanol injection (PEI) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Methods. Between January 1999 and September 2004, 6 patients with HCC and TIPS were treated with either TACE (n = 3) or TACE in combination with PEI (n = 3). One patient had a known advanced, untreated HCC prior to TIPS. In the remaining 5 patients HCC was diagnosed 14, 17, 51, 69, and 76 months respectively after elective TIPS. TACE was performed using a mixture of 30-60 mg of epirubicin and 10 ml of lipiodol following superselective catheterization of tumor-feeding vessels. PEI was performed under CT guidance. Methods. The mean follow-up time after treatment of HCC was 26.2 months (range 7-46 months). During follow-up, all patients were free of rebleeding. Two patients died 7 and 38 months after one session of TACE and PEI (77 months after TIPS) and three sessions of TACE (91 months after TIPS), respectively. The cause of death was liver failure (Child-Pugh class C) and peritonitis, respectively. A third patient underwent liver transplantation 24 months after TIPS and several sessions of TACE. In the remaining 3 patients, the HCC is well controlled 13, 30, and 46 months after repetitive percutaneous treatment without signs of hepatic deterioration or metastasis. Conclusion. Transcatheter arterial superselective chemoembolization and percutaneous ethanol injection seems to be beneficial even in HCC patients treated with TIPS, provided that the liver function is adequate.

  1. Radiofrequency Ablation for the Treatment of Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients with Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jonathan K.; Al-Tariq, Quazi Z.; Zaw, Taryar M. Raman, Steven S. Lu, David S.K.

    2015-10-15

    PurposeTo assess radiofrequency (RF) ablation efficacy, as well as the patency of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPSs), in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).Materials and MethodsRetrospective database review of patients with pre-existing TIPS undergoing RF ablation of HCC was conducted over a 159-month period ending in November 2013. TIPS patency pre- and post-RF ablation was assessed by ultrasound, angiography, and/or contrast-enhanced CT or MRI. Patient demographics and immediate post-RF ablation outcomes and complications were also reviewed.Results19 patients with 21 lesions undergoing 25 RF ablation sessions were included. Child-Pugh class A, B, and C scores were seen in 1, 13, and 5 patients, respectively. Eleven patients (58 %) ultimately underwent liver transplantation. Immediate technical success was seen in all ablation sessions without residual tumor enhancement (100 %). No patients (0 %) suffered liver failure within 1 month of ablation. Pre-ablation TIPS patency was demonstrated in 22/25 sessions (88 %). Of 22 cases with patent TIPS prior to ablation, post-ablation patency was demonstrated in 22/22 (100 %) at immediate post-ablation imaging and in 21/22 (95 %) at last follow-up (1 patient was incidentally noted to have occlusion 31 months later). No immediate complications were observed.ConclusionAblation efficacy was similar to the cited literature values for patients without TIPS. Furthermore, TIPS patency was preserved in the majority of cases. Patients with both portal hypertension and HCC are not uncommonly encountered, and a pre-existing TIPS does not appear to be a definite contraindication for RF ablation.

  2. Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in US patients hospitalized with acute esophageal variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Njei, Basile; McCarty, Thomas R; Laine, Loren

    2017-04-01

    Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) used as preventive therapy prior to recurrent bleeding has been recommended in patients presenting with acute esophageal variceal bleeding (EVB) who are at high risk of further bleeding and death. We investigated the impact of early TIPS on outcomes of US patients hospitalized with EVB from 2000 to 2010. The Nationwide Inpatient Sample database was queried to identify patients with EVB and decompensated cirrhosis (because early TIPS is recommended only in high-risk patients). The primary outcome was in-hospital death, and secondary outcomes included rebleeding and hepatic encephalopathy. Early preventive TIPS was defined by placement within 3 days of hospitalization for acute EVB after one session of endoscopic therapy. Rescue TIPS was defined as TIPS after two interventions for EVB. The study included 142 539 patients. From 2000 to 2010, the age-adjusted in-hospital mortality rate decreased 37.2% from 656 per 100 000 to 412 per 100 000 (P <0.01), while early and rescue TIPS increased (0.22% to 0.70%; P < 0.01 and 1.1% to 6.1%; P < 0.01). On multivariate analysis, as compared with no TIPS, early TIPS was associated with decreased inpatient mortality (risk ratio [RR] = 0.87; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84-0.90) and rebleeding (RR = 0.56; 95% CI, 0.45-0.71) without an increase in hepatic encephalopathy (RR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93-1.11). Early preventive TIPS in patients with EVB and decompensated cirrhosis was associated with significant in-hospital reductions in rebleeding and mortality without a significant increase in encephalopathy in "real-world" US clinical practice. © 2016 Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology Foundation and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  3. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Occlusion Complicated with Biliary Fistula Successfully Treated with a Stent Graft: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eunyoung; Lee, Sung Won; Kim, Woo Hyeon; Bae, Si Hyun; Han, Nam Ik; Oh, Jung Suk; Chun, Ho Jong; Lee, Hae Giu

    2016-01-01

    A 43-year-old man with liver cirrhosis received transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for the treatment of recurrent variceal bleeding and F3 esophageal varices. During routine follow up liver ultrasound examination, six months after the implantation, TIPS occlusion was suspected and TIPS revision was performed. During the revision, moderate to severe stenosis at the hepatic venous segment of the tract and a total occlusion at the parenchymal segment of TIPS tract near the portal vein with biliary-TIPS fistula were identified with a clear visualization of the common bile duct. After the successful TIPS revision with the placement of an additional stent-graft, the biliary fistula and common bile duct were no more delineated. We herein report a rare case with an obvious visualization of biliary-TIPS fistula associated with obstruction of TIPS shunt on the tractogram and recanalization with an additional stent-graft.

  4. Management of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)-associated Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy by Shunt Reduction Using the Parallel Technique: Outcomes of a Retrospective Case Series

    SciTech Connect

    Cookson, Daniel T. Zaman, Zubayr; Gordon-Smith, James; Ireland, Hamish M.; Hayes, Peter C.

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: To investigate the reproducibility and technical and clinical success of the parallel technique of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) reduction in the management of refractory hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Materials and Methods: A 10-mm-diameter self-expanding stent graft and a 5-6-mm-diameter balloon-expandable stent were placed in parallel inside the existing TIPS in 8 patients via a dual unilateral transjugular approach. Changes in portosystemic pressure gradient and HE grade were used as primary end points. Results: TIPS reduction was technically successful in all patients. Mean {+-} standard deviation portosystemic pressure gradient before and after shunt reduction was 4.9 {+-} 3.6 mmHg (range, 0-12 mmHg) and 10.5 {+-} 3.9 mmHg (range, 6-18 mmHg). Duration of follow-up was 137 {+-} 117.8 days (range, 18-326 days). Clinical improvement of HE occurred in 5 patients (62.5%) with resolution of HE in 4 patients (50%). Single episodes of recurrent gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred in 3 patients (37.5%). These were self-limiting in 2 cases and successfully managed in 1 case by correction of coagulopathy and blood transfusion. Two of these patients (25%) died, one each of renal failure and hepatorenal failure. Conclusion: The parallel technique of TIPS reduction is reproducible and has a high technical success rate. A dual unilateral transjugular approach is advantageous when performing this procedure. The parallel technique allows repeat bidirectional TIPS adjustment and may be of significant clinical benefit in the management of refractory HE.

  5. Outcome associated with use of a percutaneously controlled hydraulic occluder for treatment of dogs with intrahepatic portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    Adin, Christopher A; Sereda, Colin W; Thompson, Margaret S; Wheeler, Jason L; Archer, Linda L

    2006-12-01

    To evaluate efficacy of a hydraulic occluder (HO) used for treatment of dogs with an intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (IHPSS). Prospective study. 10 dogs with an IHPSS. Serum biochemical and postprandial bile acids (PPBA) analyses and transcolonic scintigraphy were performed before surgery. Laparotomy was performed, and an uninflated HO was placed around the portal vein branch leading to the IHPSS. After surgery, 0.9% NaCl solution was injected into subcutaneous injection ports at 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks to achieve staged occlusion of the HO. Serum biochemical analyses, PPBA analysis, and scintigraphy were performed 2 weeks after occlusion. Serum biochemical analyses were repeated 1 year after surgery. Implant revision was required in 3 dogs because of rupture of the HO (n = 2) or detachment of the actuating tubing (1). Serum biochemical values and clinical signs improved in all dogs after surgery. Six of 10 dogs had PPBA concentration within reference range 2 weeks after occlusion, and 2 additional dogs had concentrations within reference range at 1 year. Only 5 of 10 dogs had complete resolution of portosystemic shunting 2 weeks after occlusion. Two dogs were lost to follow-up, and 8 dogs remained alive with no recurrence of clinical signs at a median of 22 months after surgery. Use of the HO appeared to be an effective method for surgical treatment for dogs with IHPSS, although problems with implant reliability indicate a need for modifications in design and manufacturing.

  6. Transjugular Intrahepatic Porto-Systemic Shunt Placement in a Patient with Left-Lateral Split-Liver Transplant and Mesenterico-Left Portal Vein by Pass Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Miraglia, Roberto Maruzzelli, Luigi; Luca, Angelo

    2011-12-15

    This is a report of a successful placement of a transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt in a young patient with previous left-lateral, split-liver transplant and mesenterico-left portal vein by pass placement after posttransplant extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis.

  7. Spleno-adrenal shunt: a novel alternative for portosystemic decompression in children with portal vein cavernous transformation.

    PubMed

    Gu, Song; Chang, Shirong; Chu, Jun; Xu, Min; Yan, Zhilong; Liu, Donald C; Chen, Qimin

    2012-12-01

    Children with portal vein cavernous transformation (PVCT) can develop life-threatening variceal hemorrhage from progressive portal hypertension. While spleno-renal shunt ± splenectomy is the most common portosystemic decompression surgery performed in children, we have adopted a modified spleno-adrenal (SA) shunt for complicated PVCT. We describe our 10 year experience focusing on technique evolution and treatment efficacy. Between 2001 and 2011, 15 children (9 girls and 6 boys, ages 3-11 years, median: 6 years) with PVCT, portal hypertension, and hypersplenism were treated with SA shunt with splenectomy in Shanghai Children's Medical Center. All children in the study had endoscopy proven active esophageal variceal bleeding requiring multiple transfusions (mean: 4.2 units) with failed sclerotherapy (mean: 2.6 times). Greater omental vein pressure (GVP) approximating portal venous pressure was measured pre- and post-SA shunt. Pre- and post-operative ammonia levels were obtained. Follow-up ranged from 6 months to 10 years (mean: 4.2 ± 2 years). Intra-operative adrenal vein diameter and length ranged from 0.7 to 1.8 cm and 2 to 3 cm, respectively. Intra-operative GVPs pre-and post-SA shunt were (30 ± 11) and (22 ± 7) mmHg, respectively (p<0.01). On follow-up, there have been no recurrences of GI bleeding. Liver function tests remained normal in all children with the exception of elevated post-operative mean blood ammonia levels [Pre (18 ± 7) mmol/L, post (60 ± 17) mmol/L (p<0.05)] in all children. Ammonia levels normalized in all cases on outpatient follow-up. There have been no cases of hepatic encephalopathy, and all have normal age appropriate neurodevelopment (Bayley's assessment). Barium swallow and/or upper endoscopy showed interval resolution of esophageal varices in all children, and vascular ultrasound showed patent shunt anastomosis without stricture in 14 (93%). The left adrenal vein is a viable conduit for effective selective portosystemic

  8. Nationwide trends and predictors of inpatient mortality in 83884 transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Kuei, Andrew; Saab, Sammy; Busuttil, Ronald W; Durazo, Francisco; Han, Steven-Huy; El-Kabany, Mohamed M; McWilliams, Justin P; Kee, Stephen T

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate and validate the national trends and predictors of in-patient mortality of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in 15 years. METHODS: Using the National Inpatient Sample which is a part of Health Cost and Utilization Project, we identified a discharge-weighted national estimate of 83884 TIPS procedures performed in the United States from 1998 to 2012 using international classification of diseases-9 procedural code 39.1. The demographic, hospital and co-morbility data were analyzed using a multivariant analysis. Using multi-nominal logistic regression analysis, we determined predictive factors related to increases in-hospital mortality. Comorbidity measures are in accordance to the Comorbidity Software designed by the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality. RESULTS: Overall, 12.3% of patients died during hospitalization with downward trend in-hospital mortality with the mean length of stay of 10.8 ± 13.1 d. Notable, African American patients (OR = 1.809 vs Caucasian patients, P < 0.001), transferred patients (OR = 1.347 vs non-transferred, P < 0.001), emergency admissions (OR = 3.032 vs elective cases, P < 0.001), patients in the Northeast region (OR = 1.449 vs West, P < 0.001) had significantly higher odds of in-hospital mortality. Number of diagnoses and number of procedures showed positive correlations with in-hospital death (OR = 1.249 per one increase in number of procedures). Patients diagnosed with acute respiratory failure (OR = 8.246), acute kidney failure (OR = 4.359), hepatic encephalopathy (OR = 2.217) and esophageal variceal bleeding (OR = 2.187) were at considerably higher odds of in-hospital death compared with ascites (OR = 0.136, P < 0.001). Comorbidity measures with the highest odds of in-hospital death were fluid and electrolyte disorders (OR = 2.823), coagulopathy (OR = 2.016), and lymphoma (OR = 1.842). CONCLUSION: The overall mortality of the TIPS procedure is steadily decreasing, though the length of stay

  9. Effect of technical parameters on transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts utilizing stent grafts

    PubMed Central

    Andring, Brice; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Sutphin, Patrick; Srinivasa, Rajiv; Anene, Alvin; Burrell, Marc; Xi, Yin; Pillai, Anil K

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To assess the effect of technical parameters on outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) created using a stent graft. METHODS: The medical records of 68 patients who underwent TIPS placement with a stent graft from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the patient outcomes. Digital Subtraction Angiographic images with a measuring catheter in two orthogonal planes was used to determine the TIPS stent-to-inferior vena cava distance (SIVCD), hepatic vein to parenchymal tract angle (HVTA), portal vein to parenchymal tract angle (PVTA), and the accessed portal vein. The length and diameter of the TIPS stent and the use of concurrent variceal embolization were recorded by review of the patient’s procedure note. Data on re-intervention within 30 d of TIPS placement, recurrence of symptoms, and survival were collected through the patient’s chart. Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of these technical parameters on primary patency of TIPS, time to recurrence of symptoms, and all-cause mortality. RESULTS: There was no significant association between the SIVCD and primary patency (P = 0.23), time to recurrence of symptoms (P = 0.83), or all-cause mortality (P = 0.18). The 3, 6, and 12-mo primary patency rates for a SIVCD ≥ 1.5 cm were 82.4%, 64.7%, and 50.3% compared to 89.3%, 83.8%, and 60.6% for a SIVCD of < 1.5 cm (P = 0.29). The median time to stenosis for a SIVCD of ≥ 1.5 cm was 19.1 mo vs 15.1 mo for a SIVCD of < 1.5 cm (P = 0.48). There was no significant association between the following factors and primary patency: HVTA (P = 0.99), PVTA (P = 0.65), accessed portal vein (P = 0.35), TIPS stent diameter (P = 0.93), TIPS stent length (P = 0.48), concurrent variceal embolization (P = 0.13) and reinterventions within 30 d (P = 0.24). Furthermore, there was no correlation between these technical parameters and time to recurrence of symptoms or all-cause mortality. Recurrence of

  10. Effect of technical parameters on transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts utilizing stent grafts.

    PubMed

    Andring, Brice; Kalva, Sanjeeva P; Sutphin, Patrick; Srinivasa, Rajiv; Anene, Alvin; Burrell, Marc; Xi, Yin; Pillai, Anil K

    2015-07-14

    To assess the effect of technical parameters on outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) created using a stent graft. The medical records of 68 patients who underwent TIPS placement with a stent graft from 2008 to 2014 were reviewed by two radiologists blinded to the patient outcomes. Digital Subtraction Angiographic images with a measuring catheter in two orthogonal planes was used to determine the TIPS stent-to-inferior vena cava distance (SIVCD), hepatic vein to parenchymal tract angle (HVTA), portal vein to parenchymal tract angle (PVTA), and the accessed portal vein. The length and diameter of the TIPS stent and the use of concurrent variceal embolization were recorded by review of the patient's procedure note. Data on re-intervention within 30 d of TIPS placement, recurrence of symptoms, and survival were collected through the patient's chart. Cox proportional regression analysis was performed to assess the effect of these technical parameters on primary patency of TIPS, time to recurrence of symptoms, and all-cause mortality. There was no significant association between the SIVCD and primary patency (P = 0.23), time to recurrence of symptoms (P = 0.83), or all-cause mortality (P = 0.18). The 3, 6, and 12-mo primary patency rates for a SIVCD ≥ 1.5 cm were 82.4%, 64.7%, and 50.3% compared to 89.3%, 83.8%, and 60.6% for a SIVCD of < 1.5 cm (P = 0.29). The median time to stenosis for a SIVCD of ≥ 1.5 cm was 19.1 mo vs 15.1 mo for a SIVCD of < 1.5 cm (P = 0.48). There was no significant association between the following factors and primary patency: HVTA (P = 0.99), PVTA (P = 0.65), accessed portal vein (P = 0.35), TIPS stent diameter (P = 0.93), TIPS stent length (P = 0.48), concurrent variceal embolization (P = 0.13) and reinterventions within 30 d (P = 0.24). Furthermore, there was no correlation between these technical parameters and time to recurrence of symptoms or all-cause mortality. Recurrence of symptoms was associated with

  11. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging.

    PubMed

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota, Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations.

  12. Acquired portosystemic collaterals: anatomy and imaging*

    PubMed Central

    Leite, Andréa Farias de Melo; Mota Jr., Américo; Chagas-Neto, Francisco Abaeté; Teixeira, Sara Reis; Elias Junior, Jorge; Muglia, Valdair Francisco

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic shunts are enlarged vessels that form collateral pathological pathways between the splanchnic circulation and the systemic circulation. Although their causes are multifactorial, portosystemic shunts all have one mechanism in common-increased portal venous pressure, which diverts the blood flow from the gastrointestinal tract to the systemic circulation. Congenital and acquired collateral pathways have both been described in the literature. The aim of this pictorial essay was to discuss the distinct anatomic and imaging features of portosystemic shunts, as well as to provide a robust method of differentiating between acquired portosystemic shunts and similar pathologies, through the use of illustrations and schematic drawings. Imaging of portosystemic shunts provides subclinical markers of increased portal venous pressure. Therefore, radiologists play a crucial role in the identification of portosystemic shunts. Early detection of portosystemic shunts can allow ample time to perform endovascular shunt operations, which can relieve portal hypertension and prevent acute or chronic complications in at-risk patient populations. PMID:27777479

  13. Endovascular Management of Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy Complication of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): Comprehensive Review and Clinical Practice Algorithm.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Keith; Carrion, Andres F; Salsamendi, Jason; Doshi, Mehul; Baker, Reginald; Kably, Issam

    2016-02-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has evolved as an effective intervention for treatment of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents have improved the patency of the shunts and diminished the incidence of TIPS dysfunction. However, TIPS-related refractory hepatic encephalopathy (rHE) poses a significant challenge. Approximately 3-7 % of patients with TIPS develop rHE. Refractory hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a recurrent or persistent encephalopathy despite appropriate medical treatment. Hepatic encephalopathy can be an extremely debilitating complication that profoundly affects quality of life. The approach to management of patients with rHE is complex and typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for rHE; however, the ongoing shortage of organ donation markedly limits this treatment option. Alternative therapies such as shunt occlusion or reduction can control symptoms and serve as a 'bridge' therapy to liver transplantation. Therefore, interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of these patients by offering a variety of endovascular techniques. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of these endovascular techniques and to develop a therapeutic algorithm that can be applied in clinical practice for the management of rHE.

  14. Endovascular Management of Refractory Hepatic Encephalopathy Complication of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS): Comprehensive Review and Clinical Practice Algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Pereira, Keith

    2016-02-15

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has evolved as an effective intervention for treatment of complications of portal hypertension. The use of polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stents have improved the patency of the shunts and diminished the incidence of TIPS dysfunction. However, TIPS-related refractory hepatic encephalopathy (rHE) poses a significant challenge. Approximately 3–7 % of patients with TIPS develop rHE. Refractory hepatic encephalopathy is defined as a recurrent or persistent encephalopathy despite appropriate medical treatment. Hepatic encephalopathy can be an extremely debilitating complication that profoundly affects quality of life. The approach to management of patients with rHE is complex and typically requires collaboration between different specialties. Liver transplantation is the ultimate treatment for rHE; however, the ongoing shortage of organ donation markedly limits this treatment option. Alternative therapies such as shunt occlusion or reduction can control symptoms and serve as a ‘bridge’ therapy to liver transplantation. Therefore, interventional radiologists play a key role in the management of these patients by offering a variety of endovascular techniques. The purpose of this review is to highlight some of these endovascular techniques and to develop a therapeutic algorithm that can be applied in clinical practice for the management of rHE.

  15. Pull-Through Technique for Recanalization of Occluded Portosystemic Shunts (TIPS): Technical Note and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, Toshihiro Guenther, Rolf W. Isfort, Peter; Kichikawa, Kimihiko; Mahnken, Andreas H.

    2011-04-15

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) dysfunction is an important problem after creation of shunts. Most commonly, TIPS recanalization is performed via the jugular vein approach. Occasionally it is difficult to cross the occlusion. We describe a hybrid technique for TIPS revision via a direct transhepatic access combined with a transjugular approach. In two cases, bare metal stents or polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent grafts had been placed in TIPS tract previously, and they were completely obstructed. The tracts were inaccessible via the jugular vein route alone. In each case, after fluoroscopy or computed tomography-guided transhepatic puncture of the stented segment of the TIPS, a wire was threaded through the shunt and snared into the right jugular vein. The TIPS was revised by balloon angioplasty and additional in-stent placement of PTFE-covered stent grafts. The patients were discharged without any complications. Doppler sonography 6 weeks after TIPS revision confirmed patency in the TIPS tract and the disappearance of ascites. We conclude that this technique is feasible and useful, even in patients with previous PTFE-covered stent graft placement.

  16. Primary Implantation of Polyester-Covered Stent-Grafts for Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunts (TIPSS): A Pilot Study

    SciTech Connect

    Cejna, Manfred; Thurnher, Siegfried; Pidlich, Johann; Kaserer, Klaus; Schoder, Maria; Lammer, Johannes

    1999-07-15

    Purpose: To investigate whether placement of a polyester-covered stent-graft increases the primary patency of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent shunts (TIPSS). Methods: Between 1995 and 1997 Cragg Endopro or Passager MIBS stent-grafts were used for the creation of TIPSS in eight male patients, 35-59 years of age (mean 48 years). All patients suffered from recurrent variceal bleeding and/or refractory ascites due to liver cirrhosis. Seven stent-grafts were dilated to a diameter of 10 mm, one to 12 mm. Follow-up was performed with duplex ultrasound, clinical assessment, and angiography. Results: The technical success rate for creation of a TIPSS was 100%. The mean portosystemic pressure gradient decreased from 25 mmHg to 12 mmHg. In seven of eight patients TIPSS dysfunction occurred between 2 days and 3 years after stent-graft placement. In one patient the TIPSS is still primarily patent (224 days after creation). The secondary patency rates are 31 days to 3 years. Conclusion: The primary use of polyester-covered stent-grafts for TIPSS did not increase primary patency rates in our small series.

  17. Fifteen years' experience with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) using bare stents: retrospective review of clinical and technical aspects.

    PubMed

    Gazzera, C; Righi, D; Valle, F; Ottobrelli, A; Grosso, M; Gandini, G

    2009-02-01

    The authors present a retrospective analysis of a large series of patients who underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement. Between March 1992 and December 2006, 658 patients were referred to our centre for TIPS placement. Indications for the procedure were digestive tract bleeding (52.8%), refractory ascites (35.3%), preservation of portal vein patency prior to liver transplantation (3.0%) and thrombosis of the suprahepatic veins (2.3%). Other indications (6.6%) included pleural ascites, portal thrombosis and hepatorenal and hepatopulmonary syndromes. All patients were evaluated with colour Doppler ultrasonography and in a few cases with computed tomography. The portal system was punctured under sonographic guidance. Wallstent, Palmaz and Nitinol thermosensitive stents were used. Embolisation of persistent varices was performed in 6.8% of cases. Technical success was 98.9%. During a 1,500-day follow-up, the cumulative incidence of stent revision was 25.7% (Nitinol), 32.9% (Wallstent) and 1.8% (Palmaz). Mortality rates were 31.1%, 38.5% and 56.4%, respectively. The technical complications included six cases of heart failure, six of haematobilia, three of stent migration, two of intrahepatic haematoma and one of haemoperitoneum. Eight patients with severe portosystemic encephalopathy (PSE) were treated with a reduction stent. TIPS placement is safe and effective and may act as a bridge to liver transplantation. Ultrasonography plays a fundamental role in the preliminary assessment, in portal vein puncture and during the follow-up. Stent patency is satisfactory.

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for Treatment of Cirrhosis-related Chylothorax and Chylous Ascites: Single-institution Retrospective Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Kikolski, Steven G. Aryafar, Hamed Rose, Steven C.; Roberts, Anne C.; Kinney, Thomas B.

    2013-08-01

    PurposeTo investigate the efficacy and safety of the use of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation to treat cirrhosis-related chylous collections (chylothorax and chylous ascites).MethodsWe retrospectively reviewed data from four patients treated for refractory cirrhosis-related chylous collections with TIPS at our institution over an 8 year period.ResultsOne patient had chylothorax, and three patients had concomitant chylothorax and chylous ascites. There were no major complications, and the only procedure-related complications occurred in two patients who had mild, treatable hepatic encephalopathy. All patients had improvement as defined by decreased need for thoracentesis or paracentesis, with postprocedure follow-up ranging from 19 to 491 days.ConclusionTIPS is a safe procedure that is effective in the treatment of cirrhosis-related chylous collections.

  19. A multimodality imaging approach for guiding a modified endovascular coil embolization of a single intrahepatic portosystemic shunt in dogs.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Teja; Navalòn, Iolanda; Medda, Massimo; Pradelli, Danitza; Borgonovo, Simone; Crosta, Cristina; Bussadori, Claudio Maria

    2015-12-01

    Intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (IHPSS) in dogs are aberrant vascular anomalies that connect the portal and the systemic venous vessels. In most of the patients, the surgical approach is unfavourable due to the difficulties in isolating the IHPSS, making the option of a percutaneous transvenous coil embolization (PTCE) one of the safer occlusive procedures. This study describes the treatment of eight dogs with a single IHPSS using a multimodality imaging approach to guide the modified PTCE procedure. This new technique results in a decrease of 71% of the time of the entire procedure with the reduction of 91% in the time required involved the IHPSS identification and in the fluoroscopy exposure time avoiding the need for iodinated contrast agents during the procedure. Moreover, the placement of the catheter before the caval stent ensures its greater stability, enhancing the procedural safety in the phase when the coils are released and avoiding the risk of their dislocation.

  20. Covered versus bare stents for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: an updated meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Qi, Xingshun; Tian, Yulong; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Zhiping; Guo, Xiaozhong

    2016-01-01

    Background: Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a standard treatment option for the management of portal hypertension in liver cirrhosis. Since the introduction of covered stents, shunt patency has been greatly improved. However, it remains uncertain about whether covered stents could improve survival. A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials has been performed to compare the outcomes of covered versus bare stents for TIPS. Methods: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases were searched to identify the relevant randomized controlled trials. Overall survival, shunt patency, and hepatic encephalopathy were the major endpoints. Hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated. Heterogeneity was calculated. Cochrane risk of bias tool was employed. Results: Overall, 119 papers were identified. Among them, four randomized controlled trials were eligible. Viatorr covered stents alone, Fluency covered stents alone, and Viatorr plus Fluency covered stents were employed in one, two, and one randomized controlled trials, respectively. Risk of bias was relatively low. Meta-analyses demonstrated that the covered-stents group had significantly higher probabilities of overall survival (HR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.50–0.90, p = 0.008) and shunt patency (HR = 0.42, 95% CI = 0.29–0.62, p < 0.0001) than the bare-stents group. Additionally, the covered-stents group might have a lower risk of hepatic encephalopathy than the bare-stents group (HR = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.49–1.00, p = 0.05). The heterogeneity among studies was not statistically significant in the meta-analyses. Conclusions: Compared with bare stents, covered stents for TIPS may improve the overall survival. In the era of covered stents, the indications for TIPS may be further expanded. PMID:28286557

  1. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in the Treatment of Portal Hypertension Using Memotherm Stents: A Prospective Multicenter Study

    SciTech Connect

    Domagk, Dirk; Patch, David; Dick, Robert; Grosso, Maurizio; Rousseau, Herve; Otal, Philippe; Goffette, Pierre; Heinecke, Achim; Drees, Markus; Domschke, Wolfram; Menzel, Josef

    2002-12-15

    Purpose: In a prospective multicenter study, efficacy and safety of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) were evaluated in the treatment of the complications of portal hypertension using a new self-expanding mesh-wire stent(Memotherm). Methods: One hundred and eighty-one patients suffering from variceal bleeding (either acute or recurrent)or refractory ascites were enrolled. Post interventional follow-up lasted for 8.4 months on average. Differences were analyzed by the log-rank test (chi-square) or Wilcoxon test. Results:Shunt insertion was completed successfully in all patients(n = 181 patients, 100%). During follow-up, shunt occlusion was evident in 23 patients, and shunt stenosis was found in 33 patients (12.7% and 18.2%, respectively). Variceal rebleeding occurred in 20 of 139 patients (14.4%), with at least one episode of bleeding before TIPS treatment. The overall mortality rate of the patients treated by TIPS was 39.8%. In 51.4% of these cases (37 of 72 patients), however, the patients died within 30 days after TIPS replacement. Analysis of subgroups showed that patients who underwent emergency TIPS for acute variceal bleeding had a significantly higher early mortality compared with other patient groups (p= 0.0014). Conclusion: In the present prospective multicenter study, we were able to show that insertion of Memothermstents is an effective tool for TIPS. The occlusion rates seem to be comparable to those reported for the Palmaz stent. It could be shown that in particular, those patients who were treated for acute bleeding were at high risk of early mortality. Consequently, in such a critical condition, the indication for TIPS has to be set carefully.

  2. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation in Budd-Chiari Syndrome: Percutaneous Ultrasound-Guided Direct Simultaneous Puncture of the Portal Vein and Vena Cava

    SciTech Connect

    Boyvat, Fatih Aytekin, Cueneyt; Harman, Ali; Ozin, Yasemin

    2006-10-15

    Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) is an uncommon disorder that can be life-threatening, depending on the degree of hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) provides decompression of the congested liver but the hepatic vein obstruction makes the procedure more difficult. We describe a modified method that involved a single percutaneous puncture of the portal vein and inferior vena cava simultaneously for TIPS creation in a patient with BCS.

  3. Long-Term Follow-Up After Successful Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement in a Pediatric Patient with Budd-Chiari Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Carnevale, Francisco Cesar Szejnfeld, Denis Moreira, Airton Mota; Gibelli, Nelson; Gregorio, Miguel Angel De; Tannuri, Uenis; Cerri, Giovanni Guido

    2008-11-15

    Orthotopic liver transplantation is the standard of care in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), and transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has become an important adjunct procedure while the patient is waiting for a liver. No long-term follow up of TIPS in BCS patients has been published in children. We report successful 10-year follow-up of a child with BCS and iatrogenic TIPS dysfunction caused by oral contraceptive use.

  4. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt, Mechanical Aspiration Thrombectomy, and Direct Thrombolysis in the Treatment of Acute Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Ferro, Carlo; Rossi, Umberto G. Bovio, Giulio; Dahamane, M'Hamed; Centanaro, Monica

    2007-09-15

    A patient was admitted because of severe abdominal pain, anorexia, and intestinal bleeding. Contrast-enhanced multidetector computed tomography demonstrated acute portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis (PSMVT). The patient was treated percutaneously with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), mechanical aspiration thrombectomy, and direct thrombolysis, and 1 week after the procedure, complete patency of the portal and superior mesenteric veins was demonstrated. TIPS, mechanical aspiration thrombectomy, and direct thrombolysis together are promising endovascular techniques for the treatment of symptomatic acute PSMVT.

  5. Surgical Management of Large Spontaneous Portosystemic Splenorenal Shunts During Liver Transplantation: Splenectomy or Left Renal Vein Ligation?

    PubMed

    Golse, N; Mohkam, K; Rode, A; Mezoughi, S; Demian, H; Ducerf, C; Mabrut, J-Y

    2015-01-01

    Management of splenorenal shunt (SRS) during whole liver transplantation is still controversial. Splenectomy (SP) permits its radical removal, at the price of a specific related morbidity. Left renal vein ligation (LRVL) performs a downstream ligation with potential renal repercussions. This study aimed to compare these techniques regarding portal revascularization and postoperative outcomes. From 1994 to 2012, 22 SPs and 7 LRVLs were performed for large SRS (>1 cm) management. There was no difference in operating times or transfusion rates. In both groups, efficient portal flow was initially obtained in all cases. After a median follow-up of 79 months, 2 patients in the SP group presented an altered portal flow owing to persistence of a not disconnected mesentericogonadic or splenorenal shunt. Postoperative morbidity, including infection and portal vein thrombosis, was not significantly different (32% vs 14%). SP allowed a faster correction of the thrombocytopenia. The LRVL group had a moderate and temporary impairment of renal function. SP and LRVL represent 2 effective procedures to avoid vascular steal in the presence of SRS, but they require a patent portal vein. SP appears to be associated to specific but acceptable intraoperative morbidity, permits treatment of associated splenic artery aneurysm, and enables a faster correction of thrombocytopenia. However, the presence of a remote hilum SRS or another large portosystemic shunt represents a cause of failure of the procedure. LRVL is a safer and less demanding procedure that can suppress portal steal whatever the location of the SRS, but at the price of moderate renal morbidity. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Comparison of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) alone versus TIPS combined with embolotherapy in advanced cirrhosis: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Tianli; Chen, Lei; Chen, Wensheng; Xu, Baoyan; Long, Qingling; Li, Rongjun; Li, Linming; Peng, Zhihong; Fang, Dianchun; Wang, Rongquan

    2011-08-01

    This study was designed to determine whether a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) combined with embolotherapy was superior to TIPS alone. Seventy-nine patients were included in the study (43 in the TIPS and embolotherapy group and 36 in the TIPS alone group). Embolotherapy was performed after TIPS using coils and a tissue adhesive agent. The portosystemic pressure gradient (PPG) after TIPS was lower than 12 mm Hg in all patients. Multivariate analyses were performed using a Cox regression model, and the probabilities of survival and rebleeding were estimated with the Kaplan-Meier method. Baseline patient survey data showed similar distributions in both groups. The mean follow-up time was 45.6 months (range: 1 to 85.6 mo). There were no significant differences in the incidences of rebleeding (P=0.889), stent revision (P=0.728), encephalopathy (P=0.728), the cumulative survival rate (P=0.552), or the probability of being free of rebleeding (P=0.806) between the 2 groups. Of 9 patients with rebleeding after TIPS plus embolotherapy, 7 had a history of esophageal variceal bleeding and 2 had gastric variceal bleeding. Of 8 patients with rebleeding after TIPS alone, 4 had a history of esophageal variceal bleeding and 4 had gastric variceal bleeding (P=0.247). Multivariate analysis showed that PPG after TIPS was an independent predictor of rebleeding (P=0.036). Age and Model of End-stage Liver Disease score were independent predictors of survival (P=0.048 and 0.037). The results suggest that TIPS with embolotherapy cannot reduce the risk of rebleeding if PPG is less than 12 mm Hg after TIPS. PPG after TIPS is an independent predictor of rebleeding.

  7. Embolization of large spontaneous portosystemic shunts for refractory hepatic encephalopathy: a multicenter survey on safety and efficacy.

    PubMed

    Laleman, Wim; Simon-Talero, Macarena; Maleux, Geert; Perez, Mercedes; Ameloot, Koen; Soriano, German; Villalba, Jordi; Garcia-Pagan, Juan-Carlos; Barrufet, Marta; Jalan, Rajiv; Brookes, Jocelyn; Thalassinos, Evangelos; Burroughs, Andrew K; Cordoba, Juan; Nevens, Frederik

    2013-06-01

    Refractory hepatic encephalopathy (HE) remains a major cause of morbidity in cirrhosis patients. Large spontaneous portosystemic shunts (SPSSs) have been previously suggested to sustain HE in these patients. We aimed to retrospectively assess the efficacy and safety of patients treated with embolization of large SPSSs for the treatment of chronic therapy-refractory HE in a European multicentric working group and to identify patients who may benefit from this procedure. Between July 1998 and January 2012, 37 patients (Child A6-C13, MELD [Model of Endstage Liver Disease] 5-28) with refractory HE were diagnosed with single large SPSSs that were considered eligible for embolization. On a short-term basis (i.e., within 100 days after embolization), 22 out of 37 patients (59.4%) were free of HE (P < 0.001 versus before embolization) of which 18 (48.6% of patients overall) remained HE-free over a mean follow-up period of 697 ± 157 days (P < 0.001 versus before embolization). Overall, we noted improved autonomy, decreased number of hospitalizations, and severity of the worst HE episode after embolization in three-quarters of the patients. Logistic regression identified the MELD score as strongest positive predictive factor of HE recurrence with a cutoff of 11 for patient selection. As to safety, we noted one major nonlethal procedure-related complication. There was no significant increase in de novo development or aggravation of preexisting varices, portal hypertensive gastropathy, or ascites. This multicenter European cohort study demonstrated a role for large SPSSs in chronic protracted or recurrent HE and substantiated the effectiveness and safety of embolization of these shunts, provided there is sufficient functional liver reserve. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.

  8. The transhepatic endotoxin gradient is present despite liver cirrhosis and is attenuated after transjugular portosystemic shunt (TIPS).

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Translocation of gut-derived bacterial products such as endotoxin is a major problem in liver cirrhosis. Methods To assess the hepatic clearance of bacterial products in individuals with cirrhosis, we tested concentrations of Gram-negative bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS), LPS-binding protein (LBP), and the precursor of nitric oxide (NO), L-arginine, in a cohort of 8 stable patients with liver cirrhosis before and after elective transjugular portosystemic shunt (TIPS) implantation, including central venous, hepatic venous, and portal venous measurements. Results Using an adapted LPS assay, we detected high portal venous LPS concentrations (mean 1743 ± 819 pg/mL). High concentrations of LPS were detectable in the central venous blood (931 ± 551 pg/mL), as expected in persons with cirrhosis. The transhepatic LPS gradient was found to be 438 ± 287 pg/mL, and 25 ± 12% of portal LPS was cleared by the cirrhotic liver. After TIPS, central venous LPS concentrations increased in the hepatic and central veins, indicating shunting of LPS with the portal blood through the stent. This paralleled a systemic increase of L-arginine, whereas the NO synthase inhibitor asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) remained unchanged, suggesting that bacterial translocation may contribute to the pathogenesis of circulatory dysfunction post-TIPS. Conclusions This study provides quantitative estimates of the role of the liver in the pathophysiology of bacterial translocation. The data indicate that the cirrhotic liver retains the capacity for clearance of bacterial endotoxin from the portal venous blood and that TIPS implantation attenuates this clearance. Thus, increased endotoxin concentrations in the systemic circulation provide a possible link to the increased encephalopathy in TIPS patients. PMID:21978390

  9. Portal vein aneurysm associated with Budd-Chiari syndrome treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: A case report

    PubMed Central

    Tsauo, Jiaywei; Li, Xiao

    2015-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) presented with right upper quadrant pain. A computed tomography (CT) scan showed a saccular aneurysm located at the extrahepatic portal vein main branch measuring 3.2 cm in height and 2.5 cm × 2.4 cm in diameter. The aneurysm was thought to be associated with BCS as there was no preceding history of trauma and it had not been present on Doppler ultrasound examination performed 3 years previously. Because of increasing pain and concern for complications due to aneurysm size, the decision was made to relieve the hepatic venous outflow obstruction. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was created without complications. She had complete resolution of her abdominal pain within 2 d and remained asymptomatic after 1 year of follow-up. CT scans obtained after TIPS showed that the aneurysm had decreased in size to 2.4 cm in height and 2.0 cm × 1.9 cm in diameter at 3 mo, and had further decreased to 1.9 cm in height and 1.6 cm × 1.5 cm in diameter at 1 year. PMID:25759562

  10. Methods of gradual vascular occlusion and their applications in treatment of congenital portosystemic shunts in dogs: a review.

    PubMed

    Sereda, Colin W; Adin, Christopher A

    2005-01-01

    To provide a comprehensive review of the experimental and clinical data related to gradual vascular occlusion of congenital portosystemic shunts (CPS) in dogs. Literature review. PubMed literature search (1966-2004). Surgical intervention and complete vascular occlusion have been recommended for CPS therapy in dogs; however, acute complete ligation of CPS is often associated with life-threatening portal hypertension. Recently, several investigators have attempted to reduce the risk of postoperative portal hypertension by using gradual vascular occlusion. Successful vascular occlusion has been achieved using partial ligation with silk suture, ameroid constrictors, cellophane bands, thrombogenic coils and hydraulic vascular occluders. Objective comparisons of the reliability and rate of vascular occlusion produced by each of these methods have been limited by differences in experimental models and a lack of definitive follow up evaluation in some clinical studies. Gradual vascular occlusion is widely used in the clinical treatment of CPS in dogs. Objective evaluation of the experimental and clinical data on each of the techniques for gradual vascular occlusion is necessary for informed clinical practice and for the planning of future research into this important area. Even from the limited data available, it is clear that the ideal method for gradual vascular occlusion of CPS has yet to be identified.

  11. Diagnostic value of the rectal ammonia tolerance test, fasting plasma ammonia and fasting plasma bile acids for canine portosystemic shunting.

    PubMed

    van Straten, G; Spee, B; Rothuizen, J; van Straten, M; Favier, R P

    2015-06-01

    Portosystemic shunting (PSS) often results in hyperammonaemia and, consequently, hepatic encephalopathy. This retrospective study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values (PPV and NPV, respectively) and other test performance metrics for the ammonia tolerance test (ATT), serum fasting bile acids (FBA), serum fasting ammonia concentration (FA), and combinations of these tests for their association with PSS in dogs. Medical records of 271 dogs suspect for PSS (symptomatic group) and 53 dogs returning for evaluation after surgical closure of a congenital PSS (CPSS post-surgical control group) were analysed. In the symptomatic group, ATT at 40 min (T40), and the FBA had the highest sensitivity (100% and 98%, respectively) and NPV (100% and 96%, respectively) for PSS. The combination of increased FBA and FA had the highest specificity (97%), with a PPV of 97%, and a positive likelihood ratio of 29. In the CPSS post-surgical control group, the specificity and PPV of FA and the combination of increased FBA/FA were both 100%. In purebred populations, the NPV of all tests was 100%. Consequently, PSS would be ruled out in a symptomatic dog with normal FBA or ATT (T40) and would be highly probable when both FBA and FA are increased. Increased FA was conclusive for PSS in dogs evaluated for post-surgical closure of a CPSS. FBA was the most suitable test for screening purposes. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Acute Effects of Liver Vein Occlusion by Stent-Graft Placed in Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Channel: An Experimental Study

    SciTech Connect

    Keussen, Inger Bergqvist, Lennart; Rissler, Pehr; Cwikiel, Wojciech

    2006-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of hepatic vein occlusion by stent-graft used in transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). The experiments were performed in six healthy pigs under general anesthesia. Following percutaneous transhepatic implantation of a port-a-cath in the right hepatic vein, TIPS was created with a stent-graft (Viatorr; W L Gore, Flagstaff, AZ, USA). The outflow from the hepatic vein, blocked by the stent-graft was documented by injection of contrast medium and repeated injections of {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-labeled human serum albumin through the port-a-cath. After 2 weeks, the outflow was re-evaluated, the pigs were sacrificed, and histopathologic examination of the liver was performed. Occlusion of the hepatic vein by a stent-graft had a short and temporary effect on the outflow. Histopathological examination from the affected liver segment showed no divergent pattern. Stent-grafts used in TIPS block the outflow from the liver vein, but do not have a prolonged circulatory effect and do not affect the liver parenchyma.

  13. Selective alterations of cerebrospinal fluid amino acids in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    Butterworth, J; Gregory, C R; Aronson, L R

    1997-12-01

    Numerous studies suggest that modifications in concentrations of both excitatory and inhibitory amino acids are implicated in the pathophysiology of portal-systemic encephalopathy (PSE), a neuropsychiatric disorder associated with chronic liver disease in humans. In this study, amino acid levels were measured by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) in Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) of 10 dogs (age range: 3 mo.- 3 yr 4 mo.) exhibiting a congenital portal-systemic shunt, either intra or extra-hepatic, and 8 age-matched control dogs who showed no signs of hepatic or neurologic disorders. Dogs with congenital shunts manifested signs of encephalopathy such as disorientation, head pressing, vocalization, depression, seizures and coma. CSF from dogs with congenital shunts contained significantly increased amounts of glutamate (2 to 3-fold increase, p<0.01), glutamine (6-fold increase, p<0.05) and aromatic amino acids (phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan) compared to CSF of control dogs. Concentrations of GABA and branched chain amino acids (valine, leucine, isoleucine) were within normal limits. Modifications of brain glutamate (an excitatory amino acid) as well as tryptophan (the precursor of serotonin) could contribute to the neurological syndrome characteristic of congenital PSE in dogs.

  14. Incidence of hepatic encephalopathy after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) according to its severity and temporal grading classification.

    PubMed

    Fonio, Paolo; Discalzi, Andrea; Calandri, Marco; Doriguzzi Breatta, Andrea; Bergamasco, Laura; Martini, Silvia; Ottobrelli, Antonio; Righi, Dorico; Gandini, Giovanni

    2017-05-16

    To evaluate hepatic encephalopathy (HE) incidence after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and classify by gravity and frequency. This is a retrospective study of 75 patients with no previous episodes of HE who underwent TIPS between 2008 and 2014 with clinical follow-up after 6 and 12 months. Patient risk factors evaluated include age, INR (international normalized ratio), creatinine, bilirubin, and MELD score (Model for End-of-stage Liver Disease). HE was reported using two classifications: (1) gravity divided in moderate (West-Haven grades I-II) and severe (III-IV); (2) frequency divided in episodic and recurrent/persistent. Overall HE incidence was 36% at 6 months, with 12 month incidence significantly decreased to 27% (p = 0.02). 13/75 (17%) patients had one episode of moderate HE, while 3/75 (4%) patients had severe recurrent/persistent HE. Age was the only pre-TIPS risk predictor. Post-TIPS bilirubin and INR showed variations from basal values only in the presence of diagnosed HE. Bilirubin significantly increased (p = 0.03) in correlation to HE severity, whereas INR changes correlated with temporal frequency (p = 0.04). HE distribution classified for severity is similar at 6 and 12 months, whereas when classified for frequency shows significant differences (p = 0.04). A classification by gravity and frequency attests post-TIPS HE as a manageable risk. Monitoring of bilirubin and INR may help on clinical management risk stratification.

  15. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) versus Balloon-occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration (BRTO) for the Management of Gastric Varices

    PubMed Central

    Saad, Wael E. A.; Darcy, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Variceal bleeding is one of the major complications of portal hypertension. Gastric variceal bleeding is less common than esophageal variceal bleeding; however, it is associated with a high morbidity and mortality rate and its management is largely uncharted due to a relatively less-established literature. In the West (United States and Europe), the primary school of management is to decompress the portal circulation utilizing the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). In the East (Japan and South Korea), the primary school of management is to address the gastric varices (GVs) specifically by sclerosing them utilizing the balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) procedure. The concept (1970s), evolution, and development (1980s–1990s) of both procedures run parallel to one another; neither is newer than the other is. The difference is that one was adopted mostly by the East (BRTO), while the other has been adopted mostly by the West (TIPS). TIPS is effective in emergently controlling bleeding for GVs even though the commonly referenced studies about managing GVs with TIPS are studies with TIPS created by bare stents. However, the results have improved with the use of stent grafts for creating TIPS. Nevertheless, TIPS cannot be tolerated by patients with poor hepatic reserve. BRTO is equally effective in controlling bleeding GVs as well as significantly reducing the GV rebleed rate. But the resultant diversion of blood flow into the portal circulation, and in turn the liver, increases the risk of developing esophageal varices and ectopic varices with their potential to bleed. Unlike TIPS, the blood diversion that occurs after BRTO improves, if not preserves, hepatic function for 6–9 months post-BRTO. The authors discuss the detailed results and critique the literature, which has evaluated and remarked on both procedures. Future research prospects and speculation as to the ideal patients for each procedure are discussed. PMID

  16. Hemorrhage risk with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion at the main portal vein bifurcation with stent grafts.

    PubMed

    Griffin, A S; Preece, S R; Ronald, J; Smith, T P; Suhocki, P V; Kim, C Y

    2017-08-23

    The purpose of this study was to assess the incidence of major hemorrhage after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) insertion using a stent graft at the main portal vein bifurcation. TIPS insertion using stent grafts was performed in 215 patients due to non-variceal hemorrhage indications. There were 137 men and 78 women, with a mean age of 57 years±10.6 (SD) (range: 19-90 years). Based on retrospective review of portal venograms, TIPS inserted within 5mm from the portal vein bifurcation were considered "bifurcation TIPS", while those inserted 2cm or greater from the bifurcation were considered intrahepatic. Suspicion for acute major periprocedural hemorrhage were categorized as low, moderate, and high, based on the number of signs of hemorrhage. Of 215 TIPS inserted for purposes other than hemorrhage, the TIPS was inserted at the portal bifurcation in 41 patients (29 men, 12 women; mean age, 55.9±11.7 (SD); range: 26-79 years) and intrahepatic in 62 patients (37 men, 25 women; mean age, 57.6±10.6 (SD), range: 34-82 years), whereas 112 were indeterminate in location. No active extravasations were identified on post-TIPS portal venograms. Suspicion for acute major hemorrhage was moderate or high in 3/41 (7%) of patients in the TIPS bifurcation group compared to 5/62 (8%) in the intrahepatic TIPS group (P>0.99). There were no significant differences in 30-day mortality rates (1/41 [2%] and 3/62 [5%] respectively; P> 0.99). No deaths or interventions were attributed to acute hemorrhage. TIPS insertion at the portal bifurcation with stent grafts did not incur an elevated risk of hemorrhagic complications. Copyright © 2017 Editions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. [Portal hypertension in children. Therapeutic approach in cases of failure of a portosystemic shunt].

    PubMed

    Heloury, Y; Valayer, J; Hay, J M; Gauthier, F; Alagille, D

    1986-01-01

    88 porto systemic shunts were performed between 1977-1985; 14 failures were observed. These failures occurred in ten children with extra-hepatic portal obstruction and in four with intra-hepatic obstruction. The treatment of these failures was different in these two groups: 7 reoperations in the extra-hepatic obstruction, none in the intra-hepatic. That reoperation is often not suitable in the intrahepatic obstruction because of the hepatic failure. The use of sclerotherapy or the beta receptor blocking agents is discussed in this group.

  18. Long-term clinical outcome of patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt insertion.

    PubMed

    Tan, Hiang Keat; James, Paul Damien; Sniderman, Kenneth Wilfred; Wong, Florence

    2015-02-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is indicated for the treatment of refractory ascites in cirrhosis. The long-term outcome of TIPS for refractory ascites is unknown. The aim of this study is to describe the natural history of patients with refractory ascites post-TIPS, and compare between polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered versus bare stents. A retrospective chart review of patients who had TIPS for refractory ascites was conducted. Prospectively collected data include demographics, angiographic data, blood work, and urinary sodium excretion. There were 136 patients who received TIPS (bare = 104, covered = 32) for over 22 years. Patients with PTFE stents had lower international normalized ratio and model for end-stage liver disease score. More patients with bare stents developed shunt dysfunction (74.0% vs 24.1%, P < 0.0001) and required more TIPS revisions (1.6 ± 0.2/patient vs 0.2 ± 0.1, P < 0.0001). Urinary sodium excretion increased significantly from first month and progressed to 98 ± 9 mmol/day at 12th month post-TIPS (P < 0.001 vs baseline), concurrent with improved renal function. Most patients (77.6%) completely cleared the ascites without diuretics, but many achieved this beyond 2 years. Number of TIPS revision was predictive of complete response at 12 months (odds ratio [OR] 0.7, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.5-0.9, P < 0.05). Age (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.05 [95% CI 1.02-1.08], P < 0.01), complete response (HR = 0.22 [95% CI 0.12-0.40], P < 0.0001) and polytetrafluoroethylene stents (HR = 0.23 [95% CI 0.05-0.97], P < 0.05) were predictive of survival. TIPS is an effective treatment for cirrhotic refractory ascites. Ascites clearance is dependent on number of TIPS revision, whereas survival is predicted by younger age, complete response, and covered stent use, although era effect likely contributed to improved survival with covered stent use. © 2014 Journal of

  19. Portal Vein Recanalization and Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation for Chronic Portal Vein Thrombosis: Technical Considerations.

    PubMed

    Thornburg, Bartley; Desai, Kush; Hickey, Ryan; Kulik, Laura; Ganger, Daniel; Baker, Talia; Abecassis, Michael; Lewandowski, Robert J; Salem, Riad

    2016-03-01

    Portal vein thrombosis (PVT) is common in cirrhotic patients and presents a challenge at the time of transplant. Owing to the increased posttransplant morbidity and mortality associated with complete PVT, the presence of PVT is a relative contraindication to liver transplantation at many centers. Our group began performing portal vein (PV) recanalization and transjugular intrahepatic portostystemic shunt placement (PVR-TIPS) several years ago to optimize the transplant candidacy of patients with PVT. The procedure has evolved to include transsplenic access to assist with recanalization, which is now our preferred method due to its technical success without significant added morbidity. Here, we describe in detail our approach to PVR-TIPS with a focus on the transsplenic method. The procedure was attempted in 61 patients and was technically successful in 60 patients (98%). After transitioning to transsplenic access to assist with recanalization, the technical success rate has improved to 100%. The recanalized portal vein and TIPS have maintained patency during follow-up, or to the time of transplant, in 55 patients (92%) with a mean follow-up of 16.7 months. In total, 23 patients (38%) have undergone transplant, all of whom received a physiologic anastomosis (end-to-end anastomosis in 22 of 23 patients, 96%). PVR-TIPS placement should be considered as an option for patients with chronic PVT in need of transplantation. Transsplenic access makes the procedure technically straightforward and should be considered as the primary method for recanalization.

  20. Changes in Kidney Function After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunts Versus Large-Volume Paracentesis in Cirrhosis: A Matched Cohort Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Allegretti, Andrew S.; Ortiz, Guillermo; Cui, Jie; Wenger, Julia; Bhan, Ishir; Chung, Raymond T.; Thadhani, Ravi I.; Irani, Zubin

    2016-01-01

    Background Patients with cirrhosis and refractory ascites have physiologic and hormonal dysregulation that contributes to decreased kidney function. Placement of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) can reverse these changes and potentially improve kidney function. We sought to evaluate change in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) following TIPS. Study Design Retrospective, matched cohort analysis. Settings & Participants Patients who underwent first-time TIPS placement for refractory ascites in 1995–2014. Frequency matching was used to generate a comparator group of patients with cirrhosis and ascites treated with serial large-volume paracentesis (LVP) in a 1:1 fashion. Predictor TIPS placement compared to serial LVP. Outcome Change in eGFR over 90 days’ follow-up. Measurements Multivariable regression stratified by baseline eGFR <60 vs. ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2; analysis of effect modification between TIPS placement and baseline eGFR. Results 276 subjects (TIPS, n=138; serial LVP, n=138) were analyzed. After 90 days, eGFR increased significantly after TIPS placement in subjects with baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 compared to treatment with serial LVP (21 [95% CI, 13–29] mL/min/1.73 m2; p <0.001) and was no different in those with eGFR ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (1 [−9 to 12] mL/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.8). There was significant effect modification between TIPS status and baseline eGFR (p = 0.001) in a model that included all subjects. Limitations Outcomes restricted by clinically recorded data; clinically important differences may still exist between TIPS and LVP cohorts despite good statistical matching. Conclusions TIPS placement was associated with a significant improvement in kidney function. This was most prominent in subjects with baseline eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2. Prospective studies of TIPS in populations with eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 are needed to evaluate these findings. PMID:26994685

  1. Comparison of Technical and Clinical Outcome of Transjugular Portosystemic Shunt Placement Between a Bare Metal Stent and a PTFE-Stentgraft Device.

    PubMed

    Lauermann, J; Potthoff, A; Mc Cavert, M; Marquardt, S; Vaske, B; Rosenthal, H; von Hahn, T; Wacker, F; Meyer, B C; Rodt, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    To analyse technical and clinical success of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in patients with portal hypertension and compare a stent and a stentgraft with regard to clinical and technical outcome and associated costs. 170 patients (56 ± 12 years, 32.9% females) treated with TIPS due to portal hypertension were reviewed. 80 patients received a stent (group 1) and 83 a stentgraft (group 2), and seven interventions were unsuccessful. Technical data, periprocedural imaging, follow-up ultrasound and clinical data were analysed with focus on technical success, patency, clinical outcome and group differences. Cost analysis was performed. Portal hypertension was mainly caused by ethyltoxic liver cirrhosis with ascites as dominant symptom (80%). Technical success was 93.5% with mean portosystemic gradient decrease from 16.1 ± 4.8 to 5.1 ± 2.1 mmHg. No significant differences in technical success and portosystemic gradient decrease between the groups were observed. Kaplan-Meier analysis yielded significant differences in primary patency after 14 days, 6 months and 2 years in favour of the stentgraft. Both groups showed good clinical results without significant difference in 1-year survival and hepatic encephalopathy rate. Costs to establish TIPS and to manage 2-year follow-up with constant patency and clinical success were 8876 € (group 1) and 9394 € (group 2). TIPS is a safe and effective procedure to manage portal hypertension. Stent and stentgraft enabled good technical and clinical results with a low complication rate. Primary patency rates are clearly in favour of the stentgraft, whereas the stent was more cost effective with similar clinical results in both groups.

  2. Evaluation of surgical outcome, complications, and mortality in dogs undergoing preoperative computed tomography angiography for diagnosis of an extrahepatic portosystemic shunt: 124 cases (2005–2014)

    PubMed Central

    Brunson, Benjamin W.; Case, J. Brad; Ellison, Gary W.; Fox-Alvarez, W. Alexander; Kim, Stanley E.; Winter, Matthew; Garcia-Pereira, Fernando L.; Farina, Lisa L.

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the safety of preoperative computed tomography angiography (CTA) and its effect on surgical time and clinical outcomes in dogs that underwent surgical correction of a single congenital extrahepatic portosystemic shunt (CEPSS). Patient data were retrospectively collected from medical records and owner communications for 124 dogs with single CEPSS, undergoing preoperative CTA (n = 43) or not (n = 81) which were surgically treated from 2005 to 2014. The frequency of major postoperative complications was 4.7% and 9.9% for the CTA and no CTA groups, respectively (P = 0.49). Mean ± standard deviation (SD) surgical time for the preoperative CTA group was 84 ± 40 min and 81 ± 31 min for the no CTA group (P = 0.28). We conclude that anesthetized preoperative CTA appears to be a safe method for diagnosis and surgical planning in dogs with single CEPSS, and does not appear to affect surgical procedure time, complication rate, or clinical outcome. PMID:26740699

  3. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation using a three-dimensional fluoroscopy guidance system in patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Cura, Marco; Shaw, Cathryn J.; Rees, Chet R.

    2015-01-01

    When performed for Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation can be technically difficult due to hepatic congestion and asymmetric hypertrophy. We present three female patients with decompensated BCS in whom TIPS were created using a three-dimensional fluoroscopy guidance system. On a dedicated workstation using three-dimensional volumes of computed tomography imaging, a virtual needle path was created by the operator extending from the needle entry point (hepatic vein stump or inferior vena cava) to the target portal vein. Subsequently, the virtual needle path was overlaid on the fluoroscopy image for guidance of portal venous cannulation. This technology can be used for TIPS procedures in patients with BCS and other complex TIPS cases, as it may help delimit the trajectory of the needle pass and optimally result in more efficient procedures with decreased radiation dose. PMID:26424949

  4. Regional cerebral blood flow assessed by single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt and hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Or, Matan; Peremans, Kathelijne; Martlé, Valentine; Vandermeulen, Eva; Bosmans, Tim; Devriendt, Nausikaa; de Rooster, Hilde

    2017-02-01

    Regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) in eight dogs with congenital portosystemic shunt (PSS) and hepatic encephalopathy (HE) was compared with rCBF in eight healthy control dogs using single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) with a (99m)technetium-hexamethylpropylene amine oxime ((99m)Tc-HMPAO) tracer. SPECT scans were abnormal in all PSS dogs. Compared to the control group, rCBF in PSS dogs was significantly decreased in the temporal lobes and increased in the subcortical (thalamic and striatal) area. Brain perfusion imaging alterations observed in the dogs with PSS and HE are similar to those in human patients with HE. These findings suggest that dogs with HE and PSS have altered perfusion of mainly the subcortical and the temporal regions of the brain.

  5. The Effect of Hepatic Encephalopathy, Hepatic Failure, and Portosystemic Shunt on Brain Volume of Cirrhotic Patients: A Voxel-Based Morphometry Study

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Jianhui; Xu, Qiang; Zheng, Gang; Lu, Guang Ming

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the effect of hepatic encephalopathy (HE), hepatic failure, and portosystemic shunt (PS) on the brain volume alteration in cirrhotic patients with MRI voxel-based morphometry (VBM). Methods Sixty cirrhotic patients (overt HE [OHE], n = 11; minimal HE [MHE], n = 19; non HE [nHE], n = 30) including 12 with pre- and post-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) scanning and 40 healthy controls were recruited. Neuropsychological and laboratory tests were performed in all patients. VBM was analyzed with ANOVA test among 4 groups, and t-tests for patients with different hepatic function, PS scores, and TIPS. Multiple linear regression was performed to investigate the effect of venous blood ammonia levels, Child-Pugh scores, and PS on the brain volumes in all patients. Results Cirrhotic patients exhibited decreased volume in many areas of gray matter (GM), increased volume in thalamus, and increased whiter matter (WM) volume, with the extent of affected brain volume greater in HE patients than nHE patients. Hepatic failure also resulted in decreased GM volume. Patients with high PS scores and TIPS displayed decreased GM and increased WM volume in some regions. Post-TIPS patients displayed increased GM volume in the thalamus. Multiple covariate regression results suggested that Child-Pugh score was a major factor to affect GM volume, while PS mainly affected WM volume. Conclusion Brain structure abnormalities appeared bilaterally symmetrical in cirrhotic patients, and the impairment was more extensive in HE patients than those without HE. Increased thalamus volume was not associated with HE progression. Hepatic failure and PS altered cirrhotic patients’ brain structure. PMID:22912746

  6. Multidetector-Row Computed Tomography in the Evaluation of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Performed with Expanded-Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Stent-Graft

    SciTech Connect

    Fanelli, Fabrizio Bezzi, Mario; Bruni, Antonio; Corona, Mario; Boatta, Emanuele; Lucatelli, Pierleone; Passariello, Roberto

    2011-02-15

    We assessed, in a prospective study, the efficacy of multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) in the evaluation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) patency in patients treated with the Viatorr (Gore, Flagstaff, AZ) expanded-polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE)-covered stent-graft. Eighty patients who underwent TIPS procedure using the Viatorr self-expanding e-PTFE stent-graft were evaluated at follow-up of 1, 3, 6, and 12 months with clinical and laboratory tests as well as ultrasound-color Doppler (USCD) imaging. In case of varices, upper gastrointestinal endoscopy was also performed. In addition, the shunt was evaluated using MDCT at 6 and 12 months. In all cases of abnormal findings and discrepancy between MDCT and USCD, invasive control venography was performed. MDCT images were acquired before and after injection of intravenous contrast media on the axial plane and after three-dimensional reconstruction using different algorithms. MDCT was successfully performed in all patients. No artefacts correlated to the Viatorr stent-graft were observed. A missing correlation between UCSD and MDCT was noticed in 20 of 80 (25%) patients. Invasive control venography confirmed shunt patency in 16 (80%) cases and shunt malfunction in 4 (20%) cases. According to these data, MDCT sensitivity was 95.2%; specificity was 96.6%; and positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV) were 90.9 and 98.2%, respectively. USCD sensitivity was 90%; specificity was 75%; and PPV and NPV were 54.5 and 95.7%, respectively. A high correlation (K value = 0.85) between MDCT and invasive control venography was observed. On the basis of these results, MDCT shows superior sensitivity and specificity compared with USCD in those patients in whom TIPS was performed with the Viatorr stent-graft. MDCT can be considered a valid tool in the follow-up of these patients.

  7. Use of the Viatorr Expanded Polytetrafluoroethylene-Covered Stent-Graft for Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Creation in Children: Initial Clinical Experience

    SciTech Connect

    Mermuys, Koen; Maleux, Geert Heye, Sam; Lombaerts, Rita; Nevens, Frederik

    2008-07-15

    Four children, three boys and one girl, with a median age of 9 years 8 months, underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (e-PTFE)-covered nitinol stent. The stent-graft was successfully placed in all four patients without any complication. Clinical and biochemical improvement was noted in all four patients during follow-up. Radiological follow-up with use of duplex ultrasound showed a recurrent stenosis of the shunt 180 days after stent-graft implantation in one patient. This was treated with placement of an additional stent-graft, re-expanding completely the recurrent stenosis. In the other three patients, the stent-graft remained fully patent until the end of the study or until orthotopic liver transplantation. These preliminary results suggest that use of the Viatorr ePTFE-covered stent-graft in children is safe and feasible, with potentially the same high patency rate and improved clinical outcome as reported in adult patients.

  8. Cost analysis for the prevention of variceal rebleeding: a comparison between transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt and endoscopic sclerotherapy in a selected group of Italian cirrhotic patients.

    PubMed

    Meddi, P; Merli, M; Lionetti, R; De Santis, A; Valeriano, V; Masini, A; Rossi, P; Salvatori, F; Salerno, F; de Franchis, R; Capocaccia, L; Riggio, O

    1999-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare the cumulative cost of the first 18-month period in a selected group of Italian cirrhotic patients treated with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus endoscopic sclerotherapy (ES) to prevent variceal rebleeding. Thirty-eight patients enrolled in a controlled trial were considered (18 TIPS and 20 sclerotherapy). The number of days spent in the hospital for the initial treatment and during the follow-up period were defined as the costs of hospitalization. ES sessions, TIPS procedures, angioplasty or addition of a second stent to maintain the shunt patency, were defined as the costs of therapeutic procedures. The two groups were comparable for age, sex, and Child-Pugh score. During the observation period 4 patients died in the TIPS group, and 2 died and 1 was transplanted in the sclerotherapy group. The rebleeding rate was significantly higher in the sclerotherapy group. Despite this, the number of days spent in the hospital was similar in the two groups. This was because of a higher number of hospital admissions for the treatment of hepatic encephalopathy and shunt insufficiency in the TIPS group. The therapeutic procedures were more expensive for TIPS. Consequently, the cumulative cost was higher for patients treated with TIPS than for those treated with sclerotherapy. The extra cost was because of the initial higher cost of the procedure and the difference was still maintained at the end of the 18-month follow-up. When the cumulative costs were expressed per month free of rebleeding, the disadvantage of TIPS disappeared. In conclusion, a program of prevention of variceal rebleeding with TIPS, despite the longer interval free of rebleeding, is not a cost-saving strategy in comparison with sclerotherapy.

  9. Aberrant expression and distribution of enzymes of the urea cycle and other ammonia metabolizing pathways in dogs with congenital portosystemic shunts.

    PubMed

    van Straten, Giora; van Steenbeek, Frank G; Grinwis, Guy C M; Favier, Robert P; Kummeling, Anne; van Gils, Ingrid H; Fieten, Hille; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J A; Holstege, Frank C P; Rothuizen, Jan; Spee, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The detoxification of ammonia occurs mainly through conversion of ammonia to urea in the liver via the urea cycle and glutamine synthesis. Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs cause hyperammonemia eventually leading to hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, the gene expression of urea cycle enzymes (carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS1), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and arginase (ARG1)), N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1), and glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) was evaluated in dogs with CPSS before and after surgical closure of the shunt. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed on urea cycle enzymes and GLUL on liver samples of healthy dogs and dogs with CPSS to investigate a possible zonal distribution of these enzymes within the liver lobule and to investigate possible differences in distribution in dogs with CPSS compared to healthy dogs. Furthermore, the effect of increasing ammonia concentrations on the expression of the urea cycle enzymes was investigated in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Gene-expression of CPS1, OTC, ASL, GLUD1 and NAGS was down regulated in dogs with CPSS and did not normalize after surgical closure of the shunt. In all dogs GLUL distribution was localized pericentrally. CPS1, OTC and ASS1 were localized periportally in healthy dogs, whereas in CPSS dogs, these enzymes lacked a clear zonal distribution. In primary hepatocytes higher ammonia concentrations induced mRNA levels of CPS1. We hypothesize that the reduction in expression of urea cycle enzymes, NAGS and GLUD1 as well as the alterations in zonal distribution in dogs with CPSS may be caused by a developmental arrest of these enzymes during the embryonic or early postnatal phase.

  10. Aberrant Expression and Distribution of Enzymes of the Urea Cycle and Other Ammonia Metabolizing Pathways in Dogs with Congenital Portosystemic Shunts

    PubMed Central

    van Straten, Giora; van Steenbeek, Frank G.; Grinwis, Guy C. M.; Favier, Robert P.; Kummeling, Anne; van Gils, Ingrid H.; Fieten, Hille; Groot Koerkamp, Marian J. A.; Holstege, Frank C. P.; Rothuizen, Jan; Spee, Bart

    2014-01-01

    The detoxification of ammonia occurs mainly through conversion of ammonia to urea in the liver via the urea cycle and glutamine synthesis. Congenital portosystemic shunts (CPSS) in dogs cause hyperammonemia eventually leading to hepatic encephalopathy. In this study, the gene expression of urea cycle enzymes (carbamoylphosphate synthetase (CPS1), ornithine carbamoyltransferase (OTC), argininosuccinate synthetase (ASS1), argininosuccinate lyase (ASL), and arginase (ARG1)), N-acetylglutamate synthase (NAGS), Glutamate dehydrogenase (GLUD1), and glutamate-ammonia ligase (GLUL) was evaluated in dogs with CPSS before and after surgical closure of the shunt. Additionally, immunohistochemistry was performed on urea cycle enzymes and GLUL on liver samples of healthy dogs and dogs with CPSS to investigate a possible zonal distribution of these enzymes within the liver lobule and to investigate possible differences in distribution in dogs with CPSS compared to healthy dogs. Furthermore, the effect of increasing ammonia concentrations on the expression of the urea cycle enzymes was investigated in primary hepatocytes in vitro. Gene-expression of CPS1, OTC, ASL, GLUD1 and NAGS was down regulated in dogs with CPSS and did not normalize after surgical closure of the shunt. In all dogs GLUL distribution was localized pericentrally. CPS1, OTC and ASS1 were localized periportally in healthy dogs, whereas in CPSS dogs, these enzymes lacked a clear zonal distribution. In primary hepatocytes higher ammonia concentrations induced mRNA levels of CPS1. We hypothesize that the reduction in expression of urea cycle enzymes, NAGS and GLUD1 as well as the alterations in zonal distribution in dogs with CPSS may be caused by a developmental arrest of these enzymes during the embryonic or early postnatal phase. PMID:24945279

  11. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) versus laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) plus preoperative endoscopic varices ligation (EVL) in the treatment of recurrent variceal bleeding.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jin; Wu, Zhong; Wu, Junchao; Wang, Xin; Li, Yongbin; Wang, Mingjun; Yang, Zhengguo; Peng, Bing; Zhou, Zongguang

    2013-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to compare elective transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) and laparoscopic splenectomy (LS) plus preoperative endoscopic varices ligation (EVL) in their efficacy in preventing recurrent bleeding and improving the long-term liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis and portal hypertension. Between January 2009 and March 2012, we enrolled 83 patients (55 with TIPS, defined as the TIPS group, and 28 with LS plus preoperative EVL, defined as the LS group) with portal hypertension and a history of gastroesophageal variceal bleeding resulting from liver cirrhosis. The clinical characteristics, perioperative outcomes, and follow-up were recorded. No significant differences were observed between the two treatment groups with respect to the patients' characteristics and preoperative variables. Within 30 days after surgery, one patient in the TIPS group died of multiple organ dysfunction syndrome, whereas no patient in the LS group died. Complications occurred in 14 patients in the TIPS group, which included rebleeding, encephalopathy, ascites, bleeding from a pseudoaneurysm of the thoracoabdominal aorta, and pulmonary infection, compared with 5 patients in the LS group, which included pulmonary effusion, pancreatic leakage, and portal vein thrombosis. During a mean follow-up of 13.6 months in the TIPS group and 12.3 months in the LS group, the actuarial survival was 85.5 % in the TIPS group versus 100 % in the LS group. The long-term complications included rebleeding and encephalopathy in the TIPS group. LS plus EVL was superior to TIPS in the prevention of gastroesophageal variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients. This treatment was associated with a low rate of portosystemic encephalopathy and improvements in the long-term liver function.

  12. Implantability, Complications, and Follow-Up After Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent-Shunt Creation With the 6F Self-Expanding Sinus-SuperFlex-Visual Stent

    PubMed Central

    Spira, Daniel; Wiskirchen, Jakub; Lauer, Ulrich; Ketelsen, Dominik; Nikolaou, Konstantin; Wiesinger, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Background The transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent-shunt (TIPSS) builds a shortcut between the portal vein and a liver vein, and represents a sophisticated alternative to open surgery in the management of portal hypertension or its complications. Objectives To describe clinical experiences with a low-profile nitinol stent system in TIPSS creation, and to assess primary and long-term success. Patients and Methods Twenty-six patients (5 females, 21 males; mean age 54.6 years) were treated using a low-profile 6F self-expanding sinus-SuperFlex-Visual stent system. The indication for TIPSS creation was refractory bleeding in 9 of the 26 patients, refractory ascites in 18 patients, and acute thrombosis of the portal vein confluence in one patient. Portosystemic pressure gradients before and after TIPSS, periprocedural and long-term complications, and the time to orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) or death were recorded. Results The portosystemic pressure gradient was significantly reduced, from 20.9 ± 6.3 mmHg before to 8.2 ± 2.3 mmHg after TIPSS creation (P < 0.001). Procedure-related complications included acute tract occlusion (n = 2), liver hematoma (n = 1), hepatic encephalopathy (n = 1), and cardiac failure (n = 1). Three of the 26 patients had late-onset TIPSS occlusion (at 12, 12, and 39 months after TIPSS creation). Three patients died within one week after the procedure due to their poor general condition (multiorgan failure, acute respiratory distress syndrome, necrotizing pancreatitis, and aspiration pneumonia). Another four patients succumbed to their underlying advanced liver disease within one year after TIPSS insertion. Seven patients underwent OLT at a mean time of 9.4 months after TIPSS creation. Conclusion The sinus-SuperFlex-Visual stent system can be safely deployed as a TIPSS device. The pressure gradient reduction was clinically sufficient to treat the patients’ symptoms, and periprocedural complications were due to the TIPSS

  13. MELD Score as a Predictor of Early Death in Patients Undergoing Elective Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) Procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Montgomery, Aaron; Ferral, Hector Vasan, Rajiv; Postoak, Darren W.

    2005-04-15

    Purpose. To Evaluate the MELD score as a predictor of 30-day mortality in patients undergoing elective TIPS procedures. Methods. This was a retrospective, IRB-approved study. The medical records of all patients who underwent a TIPS procedure between May 1, 1999 and June 1, 2003 in a single institution were reviewed. Patients who underwent elective TIPS were selected. Elective TIPS was performed in 119 patients with a mean age of 55.1 ({+-} 9.6) years. The MELD and Child-Pugh scores before TIPS, etiology of cirrhosis, portosystemic gradients before and after TIPS, procedure time, and procedural complications were obtained from the medical records. The MELD and Child-Pugh scores before TIPS were compared between the survivor group (SG) and the early death (EDG) group. The early death rate was calculated for MELD score subgroups (1-10, 11-17, 18-24, and >24). Data were analyzed using the Fisher exact test, chi-square test and independent-sample t-test. A p value of less than 0.05 was considered significant. Results. Technical success rate was 100%. The early death rate was 10.9% (13/119). The mean MELD scores before TIPS were 19.4 ({+-} 5.9) (EDG) and 14 ({+-} 4.2) (SG) (p = 0.025). The early death rate was highest in the pre-TIPS MELD > 24 subgroup. The Child-Pugh scores were 9.0 ({+-} 1.6) (SG) and 9.8 {+-} 1.06 (EDG) (p 0.08). The mean portosystemic gradients before TIPS were 20.5 ({+-} 7.7) mmHg (EDG) and 22.7 ({+-} 7.3) (SG) (p > 1) and the mean portosystemic gradients after TIPS were 6.5 ({+-} 3.5) (EDG) and 6.9 ({+-} 2.4) (SG) (p > 1). The mean procedural times were 95.6 ({+-} 8.4) min (EDG) and 89.2 ({+-} 7.5) min (SG) (p > 1). No early death was attributed to a fatal complication during TIPS. Conclusion. The MELD score is useful in identifying patients at a higher risk of early death after an elective TIPS. On the basis of our results, we do not endorse elective TIPS in patients with MELD scores > 24.

  14. Trans-jugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt placement for refractory ascites: a ‘real-world’ UK health economic evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Matthew J; Guha, Neil; Stedman, Brian; Hacking, Nigel; Wright, Mark

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the benefit of trans-jugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) placement for refractory ascites. Design A retrospective observational study of all patients undergoing TIPS for refractory ascites in our hospital between 2003 and 2012. Setting Secondary care. Patients Cirrhotic patients with refractory ascites. Main outcome measures We examined direct real-world (National Health Service) health related costs in the year before and after the TIPS procedure took place. Data were collected relating to the need for reintervention and hepatic encephalopathy. Results Data were available for 24 patients who underwent TIPS for refractory ascites (86% of eligible patients). TIPS was technically successful in all cases. Mean number of bed days in the year prior to TIPS was 30.3 and 14.3 in the year following (p=0.005). No patient had ascites at the end of the year after the TIPS with less requirement for paracentesis over the course of the year (p<0.001). Mean reduction in cost was £2759 per patient. TIPS was especially cost-effective in patients requiring between 6 and 12 drains per year with a mean saving of £9204 per patient. Conclusions TIPS is both a clinically effective and economically advantageous therapeutic option for selected patients with refractory ascites. PMID:28839725

  15. Efficacy of a Dexamethasone-Eluting Nitinol Stent on the Inhibition of Pseudointimal Hyperplasia in a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: An Experimental Study in a Swine Model

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Tae-Seok; Park, Young-Koo; Song, Ho-Young; Park, Sang Joon; Yuk, Sun-Hong

    2005-01-01

    Objective We wanted to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of using a dexamethasone (DM)-eluting nitinol stent to inhibit the pseudointimal hyperplasia following stent placement in the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt tract (TIPS) of a swine. Materials and Methods Fifteen stents were constructed using 0.15 mm-thick nitinol wire; they were 60 mm in length and 10 mm in diameter. The metallic stents were then classified into three types; type 1 and 2 was coated with the mixture of 12% and 20%, respectively, of DM solution and polyurethane (PU), while type 3 was a bare stent that was used for control study. In fifteen swine, each type of stent was implanted in the TIPS tract of 5 swine, and each animal was sacrificed 2 weeks after TIPS creation. The proliferation of the pseudointima was evaluated both on follow-up portogram and pathologic examination. Results One TIPS case, using the type 1 stent, and two TIPS cases, using the type 2 stent, maintained their luminal patency while the others were all occluded. On the histopathologic analysis, the mean of the maximum pseudointimal hyperplasia was expressed as the percentage of the stent radius that was patent, and these values were 51.2%, 50% and 76% for the type 1, 2, and 3 stents, respectively. Conclusion The DM-eluting stent showed a tendency to reduce the development of pseudointimal hyperplasia in the TIPS tract of a swine model with induced-portal hypertension. PMID:16374082

  16. Successful Treatment of Small Intestinal Bleeding in a Crohn's Patient with Noncirrhotic Portal Hypertension by Transjugular Portosystemic Shunt Placement and Infliximab Treatment.

    PubMed

    Heimgartner, Benjamin; Dawson, Heather; De Gottardi, Andrea; Wiest, Reiner; Niess, Jan Hendrik

    2016-01-01

    Small intestinal bleeding in Crohn's disease patients with noncirrhotic portal hypertension and partial portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis is a life-threatening event. Here, a case is reported in which treatment with azathioprine may have resulted in nodular regenerative hyperplasia, portal hypertension and portal vein thrombosis. The 56-year-old patient with Crohn's disease developed nodular regenerative hyperplasia under treatment with azathioprine. He was admitted with severe bleeding. Gastroscopy showed small esophageal varices without bleeding stigmata. Blood was detected in the terminal ileum. CT scan revealed a partial portal vein thrombosis with extension to the superior mesenteric vein, thickening of the jejunal wall and splenomegaly. Because intestinal bleeding could not be controlled by conservative treatment, the thrombus was aspirated and a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was placed. Switching the immunosuppressive medication to infliximab controlled Crohn's disease activity. Bleeding was stopped, hemoglobin normalized, and thrombocytopenia and bowel movements improved. In summary, small intestinal bleeding in a Crohn's patient with nodular regenerative hyperplasia, portal hypertension and portal vein thrombosis can be efficiently treated by TIPS. TIPS placement together with infliximab treatment led to the improvement of the blood panel and remission in this patient.

  17. Safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in the management of patients with gastric and duodenal varices who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts

    PubMed Central

    Burdick, James; Trotter, James F.

    2016-01-01

    Gastric variceal bleeding is associated with significant morbidity and mortality in patients with portal hypertension and cirrhosis. Options are limited for patients who are not candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS). Cyanoacrylate injections have been reported to be efficacious in previous case series. The aim of this retrospective study was to report our single-center experience with the safety and efficacy of 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate in patients who were not TIPS candidates. Electronic medical records were reviewed for 16 patients who underwent a total of 18 esophagogastroduodenoscopies for acute gastric or duodenal variceal bleeding and secondary prophylaxis of gastric varices; 14 patients had cirrhosis with an average Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score of 16, and 2 patients had noncirrhotic portal hypertension. Primary endpoints of the study included early and delayed rebleeding rate, complications, and death or liver transplantation. The rebleeding rate (early or delayed) was 7%, and no complications were found. One death was reported (unrelated to the procedure). In conclusion, 2-octyl-cyanoacrylate is a safe and effective alternative for non-TIPS candidates who present with acute gastric variceal bleeding given its low rebleeding and complication rate. PMID:27695164

  18. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt for the Treatment of Intractable Ascites in a Patient with Polycystic Liver Disease

    SciTech Connect

    Bahramipour, Phillip F.; Festa, Steven; Biswal, Rajiv; Wachsberg, Ronald H.

    2000-03-15

    Though polycystic liver disease (PCLD) has historically been considered a contraindication to TIPS, we present a case where technically successful shunt creation was achieved without the need for modification of the standard TIPS procedure, as was required in a previous report.

  19. Efficacy of TACE in TIPS Patients: Comparison of Treatment Response to Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With and Without a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Kuo, Yuo-Chen Kohi, Maureen P. Naeger, David M. Tong, Ricky T. Kolli, K. Pallav Taylor, Andrew G. Laberge, Jeanne M. Kerlan, Robert K. Fidelman, Nicholas

    2013-10-15

    Purpose: To compare treatment response after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with and without a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Materials and Methods: A retrospective review of patients who underwent conventional TACE for HCC between January 2005 and December 2009 identified 10 patients with patent TIPS. From the same time period, 23 patients without TIPS were selected to control for comparable Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh-Turcotte scores. The two groups showed similar distribution of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer and United Network of Organ Sharing stages. Target HCC lesions were evaluated according to the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) guidelines. Transplantation rate, time to tumor progression, and overall survival (OS) were documented. Results: After TACE, the rate of complete response was significantly greater in non-TIPS patients compared with TIPS patients (74 vs. 30 %, p = 0.03). Objective response rate (complete and partial response) trended greater in the non-TIPS group (83 vs. 50 %, p = 0.09). The liver transplantation rate was 80 and 74 % in the TIPS and non-TIPS groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Time to tumor progression was similar (p = 0.47) between the two groups. OS favored the non-TIPS group (p = 0.01) when censored for liver transplantation. Conclusion: TACE is less effective in achieving complete or partial response using mRECIST criteria in TIPS patients compared with those without a TIPS. Nevertheless, similar clinical outcomes may be achieved, particularly in TIPS patients who are liver-transplantation candidates.

  20. Comparison of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt with Covered Stent and Balloon-Occluded Retrograde Transvenous Obliteration in Managing Isolated Gastric Varices

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kristen A.; Sauk, Steven; Korenblat, Kevin

    2017-01-01

    Objective Although a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is commonly placed to manage isolated gastric varices, balloon-occluded retrograde transvenous obliteration (BRTO) has also been used. We compare the long-term outcomes from these procedures based on our institutional experience. Materials and Methods We conducted a retrospective review of patients with isolated gastric varices who underwent either TIPS with a covered stent or BRTO between January 2000 and July 2013. We identified 52 consecutive patients, 27 who had received TIPS with a covered stent and 25 who had received BRTO. We compared procedural complications, re-bleeding rates, and clinical outcomes between the two groups. Results There were no significant differences in procedural complications between patients who underwent TIPS (7%) and those who underwent BRTO (12%) (p = 0.57). There were also no statistically significant differences in re-bleeding rates from gastric varices between the two groups (TIPS, 7% [2/27]; BRTO, 8% [2/25]; p = 0.94) or in developing new ascites following either procedure (TIPS, 4%; BRTO, 4%; p = 0.96); significantly more patients who underwent TIPS developed hepatic encephalopathy (22%) than did those who underwent BRTO (0%, p = 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in mean survival between the two groups (TIPS, 30 months; BRTO, 24 months; p = 0.16); median survival for the patients who received TIPS was 16.6 months, and for those who underwent BRTO, it was 26.6 months. Conclusion BRTO is an effective method of treating isolated gastric varices with similar outcomes and complication rates to those of TIPS with a covered stent but with a lower rate of hepatic encephalopathy. PMID:28246514

  1. One step minilaparotomy-assisted transmesenteric portal vein recanalization combined with transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement: A novel surgical proposal in pediatrics

    PubMed Central

    Pelizzo, Gloria; Quaretti, Pietro; Moramarco, Lorenzo Paolo; Corti, Riccardo; Maestri, Marcello; Iacob, Giulio; Calcaterra, Valeria

    2017-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) placement is a standard procedure for the treatment of portal hypertension complications. When this conventional approach is not feasible, alternative procedures for systemic diversion of portal blood have been proposed. A one-step interventional approach, combining minilaparotomy-assisted transmesenteric (MAT) antegrade portal recanalization and TIPS, is described in an adolescent with recurrent esophageal varice bleeding and portal cavernoma (PC). A 16-year-old girl was admitted to our Unit because of repeated bleeding episodes over a short period of time due to esophageal varices in the context of a PC. A portal vein recanalization through an ileocolic vein isolation with the MAT approach followed by TIPS during the same session was performed. In the case of failed portal recanalization, this approach, would also be useful for varice endovascular embolization. Postoperative recovery was uneventful. Treatment consisting of propanolol, enoxaparin and a proton pump inhibitor was prescribed after the procedure. One month post-op, contrast enhanced computed tomography confirmed the patency of the portal and intrahepatic stent grafts. No residual peritoneal fluid was detected nor opacification of the large varices. Endoscopy showed good improvement of the varices. Doppler ultrasound confirmed the accelerated flow in the portal stent and hepatopetal flow inside the intrahepatic portal branches. Three months post-op, TIPS maintained its hourglass shape despite a slight expansion. Portal hypertension and life threatening conditions related to PC would benefit from one-step portal recanalization. MAT-TIPS is feasible and safe for the treatment of PC even in children. This minimally invasive procedure avoids or delays surgical treatment or re-transplantation when necessary in pediatric patients. PMID:28487619

  2. Radiation doses to operators performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt using a flat-panel detector-based system and ultrasound guidance for portal vein targeting.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Roberto; Gerasia, Roberta; Maruzzelli, Luigi; D'Amico, Mario; Luca, Angelo

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to prospectively evaluate effective dose (E) of operators performing transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) in a single centre. Patients' radiation exposure was also collected. Between 8/2015 and 6/2016, 45 consecutive TIPS were performed in adult patients using a flat-panel detector-based system (FPDS) and real-time ultrasound guidance (USG) for portal vein targeting. Electronic personal dosimeters were used to measure radiation doses to the primary and assistant operators, anaesthesia nurse and radiographer. Patients' radiation exposure was measured with dose area product (DAP); fluoroscopy time (FT) was also collected. Mean E for the primary operator was 1.40 μSv (SD 2.68, median 0.42, range 0.12 - 12.18), for the assistant operator was 1.29 μSv (SD 1.79, median 0.40, range 0.10 - 4.89), for the anaesthesia nurse was 0.21 μSv (SD 0.67, median 0.10, range 0.03 - 3.99), for the radiographer was 0.42 μSv (SD 0.71, median 0.25, range 0.03 - 2.67). Mean patient DAP was 59.31 GyCm(2) (SD 56.91, median 31.58, range 7.66 - 281.40); mean FT was 10.20 min (SD 7.40, median 10.40, range 3.8 - 31.8). The use of FPDS and USG for portal vein targeting allows a reasonably low E to operators performing TIPS. • The operators' E vary according to the complexity of the procedure. • FPDS and USG allow a reasonably low E to TIPS operators. • FPDS and USG have an important role in reducing the occupational exposure.

  3. Efficacy of TACE in TIPS Patients: Comparison of Treatment Response to Chemoembolization for Hepatocellular Carcinoma in Patients With and Without a Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Kohi, Maureen P.; Naeger, David M.; Tong, Ricky T.; Kolli, K. Pallav; Taylor, Andrew G.; Laberge, Jeanne M.; Kerlan, Robert K.; Fidelman, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To compare treatment response after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with and without a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). Materials and Methods A retrospective review of patients who underwent conventional TACE for HCC between January 2005 and December 2009 identified 10 patients with patent TIPS. From the same time period, 23 patients without TIPS were selected to control for comparable Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child–Pugh–Turcotte scores. The two groups showed similar distribution of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer and United Network of Organ Sharing stages. Target HCC lesions were evaluated according to the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) guidelines. Transplantation rate, time to tumor progression, and overall survival (OS) were documented. Results After TACE, the rate of complete response was significantly greater in non-TIPS patients compared with TIPS patients (74 vs. 30 %, p = 0.03). Objective response rate (complete and partial response) trended greater in the non-TIPS group (83 vs. 50 %, p = 0.09). The liver transplantation rate was 80 and 74 % in the TIPS and non-TIPS groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Time to tumor progression was similar (p = 0.47) between the two groups. OS favored the non-TIPS group (p = 0.01) when censored for liver transplantation. Conclusion TACE is less effective in achieving complete or partial response using mRECIST criteria in TIPS patients compared with those without a TIPS. Nevertheless, similar clinical outcomes may be achieved, particularly in TIPS patients who are liver-transplantation candidates. PMID:23864021

  4. Efficacy of TACE in TIPS patients: comparison of treatment response to chemoembolization for hepatocellular carcinoma in patients with and without a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yuo-Chen; Kohi, Maureen P; Naeger, David M; Tong, Ricky T; Kolli, K Pallav; Taylor, Andrew G; Laberge, Jeanne M; Kerlan, Robert K; Fidelman, Nicholas

    2013-10-01

    To compare treatment response after transarterial chemoembolization (TACE) for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in patients with and without a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS). A retrospective review of patients who underwent conventional TACE for HCC between January 2005 and December 2009 identified 10 patients with patent TIPS. From the same time period, 23 patients without TIPS were selected to control for comparable Model for End-Stage Liver Disease and Child-Pugh-Turcotte scores. The two groups showed similar distribution of Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer and United Network of Organ Sharing stages. Target HCC lesions were evaluated according to the modified response evaluation criteria in solid tumors (mRECIST) guidelines. Transplantation rate, time to tumor progression, and overall survival (OS) were documented. After TACE, the rate of complete response was significantly greater in non-TIPS patients compared with TIPS patients (74 vs. 30 %, p = 0.03). Objective response rate (complete and partial response) trended greater in the non-TIPS group (83 vs. 50 %, p = 0.09). The liver transplantation rate was 80 and 74 % in the TIPS and non-TIPS groups, respectively (p = 1.0). Time to tumor progression was similar (p = 0.47) between the two groups. OS favored the non-TIPS group (p = 0.01) when censored for liver transplantation. TACE is less effective in achieving complete or partial response using mRECIST criteria in TIPS patients compared with those without a TIPS. Nevertheless, similar clinical outcomes may be achieved, particularly in TIPS patients who are liver-transplantation candidates.

  5. Pre-transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) prediction of post-TIPS overt hepatic encephalopathy: the critical flicker frequency is more accurate than psychometric tests.

    PubMed

    Berlioux, Pierre; Robic, Marie Angèle; Poirson, Hélèe; Métivier, Sophie; Otal, Philippe; Barret, Carine; Lopez, Frédéric; Péron, Jean Marie; Vinel, Jean Pierre; Bureau, Christophe

    2014-02-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunts (TIPS) is a second-line treatment because of an increased incidence of overt hepatic encephalopathy (OHE). A better selection of patients to decrease this risk is needed and one promising approach could be the detection of minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE). The aim of the present prospective study was to determine whether pre-TIPS minimal hepatic encephalopathy was predictive of post-TIPS OHE and to compare Psychometric Hepatic Encephalopathy Sum Score(PHES) and the Critical Flicker Frequency (CFF) in this setting. From May 2008 to January 2011, 54 consecutive patients treated with TIPS were included. PHES and CFF were performed 1 to 7 days before and after TIPS at months 1, 3, 6, 9, and 12 or until liver transplantation or death. Before TIPS, MHE was detected by PHES and CFF in 33% and 39% of patients, respectively. After the TIPS procedure, 19 patients (35%) experienced a total of 64 episodes of OHE. OHE developed significantly more often inpatients for whom an indication for TIPS had been refractory ascites, with a history of OHE or of renal failure, lower hemoglobin level, or MHE as diagnosed by CFF. Post-TIPS OHE was more accurately predicted by CFF than by PHES. Absence of MHE at CFF had a good negative predictive value (91%) for the risk of post-TIPS recurrent OHE, defined as the occurrence of three or more episodes of OHE or of one episode which lasted more than 15 days. The absence of pre-TIPS history of OHE and a CFF value equal to or greater than 39 Hz had a 100% negative predictive value for post-TIPS recurrent OHE. Aiming to decrease the rate of post-TIPS HE, the use of CFF could help selecting patients for TIPS.

  6. MELD-Na as a prognostic indicator of 30- and 90-day mortality in patients with end-stage liver disease after creation of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Rezwan; Santhanam, Prasanna; Rayyan, Yaser

    2015-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that the Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score is superior to other liver disease scoring systems to establish optimal candidates for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure and liver transplantation. Our aim was to compare MELD-Na score with MELD score as a predictor of 30-day as well as 90-day mortality for individuals with end-stage liver disease (ESLD) after creation of TIPS. We performed a chart review on cirrhotic patients who underwent TIPS procedure and documented presence and severity of ascites and hepatic encephalopathy, patient laboratory values, and results from TIPS procedures. We compared continuous variables by Student's t-test for independent samples and categorical variables by χ-test(s). In non-normal distributions, a nonparametric test was used. We performed a logistic regression to determine the effects of several variables and analyzed variable predictors of likelihood of death within 30 and 90 days of TIPS procedure. Of the six predictor variables, only MELD-Na score was a statistically significant predictor of 30- and 90-day mortality following TIPS procedure for ESLD (P=0.028). For each one point increase in MELD-Na score, the odds of death increased by 1.15 times [95% confidence interval (1.02-1.30), P=0.28]. Since hyponatremia may be associated with poor prognostic features of overall health, its incorporation into the MELD scoring system to predict mortality in ESLD after creation of TIPS serves a useful purpose. Our single-center experience suggests that the MELD-Na score is the most effective predictor of survival after TIPS creation.

  7. Impact of Anatomical, Procedural, and Operator Skill Factors on the Success and Duration of Fluoroscopy-Guided Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Marquardt, Steffen Rodt, Thomas Rosenthal, Herbert Wacker, Frank Meyer, Bernhard C.

    2015-08-15

    PurposeTo assess the impact of anatomical, procedural, and operator skill factors on the success and duration of fluoroscopy-guided transjugular intrahepatic portoystemic shunt following standard operating procedure (SOP).Material and MethodsDuring a 32-month period, 102 patients underwent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation (TIPS) by two interventional radiologists (IR) following our institutional SOP based on fluoroscopy guidance. Both demographic and procedural data were assessed. The duration of the intervention (D{sub Int}) and of the portal vein puncture (D{sub Punct}) was analyzed depending on the skill level of the IR as well as the anatomic or procedural factors.ResultsIn 99 of the 102 patients, successful TIPS without peri-procedural complications was performed. The mean D{sub Int} (IR1: 77 min; IR2: 51 min, P < 0.005) and the mean D{sub Punct} (IR1: 19 min; IR2: 13 min, P < 0.005) were significantly higher in TIPS performed by IR1 (with 2 years of clinical experience performing TIPS, n = 38) than by IR2 (>10 years of clinical experience performing TIPS, n = 61), (P < 0.005 both, Mann–Whitney U test). D{sub Int} showed a higher correlation with D{sub Punct} for IR2 (R{sup 2} = 0.63) than for IR1 (R{sup 2} = 0.13). There was no significant difference in the D{sub Punct} for both IRs with regard to the success of the wedged portography (P = 0.90), diameter of the portal vein (P = 0.60), central right portal vein length (P = 0.49), or liver function (MELD-Score before the TIPS procedure; P = 0.14).ConclusionTIPS following SOP is safe, fast, and reliable. The only significant factor for shorter D{sub Punct} and D{sub Int} was the clinical experience of the IR. Anatomic variability, successful portography, or liver function did not alter the duration or technical success of TIPS.

  8. Long-term Outcome and Analysis of Dysfunction of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt Placement in Chronic Primary Budd-Chiari Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Hayek, Georges; Ronot, Maxime; Plessier, Aurélie; Sibert, Annie; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed; Zappa, Magaly; Rautou, Pierre-Emmanuel; Valla, Dominique; Vilgrain, Valérie

    2016-10-31

    Purpose To evaluate the long-term safety, technical success, and efficacy of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) in a series of patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS), and to determine the predictors of shunt dysfunction. Materials and Methods From 2004 to 2013, all patients with primary BCS referred for TIPS placement were included in the study. The primary and secondary technical success rates and the number and types of early (ie, before day 7) complications were noted. Factors associated with dysfunction were analyzed with uni- and multivariate analyses. Survival was analyzed with Kaplan-Meier curves. Results Fifty-four patients (34 women [63%]; mean age, 36 years ± 12 [standard deviation]) were included. Twenty-eight patients (52%) had myeloproliferative neoplasms. The mean Model for End-Stage Liver Disease score was 14.5 ± 4. The most frequent indication for TIPS was refractory ascites (50 of 54; 93%). Primary and secondary technical success rates were 93% and 98%, respectively. Early complications occurred in 17 patients (32%). After a mean follow-up of 56 months ± 41 (interquartile range, 22-92), 22 patients (42%) experienced at least one episode of TIPS dysfunction (median delay between administration of TIPS and first episode of dysfunction, 10.8 months). Cumulative 1-, 2-, 3-, 5-, and 10-year primary patency rates were 64%, 59%, 54%, 45%, and 45%, respectively. Dysfunction was associated with a myeloproliferative neoplasm (hazard ratio, 8.18; 95% confidence interval: 1.45, 46.18; P = .017), more than two initial stents (hazard ratio, 3.90; 95% confidence interval:1.16, 13.10; P = .027), and the occurrence of early complications (hazard ratio, 11.34; 95% confidence interval: 1.82, 70.69; P = .009). The 10-year survival rate was 76%. Conclusion TIPS placement in patients with chronic primary BCS was associated with a nonnegligible rate of early complications and required endovascular revision or revisions in 42% of patients

  9. Impact of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt on post liver transplantation outcomes: Study based on the United Network for Organ Sharing database

    PubMed Central

    Mumtaz, Khalid; Metwally, Sherif; Modi, Rohan M; Patel, Nishi; Tumin, Dmitry; Michaels, Anthony J; Hanje, James; El-Hinnawi, Ashraf; Hayes Jr, Don; Black, Sylvester M

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the impact of transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt (TIPS) on post liver transplantation (LT) outcomes. METHODS Utilizing the United Network for Organ Sharing (UNOS) database, we compared patients who underwent LT from 2002 to 2013 who had underwent TIPS to those without TIPS for the management of ascites while on the LT waitlist. The impact of TIPS on 30-d mortality, length of stay (LOS), and need for re-LT were studied. For evaluation of mean differences between baseline characteristics for patients with and without TIPS, we used unpaired t-tests for continuous measures and χ2 tests for categorical measures. We estimated the impact of TIPS on each of the outcome measures. Multivariate analyses were conducted on the study population to explore the effect of TIPS on 30-d mortality post-LT, need for re-LT and LOS. All covariates were included in logistic regression analysis. RESULTS We included adult patients (age ≥ 18 years) who underwent LT from May 2002 to September 2013. Only those undergoing TIPS after listing and before liver transplant were included in the TIPS group. We excluded patients with variceal bleeding within two weeks of listing for LT and those listed for acute liver failure or hepatocellular carcinoma. Of 114770 LT in the UNOS database, 32783 (28.5%) met inclusion criteria. Of these 1366 (4.2%) had TIPS between the time of listing and LT. We found that TIPS increased the days on waitlist (408 ± 553 d) as compared to those without TIPS (183 ± 330 d), P < 0.001. Multivariate analysis showed that TIPS had no effect on 30-d post LT mortality (OR = 1.26; 95%CI: 0.91-1.76) and re-LT (OR = 0.61; 95%CI: 0.36-1.05). Pre-transplant hepatic encephalopathy added 3.46 d (95%CI: 2.37-4.55, P < 0.001), followed by 2.16 d (95%CI: 0.92-3.38, P = 0.001) by TIPS to LOS. CONCLUSION TIPS did increase time on waitlist for LT. More importantly, TIPS was not associated with 30-d mortality and re-LT, but it did lengthen hospital LOS after

  10. Histologic heterogeneity and intranodal shunt flow in lymph nodes from elderly subjects: a cadaveric study.

    PubMed

    Murakami, Gen; Taniguchi, Izumi

    2004-03-01

    Gaps of the superficial cortex of the lymph node provide intranodal shunts that are more often the cause of skip metastasis than are collateral vessels. Examination of lymph nodes from cadavers of elderly subjects often revealed cortical gaps, especially in specific three-dimensional assembled cords; these cortical gaps were readily seen in para-aortic and pelvic nodes. This architecture seemed to be more appropriate for a systemic immune response than a local defense. Evidence of poorly developed cortices, anthracosis, and hyalinization also suggested impaired nodal function. We suspect that this histologic heterogeneity, perhaps a result of aging, affects the nodal trapping of colorimetric/isotopic tracers and metastatic cancer cells. This may have implications for lymphatic mapping of the sentinel lymph node in elderly patients with early-stage cancer.

  11. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    MedlinePlus Videos and Cool Tools

    ... any allergies, especially to local anesthetic medications, general anesthesia or to contrast materials containing iodine (sometimes referred ... this procedure while the patient is under general anesthesia, while some prefer conscious sedation for their patient. ...

  12. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS)

    MedlinePlus

    ... ray or ultrasound equipment, a stent, and a balloon-tipped catheter are used. The equipment typically used ... the stent is in the correct position, the balloon is inflated, expanding the stent into place. The ...

  13. Improved Patency of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: The Efficacy of Cilostazol for the Prevention of Pseudointimal Hyperplasia in Swine TIPS Models

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sang Woo Cha, In Ho; Kim, Chul Hwan; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Jeong Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Lee, In Sik

    2007-07-15

    Purpose. To investigate the efficacy of oral administration of cilostazol to inhibit pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models. Methods. Successful TIPS creation was carried out in 11 of 12 healthy young pigs (20-25 kg). In the treatment group (n = 6), both cilostazol and aspirin were administered daily, from the first day of TIPS creation. The control group (n = 5) was administered only aspirin. The animals were followed-up for 2 weeks and then killed. The specimen (including portal vein, hepatic parenchymal tract, hepatic vein, and inferior vena cava) and stents were carefully bisected in a longitudinal fashion. The control group was compared with the treatment group by means of a gross and histologic evaluation of the degree of pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in the shunt. Results. At the gross evaluation, the control group showed considerably more pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia than the treatment group. Using microscopic evaluation, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean maximum pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia thickness between the control group (2.97 {+-} 0.33 mm) and treatment group (0.73 {+-} 0.27 mm). Conclusion. Oral administration of cilostazol may have been effective in reducing pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models.

  14. improved patency of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: the efficacy of cilostazol for the prevention of pseudointimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models.

    PubMed

    Park, Sang Woo; Cha, In Ho; Kim, Chul Hwan; Jeon, Hae Jeong; Park, Jeong Hee; Hong, Suk Joo; Lee, In Sik

    2007-01-01

    To investigate the efficacy of oral administration of cilostazol to inhibit pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models. Successful TIPS creation was carried out in 11 of 12 healthy young pigs (20-25 kg). In the treatment group (n = 6), both cilostazol and aspirin were administered daily, from the first day of TIPS creation. The control group (n = 5) was administered only aspirin. The animals were followed-up for 2 weeks and then killed. The specimen (including portal vein, hepatic parenchymal tract, hepatic vein, and inferior vena cava) and stents were carefully bisected in a longitudinal fashion. The control group was compared with the treatment group by means of a gross and histologic evaluation of the degree of pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in the shunt. At the gross evaluation, the control group showed considerably more pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia than the treatment group. Using microscopic evaluation, there was a statistically significant difference (p < 0.05) in the mean maximum pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia thickness between the control group (2.97 +/- 0.33 mm) and treatment group (0.73 +/- 0.27 mm). Oral administration of cilostazol may have been effective in reducing pseudointimal/intimal hyperplasia in swine TIPS models.

  15. Canine congenital portosystemic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Maddison, J E

    1988-08-01

    The case records of 21 dogs with congenital portosystemic encephalopathy are reviewed. The disorder was most common in Australian cattledogs (blue heelers; 8 cases), Old English sheepdogs (3 cases) and Maltese terriers (3 cases). Extra-hepatic shunts occurred in small breeds, with the exception of 1 cattledog, while intra-hepatic shunts occurred in the medium to large breeds. The most common clinical pathology abnormalities were abnormal ammonia tolerance, mild to moderate increases in plasma alanine aminotransferase or alkaline phosphatase concentrations, decreased total serum protein concentrations, increased fasting ammonia concentrations and ammonium biurate crystalluria. Radiological examination revealed that all the dogs had a small liver. The kidneys were enlarged in 5 of 10 dogs in which kidney size could be estimated. Surgical ligation of an extra-hepatic shunt was successful in 2 of 4 dogs in which it was attempted. Medical management resulted in alleviation of clinical signs in 5 of 8 dogs. The period of successful treatment ranged from a few months to over a year.

  16. Construction of Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt: Bare Metal Stent/Stent-graft Combination versus Single Stent-graft, a Prospective Randomized Controlled Study with Long-term Patency and Clinical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang-Ming; Li, Xuan; Fu, Jun; Luan, Jing-Yuan; Li, Tian-Run; Zhao, Jun; Dong, Guo-Xiang

    2016-01-01

    Background: Balanced adjustment of the portal vein shunt volume during a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is critical for maintaining liver perfusion and decreasing the incidence of liver insufficiency. A stent-graft is proved to be superior to a bare metal stent (BMS) for the construction of a TIPS. However, the clinical results of the combination application of stents and stent-grafts have not been determined. This study aimed to compare the technique of using a combination of stents and stent-grafts with using a single stent-graft to construct a TIPS. Methods: From April 2011 to November 2014, a total of fifty patients were randomly assigned to a stents-combination group (Group I, n = 28) or a stent-graft group (Group II, n = 22). Primary patency rates were calculated. Clinical data, including the technical success rate, bleeding control results, incidence of encephalopathy, liver function preservation, and survival rate, were assessed. Results: Technically, the success rate was 100% for both groups. The primary patency rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for Group I were 96%, 84%, and 77%, respectively; for Group II, they were 90%, 90%, and 78%, respectively. The survival rates at 1, 2, and 3 years for Group I were 79%, 74%, and 68%, respectively; for Group II, they were 82%, 82%, and 74%, respectively. The incidence of hepatic encephalopathy was 14.3% for Group I and 13.6% for Group II. The Child-Pugh score in Group I was stable at the end of the follow-up but had significantly increased in Group II (t = −2.474, P = 0.022). Conclusions: The construction of a TIPS with either the single stent-graft or BMS/stent-graft combination is effective for controlling variceal bleeding. The BMS/stent-graft combination technique is superior to the stent-graft technique in terms of hepatic function preservation indicated by the Child-Pugh score. However, considering the clinical results of the TIPS, the two techniques are comparable in their primary shunt

  17. A retrospective analysis of the impact of diastolic dysfunction on one-year mortality after transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt, liver transplantation and non-transplant abdominal surgery in patients with cirrhosis

    PubMed Central

    Shounak, Majumder; Vimal, Rabdiya; Colin, Swales; David I, Silverman

    2015-01-01

    Background The incidence of diastolic dysfunction (DD) approaches 40% in patients with cirrhosis. However, the clinical impact of DD remains a subject of considerable debate. Surgery in patients with cirrhosis is innately hazardous. Diastolic heart failure has been linked to increased mortality after transjugular intrahepatic porto-systemic shunt surgery (TIPSS). To date, none of the commonly accepted preoperative risk assessment models applied to patients with liver disease incorporates DD. We aimed to examine the relationship between DD and postoperative outcomes in patients with cirrhosis undergoing abdominal surgery. Methods Patients with cirrhosis who underwent abdominal surgery between January 2000 and December 2011 were included if they had preoperative echocardiography done within 3 months of surgery. The echocardiographic images were reviewed using flow and tissue Doppler techniques to identify the presence of DD. Outcomes analyzed included one-year mortality and postoperative complications. Results A total of 140 patients were included in the study of which 63 patients (45%) met pre-established criteria for DD. Those with DD were older (P < 0.005) and less likely to have an isolated viral etiology of cirrhosis (P<0.05). The one-year mortality rate was 22.2% (14/63) in patients with DD and 20.8% (16/77) in those without DD (P=0.42). Postoperative complications were not statistically different in the two groups. Conclusion DD is common in patients with cirrhosis. In patients with cirrhosis undergoing TIPS and/or abdominal surgery, the presence of DD does not increase post-procedure complications or one-year mortality. PMID:26129720

  18. Digital subtraction angiography during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt creation or revision: data on radiation exposure and image quality obtained using a standard and a low-dose acquisition protocol in a flat-panel detector-based system.

    PubMed

    Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; Cortis, Kelvin; Tafaro, Corrado; Gerasia, Roberta; Parisi, Carmelo; Luca, Angelo

    2015-08-01

    To determine whether the use of a low-dose acquisition protocol (LDP) in digital subtraction angiography during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation/revision results in significant reduction of patient radiation exposure and adequate image quality, as compared to a default reference standard-dose acquisition protocol (SDP). Two angiographic runs were performed during TIPS creation/revision: the first following catheterization of the portal venous system and the second after stent deployment/angioplasty. Constant field of view, object to image-detector distance, and source to image-receptor distance were maintained in each patient during the two angiographic runs. 17 consecutive adult patients who underwent TIPS creation (n = 11) or TIPS revision (n = 6) from December 2013 to March 2014 were considered eligible for this single centre prospective study. In each patient, the LDP and the SDP were used in a random order for the two runs, with each patient serving as his/her own control. The dose-area product (DAP) was calculated for each image and compared. Image quality was graded by two interventional radiologists other than the operator. In all runs acquired with the LDP, image quality was considered adequate for a successful procedural outcome. The DAP per image of the LDP was numerically inferior as compared to the DAP per image of the SDP in all patients. The mean reduction in DAP per image was 75.24% ± 5.7% (p < 0. 001). Radiation exposure during TIPS creation/revision was significantly reduced by selecting a LDP in our flat-panel detector-based system, while maintaining adequate image quality.

  19. Early Liver Failure after Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt in Patients with Cirrhosis with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease Score of 12 or Less: Incidence, Outcome, and Prognostic Factors.

    PubMed

    Luca, Angelo; Miraglia, Roberto; Maruzzelli, Luigi; D'Amico, Mario; Tuzzolino, Fabio

    2016-08-01

    Purpose To evaluate the incidence, outcomes, and prognostic factors of early liver failure (ELF) after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) creation in patients with cirrhosis with Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score of 12 or less. Materials and Methods Institutional review board approved this retrospective study, with waiver of written informed consent. Two-hundred sixteen consecutive patients with cirrhosis (140 men, 76 women; mean age, 55.9 years; virus-related cirrhosis, 67.6% [146 of 216 patients]) with baseline MELD score of 12 or less who underwent TIPS placement between September 1999 and July 2012 were followed until last clinical evaluation, liver transplantation, or death. The Kaplan-Meier method, log-rank test, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve, and univariate and multivariate analyses were used, as appropriate. Results Twenty of 216 patients (9.2%) developed ELF within 3 months of TIPS (10 patients died, one required liver transplantation, and nine increased the MELD score to >18). ELF was associated with lower survival, 37% versus 95% at 6 months, and 24% versus 86% at 12 months (P < .001) compared with patients without ELF. ELF occurred in 16 of 95 (16.8%) patients with refractory ascites and in four of 121 (3.3%) patients with other indications for TIPS. Multivariate analysis confirmed MELD scores of 11 or 12 (odds ratio, 3.96 [95% confidence interval: 1.07, 14.67]; P = .040), decreased hemoglobin level (odds ratio, 0.68 [95% confidence interval: 0.49, 0.95]; P = .022), and decreased platelet count (odds ratio, 0.99 [95% confidence interval: 0.99, 0.99]; P = .024) as predictors for ELF in patients with refractory ascites. Conclusion ELF is not uncommon in cirrhotic patients with a MELD score of 12 or less who undergo TIPS placement for refractory ascites (especially in patients with MELD of 11 or 12) and decreased hemoglobin level and platelet count. (©) RSNA, 2016.

  20. Post-TIPS Hepatic Encephalopathy Treated by Occlusion Balloon-Assisted Retrograde Embolization of a Coexisting Spontaneous Splenorenal Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Shioyama, Yasukazu; Matsueda, Kiyoshi; Horihata, Koushi; Kimura, Masashi; Nishida, Norifumi; Kishi, Kazushi; Terada, Masaki; Sato, Morio; Yamada, Ryusaku

    1996-11-15

    A 51-year-old man with posthepatitis cirrhosis underwent a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) for bleeding of recurrent esophageal varices. The patient had a coexisting, spontaneous, splenorenal shunt. He subsequently developed hepatic encephalopathy, presumably due to excessive portosystemic shunting. Since medical management resulted in no significant improvement, the splenorenal shunt was embolized from the jugular vein approach via renal vein access during temporary balloon occlusion. Within a few days, the patient's hepatic encephalopathy resolved. Twelve months later the patient showed no recurrence of encephalopathy and had maintained a patent TIPS.

  1. MRI-monitored intra-shunt local agent delivery of motexafin gadolinium: towards improving long-term patency of TIPS.

    PubMed

    Wang, Han; Zhang, Feng; Meng, Yanfeng; Zhang, Tong; Willis, Patrick; Le, Thomas; Soriano, Stephanie; Ray, Erik; Valji, Karim; Zhang, Guixiang; Yang, Xiaoming

    2013-01-01

    Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) has become an important and effective interventional procedure in treatment of the complications related to portal hypertension. Although the primary patency of TIPS has been greatly improved due to the clinical application of cover stent-grafts, the long-term patency is still suboptimal. This study was to investigate the feasibility of using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-monitored intra-shunt local agent delivery of motexafin gadolinium (MGd) into shunt-vein walls of TIPS. This new technique aimed to ultimately inhibit shuntstenosis of TIPS. Human umbilical vein smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were incubated with various concentrations of MGd, and then examed by confocal microscopy and T1-map MRI. In addition, the proliferation of MGd-treated cells was evaluated. For in vivo validation, seventeen pigs underwent TIPS. Before placement of the stent, an MGd/trypan-blue mixture was locally delivered, via a microporous balloon, into eleven shunt-hepatic vein walls under dynamic MRI monitoring, while trypan-blue only was locally delivered into six shunt-hepatic vein walls as serve as controls. T1-weighted MRI of the shunt-vein walls was achieved before- and at different time points after agent injections. Contrast-to-noise ratio (CNR) of the shunt-vein wall at each time-point was measured. Shunts were harvested for subsequent histology confirmation. In vitro studies confirmed the capability of SMCs in uptaking MGds in a concentration-dependent fashion, and demonstrated the suppression of cell proliferation by MGds as well. Dynamic MRI displayed MGd/blue penetration into the shunt-vein walls, showing significantly higher CNR of shunt-vein walls on post-delivery images than on pre-delivery images (49.5±9.4 vs 11.2±1.6, P<0.01), which was confirmed by histology. Results of this study indicate that MRI-monitored intra-shunt local MGd delivery is feasible and MGd functions as a potential therapeutic agent to inhibit the

  2. Restoration of Liver Function and Portosystemic Pressure Gradient after TIPSS and Late TIPSS Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Maedler, U.; Hansmann, J.; Duex, M.; Noeldge, G.; Sauer, P.; Richter, G.M.

    2002-03-15

    TIPSS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt) may be indicated to control bleeding from esophageal and gastric varicose veins, to reduce ascites, and to treat patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome and veno-occlusive disease. Numerous measures to improve the safety and methodology of the procedure have helped to increase the technical and clinical success. Follow-up of TIPSS patients has revealed shunt stenosis to occur more often in patients with preserved liver function (Child A, Child B). In addition, the extent of liver cirrhosis is the main factor that determines prognosis in the long term. Little is known about the effects of TIPSS with respect to portosystemic hemodynamics. This report deals with a cirrhotic patient who stopped drinking 7 months prior to admission. He received TIPSS to control ascites and recurrent esophageal bleeding. Two years later remarkable hypertrophy of the left liver lobe and shunt occlusion was observed. The portosystemic pressure gradient dropped from 24 mmHg before TIPSS to 11 mmHg and remained stable after shunt occlusion. The Child's B cirrhosis prior to TIPSS turned into Child's A cirrhosis and remained stable during the follow-up period of 32 months. This indicates that liver function of TIPSS patients may recover due to hypertrophy of the remaining non-cirrhotic liver tissue. In addition the hepatic hemodynamics may return to normal. In conclusion, TIPSS cannot cure cirrhosis but its progress may be halted if the cause can be removed. This may result in a normal portosystemic gradient, leading consequently to shunt occlusion.

  3. CT-Guided Transfemoral Portocaval Shunt Creation

    SciTech Connect

    Bloch, Robert; Fontaine, Arthur; Borsa, John; Hoffer, Eric; Kowdley, Kris

    2001-03-15

    A patient with superior vena cava (SVC) occlusion presented with severe ascites and urgent transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) was requested. The patient had a chronically occluded SVC. An alternative to classic TIPS was employed using CT guidance to traverse the left portal vein to the inferior vena cava with a small gauge needle. Fluoroscopic guidance was then used to snare a wire placed through the needle and then work from the femoral vein to create a portocaval shunt that passed through the caudate lobe. This procedure was a technical success and improved the patient's ascites.

  4. Ventriculosinus shunt.

    PubMed

    Toma, Ahmed K; Tarnaris, Andrew; Kitchen, Neil D; Watkins, Laurence D

    2010-04-01

    Hydrocephalus can be managed successfully with cerebrospinal fluid shunting to extracranial compartments, most commonly the peritoneum. However, current shunt systems are not ideal with high revision rates on long-term follow-up. Draining the cerebrospinal fluid from the cerebral ventricles to the cerebral venous sinuses could mimic the physiological conditions with the added advantages of avoiding overdrainage and extracranial recipient site complications. A literature search was carried out using the keywords hydrocephalus, shunt, venous sinus and sagittal sinus. Seven clinical series of ventriculosinus shunts with a total of 265 patients were found. None of the patients developed venous sinus thrombosis, air embolism or intra-operative sinus bleeding. Ventriculosinus shunt is a potential alternative that can be done under local anaesthetic in ill patients where traditional shunts recipient sites are not feasible. However, further studies with extended follow-up period would provide better understanding of the suitability and indications of this technique.

  5. [Early transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt: When, how and in whom?].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Blard, Esteban; Baiges, Anna; Turon, Fanny; Hernández-Gea, Virginia; García-Pagán, Juan Carlos

    2016-01-01

    Early TIPS is basically a new application of an old concept. This intervention used to be a useful rescue therapy when other interventions failed but has now become a primary intervention in patients with variceal bleeding and risk factors for poor prognosis. This technique has also been proven to control bleeding and has a definite survival advantage at 6 weeks and 1 year over standard therapy with vasoactive drugs and endoscopy, without increasing the rate of adverse events. In well-trained hands and with appropriate candidate selection, early TIPS is a safe, life-saving and evidenced-based procedure.

  6. Comparison of shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine and technetium-99m-pertechnetate in a group of dogs with experimentally-induced chronic biliary cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Koblik, P.D.; Hornof, W.J.; Yen, C.K.; Komtebedde, J.; Breznock, E.; Fisher, P. )

    1991-01-01

    Portosystemic shunt fraction estimation using transcolonic iodine-123-iodoamphetamine (IMP) has been previously validated relative to portal vein macroaggregated albumin injections using an experimental model of cirrhosis. Transcolonic technetium-99m-pertechnetate (TcO4-) has been proposed as an alternative tracer to IMP to study portal circulation in cirrhotic patients. We compared shunt fraction estimates from paired transcolonic IMP and TcO4- studies performed on a group of dogs before and after common bile duct ligation surgery. Pertechnetate over-estimated shunt fraction in 6/7 postoperative studies relative to IMP. A good correlation between the two methods was demonstrated, however, the slope of the regression line was substantially less than 1.0 with TcO4- values reaching 100% at IMP shunt values of approximately 60%. This apparent inability to accurately assess high shunt flows may limit the quantitative aspects of TcO4- studies on patients with severe portosystemic shunting.

  7. Green tea polyphenol decreases the severity of portosystemic collaterals and mesenteric angiogenesis in rats with liver cirrhosis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Jung; Wang, Sun-Sang; Hsin, I-Fang; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Huang, Hui-Chun; Huo, Teh-Ia; Lee, Wen-Shin; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Abnormal angiogenesis in liver cirrhosis often leads to severe complications such as variceal haemorrhage and encephalopathy. Furthermore, splanchnic angiogenesis elevates portal pressure, in which angiogenic factors play pivotal roles. GTP (green tea polyphenol) extracted from Camellia sinensis has anti-angiogenic properties, but the effects on the parameters described above in cirrhosis have not been investigated. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of GTP in cirrhosis and to investigate the underlying mechanism. Liver cirrhosis was induced in Spraque-Dawley rats by common BDL (bile duct ligation). They randomly received GTP or DW (distilled water, vehicle) for 28 days, then haemodynamic parameters, portosystemic shunting, mesenteric window vascular density, intrahepatic angiogenesis, liver fibrosis, plasma VEGF (vascular endothelial growth factor) concentration, mesenteric angiogenic factor and receptor protein expression, and serum and mesenteric oxidative stress parameters were assessed. Compared with the DW group, GTP significantly decreased portosystemic shunting, liver fibrosis, intrahepatic angiogenesis, mesenteric window vascular density, VEGF concentration and down-regulated the mesenteric HIF (hypoxia-inducible factor)-1α, VEGF and phospho-Akt expression. In conclusion, GTP ameliorates the severity of portosystemic shunting and mesenteric angiogenesis via the suppression of HIF-1α, Akt activation and VEGF. GTP appears to be an appropriate agent in controlling portal hypertension-related complications via anti-angiogenesis.

  8. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt

    MedlinePlus

    ... of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. In: Jandial R, McCormick PC, Black PM, eds. Core Techniques in Operative Neurosurgery . Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; ... Updated by: Joseph V. Campellone, MD, Division of Neurology, Cooper University ...

  9. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... ventriculoperitoneal - discharge; VP shunt - discharge; Shunt revision - discharge; Hydrocephalus shunt placement - discharge ... Your child has hydrocephalus and needed a shunt placed to drain excess fluid and relieve pressure in the brain. This buildup of brain ...

  10. Caffeine ameliorates hemodynamic derangements and portosystemic collaterals in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Shao-Jung; Lee, Fa-Yauh; Wang, Sun-Sang; Hsin, I-Fang; Lin, Te-Yueh; Huang, Hui-Chun; Chang, Ching-Chih; Chuang, Chiao-Lin; Ho, Hsin-Ling; Lin, Han-Chieh; Lee, Shou-Dong

    2015-05-01

    Portal hypertension (PH), a pathophysiological derangement of liver cirrhosis, is characterized by hyperdynamic circulation, angiogenesis, and portosystemic collaterals. These may lead to lethal complications, such as variceal bleeding. Caffeine has been noted for its effects on liver inflammation, fibrogenesis, and vasoreactiveness. However, the relevant influences of caffeine in cirrhosis and PH have not been addressed. Spraque-Dawley rats with common bile duct ligation-induced cirrhosis or sham operation received prophylactic or therapeutic caffeine treatment (50 mg/kg/day, the first or 15th day since operation, respectively) for 28 days. Compared to vehicle (distilled water), caffeine decreased cardiac index, increased systemic vascular resistance, reduced portal pressure (PP), superior mesenteric artery flow, mesenteric vascular density, portosystemic shunting (PSS), intrahepatic angiogenesis, and fibrosis without affecting liver and renal biochemistry. The beneficial effects were reversed by selective adenosine A1 agonist N6-cyclopentyladenosine (CPA) or A2A agonist GCS21680. Both prophylactic and therapeutic caffeine treatment decreased portal resistance and PP in thioacetamide (200mg/kg, thrice-weekly for 8 weeks)-induced cirrhotic rats. Caffeine down-regulated endothelial nitric oxide synthase, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), phospho-VEGFR2, and phospho-Akt mesenteric protein expression. Caffeine adversely affected viability of hepatic stellate and sinusoidal endothelial cells, which was reversed by CPA and GCS21680. On the other hand, caffeine did not modify vascular response to vasoconstrictors in splanchnic, hepatic, and collateral vascular beds. Caffeine decreased PP, ameliorated hyperdynamic circulation, PSS, mesenteric angiogenesis, hepatic angiogenesis, and fibrosis in cirrhotic rats. Caffeine may be a feasible candidate to ameliorate PH-related complications in cirrhosis. © 2015 by the American Association for the Study of Liver

  11. Preservation of portal pressure improves growth and metabolic profile in the male portacaval-shunted rat.

    PubMed

    Dasarathy, Srinivasan; Mullen, Kevin D; Conjeevaram, Hari S; Kaminsky-Russ, Kristine; Wills, Laurie A; McCullough, Arthur J

    2002-09-01

    The portacaval anastomosis (PCA) rat model and human cirrhosis have many metabolic and nutritional abnormalities in common, such as growth retardation, hepatic and gonadal atrophy, and hyperammonemia. The severity of these abnormalities is variable and may be related to a number of factors, including portal pressure, portosystemic shunting, dietary intake, and how efficiently food is used. Therefore, this rat model was used to study these variables with the intent of gaining insights for improving the management of portal hypertension and malnutrition in human cirrhosis. A nonsuture end-to-side PCA (N = 100) or sham surgery (N = 71) was performed in 100 male rats. Four weeks after surgery, body and organ weights, food intake, serum ammonia, and serum amino acids were measured at death. In a subgroup of rats, (sham 7; PCA 34) portal venous pressure, degree of portosystemic shunting, and organ and body weights were obtained at death. Growth, liver weight, and testes weight were decreased, ammonia levels were higher, and the ratios of branched chain to aromatic amino acid (BCAA/AAA) were lower in the PCA group compared to the sham animals (P < 0.05). Since spleen weights correlated with portal pressure (P = 0.01), the PCA animals were then divided into those with preserved and those with low portal pressures based on spleen weight. The PCA group with preserved portal pressure had better growth, larger livers and testes, lower serum ammonia, and higher BCAA/AAA levels than the PCA group with low portal pressure; improvements associated with normal amounts of food intake and better food efficiency than the low pressure animals (P < 0.05 or better). Sham animals had no portosystemic shunting, while 100% shunting occurred in both PCA groups regardless of the portal pressure. In conclusion, preservation of portal pressure after portacaval anastomosis provides metabolic and nutritional benefits, which are independent of portosystemic shunting and associated with normal

  12. A Newborn with an Alternative Porto-Caval Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Damar, Çağrı; Alımlı, Ayşe Gül; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Özcan, Kudret Ebru; Olgaç, Asburçe; Koç, Ali Murat

    2017-01-01

    Summary Background Absent ductus venosus (ADV) is a rare condition, but it should be known that this embryonic anomaly may be detected by fetal echocardiographic or newborn ultrasound examinations. Case Report We present a baby with an ADV and an accompanying alternative porto-caval shunt between the right portal vein and inferior vena cava detected on postnatal ultrasound examination. Conclusions Variations in the fetal umbilical or porto-systemic circulations should be detected by fetal or newborn ultrasound examinations and kept in mind before common interventions such as UV catheterizations. PMID:28685004

  13. A Newborn with an Alternative Porto-Caval Shunt.

    PubMed

    Damar, Çağrı; Alımlı, Ayşe Gül; Derinkuyu, Betül Emine; Özcan, Kudret Ebru; Olgaç, Asburçe; Koç, Ali Murat

    2017-01-01

    Absent ductus venosus (ADV) is a rare condition, but it should be known that this embryonic anomaly may be detected by fetal echocardiographic or newborn ultrasound examinations. We present a baby with an ADV and an accompanying alternative porto-caval shunt between the right portal vein and inferior vena cava detected on postnatal ultrasound examination. Variations in the fetal umbilical or porto-systemic circulations should be detected by fetal or newborn ultrasound examinations and kept in mind before common interventions such as UV catheterizations.

  14. Percutaneous Mesocaval Shunt Creation in a Patient with Chronic Portal and Superior Mesenteric Vein Thrombosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bercu, Zachary L. Sheth, Sachin B.; Noor, Amir; Lookstein, Robert A. Fischman, Aaron M. Nowakowski, F. Scott Kim, Edward Patel, Rahul S.

    2015-10-15

    The creation of a transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is a critical procedure for the treatment of recurrent variceal bleeding and refractory ascites in the setting of portal hypertension. Chronic portal vein thrombosis remains a relative contraindication to conventional TIPS and options are limited in this scenario. Presented is a novel technique for management of refractory ascites in a patient with hepatitis C cirrhosis and chronic portal and superior mesenteric vein thrombosis secondary to schistosomiasis and lupus anticoagulant utilizing fluoroscopically guided percutaneous mesocaval shunt creation.

  15. Cryptococcal ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.

    PubMed

    Viereck, Matthew J; Chalouhi, Nohra; Krieger, David I; Judy, Kevin D

    2014-11-01

    The standard treatment of hydrocephalus is placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. While infection is a common complication, rarely are fungal organisms implicated. Cryptococcus neoformans has been reported in only nine cases of shunt infection to our knowledge. The timing from shunt placement to symptom onset varies widely from 10 days to 15 months. We present a patient who developed a cryptococcal infection of his VP shunt more than two decades following shunt placement.

  16. Ventriculomammary shunt: an unusual ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Nauman S; Johnson, Jeremiah N; Morcos, Jacques J

    2015-02-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt malfunctions are common and can result in significant consequences for patients. Despite the prevalence of breast augmentation surgery and breast surgery for other pathologies, few breast related VP shunt complications have been reported. A 54-year-old woman with hydrocephalus post-subarachnoid hemorrhage returned 1 month after VP shunt placement complaining of painful unilateral breast enlargement. After investigation, it was determined that the distal VP shunt catheter had migrated from the peritoneal cavity into the breast and wrapped around her breast implant. The breast enlargement was the result of cerebrospinal fluid retention. We detail this unusual case and review all breast related VP shunt complications reported in the literature. To avoid breast related complications related to VP shunt procedures, it is important to illicit pre-procedural history regarding breast implants, evade indwelling implants during catheter tunneling and carefully securing the abdominal catheter to prevent retrograde catheter migration to the breast.

  17. Percutaneous Retroperitoneal Splenorenal Shunt for Symptomatic Portal Vein Thrombosis After Liver Transplantation.

    PubMed

    Pulitano, C; Rogan, C; Sandroussi, C; Verran, D; McCaughan, G W; Waugh, R; Crawford, M

    2015-08-01

    Acute or recurrent bleeding from ectopic varices is a potentially life-threatening condition in rare patients with extrahepatic complete portal vein thrombosis (PVT) after liver transplantation (LT). In this setting, the role of interventional radiology is very limited and surgical shunts, in particular splenorenal shunts are usually used, despite the high associated mortality. We present the first reports of the clinical use of a new minimally invasive technique, percutaneous retroperitoneal splenorenal shunt (PRESS), in two LT recipients with life-threatening variceal hemorrhage secondary to PVT. Both patients had a successful PRESS using a transplenic approach with resolution of bleeding, avoiding the need for a potentially complicated laparotomy. The PRESS procedure is a useful addition to the interventional armamentarium that can be used in cases unsuitable for surgical shunt, and refractory to endoscopic management. In the future, this technique may be an alternative to surgical shunts as the standard procedure in patients with extra-hepatic PVT, just as the transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) procedure has become for the management of portal hypertension in the absence of PVT. Longer-term follow-up will be needed to establish the long-term success of this procedure.

  18. Percutaneous Transjugular Direct Porto-caval Shunt in Patients with Budd-Chiari Syndrome

    SciTech Connect

    Quateen, A.; Pech, M.; Berg, T.; Bergk, A.; Podrabsky, P.; Felix, R.; Ricke, J.

    2006-08-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility and effectiveness of direct porto-caval shunts in patients with Budd-Chiari syndrome (BCS) in whom there is no access to the hepatic veins during transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPSS). We included six consecutive patients with fulminant/acute Budd-Chiari syndrome (mean age: 35 years) in whom a conventional TIPSS was not possible due to inaccessible hepatic veins. We performed a direct porto-caval shunt via a transhepatic approach. Patients were followed up by means of clinical examination, laboratory investigations, and Doppler ultrasound. TIPSS implantation from the inferior vena cava (IVC) was successful in all six patients (100%). The median transhepatic shunt length was 9 cm (8-10 cm). No procedure-related complications were observed in our patients. Early shunt occlusion occurred in three out of six patients (50%). In all three of these patients, the stent used to stabilize the shunt ended 1-2 cm before reaching the IVC. All occlusions were successfully recanalized. One of these patients developed recurrent early shunt as well as mesenteric and splenic vein occlusions. She died 7 days after TIPSS placement due to an unmanageable coagulation disorder. The remaining five patients were followed up by planned clinical examination and laboratory investigations (mean follow-up time was 15 months; patient 1 was followed up for 13 months, patient 2 for 14 months, patient 3 for 15 months, and patients 4 and 5 for 16 months) and all displayed a complete and durable resolution of liver failure and ascites without reintervention. In patients with acute liver failure originating from BCS and inaccessible hepatic veins, a direct transhepatic porto-caval shunt can be performed safely and effectively under ultrasound guidance. Future studies in larger patient groups should investigate if the patency of transcaval TIPSS with long transhepatic shunt segments is similar compared to conventional TIPSS via

  19. Portal Vein/Aorta Ratio in Dogs with Acquired Portosystemic Collaterals.

    PubMed

    Sakamoto, Y; Sakai, M; Watari, T

    2017-09-01

    The portal vein (PV) diameter increases in humans with portal hypertension (PH). However, there is no evidence of PV enlargement in dogs with PH. To measure the PV-to-aorta (PV/Ao) ratio in dogs with PH (chronic hepatitis [CH], primary hypoplasia of the PV [PHPV]), in dogs with extrahepatic congenital portosystemic shunt (EH-CPSS), and in healthy dogs, and to evaluate the relationship between PV/Ao ratio and splenic pulp pressure (SPP). Twenty-five dogs with acquired portosystemic collaterals (APSCs; 15 with CH, 10 with PHPV), 32 dogs with EH-CPSS, and 20 healthy dogs. Retrospective study. The PV/Ao ratio was calculated with images obtained by computed tomography. SPP was measured at the time of liver biopsy in 45 dogs. Median PV/Ao ratio was similar between dogs with CH (1.35, range 1.05-2.01) and healthy dogs (0.95, 0.80-1.15), but differed significantly between the CH group and both the PHPV (0.40, 0.24-0.67) and EH-CPSS groups (0.30, 0.11-0.64) (P < .001). The PV/Ao ratio was significantly lower in the PHPV group than in healthy dogs (P < .05). It also correlated positively with SPP (rs = 0.71; P < .001). However, there was no intragroup correlation between SPP and the PV/Ao ratio in any group. The PV/Ao ratio can be evaluated in dogs with APSCs on computed tomography. Further studies are needed to examine the relationship between SPP and the PV/Ao ratio in larger groups of dogs with PH and to determine its clinical relevance. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  20. Reversal learning impairment and alterations in the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus in a model of portosystemic hepatic encephalopathy.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Marta; Méndez-López, Magdalena; López, Laudino; Begega, Azucena; Aller, María Angeles; Arias, Jaime; Arias, Jorge L

    2010-09-01

    Patients with liver dysfunction often suffer from hepatic encephalopathy (HE), a neurological complication that affects attention and memory. Various experimental animal models have been used to study HE, the most frequently used being the portocaval shunt (PCS). In order to determine brain substrates of cognitive impairment in this model, we assessed reversal learning and c-Fos expression in a rat model of portosystemic derivation. PCS and sham-operated rats (SHAM) were tested for reversal learning. Brains were processed for c-Fos immunocytochemistry. The total number of c-Fos positive nuclei was quantified in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. The spatial reference memory task showed no differences between groups in escape latencies. The no-platform probe test showed that both the PCS and the SHAM learned the location of platform. However, the PCS group perseverated in the old target during reversal. The PCS group presented less c-Fos- positive cells in prelimbic cortex, CA1 and dentate gyrus of the dorsal hippocampus than SHAM. Overall, these results suggest that this specific model of portosystemic hepatic encephalopathy produces reversal learning impairment that could be linked to dysfunction in neuronal activity in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus.

  1. Glomerular filtration rate and renal volume in dogs with congenital portosystemic vascular anomalies before and after surgical ligation.

    PubMed

    Deppe, T A; Center, S A; Simpson, K W; Erb, H N; Randolph, J F; Dykes, N L; Yeager, A E; Reynolds, A J

    1999-01-01

    Glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and renal volume were evaluated in dogs with confirmed portosystemic vascular anomalies (PSVA) before and after surgical ligation of their PSVA. Pre- and postligation CBC, serum biochemistry, urinalysis, abdominal ultrasonography with measurement of renal volume, and per rectal scintigraphy were performed to document resolution of abnormalities consistent with portosystemic shunting. GFR was estimated by plasma 99mTc-diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid (99mTc-DTPA) clearance before (n = 21) and after (n = 12) surgical correction of PSVA. Preligation 99mTc-DTPA GFR was increased (median, 5.64 mL/minute/kg; range, 3.53-8.49 mL/minute/kg; reference range, 2.83-4.47 mL/minute/kg) in 81% (17/21) of dogs. Postligation 99mTc-DTPA GFR decreased in all 12 evaluated dogs (median change = -42%; P < .001). Preligation renal volume was above the reference range for the left and right kidneys in 71% (10/14) and 69% (11/16) of dogs evaluated, respectively. Right renal volume decreased significantly (n = 5; median change, -45%; P = .03) after surgical ligation of PSVA. These findings document increased GFR and renal volume in dogs with PSVA, which may explain in part the low blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine concentrations encountered in these dogs. Knowledge of changes in GFR associated with PSVA ligation may prove helpful in the anesthetic, drug, and dietary management of affected dogs.

  2. Time dependent pattern of cellular characteristics causing ventriculoperitoneal shunt failure in children.

    PubMed

    Sarkiss, Christopher A; Sarkar, Rajashree; Yong, William; Lazareff, Jorge A

    2014-12-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt obstruction remains a major problem in pediatric neurosurgery. We analyzed the tissue reaction to ventriculoperitoneal shunts and compared the histology versus time elapsed to shunt failure. 85 ventricular catheter tissues samples obtained from 71 patients were reviewed along with time elapsed to shunt revision. Pathology reports of all tissue samples were divided into three categories: inflammatory based on the presence of lymphocytes, macrophages, and microglial cells; reactive based on the presence of fibro-connective tissue, reactive astrocytes, and Rosenthal fibers; and normal brain tissue based on presence of choroid plexus. These categories were then grouped according to time elapsed to shunt revision. Group I had those shunts revised <6 months, group II included shunts revised between 6 months and 3 years, while group III had shunts revised after more than 3 years. The incidence of inflammatory type of histology was 44% (16/36) in group I, 22% (6/27) in group II, and 18% (4/22) in group III. The reactive histology was 42% (15/36) in group I, 67% (18/27) in group II, and 77% (17/22) in group III. There was a clear noted difference of incidence between inflammatory versus reactive histology between early shunt failure compared to late shunt failure. Incidence of normal brain tissue remained high in group I with 8%, 11% in group II, and none in group III. Early shunt obstruction arises from pathologies different from those causing late shunt obstructions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Technical dilemmas in portacaval shunt operations as a consequence of replaced right hepatic artery.

    PubMed

    Eckhauser, F E; Strodel, W E; Thompson, N W; Turcotte, J G

    1980-10-01

    Surgical procedures designed to decompress the portal venous system in patients with cirrhosis and bleeing esophageal varices may be complicated by anatomic variations in the extrahepatic arterial circulation. Anomalous right hepatic arteries which arise from the superior mesenteric artery may be encountered in 18 to 20 per cent of the normal population. Replaced arteries are not accessory vessels but rather provide the sole arteries circulation to well defined segments of the liver. Unfortunate injury may result in severe ischemic truama of the liver. Preoperative vicseral arteriography is essential prior to any contemplated portosystemic shunt procedure. The unusual anatomic relationship of such an anomalous right to hepatic artery to the portal vein may contraindicate standard portacaval, interposition portacaval or portarnal shunt procedures; graft angulation and anastomotic distortion may jeopardize shunt patancy and result in recurrent variceal hemmorrhage. A technique for portal vein-hepatic artery transposition and end-to-side portacaval shunt is presented as a feasible alternative if anomalies of the hepatic artery preclude standard shunt procedures.

  4. Hydrocephalus and Shunts

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tomography (CT) scan or a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) scan will show this build-up, but a shunt ... doesn’t show up on a CT or MRI scan. New, long- term treatments using small endoscopes may ...

  5. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - slideshow

    MedlinePlus

    ... ency/presentations/100123.htm Ventriculoperitoneal shunt - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing features on this page, ... Bethesda, MD 20894 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services National Institutes of Health Page last updated: ...

  6. Shunt tube calcification as a late complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting.

    PubMed

    Salim, Abubakr Darrag; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Mohamed, Haddab Ahmed; Ibrahim Zayan, Baha Eldin Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Shunt calcification is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting that occurs years later after the initial operation this condition is rarely reported in literature. Two patients with shunt calcifications were described. The first patient was 17-year-old lady who had congenital hydrocephalus and shunted in the early infancy, she was presented recently complaining of itching of the skin along the shunt track and limitation of neck movement. The patient was then operated with removal of the old peritoneal catheter and replacing it with a new one. The second patient was 17-year-old boy originally was a case of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, he was operated with both shunting for the hydrocephalus and tumor removal, 6 years later he presented with shunt exposure. Calcification of the shunt tube was discovered intraoperatively upon shunt removal. Shunt calcification has been observed mainly in barium-impregnated catheters. Introducing plain silicone-coated shunt tubing may reduce the rate of this condition. The usual complaints of the patients suffering from this condition are pain in the neck and chest wall along the shunt pathway and limitation of the neck movement due to shunt tube tethering, but features of shunt dysfunction and skin irritation above the shunt may be present. In this review, plain X-ray and operative findings showed that the most extensive calcification is present in the neck, where the catheters were subject to heavy mechanical stress. Disturbed calcium and phosphate metabolisms may be involved in this condition. Shunt calcification is a rare condition that occurs due to material aging presenting with features of shunt tethering, dysfunction or overlying skin irritation. Plain X-ray is needed to detect calcification while shunt removal, replacement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy may carry solution for this condition.

  7. Shunt tube calcification as a late complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting

    PubMed Central

    Salim, Abubakr Darrag; Elzain, Mohammed Awad; Mohamed, Haddab Ahmed; Ibrahim Zayan, Baha Eldin Mohamed

    2015-01-01

    Shunt calcification is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting that occurs years later after the initial operation this condition is rarely reported in literature. Two patients with shunt calcifications were described. The first patient was 17-year-old lady who had congenital hydrocephalus and shunted in the early infancy, she was presented recently complaining of itching of the skin along the shunt track and limitation of neck movement. The patient was then operated with removal of the old peritoneal catheter and replacing it with a new one. The second patient was 17-year-old boy originally was a case of posterior fossa pilocytic astrocytoma associated with obstructive hydrocephalus, he was operated with both shunting for the hydrocephalus and tumor removal, 6 years later he presented with shunt exposure. Calcification of the shunt tube was discovered intraoperatively upon shunt removal. Shunt calcification has been observed mainly in barium-impregnated catheters. Introducing plain silicone-coated shunt tubing may reduce the rate of this condition. The usual complaints of the patients suffering from this condition are pain in the neck and chest wall along the shunt pathway and limitation of the neck movement due to shunt tube tethering, but features of shunt dysfunction and skin irritation above the shunt may be present. In this review, plain X-ray and operative findings showed that the most extensive calcification is present in the neck, where the catheters were subject to heavy mechanical stress. Disturbed calcium and phosphate metabolisms may be involved in this condition. Shunt calcification is a rare condition that occurs due to material aging presenting with features of shunt tethering, dysfunction or overlying skin irritation. Plain X-ray is needed to detect calcification while shunt removal, replacement or endoscopic third ventriculostomy may carry solution for this condition. PMID:26396620

  8. Shunting in cryptococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Cherian, Jacob; Atmar, Robert L; Gopinath, Shankar P

    2016-07-01

    OBJECT Patients with cryptococcal meningitis often develop symptomatic intracranial hypertension. The need for permanent CSF diversion in these cases remains unclear. METHODS Cases of cryptococcal meningitis over a 5-year period were reviewed from a single, large teaching hospital. Sources of identification included ICD-9 codes, operative logs, and microscopy laboratory records. RESULTS Fifty cases of cryptococcal meningitis were identified. Ninety-eight percent (49/50) of patients were HIV positive. Opening pressure on initial lumbar puncture diagnosing cryptococcal meningitis was elevated (> 25 cm H2O) in 33 cases and normal (≤ 25 cm H2O) in 17 cases. Thirty-eight patients ultimately developed elevated opening pressure over a follow-up period ranging from weeks to years. Serial lumbar punctures for relief of intracranial hypertension were performed in 29 cases. Thirteen of these patients ultimately had shunting procedures performed after failing to improve clinically. Two factors were significantly associated with the need for shunting: patients undergoing shunt placement were more likely to be women (5/13 vs 0/16; p = 0.01) and to have a pattern of increasing CSF cryptococcal antigen (10/13 vs 3/16 cases; p = 0.003). All patients re-presenting with mycological relapse either underwent or were offered shunt placement. CONCLUSIONS Neurosurgeons are often asked to consider CSF diversion in cases of cryptococcal meningitis complicated by intracranial hypertension. Most patients do well with serial lumbar punctures combined with antifungal therapy. When required, shunting generally provided sustained relief from intracranial hypertension symptoms. Ventriculoperitoneal shunts are the favored method of diversion. To the authors' knowledge, the present study is the largest series on diversionary shunts in primarily HIV-positive patients with this problem.

  9. Anatomy of the Portal Vein Bifurcation: Implication for Transjugular Intrahepatic Portal Systemic Shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Kwok, Philip Chong-hei Ng, Wai Fu; Lam, Christine Suk-yee; Tsui, Polly Po; Faruqi, Asma

    2003-06-15

    Purpose: The relationship of the portalvein bifurcation to the liver capsule in Asians, which is an important landmark for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt, has not previously been described. Methods: The anatomy of the portal vein bifurcation was studied in 70 adult Chinese cadavers; it was characterized as intrahepatic or extrahepatic. The length of the exposed portion of the right and left portal veins was measured when the bifurcation was extrahepatic. Results: The portal vein bifurcation was intrahepatic in 37 cadavers (53%) and extrahepatic in 33 cadavers (47%). The mean length of the right and left extrahepatic portal veins was 0.96 cm and 0.85 cm respectively.Both were less than or equal to 2 cm in 94% of the cadavers with extrahepatic bifurcation. There was no correlation between the presence of cirrhosis and the location of the portal vein bifurcation(p 1.0). There was no statistically significant difference in liver mass in cadavers with either extrahepatic or intrahepatic bifurcation (p =0.40). Conclusions: These findings suggest that fortransjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt placement, a portal vein puncture 2 cm from the bifurcation will be safe in most cases.

  10. residue and shunting pinholes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorji, Nima E.

    2014-09-01

    The present work considers two observable phenomena through the experimental fabrication and electrical characterization of the rf-sputtered CdS/CdTe thin film solar cells that extremely reduce the overall conversion efficiency of the device: CdCl2 residue on the surface of the semiconductor and shunting pinholes. The former happens through nonuniform treatment of the As-deposited solar cells before annealing at high temperature and the latter occurs by shunting pinholes when the cell surface is shunted by defects, wire-like pathways or scratches on the metallic back contact caused from the external contacts. Such physical problems may be quite common in the experimental activities and reduce the performance down to 4-5 % which leads to dismantle the device despite its precise fabrication. We present our electrical characterization on the samples that received wet CdCl2 surface treatment (uniform or nonuniform) and are damaged by the pinholes.

  11. Adrenal pseudotumors on CT due to dilated portosystemic veins

    SciTech Connect

    Mitty, H.M.; Cohen, B.A.; Sprayregen, S.; Schwartz, K.

    1983-10-01

    The adrenal and periadrenal venous systems are part of the portosystemic collateral pathways that may enlarge in portal hypertension. The cross-sectional image of the resulting enlarged venous channels may simulate an adrenal msss. Three examples of such computed tomographic (CT) scans are presented with selective venographic correlation. Patients with portal hypertension and suspected adrenal pathology may require enhanced or dynamic CT scans.

  12. Portosystemic hepatic encephalopathy model shows reversal learning impairment and dysfunction of neural activity in the prefrontal cortex and regions involved in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Méndez, M; Méndez-López, M; López, L; Aller, M A; Arias, J; Arias, J L

    2011-05-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neurological complication that affects attention and memory. Experimental animal models have been used to study HE, the most frequent being the portacaval shunt (PCS). In order to investigate learning impairment and brain functional alterations in this model, we assessed reversal learning and neural metabolic activity in a PCS rat model. PCS and sham-operated rats were tested for reversal learning in the Morris water maze. Brains were then processed for cytochrome oxidase (CO) histochemistry. The PCS group had reversal learning impairment and a reduction in CO activity in the prefrontal cortex, ventral tegmental area and accumbens shell nucleus. These results suggest that this model of portosystemic HE shows learning impairments that could be linked to dysfunction in neural activity in the prefrontal cortex and regions involved in motivated behavior.

  13. Spinal arteriovenous shunts in children.

    PubMed

    Davagnanam, Indran; Toma, Ahmed K; Brew, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Pediatric spinal arteriovenous shunts are rare and, in contrast to those in adults, are often congenital or associated with underlying genetic disorders. These are thought to be a more severe and complete phenotypic spectrum of all spinal arteriovenous shunts seen in the overall spinal shunt population. The pediatric presentation thus accounts for its association with significant morbidity and, in general, a more challenging treatment process compared with the adult presentation.

  14. Coagulopathy post peritoneovenous shunt.

    PubMed Central

    LeVeen, H H; Ip, M; Ahmed, N; Hutto, R B; LeVeen, E G

    1987-01-01

    In 1942, 53% of medically treated patients with cirrhosis were dead 6 months after the onset of ascites. Only 30% survived 1 year. This dismal outlook has improved only slightly with advances in medicine. Yet, some internists reject the peritoneovenous shunt (PVS) for this fatal condition even if they are aware that a diminished blood volume causes the abnormal sodium retention responsible for ascites. Their objections are based on life-threatening complications of PVS, especially post shunt coagulopathy (PSC). Blood shed into the peritoneal cavity becomes incoagulable. Such blood is immediately coagulated by a protocoagulant (soluble collagen) and concurrently lysed by tissue plasminogen activator (TPA) secreted by the peritoneal serosa. Wide zones of lysis surround peritoneal tissue placed on fibrin plates. Large volumes of ascitic fluid infused into circulating blood simulates the fate of blood shed into the peritoneal cavity with lysis playing the major role. Addition of ascitic fluid to normal platelet-rich plasma in vitro initiates clot lysis on thromboelastogram (TEG). Epsilon-aminocaproic acid (EACA) counteracts this lysis. EACA and clotting factors normalize the TEG and arrest PSC. Disposal of ascitic fluid at surgery prevents or ameliorates PSC. Mild PSC was encountered only twice in 150+ consecutive patients (1.3%) with only one case being clinically significant (0.6%). Severe PSC occurred seven times in 98 early shunt patients whose ascitic fluid was not discarded. Severe PSC requires shunt interruption and control of bleeding with clotting factors and EACA. Peritoneal lavage with saline prevents the recurrence of PSC on reopening the shunt. In four patients, EACA and clotting factors were adequate to arrest coagulopathy. Three earlier patients died of PSC before its cause and treatment were understood. Proper management eliminates this life-threatening complication, and PSC cannot be considered a deterrent to PVS. Disseminated intravascular

  15.  Percutaneous shunt reduction for the management of TIPS-induced acute liver decompensation: A follow-up study.

    PubMed

    De Keyzer, Bart; Nevens, Frederik; Laenen, Annouschka; Heye, Sam; Laleman, Wim; Verslype, Chris; van der Merwe, Schalk; Maleux, Geert

     Background and rationale for the study. The purpose of this study was to assess the technical and clinical outcomes of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) reduction for the management of TIPS-induced acute liver decompensation. Between August 2000 and November 2013, 347 patients underwent a TIPS procedure in the authors' institution; 21/347 (6%) developed post-TIPS acute liver decompensation which was managed using a percutaneous shunt reduction technique. Patient demographics, laboratory tests before and after initial TIPS and TIPS reduction, procedural data and clinical follow-up data were analysed. Twenty-one patients (mean age 63 years) who underwent an initial TIPS procedure for variceal bleeding (n = 7; 33%) or refractory ascites (n = 14; 67%) successfully underwent shunt reduction ten days (3-34 days) after the initial TIPS procedure. The portosystemic pressure gradient (PSPG) increased from 8 (3-17) mmHg before reduction to 12 (7-23) mmHg after shunt reduction. Survival at one and six months follow-up was 15 (71%) and 11 patients (52%), respectively. The international normalised ratio (INR) (1.7 vs. 1.5; p = 0.044) was significantly different after TIPS reduction in the non-survival group compared to the survival group. In conclusion, TIPS reduction for the management of TIPS-induced acute liver decompensation is technically feasible and is associated with a one and six-month mortality rate of 29% and 48%, respectively. Higher post-TIPS-reduction INR values may be associated with higher risk of early mortality.

  16. Aqueous shunts for glaucoma.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Victoria L; Coleman, Anne L; Chang, Melinda Y; Caprioli, Joseph

    2017-07-28

    Aqueous shunts are employed to control intraocular pressure (IOP) for people with primary or secondary glaucomas who fail or are not candidates for standard surgery. To assess the effectiveness and safety of aqueous shunts for reducing IOP in glaucoma compared with standard surgery, another type of aqueous shunt, or modification to the aqueous shunt procedure. We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 8), MEDLINE Ovid (1946 to August 2016), Embase.com (1947 to August 2016), PubMed (1948 to August 2016), LILACS (Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature Database) (1982 to August 2016), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov); searched 15 August 2016, and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en); searched 15 August 2016. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic search for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 15 August 2016. We also searched the reference lists of identified trial reports and the Science Citation Index to find additional trials. We included randomized controlled trials that compared various types of aqueous shunts with standard surgery or to each other in eyes with glaucoma. Two review authors independently screened search results for eligibility, assessed the risk of bias, and extracted data from included trials. We contacted trial investigators when data were unclear or not reported. We graded the certainty of the evidence using the GRADE approach. We followed standard methods as recommended by Cochrane. We included 27 trials with a total of 2099 participants with mixed diagnoses and comparisons of interventions. Seventeen studies reported adequate methods of randomization, and seven reported adequate allocation concealment. Data collection and follow-up times varied.Four trials compared an aqueous shunt (Ahmed or Baerveldt) with trabeculectomy, of which

  17. [Portal hypertension in children. Follow-up after portal systemic shunts (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Bernard, O; Alvarez, F; Alagille, D

    1982-01-01

    The retrospective study of 115 children in whom a successful portosystemic shunt was carried out for portal hypertension, provides the following conclusions: 1) Patency of the shunt must be checked by esophageal endoscopy, six months postoperatively. A patent shunt can be expected when the size of the spleen and/or thrombocytopenia improve in the early post-operative period. Early ultrasound examination is also very useful in that respect. 2) None of the children with extrahepatic portal vein obstruction or congenital hepatic fibrosis presented with clinical signs of portal systemic encephalopathy (PSE). 3) Eight of 30 children with cirrhosis presented with one or more clinical episodes of PSE. Some were transient allowing for a normal diet to be resumed later on. 4) It is thus advisable to give children with cirrhosis a low protein diet in the months after surgery. Protein content of the diet can usually be increased progressively over a period of one to two years. 5) Whenever splenectomy is necessary, it is mandatory to prevent pneumococcal infections with the pneumococcal vaccine and daily treatment with oral penicillin.

  18. Peritoneovenous shunting in intractable ascites

    PubMed Central

    Deans, G T; Spence, R A J; Johnston, G W

    1985-01-01

    Fourteen patients in whom peritoneovenous shunts were inserted for intractable ascites or malignancy were reviewed. Reduction in ascites was obtained in all patients by the time of discharge with significant diuresis and weight loss. Significant decrease in haemoglobin, packed cell volume, platelet count and prothrombin time also occurred. Coagulation studies were abnormal in 60 per cent of patients in whom they were performed with bruising or detectable bleeding occurring in 28.5 per cent of all patients. Late blockage of the shunt occurred in five patients and was less frequent in Denver than in Le Veen type shunts. Cumulative mortality one month after shunt insertion was 28.5 per cent and at one year was 78.5 per cent reflecting the severity of the underlying disease. Peritoneovenous shunting should be reserved for palliation in patients resistant to full conventional medical therapy. PMID:4095803

  19. To shunt or not to shunt? An experimental study comparing temporary vascular shunts and venous ligation as damage control techniques for vascular trauma.

    PubMed

    Marinho de Oliveira Góes Junior, Adenauer; de Campos Vieira Abib, Simone; de Seixas Alves, Maria Teresa; Venerando da Silva Ferreira, Paulo Sérgio; Carvalho de Andrade, Mariseth

    2014-04-01

    To evaluate vascular flow through temporary vascular shunts inserted into peripheral arteries and veins and the repercussion, on the arterial perfusion, of venous ligation and venous shunt insertion in an experimental model for damage control. Experimental study in pigs. Animals were distributed in 5 groups: group 1, right external iliac artery (EIA) shunting and right external iliac vein (EIV) ligation; group 2, right EIA shunting and right EIV shunting; group 3, right EIV ligation; group 4, right EIV shunting; group 5, no vascular shunting and no venous ligation. Flowmeters were used to measure vascular flow on right and left external iliac vessels, and blood samples were collected from the EIVs for biochemical analysis. A right anterior limb biopsy was performed before shock. Hemorrhagic shock was induced through the external right jugular vein, until the vascular flow through right iliac external artery shunt or right iliac external vein shunt (group 4) ceased or until the animal's death. After the end of the experiments, biopsies of bilateral hind limb were obtained for histologic analysis. For statistical analysis, Microsoft Office Excel 2007 and BioEstat 5.0 (2007) were used. In the absence of hemorrhagic shock, venous ligation (group 1) was associated with a 38.8% reduction (P < 0.05) and venous shunting with a 28.4% reduction on the vascular flow through the arterial shunt. When associated with hemorrhagic shock, the mean vascular flow on the right EIA was 13 mL/min and on the left EIA was 41.2 mL/min; on group 2, the right EIA flow was 8.5 mL/min and the left EIA flow was 8.1 mL/min. When associated with hemorrhagic shock, the pO2 was 25.8 mm Hg on right EIV and 33.8 mm Hg on the left EIV for group 1 (P < 0.05), whereas for group 2, the pO2 was 22.6 mm Hg on right EIV and 22.8 mm Hg on the left EIV. On group 1, serum potassium was 3.84 mEq/L on the right EIV and 3.96 mEq/L on the left EIV, whereas on group 2, it was 7.1 mEq/L on the right EIV and 5.88 m

  20. Eight millimetre covered TIPS does not compromise shunt function but reduces hepatic encephalopathy in preventing variceal rebleeding.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiuhe; Lv, Yong; Bai, Ming; Wang, Zhengyu; Liu, Haibo; He, Chuangye; Niu, Jing; Guo, Wengang; Luo, Bohan; Yin, Zhanxin; Bai, Wei; Chen, Hui; Wang, Enxin; Xia, Dongdong; Li, Xiaomei; Yuan, Jie; Han, Na; Cai, Hongwei; Li, Tao; Xie, Huahong; Xia, Jielai; Wang, Jianhong; Zhang, Hongbo; Wu, Kaichun; Fan, Daiming; Han, Guohong

    2017-09-01

    Currently, there are no recommendations in guidelines concerning the preferred diameter of stents for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS), owing to the lack of adequate evidence. We therefore compared 8mm stents with 10mm stents, to evaluate whether 8mm stents would achieve similar shunt function, with less hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and better liver function. Cirrhotic patients were randomly assigned to receive TIPS with an 8mm or 10mm covered stent to prevent variceal rebleeding. The primary endpoint was shunt dysfunction. All-cause rebleeding, orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT)-free survival, their composite endpoint, overt HE (overall and spontaneous) and liver function were designated as the secondary endpoints. From July 2012 to January 2014, 64 and 63 patients were allocated to the 8mm and 10mm groups, respectively. During a median follow-up of 27months in both arms, dysfunction rates (16% vs. 16% at two years, p=0.62), two-year rebleeding (16% vs. 17%, p=0.65), OLT-free survival (95% vs. 86%, p=0.37), and the composite endpoint (p=0.62) were not statistically different between the groups. Despite a marginal decrease in overall overt HE, there were significantly fewer spontaneous overt HE incidents in the 8mm group within two years (27% vs. 43%, p=0.03), with a risk reduction of 47%. Notably, patients receiving 8mm stents also developed less hepatic impairment. TIPS with 8mm covered stents showed similar shunt function to TIPS with 10mm stents, but halved the risk of spontaneous overt HE and reduced hepatic impairment. Therefore, 8mm TIPS stents should be preferred for the prevention of variceal rebleeding in cirrhotic patients. Lay summary: The optimal diameter for transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) remained uncertain. This study showed that TIPS with 8mm covered stents did not compromise shunt patency, or influence the efficacy of variceal rebleeding prevention compared to TIPS with 10mm stents, but reduced the risk

  1. Aspergillus Growth within Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Tube

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Vikas; Loomba, Poonam Sood; Singh, Daljit; Saran, Ravindra Kumar

    2017-01-01

    Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunt failure is commonly associated with infection or mechanical obstruction of the shunt system. A 4-year-old male child who had undergone multiple shunt revisions at another hospital for congenital hydrocephalus and later for shunt obstruction, presented with exposed shunt at the supraclavicular region. Shunt revision was performed. The CSF culture showed no growth; however, the histopathological examination of shunt tube showed Aspergillus growth inside the lumen of silicone tube well away from the tip of ventriculoperitoneal shunt. The skin biopsy from the exposed site revealed foreign body giant cell granulomatous reaction. The patient was discharged on postoperative day 6 without any complications. At 3 months follow-up, the patient is doing well. A growth of Aspergillus within the shunt tube prompted us to think of how the hardware can get infected and may remain a source of constant infection. PMID:28553391

  2. Failed Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: Is Retrograde Ventriculosinus Shunt a Reliable Option?

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Matheus Fernandes de; Teixeira, Manoel Jacobsen; Reis, Rodolfo Casimiro; Petitto, Carlo Emanuel; Gomes Pinto, Fernando Campos

    2016-08-01

    Currently, the treatment of hydrocephalus is mainly carried out through a ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS) insertion. However, in some cases, there may be surgical revisions and requirement of an alternative distal site for shunting. There are several described distal sites, and secondary options after VPS include ventriculopleural and ventriculoatrial shunt, which have technical difficulties and harmful complications. In this preliminary report we describe our initial experience with retrograde ventriculosinus shunt (RVSS) after failed VPS. In 3 consecutive cases we applied RVSS to treat hydrocephalus in shunt-dependent patients who had previously undergone VPS revision and in which peritoneal space was full of adhesions and fibrosis. RVSS was performed as described by Shafei et al., with some modifications to each case. All 3 patients kept the same clinical profile after RVSS, with no perioperative or postoperative complications. However, revision surgery was performed in the first operative day in 1 out of 3 patients, in which the catheter was not positioned in the superior sagittal sinus. We propose that in cases where VPS is not feasible, RVSS may be a safe and applicable second option. Nevertheless, the long-term follow-up of patients and further learning curve must bring stronger evidence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ligation of huge spontaneous porto-systemic collaterals to avoid portal inflow steal in adult living donor liver transplantation: A case-report.

    PubMed

    Elshobary, Mohamed; Shehta, Ahmed; Salah, Tarek; Sultan, Ahmed Mohamed; Shiha, Usama; Elghawalby, Ahmed Nabieh; Monier, Ahmed; Elsadany, Mohamed; AmrYassen; Fathy, Omar; Wahab, Mohamed Abdel

    2017-01-01

    In adult living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), maintenance of adequate portal inflow is essential for the graft regeneration. Portal inflow steal (PFS) may occur due to presence of huge spontaneous porto-systemic collaterals. A surgical procedure to increase the portal inflow is rarely necessary in adult LDLT. A 52 years male patient with end-stage liver disease due to chronic hepatitis C virus infection. Preoperative portography showed marked attenuated portal vein and its two main branches, patent tortuous splenic vein, multiple splenic hilar collaterals, and large lieno-renal collateral. He received a right hemi-liver graft from his nephew. Exploration revealed markedly cirrhotic liver, moderate splenomegaly with multiple collaterals and large lieno-renal collateral. Upon dissection of the hepato-duodenal ligament, a well-developed portal vein could be identified with a small mural thrombus. The recipient portal vein stump was anastomosed, in end to end fashion, to the graft portal vein. Doppler US showed reduced portal vein flow, so ligation of the huge lieno-renal collateral that allows steal of the portal inflow. After ligation of the lieno-renal collateral, improvement of the portal vein flow was observed in Doppler US. There is no accepted algorithm for managing spontaneous lieno-renal shunts before, during, or after liver transplantation, and evidence for efficacy of treatments remains limited. We report a case of surgical interruption of spontaneous huge porto-systemic collateral to prevent PFS during adult LDLT. Complete interruption of large collateral vessels might be needed as a part of adult LDLT procedure to avoid devastating postoperative PFS. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Feasibility of aqueous shunts for reduction of intraocular pressure in horses.

    PubMed

    Townsend, W M; Langohr, I M; Mouney, M C; Moore, G E

    2014-03-01

    Based on the current literature, neither medical, surgical nor combination therapy adequately controls equine glaucoma for many horses. Aqueous shunts have been useful in other species to control glaucoma. To determine whether aqueous shunts in normal equine eyes significantly reduce intraocular pressure (IOP) without causing vision threatening complications. Prospective experimental trial. Aqueous shunts were placed in 7 normal eyes of 4 horses. The shunts were placed dorsotemporally. Examinations were initially performed daily for 7 days and after that every 3 days through 4 weeks after implantation. Horses were then subjected to euthanasia and globes enucleated for routine histological examination. The IOPs for each day post operatively were compared to the preoperative value (Day -1) using a Wilcoxon signed ranks test. Significance was set at P<0.05. The mean IOP preoperatively (20.7 ± 3.0 mmHg) was significantly higher than on any post operative day (P values ranged from 0.018 to 0.048). The aqueous shunts remained in situ for the entire study. Two eyes developed corneal ulcers that resolved. Shallow anterior chambers were noted in 2 eyes after shunt placement, which normalised after placement of full eye cup masks. Histologically, 7/7 eyes had fibrosis surrounding the implant. Minimal peripheral neovascularisation and neutrophilic keratitis were noted in 5/7 eyes. Corneal damage was scored as none in 3/7, mild in 2/7, moderate in 1/7 and marked in 1/7 eyes. After placement of aqueous shunts, a significant decrease in IOP was noted from preoperatively (Day -1) to Day 28 despite fibrosis surrounding the implants. No vision threatening complications were noted. Aqueous shunts may represent a feasible therapeutic option for equine glaucoma. The results of this study suggest that further studies in glaucomatous horses would be warranted. © 2013 EVJ Ltd.

  5. Effects of mesocaval shunt on the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in young rats.

    PubMed

    Guillé, Beatriz E Perez; Alvarez, Fernando Villegas; Toledo López, Alejandra R; Bravo-Luna, Miguel A Jiménez; Soriano-Rosales, Rosa E; Lares-Asseff, Ismael; Arrellin, Gerardo; Guillé, Maria G Pérez

    2005-01-01

    Prophylactic and therapeutic management of portosystemic encephalopathies is based on protein restriction in the diet, and the use of lactulose and antibiotics such as metronidazole. These actions intend to reduce the main source of intestinal ammonia production and release into the systemic circulation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the medium-term effects of mesocaval shunt on the pharmacokinetics of metronidazole in rats with healthy livers. Male Lewis rats were divided into two groups. The first group was subjected to mesocaval shunt (MCS) and the other employed as a control. The following tests were carried out in both groups: metronidazole pharmacokinetics, determination of ALT, AST, albumin, urea and ammonium, liver weight and histomorphology. A loss in body and liver weight was registered in rats subjected to MCS. AST levels also increased compared to controls. Significant differences in almost all pharmacokinetic parameters were detected between MCS and control rats, especially in Kel, AUC and Cmax. Modifications in metronidazole pharmacokinetics and liver weight changes without microstructural modification secondary to MCS were found. We suggest that individual drug-monitoring and pharmacokinetic analysis must be carried out in metronidazole medicated patients with modifications in portal circulation with or with out macro or micro liver structural alterations.

  6. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit. ...

  7. An unusual cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection.

    PubMed

    Esmaeilzadeh, Majid; Islamian, Ariyan Pirayesh; Lang, Josef M; Hornef, Mathias; Suerbaum, Sebastian; Krauss, Joachim K

    2015-08-01

    Infection associated with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt implantation can be a significant problem. VP shunt infection with Serratia marcescens, a gram-negative anaerobic rod, usually is related to underlying abdominal disease. This article describes treatment of two patients suffering from a VP shunt infection with S. marcescens without underlying abdominal disease.

  8. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  9. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  10. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  11. 49 CFR 236.838 - Wire, shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Wire, shunt. 236.838 Section 236.838 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Wire, shunt. A wire forming part of a shunt circuit....

  12. Adult hydrocoele complicating a lumboperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Pollak, T A; Marcus, H J; James, G; Dorward, N; Thorne, L

    2011-10-01

    We report an adult patient who developed a right-sided hydrocoele following a lumboperitoneal shunt. While hydrocoeles have been described as a rare complication following ventriculo- and lumboperitoneal shunts in children, we are unaware of any previously reported cases of hydrocoeles resulting from such shunts in adults.

  13. Students with Shunts: Program Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Ron; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the medical condition of hydrocephalus can affect physical education students and physical education programs, and stresses the need to provide physical educators with information on students' medical conditions. Describes hydrocephalus and its treatment with ventricular peritoneal shunts, and offers suggestions on modifying…

  14. Pulmonary hypertension in congenital shunts.

    PubMed

    Beghetti, Maurice; Tissot, Cecile

    2010-10-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension frequently arises in patients with congenital heart disease. The vast majority present with congenital cardiac shunts. Initially these may manifest as left-to-right (i.e. systemic-to-pulmonary) shunts. The natural history of disease progression involves vascular remodeling and dysfunction that lead to increased pulmonary vascular resistance and, finally, to the development of Eisenmenger's syndrome, which is the most advanced form. The anatomical, pathological and structural abnormalities occurring in the pulmonary circulation of these patients are, to some extent, similar to those observed in other forms of pulmonary arterial hypertension. This understanding has recently led to significant changes in the management of Eisenmenger's syndrome, with the introduction of treatment specifically targeting pulmonary vascular disease. Early closure of the cardiac shunt remains the best way of preventing pulmonary vascular lesions. However, it is still not clear which preoperative parameters predict safe and successful repair, though hemodynamic evaluation is still routinely used for assessment. Postoperative pulmonary hypertension, both in the immediate period after surgical repair and during long-term follow-up, remains a real therapeutic challenge. The clinical situation of a single ventricle with Fontan circulation also presents difficulties when pulmonary vascular lesions are present. This article reviews pulmonary hypertension associated with congenital shunts and discusses a number of the specific problems encountered.

  15. Students with Shunts: Program Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    French, Ron; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Examines how the medical condition of hydrocephalus can affect physical education students and physical education programs, and stresses the need to provide physical educators with information on students' medical conditions. Describes hydrocephalus and its treatment with ventricular peritoneal shunts, and offers suggestions on modifying…

  16. Brain histology.

    PubMed

    Jeans, Alexander; Esiri, Margaret

    2008-10-01

    In this article we summarise nervous system histology in health and disease and acquaint the reader with developments in the staining techniques that are in current use, particularly immunostains. Although clinicians do not need to know the details of stain appearances, some familiarity with these aspects of neuropathology is invaluable in interpreting the reports they receive from the laboratory, as well as reminding them of the amazing beauty of the central nervous system's microscopic structure.

  17. Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) in the Treatment of Venous Symptomatic Chronic Portal Thrombosis in Non-cirrhotic Patients

    SciTech Connect

    Bilbao, Jose I. Elorz, Mariana; Vivas, Isabel; Martinez-Cuesta, Antonio; Bastarrika, Gorka; Benito, Alberto

    2004-09-15

    Purpose: To present a series of cases of non-cirrhotic patients with symptomatic massive portal thrombosis treated by percutaneous techniques. All patients underwent a TIPS procedure in order to maintain the patency of the portal vein by facilitating the outflow. Methods: A total of six patients were treated for thrombosis of the main portal vein (6/6); the main right and left branches (3/6) and the splenic vein (5/6) and superior mesenteric vein (6/6). Two patients had a pancreatic malignancy; one patient with an orthotopic liver transplant had been surgically treated for a pancreatic carcinoma. Two patients had idiopathic thrombocytosis, and in the remaining patient no cause for the portal thrombosis was identified. During the initial procedure in each patient one or more approaches were tried: transhepatic (5/6), transileocolic (1/6), trans-splenic (1/6) or transjugular (1/6). In all cases the procedure was completed with a TIPS with either ultrasound guidance (3/6), 'gun-shot' technique (2/6) or fluoroscopic guidance (1/6).Results: No complications were observed during the procedures. One patient had a repeat episode of variceal bleeding at 30 months, one patient remained asymptomatic and was lost to follow-up at 24 months, two patients were successfully treated surgically (cephalic duodenopancreatectomy) and are alive at 4 and 36 months. One patient remains asymptomatic (without new episodes of abdominal pain) at 16 months of follow-up. One patient died because of tumor progression at 10 months. Conclusion: Percutaneous techniques for portal recanalization are an interesting alternative even in non-acute thrombosis. Once flow has been restored in the portal vein TIPS may be necessary to obtain an adequate outflow, hence facilitating and maintaining the portal flow.

  18. Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Neutrophil Dysfunction Following Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Stent Shunt (TIPSS) Insertion is Associated with Organ Failure and Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Macnaughtan, Jane; Mookerjee, Rajeshwar P.; Jalan, Rajiv

    2017-01-01

    Systemic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) is implicated in increasing mortality in patients with alcoholic hepatitis but the underlying mechanisms are not well characterised. The objective of this study was to characterise neutrophil function, LPS and cytokine concentrations within the splanchnic circulation of alcoholic cirrhotic patients undergoing TIPSS insertion for variceal haemorrhage and correlate this with outcome. 26 patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and variceal haemorrhage were studied prior to and 1-hour after TIPSS insertion. Neutrophil function, LPS and cytokine concentrations were determined in arterial, hepatic venous (HV) and portal venous blood (PV). Significantly higher LPS concentrations and neutrophil reactive oxidant species (ROS) production were observed in PV vs HV blood. Cross-incubation of HV plasma with PV neutrophils resulted in reduced ROS production. Insertion of TIPSS was associated with a significant increase in arterial LPS concentrations and deterioration in neutrophil phagocytosis. Number of organ failures and arterial IL-6 concentrations at presentation were associated with increased mortality. The portal circulation has a distinct immunological milieu characterised by a pathological neutrophil phenotype and an anti-inflammatory cytokine profile associated with heightened LPS levels. TIPSS insertion renders this neutrophil functional defect systemic, associated with an increase in arterial LPS and a susceptibility to sepsis. PMID:28051160

  19. Reinfection following initial cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection

    PubMed Central

    Simon, Tamara D.; Hall, Matthew; Dean, J. Michael; Kestle, John R. W.; Riva-Cambrin, Jay

    2010-01-01

    Object Significant variation exists in the surgical and medical management of CSF shunt infection. The objectives of this study were to determine CSF shunt reinfection rates following initial CSF shunt infection in a large patient cohort and to determine management, patient, hospital, and surgeon factors associated with CSF shunt reinfection. Methods This retrospective cohort study included children who were in the Pediatric Health Information System (PHIS) database, who ranged in age from 0 to 18 years, and who underwent uncomplicated initial CSF shunt placement in addition to treatment for initial CSF shunt infection between January 1, 2001, and December 31, 2008. The outcome was CSF shunt reinfection within 6 months. The main predictor variable of interest was surgical approach to treatment of first infection, which was determined for 483 patients. Covariates included patient, hospital, surgeon, and other management factors. Results The PHIS database includes 675 children with initial CSF shunt infection. Surgical approach to treatment of the initial CSF shunt infection was determined for 483 children (71.6%). The surgical approach was primarily shunt removal/new shunt placement (in 286 children [59.2%]), but a substantial number underwent externalization (59 children [12.2%]), of whom a subset went on to have the externalized shunt removed and a new shunt placed (17 children [3.5% overall]). Other approaches included nonsurgical management (64 children [13.3%]) and complete shunt removal without shunt replacement (74 children [15.3%]). The 6-month reinfection rate was 14.8% (100 of 675 patients). The median time from infection to reinfection was 21 days (interquartile range [IQR] 5–58 days). Children with reinfection had less time between shunt placement and initial infection (median 50 vs 79 days, p = 0.06). No differences between those with and without reinfection were seen in patient factors (patient age at either shunt placement or initial infection, sex

  20. Experimental Percutaneous Extrahepatic Portacaval Shunt Creation by Transjugular Approach in Swine

    SciTech Connect

    Seong, Chang Kyu; Pavcnik, Dusan Uchida, Barry T.; Anai, Hiroshi; Timmermans, Hans; Niyyati, Mahtab; Corless, Christopher L.; Correa, Luiz O.; Keller, Frederick S.; Roesch, Josef

    2005-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the feasibility of the creation of a percutaneous extrahepatic portacaval shunt (PEPS) in swine by a transjugular approach and to find a suitable stent-graft to use in PEPS. In 12 swine, the extrahepatic portal vein (PV) was entered from the inferior vena cava (IVC) by a needle system introduced from the transjugular approach. A catheter introduced through the transhepatic approach served as a target. Five types of stent-graft consisting of homemade Z stents and a polytetrafluoethylene cover were explored for PEPS creation. Eight animals had follow-up venograms up to 6 weeks or until the shunt became severely stenotic. Gross and histologic examinations were performed after the final follow-up venography. The PV punctures and stent-graft placement were difficult, but the PEPS was established in all animals. In four animals, the stent-graft failed to adequately cover the tract, causing severe hemorrhage. Only two shunts remained patent up to 6 weeks. The other shunts exhibited severe stenosis or occlusion. At gross examination, all shunts traversed the liver parenchyma of the caudate lobe surrounding the IVC. The extravascular PEPS portion was 4 mm to 2 cm long. All shunts entered the PV close to the splenomesenteric junction and exhibited neointimal formation. Shunt stenoses were caused by neointimal hyperplasia and occlusions by a superimposed thrombus. PEPS can be created by the transjugular approach in swine, but only the PV shunt entrance is extrahepatic. None of the tested rigid stent-grafts were suitable for PEPS creation. A short flexible stent-graft with flanged ends is suggested for further exploration.

  1. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal tract.

    PubMed

    Thiong'o, Grace Muthoni; Luzzio, Christopher; Albright, A Leland

    2015-07-01

    OBJECT The purposes of this study were to evaluate the frequency with which children presented with ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt perforations of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract, to determine the type of shunts that caused the perforations, and to compare the stiffness of perforating catheters with the stiffness of catheters from other manufacturers. METHODS Medical records were reviewed of 197 children who were admitted with VP shunt malfunction. Catheter stiffness was evaluated by measuring relative resistance to cross-sectional compression, resistance to column buckling, and elasticity in longitudinal bending. Catheter frictional force was measured per unit length. RESULTS Six children were identified whose VP shunts had perforated the GI tract; 2 shunts subsequently protruded through the anal orifice, 1 protruded through the oral cavity, and 3 presented with subcutaneous abscesses that tracked upward from the intestine to the chest. All perforating shunts were Chhabra shunts. Catheter stiffness and resistance to bending were greatest with a Medtronic shunt catheter, intermediate with a Codman catheter, and least with a Chhabra catheter. Frictional force was greatest with a Chhabra catheter and least with a Medtronic catheter. CONCLUSIONS The frequency of perforations by Chhabra shunts appears to be higher than the frequency associated with other shunts. The increased frequency does not correlate with their stiffness but may reflect their greater frictional forces.

  2. Ventriculopleural shunting with new technology valves.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Lage, J F; Torres, J; Campillo, H; Sanchez-del-Rincón, I; Bueno, F; Zambudio, G; Poza, M

    2000-12-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunting constitutes the standard procedure for draining cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in children with hydrocephalus. Ventriculoatrial and ventriculopleural shunting are alternative methods of CSF drainage, which have gained less acceptance. Ventriculopleural shunts are seldom used owing to justified fears of pneumothorax and symptomatic effusions of CSF. The addition of an antisiphon device to standard shunt systems seems to have prevented CSF pleural effusion. From 1988 to 1998, we treated each of six hydrocephalic children with a ventriculopleural shunt. In five cases we used new-technology valves designed to prevent the effects of siphoning with current differential pressure valves. Peritoneal adhesions, recent peritonitis, ascites, and obstruction of a previous ventriculoatrial shunt were the indications for pleural shunting. After a mean follow-up period of 2.5 years all shunts were functioning adequately. Only one patient showed transient symptoms of CSF overdrainage, which were corrected by up-grading the valve setting with the magnet. A late death was unrelated to the pleural shunting procedure. The use of valves of a new design designed to prevent overdrainage seems to account for the satisfactory outcomes observed in this series. We suggest that ventriculopleural shunting should be considered as the preferred alternative to peritoneal drainage in children with intra-abdominal adhesions or with a history of recent peritoneal infection.

  3. Shunt regulation electric power system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, W. H.; Bless, J. J. (Inventor)

    1971-01-01

    A regulated electric power system having load and return bus lines is described. A plurality of solar cells interconnected in a power supplying relationship and having a power shunt tap point electrically spaced from the bus lines is provided. A power dissipator is connected to the shunt tap point and provides for a controllable dissipation of excess energy supplied by the solar cells. A dissipation driver is coupled to the power dissipator and controls its conductance and dissipation and is also connected to the solar cells in a power taping relationship to derive operating power therefrom. An error signal generator is coupled to the load bus and to a reference signal generator to provide an error output signal which is representative of the difference between the electric parameters existing at the load bus and the reference signal generator. An error amplifier is coupled to the error signal generator and the dissipation driver to provide the driver with controlling signals.

  4. Bladder perforation by ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Miranda, Marcelo Eller; de Sousa, Mariana Bueno; Tatsuo, Edson Samesima; Quites, Lucas Viana; Giannetti, Alexandre Varella

    2016-12-01

    Bladder perforation by ventriculoperitoneal shunt is a rare complication that has been describe in 19 cases in prior literature. This work describes the case of a 4-month-old baby who presented with extrusion of the distal catheter through the urethra. The patient underwent a laparotomy; the catheter was cut close to the bladder wall and repositioned into the peritoneal cavity. The bladder wall was sutured, and the remaining distal portion of the catheter was removed through the urethra. Based on this single experience and a literature review, the authors classified the clinical signs and symptoms of bladder perforation by the ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter. Finally, the authors propose a more conservative approach for this rare complication.

  5. Arterioportal shunts on dynamic computed tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Nakayama, T.; Hiyama, Y.; Ohnishi, K.; Tsuchiya, S.; Kohno, K.; Nakajima, Y.; Okuda, K.

    1983-05-01

    Thirty-two patients, 20 with hepatocelluar carcinoma and 12 with liver cirrhosis, were examined by dynamic computed tomography (CT) using intravenous bolus injection of contrast medium and by celiac angiography. Dynamic CT disclosed arterioportal shunting in four cases of hepatocellular carcinoma and in one of cirrhosis. In three of the former, the arterioportal shunt was adjacent to a mass lesion on CT, suggesting tumor invasion into the portal branch. In one with hepatocellular carcinoma, the shunt was remote from the mass. In the case with cirrhosis, there was no mass. In these last two cases, the shunt might have been caused by prior percutaneous needle puncture. In another case of hepatocellular carcinoma, celiac angiography but not CT demonstrated an arterioportal shunt. Thus, dynamic CT was diagnostic in five of six cases of arteriographically demonstrated arterioportal shunts.

  6. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-09-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, they verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. They discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  7. Prolonged exposure to antibiotic-impregnated shunt catheters does not increase incidence of late shunt infections.

    PubMed

    Sciubba, Daniel M; McGirt, Matthew J; Woodworth, Graeme F; Carson, Benjamin; Jallo, George I

    2007-08-01

    Antibiotic-impregnated shunt (AIS) systems have been designed to prevent the colonization of shunt components by skin flora that occurs at surgery. Although such systems may decrease the incidence of early shunt infections (those occurring within 6 months of shunt placement), it is unclear if such exposure to prolonged antibiotics leads to an increased incidence or virulence of late shunt infections (those occurring later than 6 months after shunt placement). In this study, the authors evaluate the incidence of late shunt infection after the introduction of an AIS system in a pediatric hydrocephalus population. We prospectively reviewed all pediatric patients undergoing antibiotic-impregnated CSF shunt insertion or shunt revision operations at our institution for the 33 month period between October 1, 2002 and June 31, 2005. All shunt-related complications, including shunt infection, were evaluated in those patients with later than 6 months of follow-up. A total of 153 pediatric patients (between 1 and 21 years of age) underwent 262 shunting procedures involving the use of antibiotic-impregnated catheters. All patients were followed-up for later than 6 months with a mean follow-up of 21.7 months (range 13-46 months). Ten patients (3.82%) experienced an early shunt infection within the 6-month follow-up period. No patients experienced a late shunt infection. Although concern exists that AIS systems may delay shunt infections or even increase the rate or virulence of such infections, introduction of such catheters into a pediatric hydrocephalus cohort does not significantly increase incidence of late CSF shunt infection compared to historic controls.

  8. Asymptomatic bowel perforation by abandoned ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Rinker, Eric K; Osborn, Daniel A; Williams, Todd R; Spizarny, David L

    2013-09-01

    We report a case of an abandoned abdominal ventriculoperitoneal shunt that migrated into the gastric antrum, colonic hepatic flexure, and liver parenchyma, which was discovered incidentally on an abdominal CT obtained for renal stones. In regards to the migrated abandoned VP shunt, the patient was asymptomatic. Upon review of prior CT scans, these findings had progressed over approximately 7 years. We describe the case and discuss the clinical and radiologic findings, complications resulting from ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and possible approaches to their management.

  9. Shunt malfunction after roller coaster ride.

    PubMed

    Gegg, Christopher; Olavarria, Greg; Pattisapu, Jogi V

    2009-04-01

    We report a case of shunt malfunction after a child was subjected to G forces during a roller coaster ride. The temporal sequence of events suggests proximal catheter obstruction with subsequent symptoms of raised intracranial pressure immediately after experience with a G force ride. A shunt revision with catheter change led to resolution of symptoms, and findings were consistent with hemorrhage within the catheter. This case illustrates the risks of such an experience on children with shunts and the implications for patient counseling.

  10. Radiological Insertion and Management of Peritoneovenous Shunt

    SciTech Connect

    Bratby, M. J.; Hussain, F. F. Lopez, A. J.

    2007-06-15

    The purpose of the study was to report our experience of the management of complications following the insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for intractable malignant ascites. From June 1999 to January 2006, 26 patients underwent insertion of a peritoneovenous shunt for ascites by interventional radiologists. We have used ultrasound and shuntography to assist in the diagnosis of the cause of shunt blockage. Successful techniques for the restoration of the shunt function include port- pumping, stripping of any fibrin sheath, and revision of either the venous or peritoneal catheter. The procedure was initially successful in all patients with continued patency until death in 17. A further four patients are still alive with a functioning shunt. There was one rapid postprocedure death resulting from pulmonary edema. Two patients developed pneumothorax, managed successfully with either a chest drain or aspiration. Shunt dysfunction occurred eight times in seven patients. There were five successful revisions in four patients. Overall, shunt patency has been maintained in 80.1% of patients. Shunt dysfunction is seen in a significant number of patients, but successful revision of the shunt can be achieved in the majority.

  11. [Unusual abdominal complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt].

    PubMed

    Guillén, A; Costa, J M; Castelló, I; Claramunt, E; Cardona, E

    2002-10-01

    The most common complications after CSF shunting to treat hydrocephalus are shunt infection and obstruction. Although ventriculoperitoneal (VP) diversion of the CSF using artificial shunt devices is an accepted method for the management of hydrocephalus, high rates of various complications have been reported, ranging from 24% to 47%. Among these, abdominal complications account for approximately 25%. The incidence of bowel perforation by shunt-catheter is known to be as low as 0.1-0.7%. We describe a case of migration af a peritoneal catheter through a congenital hernia of Morgagni.

  12. The Budd-Chiari syndrome. Treatment by mesenteric-systemic venous shunts.

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, J L; Herlong, H F; Sanfey, H; Boitnott, J; Kaufman, S L; Gott, V L; Maddrey, W C

    1983-01-01

    Twelve patients with the Budd-Chiari syndrome have been managed surgically. Ten of the patients were female, two were male, with a mean age of 40 years. Three of the patients had polycythemia vera, two had pre-existing cirrhosis, one had ingested estrogens, one had an occult tumor, and in four there were no associated factors. Ten patients presented with ascites and two with bleeding esophageal varices. The diagnosis was confirmed in all 12 patients by liver biopsy and hepatic vein catheterization. Inferior vena cavography revealed the abdominal vena cava to be thrombosed in six patients. The superior mesenteric vein was used to decompress the congested liver in all 12 patients. In five patients, a mesocaval shunt (MCS) was performed and in seven patients, a mesoatrial shunt (MAS) was carried out. There were four hospital deaths (two MCS, two MAS). One late death (MAS) occurred from liver failure following shunt thrombosis. Two additional patients (one MCS, one MAS) re-developed ascites immediately following surgery and angiography revealed a thrombosed shunt. Ascites has been controlled with a LeVeen shunt in these two patients, but liver biopsies showed progression to cirrhosis. The remaining five patients (three MAS, two MCS) did well, and angiography revealed patent shunts. Two of these patients, however, re-developed ascites at 4 and 10 months following MAS and required a second MAS. Follow-up ranges from 6 to 68 months. In three of the patients (two MCS, one MAS) with patent shunts, liver biopsy shows a remarkable return toward normal liver architecture and histology. Images Fig. 1. Fig. 2. Fig. 3. Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. PMID:6615056

  13. Cerebral arteriovenous shunts in children.

    PubMed

    Toma, Ahmed K; Davagnanam, Indran; Ganesan, Vijeya; Brew, Stefan

    2013-11-01

    Intracranial arteriovenous shunts (AVSs) in children can be divided into pial arteriovenous malformations, vein of Galen malformations, and arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). Dural AVF and dural sinus malformations are rare entities within this group. The relative immaturity of the anatomy and physiology of the neonatal and infant brain results in the inability of the hydrovenous system to compensate in the face of such disorders. Thus, the clinical presentation reflects this difference in the underlying anatomy, physiology, and disorder between children and adults. In this article, we briefly review the presentation, natural history and management of these entities.

  14. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home signal...

  15. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.229 Shunting sensitivity. Each highway-rail grade...

  16. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home signal...

  17. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home signal...

  18. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... sensitivity. Each highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall detect the application of a shunt...

  19. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION..., Inspection, and Testing Maintenance Standards § 234.229 Shunting sensitivity. Each highway-rail grade...

  20. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home signal...

  1. 49 CFR 236.56 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 236.56 Section 236.56 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.56 Shunting sensitivity. Each track circuit controlling home signal...

  2. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... sensitivity. Each highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall detect the application of a shunt...

  3. 49 CFR 234.229 - Shunting sensitivity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shunting sensitivity. 234.229 Section 234.229 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... sensitivity. Each highway-rail grade crossing train detection circuit shall detect the application of a shunt...

  4. Does the Warren Shunt Correct Hypersplenism?

    PubMed Central

    Mavor, Andrew I. D.; Giles, Geoffrey R.

    1990-01-01

    It has been suggested that patients with bleeding varices and hypersplenism will show significant improvements in leucocyte and platelet counts following distal splenorenal (Warren) shunt surgery. Whilst this may be true in the short term, this report shows that in the long term hypersplenism is not relieved, whereas the lienorenal shunt is associated with a return of normal haematological values. PMID:2282329

  5. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt is a device that consists of a tube or sheet intended to be implanted to relieve the symptons of vertigo. The device permits the unrestricted flow of excess endolymph from...

  6. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt is a device that consists of a tube or sheet intended to be implanted to relieve the symptons of vertigo. The device permits the unrestricted flow of excess endolymph from...

  7. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt. 874.3820 Section 874.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt....

  8. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt. 874.3820 Section 874.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt....

  9. 21 CFR 874.3820 - Endolymphatic shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt. 874.3820 Section 874.3820 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3820 Endolymphatic shunt....

  10. Intravascular US-guided direct intrahepatic portocaval shunt with an expanded polytetrafluoroethylene-covered stent-graft.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Hanno; Wang, Stephen L; Petersen, Bryan D

    2008-01-01

    To retrospectively evaluate the midterm patency rate of the nitinol (Viatorr, W.L. Gore and Associates, Flagstaff, Ariz) stent-graft for direct intrahepatic portacaval shunt (DIPS) creation. Institutional Review Board approval for this retrospective HIPAA-compliant study was obtained with waiver of informed consent. DIPS was created in 18 men and one woman (median age, 54 years; range, 45-65 years) by using nitinol polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE)-covered stent-grafts. The primary indications were intractable ascites (n = 14), acute variceal bleeding (n = 3), and hydrothorax (n = 2). Follow-up included Doppler ultrasonography at 1, 6, and 12 months and venography with manometry at 6-month intervals after the procedure. Shunt patency and cumulative survival were evaluated by using the Kaplan-Meier method and survival curves were plotted. Differences in mean portosystemic gradients (PSGs) were evaluated by using the Student t test. Multiple regression analysis for survival and DIPS patency were performed for the following parameters: Child-Pugh class, model of end-stage liver disease score, pre- and post-DIPS PSGs, pre-DIPS liver function tests, and pre-DIPS creatinine levels. DIPS creation was successful in all patients. Effective portal decompression and free antegrade shunt flow was achieved in all patients. Intraperitoneal bleeding occurred in one patient during the procedure and was controlled during the same procedure by placing a second nitinol stent-graft. The primary patency rate was 100% at all times during the follow-up period (range, 2 days to 30 months; mean, 256 days; median, 160 days). Flow restrictors were deployed in two (11%) of 19 patients. The 1-year mortality rate was 37% (seven of 19). Patency after DIPS creation with the nitinol PTFE-covered stent-graft was superior to that after TIPS with the nitinol stent-graft. RSNA, 2008

  11. Late pediatric ventriculoperitoneal shunt failures: a Singapore tertiary institution's experience.

    PubMed

    Lee, Lester; Low, Sharon; Low, David; Ng, Lee Ping; Nolan, Colum; Seow, Wan Tew

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE The introduction of ventriculoperitoneal shunts changed the way hydrocephalus was treated. Whereas much is known about the causes of shunt failure in the first few years, there is a paucity of data in the literature regarding the cause of late shunt failures. The authors conducted a study to find out the different causes of late shunt failures in their institution. METHODS A 10-year retrospective study of all the patients who were treated in the authors' hospital between 2006 and 2015 was conducted. Late shunt failures included those in patients who had to undergo shunt revision more than 5 years after their initial shunt insertion. The patient's notes and scans were reviewed to obtain the age and sex of the patient, the time it took for the shunt to fail, the reason for failure, and the patient's follow-up. RESULTS Forty-six patients in the authors' institution experienced 48 late shunt failures in the last 10 years. Their ages ranged from 7 to 26 years (12.23 ± 4.459 years [mean ± SD]). The time it took for the shunts to fail was between 6 and 24 years (mean 10.25 ± 3.77 years). Reasons for failure resulting in shunt revision include shunt fracture in 24 patients (50%), shunt blockage in 14 patients (29.2%), tract fibrosis in 6 patients (12.5%), shunt dislodgement in 2 patients (4.2%), and shunt erosion in 2 patients (4.2%). Postoperative follow-up for the patients ranged from 6 to 138 months (mean 45.15 ± 33.26 months). CONCLUSIONS Late shunt failure is caused by the effects of aging on the shunt, and the complications are different from early shunt failure. A large proportion are complications associated with shunt calcification. The authors advocate a long follow-up for pediatric patients with shunts in situ to monitor them for various causes of late shunt failure.

  12. Mycobacterium abscessus ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Montero, Jose A; Alrabaa, Sally F; Wills, Todd S

    2016-04-01

    A 30-year-old man with history of neonatal hydrocephalus requiring ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement presented with Mycobacterium abscessus shunt infection despite no shunt manipulation over 10 years prior to presentation. Cure was not achieved until complete removal of all CNS shunt foreign body was performed despite initial adequate antimicrobial therapy.

  13. Percutaneous transtubal scintigraphic assessment of patency of peritoneovenous shunts

    SciTech Connect

    Taggart, G.J.; Sullivan, D.C.; Gusberg, R.J.; Conn, H.O.

    1981-02-01

    Peritoneovenous shunts have been widely used in the management of patients with ascites when medical therapy has failed. Shunt malfunction is a frequent complication. Direct injection of a small amount of Tc-99m-sulfur colloid into the afferent limb of the shunt allow prompt, accurate determination of shunt patency while avoiding some of the hazards and pitfalls of previously described techniques.

  14. The Preventable Shunt Revision Rate: a potential quality metric for pediatric shunt surgery.

    PubMed

    Venable, Garrett T; Rossi, Nicholas B; Morgan Jones, G; Khan, Nickalus R; Smalley, Zachary S; Roberts, Mallory L; Klimo, Paul

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Shunt surgery consumes a large amount of pediatric neurosurgical health care resources. Although many studies have sought to identify risk factors for shunt failure, there is no consensus within the literature on variables that are predictive or protective. In this era of "quality outcome measures," some authors have proposed various metrics to assess quality outcomes for shunt surgery. In this paper, the Preventable Shunt Revision Rate (PSRR) is proposed as a novel quality metric. METHODS An institutional shunt database was queried to identify all shunt surgeries performed from January 1, 2010, to December 31, 2014, at Le Bonheur Children's Hospital. Patients' records were reviewed for 90 days following each "index" shunt surgery to identify those patients who required a return to the operating room. Clinical, demographic, and radiological factors were reviewed for each index operation, and each failure was analyzed for potentially preventable causes. RESULTS During the study period, there were 927 de novo or revision shunt operations in 525 patients. A return to the operating room occurred 202 times within 90 days of shunt surgery in 927 index surgeries (21.8%). In 67 cases (33% of failures), the revision surgery was due to potentially preventable causes, defined as inaccurate proximal or distal catheter placement, infection, or inadequately secured or assembled shunt apparatus. Comparing cases in which failure was due to preventable causes and those in which it was due to nonpreventable causes showed that in cases in which failure was due to preventable causes, the patients were significantly younger (median 3.1 vs 6.7 years, p = 0.01) and the failure was more likely to occur within 30 days of the index surgery (80.6% vs 64.4% of cases, p = 0.02). The most common causes of preventable shunt failure were inaccurate proximal catheter placement (33 [49.3%] of 67 cases) and infection (28 [41.8%] of 67 cases). No variables were found to be predictive of

  15. Vascular Shunts in Civilian Trauma

    PubMed Central

    Abou Ali, Adham N.; Salem, Karim M.; Alarcon, Louis H.; Bauza, Graciela; Pikoulis, Emmanuel; Chaer, Rabih A.; Avgerinos, Efthymios D.

    2017-01-01

    Experience with temporary intravascular shunts (TIVS) for vessel injury comes from the military sector and while the indications might be clear in geographically isolated and under resourced war zones, this may be an uncommon scenario in civilian trauma. Data supporting TIVS use in civilian trauma have been extrapolated from the military literature where it demonstrated improved life and limb salvage. Few non-comparative studies from the civilian literature have also revealed similar favorable outcomes. Still, TIVS placement in civilian vascular injuries is uncommon and by some debatable given the absence of clear indications for placement, the potential for TIVS-related complications, the widespread resources for immediate and definitive vascular repair, and the need for curtailing costs and optimizing resources. This article reviews the current evidence and the role of TIVS in contemporary civilian trauma management. PMID:28775985

  16. Subtotal laryngectomy with myomucosal shunt.

    PubMed

    Chandrachud, H R; Chaurasia, M K; Sinha, K P

    1989-05-01

    This is a modified subtotal laryngectomy. On the tumour-free side of the larynx, some posterior structures, with their neurovascular supply are preserved. The endolaryngeal mucosa is tubed in continuity with the trachea below and projects into the pharynx above. Thus a myomucosal shunt is formed. Air is directed into it by finger occlusion of the tracheal stoma. The voice production is highly satisfactory. Aspiration is prevented by constriction of the thyroarytenoid muscle which provides a valved upper end of the tube. The possibility of leaving tumour in the laryngeal remnant is eliminated by careful selection of patients, and re-confirmation of tumour extent intra-operatively and a frozen section. Eleven such operations have been performed since October 1983 for squamous cell carcinoma, some previously irradiated. None of the patients had local recurrence. Only one had an aspiration problem which later resolved. All acquired a satisfactory voice.

  17. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Peritoneal Catheter Knot Formation

    PubMed Central

    Ul-Haq, Anwar; Al-Otaibi, Faisal; Alshanafey, Saud; Sabbagh, Mohamed Diya; Al Shail, Essam

    2013-01-01

    The ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a common procedure in pediatric neurosurgery that carries a risk of complications at cranial and abdominal sites. We report on the case of a child with shunt infection and malfunction. The peritoneal catheter was tethered within the abdominal cavity, precluding its removal. Subsequently, laparoscopic exploration identified a knot at the distal end of the peritoneal catheter around the omentum. A new VP shunt was inserted after the infection was healed. This type of complication occurs rarely, so there are a limited number of case reports in the literature. This report is complemented by a literature review. PMID:24109528

  18. Asymptomatic Bowel Perforation by Abandoned Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt

    PubMed Central

    Rinker, Eric K; Osborn, Daniel A.; Williams, Todd R.; Spizarny, David L.

    2013-01-01

    We report a case of an abandoned abdominal ventriculoperitoneal shunt that migrated into the gastric antrum, colonic hepatic flexure, and liver parenchyma, which was discovered incidentally on an abdominal CT obtained for renal stones. In regards to the migrated abandoned VP shunt, the patient was asymptomatic. Upon review of prior CT scans, these findings had progressed over approximately 7 years. We describe the case and discuss the clinical and radiologic findings, complications resulting from ventriculoperitoneal shunts, and possible approaches to their management. PMID:24421952

  19. Ventriculoperitoneal Shunting Surgery with Open Distal Shunt Catheter Placement in the Treatment of Hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yang; Zhu, Xiaobo; Zhao, Jinchuan; Hou, Kun; Gao, Xianfeng; Sun, Yang; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Xiaona

    2015-11-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunting (VPS) is a major therapy for hydrocephalus, but has a significant risk of device malfunctioning. In this study, we explored a novel distal shunt catheter placement method in VPS for the treatment of hydrocephalus. Five patients with different etiologies of hydrocephalus underwent VPS with open distant shunt catheter attached outside. We analyzed different variables (age, gender, medical history, clinical presentation, indication for surgery and surgical technique, postoperative complications) and occurrence of shunt failure and infection. All hydrocephalus patients who received the distal shunt catheter placed outside can undergo regular VPS again after the condition improves. The modified VPS in the treatment of hydrocephalus with the distal shunt catheter placed outside could potentially reduce the necessity of repeat surgery for addressing the complications caused by catheter obstruction and infections, reduce the chance of adhesions, and would be of benefit to those patients who need future revisions.

  20. Fasciocutaneous flap in esophageal stricture with ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Seong, Yong Won; Kang, Chang Hyun; Chang, Hak; Park, In Kyu; Kim, Young Tae

    2014-01-01

    Abdominal surgery in a patient with ventriculoperitoneal shunt may increase the risk of shunt malfunction and infection. We present a successful case of resection and reconstruction of the cervical esophagus by rolled lateral thoracic artery fasciocutaneous flap in a patient with corrosive esophageal stricture and preexisting ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Follow-up esophagogastroscopy after 3 months revealed wide patent graft. Rolled fasciocutaneous flap may be a safe alternative treatment without risk of shunt-associated complications in a patient with ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

  1. [Laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunt with temporary external drainage for hydrocephalus: a comparison with conventional ventriculoperitoneal shunt].

    PubMed

    Chen, Jianfa; Liu, Changxu; Zhu, Hongsheng; Fu, Ming; Lin, Fulu; Liu, Jun; Xie, Kuilong; Li, Ping

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the clinical efficacy of laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunt with temporary external drainage in the treatment of hydrocephalus. Fifty-two cases of hydrocephalus randomized into two groups to receive laparoscopic assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt with temporary external drainage (19 male and 7 female patients) and conventional ventriculoperitoneal shunt (20 male and 6 female patients). The catheterization time in the abdominal cavity, release time of intracranial hypertension, average hospital stay, postoperative pains, and postoperative complications were compared between the two groups. Laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunt with temporary external drainage was performed successfully in all the cases without intraoperative conversion to open surgery. Compared with the conventional ventriculoperitoneal shunt, laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunt with temporary external drainage was associated with significantly shortened catheterization time in the abdominal cavity, release time of intracranial hypertension, and average hospital stay (P<0.01) as well as lowered postoperative pain score at 4, 8, 16, and 24 h after the operation. The pain scores at 48 and 72 h postoperatively were comparable between the two groups. During the follow-up 3 months, the patients receiving laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunt were found to have significantly lower rates of peritoneal end obstruction and abdominal cavity infection than those having conventional shunt (3.8% vs 19.2%, P<0.01; 1.0% vs 23.1%, P<0.01). Laparoscopic ventriculoperitoneal shunt with temporary external drainage is feasible and produces better clinical therapeutic effect for management of hydrocephalus.

  2. Primary ventriculoperitoneal shunting outcomes: a multicentre clinical audit for shunt infection and its risk factors.

    PubMed

    Woo, P Ym; Wong, H T; Pu, J Ks; Wong, W K; Wong, L Yw; Lee, M Wy; Yam, K Y; Lui, W M; Poon, W S

    2016-10-01

    To determine the frequency of primary ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection among patients treated at neurosurgical centres of the Hospital Authority and to identify underlying risk factors. This multicentre historical cohort study included consecutive patients who underwent primary ventriculoperitoneal shunting at a Hospital Authority neurosurgery centre from 1 January 2009 to 31 December 2011. The primary endpoint was shunt infection, defined as: (1) the presence of cerebrospinal fluid or shunt hardware culture that yielded the pathogenic micro-organism with associated compatible symptoms and signs of central nervous system infection or shunt malfunction; or (2) surgical incision site infection requiring shunt reinsertion (even in the absence of positive culture); or (3) intraperitoneal pseudocyst formation (even in the absence of positive culture). Secondary endpoints were shunt malfunction, defined as unsatisfactory cerebrospinal fluid drainage that required shunt reinsertion, and 30-day mortality. A primary ventriculoperitoneal shunt was inserted in 538 patients during the study period. The mean age of patients was 48 years (range, 13-88 years) with a male-to-female ratio of 1:1. Aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage was the most common aetiology (n=169, 31%) followed by intracranial tumour (n=164, 30%), central nervous system infection (n=42, 8%), and traumatic brain injury (n=27, 5%). The mean operating time was 75 (standard deviation, 29) minutes. Shunt reinsertion and infection rates were 16% (n=87) and 7% (n=36), respectively. The most common cause for shunt reinsertion was malfunction followed by shunt infection. Independent predictors for shunt infection were: traumatic brain injury (adjusted odds ratio=6.2; 95% confidence interval, 2.3-16.8), emergency shunting (2.3; 1.0-5.1), and prophylactic vancomycin as the sole antibiotic (3.4; 1.1-11.0). The 30-day all-cause mortality was 6% and none were directly procedure-related. This is the first Hong Kong

  3. Delayed diagnosis of shunt overdrainage following functional hemispherotomy and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement in a hemimegalencephaly patient.

    PubMed

    Nagahama, Yasunori; Peters, David; Kumonda, Sho; Vesole, Adam; Joshi, Charuta; J Dlouhy, Brian; Kawasaki, Hiroto

    2017-01-01

    Shunt overdrainage represents a nebulous condition of variable clinical and imaging presentations, where the diagnosis is primarily clinical. The condition presents a diagnostic challenge particularly in patients with cognitive impairment and developmental delays. Here we present a 3-year-old boy with drug-resistant focal onset seizures due to hemimegalencephaly who previously underwent functional hemispherotomy followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for postoperative hydrocephalus. The subsequent clinical course was complicated by delayed diagnosis of shunt overdrainage in the absence of significant image findings. Maintaining a high index of suspicion for the possibility of shunt overdrainage is critical even in the face of unremarkable imaging findings.

  4. A Comprehensive Review of Portosystemic Collaterals in Cirrhosis: Historical Aspects, Anatomy, and Classifications.

    PubMed

    Philips, Cyriac Abby; Arora, Ankur; Shetty, Rajesh; Kasana, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic collateral formation in cirrhosis plays an important part in events that define the natural history in affected patients. A detailed understanding of collateral anatomy and hemodynamics in cirrhotics is essential to envisage diagnosis, management, and outcomes of portal hypertension. In this review, we provide detailed insights into the historical, anatomical, and hemodynamic aspects to portal hypertension and collateral pathways in cirrhosis with emphasis on the various classification systems.

  5. A Comprehensive Review of Portosystemic Collaterals in Cirrhosis: Historical Aspects, Anatomy, and Classifications

    PubMed Central

    Shetty, Rajesh; Kasana, Vivek

    2016-01-01

    Portosystemic collateral formation in cirrhosis plays an important part in events that define the natural history in affected patients. A detailed understanding of collateral anatomy and hemodynamics in cirrhotics is essential to envisage diagnosis, management, and outcomes of portal hypertension. In this review, we provide detailed insights into the historical, anatomical, and hemodynamic aspects to portal hypertension and collateral pathways in cirrhosis with emphasis on the various classification systems. PMID:28074159

  6. Bilateral pneumothorax during subdural-peritoneal shunting.

    PubMed

    Solmaz, Ilker; Tehli, Ozkan; Kaya, Serdar; Erdogan, Ersin; Izci, Yusuf

    2011-01-01

    Pneumothorax is a very rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunting in children. We report a case of an iatrogenic bilateral tension pneumothorax during the placement of a subdural-peritoneal shunting. After the placement of peritoneal catheter, oxygen saturation of the patient quickly decreased, hypotension and bradycardia occurred. Intraoperative x-rays showed the pneumothorax. A thoracostomy tube was inserted and attached to an underwater seal. Vital signs improved in a short time period. The radiological improvement had been achieved in four days. Early diagnosis and prompt intervention are life-saving for this complication. To avoid this complication, the tip of the shunt tunneler should be always palpable during the placement of the peritoneal catheter, especially in children's shunt surgery.

  7. Laparoscopic revision of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Turner, Raymond; Chahlavi, Ali; Rasmussen, Peter; Brody, Fred

    2004-10-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are the most common treatment modality for hydrocephalus. Distal catheter malfunction represents a surgical emergency and a significant cause of procedural morbidity. We report the case of a patient with acute abdominal pain following VP shunt insertion. On examination she had a tender, irreducible bulge at the abdominal laparotomy site. Exploratory laparoscopy of the abdomen yielded no abdominal wall abnormalities. At the same time, the distal catheter was noted to be absent. The abdominal bulge was incised along the laparotomy scar and clear cerebrospinal fluid was encountered. The incision was explored and the distal catheter was coiled and knotted within the preperitoneal space. The catheter was laparoscopically returned to the peritoneal cavity. This case exemplifies the utility of laparoscopy for VP shunt revision and we present a review of laparoscopic shunt revision.

  8. Cerebrospinal fluid eosinophilia associated with intraventricular shunts.

    PubMed

    Bezerra, Sofia; Frigeri, Thomas More; Severo, Carlos Marcelo; Santana, João Carlos Batista; Graeff-Teixeira, Carlos

    2011-06-01

    CSF eosinophilia (CSF-eo) is uncommon and is usually caused by helminthic infections. However, it has also been found in ∼30% of patients experiencing intraventricular shunt malfunctions. We present a case report and review the conditions associated with CSF-eo and their prophylaxis. An 8 year-old boy with tetraventricular hydrocephalus has had several shunt malfunctions over the last three years. During hospitalization in January 2009 for shunt revision, a transient 30% eosinophilia was detected in his cerebral spinal fluid (CSF) concomitant with Staphylococcus epidermidis infection and long term vancomycin administration. After several shunt replacements and antibiotic treatment, CSF-eo eventually disappeared with good overall clinical response. CSF-eo is a transient and focal event mainly associated with infection, reactions to foreign substances, particles or blood, or obstruction of tubing by normal or fibro-granulomatous tissues. Infection associated with CSF-eo is usually caused by S. epidermidis and Propioniumbacterium acnes. In addition to infection, allergy to silicone and other foreign materials may also be a cause of CSF-eo. We review the diversity of conditions and proposed mechanisms associated with CSF-eo, as well as recommendations for the care of patients with shunts. Detection of CSF-eo has been shown to be a useful indicator of shunt malfunction. As such, it provides physicians with an indicator of a hypersensitivity reaction that is underway or the need to identify bacterial infection. We also highlight the need for improved biocompatibility of shunt hardware and describe strategies to avoid conditions leading to shunt malfunction.

  9. Endoscopic third ventriculostomy in previously shunted children.

    PubMed

    Brichtova, Eva; Chlachula, Martin; Hrbac, Tomas; Lipina, Radim

    2013-01-01

    Endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is a routine and safe procedure for therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus. The aim of our study is to evaluate ETV success rate in therapy of obstructive hydrocephalus in pediatric patients formerly treated by ventriculoperitoneal (V-P) shunt implantation. From 2001 till 2011, ETV was performed in 42 patients with former V-P drainage implantation. In all patients, the obstruction in aqueduct or outflow parts of the fourth ventricle was proved by MRI. During the surgery, V-P shunt was clipped and ETV was performed. In case of favourable clinical state and MRI functional stoma, the V-P shunt has been removed 3 months after ETV. These patients with V-P shunt possible removing were evaluated as successful. In our group of 42 patients we were successful in 29 patients (69%). There were two serious complications (4.7%)-one patient died 2.5 years and one patient died 1 year after surgery in consequence of delayed ETV failure. ETV is the method of choice in obstructive hydrocephalus even in patients with former V-P shunt implantation. In case of acute or scheduled V-P shunt surgical revision, MRI is feasible, and if ventricular system obstruction is diagnosed, the hydrocephalus may be solved endoscopically.

  10. Cell shunt resistance and photovoltaic module performance

    SciTech Connect

    McMahon, T.J.; Basso, T.S.; Rummel, S.R.

    1996-05-01

    Shunt resistance of cells in photovoltaic modules can affect module power output and could indicate flawed manufacturing processes and reliability problems. The authors describe a two-terminal diagnostic method to directly measure the shunt resistance of individual cells in a series-connected module non-intrusively, without deencapsulation. Peak power efficiency vs. light intensity was measured on a 12-cell, series-connected, single crystalline module having relatively high cell shunt resistances. The module was remeasured with 0.5-, 1-, and 2-ohm resistors attached across each cell to simulate shunt resistances of several emerging technologies. Peak power efficiencies decreased dramatically at lower light levels. Using the PSpice circuit simulator, the authors verified that cell shunt and series resistances can indeed be responsible for the observed peak power efficiency vs. intensity behavior. The authors discuss the effect of basic cell diode parameters, i.e., shunt resistance, series resistance, and recombination losses, on PV module performance as a function of light intensity.

  11. Validating a Clinical Prediction Rule for Ventricular Shunt Malfunction.

    PubMed

    Boyle, Tehnaz P; Kimia, Amir A; Nigrovic, Lise E

    2017-01-17

    This study aims to validate a published ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule for the identification of children at low risk for ventricular shunt malfunction based on the absence of 3 high-risk clinical predictors (irritability, nausea or vomiting, and headache). We identified children aged 21 years and younger with a ventricular shunt who presented between 2010 and 2013 to a single pediatric emergency department (ED) for evaluation of potential shunt malfunction. We defined a ventricular shunt malfunction as obstruction to cerebrospinal fluid flow requiring operative neurosurgical intervention within 72 hours of initial ED evaluation. We applied this ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule to the study population and report the test characteristics. We identified 755 ED visits for 294 children with potential ventricular shunt malfunction. Of these encounters, 146 (19%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 17%-22%) had a ventricular shunt malfunction. The ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule had a sensitivity of 99% (95% CI, 94%-100%), specificity of 7% (95% CI, 5%-9%), and negative predictive value of 95% (95% CI, 82%-99%). Two children with a ventricular shunt malfunction were misclassified as low risk by this clinical prediction rule. Ventricular shunt malfunctions were common. Although children classified as low risk by the ventricular shunt clinical prediction rule were less likely to have a shunt malfunction, routine neuroimaging may still be required because exclusion of ventricular shunt malfunction may be difficult on clinical grounds alone.

  12. An unusual ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication: spontaneous knot formation.

    PubMed

    Borcek, Alp Ozgun; Civi, Soner; Golen, Mustafa; Emmez, Hakan; Baykaner, M Kemali

    2012-01-01

    This article aims to describe an extraordinary complication of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt system that formed a knot spontaneously and lead to a shunt malfunction. A 3-year-old male patient was operated due to posttraumatic hydrocephalus. After an uneventful follow-up period of 34 months, he presented with shunt malfunction. During the shunt revision surgery, the peritoneal catheter was found to form a loop over itself. There are various complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunt systems. Migration to body cavities is among the most interesting ones. This is the fifth report describing this rare complication. Hydrocephalic patients should be closely followed up after shunt surgery for various extraordinary complications.

  13. Noncavernous arteriovenous shunts mimicking carotid cavernous fistulae

    PubMed Central

    Kobkitsuksakul, Chai; Jiarakongmun, Pakorn; Chanthanaphak, Ekachat; Singhara Na Ayudya, Sirintara (Pongpech)

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE The classic symptoms and signs of carotid cavernous sinus fistula or cavernous sinus dural arteriovenous fistula (AVF) consist of eye redness, exophthalmos, and gaze abnormality. The angiography findings typically consist of arteriovenous shunt at cavernous sinus with ophthalmic venous drainage with or without cortical venous reflux. In rare circumstances, the shunts are localized outside the cavernous sinus, but mimic symptoms and radiography of the cavernous shunt. We would like to present the other locations of the arteriovenous shunt, which mimic the clinical presentation of carotid cavernous fistulae, and analyze venous drainages. METHODS We retrospectively examined the records of 350 patients who were given provisional diagnoses of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae or cavernous sinus dural AVF in the division of Interventional Neuroradiology, Ramathibodi Hospital, Bangkok between 2008 and 2014. Any patient with cavernous arteriovenous shunt was excluded. RESULTS Of those 350 patients, 10 patients (2.85%) were identified as having noncavernous sinus AVF. The angiographic diagnoses consisted of three anterior condylar (hypoglossal) dural AVF, two traumatic middle meningeal AVF, one lesser sphenoid wing dural AVF, one vertebro-vertebral fistula (VVF), one intraorbital AVF, one direct dural artery to cortical vein dural AVF, and one transverse-sigmoid dural AVF. Six cases (60%) were found to have venous efferent obstruction. CONCLUSION Arteriovenous shunts mimicking the cavernous AVF are rare, with a prevalence of only 2.85% in this series. The clinical presentation mainly depends on venous outflow. The venous outlet of the arteriovenous shunts is influenced by venous afferent-efferent patterns according to the venous anatomy of the central nervous system and the skull base, as well as by architectural disturbance, specifically, obstruction of the venous outflow. PMID:27767958

  14. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and the incidence of shunt revision in adult patients with hemorrhage-related hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Kesava

    2012-11-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery remains the most widely accepted neurosurgical procedure for the management of hydrocephalus. However, shunt failure and complications are common and may require multiple surgical procedures during a patient's lifetime. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and the incidence of shunt revision in adult patients with hemorrhage-related hydrocephalus. Adult patients who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement for hemorrhage-related hydrocephalus from October 1990 to October 2009 were included in this study. Medical charts, operative reports, imaging studies, and clinical follow-up evaluations were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 133 adult patients with the median age of 54.5 years were included. Among patients, 41% were males, and 62% Caucasians. The overall shunt revision rate was 51.9%. The shunt revision rate within the first 6 months after the initial placement of ventriculoperitoneal shunts was 45.1%. The median time to first shunt revision was 0.50 (95% CI, 0.24-9.2) months. No significant association was observed between perioperative variables (gender, ethnicity, hydrocephalus type, or hemorrhage type) and the shunt revision rate in these patients. Major causes of shunt revision include infection (3.6%), overdrainage (7.6%), obstruction (4.8%), proximal shunt complication (7.6%), distal shunt complication (3.6%), old shunt dysfunction (6.8%), valve malfunction (10.0%), externalization (3.6%), shunt complication (12.0%), shunt adjustment/replacement (24.0%) and other (16.4%). Although ventriculoperitoneal shunting remains to be the treatment of choice for adult patients with post hemorrhage-related hydrocephalus, a thorough understanding of predisposing factors related to the shunt failure is necessary to improve treatment outcomes. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hydrocephalus shunts and waves of intracranial pressure.

    PubMed

    Czosnyka, Z H; Cieslicki, K; Czosnyka, M; Pickard, J D

    2005-01-01

    The majority of contemporary hydrocephalus valves are designed to introduce a low resistance to flow into the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage pathway, and an therefore intended to stabilise intracranial pressure (ICP) at a level close to the shunt's operating pressure. However, this goal cannot always be attained. Accelerated CSF drainage with vertical body posture in ventriculo-peritoneal shunts is one reason for the ICP decreasing below the shunt's operating pressure. Another possible factor has been studied: the impact of the pulsating pattern in the ICP on the operating pressure. Six popular constructions of medium-pressure valves were studied (Radionics Low-profile, Delta, Hakim Precision, Holter, Integra In-line and Hakim NMT). Valves were mounted in the testing rig in the UK. Shunt Evaluation Laboratory and perfused with de-ionised water at a rate of 0.3 ml min(-1), and proximal pulsating pressures of different amplitudes (from 2 to 30mmHg peak-to-peak) and frequencies (70-10 cycles min(-1)) were superimposed. Laboratory findings were compared with clinical material containing recordings of ICP made in patients to diagnose reasons for ventriculomegaly. The mean operating pressure decreased in all valves when the simulated amplitude of heart pulsations increased. The rate of this decrease was dependent on the type of valve (variable from 2.5 to 5 mm Hg per increase in peak-to-peak amplitude by 10 mm Hg). The decrease was not related to the frequency of the wave. The relationship between pulse amplitude and ICP in 35 patients with blocked shunts was strong (R = 0.48; p < 0.03; slope 0.14) and in 25 patients with properly functioning shunts was non-significant (R = 0.057; p = 0.765). Two examples of decrease in mean ICP in the presence of increased vasogenic ICP waves in shunted patients are presented. The shunt operating pressure, which 'sets' the ICP in shunted patients may be influenced by the dynamics of a patient's ICP waveform.

  16. Simulation model for port shunting yards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rusca, A.; Popa, M.; Rosca, E.; Rosca, M.; Dragu, V.; Rusca, F.

    2016-08-01

    Sea ports are important nodes in the supply chain, joining two high capacity transport modes: rail and maritime transport. The huge cargo flows transiting port requires high capacity construction and installation such as berths, large capacity cranes, respectively shunting yards. However, the port shunting yards specificity raises several problems such as: limited access since these are terminus stations for rail network, the in-output of large transit flows of cargo relatively to the scarcity of the departure/arrival of a ship, as well as limited land availability for implementing solutions to serve these flows. It is necessary to identify technological solutions that lead to an answer to these problems. The paper proposed a simulation model developed with ARENA computer simulation software suitable for shunting yards which serve sea ports with access to the rail network. Are investigates the principal aspects of shunting yards and adequate measures to increase their transit capacity. The operation capacity for shunting yards sub-system is assessed taking in consideration the required operating standards and the measure of performance (e.g. waiting time for freight wagons, number of railway line in station, storage area, etc.) of the railway station are computed. The conclusion and results, drawn from simulation, help transports and logistics specialists to test the proposals for improving the port management.

  17. Complications of fourth-ventricular shunts.

    PubMed

    Lee, M; Leahu, D; Weiner, H L; Abbott, R; Wisoff, J H; Epstein, F J

    1995-01-01

    Fourth-ventricular shunting is commonly used to treat symptomatic posterior fossa cysts of the Dandy-Walker malformation and trapped fourth ventricle. Although the benefits of this procedure have been widely reported, there is a paucity of data on the pitfalls of posterior fossa shunting in the neurosurgical literature. During the 4-year period from July 1989 to June 1993, we placed fourth-ventricular shunts in 12 patients. Remarkably, 5 patients suffered complications related to posterior fossa catheter placement (42% rate). Three of these patients developed new cranial nerve dysfunction caused by direct injury to the floor of the fourth ventricle, 1 patient suffered an intracystic hemorrhage and acute shunt malfunction, and 1 patient had the catheter tip in the brainstem on postoperative studies without new neurological deficit. We conclude that placement of fourth-ventricular shunts can be fraught with complications which we believe is related to technique. We propose that altering the trajectory of the ventricular catheter from our usual midline technique to a more lateral position will lessen the chances for injury to the floor of the fourth ventricle. In this manner we hope to decrease our incidence of complications for this procedure.

  18. Clinico-histologic conferences: histology and disease.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Phyllis A; Friedman, Erica S

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical context, promote integration and application of science knowledge, and to foster peer teaching and learning: the Clinico-Histologic Conference (CHC) for the Mount Sinai School of Medicine Histology course. Teams of six students were each assigned specific disease processes and were charged with creating oral presentations and handouts that taught their classmates about the clinical manifestations, etiopathogeneses, diagnoses, and treatments of the assigned processes, along with comparisons of normal histology to the pathology of the disease. Each team also created four questions, some of which were used on Histology written examinations. The physician facilitator evaluated the presentation and handouts. About two-thirds of students agreed the CHC enhanced appreciation of the importance of histology, provided a context for integration and application of basic science to patient care and enhanced their ability to teach their peers. Student feedback demonstrated that the CHCs were successful in promoting teamwork, peer teaching, and the application of histology to diagnose diseases. The authors believe that teaching basic science content in this new format enhanced student learning and application of medical knowledge, and that this new teaching format can be adopted by other medical school courses.

  19. Palliation of malignant ascites by the Denver peritoneovenous shunt.

    PubMed Central

    Downing, R.; Black, J.; Windsor, C. W.

    1984-01-01

    Five out of 8 Denver peritoneovenous shunts placed in 7 patients provided excellent palliation of malignant ascites. Subclinical consumptive coagulopathy was detected after placement of 6 shunts, but no patient developed overt bleeding. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:6207757

  20. New declotting catheters for arterio-venous shunts.

    PubMed

    Pearl, M A; Clark, W T

    1978-11-01

    Clotting is a serious problem in patients with A-V shunts. Balloon Embolectomy catheters or irrigating devices are frequently unsuccessful in declotting shunts, resulting in surgical revision of the shunt. Frequent surgical revisions reduce sites of vascular access, making it difficult to perform adequate hemodialysis. New instruments, constructed mainly of stainless steel, have been devised and used to declot A-V shunts. The instruments have been devised for specific purposes and labeled as follows: (1) Explanding Mesh, (2) Helix and (3) Rotating Cutter. These instruments will dislodge and remove organized clots, snare and cut fibrin "flaps", open and enlarge the vessel lumens. They have been used successfully in removing vascular obstructions adjacent to the vessel tips of the shunt or at the site of anastamosis of the shunt and vessel. These are the most common sites of obstruction. By prolonging shunt life we have been able to decrease the number of shunt revisions.

  1. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggrregated albumin (/sup 99m/Tc MAA) labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cutaneous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  2. Radionuclide demonstration of intrapulmonary shunting in cirrhosis

    SciTech Connect

    Bank, E.R.; Thrall, J.H.; Dantzker, D.R.

    1983-05-01

    The association of hepatic cirrhosis and severe arterial hypoxemia has been well described. Although alterations in ventilatory function may partially account for the hypoxemia, the principal mechanism is thought to be a microangiopathic change in the pulmonary vasculature resulting in intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunting with resultant systemic desaturation. Whole-body radionuclide scans with technetium-99m macroaggregated albumin labeling have been diagnostic of right-to-left shunting by their demonstration of tracer accumulation within the extrapulmonary circulation. A case of severe pulmonary arteriovenous shunting in an alcoholic patient in whom hepatic disease had not been of apparent clinical significance before radionuclide scanning is reported. He did not have cuntaeous angiomata as have all other patients with alcoholic cirrhosis and hypoxemia.

  3. Oculogyric crisis masquerading as ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction.

    PubMed

    AlAzwary, Nail H; Muayqil, Taim; Siddiqi, Zaeem A; Ahmed, S Nizam

    2008-11-01

    Oculogyric crisis (OGC) is an underrecognized oculodystonic reaction associated with several medications including carbamazepine. The authors present a patient who had presented to the emergency department on multiple occasions with a questionable ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt dysfunction. Symptoms included nausea, vomiting, altered level of consciousness, ataxia, and vertical eye deviation. The patient underwent multiple revisions of the VP shunt with transient and questionable improvement. During her visit to the neurology clinic, OGC from carbamazepine was suspected, and the dose was reduced. The patient has been completely asymptomatic for the past 18 months. The authors report this case to increase the awareness of carbamazepine-induced OGC as one of the differential diagnoses for VP shunt dysfunction.

  4. Intrapulmonary vascular shunt pathways in alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins.

    PubMed

    Galambos, Csaba; Sims-Lucas, Sunder; Ali, Noorjahan; Gien, Jason; Dishop, Megan K; Abman, Steven H

    2015-01-01

    Alveolar capillary dysplasia with misalignment of pulmonary veins (ACD/MPV) is a lethal neonatal lung disease characterised by severe pulmonary hypertension, abnormal vasculature and intractable hypoxaemia. Mechanisms linking abnormal lung vasculature with severe hypoxaemia in ACD/MPV are unknown. We investigated whether bronchopulmonary anastomoses form right-to-left shunt pathways in ACD/MVP. We studied 2 infants who died of ACD/MPV postmortem with direct injections of coloured ink into the pulmonary artery, bronchial artery and pulmonary veins. Extensive histological evaluations included serial sectioning, immunostaining and 3-dimensional reconstruction demonstrated striking intrapulmonary vascular pathways linking the systemic and pulmonary circulations that bypass the alveolar capillary bed. These data support the role of prominent right-to-left intrapulmonary vascular shunt pathways in the pathophysiology of ACD/MPV.

  5. Arteriovenous shunts resembling patent ductus arteriosus in dogs: 3 cases.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Yoko; Aoki, Takuma; Takano, Hiroshi; Ishikawa, Ryokichi; Wakao, Yoshito

    2009-12-01

    Three dogs presented for the evaluation of cardiac murmurs were diagnosed with aberrant arteriovenous shunts. All cases demonstrated the following findings: 1) relatively soft continuous murmur loudest at the left heart base resembling patent ductus arteriosus (PDA); 2) shunt flow signals in the pulmonary artery on echocardiography; and 3) no PDA on selective angiography, but evidence of anomalous shunting vessels from thoracic aorta to pulmonary vasculature. An aberrant arteriovenous shunt should be considered when a continuous murmur of relatively small intensity is heard.

  6. Intraoperative Fluoroscopy for Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement.

    PubMed

    Coluccia, Daniel; Anon, Javier; Rossi, Frederic; Marbacher, Serge; Fandino, Javier; Berkmann, Sven

    2016-02-01

    Catheter malpositioning is one of the most frequent causes of ventriculoperitoneal shunt dysfunction and revision surgery. Most intraoperative tools used to improve the accuracy of catheter insertion are time consuming and expensive or do not display the final position. We evaluate the usefulness of intraoperative fluoroscopy to decrease catheter malpositioning, and define radiological landmarks to identify the correct localization. A total of 104 patients undergoing ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement were analyzed for shunt position, revision surgery and outcome. The results for patients operated on using intraoperative biplanar fluoroscopic assessment of catheter location (X-ray group, n = 57) were compared with a control group operated without intraoperative radiography (control, n = 47). In order to generate a surgical reference map for intraoperative validation of shunt location, different ventricular system landmarks were defined on three-dimensional computed tomography reconstructions of hydrocephalic patients (n = 60) and exported to a two-dimensional layer of the skull. The use of intraoperative X-ray imaging correlated with a significant increase of optimal catheter positions (X-ray group, n = 45, 79%; control group, n = 23, 49%; P = 0.0018). The sensitivity and positive predictive value for estimating an optimal shunt catheter position on biplanar imaging was 96% (95% confidence interval, 87%-99%). The specificity and negative predictive value were both 92% (95% confidence interval, 78%-98%). Intraoperative fluoroscopy is easy to perform and is a reliable method to assess correct catheter positioning. Based on its predictive value, corrections of malpositioned ventricular catheters can be performed during the same procedure. The use of intraoperative fluoroscopy decreases early surgical revisions in ventriculoperitoneal shunt treatment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Recovery from confabulation after normotensive hydrocephalus shunting.

    PubMed

    Dalla Barba, Gianfranco; Barbera, Claudia; Brazzarola, Marta; Marangoni, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Confabulation, the production of statements and actions that are unintentionally incongruous to the subject's history, background, present and future situation, is observed in several conditions affecting the nervous system, but it has never been described in normotensive hydrocephalus. In this article we report on a patient with normotensive hydrocephalus who suffered from an amnesic-confabulatory syndrome. After hydrocephalus shunting, both amnesia and confabulation cleared up abruptly. We discuss this finding in terms of a possible disconnection of the hippocampus, due to transitory white matter damage, which may have recovered after hydrocephalus shunting.

  8. Ventricular shunt infections: Immunopathogenesis and clinical management

    PubMed Central

    Gutierrez-Murgas, Yenis; Snowden, Jessica N.

    2014-01-01

    Ventricular shunts are the most common neurosurgical procedure performed in the United States. This hydrocephalus treatment is often complicated by infection of the device with biofilm-forming bacteria. In this review, we discuss the pathogenesis of shunt infection, as well as the implications of the biofilm formation on treatment and prevention of these infections. Many questions remain, including the contribution of glia and the impact of inflammation on developmental outcomes following infection. Immune responses within the CNS must be carefully regulated to contain infection while minimizing bystander damage; further study is needed to design optimal treatment strategies for these patients. PMID:25156073

  9. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the circuit...

  10. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the circuit...

  11. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the circuit...

  12. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch circuit...

  13. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the circuit...

  14. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch circuit...

  15. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch circuit...

  16. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch circuit...

  17. 49 CFR 236.725 - Circuit, switch shunting.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, switch shunting. 236.725 Section 236.725 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, switch shunting. A shunting circuit which is closed through contacts of a switch circuit...

  18. 49 CFR 236.60 - Switch shunting circuit; use restricted.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. 236.60... Instructions: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.60 Switch shunting circuit; use restricted. Switch shunting circuit shall not be hereafter installed, except where tract or control circuit is opened by the circuit...

  19. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling circuit...

  20. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  1. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling circuit...

  2. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  3. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling circuit...

  4. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  5. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  6. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling circuit...

  7. 49 CFR 236.57 - Shunt and fouling wires.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Shunt and fouling wires. 236.57 Section 236.57...: All Systems Track Circuits § 236.57 Shunt and fouling wires. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, shunt wires and fouling wires hereafter installed or replaced shall consist of at...

  8. 49 CFR 236.104 - Shunt fouling circuit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Shunt fouling circuit. 236.104 Section 236.104 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION...: All Systems Inspections and Tests; All Systems § 236.104 Shunt fouling circuit. Shunt fouling circuit...

  9. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545... implantation instrument. (a) Identification. A shunt system implantation instrument is an instrument used in the implantation of cerebrospinal fluid shunts, and includes tunneling instruments for passing...

  10. [Intraabdominal metastasis of cerebellar medulloblastoma through ventriculoperitoneal shunt].

    PubMed

    Carrasco Torrents, R; Sancho, M A; Juliá, V; Montaner, A; Costa, J M; Morales, L

    2001-01-01

    We present a 6-year-old girl with cerebellar medulloblastoma causing obstructive hydrocephalus that was treated by ventriculoperitoneal shunting. The patient subsequently underwent surgical excision of the tumor followed by adjuvant craniospinal radiotherapy. Nine months after shunting, multiple intraabdominal metastatic lesions were found. Although the risk is low, ventriculoperitoneal shunting may facilitate the spread of malignant cells.

  11. Endoscopic observations of blocked ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt: a step toward better understanding of shunt obstruction and its removal.

    PubMed

    Singh, Daljit; Saxena, Anurag; Jagetia, Anita; Singh, Hukum; Tandon, Monica S; Ganjoo, Pragati

    2012-10-01

    Most of our understanding of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt blockage (ventricular end) is based on in vitro studies of blocked VP shunts. Not much information is available regarding the in vivo changes that occur in the tube and in the surrounding ventricle. The primary aim of our study was to observe and analyse these changes, directly, through the endoscope, in patients with blocked shunts undergoing an endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV). Based on these findings, we have also suggested criteria for safe removal of the VP shunt tube following ETV. ETV was performed with standard technique in patients with blocked VP shunt. The ventricular end of the shunt tube was inspected through the endoscope, for changes in ventricle linings as well as in the shunt tube. These changes were correlated with the age of the patient, etiology of HC, type or make of the shunt tube, duration of shunt placement to ETV and the CSF findings. Fifty-three patients of blocked VP shunt underwent ETV from July 2006 to April 2010. Thirty patients had Chhabra (CH) V P Shunt (Surgiwear, India) and 23 had ceredrain (CD) shunt (Hindustan Latex, India). The age of the patients ranged from 2 months to 60 years (mean--13.33 years.). Various causes of hydrocephalus (HC) included congenital hydrocephalus (aqueductal stenosis) in 18 patients, post-meningitis hydrocephalus (PMH) in 32 cases, neuro-cysticercosis (NCC) in 2 patients and intraventricular haemorrhagic (IVH) in 1 patient. Clinical and radiological improvement occurred in 33 (62.21%), and 24 (45%) patients, respectively. Freedom from shunt was attained in 20 (38%) patients. The changes around the shunt tube were seen in 41 (77%). Hyperaemia and neovascularised ependyma was seen in 20 (37%) and 15 (28%) patients. Encasement of the tube was seen in 41%. Ependymal growth and neovascularised shunt tubes were noticed in 15% each. Choroid plexus blocking the tube was seen in only four cases (7%). VP shunt was revised in 14 patients (26

  12. EVS vs TIPS shunt for gastric variceal bleeding in patients with cirrhosis: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Ming; Qi, Xing-Shun; Yang, Zhi-Ping; Wu, Kai-Chun; Fan, Dai-Ming; Han, Guo-Hong

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the clinical effects of transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) vs endoscopic variceal sclerotherapy (EVS) in the management of gastric variceal (GV) bleeding in terms of variceal rebleeding, hepatic encephalopathy (HE), and survival by meta-analysis. METHODS: Medline, Embase, and CNKI were searched. Studies compared TIPS with EVS in treating GV bleeding were identified and included according to our predefined inclusion criteria. Data were extracted independently by two of our authors. Studies with prospective randomized design were considered to be of high quality. Hazard ratios (HRs) or odd ratios (ORs) were calculated using a fixed-effects model when there was no inter-trial heterogeneity. Oppositely, a random-effects model was employed. RESULTS: Three studies with 220 patients who had at least one episode of GV bleeding were included in the present meta-analysis. The proportions of patients with viral cirrhosis and alcoholic cirrhosis were 39% (range 0%-78%) and 36% (range 12% to 41%), respectively. The pooled incidence of variceal rebleeding in the TIPS group was significantly lower than that in the EVS group (HR = 0.3, 0.35, 95%CI: 0.17-0.71, P = 0.004). However, the risk of the development of any degree of HE was significantly increased in the TIPS group (OR = 15.97, 95%CI: 3.61-70.68). The pooled HR of survival was 1.26 (95%CI: 0.76-2.09, P = 0.36). No inter-trial heterogeneity was observed among these analyses. CONCLUSION: The improved effect of TIPS in the prevention of GV rebleeding is associated with an increased risk of HE. There is no survival difference between the TIPS and EVS groups. Further studies are needed to evaluate the survival benefit of TIPS in cirrhotic patients with GV bleeding. PMID:24868490

  13. Anatomy and histology of Virchow's node.

    PubMed

    Mizutani, Masaomi; Nawata, Shin-ichi; Hirai, Ichiro; Murakami, Gen; Kimura, Wataru

    2005-12-01

    A regional lymphatic system is composed of the first, second, third and even fourth or much more intercalated nodes along the lymptatic route from the periphery to the venous angle or the thoracic duct. The third or fourth node is usually termed the last-intercalated node or end node along the route. Similarly, one of the supraclavicular nodes is known to correspond to the end node along the thoracic duct. It is generally called 'Virchow's node', in which the famous 'Virchow's metastasis' of advanced gastric cancer occurs. The histology of this node has not been investigated, although region-specific differences in histology are evident in human lymph nodes. We found macroscopically the end node in five of 30 donated cadavers. Serial sections were prepared for these five nodes and sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin. Histological investigation revealed that, on the inferior or distal side of the end node, the thoracic duct divided into three to 10 collateral ducts and these ducts surrounded the node. The node communicated with the thoracic duct and its collaterals at multiple sites in two to three hilus-like portions, as well as along the subcapsular sinus. Thus, the end node was aligned parallel to the thoracic duct. Moreover, the superficial and deep cortex areas of the end node were fragmented to make an island-like arrangement, which may cause the short-cut intranodal shunt. Consequenly, the filtration function of most of Virchow's node seemed to be quite limited.

  14. Temporary arterial shunts in damage control: Experience and outcomes.

    PubMed

    Mathew, Sarah; Smith, Brian P; Cannon, Jeremy W; Reilly, Patrick M; Schwab, C William; Seamon, Mark J

    2017-03-01

    Arterial shunting is a well-described method to control hemorrhage and rapidly reestablish flow, but optimal shunt dwell times remain controversial. We hypothesized that prolonged shunt dwell times of more than 6 hours are related to adverse outcomes after major arterial injury. A review (2005-2013) of all patients with arterial shunts placed after traumatic injury at our urban Level I trauma center was undertaken. Patients who died prior to shunt removal (n = 7) were excluded. Shunt complications were defined as dislodgement, thrombosis, and distal ischemia. Patients were compared on the basis of shunt complications with respect to clinical parameters. The 42 patients who underwent arterial shunting after major vascular injury were primarily young (median, 26 years; interquartile range [IQR], 22-31 years) males (97.6%), severely injured (Injury Severity Score, 17.5 [IQR, 14-29]; shunted vessel Abbreviated Injury Scale score, 4 [IQR, 3-4]) by gunshot (85.7%) requiring neck/torso (33.3%) or upper-extremity (19.1%) or lower-extremity (47.6%) shunts. Thirty-five patients survived until shunt removal, and 5 (14.3%) of 35 developed shunt complications. Demographics and clinical characteristics were compared between those with shunt dwell times of less than 6 hours (n = 19) and more than 6 hours (n = 16). While patients appeared to have a greater injury burden overall in the group with dwell times of more than 6 hours, there were no statistical differences between groups with respect to age, gender, initial systolic blood pressure or hemodynamics during the shunt dwell period, use of vasopressors, Abbreviated Injury Scale score of the shunted vessel, Injury Severity Score, or outcomes including limb amputation or mortality. No patients (0/19) with shunt dwell times of less than 6 hours developed complications, whereas 5 (31.3%) of 16 patients with dwell times of more than 6 hours developed shunt complications (p = 0.05). In this civilian series, 14% of patients with

  15. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Aqueous shunt. 886.3920 Section 886.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... neovascular glaucoma or with glaucoma when medical and conventional surgical treatments have failed....

  16. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Aqueous shunt. 886.3920 Section 886.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... neovascular glaucoma or with glaucoma when medical and conventional surgical treatments have failed....

  17. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Aqueous shunt. 886.3920 Section 886.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... neovascular glaucoma or with glaucoma when medical and conventional surgical treatments have failed....

  18. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Aqueous shunt. 886.3920 Section 886.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... neovascular glaucoma or with glaucoma when medical and conventional surgical treatments have failed....

  19. 21 CFR 886.3920 - Aqueous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aqueous shunt. 886.3920 Section 886.3920 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES... neovascular glaucoma or with glaucoma when medical and conventional surgical treatments have failed....

  20. Intrinsically shunted Josephson junctions for electronics applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belogolovskii, M.; Zhitlukhina, E.; Lacquaniti, V.; De Leo, N.; Fretto, M.; Sosso, A.

    2017-07-01

    Conventional Josephson metal-insulator-metal devices are inherently underdamped and exhibit hysteretic current-voltage response due to a very high subgap resistance compared to that in the normal state. At the same time, overdamped junctions with single-valued characteristics are needed for most superconducting digital applications. The usual way to overcome the hysteretic behavior is to place an external low-resistance normal-metal shunt in parallel with each junction. Unfortunately, such solution results in a considerable complication of the circuitry design and introduces parasitic inductance through the junction. This paper provides a concise overview of some generic approaches that have been proposed in order to realize internal shunting in Josephson heterostructures with a barrier that itself contains the desired resistive component. The main attention is paid to self-shunted devices with local weak-link transmission probabilities that are so strongly disordered in the interface plane that transmission probabilities are tiny for the main part of the transition region between two super-conducting electrodes, while a small part of the interface is well transparent. We discuss the possibility of realizing a universal bimodal distribution function and emphasize advantages of such junctions that can be considered as a new class of self-shunted Josephson devices promising for practical applications in superconducting electronics operating at 4.2 K.

  1. Neoglottic vibration in tracheoesophageal shunt phonation.

    PubMed

    Omori, K; Kojima, H

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine vibratory patterns of the neoglottis and to ascertain the neoglottic conditions that could cause failure in tracheoesophageal shunt phonation. We studied 30 tracheoesophageal shunt speakers while using "trap-door" type voice prostheses. Videostroboscopy was undertaken to investigate vibratory patterns of the neoglottis during phonation of the sustained vowel sound /e/ in these patients. The voice qualities of the patients were judged perceptually. A regular neoglottic vibration was observed in 21 patients. Nine patients had irregular neoglottic vibrations. In this latter group, two patients had incomplete neoglottic closures with breathy voices, four patients had multiple contacts of several mucosal walls with rough voices, and three patients had tight neoglottic closures with strained voices. During stroboscopic evaluation of tracheoesophageal shunt phonation, regularity of the neoglottic vibration may be the most significant finding. These findings show that it is as important to evaluate neoglottic vibration in alaryngeal voicing as it is to study glottic vibration in laryngeal voicing. Stroboscopic examination may be a help to elucidate a cause of failure in cases of poor tracheoesophageal shunt speech.

  2. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V.

    1990-01-01

    Augmentation is a well-known technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduce by the extra conductors required. It is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1-{phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system. Additions to the electrical system are required to establish the shunt current and to control its magnitude during projectile acceleration. The relationship between muzzle shunt augmentation and conventional series augmentation is developed and various techniques is developed and various techniques for establishing and controlling the shunt current are illustrated with a practical example. 5 refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. Platypnea-Orthodeoxia Syndrome: To Shunt or Not to Shunt, That is the Question.

    PubMed

    Klein, Michael R; Kiefer, Todd L; Velazquez, Eric J

    2016-06-01

    Platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome is a rare disease defined by dyspnea and deoxygenation, induced by an upright position, and relieved by recumbency. Causes include shunting through a patent foramen ovale and pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. A 79-year-old woman experienced 2 syncopal episodes at rest and presented at another hospital. In the emergency department, she was hypoxic, needing 6 L/min of oxygen. Her chest radiograph showed nothing unusual. Transthoracic echocardiograms with saline microcavitation evaluation were mildly positive early after agitated-saline administration, suggesting intracardiac shunting. She was then transferred to our center. Right-sided heart catheterization revealed no oximetric evidence of intracardiac shunting while the patient was supine and had a low right atrial pressure. However, her oxygen saturation dropped to 78% when she sat up. Repeat transthoracic echocardiography while sitting revealed a dramatically positive early saline microcavitation-uptake into the left side of the heart. Transesophageal echocardiograms showed a patent foramen ovale, with right-to-left shunting highly dependent upon body position. The patient underwent successful percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure, and her oxygen supplementation was suspended. In patients with unexplained or transient hypoxemia in which a cardiac cause is suspected, it is important to evaluate shunting in both the recumbent and upright positions. In this syndrome, elevated right atrial pressure is not necessary for significant right-to-left shunting. Percutaneous closure, if feasible, is first-line therapy in these patients.

  4. Advantages of temporary venoatrial shunt using centrifugal pump during bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt.

    PubMed

    Kotani, Yasuhiro; Honjo, Osami; Ishino, Kozo; Osaki, Satoru; Kuroko, Yosuke; Kawabata, Takuya; Ugaki, Shinya; Yoshizumi, Ko; Kasahara, Shingo; Kawada, Masaaki; Sano, Shunji

    2006-01-01

    Single-ventricle palliation without the use of cardiopulmonary bypass carries advantages that reduce systemic edema and inflammatory responses; however, simple clamping of the superior vena cava (SVC) without a temporary shunt leads to increase in cerebral venous pressure and subsequent decrease in cerebral blood flow during bidirectional cavopulmonary shunt (BCPS). We report our experience of BCPS, using a centrifugal pump-assisted temporary shunt. The criteria included an unrestrictive interatrial communication, the absence of atrioventricular valve regurgitation, and the existence of an antegrade pulmonary blood flow. From August 2000, 14 children with single-ventricle physiology met the criteria. The mean age was 1.0 +/- 0.9 years, and the mean weight was 8.4 +/- 2.6 kg. A temporary shunt was established between the SVC and the right atrium with right-angle cannulae, which were connected to a centrifugal pump to accelerate the blood flow from the SVC to the right atrium. All patients tolerated the procedure. Mean central venous pressure was 17 +/- 4 mm Hg, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation was maintained at 77 +/- 8% during anastomosis. No patients required blood transfusion. There were no postoperative neurological complications. The centrifugal pump-assisted temporary shunt offered safer and more effective circulatory support than other shunt systems, with excellent venous drainage in pediatric patients undergoing BCPS.

  5. The inferior mesenteric vein to the left gonadal vein shunt for gastroesophageal varices and extrahepatic portal vein thrombosis after living donor liver transplantation: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, T; Sato, Y; Yamamoto, S; Oya, H; Kokai, H; Hatakeyama, K

    2012-03-01

    This 59-year-old woman underwent living donor liver transplantation using a left lobe graft as an aid for autoimmune hepatitis in 2003. Splenectomy was also performed because of blood type incompatibility. Follow-up endoscopic and computed tomography examinations showed gastroesophageal varices with extra hepatic portal vein thrombosis in 2007 that increased (esophageal varices [EV]: locus superior [Ls], moderately enlarged, beady varices [F2], Blue varices [Cb], presence of small in number and localized red color sign [RC1] and telangiectasia [TE+], gastric varices [GV]: extension from the cardiac orifice to the fornix [Lg-cf], moderately enlarged, beady varices [F2], white varices [Cw], absence of red color sign [RC-]). Portal venous flow to the gastroesophageal varices was also confirmed from a large right gastric vein. The splenic vein was thrombosed. Blood flow to the liver graft was totally supplied from the hepatic artery. The graft was functioning well. Because these gastroesophageal varices had a high risk of variceal bleeding, we decided to proceed with a portal reconstruction of a surgical portosystemic shunt in 2008. Severe adhesions were observed around the portal vein. It was impossible to perform portal reconstruction. There were relatively fewes adhesious in the left lower side of the abdominal cavity. We decided to create an inferior mesenteric vein to left gonadal vein shunt. The portal vein pressure decreased from 31.0 to 21.5 cm H2O thereafter. The postoperative course was smooth without any complication. This patient was discharged on the postoperative day 15. Follow-up endoscopic study showed the improvement in the gastroesophageal varices (EV: Ls, F2, Cb, RC(-), GV: Lg-c, F2, Cw, RC-) at 3 months after the operation. We also comfirmed the patency of the shunt by serial computed tomography examinations.

  6. Laparoscopic Guidance or Revision of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunts in Children

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sherman; Bensard, Denis D.; Partrick, David A.; Petty, John K.; Karrer, Frederick M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal shunt is the preferred treatment for hydrocephalus. Known complications include infection, obstruction, and disconnection with the fractured fragment migrating in the peritoneal cavity. We report 17 cases of laparoscopic evaluation and revision of ventriculoperitoneal shunts in children. Methods: From January 2000 through October 2002, we retrospectively reviewed our experience with laparoscopy and ventriculoperitoneal shunts. Results: Laparoscopy was performed in 17 children with a malfunctioning shunt, presumed shunt dislodgment or disconnection, reinsertion of a shunt after externalization, and primary shunt placement. Six patients (35%) were converted to an open laparotomy due to dense adhesions. Eleven patients (65%) underwent successful laparoscopic-assisted ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement: 5/11 (45%) had lysis of adhesions or pseudocyst marsupialization with repositioning of a functional shunt, or both; 3/11 (27%) had successful retrieval of a disconnected catheter with reinsertion of a new catheter; 2/11 (18%) had laparoscopic confirmation of satisfactory placement and function, requiring no revision; 1/11 (9%) had an initial shunt placed with laparoscopic guidance due to the obesity. Operative time for the laparoscopic procedure ranged from 30 minutes to 60 minutes. All laparoscopic procedures used 1-mm or two 5-mm ports. Perioperatively, no adverse neurological sequelae occurred due to the pneumoperitoneum. Conclusion: Laparoscopic guidance or revision of ventriculoperitoneal shunts permits (1) direct visualization of catheter insertion within the peritoneal cavity, (2) satisfactory positioning, (3) lysis of adhesions or marsupialization with catheter repositioning, or both, and (4) retrieval of fractured catheters. PMID:16709376

  7. [Shunt tube implantation combining amniotic membrane transplantation and implantation of Molteno implant for glaucoma after penetrating keratoplasty].

    PubMed

    Liu, Y; Li, H; Chen, J

    2000-06-01

    To investigate the therapeutic effect of aqueous humor shunt implants with amniotic membrane transplantation on intractable glaucoma. Glaucoma was induced in rabbits by the injection of alpha-chymotrypsin into the posterior chamber of the eyes. The rabbits were divided into four groups. Group A: control group, Group B: single shunt tube group, Group C: shunt tube with amniotic membrane transplantation group, Group D: shunt tube with amniotic supporter and amniotic membrane transplantation group. The intraocular pressure(IOP), histology and filterable ability of the tissue around the tubes were studied. The therapeutic effect of the three methods for the glaucoma was compared. From 1998 to 1999, 42 eyes of 41 patients with uncontrolled glacoma after penetrating keratoplasty were randomly assigned into two groups. One group (12 eyes) underwent implantation of shunt tube combining transplantation of amniotic membrane. The other group underwent implantation of a single plate Molteno implant. Clinical records were reviewed to ascertain postoperative IOP, visual acuities, number of medications. The IOP elevated after the operation and reached at the peak on the third day for all groups and then dropped slowly. The IOP was 33.34 +/- 5.54 mmHg (1 mmHg = 0.133 kPa) for Group A and 27.88 +/- 8.86 mmHg for Group B three months after the operation. There was no statistical difference between the two groups (P = 0.274). The IOP was 22.33 +/- 3.73 mmHg for Group C and there was statistical significant difference between Group C and Group A (P = 0.02) and no difference between Group C and Group B (P = 0.113). The IOP was 15.74 +/- 2.94 mmHg for Group D and there was statistical significant difference between Group D and Group A (P = 0.001) and Group B (P = 0.036). There was no difference between Group D and Group C (P = 0.09). The study of horseradish peroxidase penetrability indicated that there was peroxidase in the tissues around the tube with amniotic membrane transplantation

  8. Clinical peritonitis from allergy to silicone ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Kurin, Michael; Lee, Kenneth; Gardner, Paul; Fajt, Merritt; Umapathy, Chandraprakash; Fasanella, Kenneth

    2017-03-06

    Silicones are inorganic compounds that have been used for the purpose of shunting ventricular fluid since the mid-20th century [1]. Complications of ventriculoperitoneal shunts have rarely been attributed to silicone allergy, with only a handful of cases reported in literature. The classic presentation of allergy to silicone ventriculoperitoneal shunt, i.e., abdominal pain with recurrent skin breakdown along the shunt tract, is nonspecific and difficult to distinguish clinically from other causes of shunt-related symptoms. It can be diagnosed by detection of antisilicone antibodies and is treated with removal of the shunt and replacement, if needed, with a polyurethane shunt system. We report the first case of suspected silicone allergy presenting as clinical peritonitis without overt colonic perforation.

  9. Intraparenchymal pericatheter cyst following disconnection of ventriculoperitoneal shunt system.

    PubMed

    Balasubramaniam, S; Tyagi, D K; Sawant, H V

    2013-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is one of the most commonly performed procedures in neurosurgery, but it is also the procedure, which is most prone to complications. Spread of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) into the brain parenchyma is a rare complication of VP shunt and can take the form of CSF edema or a porencephalic cyst. We describe a case of a 1½-year-old child who presented to us with seizures. Computed tomography scan revealed pericatheter porencephalic cyst. Surgical exploration revealed a disconnected VP shunt system. Patient was neurologically observed after shunt extraction. He was seizure free and radiological follow-up showed resolution of cyst. Ours is the first case to document the presence of pericatheter cyst following complete disconnection of shunt system. Though shunt revision is the accepted treatment modality, careful neurological observation can be done after shunt removal especially in asymptomatic cases with compensated hydrocephalus.

  10. Passively Shunted Piezoelectric Damping of Centrifugally-Loaded Plates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Duffy, Kirsten P.; Provenza, Andrew J.; Trudell, Jeffrey J.; Min, James B.

    2009-01-01

    Researchers at NASA Glenn Research Center have been investigating shunted piezoelectric circuits as potential damping treatments for turbomachinery rotor blades. This effort seeks to determine the effects of centrifugal loading on passively-shunted piezoelectric - damped plates. Passive shunt circuit parameters are optimized for the plate's third bending mode. Tests are performed both non-spinning and in the Dynamic Spin Facility to verify the analysis, and to determine the effectiveness of the damping under centrifugal loading. Results show that a resistive shunt circuit will reduce resonant vibration for this configuration. However, a tuned shunt circuit will be required to achieve the desired damping level. The analysis and testing address several issues with passive shunt circuit implementation in a rotating system, including piezoelectric material integrity under centrifugal loading, shunt circuit implementation, and tip mode damping.

  11. Free floating ventricular shunt catheter between lateral ventricles: a case report of an unusual ventriculoperitoneal shunt complication.

    PubMed

    Erol, Fatih Serhat; Cakin, Hakan; Ozturk, Sait; Donmez, Osman; Kaplan, Metin

    2013-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt proximal tip disconnection is rarely seen as a shunt complication. Shunt dysfunction and hydrocephaly can develop due to this disconnection. Presented here is a case of a disconnection of the ventricular catheter from the shunt valve, which passed between both lateral ventricles by free floating in the brain CT. The patient was operated on for hydrocephaly. The dysfunctional shunt valve and peritoneal catheter were removed and a new VP shunt system was implemented. Although some publications report that the ventricular catheter can be disconnected from the shunt valve, can adhere to the intraventricular structures, and can be a source of infection, no studies similar to the current case were found in the literature reporting a free floating ventricular catheter between the lateral ventricles.

  12. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  13. Clinico-Histologic Conferences: Histology and Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Phyllis A.; Friedman, Erica S.

    2012-01-01

    Providing a context for learning information and requiring learners to teach specific content has been demonstrated to enhance knowledge retention. To enhance students' appreciation of the role of science and specifically histology in clinical reasoning, disease diagnosis, and treatment, a new teaching format was created to provide clinical…

  14. Who Needs a Revision? 20 Years of Cambridge Shunt Lab.

    PubMed

    Czosnyka, Zofia; Czosnyka, Marek; Pickard, John D; Chari, Aswin

    2016-01-01

    Shunt testing independent of manufacturers provides knowledge that can significantly improve the management of patients with hydrocephalus. The Cambridge Shunt Evaluation Laboratory was created 20 years ago. Thanks to financial support from the Department of Health (1993-1998), all shunts in use in the UK were systematically evaluated, with "blue reports" being published. Later new devices were tested as they appeared in public domain.Twenty-six models have been evaluated. The majority of the valves had a non-physiologically low hydrodynamic resistance that may result in over-drainage, both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100-200 %. Drainage through valves without a siphon-preventing mechanism is very sensitive to body posture. Shunts with siphon-preventing accessories offer a reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure. Bench parameters were used to test shunt performance in vivo using infusion tests. A criterion for correctly performing a shunt procedure was established. Pressure measured in the shunt prechamber during the plateau phase of infusion should not remain more than 5 mmHg above the le shunt's operating pressure plus hydrodynamic resistance of the valve multiplied by the infusion rate. "Critical levels" for every shunt and every performance level have been used in the shunt testing wizard of ICM+ software.

  15. Effect of Electromagnetic Navigated Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement on Failure Rates

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Nayoung

    2013-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effect of electromagnetic (EM) navigation system on ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt failure rate through comparing the result of standard shunt placement. Methods All patients undergoing VP shunt from October 2007 to September 2010 were included in this retrospective study. The first group received shunt surgery using EM navigation. The second group had catheters inserted using manual method with anatomical landmark. The relationship between proximal catheter position and shunt revision rate was evaluated using postoperative computed tomography by a 3-point scale. 1) Grade I; optimal position free-floating in cerebrospinal fluid, 2) Grade II; touching choroid or ventricular wall, 3) Grade III; tip within parenchyma. Results A total of 72 patients were participated, 27 with EM navigated shunts and 45 with standard shunts. Grade I was found in 25 patients from group 1 and 32 patients from group 2. Only 2 patients without use of navigation belonged to grade III. Proximal obstruction took place 7% in grade I, 15% in grade II and 100% in grade III. Shunt revision occurred in 11% of group 1 and 31% of group 2. Compared in terms of proximal catheter position, there was growing trend of revision rate according to increase of grade on each group. Although infection rate was similar between both groups, the result had no statistical meaning (p=0.905, chi-square test). Conclusion The use of EM navigation in routine shunt surgery can eliminate poor shunt placement resulting in a dramatic reduction in failure rates. PMID:23634264

  16. Hydrocephalus shunt technology: 20 years of experience from the Cambridge Shunt Evaluation Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Chari, Aswin; Czosnyka, Marek; Richards, Hugh K; Pickard, John D; Czosnyka, Zofia H

    2014-03-01

    The Cambridge Shunt Evaluation Laboratory was established 20 years ago. This paper summarizes the findings of that laboratory for the clinician. Twenty-six models of valves have been tested long-term in the shunt laboratory according to the expanded International Organization for Standardization 7197 standard protocol. The majority of the valves had a nonphysiologically low hydrodynamic resistance (from 1.5 to 3 mm Hg/[ml/min]), which may result in overdrainage related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100%-200%. Drainage through valves without a siphon-preventing mechanism is very sensitive to body posture, which may result in grossly negative intracranial pressure. Siphon-preventing accessories offer a reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure; however, accessories with membrane devices may be blocked by raised subcutaneous pressure. In adjustable valves, the settings may be changed by external magnetic fields of intensity above 40 mT (exceptions: ProGAV, Polaris, and Certas). Most of the magnetically adjustable valves produce large distortions on MRI studies. The behavior of a valve revealed during testing is of relevance to the surgeon and may not be adequately described in the manufacturer's product information. The results of shunt testing are helpful in many circumstances, such as the initial choice of shunt and the evaluation of the shunt when its dysfunction is suspected.

  17. Incisional Hernia Following Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Positioning.

    PubMed

    Bonatti, Matteo; Vezzali, Norberto; Frena, Antonio; Bonatti, Giampietro

    2016-06-01

    Incisional hernia represents a rare complication after ventriculoperitoneal shunt positioning due to failure of the fascial suture in the site of abdominal entrance of ventriculoperitoneal catheter. Clinical presentation can be extremely variable, according to patient's performance status, herniated material constitution (i.e. mesenteric fat, bowel loops or both) and complication occurrence (e.g. strangulation or intestinal obstruction). Early diagnosis is fundamental in order to surgically repair the defect and prevent further complications. We present the case of a paucisymptomatic incisional hernia following ventriculoperitoneal shunt positioning. Diagnosis was made by means of ultrasound and confirmed by means of computed tomography. The patient was successfully managed by means of surgical repositioning of herniated loop and re-suture.

  18. Mycobacterium fortuitum infection of ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Midani, S; Rathore, M H

    1999-07-01

    Mycobacterium fortuitum is one of the rapidly growing mycobacteria found in soil, dust, and water. It can be isolated as a normal colonizing organism, but as a pathogen this organism causes mainly skin and soft tissue infection preceded by trauma. A wide variety of infections can occur in individuals with predisposing conditions. Central nervous system infection with M fortuitum is rare, and meningitis occurs after surgery or trauma. We believe that ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt infection with this organism has not been reported in the literature. Practitioners should be aware of this rare entity and should suspect it in the presence of cerebrospinal fluid pleocytosis with sterile culture, and after trauma, surgery, or manipulation of the VP shunt hardware. Mycobacterium fortuitum is resistant to most first-line and second-line antituberculous drugs, and treatment should include surgical debridement in addition to prolonged antimicrobial therapy.

  19. An alternative to the glyoxylate shunt.

    PubMed

    Schink, Bernhard

    2009-09-01

    A cycle remains a cycle only as long as the spokes of the wheel are not stolen. To keep the citric acid cycle going requires anaplerotic reactions such as the glyoxylate shunt to restore the cycle intermediates that are withdrawn for the biosynthesis of cell constituents, e.g. amino acids and haemin precursors. The article by Erb et al. in this issue of Molecular Microbiology documents an alternative path that replenishes four-carbon intermediates during growth on acetate in the absence of the glyoxylate shunt. The reaction sequence forms malate and succinyl-CoA from three acetyl-CoA, one CO(2) and one HCO(3) in a linear pathway. This new pathway was discovered in phototrophic anoxygenic bacteria and in few aerobic bacteria, but it is probably widespread among many metabolic groups of bacteria.

  20. Incisional Hernia Following Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Bonatti, Matteo; Vezzali, Norberto; Frena, Antonio; Bonatti, Giampietro

    2016-01-01

    Incisional hernia represents a rare complication after ventriculoperitoneal shunt positioning due to failure of the fascial suture in the site of abdominal entrance of ventriculoperitoneal catheter. Clinical presentation can be extremely variable, according to patient’s performance status, herniated material constitution (i.e. mesenteric fat, bowel loops or both) and complication occurrence (e.g. strangulation or intestinal obstruction). Early diagnosis is fundamental in order to surgically repair the defect and prevent further complications. We present the case of a paucisymptomatic incisional hernia following ventriculoperitoneal shunt positioning. Diagnosis was made by means of ultrasound and confirmed by means of computed tomography. The patient was successfully managed by means of surgical repositioning of herniated loop and re-suture. PMID:27761180

  1. Efficacy of postoperative antibiotic injection in and around ventriculoperitoneal shunt in reduction of shunt infection: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moussa, Wael Mohamed Mohamed; Mohamed, Mohamed Abbas Aly

    2016-04-01

    Infection is a common complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt surgery. The incidence of shunt infection is still high despite routine administration of perioperative antibiotics. A lower incidence of shunt infection was observed when antibiotic-impregnated shunts (AIS) were used to treat hydrocephalus and a rapid cure was reported in cases of ventriculitis when antibiotics were injected into external ventricular drain (EVD). That is why we theorized that postoperative prophylactic injection of antibiotics in and around the shunt hardware would reduce the incidence of shunt infection. A randomized controlled clinical trial where 60 patients up to one year old, diagnosed with congenital hydrocephalus and submitted to VP shunt insertion, were randomly assigned to one of 3 groups. The treatment groups received the conventional perioperative antibiotics in addition to vancomycin and gentamicin injection in the reservoir and around the peritoneal catheter either once (group A) or twice (group B), while the control group (C) received only the conventional perioperative antibiotics. Cases were followed-up for up to 1 year. The majority of patients were less than 1 month old. The follow-up period ranged from 2 to 12 months with a mean of 8.9 months. The mean duration of onset of infection after surgery was 30 days. Prematurity (p=0.00236), age less than one month (p<0.0001) and duration of surgery of 90 min or more (p<0.00001) were significant risk factors for postoperative shunt infection. Significantly more cases of shunt infection occurred within one month after surgery (p=0.021). The control group had significantly more cases of postoperative shunt infection than the treatment groups (p=0.0042). In congenital hydrocephalus patients submitted to VP shunt insertion, injection of prophylactic vancomycin and gentamicin in and around the shunt hardware significantly reduced the incidence of postoperative shunt infection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  2. Quantitative evaluation fo cerebrospinal fluid shunt flow

    SciTech Connect

    Chervu, S.; Chervu, L.R.; Vallabhajosyula, B.; Milstein, D.M.; Shapiro, K.M.; Shulman, K.; Blaufox, M.D.

    1984-01-01

    The authors describe a rigorous method for measuring the flow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) in shunt circuits implanted for the relief of obstructive hydrocephalus. Clearance of radioactivity for several calibrated flow rates was determined with a Harvard infusion pump by injecting the Rickham reservoir of a Rickham-Holter valve system with 100 ..mu..Ci of Tc-99m as pertechnetate. The elliptical and the cylindrical Holter valves used as adjunct valves with the Rickham reservoir yielded two different regression lines when the clearances were plotted against flow rats. The experimental regression lines were used to determine the in vivo flow rates from clearances calculated after injecting the Rickham reservoirs of the patients. The unique clearance characteristics of the individual shunt systems available requires that calibration curves be derived for an entire system identical to one implanted in the patient being evaluated, rather than just the injected chamber. Excellent correlation between flow rates and the clinical findings supports the reliability of this method of quantification of CSF shunt flow, and the results are fully accepted by neurosurgeons.

  3. Active shunt capacitance cancelling oscillator circuit

    DOEpatents

    Wessendorf, Kurt O.

    2003-09-23

    An oscillator circuit is disclosed which can be used to produce oscillation using a piezoelectric crystal, with a frequency of oscillation being largely independent of any shunt capacitance associated with the crystal (i.e. due to electrodes on the surfaces of the crystal and due to packaging and wiring for the crystal). The oscillator circuit is based on a tuned gain stage which operates the crystal at a frequency, f, near a series resonance frequency, f.sub.S. The oscillator circuit further includes a compensation circuit that supplies all the ac current flow through the shunt resistance associated with the crystal so that this ac current need not be supplied by the tuned gain stage. The compensation circuit uses a current mirror to provide the ac current flow based on the current flow through a reference capacitor that is equivalent to the shunt capacitance associated with the crystal. The oscillator circuit has applications for driving piezoelectric crystals for sensing of viscous, fluid or solid media by detecting a change in the frequency of oscillation of the crystal and a resonator loss which occur from contact of an exposed surface of the crystal by the viscous, fluid or solid media.

  4. Interactive Atlas of Histology

    PubMed Central

    Goubran, Emile Z.; Vinjamury, Sivarama P.

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: An interactive atlas of histology was developed for online use by chiropractic students to enable them to practice and self-assess their ability to identify various histological structures. This article discusses the steps in the development, implementation, and usefulness of an interactive atlas of histology for students who take histology examinations. Methods: The atlas was developed by digitizing images imported through a video-microscope using actual microscope slides. Leica EWS 2100 and PowerPoint software were used to construct the atlas. The usefulness of the atlas was assessed through a comparison of histology exam scores between four classes before and four classes after the use of the atlas. Analysis of admissions data, including overall grade point average (GPA), science and nonscience GPA, and a number of course units, was done initially to avoid any identifiable differences in the academic competency between the two being compared. A survey of the students was also done to assess atlas usefulness and students' satisfaction with the atlas. Results: Analysis of histology exam scores showed that the average scores in the lab exam were significantly higher for the classes that used the atlas. Survey results showed a high level of student satisfaction with the atlas. Conclusion: The development and use of an online interactive atlas of histology for chiropractic students helped to improve lab exams scores. In addition, students were satisfied with the features and usefulness of this atlas. PMID:18483638

  5. Pre- and post-shunting observations in adult sheep with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to examine host-shunt interactions in sheep with kaolin-induced hydrocephalus. Methods Forty-two sheep (29–40 kg) were utilized for this study. In 20 animals, various kaolin doses were injected into the cisterna magna including 10 and 50 mg/kg as well as 2–4 ml of a 25% kaolin suspension. Based on animal health and hydrocephalus development, 3 ml of a 25% kaolin suspension was chosen. In 16 animals, kaolin was administered and 6–8 days later, the animals received a custom made ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. In 8 animals ventricular CSF pressures were measured with a water manometer before kaolin administration and 7–8 days later. The sheep were allowed to survive for up to 9–12 weeks post-kaolin or until clinical status required euthanasia. Brains were assessed for morphological and histological changes. Ventricle/cerebrum cross sectional area ratios (V/C) were calculated from photographs of the sliced coronal planes immediately anterior to the interventricular foramina. Results Intraventricular pressures increased from 12.4±1.1 cm H2O to 41.3±3.5 cm H2O following kaolin injection (p < 0.0001, n = 8). In all animals, we observed kaolin on the basal surface of the brain and mild (V/C 0.03-0.10) to moderate (V/C >0.10) ventricular expansion. The animals lost weight between kaolin administration and shunting (33.7±1.2 kg versus 31.0±1.7 kg) with weights after shunting remaining stable up to sacrifice (31.6±2.2 kg). Of 16 shunted animals, 5 did well and were sacrificed 9–12 weeks post-kaolin. In the remainder, the study was terminated at various times due to deteriorating health. Hydrocephalus was associated with thinning of the corpus callosum, but no obvious loss of myelin staining, along with reactive astroglial (glial fibrillary acidic immunoreactive) and microglial (Iba1 immunoreactive) changes in the white matter. Ventricular shunts revealed choroid plexus ingrowth in 5/16, brain

  6. [Percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in children with ventriculoperitoneal shunt].

    PubMed

    Valletta, E; Angelini, G; Castagnini, A; Fontana, E; Piccoli, R; Ulmi, D

    2003-01-01

    The complications of percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) placement or replacement or of home management of gastrostomy, must be taken in account in patients with hydrocephalus and ventriculoperitoneal shunt. In this report we describe four children with spastic quadriplegia and ventriculoperitoneal shunt who had a median follow-up of 15 months (range 4-32 months) after PEG placement. Intravenous antibiotic prophylaxis was always used during routine procedures and no shunt infection was observed. In a patient, during accidental PEG dislodgement, peritoneal infection developed that required temporary diversion of the catheter. A second dislodgement, in the same individual, determined a large amount of serous peritoneal fluid that needed to be evacuated but no shunt infection or malfunction. In nobody of our patients, the shunt, located in the upper left abdomen, interfered with gastrostomy placement. Our experience confirms that PEG is not contraindicated in patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunt, provided that the risks of catheter infection are known and prevented.

  7. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection following uterine instrumentation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Andrew B; Marlin, Evan S; Ikeda, Daniel S; Ammirati, Mario

    2014-08-01

    Shunt infections are most common within the first 6 months following implantation. A shunt infection 19 years after implantation secondary to uterine ablation has not been reported to our knowledge. Office hysteroscopic procedures have become commonplace in gynecologic practice. Infectious complication rates are low, but peritonitis has been described. We present a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection following a uterine ablation for dysfunctional uterine bleeding. Three days following the ablation she developed abdominal pain. CT scan of the abdomen 5 months after the procedure revealed a pseudocyst. She then underwent removal of her shunt with intra-operative cultures revealing Streptococcus agalactiae. Definitive treatment consisted of shunt explantation and antibiotic treatment with complete resolution of her pain and pseudocyst. Consideration for prophylactic antibiotics should be made when a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt undergoes any transvaginal procedure.

  8. Shunt current loss of the vanadium redox flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xing, Feng; Zhang, Huamin; Ma, Xiangkun

    The shunt current loss is one of main factors to affect the performance of the vanadium redox flow battery, which will shorten the cycle life and decrease the energy transfer efficiency. In this paper, a stack-level model based on the circuit analog method is proposed to research the shunt current loss of the vanadium redox flow battery, in which the SOC (state of charge) of electrolyte is introduced. The distribution of shunt current is described in detail. The sensitive analysis of shunt current is reported. The shunt current loss in charge/discharge cycle is predicted with the given experimental data. The effect of charge/discharge pattern on the shunt current loss is studied. The result shows that the reduction of the number of single cells in series, the decrease of the resistances of manifold and channel and the increase of the power of single cell will be the further development for the VRFB stack.

  9. Liver transplant in a patient with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Faybush, Elisa; Mulligan, David C; Birch, Barry D; Sirven, Joseph I; Balan, Vijayan

    2005-04-01

    There are no published accounts of patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts undergoing liver transplantation in the literature. Because patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunts are prone to infections, this may be a theoretical contraindication to transplantation. We present a case of a patient with cirrhosis who had a ventriculoperitoneal shunt placed many years prior to transplantation. The patient had no neurological complications and the shunt was intact and functioning. Prior to transplantation, the patient underwent a ventriculoperitoneal to ventriculopleural shunt conversion that was reversed posttransplantation. Apart from some minor complications, the patient has done remarkably well from a graft and neurological perspective. In conclusion, patients who have ventriculoperitoneal shunts may be considered for liver transplantation as the risk of infectious and neurological complications is low and there are no deleterious effects on graft survival.

  10. Ventriculopleural shunt: thoracoscopic placement of the distal catheter.

    PubMed

    Kurschel, S; Eder, H G; Schleef, J

    2003-11-01

    Ventriculopleural shunting is usually reserved for patients with limited options for shunt revisions. We report the case of a 16-year-old boy with posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus who required numerous shunt procedures. At the age of 6 years, a ventriculopleural shunt was inserted by an intercostal thoracotomy, and 4 years later replacement of the distal catheter was necessary. Recently, he presented again with a shunt malfunction due to migration of the pleural catheter. We describe a technique for performing the placement of the distal catheter under direct thoracoscopic vision by a peel-off needle into the unscarred thoracic cavity despite two previous pleural procedures. The postoperative course was uneventful. Thoracoscopic assistance in ventriculopleural shunt placement appears to be a safe and effective technique, offering several advantages over the open procedure: it is less invasive, allows a precise positioning of the thoracic catheter under visual control, and confirms appropriate function.

  11. Spontaneous bowel perforation complicating ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Birbilis, Theodosios; Liratzopoulos, Nikolaos; Oikonomou, Anastasia; Karanikas, Michael; Kontogianidis, Kosmas; Kouklakis, Georgios

    2009-01-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement is an effective treatment of hydrocephalus diverting the cerebrospinal fluid into the peritoneal cavity. Unfortunately, the shunt devices have a high incidence of malfunction mainly due to catheter obstruction or infection and are associated with various complications, 25% of which are abdominal. Spontaneous bowel perforation is a rare potentially fatal complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt occurring anytime, few weeks to several years, after the placement of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt device. A 54-year-old Greek man with spontaneous perforation of sigmoid colon as a complication of distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt migration was treated successfully by antibiotic prophylaxis and abdominal surgery. Clinicians managing patients with ventriculoperitoneal shunt must be familiar with its possible complications and be aware for early recognition of them. PMID:19918409

  12. Reduction of ventricular size after shunting for normal pressure hydrocephalus related to CSF dynamics before shunting.

    PubMed Central

    Tans, J T; Poortvliet, D C

    1988-01-01

    Reduction of ventricular size was determined by repeated computed tomography in 30 adult patients shunted for normal pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) and related to the pressure-volume index (PVI) and resistance to outflow of cerebrospinal fluid (Rcsf) measured before shunting. Rapid and marked reduction of ventricular size (n = 10) was associated with a significantly lower PVI than slow and moderate to marked (n = 13) or minimal to mild reduction (n = 7). Otherwise no relationship could be found between the reduction of ventricular size and PVI or Rcsf. It is concluded that both rate and magnitude of reduction of ventricular size after shunting for NPH are extremely variable. High brain elasticity seems to be the best predictor of rapid and marked reduction. PMID:3379425

  13. Enzyme activities and morphological appearance in functioning and excluded segments of the small intestine after shunt operation for obesity.

    PubMed Central

    Asp, N G; Gudmand-Høyer, E; Andersen, B; Berg, N O

    1979-01-01

    Five patients in whom small-intestinal bypass was performed for severe obesity had a second operation 11-19 months later because of insufficient weight loss. Mucosal enzyme activities and histological appearance were investigated in biopsies from different parts of the functioning and excluded small intestine. These were compared with biopsies form corresponding sites obtained at the first operation. In addition to a prominent increase in length, circumference, and mucosal thickness in the functioning shunt, the disaccharidases and two intracellular beta-galactosidases increased in specific activity,, especially in the distal ileal part of the shunt. In the excluded segment of the small intestine different enzymes showed a different response: trehalase increased and alkaline phosphate decreased significantly. Other enzymes that were measured showed a varied pattern. The results indicated that not only the luminal content but also other, presumably hormonal, factors regulated the enzyme activities, and that different regulating factors influenced the various enzymes differently. The marked adaptive increase in mucosal surface of the functioning shunt could be one factor in explaining the weight stabilisation and, in some cases, weight increase after the initial rapid weight loss after the operation for small-intestinal bypass. The increase in specific enzyme activities would further increase the digestive capacity of the shunt. Images Fig. 1 PMID:488750

  14. Cranial dural arteriovenous shunts. Part 4. Clinical presentation of the shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage.

    PubMed

    Baltsavias, Gerasimos; Spiessberger, Alex; Hothorn, Torsten; Valavanis, Anton

    2015-04-01

    Cranial dural arteriovenous fistulae have been classified into high- and low-risk lesions mainly based on the pattern of venous drainage. Those with leptomeningeal venous drainage carry a higher risk of an aggressive clinical presentation. Recently, it has been proposed that the clinical presentation should be considered as an additional independent factor determining the clinical course of these lesions. However, dural shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage include a very wide spectrum of inhomogeneous lesions. In the current study, we correlated the clinical presentation of 107 consecutive patients harboring cranial dural arteriovenous shunts with leptomeningeal venous drainage, with their distinct anatomic and angiographic features categorized into eight groups based on the "DES" (Directness and Exclusivity of leptomeningeal venous drainage and features of venous Strain) concept. We found that among these groups, there are significant angioarchitectural differences, which are reflected by considerable differences in clinical presentation. Leptomeningeal venous drainage of dural sinus shunts that is neither direct nor exclusive and without venous strain manifested only benign symptoms (aggressive presentation 0%). On the other end of the spectrum, the bridging vein shunts with direct and exclusive leptomeningeal venous drainage and venous strain are expected to present aggressive symptoms almost always and most likely with bleeding (aggressive presentation 91.5%). Important aspects of the above correlations are discussed. Therefore, the consideration of leptomeningeal venous drainage alone, for prediction of the clinical presentation of these shunts appears insufficient. Angiographic analysis based on the above concept, offers the possibility to distinguish the higher- from the lower-risk types of leptomeningeal venous drainage. In this context, consideration of the clinical presentation as an additional independent factor for the prediction of their clinical

  15. Hydrothorax Due to Migration of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Catheter

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hong-Ki; Cho, Yong-jae; Kim, Sang-Jin

    2008-01-01

    A cerebrospinal fluid hydrothorax is a very rare complication following ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt and usually reported in children. We report a case of 47-year-old woman who developed massive hydrothorax and respiratory distress following intrathoracic migration of distal shunt catheter. After the confirmation of catheter in thoracic cavity using radionuclide shuntogram, the patient was successfully treated with laparoscopic shunt catheter reposition. PMID:19096625

  16. Factors affecting ventriculoperitoneal shunt survival in adult patients

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Farid; Rehman, Abdul; Shamim, Muhammad S.; Bari, Muhammad E.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion remains the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus despite a high rate of complications. The predictors of shunt malfunction have been studied mostly in pediatric patients. In this study, we report our 11-year experience with VP shunts in adult patients with hydrocephalus. We also assess the various factors affecting shunt survival in a developing country setting. Methods: A retrospective chart analysis was conducted for all adult patients who had undergone shunt placement between the years 2001 and 2011. Kaplan–Meier curves were used to determine the duration from shunt placement to first malfunction and log-rank (Cox–Mantel) tests were used to determine the factors affecting shunt survival. Results: A total of 227 patients aged 18–85 years (mean: 45.8 years) were included in the study. The top four etiologies of hydrocephalus included post-cranial surgery (23.3%), brain tumor or cyst (22.9%), normal pressure hydrocephalus (15%), and intracranial hemorrhage (13.7%). The overall incidence of shunt malfunction was 15.4% with the median time to first shunt failure being 120 days. Etiology of hydrocephalus (P = 0.030) had a significant association with the development of shunt malfunction. Early shunt failure was associated with age (P < 0.001), duration of hospital stay (P < 0.001), Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score less than 13 (P = 0.010), excision of brain tumors (P = 0.008), and placement of extra-ventricular drains (P = 0.033). Conclusions: Patients with increased age, prolonged hospital stay, GCS score of less than 13, extra-ventricular drains in situ, or excision of brain tumors were more likely to experience early shunt malfunction. PMID:25722930

  17. Rescue endoscopic third ventriculostomy for repeated shunt blockage

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Puneet K.; Meher, Sujit K.; Singh, Daljit; Singh, Hukum; Tandon, Monica

    2011-01-01

    The role of endoscopic third ventriculostomy (ETV) is getting more popular for all types of hydrocephalus. It has several advantages and is also being considered for malfunctioning of ventriculo-peritoneal shunt. A 16-year-old child had fourteen shunt revisions in his life. He was eventually treated with ETV with successful result. Repeated shunt failure can be an additional indication of ETV. PMID:21977099

  18. Early diet intervention to reduce the incidence of hepatic encephalopathy in cirrhosis patients: post-Transjugular Intrahepatic Portosystemic Shunt (TIPS) findings.

    PubMed

    Luo, Ling; Fu, Shiying; Zhang, Yunzhi; Wang, Jingxiang

    2016-01-01

    背景与目的:肝性脑病是肝硬化患者经颈静脉肝内门体分流术(TIPS)术后 常见的并发症。本研究目的是通过积极的饮食干预降低TIPS 术后肝性脑病的 发病率。方法与研究设计:选择2011 年8 月至2013 年2 月的99 例接受TIPS 术治疗的肝硬化患者作为对照组。 其中,术后28 例并发肝性脑病。采用回顾 性研究分析肝性脑病发生的可能原因和诱因,饮食不当为主要诱因,占 85.7%。2013 年5 月至2014 年9 月的83 例肝硬化TIPS 术后患者作为实验 组,针对饮食不当这一主要问题采取相应的干预措施:制定TIPS 术后护理常 规,培训护士关于营养和常见食物中蛋白质含量的知识,定制低蛋白膳食,培 训护士沟通技巧以提高对患者的营养知识教育,帮助建立家庭-社会支持系 统。结果:实验组中有10 例发生肝性脑病,发病率为12.1%,与对照组 (28.3%)相比发病率显著降低(p<0.01)。结论:早期积极的饮食干预能显 著提高肝硬化患者TIPS 术后低蛋白饮食的依从性,降低肝性脑病的发生率。.

  19. In vitro development and evaluation of a polyacrylic acid-silicone device intended for gradual occlusion of portosystemic shunts in dogs and cats.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Mandy L; Ellison, Gary W; Batich, Christopher; Case, J Brad; Kim, Stanley E

    2016-03-01

    To develop a device intended for gradual venous occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks. Silicone tubing filled with various inorganic salt and polyacrylic acid (PAA) formulations and mounted within a polypropylene or polyether ether ketone (PEEK) outer ring. 15 polypropylene prototype rings were initially filled with 1 of 5 formulations and placed in PBSS. In a second test, 10 polypropylene and 7 PEEK prototype rings were filled with 1 formulation and placed in PBSS. In a third test, 2 formulations were loaded into 6 PEEK rings each, placed in physiologic solution, and incubated. In all tests, ring luminal diameter, outer diameter, and luminal area were measured over 6 weeks. In the first test, 2 formulations had the greatest changes in luminal area and diameter, and 1 of those had a greater linear swell rate than the other had. In the second test, 6 of 7 PEEK rings and 6 of 10 polypropylene rings closed to a luminal diamater < 1 mm within 6 weeks. Polypropylene rings had a greater increase in outer diameter than did PEEK rings between 4.5 and 6 weeks. In the third test, 11 of 12 PEEK rings gradually closed to a luminal diameter < 1 mm within 6 weeks. A PAA and inorganic salt formulation in a prototype silicone and polymer ring resulted in gradual occlusion over 4 to 6 weeks in vitro. Prototype PEEK rings provided more reliable closure than did polypropylene rings.

  20. Portal hypertension: Imaging of portosystemic collateral pathways and associated image-guided therapy.

    PubMed

    Bandali, Murad Feroz; Mirakhur, Anirudh; Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Ferris, Mollie Clarke; Sadler, David James; Gray, Robin Ritchie; Wong, Jason Kam

    2017-03-14

    Portal hypertension is a common clinical syndrome, defined by a pathologic increase in the portal venous pressure. Increased resistance to portal blood flow, the primary factor in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension, is in part due to morphological changes occurring in chronic liver diseases. This results in rerouting of blood flow away from the liver through collateral pathways to low-pressure systemic veins. Through a variety of computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiographic examples, this article discusses the appearances and prevalence of both common and less common portosystemic collateral channels in the thorax and abdomen. A brief overview of established interventional radiologic techniques for treatment of portal hypertension will also be provided. Awareness of the various imaging manifestations of portal hypertension can be helpful for assessing overall prognosis and planning proper management.

  1. Portal hypertension: Imaging of portosystemic collateral pathways and associated image-guided therapy

    PubMed Central

    Bandali, Murad Feroz; Mirakhur, Anirudh; Lee, Edward Wolfgang; Ferris, Mollie Clarke; Sadler, David James; Gray, Robin Ritchie; Wong, Jason Kam

    2017-01-01

    Portal hypertension is a common clinical syndrome, defined by a pathologic increase in the portal venous pressure. Increased resistance to portal blood flow, the primary factor in the pathophysiology of portal hypertension, is in part due to morphological changes occurring in chronic liver diseases. This results in rerouting of blood flow away from the liver through collateral pathways to low-pressure systemic veins. Through a variety of computed tomographic, sonographic, magnetic resonance imaging and angiographic examples, this article discusses the appearances and prevalence of both common and less common portosystemic collateral channels in the thorax and abdomen. A brief overview of established interventional radiologic techniques for treatment of portal hypertension will also be provided. Awareness of the various imaging manifestations of portal hypertension can be helpful for assessing overall prognosis and planning proper management. PMID:28348478

  2. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt malfunction caused by proximal catheter fat obstruction.

    PubMed

    Mizrahi, Cezar José; Spektor, Sergey; Margolin, Emil; Shoshan, Yigal; Ben-David, Eliel; Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel

    2016-08-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement is the mainstay of treatment for hydrocephalus, yet shunts remain vulnerable to a variety of complications. Although fat droplet migration into the subarachnoid space and cerebrospinal fluid pathways following craniotomy has been observed, a VP shunt obstruction with fat droplets has never been reported to our knowledge. We present the first reported case of VP shunt catheter obstruction by migratory fat droplets in a 55-year-old woman who underwent suboccipital craniotomy for removal of a metastatic tumor of the left medullocerebellar region, without fat harvesting. A VP shunt was inserted 1month later due to communicating hydrocephalus. The patient presented with gait disturbance, intermittent confusion, and pseudomeningocele 21days after shunt insertion. MRI revealed retrograde fat deposition in the ventricular system and VP shunt catheter, apparently following migration of fat droplets from the fatty soft tissue of the craniotomy site. Spinal tap revealed signs of aseptic meningitis. Steroid treatment for aseptic "lipoid" meningitis provided symptom relief. MRI 2months later revealed partial fat resorption and resolution of the pseudomeningocele. VP shunt malfunction caused by fat obstruction of the ventricular catheter should be acknowledged as a possible complication in VP shunts after craniotomy, even in the absence of fat harvesting. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Superconducting fault current-limiter with variable shunt impedance

    DOEpatents

    Llambes, Juan Carlos H; Xiong, Xuming

    2013-11-19

    A superconducting fault current-limiter is provided, including a superconducting element configured to resistively or inductively limit a fault current, and one or more variable-impedance shunts electrically coupled in parallel with the superconducting element. The variable-impedance shunt(s) is configured to present a first impedance during a superconducting state of the superconducting element and a second impedance during a normal resistive state of the superconducting element. The superconducting element transitions from the superconducting state to the normal resistive state responsive to the fault current, and responsive thereto, the variable-impedance shunt(s) transitions from the first to the second impedance. The second impedance of the variable-impedance shunt(s) is a lower impedance than the first impedance, which facilitates current flow through the variable-impedance shunt(s) during a recovery transition of the superconducting element from the normal resistive state to the superconducting state, and thus, facilitates recovery of the superconducting element under load.

  4. Intracranial calcified pseudocyst reaction to a shunt catheter.

    PubMed

    Yowtak, June; Hughes, Douglas; Heger, Ian; Macomson, Samuel D

    2014-02-01

    A 9-year-old boy with spina bifida, Chiari II malformation, and hydrocephalus presented with signs of increased intracranial pressure consistent with a shunt malfunction. Radiological investigations revealed an intracranial calcified lesion along the ventricular catheter. A shunt tap revealed a translucent milky white fluid. The patient underwent a ventriculostomy and, eventually, a shunt revision. Pathology findings were consistent with the formation of dystrophic calcification and a pseudocyst around the shunt catheter. Postoperatively, the patient returned to his neurological baseline. This is, to the best of the authors' knowledge, the first report of an intracranial calcified pseudocyst in a patient with normal renal function.

  5. A compact, coaxial shunt current diagnostic for X pinches.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liangping; Zhang, Jinhai; Li, Mo; Zhang, Xinjun; Zhao, Chen; Zhang, Shaoguo

    2015-08-01

    A compact coaxial shunt was applied in X-pinches experiments on Qiangguang pulsed power generator. The coaxial shunt was designed to have a compact construction for smaller inductance and more, for conveniently assembling upon the X pinch load structure. The coaxial shunt is also a cheap current probe and was easily built by research groups. The shunt can monitor a 100 kA high current with a 100 ns rise time. The calibration results showed that the probe used in the experiments has a resistance of 3.2 mΩ with an uncertainty of 3%, and its response time to the step signal is less than 7 ns.

  6. Laparoscopy for a Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Tube Dislocated into the Colon

    PubMed Central

    Detzner, Michael; Heiss, Markus M.; Weber, Friedrich; Bulian, Dirk R.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Implantation of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt is a standard procedure for hydrocephalus. Different complications can occur, one of them being migration of the distal end of the tube. Case Description: The abdominal end of a VP shunt tube had migrated into the descending colon. In a laparoscopic procedure, the shunt was retrieved, and the colonic perforation site was resected. The patient had a favorable outcome. Discussion: Laparoscopy can play a key role and is recommended not only to make an exact diagnosis, but also for definite, safe, and trauma-minimizing treatment of intraabdominal VP shunt dysfunction. PMID:24398218

  7. Intrathoracic migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Karapolat, S; Onen, A; Sanli, A

    2008-01-01

    Introduction Intrathoracic migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt can be transdiaphragmatic or supradiaphragmatic. This complication causes important respiratory symptoms. Case presentation A 7 year-old Caucasian female, hospitalized with the prediagnosis of pneumonia, was determined to have ventriculoperitoneal shunt migration at left hemithorax. A left thoracotomy was performed and the shunt was successfully removed transdiaphragmatically. Conclusion The patients with intrathoracic migration of ventriculoperitoneal shunt must be treated surgically as soon as possible. Transdiaphragmatic surgical approach would be more suitable from the point of surgical easiness. PMID:18637179

  8. Clinical and laboratory experience with heparin-impregnated silicone shunts for carotid endarterectomy.

    PubMed

    Piepgras, D G; Sundt, T M

    1976-11-01

    Our experience with use of a Silastic shunt for carotid endarterectomy is reviewed briefly, and the complication of shunt thrombosis despite intraoperative administration of heparin is noted. Of obvious importance are the reduction of blood flow and the possibility of embolization caused by accumulating thrombus. Shunt thrombosis has been abolished by the use of heparin-impregnated Silastic shunts. In experiments in dogs, such heparin-treated shunts showed greater thromboresistance than did untreated shunts.

  9. Rate of shunt revision as a function of age in patients with shunted hydrocephalus due to myelomeningocele.

    PubMed

    Dupepe, Esther B; Hopson, Betsy; Johnston, James M; Rozzelle, Curtis J; Jerry Oakes, W; Blount, Jeffrey P; Rocque, Brandon G

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE It is generally accepted that cerebrospinal fluid shunts fail most frequently in the first years of life. The purpose of this study was to describe the risk of shunt failure for a given patient age in a well-defined cohort with shunted hydrocephalus due to myelomeningocele (MMC). METHODS The authors analyzed data from their institutional spina bifida research database including all patients with MMC and shunted hydrocephalus. For the entire population, the number of shunt revisions in each year of life was determined. Then the number of patients at risk for shunt revision during each year of life was calculated, thus enabling them to calculate the rate of shunt revision per patient in each year of life. In this way, the timing of all shunt revision operations for the entire clinic population and the likelihood of having a shunt revision during each year of life were calculated. RESULTS A total of 655 patients were enrolled in the spina bifida research database, 519 of whom had a diagnosis of MMC and whose mean age was 17.48 ± 11.7 years (median 16 years, range 0-63 years). Four hundred seventeen patients had had a CSF shunt for the treatment of hydrocephalus and thus are included in this analysis. There were 94 shunt revisions in the 1st year of life, which represents a rate of 0.23 revisions per patient in that year. The rate of shunt revision per patient-year initially decreased as age increased, except for an increase in revision frequency in the early teen years. Shunt revisions continued to occur as late as 43 years of age. CONCLUSIONS These data substantiate the idea that shunt revision surgeries in patients with MMC are most common in the 1st year of life and decrease thereafter, except for an increase in the early teen years. A persistent risk of shunt failure was observed well into adult life. These findings underscore the importance of routine follow-up of all MMC patients with shunted hydrocephalus and will aid in counseling patients and

  10. A Laparoscopic Technique for Retrieval and Prevention of Migration of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Tubing

    PubMed Central

    Klee, Vanessa M.; Zimmerman, Richard S.; Harold, Kristi L.

    2009-01-01

    A 31-year-old female with a history of pseudotumor cerebri presented with headache and abdominal discomfort after placement of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt. The VP shunt was placed after prior failure and revision of a lumbar peritoneal shunt. Computed tomography demonstrated shunt migration into the subcutaneous tissue. Laparoscopy was used to reposition the VP shunt, directing the shunt toward the pelvis. The patient presented for further evaluation one month later, at which point the shunt was shown to have migrated into the subcutaneous tissue once again. Laparoscopy was again used to reposition the shunt and affix it to the abdominal wall by using polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) mesh. PMID:19366553

  11. Laboratory testing of hydrocephalus shunts -- conclusion of the U.K. Shunt evaluation programme.

    PubMed

    Czosnyka, Z; Czosnyka, M; Richards, H K; Pickard, J D

    2002-06-01

    16 models of valves, currently in use in the U.K., have been tested long-term in the U.K. Shunt Evaluation Laboratory according to the protocol based on the new ISO 7197 standard. Valves tested were: Medtronic PS Medical: Delta Valve, Flow Control and Lumbo-Peritoneal Shunt, Heyer-Schulte Nero-Care: In-line, Low Profile and Pudenz Flushing Valve, Codman: Codman-Hakim Programmable, Hakim Precision, Accu-Flo, Holter, Uni-Shunt, and siphon-preventing device -- SiphonGuard, NMT: Orbis-Sigma Valve, Omni-Shunt and Hakim Valve, Sophysa: Sophy Programmable Valve, Radionics: Contour-Flex Valve. The majority of the valves had a non-physiologically low hydrodynamic resistance (with the exception of Orbis-Sigma, PS Lumbo-Peritoneal and Heyer-Schulte In-Line). This may result in overdrainage both related to posture and during nocturnal cerebral vasogenic waves. A long distal catheter increases the resistance of these valves by 100-200%. Drainage through valves without siphon-preventing mechanism is very sensitive to body posture. This may produce grossly negative intracranial pressure after implantation. A few shunts (Delta, Low Profile and Pudenz-Flushing with Anti-Siphon Devices) offer a reasonable resistance to negative outlet pressure, and hence potentially might prevent complications related to overdrainage. On the other hand, valves with siphon-preventing devices may be blocked by raised subcutaneous pressure (exception: SiphonGuard, but this device may block the drainage because of its faulty design). In most of the silicone-diaphragm valves, closing pressure varied and reached values lower than that specified by the manufacturer (exception: Heyer-Schulte Pudenz Flushing Valve). All programmable valves are susceptible to overdrainage in the upright body position. Programmed settings may be changed by external magnetic fields. Most shunts are very sensitive to the presence of small particles in the drained fluid. The behavior of a valve revealed during such testing is of

  12. Role of radiological parameters in predicting overall shunt outcome after ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion in pediatric patients with obstructive hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Patra, Devi Prasad; Bir, Shyamal C; Maiti, Tanmoy K; Kalakoti, Piyush; Cuellar, Hugo; Guthikonda, Bharat; Sun, Hai; Notarianni, Christina; Nanda, Anil

    2016-11-01

    OBJECTIVE Despite significant advances in the medical field and shunt technology, shunt malfunction remains a nightmare of pediatric neurosurgeons. In this setting, the ability to preoperatively predict the probability of shunt malfunction is quite compelling. The authors have compared the preoperative radiological findings in obstructive hydrocephalus and the subsequent clinical course of the patient to determine any association with overall shunt outcome. METHODS This retrospective study included all pediatric patients (age < 18 years) who had undergone ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion for obstructive hydrocephalus. Linear measurements were taken from pre- and postoperative CT or MRI studies to calculate different indices and ratios including Evans' index, frontal horn index (FHI), occipital horn index (OHI), frontooccipital horn ratio (FOHR), and frontooccipital horn index ratio (FOIR). Other morphological features such as bi- or triventriculomegaly, right-left ventricular symmetry, and periventricular lucency (PVL) were also noted. The primary clinical outcomes that were reviewed included the need for shunt revision, time interval to first shunt revision, frequency of shunt revisions, and revision-free survival. RESULTS A total of 121 patients were eligible for the analysis. Nearly half of the patients (47.9%) required shunt revision. The presence of PVL was associated with lower revision rates than those in others (39.4% vs 58.2%, p = 0.03). None of the preoperative radiological indices or ratios showed any correlation with shunt revision. Nearly half of the patients with shunt revision required early revision (< 90 days of primary surgery). The reduction in the FOHR was high in patients who required early shunt revision (20.16% in patients with early shunt revision vs 6.4% in patients with late shunt revision, p = 0.009). Nearly half of the patients (48.3%) requiring shunt revision ultimately needed more than one revision procedure. Greater occipital horn

  13. Quantization of inductively shunted superconducting circuits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, W. C.; Kou, A.; Vool, U.; Pop, I. M.; Frunzio, L.; Schoelkopf, R. J.; Devoret, M. H.

    2016-10-01

    We present a method for calculating the energy levels of superconducting circuits that contain highly anharmonic, inductively shunted modes with arbitrarily strong coupling. Our method starts by calculating the normal modes of the linearized circuit and proceeds with numerical diagonalization in this basis. As an example, we analyze the Hamiltonian of a fluxonium qubit inductively coupled to a readout resonator. While elementary, this simple example is nontrivial because it cannot be efficiently treated by the method known as "black-box quantization," numerical diagonalization in the bare harmonic oscillator basis, or perturbation theory. Calculated spectra are compared to measured spectroscopy data, demonstrating excellent quantitative agreement between theory and experiment.

  14. Thermal Shunts in Thermoelectric Energy Scavengers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonov, V.

    2009-07-01

    The necessity for an additional component in thermoelectric generators and low-dimensional thermopiles for improving the efficiency of energy scavengers is discussed. Energy scavengers usually work at a small temperature difference and high thermal resistance of the heat source and sink, i.e., of the environment. The name “thermal shunt” is given to this component because, firstly, it is connected thermally in parallel to a certain zone of the environment in the vicinity of a thermopile and, secondly, it shunts this zone thermally. As a result, the heat flow through the thermopile increases, improving its performance characteristics.

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and the risk of shunt infection in patients with hydrocephalus: long-term single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Reddy, G Kesava; Bollam, Papireddy; Caldito, Gloria

    2012-07-01

    Infection remains the most significant complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and the reported rates of cerebrospinal fluid shunt infection vary widely across studies in patients with hydrocephalus. The objective of this study is to review and evaluate the infections complicating ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery in patients with hydrocephalus. Patients who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery for hydrocephalus between 1961 and 2010 were included. Medical charts, operative reports, imaging studies, and clinical follow-up evaluations were reviewed and analyzed retrospectively. A total of 1015 patients with hydrocephalus who underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery were included. The mean and median follow-up was 9.2 and 6.5 years, respectively. The median age of the patients at the time of ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement was 41.6 years. Pediatric patients (<17 years) accounted for 30.0% of the patients. A total 1224 shunt revisions occurred in 1015 patients. Of the 1224 shunt revisions, 162 were due to infection, which occurred in a total of 107 patients. Single infection episodes occurred in 67 patients (6.6%), and multiple infection episodes occurred in 40 patients (3.9%). The overall infection rate was 7.2% per procedure and 10.5% per patient. The overall infection rate was 9.5% in pediatric patients and 5.1% in adult patients per procedure. Gender, age, and etiology of hydrocephalus were significantly associated with shunt infection. Pediatric patients had significantly lower infection-free survival than adults (79.9% vs. 94.4%, P<0.01). Infection remains the most serious complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. The findings of this retrospective study show that gender, age, and etiology of hydrocephalus significantly correlated independently with the incidence of infection. Prospective studies are needed to assess the observed associations between the risk factors and incidence of infection in hydrocephalus patients

  16. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with...

  17. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with...

  18. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with...

  19. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with...

  20. 49 CFR 236.724 - Circuit, shunt fouling.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Circuit, shunt fouling. 236.724 Section 236.724 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) FEDERAL RAILROAD ADMINISTRATION... Circuit, shunt fouling. The track circuit in the fouling section of a turnout, connected in multiple with...

  1. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve. 874.3850... tube with valve. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt tube with valve is a device that consists of a pressure-limiting valve associated with a tube intended to be implanted in the inner ear...

  2. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve. 874.3850... tube with valve. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt tube with valve is a device that consists of a pressure-limiting valve associated with a tube intended to be implanted in the inner ear...

  3. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve. 874.3850... tube with valve. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt tube with valve is a device that consists of a pressure-limiting valve associated with a tube intended to be implanted in the inner ear...

  4. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion.

    PubMed

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  5. Neural tube defect repair and ventriculoperitoneal shunting: indications and outcome.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Shandip K; Dhua, Anjan; Mathur, Mohit Kumar; Singh, Sudhir; Modi, Manoj; Ratan, Simmi K

    2012-01-01

    Neural tube defect with its global involvement of nervous system has lot of implications. There is cotroversy in terms of timing of repair, simultaneous or metachronous ventriculoperitoneal shunt and criteria for shunt surgery in neonatal age. We are reporting our approach and results of management of this disease in neonatal period.

  6. Internal carotid artery rupture caused by carotid shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Illuminati, Giulio; Caliò, Francesco G.; Pizzardi, Giulia; Vietri, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Shunting is a well-accepted method of maintaining cerebral perfusion during carotid endarterectomy (CEA). Nonetheless, shunt insertion may lead to complications including arterial dissection, embolization, and thrombosis. We present a complication of shunt insertion consisting of arterial wall rupture, not reported previously. Presentation of case A 78-year-old woman underwent CEA combined with coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). At the time of shunt insertion an arterial rupture at the distal tip of the shunt was detected and was repaired via a small saphenous vein patch. Eversion CEA and subsequent CABG completed the procedure whose postoperative course was uneventful. Discussion Shunting during combined CEA-CABG may be advisable to assure cerebral protection from possible hypoperfusion due to potential hemodynamic instability of patients with severe coronary artery disease. Awareness and prompt management of possible shunt-related complications, including the newly reported one, may contribute to limiting their harmful effect. Conclusion Arterial wall rupture is a possible, previously not reported, shunt-related complication to be aware of when performing CEA. PMID:26255001

  7. Linezolid treatment of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection without implant removal.

    PubMed

    Castro, P; Soriano, A; Escrich, C; Villalba, G; Sarasa, M; Mensa, J

    2005-09-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection is a serious clinical problem for which implant removal is considered the treatment of choice. However, surgery is sometimes associated with considerable risks that may outweigh the benefits. Presented here is a case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection treated successfully with linezolid without implant removal. This case shows linezolid could be a therapeutic alternative when surgery is contraindicated.

  8. Tension hydrothorax in a pediatric patient with a ventriculopleural shunt.

    PubMed

    Wu, Teresa S; Kuroda, Ronald

    2011-06-01

    Ventriculopleural shunts have been utilized in the management of hydrocephalus since the early 1900s. Shunt malfunctions can lead to fluid accumulation in the pleural space and a tension hydrothorax can develop. Improved diagnostic and therapeutic resources have led to an increasing number of ventriculopleural shunts being utilized in patients with symptomatic hydrocephalus. Emergency physicians are being called upon more frequently to diagnose and help manage many of the critical complications that can arise with ventricular shunts. Very little literature exists concerning the evaluation and treatment of patients with a suspected tension hydrothorax secondary to a ventriculopleural shunt malfunction. If left unrecognized and untreated, tension pneumothoraces can progress and result in hemodynamic decompensation and cardiopulmonary arrest. Patient survival depends on early diagnosis and prompt fluid drainage in this clinically challenging scenario. This is the first article in the emergency medicine literature to describe the presentation and management of a pediatric patient who presents to the Emergency Department with a rare diagnosis of a tension hydrothorax secondary to a defective ventriculopleural shunt. The increasing number of ventriculopleural shunts being utilized requires emergency physicians to become familiar with the life-threatening complications that can be associated with these types of shunts. Correctly identifying this complication and initiating immediate treatment can lead to improved patient outcomes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Shunt current calculation of fuel cell stack using Simulink ®

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaeffer, Jeremy A.; Chen, Lea-Der; Seaba, James P.

    Presence of shunt current in fuel cell stacks can lead to corrosion and power loss problems. The objective of this paper is to develop a stack-level model for calculation of shunt currents. The simulation model was based on electrical circuit, and created using Simulink ® software. The Simulink ® results were validated by using PSpice ® software and comparing with experimental data of an electrolyzer stack. The Simulink ® model is also used to evaluate the effectiveness of a protective current method to reduce the shunt current. The protective current method was found to effectively reduce shunt current of a 100-cell stack. The Simulink ® model also shows that shunt current is highest at end cells of the 100-cell stack examined, suggesting extra care be applied to end cells for corrosion prevention. Monte Carlo simulation was performed to examine sensitivity of variance in voltage, manifold, channel and cell resistance on calculated shunt current. The sensitivity analysis shows that calculated shunt current is most sensitive to variance in manifold resistance and followed by variance in voltage, electrolyte and channel resistance. The calculated power loss due to shunt current is within 1% for the conditions examined.

  10. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3850 Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt tube with valve is a device that consists... device is the FDA guidance document “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Endolymphatic...

  11. 21 CFR 874.3850 - Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES EAR, NOSE, AND THROAT DEVICES Prosthetic Devices § 874.3850 Endolymphatic shunt tube with valve. (a) Identification. An endolymphatic shunt tube with valve is a device that consists... device is the FDA guidance document “Class II Special Controls Guidance Document: Endolymphatic...

  12. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure... for the treatment of intractable ascites. (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this...) Backflow specification and testing to prevent reflux of blood into the shunt....

  13. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure... for the treatment of intractable ascites. (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this...) Backflow specification and testing to prevent reflux of blood into the shunt....

  14. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...) Identification. A peritoneo-venous shunt is an implanted device that consists of a catheter and a pressure... for the treatment of intractable ascites. (b) Classification. Class II. The special controls for this...) Backflow specification and testing to prevent reflux of blood into the shunt....

  15. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545 Section 882.4545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4545 Shunt...

  16. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545 Section 882.4545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4545 Shunt...

  17. 21 CFR 882.4545 - Shunt system implantation instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Shunt system implantation instrument. 882.4545 Section 882.4545 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES NEUROLOGICAL DEVICES Neurological Surgical Devices § 882.4545 Shunt...

  18. Hepatic cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst: A rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Dabdoub, Carlos B.; Fontoura, Emilio A.; Santos, Egmond A.; Romero, Paulo C.; Diniz, Cristiano A.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts are among the most frequently performed operations in the management of hydrocephalus. Hepatic cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pseudocyst is a rare but important complication in patients with a VP shunt insertion. In addition to presenting our own case, we performed a PubMed search to comprehensively illustrate the predisposing factors, clinical picture, diagnostic methods, and surgical treatment. This article represents an update for this condition. Case Description: A 40-year-old male was admitted to a hospital complaining of fever, abdominal distention, and pain. He had undergone a VP shunt for communicating hydrocephalus caused by a head trauma one year earlier. Laboratory studies showed liver enzymes alterations, and imaging studies demonstrated a well-defined intraaxially hepatic cyst with the shunt catheter placed inside. Staphylococcus epidermis was cultured via CSF. After removing the VP shunt and an adequate antibiotic treatment, the complication of hepatic CSF pseudocyst was resolved. Conclusion: Hepatic CSF pseudocyst is a rare complication of a VP shunt. Once the diagnosis is verified and if the CSF is sterile, just simply remove the peritoneal catheter and reposition a new one in the abdomen. We believe that it is not necessary to remove or aspirate the hepatic intraaxial pseudocyst, because of the risk of bleeding. In case of CSF infection, the VP shunt can be removed and/or an external derivation can be made, and after treatment with antibiotics, a new VP shunt is placed in the opposite side of the peritoneum. PMID:24523999

  19. Spontaneous Intrahepatic Portal Venous Shunt: Presentation and Endovascular Treatment.

    PubMed

    Sheth, Nakul; Sabbah, Nathanael; Contractor, Sohail

    2016-07-01

    Spontaneous intrahepatic portal venous shunts are rare with only few case reports published. Treatments using various endovascular techniques have been described, although no single technique has been shown to be preferred. We present a patient who was referred for treatment of a spontaneous portal venous shunt and describe our treatment approach and present a review on previously reported cases.

  20. 21 CFR 876.5955 - Peritoneo-venous shunt.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Peritoneo-venous shunt. 876.5955 Section 876.5955 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES GASTROENTEROLOGY-UROLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 876.5955 Peritoneo-venous shunt. (a...

  1. Salaries in histology.

    PubMed

    Buesa, René J

    2008-04-01

    An analysis of histology salaries from the last 4 national surveys conducted by the American Society of Clinical Pathologists is presented. The regional variations within and between years for histology salaries presented in the last 4 national surveys of medical laboratory specialties are not statistically significant. Local variations greater than the national variations reflect the preponderant effect of local supply and demand over regional characteristics. Salaries by hospitals are significantly different only between 2 size categories and the supervisors' salary. There is no correlation between the salary increase for any histology position in any one year and the vacancy level in the previous year. On the other hand, the correlation between histotechnicians' salaries and both the cost of living and the median income are significant, as well as between the latter and the supervisors' salary. The histotechnologists' salaries are significantly correlated with the consumer price index but not with the inflation rate. A survey of histology salaries in foreign countries was also undertaken and compared with salaries in the United States. National salaries rank close to the general average for 10 foreign countries when expressed as ratios with the personal gross domestic product or with the countries' minimum wage. For the midpoint salary ranges, the United States ranks fourth after Canada, the United Kingdom, and Australia, the latter 3 countries with structured pay rates adjusted to local costs of living in contrast with United States' salary characteristics. Histology salaries rest on negotiations within each employer's salary structure and fluctuate according to license level, documented studies, special training(s), years of experience, references, and the ability to negotiate, where each side tries to take advantage of the other. The result is a heterogeneous and chaotic salary situation driven by personal and local needs, where the histology worker usually

  2. Shunt attachment and method for interfacing current collection systems

    DOEpatents

    Denney, P.E.; Iyer, N.C.; Hannan, W.F. III.

    1992-12-08

    A composite brush to shunt attachment wherein a volatile component of a composite but mostly metallic brush, used for current collection purposes, does not upon welding or brazing, adversely affect the formation of the interfacial bond with a conductive shunt which carries the current from the zone of the brush. The brush to shunt attachment for a brush material of copper-graphite composite and a shunt of copper, or substituting silver for copper as an alternative, is made through a hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The HIP process includes applying high pressure and temperature simultaneously at the brush to shunt interface, after it has been isolated or canned in a metal casing in which the air adjacent to the interface has been evacuated and the interfacial area has been sealed before the application of pressure and temperature. 6 figs.

  3. Shunt attachment and method for interfacing current collection systems

    DOEpatents

    Denney, Paul E.; Iyer, Natraj C.; Hannan, III, William F.

    1992-01-01

    A composite brush to shunt attachment wherein a volatile component of a composite but mostly metallic brush, used for current collection purposes, does not upon welding or brazing, adversely affect the formation of the interfacial bond with a conductive shunt which carries the current from the zone of the brush. The brush to shunt attachment for a brush material of copper-graphite composite and a shunt of copper, or substituting silver for copper as an alternative, is made through a hot isostatic pressing (HIP). The HIP process includes applying high pressure and temperature simultaneously at the brush to shunt interface, after it has been isolated or canned in a metal casing in which the air adjacent to the interface has been evacuated and the interfacial area has been sealed before the application of pressure and temperature.

  4. Percutaneous peritoneovenous shunt positioning: technique and preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Orsi, Franco; Grasso, Rosario Francesco; Bonomo, Guido; Monti, Cinzia; Marinucci, Irene; Bellomi, Massimo

    2002-05-01

    Nine peritoneovenous shunts were positioned by percutaneous technique in seven patients with advanced malignancy causing severe refractory ascites, and in two patients with hepatic cirrhosis (one with hepatocarcinoma). In all patients the shunts were percutaneously placed through the subclavian vein in the angiographic suite under digital fluoroscopic guide. No complications directly related to the procedure occurred. The shunt was successfully positioned in all patients in 60 min average time. No patient showed symptoms related to pulmonary overload or to disseminated intravascular coagulation. All patients had a significant improvement of the objective symptoms related to ascites such as respiratory symptoms, dyspepsia, and functional impairment to evacuation describing an improvement of their quality of life. Maximum shunt patency was 273 days. Percutaneous placement of peritoneovenous shunt is a safe, fast, and inexpensive procedure, extremely useful in resolution of refractory ascites, reducing symptoms, and allowing effective palliation, with a great improvement in quality of life.

  5. Choroid plexus cyst development and growth following ventricular shunting.

    PubMed

    Binning, Mandy J; Couldwell, William T

    2008-01-01

    Choroid plexus cysts are typically incidental, asymptomatic cysts. They have been reported to hemorrhage and grow, causing symptoms of obstruction. However, growth and multiplication has not been reported following ventriculoperitoneal shunt procedures. A 66-year-old woman initially underwent a suboccipital retrosigmoid craniotomy for resection of a large petroclival meningioma. Preoperatively, the patient had hydrocephalus. After surgery the patient required a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Two years after the initial shunting procedure, imaging demonstrated significant growth of new bilateral choroid plexus cysts as compared with pre-shunt imaging. Post-shunt imaging also demonstrated evidence of diffuse dural enhancement characteristic of intracranial hypotension. Despite radiographic growth and multiplication of the cysts, the patient was clinically asymptomatic and had a good neurological outcome.

  6. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with Listeria innocua.

    PubMed

    Karli, Arzu; Sensoy, Gulnar; Unal, Nevzat; Yanik, Keramettin; Cigdem, Halit; Belet, Nursen; Sofuoglu, Ayse

    2014-08-01

    Listeria species may cause life-threatening events including meningitis and invasive infection in newborns, pregnant women, older and immunodeficient people. The most common Listeria species that causes infection is L. monocytogenes. It is known that Listeria innocua has no pathogenicity. A 9-month-old baby had ventriculoperitoneal shunt and was treated with adrenocorticotropic hormone because of infantile spasms. He was brought to hospital with fever and vomiting. Upon physical examination, the patient seemed uncomfortable and had a temperature of 38.6°C. Laboratory results were as follows: hemoglobin, 6.7 g/dL; leukocyte count, 5420/mm(3) ; platelet count, 169,000/mm(3) ; and C-reactive protein, 100 mg/L (normal <5 mg/L). On analysis of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), leukocyte count was 480/mm(3) , protein was 46 mg/dL and CSF glucose was 35 mg/dL. L. innocua was isolated in CSF culture. We describe this unusual case of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with L. innocua.

  7. Biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and shunt pathway

    PubMed Central

    Tsuchiya, Shigeki; Cho, Yuko; Konoki, Keiichi; Nagasawa, Kazuo; Oshima, Yasukatsu; Yotsu-Yamashita, Mari

    2016-01-01

    Saxitoxin, the most potent voltage-gated sodium channel blocker, is one of the paralytic shellfish toxins (PSTs) produced by cyanobacteria and dinoflagellates. Recently, putative biosynthetic genes of PSTs were reported in these microorganisms. We previously synthesized genetically predicted biosynthetic intermediates, Int-A’ and Int-C’2, and also Cyclic-C’ which was not predicted based on gene, and identified them all in the toxin-producing cyanobacterium Anabaena circinalis (TA04) and the dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense (Axat-2). This study examined the incorporation of 15N-labeled intermediates into PSTs (C1 and C2) in A. circinalis (TA04). Conversions from Int-A’ to Int-C’2, from Int-C’2 to Cyclic-C’, and from Int-A’ and Int-C’2 to C1 and C2 were indicated using high resolution-LC/MS. However, Cyclic-C’ was not converted to C1 and C2 and was detected primarily in the extracellular medium. These results suggest that Int-A’ and Int-C’2 are genuine precursors of PSTs, but Int-C’2 converts partially to Cyclic-C’ which is a shunt product excreted to outside the cells. This paper provides the first direct demonstration of the biosynthetic route towards saxitoxin and a shunt pathway. PMID:26842222

  8. Prevention of ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications after intraperitoneal urological surgeries.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Takashi; Akiyama, Sayaka; Kim, Woo Jin; Ito, Susumu; Yamazaki, Yuichiro

    2017-07-01

    To evaluate perioperative management for the prevention of postoperative shunt infection and malfunction after intraperitoneal urological surgery in patients with myelodysplasia and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. From 2005 to 2015, 20 consecutive patients with myelodysplasia and a ventriculoperitoneal shunt who underwent intraperitoneal urological surgeries were managed with the same perioperative regimen. Intraperitoneal surgeries involved opening gastrointestinal tracts, including bladder augmentation by enterocystoplasty, creating continent catheterizable channels and Malone antegrade continent enema. We compared results with those from seven previous reports regarding postoperative shunt complications, surgical histories of previous shunt revisions, management of bacteriuria before surgery preoperative bowel preparation, antibiotic regimens, and duration of indwelling drain. Of 20 patients, 18 received prior shunt revisions, and 14 had positive urine culture before surgery that was managed with oral antibiotics. Thirteen patients underwent bladder augmentation with ileum, and one underwent augmentation with sigmoid colon. Nineteen patients underwent Malone antegrade continent enema using the appendix. All parenteral antibiotics were stopped on postoperative day 2.5. Mean duration of indwelling peritoneal drain was 2.7days. Mean follow-up period was 59.8months. Neither postoperative shunt infections nor intraperitoneal shunt malfunctions were recognized during follow-up period. This is the first study to evaluate postoperative ventriculoperitoneal shunt complications in patients with myelodysplasia who underwent intraperitoneal urological surgeries with a specific perioperative regimen. Shunt complications are greatly reduced by rigorous perioperative management, including preoperative control of bacteriuria, appropriate administration of prophylactic antibiotics, and early removal of intraperitoneal drains. The type of study: Case series with no comparison group

  9. Lumboperitoneal shunts for the treatment of normal pressure hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Bloch, Orin; McDermott, Michael W

    2012-08-01

    Ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement is the standard of care for idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH). Studies have reported shunt complication rates up to 38%, with subdural hemorrhage rates as high as 10%. Lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts with horizontal-vertical valves (HVV) are an alternative for cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) diversion that avoids direct cerebral injury and may reduce the risk of overdrainage. Here we reviewed our experience with LP-HVV shunt placement for iNPH. We retrospectively reviewed our 33 patients with LP-HVV shunts inserted for the treatment of iNPH from 1998 to 2009. Patients were evaluated for improvements in gait, urinary function, and dementia after shunt placement. All patients had evidence of ventriculomegaly and a positive response to pre-operative lumbar puncture or extended lumbar drainage. All 33 (100%) patients had pre-operative gait dysfunction, 28 (85%) had incontinence, and 20 (61%) had memory deficits. Mean follow-up time was 19 months. Following shunt placement, 33/33 (100%) patients demonstrated improved gait, 13/28 (46%) had improvement in incontinence, and 11/20 (55%) had improvement in memory. Shunt failures requiring revision occurred in nine patients (27%), with an average time to failure of 11 months. Infections occurred in two patients (6%). There were no neurologic complications, including no hemorrhages. Thus, LP-HVV shunt placement is a safe and effective alternative to ventriculoperitoneal shunting for iNPH, resulting in significant symptomatic improvement with a low risk of overdrainage. It should be considered as an option for the treatment of patients with iNPH who demonstrate clinical improvement following lumbar drainage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Parylene MEMS patency sensor for assessment of hydrocephalus shunt obstruction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Brian J; Jin, Willa; Baldwin, Alexander; Yu, Lawrence; Christian, Eisha; Krieger, Mark D; McComb, J Gordon; Meng, Ellis

    2016-10-01

    Neurosurgical ventricular shunts inserted to treat hydrocephalus experience a cumulative failure rate of 80 % over 12 years; obstruction is responsible for most failures with a majority occurring at the proximal catheter. Current diagnosis of shunt malfunction is imprecise and involves neuroimaging studies and shunt tapping, an invasive measurement of intracranial pressure and shunt patency. These patients often present emergently and a delay in care has dire consequences. A microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) patency sensor was developed to enable direct and quantitative tracking of shunt patency in order to detect proximal shunt occlusion prior to the development of clinical symptoms thereby avoiding delays in treatment. The sensor was fabricated on a flexible polymer substrate to eventually allow integration into a shunt. In this study, the sensor was packaged for use with external ventricular drainage systems for clinical validation. Insights into the transduction mechanism of the sensor were obtained. The impact of electrode size, clinically relevant temperatures and flows, and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) plasma sterilization on sensor function were evaluated. Sensor performance in the presence of static and dynamic obstruction was demonstrated using 3 different models of obstruction. Electrode size was found to have a minimal effect on sensor performance and increased temperature and flow resulted in a slight decrease in the baseline impedance due to an increase in ionic mobility. However, sensor response did not vary within clinically relevant temperature and flow ranges. H2O2 plasma sterilization also had no effect on sensor performance. This low power and simple format sensor was developed with the intention of future integration into shunts for wireless monitoring of shunt state and more importantly, a more accurate and timely diagnosis of shunt failure.

  11. Migration of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt into a Hernia Sac: An Unusual Complication of Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Surgery in Children.

    PubMed

    Singh, Sudhir; Pant, Nitin; Kumar, Piyush; Pandey, Anand; Khan, Tanvir Roshan; Gupta, Archika; Rawat, Jiledar

    2016-01-01

    We report 2 cases of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt migration into an inguinal hernia sac. In both cases hernia manifested itself on the right side in late infancy. We attempted to analyse the anatomical and mechanical factors leading to shunt migration as seen in the X-rays of our cases.

  12. Prediction of Susceptibility to Acute Mountain Sickness Using Hypoxia-Induced Intrapulmonary Arteriovenous Shunt and Intracardiac Shunt Fractions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-10-31

    proposed that greater degrees of intrapulmonary and intracardiac shunting (through patent foramen ovale (PFO)) are responsible for the greater degree of...determine the characteristics of a patent foramen ovale predicts that subjects who demonstrate intracardiac shunting without performing a Valsalva...susceptible. Using saline contrast echocardiography to detect the presence and characteristics of a patent foramen ovale , can predict AMS

  13. Is the elapsed time following the placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter an individual risk factor for shunt fractures?

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Metin; Cakin, Hakan; Ozdemir, Niyazi; Gocmez, Cuneyt; Ozturk, Sait; Erol, Fatih S

    2012-01-01

    In this study, we examined whether the resistance of peritoneal catheters against the retraction force changed over time following shunt placement, and the role of this resistance in shunt fracture is discussed. We investigated peritoneal catheters removed from patients treated with a ventriculoperitoneal shunt because of hydrocephalus; previously, patients underwent shunt revision. The maximum tension, maximum elongation and elongation percentages of the peritoneal catheters were measured. The mean and maximum tension values of the revised peritoneal catheters were increased compared to the unused catheters. The maximum elongation and elongation rates were significantly decreased. The changes in the maximum elongation, elongation rate and tension values were unrelated to the time elapsed after catheter insertion. This finding indicates that the time elapsed following peritoneal catheter placement was not an individual factor based on the strength of the response of the organism to the foreign body and the mechanical trauma exposed in shunt fractures.

  14. Gastritis: the histology report.

    PubMed

    Rugge, Massimo; Pennelli, Gianmaria; Pilozzi, Emanuela; Fassan, Matteo; Ingravallo, Giuseppe; Russo, Valentina M; Di Mario, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gastritis is defined as inflammation of the gastric mucosa. In histological terms, it is distinguishable into two main categories, i.e. non-atrophic and atrophic. In the gastric mucosa, atrophy is defined as the loss of appropriate glands. There are several etiological types of gastritis, their different etiology being related to different clinical manifestations and pathological features. Atrophic gastritis (resulting mainly from long-standing Helicobacter pylori infection) is a major risk factor for the onset of (intestinal type) gastric cancer. The extent and site of the atrophic changes correlate significantly with the cancer risk. The current format for histology reporting in cases of gastritis fails to establish an immediate link between gastritis phenotype and risk of malignancy. Building on current knowledge of the biology of gastritis, an international group of pathologists [Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment (OLGA)] has proposed a system for reporting gastritis in terms of its stage (the OLGA Staging System): this system places the histological phenotypes of gastritis on a scale of progressively increasing gastric cancer risk, from the lowest (Stage 0) to the highest (Stage IV). The aim of this tutorial is to provide unequivocal information on how to standardize histology reports on gastritis in diagnostic practice.

  15. Histologic classification of gliomas.

    PubMed

    Perry, Arie; Wesseling, Pieter

    2016-01-01

    Gliomas form a heterogeneous group of tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) and are traditionally classified based on histologic type and malignancy grade. Most gliomas, the diffuse gliomas, show extensive infiltration in the CNS parenchyma. Diffuse gliomas can be further typed as astrocytic, oligodendroglial, or rare mixed oligodendroglial-astrocytic of World Health Organization (WHO) grade II (low grade), III (anaplastic), or IV (glioblastoma). Other gliomas generally have a more circumscribed growth pattern, with pilocytic astrocytomas (WHO grade I) and ependymal tumors (WHO grade I, II, or III) as the most frequent representatives. This chapter provides an overview of the histology of all glial neoplasms listed in the WHO 2016 classification, including the less frequent "nondiffuse" gliomas and mixed neuronal-glial tumors. For multiple decades the histologic diagnosis of these tumors formed a useful basis for assessment of prognosis and therapeutic management. However, it is now fully clear that information on the molecular underpinnings often allows for a more robust classification of (glial) neoplasms. Indeed, in the WHO 2016 classification, histologic and molecular findings are integrated in the definition of several gliomas. As such, this chapter and Chapter 6 are highly interrelated and neither should be considered in isolation.

  16. Vascular collateralization along ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheters in moyamoya disease.

    PubMed

    Singla, Amit; Lin, Ning; Ho, Allen L; Scott, R Michael; Smith, Edward R

    2013-06-01

    Surgically created openings such as bur holes can serve as avenues for the development of collateral blood supply to the brain in patients with moyamoya disease. When such collateralization occurs through preexisting shunt catheter sites, the potential exists for perioperative stroke if these vessels are damaged during revision of a ventricular catheter for shunt malfunction. In this paper the authors report on a series of patients with a history of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts who later developed moyamoya disease and were found to have spontaneous transdural collateral vessels at ventricular catheter sites readily visualized on diagnostic angiography. A consecutive surgical series of 412 patients with moyamoya disease treated at Boston Children's Hospital from 1990 to 2010 were reviewed to identify patients with concomitant moyamoya and a VP shunt. The clinical records and angiograms of these patients were reviewed to determine the extent of bur hole collaterals through the shunt site. Three patients were identified who had VP shunts placed for hydrocephalus and subsequently developed moyamoya disease. All 3 patients demonstrated spontaneous transdural collaterals at the ventricular catheter bur hole, as confirmed by angiography during the workup for moyamoya disease. No patients required subsequent revision of their ventricular catheters following the diagnosis of moyamoya. All patients have remained stroke free and clinically stable following pial synangiosis. Although the association of moyamoya and shunted hydrocephalus is rare, it may present a significant potential problem for the neurosurgeon treating a shunt malfunction in this patient population, because shunt bur holes may become entry sites for the ingrowth of significant cortical transdural collateral blood supply to the underlying brain. Shunt revision might therefore be associated with an increased risk of postoperative stroke or operative-site hemorrhage in this population if this

  17. Determination of Porto-Azygos Shunt Anatomy in Dogs by Computed Tomography Angiography.

    PubMed

    Or, Matan; Ishigaki, Kumiko; de Rooster, Hilde; Kutara, Kenji; Asano, Kazushi

    2016-11-01

    To describe the morphology of porto-azygos shunts in a large series of dogs using computed tomography (CT) angiography. Retrospective study. Dogs (n=36) with porto-azygos shunts. CT angiography was performed in dogs subsequently proven to have a porto-azygos shunt. The origin and insertion of the shunts were assessed on native images. The diameter of the porto-azygos shunt and the portal vein, cranial and caudal to the shunt origin, were measured. The porto-azygos shunt anatomy was studied on three-dimensional images. All porto-azygos shunts originated either in the left gastric vein (33 left gastro-azygos shunts) or the right gastric vein (3 right gastro-azygos shunts). Two left gastro-azygos shunts had concurrent caval-azygos continuation and 2 right gastro-azygos shunts had a caudal splenic loop. All shunts crossed the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. The majority of porto-azygos shunts (32) followed a straight pathway after traversing the diaphragm, although 4 shunts followed a tortuous route. All shunts terminated in the thoracic part of the azygos vein, perpendicular to the aorta. The shunt diameter at insertion was only 3 mm on average. The insertion site was consistently the narrowest part of the shunt. CT angiography was well suited to provide anatomic details of porto-azygos shunts and comprehensively documented that all porto-azygos shunts had a thoracic terminus, after crossing the diaphragm through the esophageal hiatus. Different shunt types existed with minor variations. © Copyright 2016 by The American College of Veterinary Surgeons.

  18. Transanal protrusion of ventriculoperitoneal shunt reflecting asymptomatic perforation of the large bowel

    PubMed Central

    Plummer, Nicholas Russell; Tokala, Ajay; Date, Ravindra S

    2014-01-01

    Perforation into the gastrointestinal tract is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion. We present a case of transanal protrusion of the shunt catheter in an otherwise asymptomatic patient, with only transient signs of shunt failure some 2 months prior to presentation, and discuss treatment options to rationalise our decision to treat with laparotomy and preservation of the shunt. PMID:24827668

  19. Hyperammonemia and orotic aciduria in portacaval-shunted rats.

    PubMed

    Steele, R D

    1984-01-01

    The effect of a portacaval shunt-induced alteration in liver function on nitrogen metabolism was studied in rats. Within a few days after surgery, portacaval-shunted rats grew with an average daily gain in body weight equal to sham-operated control rats. Within 1 week after surgery, portacaval-shunted rats excreted 20% more orotic acid in their urine compared to control rats. The difference increased to 37% after 3 weeks. Plasma ammonia levels were elevated by 78% in portacaval-shunted rats compared to control rats after 2 weeks. Portacaval-shunted rats injected with a challenging load of ammonium chloride (5 mmol/kg) excreted half as much orotic acid in their urine over a 24-hour period as similarly injected controls. The simultaneous injection of 1.5 mmol/kg of arginine prevented the ammonia-induced increase in orotic acid excretion in both shunted and control rats. However, feeding rats diets supplemented with 1% arginine did not prevent the chronic hyperammonemia and orotic aciduria produced by the construction of portacaval shunts. Similar experiments with diets supplemented with 1% sodium benzoate to induce alternative pathways for nitrogen excretion were also without effect. These results are in contrast to recent clinical studies reporting the effectiveness of sodium benzoate in treating hyperammonemia in patients with urea cycle enzyme defects.

  20. Mechanism of ribosome shunting in Rice tungro bacilliform pararetrovirus.

    PubMed

    Pooggin, Mikhail M; Ryabova, Lyubov A; He, Xiaoyuan; Fütterer, Johannes; Hohn, Thomas

    2006-05-01

    In plant pararetroviruses, pregenomic RNA serves both as a template for replication through reverse transcription and a polysictronic mRNA. This RNA has a complex leader sequence preceding the first large ORF. The leader contains multiple short ORFs and strong secondary structure, both inhibiting ribosome scanning. Translation on this RNA is initiated by shunting, in which scanning ribosomes bypass a large portion of the leader with the inhibitory secondary structure and short ORFs. In Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV), the ribosome shunting mechanism involves translation of the 5'-proximal short ORF terminating in front of the secondary structure that appears to force ribosomes to take off and resume scanning at a landing site downstream of the structure. Using two plant protoplast systems and shunt-competent wheat-germ extracts, we demonstrate that in Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) shunting also depends on the first short ORF followed by strong secondary structure. Swapping of the conserved shunt elements between CaMV and RTBV revealed the importance of nucleotide composition of the landing sequence for efficient shunting. The results suggest that the mechanism of ribosome shunting is evolutionary conserved in plant pararetroviruses.

  1. [Laparoscopy-assisted ventriculoperitoneal and lumboperitoneal shunt surgery].

    PubMed

    Aoki, Tsukasa; Ayuzawa, Satoshi; Matsuo, Ryota; Hosoo, Hisayuki; Tanno, Syougo; Miki, Shunichiro; Matsubara, Teppei; Matsumura, Akira

    2012-06-01

    Recently, laparoscopy (also referred to as minimally invasive surgery) has been used during peritoneal catheter implantation in shunt placement for hydrocephalus; however, the procedure and devices for this technique have not yet been well established. We adopted umbilical and paraumbilical laparoscopy for peritoneal catheter insertion. In this paper, we describe the technique we used and its clinical results and benefits. Ten consecutive patients with hydrocephalus who underwent laparoscopic shunt surgery (6 cases of ventriculoperitoneal shunt and 4 of lumboperitoneal shunt) were enrolled for this study. The follow-up period ranged from 21 to 434 days (mean, 263 days). After a standard cranial/spinal procedure, an approximately 5-mm incision was made in the lateral side of the umbilicus, where the abdominal catheter was introduced subcutaneously. Thereafter, we inserted a laparoscope into the peritoneal cavity via a small incision beneath or just on the umbilicus. A shunt catheter was laparoscopically inserted through a peel-off cannula and placed after taking note of the outflow of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from the catheter tip. In all patients, the shunt was inserted with no complications, and good patency was achieved. Laparoscopy allows implantation of the catheter into the peritoneal cavity, and the outflow of CSF can be confirmed intraoperatively. Furthermore, the abdominal surgical wounds are minimal, even for obese patients, and fascia/muscle incisions are not needed. Laparoscopy-assisted shunt surgery for hydrocephalus is effective and safe and also has cosmetic advantages.

  2. Exploration of nonlinearly shunted piezoelectrics as vibration absorbers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, B.; Zang, C.; Wang, X.

    2016-09-01

    Practical realization of a nonlinearly shunted piezoelectric vibration absorber is numerically explored in this research. It is widely known that the linear resonant piezoelectric shunting strategy, acting as a tuned mass damper, is limited by the massive inductance required in low-frequency cases and sensitivity to drifts in structural frequencies. In order to overcome this limitation, a nonlinear piezoelectric shunting strategy is proposed based on the nonlinear energy sink theory. The essential idea is to passively absorb vibrational energy from the host structure through the intentional use of nonlinearity in piezoelectric shunting. The nonlinearly shunted piezoelectrics are supposed to work over a broad frequency band with a smaller inductance requirement compared with the linear resonant shunting. The nonlinearly shunted piezoelectric vibration absorber is built and applied in a cantilevered beam. Major challenges coming from the nonlinear tuning design for an effective vibration absorber exempted from high isolated response curves will be covered in this research. This numerical study is supposed to pave the way for experimental investigations that are currently in process.

  3. [Selective portal-systemic shunts for bleeding portal hypertension].

    PubMed

    Orozco, H; Mercado, M A; Takahashi, T; García-Tsao, G; Guevara, L; Hernandez-Ortiz, J; Tielve, M

    1990-07-01

    At the beginning of the seventies, we began to perform regularly selective shunts for the treatment of portal hypertension. In a 15 year period, 177 patients (155 with liver cirrhosis) were operated with three kinds of selective shunts: 128 with a Warren shunt, 29 with an end to end renosplenic shunt and 20 with a splenocaval shunt. 167 cases were operated in an elective fashion. The 15 years global operative mortality, was 14.4%. Operative mortality of the Child A patients, was 11.6%. Survival for the Child A group was 74.6% at 1 year, 68.2% at 5 years and 64.6% at 15 years. Incapacitating encephalopathy was observed in 6.9%, rebleeding 6.2% and shunt thrombosis in 6.2%. Portal vein alterations in the postoperative period were observed: in 13.3% a reduction in diameter ocurred and in 20.5%, thrombosis was recorded. It is concluded that when feasible, the selective shunts are the treatment of choice for portal hypertension in those patients with good liver function.

  4. Laparoscopic Management of Ventriculoperitoneal and Lumboperitoneal Shunt Complications

    PubMed Central

    Kavic, Stephen M.; Segan, Ross D.; Taylor, Michelle D.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Minimally invasive approaches for the initial placement of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) and lumboperitoneal (LP) shunts have been well described. A laparoscopic approach has multiple advantages over open techniques, including decreased morbidity, more rapid recovery, and ability to visually assess catheter function. However, few series have addressed the role of laparoscopy in the management of VP and LP shunt complications. Methods: We present here the largest published series of laparoscopic treatment of VP and LP shunt complications in adults, by retrospectively reviewing all cases performed in a 1-year interval by a single surgeon. Results: Ten patients presented with complications of previous shunting; all were managed laparoscopically. Eighty percent of these patients had a successful single laparoscopic intervention. One patient developed a cerebrospinal fluid leak from the lumbar wound, and 2 patients required additional laparoscopic shunt revisions. Conclusions: We conclude that laparoscopy has great utility in the assessment of shunt function. Laparoscopic techniques should be considered not only for placement of peritoneal catheters, but also for the management of distal shunt malfunction and diagnosis of abdominal pain in these patients. PMID:17651550

  5. Fungal infection of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt: histoplasmosis diagnosis and treatment.

    PubMed

    Veeravagu, Anand; Ludwig, Cassie; Camara-Quintana, Joaquin Q; Jiang, Bowen; Lad, Nandan; Shuer, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    Histoplasmosis is a fungal disease caused by Histoplasma capsulatum, commonly found in the Americas, and Histoplasma duboisii, located in Africa. In the United States, H. capsulatum is prevalent in the Ohio and Mississippi river valleys. In rare circumstances, central nervous system (CNS) histoplasmosis infection can be caused by shunt placement. We present a case report of a 45-year-old woman in whom CNS histoplasmosis developed after having a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placed for communicating hydrocephalus. A review of the literature on fungal infections after CNS shunt placement as well as treatment options for this subset of patients was undertaken. The PubMed database current to 1958 was filtered and limited to English-language articles. Fifty-eight articles were selected for review based on evidence of information regarding the fungal organism responsible for shunt infection, symptoms, treatment, and/or outcomes. Also included in this review is our case study. A thorough analysis of the PubMed database revealed 58 reported cases of CNS shunt-related fungal infections in the English-language medical literature as well as 7 therapeutic agents used to treat patients in whom postshunt fungal infections developed. We describe the steps in diagnosis of histoplasmosis after shunt placement, provide an effective therapeutic regimen, and review the present understanding of CNS fungal infections. The medical literature was surveyed to compare and analyze various CNS fungal infections that can arise from shunt placement as well as treatments rendered. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. The hydrokinetic parameters of shunts for hydrocephalus might be inadequate

    PubMed Central

    Sotelo, Julio

    2012-01-01

    Long-term treatment of hydrocephalus continues to be dismal. Shunting is the neurosurgical procedure more frequently associated with complications, which are mostly related with dysfunctions of the shunting device, rather than to mishaps of the rather simple surgical procedure. Overdrainage and underdrainage are the most common dysfunctions; of them, overdrainage is a conspicuous companion of most devices. Even when literally hundreds of different models have been proposed, developed, and tested, overdrainage has plagued all shunts for the last 60 years. Several investigations have demonstrated that changes in the posture of the subject induce unavoidable and drastic differences of intraventricular hydrokinetic pressure and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage through the shunt. Of all the parameters that participate in the pathophysiology of hydrocephalus, the only invariable one is cerebrospinal fluid production at a constant rate of approximately 0.35 ml/min. However, this feature has not been considered in the design of currently available shunts. Our experimental and clinical studies have shown that a simple shunt, whose drainage capacity complies with this unique parameter, would prevent most complications of shunting for hydrocephalus. PMID:22530174

  7. A plasma polymerization technique to overcome cerebrospinal fluid shunt infections.

    PubMed

    Cökeliler, D; Caner, H; Zemek, J; Choukourov, A; Biederman, H; Mutlu, M

    2007-03-01

    Prosthetic devices, mainly shunts, are frequently used for temporary or permanent drainage of cerebrospinal fluid. The pathogenesis of shunt infection is a very important problem in modern medicine and generally this is characterized by staphylococcal adhesion to the cerebrospinal fluid shunt surfaces. In this paper, the prevention of the attachment of test microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis on the cerebrospinal fluid shunt surfaces by 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate (HEMA) precursor modification in the plasma polymerization system, is reported. Different plasma polymerization conditions (RF discharge power 10-20-30 W, exposure time 5-10-15 min) were employed during the surface modification. The surface chemistry and topology of unmodified and modified shunts was characterized by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Also, static contact angle measurements were performed to state the change of surface hydrophilicity. All samples were tested in vitro with Staphylococcus epidermidis. A plasma-polymerized HEMA film (PP HEMA) was found to be an alternative simple method to decrease the microorganism attachment and create bacterial anti-fouling surfaces. The attachment of the model microorganism Staphylococcus epidermidis on the shunt surface modified by PP HEMA at 20 W and 15 min was reduced 62.3% if compared to the unmodified control surface of the shunt.

  8. Delayed pneumocephalus following shunting for hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Honeybul, S; Bala, A

    2006-11-01

    Delayed pneumocephalus is a rare but well-reported complication of cerebrospinal fluid diversion procedures. In most cases the air enters the intracranial cavity via a skull base defect. We report a case of hydrocephalus secondary to aqueduct stenosis. The patient developed pneumocephalus 2 months after successful placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. We describe an attempt at endoscopic diagnosis and repair of the fistula. This was unsuccessful, presumably because the defect was too small to localize even with the use of intrathecal fluorescein. We subsequently performed a conventional craniotomy and anterior fossa repair with placement of an antisiphon device. We suggest that in certain cases, when patients present with long-standing hydrocephalus, it may be advisable to insert either a high-pressure valve or antisiphon device as a primary measure.

  9. Muzzle shunt augmentation of conventional railguns

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, J.V. . Physics Div.)

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports on augmentation which is a technique for reducing the armature current and hence the armature power dissipation in a plasma armature railgun. In spite of the advantages, no large augmented railguns have been built, primarily due to the mechanical and electrical complexity introduced by the extra conductors required. it is possible to achieve some of the benefits of augmentation in a conventional railgun by diverting a fraction {phi} of the input current through a shunt path at the muzzle of the railgun. In particular, the relation between force and armature current is the same as that obtained in an n-turn, series-connected augmented railgun with n = 1/(1 {minus} {phi}). The price of this simplification is a reduction in electrical efficiency and some additional complexity in the external electrical system.

  10. A shunt-excited inductive power link.

    PubMed

    Sylvan, K; Jordan, J R; Whittington, H W

    1989-01-01

    An alternative derivation of the separation-insensitive property of series-excited self-oscillating inductive power transfer circuits is presented. This analysis is based on network theory and does not include the explicit determination of frequency as a step in the derivation. The separation-insensitivity principle is extended to shunt-excited links which exhibit a theoretical voltage transfer function of unity while the coupling factor exceeds the reciprocal of the secondary quality factor. This requires the inclusion of a series resistor in the primary resonator's capacitive arm. Series RC elements are replaced by parallel forms in both the primary and secondary; this provides a more convenient output impedance level without the need for another transformer. A demonstration circuit is described and tested. It is found that separation-insensitivity occurs while the coupling factor exceeds the reciprocal of the loaded secondary quality factor. Somewhat inferior response is obtained from a simpler circuit having no added resistances in the primary.

  11. Intraabdominal Pseudocyst Developed after Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Ayan, Erdogan; Tanriverdi, Halil Ibrahim; Caliskan, Tezcan; Senel, Ufuk; Karaarslan, Numan

    2015-06-01

    Abdominal pseudocyst is a rare complication developing after ventriculoperitoneal shunt treatment. It is more commonly seen particularly in children. The underlying pathogenesis may be associated with repeat revisions or infections. Morphologically, it has no complete cyst wall, presenting only with a pseudocapsule among the intestinal loops, around the lower shunt tip. The principal problem appears to be the reduced peritoneal absorption capacity. The treatment is complicated and difficult. In this report, we present an 8-year-old abdominal pseudocyst case with a history of many shunt revisions.

  12. Ion beam sputter-etched ventricular catheter for hydrocephalus shunt

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banks, B. A. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A cerebrospinal fluid shunt in the form of a ventricular catheter for controlling the condition of hydrocephalus by relieving the excessive cerebrospinal fluid pressure is described. A method for fabrication of the catheter and shunting the cerebral fluid from the cerebral ventricles to other areas of the body is also considered. Shunt flow failure occurs if the ventricle collapse due to improper valve function causing overdrainage. The ventricular catheter comprises a multiplicity of inlet microtubules. Each microtubule has both a large openings at its inlet end and a multiplicity of microscopic openings along its lateral surfaces.

  13. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt for intracranial hypertension in cryptococcal meningitis without hydrocephalus.

    PubMed

    Petrou, Panayota; Moscovici, Samuel; Leker, Ronen R; Itshayek, Eyal; Gomori, John M; Cohen, José E

    2012-08-01

    The use of a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt to treat uncontrollable intracranial hypertension in patients with cryptococcal meningitis without hydrocephalus is somewhat unusual and still largely unreported. However, uncontrollable intracranial hypertension without hydrocephalus in these patients is a potentially life-threatening condition. Early diagnosis and shunt placement are essential to improve survival and neurological function. We report uncontrollable intracranial hypertension without hydrocephalus in a 23-year-old woman, which was successfully managed by VP shunt placement. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Migration of Distal Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Catheter into the Pulmonary Artery

    PubMed Central

    Imagawa, Hiroshi; Nagashima, Mitsugi; Shikata, Fumiaki; Hashimoto, Naoki; Kawachi, Kanji

    2009-01-01

    A 50-year-old man presented with an abdominal bulge 2 years after receiving a ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt for hydrocephalus. Chest radiography revealed that the peritoneal end of the catheter had migrated into the right pulmonary artery. Exploration through a small neck incision revealed that the shunt catheter had entered the internal jugular vein. The catheter was extracted and positioned in the subcutaneous space in preparation for reimplantation. This type of shunt migration is quite unusual, but it could cause lethal pulmonary infarction or arrhythmia. Follow-up radiography should be scheduled to detect such complications. PMID:23555358

  15. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt as a primary neurosurgical procedure in newborn posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus: report of a series of 47 shunted patients.

    PubMed

    Romero, L; Ros, B; Ríus, F; González, L; Medina, J M; Martín, A; Carrasco, A; Arráez, M A

    2014-01-01

    Intraventricular hemorrhage is the most common cause of infantile acquired hydrocephalus. Our objective is to determine if the implantation of ventriculoperitoneal shunt in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus as a primary and definitive neurosurgical treatment, with no previous temporary procedures, would decrease complication rates with good functional outcomes. Two hundred seventy-one patients with germinal matrix hemorrhage were diagnosed at the Carlos Haya Hospital between 2003 and 2010. Forty-seven patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt after developing symptomatic hydrocephalus. The minimum weight required for shunt implantation was 1,500 g. We recorded complications related to the surgical procedure and analyzed functional state with a self-developed four-grade scale. One hundred thirty-nine (51.3 %) patients with intraventricular hemorrhage developed ventricular dilatation, but only 47 patients (17.34 %) needed shunting. In seven cases, temporary neurosurgical procedures were performed, but in all of them, this was followed by ventriculoperitoneal shunt implantation. The infection rate was 4.25 %, and shunt obstruction rate was 4.25 %. More than 80 % of patients were classified as good or excellent functional state. Mean follow-up period was 38.75 months (SD, 27.09; range, 1-102 months). Ventriculoperitoneal shunting as a primary neurosurgical treatment in posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus would decrease surgical morbidity with good functional outcome.

  16. Changes in body composition after transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent in cirrhosis: a critical review of literature.

    PubMed

    Dasarathy, Jaividhya; Alkhouri, Naim; Dasarathy, Srinivasan

    2011-10-01

    Change in body composition with reduced muscle mass with or without loss of fat mass occurs in 60-90% of patients with cirrhosis. This has an adverse impact on the outcome of these patients and is an understudied area. Transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic stent (TIPS) is now a standard therapy for portal hypertension but its beneficial impact on nutritional indices is not well recognized. We included all publications on TIPS that had any nutritional index as an outcome measure or end point. Given the heterogeneity of the patient population, differences in study design and outcome measures, a meta-analysis was not feasible. Data were summarized and interpreted. A total of eight studies have been published on the changes in body composition after TIPS in cirrhosis in a total of 152 patients followed for 3-12 months. Improvement in fat-free mass and fluid-free or ascites-free body weight was reported in all studies. Plasma leptin, IGF1, insulin sensitivity, rate of glucose disposal and growth hormone did not change after TIPS. One study measured muscle strength that improved. Direct measurement of skeletal muscle mass was not performed in any study. TIPS resulted in an improvement in body composition. Given the clinical significance of skeletal muscle and fat mass in cirrhosis, nutritional indices should be considered to be an important outcome measure in patients with TIPS. The mechanism of these is unclear, but its clinical implication is that this may contribute to the improved survival after TIPS.

  17. A novel ovine ex vivo arteriovenous shunt model to test vascular implantability.

    PubMed

    Peng, Haofan; Schlaich, Evan M; Row, Sindhu; Andreadis, Stelios T; Swartz, Daniel D

    2012-01-01

    The major objective of successful development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts is long-term in vivo patency. Optimization of matrix, cell source, surface modifications, and physical preconditioning are all elements of attaining a compatible, durable, and functional vascular construct. In vitro model systems are inadequate to test elements of thrombogenicity and vascular dynamic functional properties while in vivo implantation is complicated, labor-intensive, and cost-ineffective. We proposed an ex vivo ovine arteriovenous shunt model in which we can test the patency and physical properties of vascular grafts under physiologic conditions. The pressure, flow rate, and vascular diameter were monitored in real-time in order to evaluate the pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and dynamic elastic modulus, all indicators of graft stiffness. Carotid arteries, jugular veins, and small intestinal submucosa-based grafts were tested. SIS grafts demonstrated physical properties between those of carotid arteries and jugular veins. Anticoagulation properties of grafts were assessed via scanning electron microscopy imaging, en face immunostaining, and histology. Luminal seeding with endothelial cells greatly decreased the attachment of thrombotic components. This model is also suture free, allowing for multiple samples to be stably processed within one animal. This tunable (pressure, flow, shear) ex vivo shunt model can be used to optimize the implantability and long-term patency of tissue-engineered vascular constructs. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  18. A Novel Ovine ex vivo Arteriovenous Shunt Model to Test Vascular Implantability

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Haofan; Schlaich, Evan M.; Row, Sindhu; Andreadis, Stelios T.; Swartz, Daniel D.

    2011-01-01

    The major objective of successful development of tissue-engineered vascular grafts is long-term in vivo patency. Optimization of matrix, cell source, surface modifications, and physical preconditioning are all elements of attaining a compatible, durable, and functional vascular construct. In vitro model systems are inadequate to test elements of thrombogenicity and vascular dynamic functional properties while in vivo implantation is complicated, labor-intensive, and cost-ineffective. We proposed an ex vivo ovine arteriovenous shunt model in which we can test the patency and physical properties of vascular grafts under physiologic conditions. The pressure, flow rate, and vascular diameter were monitored in real-time in order to evaluate the pulse wave velocity, augmentation index, and dynamic elastic modulus, all indicators of graft stiffness. Carotid arteries, jugular veins, and small intestinal submucosa-based grafts were tested. SIS grafts demonstrated physical properties between those of carotid arteries and jugular veins. Anticoagulation properties of grafts were assessed via scanning electron microscopy imaging, en face immunostaining, and histology. Luminal seeding with endothelial cells greatly decreased the attachment of thrombotic components. This model is also suture free, allowing for multiple samples to be stably processed within one animal. This tunable (pressure, flow, shear) ex vivo shunt model can be used to optimize the implantability and long-term patency of tissue-engineered vascular constructs. PMID:22005667

  19. Risk of failure in pediatric ventriculoperitoneal shunts placed after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Burks, Joshua D; Conner, Andrew K; Briggs, Robert G; Glenn, Chad A; Bonney, Phillip A; Cheema, Ahmed A; Chen, Sixia; Gross, Naina L; Mapstone, Timothy B

    2017-05-01

    OBJECTIVE Experience has led us to suspect an association between shunt malfunction and recent abdominal surgery, yet information about this potential relationship has not been explored in the literature. The authors compared shunt survival in patients who underwent abdominal surgery to shunt survival in our general pediatric shunt population to determine whether such a relationship exists. METHODS The authors performed a retrospective review of all cases in which pediatric patients underwent ventriculoperitoneal shunt operations at their institution during a 7-year period. Survival time in shunt operations that followed abdominal surgery was compared with survival time of shunt operations in patients with no history of abdominal surgery. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to identify factors associated with failure. RESULTS A total of 141 patients who underwent 468 shunt operations during the period of study were included; 107 of these 141 patients had no history of abdominal surgery and 34 had undergone a shunt operation after abdominal surgery. Shunt surgery performed more than 2 weeks after abdominal surgery was not associated with time to shunt failure (p = 0.86). Shunt surgery performed within 2 weeks after abdominal surgery was associated with time to failure (adjusted HR 3.6, 95% CI 1.3-9.6). CONCLUSIONS Undergoing shunt surgery shortly after abdominal surgery appears to be associated with shorter shunt survival. When possible, some patients may benefit from shunt placement utilizing alternative termini.

  20. Ocular fibroblast types differ in their mRNA profiles—implications for fibrosis prevention after aqueous shunt implantation

    PubMed Central

    Buß, Diana; Kastner, Christian; Mostertz, Jörg; Homuth, Georg; Ernst, Mathias; Guthoff, Rudolf; Wree, Andreas; Stahnke, Thomas; Fuellen, Georg; Voelker, Uwe; Schmitz, Klaus-Peter

    2013-01-01

    Purpose For an aqueous shunt draining from the anterior chamber into the choroidal space, fibroblasts from the choroidea and/or the sclera are most likely responsible for a fibrotic response around the outflow region of such a shunt. The prevention of fibrosis should extend the operating life of the shunt. A detailed characterization of fibroblasts derived from choroidea and sclera should provide information about whether a fibrosis reaction can be inhibited by cell type-specific agents. Methods We generated mRNA profiles of fibroblasts from the choroidea, sclera, and Tenon’s space by gene array hybridization to provide a basis on which to search for potential pharmacological targets for fibrosis prevention. Hybridization data were analyzed by the Rosetta Resolver system and Limma to obtain mRNA profiles of the three fibroblast types. Results The three fibroblast types investigated shared fibroblast-specific gene expression patterns concerning extracellular matrix proteins as collagens and fibronectin, but also showed distinct mRNA patterns. Conclusions Individual mRNA species overexpressed in one of the fibroblast types might serve as markers for the identification of the fibroblast type in histological analyses. Future in-depth analyses of the gene expression patterns might help identify pharmacological targets for fibrosis prevention. PMID:23805039

  1. Dynamics of superconducting nanowires shunted with an external resistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brenner, Matthew W.; Roy, Dibyendu; Shah, Nayana; Bezryadin, Alexey

    2012-06-01

    We present a study of superconducting nanowires shunted with an external resistor, geared towards understanding and controlling coherence and dissipation in nanowires. The dynamics is probed by measuring the evolution of the V-I characteristics and the distributions of switching and retrapping currents upon varying the shunt resistor and temperature. Theoretical analysis of the experiments indicates that as the value of the shunt resistance is decreased, the dynamics turns more coherent, presumably due to stabilization of phase-slip centers in the wire, and furthermore the switching current approaches the Bardeen's prediction for equilibrium depairing current. By a detailed comparison between theory and experiment, we make headway into identifying regimes in which the quasi-one-dimensional wire can effectively be described by a zero-dimensional circuit model analogous to the resistively and capacitively shunted Josephson junction model of Stewart and McCumber. Aside from its fundamental significance, our study has implications for a range of promising technological applications.

  2. Malignant cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt 'pseudocyst': a case report.

    PubMed

    Awori, Jonathan; Wu, Chris Y; Maher, Cormac O

    2015-01-01

    Abdominal pseudocysts are an uncommon complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunts. We present the case of a 4-year-old boy with a history of complicated hydrocephalus managed with a VP shunt due to sequelae of prematurity. The patient presented with abdominal distention, and a pseudocyst was diagnosed. Despite shunt externalization and aspiration, the pseudocyst continued to produce up to 1 liter of serosanguineous fluid per day. After MRI revealed malignant features within the pseudocyst, laparotomy was performed and the pseudocyst was partially excised. Pathology reports suggested sarcoma. The cystic mass grew back aggressively, accompanied by distant metastasis. The patient's condition deteriorated and he died from his disease. To our knowledge, this represents the first report of an abdominal malignancy mimicking a pseudocyst and causing VP shunt failure.

  3. Intracardiac migration and knotting of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Frahm-Jensen, Gert; Newton, Peter R; Drummond, Katharine J; Wagner, Tim P; Mees, Barend M E

    2015-04-01

    We report a patient with delayed migration of the distal ventriculoperitoneal shunt catheter from the peritoneum to the right atrium with associated knotting of the catheter complicating removal. We also review the literature on this topic.

  4. A case of breast cancer involving a ventriculoperitoneal shunt.

    PubMed

    Kamei, Mirei; Kikuchi, Nobuyuki; Ichimura, Homare; Chujo, Masao; Takahashi, Yoshiaki; Sugio, Kenji

    2016-12-01

    An 84-year-old woman was examined for an enlargement of an induration in the left breast. A ventriculoperitoneal shunt had been placed for postoperative normal pressure hydrocephalus of a cerebral hemorrhage, and it had penetrated the mass according to the computed tomography findings. Breast cancer was diagnosed after a close examination; however, close observation was selected because her family rejected treatment. She developed somnolence 7 months after the initial examination, and ventricular dilatation and expansion of the low-density region around the ventricle were noted on computed tomography, suggesting that the enlarged tumor had excluded the shunt and caused obstruction. The growth of breast carcinoma involving a shunt tube can be the cause of obstruction of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt. Our findings suggest that a breast lesion should be evaluated at both pre- and postoperation.

  5. Intra-bronchial migration of peritoneal catheter of lumboperitoneal shunt

    PubMed Central

    Kawahara, Takashi; Yanagi, Masakazu; Hirano, Hirofumi; Arita, Kazunori

    2015-01-01

    Background: A rare case of intra-bronchial migration of peritoneal catheter of lumboperitoneal (LP) shunt was treated under the bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic observation. Case Description: A 71-year-old man, who underwent LP shunt installation due to idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus a year before, presented with history of high fever and sputum production. Roentgenography and computed tomography of the chest revealed migration of distal end of the peritoneal catheter into the left main bronchus. Migrated catheter was gently extracted through the abdominal wound incision under the bronchoscopic and fluoroscopic observation. Contrast material infused into the catheter did not spread into the pleural cavity. The patient was free of the symptoms within 2 postoperative weeks. Moreover, he underwent the ventriculo-peritoneal shunt surgery 1-month later. Conclusion: This is the first case of the migration of peritoneal catheter of LP shunt into the main bronchus. PMID:26962468

  6. HEPATIC IRON STORAGE AND ERYTHROKINETICS AFTER PORTACAVAL SHUNT,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    used in the production of hemoglobin is stored in the liver as hemosiderin. The significance of these findings relative to the reported human cases of hemochromatosis after portal-systemic shunting is discussed. (Author)

  7. Shunt capacitor effect on electrical distribution system reliability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sallam, Abdelhay A.; Desouky, Mohamed; Desouky, Hussien

    1994-03-01

    To improve the security & reliability of a distribution system, as much power as feasible must go through a given transmission line. This can be achieved by using shunt capacitors as compensators. These shunt capacitive compensators improve the load carrying capability of the line by controlling the reactive power flow. Consequently, the capacitor existence can not be ignored in evaluating system reliability. The paper applies the state-space method to calculate the reliability indices for compensated & uncompensated systems with different success criteria. The importance of using shunt capacitors to improve the level of distribution system reliability is illustrated in addition to their original function as reactive power controllers. Our procedure, based on a Markov process, is applied to a numerical example, and indicates that system reliability is improved when using shunt capacitors.

  8. Simultaneous Umbilical Hernia Repair with Transumbilical Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt Placement.

    PubMed

    Montalbano, Michael J; Loukas, Marios; Oakes, W Jerry; Tubbs, R Shane

    2017-01-01

    Recently, placement of a ventriculoperitoneal shunt via a transumbilical approach has been reported. Herein, we report the repair of an umbilical hernia via the same incision and introduction of the distal end of a ventricultoperitoneal shunt into the peritoneal cavity in 3 patients. A case illustration is included. Both hernia repair and placement of the distal end of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt were uncomplicated in our small case series. To our knowledge, simultaneous repair of an umbilical hernia followed by transumbilical shunt placement has not been reported. As umbilical hernias are so common in infants, this finding, based on our experience, should not exclude placement of peritoneal tubing in the same setting. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Zero tolerance to shunt infections: can it be achieved?

    PubMed Central

    Choksey, M; Malik, I

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the rigid application of a technique of shunt placement aimed at the eradication of postoperative shunt infection in neurosurgical practice. Method: All shunt procedures were performed or closely supervised by the senior author (MSC). The essentials were the use of intravenous peri- and postoperative antimicrobials, rigid adherence to classical aseptic technique, liberal use of topical antiseptic (Betadine®), and avoidance of haematomas. Results: Of 176 operations, 93 were primary procedures; 33 patients underwent revisions, some multiple. Only one infection occurred, seven months postoperatively, secondary to appendicitis with peritonitis. The infecting Streptococcus faecalis appeared to ascend from the abdominal cavity. Conclusion: A rigidly applied protocol and strict adherence to sterile technique can reduce shunt infections to a very low level. PMID:14707314

  10. Percutaneous ultrasound-guided insertion of ventriculo-atrial shunts.

    PubMed

    McCracken, James Albert; Bahl, Anuj; McMullan, John

    2016-08-01

    Ventriculo-atrial (VA) shunts have been in use for >60 years but less frequently so of late. This is due to a combination of the risk of cardiac complications, lack of expertise and a lengthy operation. We present our consecutive prospective series of 10 VA shunts inserted using a percutaneous method employing the Sonowand Invite™ neuronavigation system for both the distal and proximal catheters, over a 13-month period. We had two complications of cases needing revision, but our series highlights a safe and reproducible method of inserting a VA shunt. About 30% of the procedures were carried out by a trainee as the primary surgeon. This technique does not necessarily require the expertise of a complex hydrocephalus surgeon and is thus able to be in the armoury of any neurosurgeon needing to do a VA shunt procedure. The indications, operative data and outcomes of our patients are discussed.

  11. Multicenter evaluation of temporary intravascular shunt use in vascular trauma.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Kenji; Aksoy, Hande; Seamon, Mark J; Marks, Joshua A; Duchesne, Juan; Schroll, Rebecca; Fox, Charles J; Pieracci, Fredric M; Moore, Ernest E; Joseph, Bellal; Haider, Ansab A; Harvin, John A; Lawless, Ryan A; Cannon, Jeremy; Holland, Seth R; Demetriades, Demetrios

    2016-03-01

    The indications and outcomes associated with temporary intravascular shunting (TIVS) for vascular trauma in the civilian sector are poorly understood. The objective of this study was to perform a contemporary multicenter review of TIVS use and outcomes. Patients sustaining vascular trauma, requiring TIVS insertion (January 2005 to December 2013), were retrospectively identified at seven Level I trauma centers. Clinical demographics, operative details, and outcomes were abstracted. A total of 213 injuries (2.7%; 94.8% arterial) requiring TIVS were identified in 7,385 patients with vascular injuries. Median age was 27.0 years (range, 4-89 years), 91.0% were male, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score was 15.0 (interquartile range, 4.0), Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 16.0 (interquartile range, 15.0), 26.0% had an ISS of 25 or greater, and 71.1% had penetrating injuries. The most common mechanism was gunshot wound (62.7%), followed by auto versus pedestrian (11.4%) and motor vehicle collision (6.5%). Shunts were placed for damage control in 63.4%, staged repair for combined orthopedic and vascular injuries in 36.1%, and for insufficient surgeon skill set in 0.5%. The most common vessel shunted was the superficial femoral artery (23.9%), followed by popliteal artery (18.8%) and brachial artery (13.2%). An argyle shunt (81.2%) was the most common conduit, followed by Pruitt-Inahara (9.4%). Dwell time was less than 6 hours in 61.4%, 24 hours in 86.5%, 48 hours in 95.9%, with only 4.1% remaining in place for more than 48 hours. Of the patients, 81.6% survived to definitive repair, and 79.6% survived overall. Complications included shunt thrombosis (5.6%) and dislodgment (1.4%). There was no association between dwell time and shunt thrombosis. The use of a noncommercial shunt (chest tube/feeding tube) did not impact shunt thrombosis but was an independent risk factor for subsequent graft failure. The limb salvage rate was 96.3%. No deaths could be attributed to a shunt

  12. Clopidogrel in infants with systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunts.

    PubMed

    Wessel, David L; Berger, Felix; Li, Jennifer S; Dähnert, Ingo; Rakhit, Amit; Fontecave, Sylvie; Newburger, Jane W

    2013-06-20

    Infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with placement of a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt are at risk for shunt thrombosis and death. We investigated whether the addition of clopidogrel to conventional therapy reduces mortality from any cause and morbidity related to the shunt. In a multicenter, double-blind, event-driven trial, we randomly assigned infants 92 days of age or younger with cyanotic congenital heart disease and a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt to receive clopidogrel at a dose of 0.2 mg per kilogram of body weight per day (467 infants) or placebo (439 infants), in addition to conventional therapy (including aspirin in 87.9% of infants). The primary efficacy end point was a composite of death or heart transplantation, shunt thrombosis, or performance of a cardiac procedure due to an event considered to be thrombotic in nature before 120 days of age. The rate of the composite primary end point did not differ significantly between the clopidogrel group (19.1%) and the placebo group (20.5%) (absolute risk difference, 1.4 percentage points; relative risk reduction with clopidogrel, 11.1%; 95% confidence interval, -19.2 to 33.6; P=0.43), nor did the rates of the three components of the composite primary end point. There was no significant benefit of clopidogrel treatment in any subgroup, including subgroups defined by shunt type. Clopidogrel recipients and placebo recipients had similar rates of overall bleeding (18.8% and 20.2%, respectively) and severe bleeding (4.1% and 3.4%, respectively). Clopidogrel therapy in infants with cyanotic congenital heart disease palliated with a systemic-to-pulmonary-artery shunt, most of whom received concomitant aspirin therapy, did not reduce either mortality from any cause or shunt-related morbidity. (Funded by Sanofi-Aventis and Bristol-Myers Squibb; ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00396877.).

  13. Small bowel perforation: a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement.

    PubMed

    Bourm, Kelsey; Pfeifer, Cory; Zarchan, Adam

    2016-06-01

    Small bowel perforation is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. When seen, it most commonly affects the stomach or colon. We describe a case and image findings of an 8-year-old female who presented with sepsis and erosion of the VP shunt into the small bowel. The imaging findings were confirmed surgically. We also provide an overview of the current literature discussing previously reported cases, clinical features, and treatment.

  14. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum: a rare offending organism.

    PubMed

    Cadena, Gilbert; Wiedeman, Jean; Boggan, James E

    2014-12-01

    Postsurgical infection is one of the greatest potential morbidities of ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery. The majority of infections can be linked to contamination with skin flora at the time of surgery, a phenomenon that has been well described. However, there is a paucity of literature regarding infection with nontuberculous mycobacteria. The authors report a case of postoperative ventriculoperitoneal shunt infection with Mycobacterium fortuitum and review the available neurosurgical literature and treatment strategies.

  15. Cross-Species Functionality of Pararetroviral Elements Driving Ribosome Shunting

    PubMed Central

    Pooggin, Mikhail M.; Fütterer, Johannes; Hohn, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Background Cauliflower mosaic virus (CaMV) and Rice tungro bacilliform virus (RTBV) belong to distinct genera of pararetroviruses infecting dicot and monocot plants, respectively. In both viruses, polycistronic translation of pregenomic (pg) RNA is initiated by shunting ribosomes that bypass a large region of the pgRNA leader with several short (s)ORFs and a stable stem-loop structure. The shunt requires translation of a 5′-proximal sORF terminating near the stem. In CaMV, mutations knocking out this sORF nearly abolish shunting and virus viability. Methodology/Principal Findings Here we show that two distant regions of the CaMV leader that form a minimal shunt configuration comprising the sORF, a bottom part of the stem, and a shunt landing sequence can be replaced by heterologous sequences that form a structurally similar configuration in RTBV without any dramatic effect on shunt-mediated translation and CaMV infectivity. The CaMV-RTBV chimeric leader sequence was largely stable over five viral passages in turnip plants: a few alterations that did eventually occur in the virus progenies are indicative of fine tuning of the chimeric sequence during adaptation to a new host. Conclusions/Significance Our findings demonstrate cross-species functionality of pararetroviral cis-elements driving ribosome shunting and evolutionary conservation of the shunt mechanism. We are grateful to Matthias Müller and Sandra Pauli for technical assistance. This work was initiated at Friedrich Miescher Institute (Basel, Switzerland). We thank Prof. Thomas Boller for hosting the group at the Institute of Botany. PMID:18286203

  16. In vitro flow measurements in ion sputtered hydrocephalus shunts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental procedure for accurate measurements of the pressure-drop/flow rate relationship in hydrocephalus shunts. Using a fish-hook arrangement, small flow rates in a perforated ion-sputtered Teflon microtubule were measured in vitro in a pressured system and were correlated with pressure in the system. Results indicate that appropriate drainage rates could be obtained in the physiological range for hydrocephalus shunts.

  17. Digital implementation of shunting-inhibitory cellular neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammadou, Tarik; Bouzerdoum, Abdesselam; Bermak, Amine

    2000-05-01

    Shunting inhibition is a model of early visual processing which can provide contrast and edge enhancement, and dynamic range compression. An architecture of digital Shunting Inhibitory Cellular Neural Network for real time image processing is presented. The proposed architecture is intended to be used in a complete vision system for edge detection and image enhancement. The present hardware architecture, is modeled and simulated in VHDL. Simulation results show the functional validity of the proposed architecture.

  18. Small bowel perforation: a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement

    PubMed Central

    Bourm, Kelsey; Pfeifer, Cory; Zarchan, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Small bowel perforation is a rare complication of ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt placement. When seen, it most commonly affects the stomach or colon. We describe a case and image findings of an 8-year-old female who presented with sepsis and erosion of the VP shunt into the small bowel. The imaging findings were confirmed surgically. We also provide an overview of the current literature discussing previously reported cases, clinical features, and treatment. PMID:27761183

  19. In vitro flow measurements in ion sputtered hydrocephalus shunts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cho, Y. I.; Back, L. H.

    1989-01-01

    This paper describes an experimental procedure for accurate measurements of the pressure-drop/flow rate relationship in hydrocephalus shunts. Using a fish-hook arrangement, small flow rates in a perforated ion-sputtered Teflon microtubule were measured in vitro in a pressured system and were correlated with pressure in the system. Results indicate that appropriate drainage rates could be obtained in the physiological range for hydrocephalus shunts.

  20. Characteristics of delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhengquan; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang; Zhang, Shiming; Wu, Jiang

    2017-01-01

    Background Delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after ventriculoperitoneal (VP) shunt insertion is rare and has not been well investigated previously. Its characteristics is still unknown. Objective We reported 12 patients with delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after VP shunt to investigate the potential risk factors and the outcome. Results 12 patients (1.59%) of all the 754 hydrocephalus had delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after VP shunt insertion. 4 patients were women and 8 patients were men, ranging in age from 50 to 76 years. The delayed cerebral hemorrhage from day 3 to day 7 post operation was diagnosed by repeated CT. The delayed intracerebral hemorrhage was significantly related to age, prior craniotomy operation history and manipulation of valve system (3–7 days). Neither gender sexuality nor potential risk factors for postoperative hemorrhage (including anticoagulation/antiplatelet status, liver disease, diabetes, hypertension), time of shunt attempt affected the happen of delayed intracerebral hemorrhage. Materials and Methods The clinical characteristics including sex, age, anticoagulation/antiplatelet status, liver disease, diabetes, hypertension, craniotomy operation history, manipulation of valve system and time of shunt attempt of 754 patients who were surgically treated of VP shunt at the first affiliated hospital of Soochow University between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed retrospectively. The potential risk factors of the delayed intracerebral hemorrhage were statistically analyzed. Conclusions This study summarizes the presentation and outcome of a series of 12 patients with delayed intracerebral hemorrhage after VP shunt. Age ≥ 60 years, prior craniotomy operation and manipulation of the valve system are statistically significant to the delayed hematoma secondary to VP shunt. PMID:28496010