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Sample records for portuguesa galega vulgar

  1. Novel weight-reducing activity of Galega officinalis in mice.

    PubMed

    Palit, P; Furman, B L; Gray, A I

    1999-11-01

    Galega officinalis (galega, Goat's Rue, French Lilac) is well known for its hypoglycaemic action and has been used as part of a plant mixture in the treatment of diabetes mellitus. During pharmacological investigations of an ethanolic extract of a powdered mixture of equal proportions of G. officinalis, Cressa cretica, Mangifera indica and Syzygium jambolanum, a weight reducing effect of galega was discovered. In this study we have investigated the novel weight reducing effect of galega in mice. Galega herb (10% w/w in the diet) caused a significant reduction in body weight in both normal and genetically obese (ob/ob) animals treated for 28 days when compared with respective controls (P < 0.01). In normal mice, the weight loss was reversible and initially associated with a transient reduction in food intake but was then maintained even in the presence of increased eating above the control level. Pair-fed normal mice receiving galega for seven days also showed significant weight loss (P < 0.01, compared with the control) in the presence of increasing food intake. In sharp contrast, weight loss in galega-treated ob/ob mice was accompanied by a persistent reduction in food intake over the 28-day treatment period. Post-mortem examinations of all galega-treated mice revealed a striking absence of body fat. Serum glucose was significantly reduced in both strains of mice receiving galega for 28 days (P < 0.01), whereas serum insulin was significantly reduced only in obese mice (P < 0.01). In summary, together with its established hypoglycaemic effects, galega has a novel weight reducing action that, in normal mice, is largely independent of a reduction in food intake. The mechanism of the weight reducing action of galega is unclear but involves loss of body fat.

  2. Vulgar Music and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  3. Vulgar Music and Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stivers, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Rock music, rap, and heavy metal are all forms of vulgar music. Vulgarity refers to actions and communication that are "common, noisy, and gross," and are "untranscendent." A technological society is a vulgar society in its base of materialism and exclusive concern with power. Its excessive rationality produces a need for escape, for ecstasy, for…

  4. Identification and structure of the Rhizobium galegae common nodulation genes: evidence for horizontal gene transfer.

    PubMed

    Suominen, L; Roos, C; Lortet, G; Paulin, L; Lindström, K

    2001-06-01

    Rhizobia are soil bacteria able to fix atmospheric nitrogen in symbiosis with leguminous plants. In response to a signal cascade coded by genes of both symbiotic partners, a specific plant organ, the nodule, is formed. Rhizobial nodulation (nod) genes trigger nodule formation through the synthesis of Nod factors, a family of chitolipooligosaccharides that are specifically recognized by the host plant at the first stages of the nodulation process. Here, we present the organization and sequence of the common nod genes from Rhizobium galegae, a symbiotic member of the RHIZOBIACEAE: This species has an intriguing phylogenetic position, being symbiotic among pathogenic agrobacteria, which induce tumors instead of nodules in plant shoots or roots. This apparent incongruence raises special interest in the origin of the symbiotic apparatus of R. galegae. Our analysis of DNA sequence data indicated that the organization of the common nod gene region of R. galegae was similar to that of Sinorhizobium meliloti and Rhizobium leguminosarum, with nodIJ downstream of nodABC and the regulatory nodD gene closely linked to the common nod operon. Moreover, phylogenetic analyses of the nod gene sequences showed a close relationship especially between the common nodA sequences of R. galegae, S. meliloti, and R. leguminosarum biovars viciae and trifolii. This relationship in structure and sequence contrasts with the phylogeny based on 16S rRNA, which groups R. galegae close to agrobacteria and separate from most other rhizobia. The topology of the nodA tree was similar to that of the corresponding host plant tree. Taken together, these observations indicate that lateral nod gene transfer occurred from fast-growing rhizobia toward agrobacteria, after which the symbiotic apparatus evolved under host plant constraint.

  5. The Sublime and the Vulgar.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swann, Karen

    1990-01-01

    Explores how Edmund Burke's discourse on the sublime helps illuminate attacks on the vulgarization of culture (as typified by Allan Bloom), both for the presumedly "vulgar" reader and for the champions of high culture. (MG)

  6. Persistence, population dynamics and competitiveness for nodulation of marker gene-tagged Rhizobium galegae strains in field lysimeters in the boreal climatic zone.

    PubMed

    Pitkäjärvi, Jyrki; Räsänen, Leena A; Langenskiöld, Jenny; Wallenius, Kaisa; Niemi, Maarit; Lindström, Kristina

    2003-10-01

    Abstract A non-indigenous wild-type strain Rhizobium galegae HAMBI 540, which specifically nodulates perennial goat's rue (Galega orientalis), and its marker gene-tagged derivatives R. galegae HAMBI 2363(luc), R. galegae HAMBI 2368(gusA21) and R. galegae HAMBI 2364(gusA30) were used to evaluate the persistence, population dynamics and competitiveness for nodulation of rhizobia under field conditions in Finland. The lysimeters were filled with clean or diesel oil-polluted (3000 mug g(-1)) agricultural soil. During the first 2 years of the field release luc- and gusA21-tagged strains could be effectively detected by cultivation, reinforced with colony polymerase chain reaction. The population densities remained relatively stable from 10(4) to 10(5) cfu g(-1) dry soil from spring until late autumn. Replicate limiting dilution polymerase chain reaction analysis gave comparable results with cultivation with strain HAMBI 2363 until 49 weeks after inoculation. GUS activity of strain HAMBI 2368 could be stably detected in nodules and soil. On the other hand, luc activity weakened clearly in cold conditions along with decreased metabolic activity of rhizobia. The competitive ability for nodulation of the gusA30-tagged strain decreased slowly with time compared to the wild-type strain. Moderate soil pollution did not have significant effects on target bacteria or plant growth. Limited vertical movement of target bacteria outside the rhizosphere was detected from percolated water.

  7. Allelopathic Plants. Hordeum vulgare L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an annual cereal and one of the first agricultural crops to be domesticated. It is a versatile crop and is broadly used as a food grain for human consumption, malt source for brewing, and feed grain for livestock. On-farm crop uses include pasture, a hay and silage sou...

  8. Stability of Markers Used for Identification of Two Rhizobium galegae Inoculant Strains after Five Years in the Field

    PubMed Central

    Lindström, K.; Lipsanen, P.; Kaijalainen, S.

    1990-01-01

    The stability of identification markers was examined for two Rhizobium galegae inoculant strains after 5 years in the field. The two strains are genetically closely related, but differ in their lipopolysaccharides. Strain HAMBI 540 has lipopolysaccharide of the rough type, whereas that of strain HAMBI 1461 is of the smooth type. The properties that were examined for 10 field isolates of each inoculant type were symbiotic phenotype, phage type, intrinsic antibiotic resistance, maximum growth temperature, lipopolysaccharide and total soluble protein patterns, immunological properties, DNA restriction profiles, and DNA hybridization patterns, which were determined by using nifHDK and recA sequences as probes. Of these properties, all remained stable in soil, with the exception of some variation in intrinsic antibiotic resistance and the acquisition of an extra EcoRI restriction fragment by one of the isolates. Thus, both the rough and the smooth lipopolysaccharide phenotypes persisted equally well in soil. Images PMID:16348119

  9. Leucanthemum vulgare Lam. crude oil phytoremediation.

    PubMed

    Noori, Azam; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim; Newman, Lee A

    2015-06-29

    Sites with crude oil pollution have been successfully treated using phytoremediation, but expanding the range of plants that can be used and understanding how exposure impacts the plants are two areas of study that are important to continue. Leucanthemum vulgare has been shown to grow well under a variety of stressful conditions. To examine L. vulgare's ability to both survive crude oil exposure and to reduce crude oil concentrations in soil, plants were placed in soil containing 0, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5% or 10% w/w crude oil. Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) concentration, peroxidase and catalase activity, proline and phenol content in roots and leaves were determined at the start of planting and every 2 months for six months. L. vulgare roots were successfully colonized with mycorrhizae under all conditions. Results showed positive correlation between antioxidant compound concentration and crude oil contamination. Also, a significant reduction occurred in TPH content of soil over time in planted pots as compared to controls. The lowest TPH content was recorded after 6 months under all treatments. Results showed L. vulgare could survive crude oil exposure and enhance reducing of crude oil from soil.

  10. Registration of the BISON genetic stocks in Hordeum vulgare L.

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A set of near-isogenic lines (NILs) was developed in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) at Oregon State University, and evaluated for resistance to barley stripe rust (BSR, incited by Puccinia striiformis f.sp. hordei) and agronomic potential. The NILs, henceforth the BISON lines (Barley stripe ...

  11. Analysis of chromosomal polymorphism in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare) and between H. vulgare and H. chilense using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH).

    PubMed

    Szakács, É; Kruppa, K; Molnár-Láng, M

    2013-11-01

    The aim of the present work was to study chromosomal polymorphism within cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) using three-color fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). The physical distribution of the most frequently used, highly repetitive DNA sequences (GAA)7 specific for pericentromeric heterochromatic regions, the ribosomal DNA clone pTa71, specific for the 45S rDNA, and the barley-specific telomere-associated sequence HvT01, was investigated to reveal genetic diversity in metaphase spreads of ten barley genotypes with diverse geographical origin, growth habit and row number. A wild relative of barley, Hordeum chilense was also studied in order to compare the polymorphism between and within Hordeum species. Significant differences in the hybridization patterns of all three DNA probes could be detected between the two related species, but only probes pTa71 and HvT01 showed variation in the intensity and/or position of hybridization sites among genotypes of H. vulgare ssp. vulgare. The extent of polymorphism was less than that earlier reported for molecular markers and was restricted to the long chromosome arms, with differences between the chromosomes. 1H and 3H proved to be the most variable chromosomes and 4H and 6H the most conserved.

  12. Photodynamic inactivation of verrucae vulgares. II.

    PubMed

    Veien, N K; Genner, J; Brodthagen, H; Wettermark, G

    1977-01-01

    Photodynamic inactivation therapy, consisting of a double-blind, paired comparison treatment schedule, was used in treating 56 patients for recalcitrant, symmetrical verrucae vulgares. 0.1% proflavine in 100% dimethylsulphoxide (DMSO) and 0.1% neutral red in 100% DMSO were used as active dyes, and 1% picric acid in 100% DMSO and 1% color ruber in 100% DMSO and 1% color ruber in 100% DMSO served as corresponding placebos. A Westinghouse sunlamp and black light were used to irradiate the warts dyed with proflavine and its placebo, and the warts dyed with neutral red and its placebo were irradiated with an ordinary light bulb (Osram 588597). 50 patients completed the treatment. 10 of the 27 patients treated with proflavine and 10 of the 23 patients treated with neutral red were cured by the end of an 8 week period, with the warts disappearing simultaneously from the actively as well as the placebo-treated side. Complement fixing antibodies against wart virus were detected in one of the cured patients and 2 who were treatment failures.

  13. Hordeum Vulgare Hull in the Design of Fast Disintegrating Tablets

    PubMed Central

    Rajpurohit, H; Sharma, P; Sharma, S; Purohit, S; Bhandari, A

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, fast disintegrating tablets were designed with a view to enhance patient compliance. In this method, the hull of Hordeum vulgare, cross carmellose sodium, and sodium starch glycolate were used as superdisintegrants (4 and 6%), along with microcrystalline cellulose and mannitol, to enhance mouth feel. The prepared batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, friability, drug content uniformity, wetting time, water absorption ratio and in vitro dispersion time. Based on the in vitro dispersion time, the formulations were tested for the in vitro drug release pattern. Tablets having H. vulgare hull showed the release profile comparable to those tablets having sodium starch glycolate and cross carmellose sodium. PMID:21897660

  14. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing ~22,750 prob...

  15. Extraction and physicochemical characterization of Sargassum vulgare alginate from Brazil.

    PubMed

    Torres, Marcia R; Sousa, Alessandra P A; Silva Filho, Eduardo A T; Melo, Dirce F; Feitosa, Judith P A; de Paula, Regina C M; Lima, Maria G S

    2007-10-15

    Alginate fractions from Sargassum vulgare brown seaweed were characterized by (1)H NMR and fluorescence spectroscopy and by rheological measurements. The alginate extraction conditions were investigated. In order to carry out the structural and physicochemical characterization, samples extracted for 1 and 5h at 60 degrees C were further purified by re-precipitation with ethanol and denoted as SVLV (S. vulgare low viscosity) and SVHV (S. vulgare high viscosity), respectively. The M/G ratio values for SVLV and SVHV were 1.56 and 1.27, respectively, higher than the ratio for most Sargassum spp. alginates (0.19-0.82). The homopolymeric blocks F(GG) and F(MM) of these fractions characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy were 0.43 and 0.55 for SVHV and 0.36 and 0.58 for SVLV samples, respectively, these values typically being within 0.28-0.77 and 0.07-0.41, respectively. Therefore, the alginate samples from S. vulgare are much richer in mannuronic block structures than those from other Sargassum species. Values of M(w) for alginate samples were also calculated using intrinsic viscosity data. The M(w) value for SVLV (1.94 x 10(5)g/mol) was lower than that for SVHV (3.3 x 10(5)g/mol). Newtonian behavior was observed for a solution concentration as high as 0.7% for SVLV, while for SVHV the solutions behaved as a Newtonian fluid up to 0.5%. The optimal conditions for obtaining the alginates from S. vulgare were 60 degrees C and 5h extraction. Under these conditions, a more viscous alginate in higher yield was extracted from the seaweed biomass.

  16. Chemical diversity in Indian oregano (Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Verma, Ram S; Padalia, Rajendra C; Chauhan, Amit; Verma, Rajesh K; Yadav, Ajai K; Singh, Hemendra P

    2010-08-01

    The terpenoid composition of the essential oils of 17 different populations of Origanum vulgare L., collected from wild populations and subsequently grown under similar conditions in the sub-temperate region of the Western Himalaya, was studied. Analysis by GC (RI) and GC/MS allowed the identification of 51 components, representing 90.15 to 99.94% of the total oil. The two classes of the phenolic compounds and the monoterpenoids were predominant in all the essential oils. On the basis of the major constituents, i.e., marker compounds, and by comparison of the results with previous reports, new chemotypes could be identified. Principal component analysis was performed to determine the chemical variability within the different populations of O. vulgare collected and grown under similar conditions. Based on the marker compounds, six chemotypes with significant variations in their terpenoid profile were noticed within the 17 populations.

  17. Metabolome profiling reveals metabolic cooperation between Bacillus megaterium and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare during induced swarm motility.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Ma, Qian; Yi, Hong; Wang, Lili; Song, Hao; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2011-10-01

    The metabolic cooperation in the ecosystem of Bacillus megaterium and Ketogulonicigenium vulgare was investigated by cultivating them spatially on a soft agar plate. We found that B. megaterium swarmed in a direction along the trace of K. vulgare on the agar plate. Metabolomics based on gas chromatography coupled with time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC-TOF-MS) was employed to analyze the interaction mechanism between the two microorganisms. We found that the microorganisms interact by exchanging a number of metabolites. Both intracellular metabolism and cell-cell communication via metabolic cooperation were essential in determining the population dynamics of the ecosystem. The contents of amino acids and other nutritional compounds in K. vulgare were rather low in comparison to those in B. megaterium, but the levels of these compounds in the medium surrounding K. vulgare were fairly high, even higher than in fresh medium. Erythrose, erythritol, guanine, and inositol accumulated around B. megaterium were consumed by K. vulgare upon its migration. The oxidization products of K. vulgare, including 2-keto-gulonic acids (2KGA), were sharply increased. Upon coculturing of B. megaterium and K. vulgare, 2,6-dipicolinic acid (the biomarker of sporulation of B. megaterium), was remarkably increased compared with those in the monocultures. Therefore, the interactions between B. megaterium and K. vulgare were a synergistic combination of mutualism and antagonism. This paper is the first to systematically identify a symbiotic interaction mechanism via metabolites in the ecosystem established by two isolated colonies of B. megaterium and K. vulgare.

  18. Chromatographic Fingerprint Analysis of Marrubiin in Marrubium vulgare L. via HPTLC Technique

    PubMed Central

    Yousefi, Keyvan; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Torbati, Mohammadali; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: In the present study we aimed to quantify marrubiin, as the major active compound, in the aerial parts of Marrubium vulgare from Iran using a HPTLC-densitometry technique. Methods: Quantitative determination of marrubiin in M. vulgare methanol extract was performed by HPTLC analysis via a fully automated TLC scanner. Later on, the in vitro antioxidant activity of the M. vulgare methanol extract was determined using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH) free radical scavenging assay. Furthermore, total phenolics and flavonoids contents of the methanol extract were quantified, spectrophotometrically. Results: The amount of marrubiin was calculated as 156 mg/g of M. vulgare extract. The antioxidant assay revealed a strong radical scavenging activity for the M. vulgare methanol extract with RC50 value of 8.24μg/mL. Total phenolics and flavonoids contents for M. vulgare were determined as 60.4 mg gallic acid equivalent and 12.05 mg quercetin equivalent per each gram of the extract, correspondingly. Conclusion: The presented fingerprint of marrubiin in M. vulgare extract developed by HPTLC densitometry afforded a detailed chemical profile, which might be useful in the identification as well as quality evaluation of herbal medications based on M. vulgare. Besides, the considerable antioxidant activity of M. vulgare was associated with the presence of marrubiin along with phenolics and flavonoids exerting a synergistic effect. PMID:27123428

  19. Essential oil diversity of European Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Schmiderer, Corinna; Novak, Johannes

    2015-11-01

    This investigation focused on the qualitative and quantitative composition of essential oil compounds of European Origanum vulgare. Extracts of 502 individual O. vulgare plants from 17 countries and 51 populations were analyzed via GC. Extracts of 49 plants of 5 populations of Israeli Origanum syriacum and 30 plants from 3 populations of Turkish Origanum onites were included to exemplify essential oil characteristics of 'high-quality' oregano. The content of essential oil compounds of European O. vulgare ranged between 0.03% and 4.6%. The monoterpenes were primarily made up of sabinene, myrcene, p-cymene, 1,8-cineole, β-ocimene, γ-terpinene, sabinene hydrate, linalool, α-terpineol, carvacrol methyl ether, linalyl acetate, thymol and carvacrol. Among the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, germacrene D-4-ol, spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide and oplopanone were often present in higher amounts. According to the proportions of cymyl-compounds, sabinyl-compounds and the acyclic linalool/linalyl acetate three different main monoterpene chemotypes were defined. The cymyl- and the acyclic pathway were usually active in plants from the Mediterranean climate whereas an active sabinyl-pathway was a characteristic of plants from the Continental climate.

  20. Chemical composition and biological activity of essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L. under different growth conditions.

    PubMed

    De Falco, Enrica; Mancini, Emilia; Roscigno, Graziana; Mignola, Enrico; Taglialatela-Scafati, Orazio; Senatore, Felice

    2013-12-04

    This research was aimed at investigating the essential oil production, chemical composition and biological activity of a crop of pink flowered oregano (Origanum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare L.) under different spatial distribution of the plants (single and binate rows). This plant factor was shown to affect its growth, soil covering, fresh biomass, essential oil amount and composition. In particular, the essential oil percentage was higher for the binate row treatment at the full bloom. The chemical composition of the oils obtained by hydrodistillation was fully characterized by GC and GC-MS. The oil from plants grown in single rows was rich in sabinene, while plants grown in double rows were richer in ocimenes. The essential oils showed antimicrobial action, mainly against Gram-positive pathogens and particularly Bacillus cereus and B. subtilis.

  1. Congruence of phytochemical and morphological profiles along an altitudinal gradient in Origanum vulgare ssp. vulgare from Venetian Region (NE Italy).

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Claudia; Maggi, Filippo; Papa, Fabrizio; Maleci Bini, Laura

    2013-04-01

    Plants of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. vulgare from the Veneto region (NE Italy) were selected to study the variability of the essential-oil composition from leaves and inflorescences throughout an elevation gradient. We investigated also the morphology of non-glandular and glandular trichomes, their distribution on the vegetative and reproductive organs, as well as the histochemistry of the secreted products, with special focus on the terpenoidic fraction. Since glandular trichomes are prerequisite for the essential-oil synthesis, the second objective was to establish whether its production is related to glandular hair number, and density. Essential-oil contents decline with increasing altitude, and the micromorphological observations revealed a decrease in trichome density along the same direction. Moreover, GC/MS analysis together with principal component analysis (PCA) showed that the three investigated populations were significantly different in chemical composition. Therefore, an important interpopulation variability for low-, mid-, and high-altitude sites was established, suggesting the likely occurrence of different biotypes associated with altitudinal levels. Hence, the involvement of abiotic factors such as temperature and drought in the chemical polymorphism of O. vulgare associated with elevation is briefly discussed. Copyright © 2013 Verlag Helvetica Chimica Acta AG, Zürich.

  2. Repellents in the Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica, against the pill-bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Morisawa, Jun; Kim, Chul-Sa; Kashiwagi, Takehiro; Tebayashi, Shin-ichi; Horiike, Michio

    2002-11-01

    Sandaracopimarinol and (1S,6R)-2,7(14),10-bisabolatrien-1-ol-4-one were isolated and identified from Cryptomeria japonica as repellents against Armadillidium vulgare which is well known as an unpleasant pest in the house and as vegetable pest in Japan. These compounds strongly repelled A. vulgare when they were combined, although each compound alone did not show any activity.

  3. Medicinal properties of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. in traditional Iranian medicine and modern phytotherapy.

    PubMed

    Rahimi, Roja; Ardekani, Mohammad Reza Shams

    2013-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (F. vulgare), commonly known as Fennel, is a popular medicinal plant with various pharmacological activities mentioned in traditional Iranian medicine (TIM) and modern phytotherapy such as antioxidant, cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, bronchodilatory, estrogenic, diuretic, lithontripic, galactogogue, emmenagogue, antithrombotic, hypotensive, gastroprotective, hepatoprotective, memory enhancing, and antimutagenic activities. No serious adverse events were recorded after ingestion of F. vulgare except some cases of allergic reactions. The estrogenic activity of F. vulgare brings some side effects such as decrease in protein concentration and acid and alkaline phosphatase in male genital organs, increase in weight of mammary glands and reproductive organs in women and premature thelarche in girls. However, no evidence of teratogenicity was recorded, it is better not to use F. vulgare during pregnancy due to its estrogenic activity. Because of inhibition of cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4), the pharmacokinetic parameters of drugs mainly metabolized by this isozyme may be affected by F. vulgare. In addition, a significant interaction between cyprofloxacin and F. vulgare was demonstrated. The aim of current paper is to review pharmacological properties, toxicity and adverse events, and drug interactions of vulgare and brings conclusive results about the use of this plant in men, women and during pregnancy.

  4. [Analysis on changes of chemical compounds in different samples of fried Foeniculum vulgare].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Fan; Li, Zhen; Tian, Shuge; Ma, Li

    2009-04-01

    To analysis the changes of chemical compounds in fried Foeniculum vulgare. Cleaned F. vulgare were fried with honey, Pharbitis nil, salt solution, vinegar, wine and bran, respectively, according to different Chinese medicine frying theories. Different volatile ingredints were extracted from fried products, and their contents and physical constants were detected. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) was developed for analyzing the changes of chemical compounds in different samples of fried F. vulgare. The experimental results showed that the content of volatile oil in F. vulgare decreased after been fried. Among these effective ingredients in fried samples, trans-anethole was the ingredient of the maximum content, and the contents of all twenty-four ingredinets had changed. Furthermore, other eighteen compounds were created; Among them, linalylacetate, farnesene, p-allyiphenyl aromatic oxide, menthone, and hexyl octanoate were detected firstly in F. vulgare. GC-MS is effective to fleetly analyse the frying changes of herbs flectly.

  5. Mitochondrial genome sequences from wild and cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Hisano, Hiroshi; Tsujimura, Mai; Yoshida, Hideya; Terachi, Toru; Sato, Kazuhiro

    2016-10-24

    Sequencing analysis of mitochondrial genomes is important for understanding the evolution and genome structures of various plant species. Barley is a self-pollinated diploid plant with seven chromosomes comprising a large haploid genome of 5.1 Gbp. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) and cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) have cross compatibility and closely related genomes, although a significant number of nucleotide polymorphisms have been reported between their genomes. We determined the complete nucleotide sequences of the mitochondrial genomes of wild and cultivated barley. Two independent circular maps of the 525,599 bp barley mitochondrial genome were constructed by de novo assembly of high-throughput sequencing reads of barley lines H602 and Haruna Nijo, with only three SNPs detected between haplotypes. These mitochondrial genomes contained 33 protein-coding genes, three ribosomal RNAs, 16 transfer RNAs, 188 new ORFs, six major repeat sequences and several types of transposable elements. Of the barley mitochondrial genome-encoded proteins, NAD6, NAD9 and RPS4 had unique structures among grass species. The mitochondrial genome of barley was similar to those of other grass species in terms of gene content, but the configuration of the genes was highly differentiated from that of other grass species. Mitochondrial genome sequencing is essential for annotating the barley nuclear genome; our mitochondrial sequencing identified a significant number of fragmented mitochondrial sequences in the reported nuclear genome sequences. Little polymorphism was detected in the barley mitochondrial genome sequences, which should be explored further to elucidate the evolution of barley.

  6. The complete chloroplast genome of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae).

    PubMed

    Lukas, Brigitte; Novak, Johannes

    2013-10-10

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare L., Lamiaceae) is a medicinal and aromatic plant maybe best known for flavouring pizza. New applications e.g. as natural antioxidants for food are emerging due to the plants' high antibacterial and antioxidant activity. The complete chloroplast (cp) genome of Origanum vulgare (GenBank/EBML/DDBJ accession number: JX880022) consists of 151,935 bp and includes a pair of inverted repeats (IR) of 25,527 bp separated by one small and one large single copy region (SSC and LSC) of 17,745 and 83,136 bp, respectively. The genome with an overall GC content of 38% hosts 114 genes that covering 63% of the genome of which 8% were introns. The comparison of the Origanum cp genome with the cp genomes of two other core lamiales (Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge and Sesamum indicum L.) revealed completely conserved protein-coding regions in the IR region but also in the LSC and SSC regions. Phylogenetic analysis of the lamiids based on 56 protein-coding genes give a hint at the basic structure of the Lamiales. However, further genomes will be necessary to clarify this taxonomically complicated order. The variability of the cp within the genus Origanum, studied exemplarily on 16 different chloroplast DNA regions, demonstrated that in 14 regions analyzed, the variability was extremely low (max. 0.7%), while only two regions showed a moderate variability of up to 2.3%. The cp genome of Origanum vulgare contains 27 perfect mononucleotide repeats (number of repeats>9) consisting exclusively of the nucleotides A or T. 34 perfect repeats (repeat lengths>1 and number of repeats>3) were found, of which 32 were di-, and 2 were trinucleotide repeats.

  7. Foeniculum vulgare essential oils: chemical composition, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.

    PubMed

    Miguel, Maria Graça; Cruz, Cláudia; Faleiro, Leonor; Simões, Mariana T F; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Barroso, José G; Pedro, Luis G

    2010-02-01

    The essential oils from Foeniculum vulgare commercial aerial parts and fruits were isolated by hydrodistillation, with different distillation times (30 min, 1 h, 2 h and 3 h), and analyzed by GC and GC-MS. The antioxidant ability was estimated using four distinct methods. Antibacterial activity was determined by the agar diffusion method. Remarkable differences, and worrying from the quality and safety point of view, were detected in the essential oils. trans-Anethole (31-36%), alpha-pinene (14-20%) and limonene (11-13%) were the main components of the essentials oil isolated from F. vulgare dried aerial parts, whereas methyl chavicol (= estragole) (79-88%) was dominant in the fruit oils. With the DPPH method the plant oils showed better antioxidant activity than the fruits oils. With the TBARS method and at higher concentrations, fennel essential oils showed a pro-oxidant activity. None of the oils showed a hydroxyl radical scavenging capacity > 50%, but they showed an ability to inhibit 5-lipoxygenase. The essential oils showed a very low antimicrobial activity. In general, the essential oils isolated during 2 h were as effective, from the biological activity point of view, as those isolated during 3 h.

  8. The renal effects of alginates isolated from brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    de Paula Alves Sousa, Alessandra; Barbosa, Paulo Sergio Ferreira; Torres, Márcia Rocha; Martins, Alice Maria Costa; Martins, René Duarte; de Sousa Alves, Renata; de Sousa, Daniel Freire; Alves, Claudênio Diógenes; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia Veras; Monteiro, Helena Serra Azul

    2008-04-01

    Alginates isolated from Sargassum vulgare, present a strong antitumor activity, associated with kidney reversible damage, as analysed by histopathology of treated animals. In the present study, the renal alteration mechanisms of S. vulgare alginates were investigated using the isolated perfused rat kidney and the isolated perfused rat mesenteric blood vessel methods. The results showed that the effects of Sargassum vulgare low viscosity (SVLV) alginate were more potent than those of Sargassum vulgare high viscosity (SVHV) alginate in the isolated rat kidney. The SVLV alginate caused considerable changes in renal physiology, as shown by an increase in parameters such as perfusion pressure, renal vascular resistance, glomerular filtration rate, urinary flow and sodium, potassium and chloride excretion and by reduction of chloride tubular transport. The effects of SVHV were weaker than those of SVLV. The effects of SVLV on kidney could be related to direct vascular action as demonstrated with SVLV alginate on mesenteric blood vessels. In conclusion, the Sargassum vulgare alginate altered the renal function parameters evaluated. S. vulgare low viscosity alginate renal effects were more potent than S. vulgare high viscosity alginate. It is suggested that physicochemical differences between SVHV and SVLV could explain the differences found in the results.

  9. [Development of a vulgarity scale based on Ortega's "The revolt of the masses"].

    PubMed

    Hatori, Tsuyoshi; Komatsu, Yoshihiro; Fujii, Satoshi

    2008-12-01

    This study developed a scale measuring the spiritual vulgarity of the masses, based upon Ortega's "The revolt of the masses" (1957). A questionnaire was constructed with forty items, based on Ortega's descriptions of the characteristics of the spiritual vulgarity of the masses. The questionnaire was completed by 200 university students. The results of factor analysis of the vulgarity measurements yielded two subscales; autistic attitude and contumelious attitude. The two scales were correlated with other existing measures of social values, which was further evidence of validity.

  10. Antiurolithic activity of Origanum vulgare is mediated through multiple pathways

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Origanum vulgare Linn has traditionally been used in the treatment of urolithiasis. Therefore, we investigated the crude extract of Origanum vulgare for possible antiurolithic effect, to rationalize its medicinal use. Methods The crude aqueous-methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare (Ov.Cr) was studied using the in vitro and in vivo methods. In the in vitro experiments, supersaturated solution of calcium and oxalate, kidney epithelial cell lines (MDCK) and urinary bladder of rabbits were used, whereas, in the in vivo studies, rat model of urolithiasis was used for the study of preventive and curative effect. Results In the in vitro experiments, Ov.Cr exhibited a concentration-dependent (0.25-4 mg/ml) inhibitory effect on the slope of nucleation and aggregation and also decreased the number of calcium oxalate monohydrate crystals (COM) produced in calcium oxalate metastable solutions. It also showed concentration-dependent antioxidant effect against DPPH free radical and lipid peroxidation induced in rat kidney tissue homogenate. Ov.Cr reduced the cell toxicity using MTT assay and LDH release in renal epithelial cells (MDCK) exposed to oxalate (0.5 mM) and COM (66 μg/cm2) crystals. Ov.Cr relaxed high K+ (80 mM) induced contraction in rabbit urinary bladder strips, and shifted the calcium concentration-response curves (CRCs) towards right with suppression of the maximum response similar to that of verapamil, a standard calcium channel blocker. In male Wistar rats receiving lithogenic treatment comprising of 0.75% ethylene glycol in drinking water given for 3 weeks along with ammonium chloride (NH4Cl) for the first 5 days, Ov.Cr treatment (10-30 mg/kg) prevented as well as reversed toxic changes including loss of body weight, polyurea, crystalluria, oxaluria, raised serum urea and creatinine levels and crystal deposition in kidneys compared to their respective controls. Conclusion These data indicating the antiurolithic activity in Ov.Cr, possibly mediated

  11. Proinflammatory activity of an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Lins, Kézia O A L; Vale, Mariana L; Ribeiro, Ronaldo A; Costa-Lotufo, Letícia V

    2013-01-30

    Alginates are unbranched polymers of polysaccharide presented as the structural components of marine brown algae. The proinflammatory activity of SVHV, an alginate isolated from Sargassum vulgare, was investigated using models of paw edema, mast cells degranulation and neutrophil migration in vivo. SVHV induced a dose dependent paw edema, with a peak at 2 h, associated with an increased myeloperoxidase activity and production of TNF-α and IL-1β. Pharmacological modulators, remarkably dexamethasone and indomethacin, inhibited the edema. SVHV (1.0 mg) also led to a significant induction of neutrophil migration in the peritoneal cavity of rats. This neutrophil migration was significantly reduced by peritoneal resident macrophages depletion, but was not affected by the depletion of mast cells. Our data suggest that SVHV has proinflammatory activity dependent of the activation of resident cells, being the macrophages the main cells involved. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Nitrites derived from Foneiculum vulgare (fennel) seeds promotes vascular functions.

    PubMed

    Swaminathan, Akila; Sridhara, Sree Rama Chaitanya; Sinha, Swaraj; Nagarajan, Shunmugam; Balaguru, Uma Maheswari; Siamwala, Jamila H; Rajendran, Saranya; Saran, Uttara; Chatterjee, Suvro

    2012-12-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that nitrites play an important role in the cardiovascular system. Fennel (Foneiculum vulgare) seeds are often used as mouth fresheners after a meal in both the Indian sub-continent and around the world. The present study aims to quantify the nitrite and nitrates in fennel seeds as well as elucidating the effect of fennel derived-nitrites on vascular functions. Results from our study show that fennel seeds contain significantly higher amount of nitrites when compared to other commonly used post-meal seeds. Furthermore our study confirmed the functional effects of fennel derived-nitrites using in vitro and ex vivo models that describe the promotion of angiogenesis, cell migration, and vasorelaxation. We also showed that chewing fennel seeds enhanced nitrite content of saliva. Thus our study indicates the potential role of fennel derived-nitrites on the vascular system.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare under Glutathione Reveals High Demand for Thiamin Transport and Antioxidant Protection

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Qian; Zhang, Weiwen; Zhang, Lu; Qiao, Bin; Pan, Chensong; Yi, Hong; Wang, Lili; Yuan, Ying-jin

    2012-01-01

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare, though grows poorly when mono-cultured, has been widely used in the industrial production of the precursor of vitamin C with the coculture of Bacillus megaterium. Various efforts have been made to clarify the synergic pattern of this artificial microbial community and to improve the growth and production ability of K. vulgare, but there is still no sound explanation. In previous research, we found that the addition of reduced glutathione into K. vulgare monoculture could significantly improve its growth and productivity. By performing SEM and TEM, we observed that after adding GSH into K. vulgare monoculture, cells became about 4–6 folds elongated, and formed intracytoplasmic membranes (ICM). To explore the molecular mechanism and provide insights into the investigation of the synergic pattern of the co-culture system, we conducted a comparative iTRAQ-2-D-LC-MS/MS-based proteomic analysis of K. vulgare grown under reduced glutathione. Principal component analysis of proteomic data showed that after the addition of glutathione, proteins for thiamin/thiamin pyrophosphate (TPP) transport, glutathione transport and the maintenance of membrane integrity, together with several membrane-bound dehydrogenases had significant up-regulation. Besides, several proteins participating in the pentose phosphate pathway and tricarboxylic acid cycle were also up-regulated. Additionally, proteins combating intracellular reactive oxygen species were also up-regulated, which similarly occurred in K. vulgare when the co-cultured B. megaterium cells lysed from our former research results. This study reveals the demand for transmembrane transport of substrates, especially thiamin, and the demand for antioxidant protection of K. vulgare. PMID:22384164

  14. Antiviral Sulfoquinovosyldiacylglycerols (SQDGs) from the Brazilian Brown Seaweed Sargassum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Plouguerné, Erwan; de Souza, Lauro M.; Sassaki, Guilherme L.; Cavalcanti, Jéssica Figueiredo; Villela Romanos, Maria Teresa; da Gama, Bernardo A. P.; Crespo Pereira, Renato; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana

    2013-01-01

    Total lipids from the Brazilian brown seaweed Sargassum vulgare were extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v) at room temperature. After performing Folch partition of the crude lipid extract, the lipids recovered from the Folch lower layer were fractionated on a silica gel column eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. The fraction eluted with methanol, presented a strong orcinol-positive band characteristic of the presence of sulfatides when examined by TLC. This fraction was then purified by two successive silica gel column chromatography giving rise to fractions F4I86 and F4II90 that exhibited strong activity against herpes simplex virus type 1 and 2. The chemical structures present in both fractions were elucidated by ESI-MS and 1H/13C NMR analysis HSQC fingerprints based on their tandem–MS behavior as sulfoquinovosildiacylglycerols (SQDGs). The main SQDG present in both fractions and responsible for the anti-herpes activity observed was identified as 1,2-di-O-palmitoyl-3-O-(6-sulfo-α-d-quinovopyranosyl)-glycerol. PMID:24284427

  15. Sulphated polysaccharide isolated from Sargassum vulgare: Characterization and hypolipidemic effects.

    PubMed

    Kolsi, Rihab Ben Abdallah; Salah, Hichem Ben; Jardak, Neila; Chaaben, Rim; Jribi, Imed; Feki, Abdelfattah El; Rebai, Tarak; Jamoussi, Kamel; Allouche, Noureddine; Blecker, Cristophe; Belghith, Hafedh; Belghith, Karima

    2017-08-15

    A sulphated polysaccharide from brown algae Sargassum vulgare (SVSP) was extracted and examined with respect to chemical, structural characterization and hypolipidemic effects. SVSP consisted mainly of sulphate and total sugars with low levels of lipids and proteins. Its structure was studied by nuclear magnetic resonance (RMN), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), infra-red spectroscopic, differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray diffraction analysis. Allowing us therefore to revealed that SVSP was composed of glucose, rhamnose, xylose, galactose, mannose and arabinose with XRD pattern that was typical for a semi-crystalline polymer and complexities of the spectra reflected its homogeneous structure. The administration of SVSP to obese rats is effective in lowering the body weight and inhibiting the lipase activity leading to notable regulation of lipid profile, increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, limiting lipid peroxidation; and protects liver-kidney functions proved by a decrease in the levels of toxicity parameters in blood, confirmed by histological study. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  16. Expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) during salinity stress.

    PubMed

    Walia, Harkamal; Wilson, Clyde; Wahid, Abdul; Condamine, Pascal; Cui, Xinping; Close, Timothy J

    2006-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a salt-tolerant crop species with considerable economic importance in salinity-affected arid and semiarid regions of the world. In this work, barley cultivar Morex was used for transcriptional profiling during salinity stress using a microarray containing approximately 22,750 probe sets. The experiment was designed to target the early responses of genes to a salinity stress at seedling stage. We found a comparable number of probe sets up-regulated and down-regulated in response to salinity. The differentially expressed genes were broadly characterized using gene ontology and through expression-based hierarchical clustering to identify interesting features in the data. A prominent feature of the response to salinity was the induction of genes involved in jasmonic acid biosynthesis and genes known to respond to jasmonic acid treatment. A large number of abiotic stress (heat, drought, and low temperature) related genes were also found to be responsive to salinity stress. Our results also indicate osmoprotection to be an early response of barley under salinity stress. Additionally, we compared the results of our studies with two other reports characterizing gene expression of barley under salinity stress and found very few genes in common.

  17. Hepatoprotective activity of white horehound (Marrubium vulgare) extract against cyclophosphamide toxicity in male rats.

    PubMed

    Ettaya, Amani; Dhibi, Sabah; Samout, Noura; Elfeki, Abdelfettah; Hfaiedh, Najla

    2016-04-01

    The hepatoprotective activity of Marrubium vulgare against cyclophosphamide toxicity in Wistar rats was evaluated. Adult male rats were divided into 4 groups of 6 each: a control group, a group injected with cyclophosphamide (150 mg·kg(-1)) for 3 days, a group orally given a M. vulgare aqueous extract ((500 mg of dry leaves)·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 30 days then treated with cyclophosphamide, and a group receiving only M. vulgare for 30 days. After 33 days of treatment, activities of alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were determined in serum. Moreover, lipid peroxidation level and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities, catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were measured in liver. Alterations of these hepatic biomarkers and increased lipid peroxidation confirmed cyclophosphamide-induced liver toxicity. Cyclophosphamide also decreased the enzymatic defense system against oxidative stress. However, when this drug was administered in rats given M. vulgare extract, all the biological parameters underwent much less alteration. Administration of M. vulgare extract was found to be beneficial by attenuating cyclophosphamide-induced liver damage. The protective effect of the plant is mainly attributed to its antioxidant properties and the existence of phenolic acids and flavonoids, as highlighted by HPLC-based analysis.

  18. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus

    PubMed Central

    Pensel, P. E.; Maggiore, M. A.; Gende, L. B.; Eguaras, M. J.; Denegri, M. G.; Elissondo, M. C.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus. PMID:25180033

  19. Evidence for a new feminizing Wolbachia strain in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare: evolutionary implications.

    PubMed

    Cordaux, R; Michel-Salzat, A; Frelon-Raimond, M; Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D

    2004-07-01

    Wolbachia are intracellular maternally inherited alpha-Proteobacteria infecting a wide range of arthropods. In the common pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the known Wolbachia strain is responsible for feminization of genetic males. We have investigated Wolbachia diversity in 20 populations of A. vulgare from west and east Europe, north Africa and north America. A new Wolbachia strain (wVulM) was identified through the variability of the wsp gene, distantly related to that previously known (wVulC) in this host species. No individual with multiple infections was detected. Inoculation experiments indicated that the new wVulM bacterial strain also induces feminization in A. vulgare. However, the wVulC strain showed a higher transmission rate than the wVulM strain and was the most geographically widespread Wolbachia in A. vulgare populations. Mitochondrial 16SrDNA gene sequencing was conducted in Wolbachia-infected individuals, revealing the occurrence of four host lineages. The comparison of bacterial strains and their respective host mitochondrial phylogenies failed to show concordance, indicating horizontal transmission of the Wolbachia strains within populations of A. vulgare.

  20. Efficacy of Essential Oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on Echinococcus granulosus.

    PubMed

    Pensel, P E; Maggiore, M A; Gende, L B; Eguaras, M J; Denegri, M G; Elissondo, M C

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to determine the in vitro effect of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils against E. granulosus protoscoleces and cysts. Essential oils were added to the medium resulting in thymol final concentrations of 10 μg/mL. The essential oils had a time-dependent effect provoking the complete loss of protoscolex viability after 72 days of postincubation. The results were confirmed at the ultrastructure level. Loss of infectivity in protoscoleces incubated with O. vulgare after 60 days was observed. On the other hand, the weight of cysts recorded in mice inoculated with T. vulgaris treated protoscoleces was significantly lower than that obtained in control group. Gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase activity was readily detected in the culture supernatant of protoscoleces treated either with the essential oils or thymol. T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils and thymol can induce cell apoptosis of protoscoleces after short incubation times. The efficacy of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils was also demonstrated in vitro on E. granulosus murine cysts. Our data suggest that essential oils of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare have anthelmintic effect against protoscoleces and cysts of E. granulosus.

  1. Insights into mutualism mechanism and versatile metabolism of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare Hbe602 based on comparative genomics and metabolomics studies.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Du, Jin; Pan, Cai-Hui; Tian, Geng; Lang, Ji-Dong; Fang, Jian-Huo; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2016-03-16

    Ketogulonicigenium vulgare has been widely used in vitamin C two steps fermentation and requires companion strain for optimal growth. However, the understanding of K. vulgare as well as its companion strain is still preliminary. Here, the complete genome of K. vulgare Hbe602 was deciphered to provide insight into the symbiosis mechanism and the versatile metabolism. K. vulgare contains the LuxR family proteins, chemokine proteins, flagellar structure proteins, peptides and transporters for symbiosis consortium. Besides, the growth state and metabolite variation of K. vulgare were observed when five carbohydrates (D-sorbitol, L-sorbose, D-glucose, D-fructose and D-mannitol) were used as carbon source. The growth increased by 40.72% and 62.97% respectively when K. vulgare was cultured on D-mannitol/D-sorbitol than on L-sorbose. The insufficient metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and vitamins is the main reason for the slow growth of K. vulgare. The combined analysis of genomics and metabolomics indicated that TCA cycle, amino acid and nucleotide metabolism were significantly up-regulated when K. vulgare was cultured on the D-mannitol/D-sorbitol, which facilitated the better growth. The present study would be helpful to further understand its metabolic structure and guide the engineering transformation.

  2. Cloning and characterization of four B-hordein genes from Tibetan hull-less barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare).

    PubMed

    Han, Zhao-Xue; Qian, Gang; Pan, Zhi-Fen; Deng, Guang-Bing; Wu, Fang; Tang, Ya-Wei; Qiang, Xiao-Lin; Yu, Mao-Qun

    2006-10-01

    Four B-hordein genes, designated BH1-BH4, were cloned using PCR amplification from two hull-less barley cultivars, ZQ7239 and ZQ148, collected from Tibet. The results of sequencing indicated that BH1-BH4 contained complete open reading frames (ORFs). Comparison of their predicted polypeptide sequences with the published sequences suggested that they all share the same basic protein structure. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that the deduced amino-acid sequences of BH1-BH4 genes were more closely related to B-hordeins from cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) than to any other prolamins from wild barley and Aegilops tauschii. Comparison of the coding regions of BH1-BH4 genes showed that BH1 had a lower sequence identity to other previously published B-hordeins than the other three B-hordeins obtained in this study. BH1 was then cloned in a bacterial expression vector based on bacteriophage T7 RNA polymerase. The resulting plasmid produced a 28.15 kDa protein in Escherichia coli. The potential value of B-hordein genes in grain quality improvement of hull-less barley has been discussed.

  3. Supercritical CO₂ extraction of volatile oils from Sardinian Foeniculum vulgare ssp. vulgare (Apiaceae): chemical composition and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Piras, Alessandra; Falconieri, Danilo; Porcedda, Silvia; Marongiu, Bruno; Gonçalves, Maria José; Cavaleiro, Carlos; Salgueiro, Ligia

    2014-01-01

    This article reports the results on the composition and antifungal effect of volatile extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Sardinian wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), by supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and by hydrodistillation (HD). The extracts were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for qualitative composition and gas chromatography-flame ionisation detector to establish the percentage of constituents. The main components were fenchone (7.1% vs. 8.8%), estragole (34.9% vs. 42.6%) and (E)-anethole (24.6% vs. 43.4%) in the SFE and HD extract, respectively. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were measured according to the reference Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) broth macrodilution protocols. Minimum lethal concentrations were determined by subsequent subculturing of the same cell suspensions in solid medium. The essential oil was more active against Candida albicans, whereas the supercritical fluid extract possesses higher activity against Candida guillermondii and Cryptococcus neoformans, with MIC values of 0.32 μL/mL.

  4. Five new secondary metabolites from Monascus purpureus-fermented Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor.

    PubMed

    Ansari, Md Pravej; Puri, Alka; Ali, M; Panda, Bibhu Prasad

    2013-10-01

    Long grains of Hordeum vulgare and Sorghum bicolor were individually fermented with Monascus purpureus MTCC 369 under solid state fermentation. The aqueous extract of Monascus which fermented H. vulgare and S. bicolor was found to contain five different new metabolites. Silica gel column chromatography of the aqueous extract with a linear gradient of ethyl acetate, acetonitrile and carbon tetrachloride (v/v) yielded five new metabolites named benzopranyl capriate (9H-1-isoprenyl-benzopyran-5-isopropanoic acid-6-ol-6-n-decanoate), shorghumoic acid (n-octadec-8,11-dien-7α-ol-1-oic acid) and sorghumflavin A (2-n-butyloxo-6-β-hydroxy-7-β-isoprenyl ankaflavin) from Monascus-fermented S. bicolor, while hordeumflavin B (2-n-undecanyloxo-7-β-isoprenyl ankaflavin) and vulgaredilone (2-dodecanyl-7-β isopranyl monoscodilone) from Monascus-fermented H. vulgare.

  5. [Vertebrate mortality in the Guanare-Guanarito road, Portuguesa state, Venezuela].

    PubMed

    Seijas, Andrés Eloy; Araujo-Quintero, Alexis; Velásquez, Nadines

    2013-12-01

    Roads directly or indirectly affect the structure, dynamics and function of ecosystems that they traverse. Most studies on the effect of roads on wildlife focus on the evaluation of mortality of vertebrates by vehicle collisions. Despite the extensive road network that exists in Venezuela, studies of wildlife mortality in them are scarce. In this paper, we analyzed the temporal and spatial pattern of vertebrate's collisions along the road Guanare-Guanarito, in Portuguesa state. We travelled 26 times between these towns (74 km) to localize dead vertebrates, at a speed of 50-60km/h. of those trips were conducted from March 13 to October 26, 2010, and 10 additional trips from December 7, 2009 to December 14, 2010; these ones, with the aim to include months and seasons that were insufficiently sampled during the first period. The elapsed time between trips varied from 14 to 37 days. The total distance traveled was 1 924 km. Dead animals found amounted 464 individuals, 66 of them were birds (25 identified species), 130 mammals (15 species) and 268 reptiles (18 species). The species with the highest number of individuals were the snake Leptodeira annulata (n=119), the oppossum Didelphis marsupialis (n=39) and the spectacled caiman Caiman crocodilus (n=33). Excluding domestic animals, the rate of road-killed vertebrates was 0.2282 indiv./km, a figure 28.3% higher than previous studies in the same road. Changes in the relative number of collisions for some species, respect to the numbers reported 20 years ago, were linked to the increase in traffic flow and changes in land use. Road segments with collision rates higher than expected by chance were identified. Collition by cars may be the principal cause of mortality for species like the tamandua (Tamandua tetradactyla) and the giant anteater (Myrmecophaga tridactyla), the last considered a vulnerable species. Some basic measures are proposed to reduce wildlife mortality on the road.

  6. Immunomodulatory Activity of Acidic Polysaccharides Isolated from Tanacetum vulgare L

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Gang; Schepetkin, Igor A.; Quinn, Mark T.

    2008-01-01

    Tanacetum vulgare L. (Tansy) has been extensively used in folk medicine for treatment of a variety of medical disorders. In the present study, we isolated and purified four acidic polysaccharide fractions (designated T-I to T-IV) from Tansy florets by the sequential use of hot-water extraction, ethanol precipitation, ultra-filtration, anion-exchange, and size-exclusion chromatography. The average Mr of fractions T-I through T-IV was estimated to be 326, 151, 64 and 9 kDa, respectively, as determined by high performance size-exclusion chromatography analysis. Sugar composition analysis revealed that Tansy polysaccharides consisted primarily of galacturonic acid, galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose. Fractions T-II through T-IV contained an arabinogalactan type II structure, as determined by reaction with Yariv reagent. High Mr fractions T-I and T-II exhibited potent macrophage/monocyte-activating activity, enhancing production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) by J774.A1 murine macrophages, and activating nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) in THP-1 human monocytes. In addition, Tansy polysaccharides stimulated human neutrophil function by greatly enhancing neutrophil myeloperoxidase (MPO) release. Furthermore, the low Mr fraction T-IV had potent complement-fixing activity, which may also contribute to the anti-inflammatory and would-healing properties of Tansy extracts. Taken together, our results provide a molecular basis to explain at least part of the beneficial therapeutic effects of Tansy extracts, and support the concept of using Tansy polysaccharides as an immunotherapeutic adjuvant. PMID:17996673

  7. SIRE1 RETROTRANSPOSONS IN BARLEY (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Cakmak, B; Marakli, S; Gozukirmizi, N

    2015-07-01

    Sireviruses are genera of copia LTR retrotransposons with a unique genome structure among retrotransposons. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an economically important plant. In this study, we used mature barley embryos, 10-day-old roots and 10-day-old leaves derived from the same barley plant to investigate SIRE) retrotransposon movements by Inter-Retrotransposon Amplified Polymorphism (IRAP) technique. We found polymorphism rates between 0-64% among embryos, roots and leaves. Polymorphism rates were detected to be 0-27% among embryos, 8-60% among roots, and 11-50% among leaves. Polymorphisms were observed not only among the parts of different individuals, but also on the parts of the same plant (23-64%). The internal domains of SIRE1 (GAG, ENV and RT) were also analyzed in the embryos, roots and leaves. Analysis of band profiles showed no polymorphism for GAG, however, different band patterns were observed among samples for RT and ENV. The sequencing of SIRE1 GAG, ENV and RT domains revealed 79% similarity for GAG, 96% for ENV and 83% for RT to copia retrotransposons. Comparison between barley retrotransposons and SIRE1 in barley indicated that SIRE1-GAG, ENV and RT might be diverge earlier from barley retrotransposons. SIRE1 sequences were compared with SIRE1 in barley, results showed the closest homologues were SIRE1-ENVand SIRE1-RTsequences, and SIRE1-GAG sequences was a sister group to sequences of Glycine max. This study is the first detailed investigation of SIRE1 in barley genome. The obtained findings are expected to contribute to the comprehension of SIRE1 retrotransposon and its role in barley genome.

  8. Optimization of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid extraction from oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Baranauskaitė, Justė; Jakštas, Valdas; Ivanauskas, Liudas; Kopustinskienė, Dalia M; Drakšienė, Gailutė; Masteikova, Ruta; Bernatonienė, Jurga

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to increase the extraction efficiency of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid from the different species of oregano herbs (Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare spp. hirtum and Origanum vulgare L.). Various extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, heat-reflux, continuous stirring, maceration, percolation) and extraction conditions (different solvent, material:solvent ratio, extraction temperature, extraction time) were used, and the active substances were determined by HPLC. The lowest content of carvacrol, rosmarinic, oleanolic and ursolic acid was obtained by percolation. During heat-reflux extraction, the content of active substances depended on the solvent used: ethanol/non-aqueous solvent (glycerol or propylene glycol) mixture was more effective compared with ethanol alone. The results showed that for each species of oregano the most optimal extraction method should be selected to maximize the content of biologically active substances in the extracts.

  9. Molluscicidal and Mosquitocidal activities of the essential oils of Thymus capitatus Hoff. et Link. and Marrubium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Salama, Maha M; Taher, Eman E; El-Bahy, Mohamed M

    2012-01-01

    Steam distillation of essential oils of aerial parts of Thymus capitatus and Marrubium vulgare L. collected at North cost of Egypt yielded 0.5% and 0.2%, respectively. Results of Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analyses of the two samples identified 96.27% and 90.19% of the total oil composition for T. capitatus and M. vulgare, respectively. The two oil samples appeared dominated by the oxygenated constituents (88.22% for T. capitatus and 57.50% for M. vulgare), composed of phenols, mainly carvacrol (32.98%) and thymol (32.82%) in essential oil of T. capitatus, and thymol (34.55%) in essential oil of M. vulgare. It was evaluated the molluscicidal activity of T. capitatus and M. vulgare essential oils on adult and eggs of Biomphalaria alexandrina as well as their mosquitocidal activity on Culex pipiens. The LC50 and LC90 of T. capitatus essential oil against adult snails was 200 and 400 ppm/3hrs, respectively, while for M. vulgare it was 50 and 100 ppm/3hrs, respectively. Moreover, M. vulgare showed LC100 ovicidal activity at 200 ppm/24 hrs while T. capitatus oil showed no ovicidal activity. It was verified mosquitocidal activity, with LC50 and LC90 of 100 and 200 ppm/12hrs respectively for larvae, and 200 and 400 ppm/12hrs respectively for pupae of C. pipiens.

  10. Genetic dissection of grain beta-glucan and amylose content in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High beta glucan (BG) barleys (Hordeum vulgare L.) have major potential as food ingredients due to the well know health benefits. Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) associated with BG have been reported in hulled barley, however no QTL studies have been reported in hulless barley. In this study, QTL an...

  11. Method for attaining fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) seed oil fractions with different composition and antioxidant capacity

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) is cultivated for its seeds and foliage, which contain essential oil. We hypothesized that the collection of fennel seed oil at different time points during the distillation process may result in fennel oil with distinct composition and bioactivity. We collected ess...

  12. Method for obtaining three products with different properties from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of distillation time (DT; 15-1080 min) on yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seed essential oil (EO) as well as on the yield, composition, and properties of lipids extracted from steam-distilled fenne...

  13. Geography of genetic differentiation in the barley wild relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity require knowledge of the distribution and structure of genetic variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic...

  14. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: A Review of Its Botany, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, Contemporary Application, and Toxicology

    PubMed Central

    Patel, Vainav V.; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H.

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses. PMID:25162032

  15. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; 0, control vs. 500 g/d, OV) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, an...

  16. Salinity impact on yield, water use, mineral and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The experimental study was carried out to determine the effects of salinity on water consumption, plant height, fresh and seed yields, biomass production, ion accumulation and essential oil content of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was conducted with a ...

  17. Foeniculum vulgare Mill: a review of its botany, phytochemistry, pharmacology, contemporary application, and toxicology.

    PubMed

    Badgujar, Shamkant B; Patel, Vainav V; Bandivdekar, Atmaram H

    2014-01-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill commonly called fennel has been used in traditional medicine for a wide range of ailments related to digestive, endocrine, reproductive, and respiratory systems. Additionally, it is also used as a galactagogue agent for lactating mothers. The review aims to gather the fragmented information available in the literature regarding morphology, ethnomedicinal applications, phytochemistry, pharmacology, and toxicology of Foeniculum vulgare. It also compiles available scientific evidence for the ethnobotanical claims and to identify gaps required to be filled by future research. Findings based on their traditional uses and scientific evaluation indicates that Foeniculum vulgare remains to be the most widely used herbal plant. It has been used for more than forty types of disorders. Phytochemical studies have shown the presence of numerous valuable compounds, such as volatile compounds, flavonoids, phenolic compounds, fatty acids, and amino acids. Compiled data indicate their efficacy in several in vitro and in vivo pharmacological properties such as antimicrobial, antiviral, anti-inflammatory, antimutagenic, antinociceptive, antipyretic, antispasmodic, antithrombotic, apoptotic, cardiovascular, chemomodulatory, antitumor, hepatoprotective, hypoglycemic, hypolipidemic, and memory enhancing property. Foeniculum vulgare has emerged as a good source of traditional medicine and it provides a noteworthy basis in pharmaceutical biology for the development/formulation of new drugs and future clinical uses.

  18. Mitochondrial DNA polymorphism, sex ratio distorters and population genetics in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, T; Bouchon, D; Souty-Grosset, C; Raimond, R

    1999-01-01

    Two maternally inherited sex ratio distorters (SRD) impose female-biased sex ratios on the wood louse Armadillidium vulgare by feminizing putative males. These SRD are (i) an intracytoplasmic bacterium of the genus Wolbachia, and (ii) another non-Mendelian element of unknown nature: the f element. Mitochondrial DNA variation was investigated in A. vulgare field populations to trace the evolution of host-SRD relationships and to investigate the effect of SRD on host cytoplasmic polymorphism. The Wolbachia endosymbionts showed no polymorphism in their ITS2 sequence and were associated with two closely related mitochondrial types. This situation probably reflects a single infection event followed by a slight differentiation of mitochondria. There was no association between the f element and a given mitochondrial type, which may confirm the fact that this element can be partially paternally transmitted. The spreading of a maternally inherited SRD in a population should reduce the mitochondrial diversity by a hitchhiking process. In A. vulgare, however, a within-population mtDNA polymorphism was often found, because of the deficient spread of Wolbachia and the partial paternal inheritance of the f element. The analysis of molecular variance indicated that A. vulgare populations are genetically structured, but without isolation by distance. PMID:10430591

  19. The discovery of resistant sources of spring barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and unique greenbug biotypes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schiazphis graminum Ronani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for resistance to greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild...

  20. Contemporary Seasonal and Altitudinal Variations of Leaf Structural Features in Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    KOFIDIS, G.; BOSABALIDIS, A. M.; MOUSTAKAS, M.

    2003-01-01

    The effects of elevation (200, 950 and 1760 m) and season (April–October) on leaf morphological, anatomical, ultrastructural, morphometrical and photosynthetic parameters were studied in Origanum vulgare plants. Observations aimed at the determination of the alterations in leaf structure and function associated with differential growth and adaptation of plants. Raising elevation results in a progressive decrease of plant height. During the growing period, summer plants are taller than spring and autumn plants at all elevations examined. In high‐altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. vulgare), the blade size becomes reduced in June leaves as compared with October leaves, while it does not change remarkably in low‐altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. hirtum). Leaf thickness remains more or less stable during the growing period. Expanded leaves in June and October at 200 m elevation contain dark phenolics only in their epidermis, whereas leaves of August are densely filled with phenolics in all of their tissues. In June at 1760 m elevation, leaves are devoid of phenolics, which, however, occur in the epidermis of the leaves in August and October. At higher altitudes, larger mesophyll chloroplasts with more starch grains are present in June leaves, whereas in August and October leaves chloroplasts are smaller with fewer starch grains. Leaf stomata and non‐glandular hairs increase in number from the lowland to the upland habitats, whereas glandular hairs decrease in number. During the growing season, the density of stomata and of glandular and non‐glandular hairs progressively increases. In the low‐ and mid‐altitude oregano populations, leaf chlorophyll a content and PSII activity significantly increase in October, whereas they simultaneously decrease in the high‐altitude population, suggesting a phenomenon of chilling‐induced photoinhibition. The highest photochemical efficiency of PSII appears in the mid‐altitude population (having

  1. Contemporary seasonal and altitudinal variations of leaf structural features in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Kofidis, G; Bosabalidis, A M; Moustakas, M

    2003-11-01

    The effects of elevation (200, 950 and 1760 m) and season (April-October) on leaf morphological, anatomical, ultrastructural, morphometrical and photosynthetic parameters were studied in Origanum vulgare plants. Observations aimed at the determination of the alterations in leaf structure and function associated with differential growth and adaptation of plants. Raising elevation results in a progressive decrease of plant height. During the growing period, summer plants are taller than spring and autumn plants at all elevations examined. In high-altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. vulgare), the blade size becomes reduced in June leaves as compared with October leaves, while it does not change remarkably in low-altitude populations (O. vulgare ssp. hirtum). Leaf thickness remains more or less stable during the growing period. Expanded leaves in June and October at 200 m elevation contain dark phenolics only in their epidermis, whereas leaves of August are densely filled with phenolics in all of their tissues. In June at 1760 m elevation, leaves are devoid of phenolics, which, however, occur in the epidermis of the leaves in August and October. At higher altitudes, larger mesophyll chloroplasts with more starch grains are present in June leaves, whereas in August and October leaves chloroplasts are smaller with fewer starch grains. Leaf stomata and non-glandular hairs increase in number from the lowland to the upland habitats, whereas glandular hairs decrease in number. During the growing season, the density of stomata and of glandular and non-glandular hairs progressively increases. In the low- and mid-altitude oregano populations, leaf chlorophyll a content and PSII activity significantly increase in October, whereas they simultaneously decrease in the high-altitude population, suggesting a phenomenon of chilling-induced photoinhibition. The highest photochemical efficiency of PSII appears in the mid-altitude population (having characteristics intermediate between

  2. A plate method for rapid screening of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare mutants for enhanced 2-keto-l-gulonic acid production.

    PubMed

    Yang, Weichao; Han, Litao; Mandlaa, Mandlaa; Zhang, Haihong; Zhang, Zhongze; Xu, Hui

    2017-02-21

    A new plate method was developed for rapid screening of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare mutants overproducing 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG). The screening methodology took the advantage of the acidity caused by 2-KLG, which changes the color of bromothymol blue (pH indicator) from blue to yellow. Using the proposed method, a mutant, K. vulgare 65, was selected from 20,000 colonies produced by a strain subjected to spaceflight mutagenesis. When co-cultured with Bacillus megaterium 2980 in 20-L fermenters, K. vulgare 65 showed a high conversion rate (94.45%) of l-sorbose to 2-KLG. In contrast to the traditional screening method, this one significantly improved the frequency of obtaining positive mutants. The proposed plate screening method is cost-effective and easy to run and is thus useful for the isolation and screening of K. vulgare mutants overproducing 2-KLG.

  3. Anti-Inflammatory, Antioxidant, Antibiotic, and Cytotoxic Activities of Tanacetum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Its Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coté, Héloïse; Boucher, Marie-Anne; Pichette, André; Legault, Jean

    2017-05-25

    Background:Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae) is a perennial herb that has been used to treat multiple ailments. Regional variability of the chemical composition of T. vulgare essential oils is well-known. Despite these regional chemotypes, most relevant studies did not analyze the complete chemical composition of the T. vulgare essential oil and its constituents in relation to their biological activities. Here, we assess the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities of T. vulgare collected from northern Quebec (Saguenay-Lac-St-Jean), Canada. Methods: Essential oil was extracted from plants by steam distillation and analyzed using GC-FID. Biological activities of essential oil and its main constituents were evaluated in vitro. Results: We identified the major compounds as camphor, borneol, and 1,8-cineole. The oil possesses anti-inflammatory activity inhibiting NO production. It also inhibits intracellular DCFH oxidation induced by tert-butylhydroperoxide. Anti-inflammatory activity of essential oil appears driven mainly by α-humulene while antioxidant activity is provided by α-pinene and caryophyllene oxide. Essential oil from T vulgare was active against both Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus with camphor and caryophyllene oxide responsible for antibacterial activity. Finally, T. vulgare essential oil was slightly cytotoxic against the human healthy cell line WS1 while α-humulene and caryophyllene oxide were moderately cytotoxic against A-549, DLD-1, and WS1. Conclusion: We report, for the first time, links between the specific compounds found in T. vulgare essential oil and anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antibacterial, and cytotoxic activities. T. vulgare essential oil possesses interesting biological properties.

  4. Mapping and validation of major quantitative trait loci for kernel length in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    PubMed

    Zhou, Hong; Liu, Shihang; Liu, Yujiao; Liu, Yaxi; You, Jing; Deng, Mei; Ma, Jian; Chen, Guangdeng; Wei, Yuming; Liu, Chunji; Zheng, Youliang

    2016-09-13

    Kernel length is an important target trait in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) breeding programs. However, the number of known quantitative trait loci (QTLs) controlling kernel length is limited. In the present study, we aimed to identify major QTLs for kernel length, as well as putative candidate genes that might influence kernel length in wild barley. A recombinant inbred line (RIL) population derived from the barley cultivar Baudin (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and the long-kernel wild barley genotype Awcs276 (H.vulgare ssp. spontaneum) was evaluated at one location over three years. A high-density genetic linkage map was constructed using 1,832 genome-wide diversity array technology (DArT) markers, spanning a total of 927.07 cM with an average interval of approximately 0.49 cM. Two major QTLs for kernel length, LEN-3H and LEN-4H, were detected across environments and further validated in a second RIL population derived from Fleet (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) and Awcs276. In addition, a systematic search of public databases identified four candidate genes and four categories of proteins related to LEN-3H and LEN-4H. This study establishes a fundamental research platform for genomic studies and marker-assisted selection, since LEN-3H and LEN-4H could be used for accelerating progress in barley breeding programs that aim to improve kernel length.

  5. Fatty acids of the seeds of Origanum onites L. and O. vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Azcan, Nezihe; Kara, Mustafa; Demirci, Betül; Başer, K Hüsnü Can

    2004-05-01

    Seed oils of Origanum onites L. from the Antalya and Mugla regions and O. vulgare L. from the Kirklareli region of Turkey were extracted with hexane in a Soxhlet apparatus. The oil yields were 14.1-20.0 and 18.5%, respectively. FA compositions of the seed oils were determined by GC and GC/MS. Twenty FA were identified in both O. onites and O. vulgare seeds. The major FA of both species were linolenic (56.3-57.0%; 61.8%), linoleic (21.5-21.7%; 18.8%), oleic (8.7-8.9%; 5.9%), palmitic (5.9-6.5%; 5.5%), stearic (2.1-2.4%; 2.1%), and (Z)-11-octadecenoic (0.6-0.8%; 0.5%), respectively.

  6. Dataset for transcriptional response of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to drought and subsequent re-watering.

    PubMed

    Kokáš, Filip; Vojta, Petr; Galuszka, Petr

    2016-09-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare) is an economically important species, which can be cultivated in environmentally adverse conditions due to its higher tolerance in contrast to other cereal crops. The draft of H. vulgare genome is available already for couple of years; however its functional annotation is still incomplete. All available databases were searched to expand current annotation. The improved annotation was used to describe processes and genes regulated in transgenic lines showing higher tolerance to drought in our associated article, doi:10.1016/j.nbt.2016.01.010 (Vojta et al., 2016) [1]. Here we present whole transcriptome response, using extended annotation, to severe drought stress and subsequent re-watering in wild-type barley plants in stem elongation phase of growth. Up- and down-regulated genes fall into distinct GO categories and these enriched by stress and revitalization are highlighted. Transcriptomic data were evaluated separately for root and aerial tissues.

  7. Agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic characterisation of Sicilian Origanum vulgare (L.) ecotypes.

    PubMed

    Tuttolomondo, Teresa; Martinelli, Federico; Mariotti, Lorenzo; Leto, Claudio; Maggio, Antonella; La Bella, Salvatore

    2016-01-01

    Although Origanum vulgare (L.) has been deeply analysed at phytochemical level, poor knowledge is available regarding non-volatile compounds such as lipids. The aim of this work was to characterise five wild Sicilian Origanum ecotypes from an agronomic, metabolomic and lipidomic perspective. Serradifalco presented higher dry weight and inflorescences/plant than the others while Favara had a significantly higher number of branches per plant and more extensive flowered stratum. Metabolomic analysis, performed with LC-MS-TOF, allowed a preliminary characterisation of the non-volatile metabolome of the five oregano ecotypes Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum. Twenty-five metabolites were identified belonging to organic acids, amino acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, carnithines, nucleic bases and lysophosphatidylethanolamines. Lipidomic analysis identified 115 polar plant membrane glycerolipid species. Thirteen of them were differentially present in the two chosen ecotypes. The role of these metabolites in plant physiology from a qualitative and pharmacological point of view was discussed.

  8. Comparison of the volatile composition of wild fennel samples (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) from central Spain.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad; Esteban, Joaquín; Sanz, Jesús

    2006-09-06

    Comparison of the volatile composition of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) has been carried out using direct thermal desorption (DTD) coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Forty-two wild fennel stem samples were collected in two different geographical areas of Central Spain. DTD allowed a high recovery of volatiles from small sample sizes without thermal decomposition. trans-Anethole was the main volatile compound for most cases, although a high variability was found among samples, showing clear phytochemical differences.

  9. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., “symbiotic” animals) and uninfected ones (i.e., “asymbiotic” animals) as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Results Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen). Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. Conclusion This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host immunity when females are

  10. The mis-identification of the major antioxidant flavonoids in young barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    PubMed

    Markham, Kenneth R; Mitchell, Kevin A

    2003-01-01

    Several papers have appeared in the literature since 1992 which refer to a major "isoflavonoid" antioxidant in young green barley leaves (Hordeum vulgare) as 2''-O-glucosylisovitexin. In the present paper the original NMR data supporting this structural assignment are examined and found to have been misinterpreted. HPLC and NMR data are used to prove that the major flavonoid antioxidants in young green barley leaves are in fact the flavone-C-glycosides, saponarin and lutonarin.

  11. Feminizing Wolbachia: a transcriptomics approach with insights on the immune response genes in Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Chevalier, Frédéric; Herbinière-Gaboreau, Juline; Charif, Delphine; Mitta, Guillaume; Gavory, Frédéric; Wincker, Patrick; Grève, Pierre; Braquart-Varnier, Christine; Bouchon, Didier

    2012-01-18

    Wolbachia are vertically transmitted bacteria known to be the most widespread endosymbiont in arthropods. They induce various alterations of the reproduction of their host, including feminization of genetic males in isopod crustaceans. In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare, the presence of Wolbachia is also associated with detrimental effects on host fertility and lifespan. Deleterious effects have been demonstrated on hemocyte density, phenoloxidase activity, and natural hemolymph septicemia, suggesting that infected individuals could have defective immune capacities. Since nothing is known about the molecular mechanisms involved in Wolbachia-A. vulgare interactions and its secondary immunocompetence modulation, we developed a transcriptomics strategy and compared A. vulgare gene expression between Wolbachia-infected animals (i.e., "symbiotic" animals) and uninfected ones (i.e., "asymbiotic" animals) as well as between animals challenged or not challenged by a pathogenic bacteria. Since very little genetic data is available on A. vulgare, we produced several EST libraries and generated a total of 28 606 ESTs. Analyses of these ESTs revealed that immune processes were over-represented in most experimental conditions (responses to a symbiont and to a pathogen). Considering canonical crustacean immune pathways, these genes encode antimicrobial peptides or are involved in pathogen recognition, detoxification, and autophagy. By RT-qPCR, we demonstrated a general trend towards gene under-expression in symbiotic whole animals and ovaries whereas the same gene set tends to be over-expressed in symbiotic immune tissues. This study allowed us to generate the first reference transcriptome ever obtained in the Isopoda group and to identify genes involved in the major known crustacean immune pathways encompassing cellular and humoral responses. Expression of immune-related genes revealed a modulation of host immunity when females are infected by Wolbachia, including in ovaries

  12. Diuretic activity of the aqueous extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Lahlou, Sanaa; Tahraoui, Adil; Israili, Zafar; Lyoussi, Badiaâ

    2007-04-04

    In the Moroccan traditional medicine, the ripe fruits of Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare L. (Asteraceae/Compositae), two widely available plant materials, are used as diuretics. Since, the diuretic activity of these substances has not been investigated in scientifically controlled studies, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the diuretic potential of aqueous extracts of Carum carvi fruit (caraway) and the leaves of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) in normal rats after acute and sub-chronic oral administration. Water extracts of Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare (100 mg/kg) or the reference drug, furosemide (10 mg/kg) were administrated orally to male Wistar rats and their urine output was quantitated at several intervals of time after the dose. After single doses of the extracts of both caraway seeds and tansy leaves, urine output was significantly increased at all time points, and at 24 h after the dose, the total volume of urine excreted was similar for the plant extracts and furosemide. Both extracts increased urinary levels of Na(+) and K(+), to about the same extent, while furosemide increased urinary levels of only Na(+) and decreased urinary K(+). Despite changes in urinary excretion of the electrolytes, plasma Na(+) and K(+) levels were not affected by any of the three substances. In the 8-day sub-chronic study, all three substances induced significant diuresis and natriuresis; only tansy increased urinary potassium excretion. The plant extracts did not appear to have renal toxicity or any other adverse effects during the study period. In conclusion, water extracts of both Carum carvi and Tanacetum vulgare have strong diuretic action confirming their ethnopharmacological use. From the pattern of excretion of water, sodium and potassium, it may be deduced that there are atleast two types of active principals present in these extracts, one having a furosemide-like activity and the other a thiazide-like activity.

  13. Adaptive variation in offspring size in the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Brody, M.S.; Lawlor, L.R.

    1984-01-01

    Variation in the birth size of offspring of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was observed in laboratory experiments and in field populations. In the laboratory, larger offspring were produced when the mother's food supply was reduced. In field populations, larger offspring were produced during the summer, a period of reduced food availability. Smaller offspring are produced in the spring, when food is readily available. Females may be making larger young to increase survival during the more severe conditions of the summer breeding period.

  14. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Results Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Conclusions Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid. PMID:24731599

  15. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (phylum Apicomplexa).

    PubMed

    Drăgan, Liviu; Györke, Adriana; Ferreira, Jorge F S; Pop, Ioan A; Dunca, Ioan; Drăgan, Maria; Mircean, Viorica; Dan, Iosif; Cozma, Vasile

    2014-04-15

    Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were established: negative control (untreated, unchallenged); positive control (untreated, challenged); a group medicated with 125 ppm lasalocid and challenged; a group medicated with A. annua leaf powder at 1.5% in feed and challenged; and a group treated with the mixed oils of A. annua and Foeniculum vulgare in equal parts, 7.5% in water and challenged. The effects of A. annua and oil extract of A. annua + F. vulgare on E. tenella infection were assessed by clinical signs, mortality, fecal oocyst output, faeces, lesion score, weight gain, and feed conversion. Clinical signs were noticed only in three chickens from the lasalocid group, six from the A. annua group, and nine from the A. annua + F. vulgare group, but were present in 19 infected chickens from the positive control group. Bloody diarrhea was registered in only two chickens from A. annua group, but in 17 chickens from the positive control group. Mortality also occurred in the positive control group (7/20). Chickens treated with A. annua had a significant reduction in faecal oocysts (95.6%; P = 0.027) and in lesion score (56.3%; P = 0.005) when compared to the positive control. At the end of experiment, chickens treated with A. annua leaf powder had the highest body weight gain (68.2 g/day), after the negative control group, and the best feed conversion (1.85) among all experimental groups. Our results suggest that A. annua leaf powder (Aa-p), at 1.5% of the daily diet post-infection, can be a valuable alternative for synthetic coccidiostats, such as lasalocid.

  16. The role of Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda: Oniscidea) in litter decomposition and soil organic matter stabilization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spalodova, Alexandra; Frouz, Jan

    2015-04-01

    Armadilidum vulgare is common terrestrial isopod in Europe which is also important invasive species in North America. In ienvasive range it can reach densities up to 10 000 individuals per m square, consume all litter fall and substantially effect litter mineralisation and nutrient release. Here we are focusing on the effects of A. vulgare feeding on organic matter decomposition and stabilization. During 65 weeks laboratory experiment we observed the microbial activity of intact leaf litter (Acer pseudoplatanus), faecal pellets of terrestrial isopods (Armadillidium vulgare) produced from the same litter and unconsumed residues of this litter. Simultaneously we compared the response of microbial activity of excrements and litter to changes of humidity, temperature and addition of easily decomposable substances. Microbial respiration of faecal pellets was lower than microbial respiration of intact leaf litter or unconsumed litter residues. At the same time moisture and temperature fluctuations and addition of easily decomposable substances led to much higher increase in respiration in litter than in faecal pellets. As a conclusion, processing of litter by soil macrofauna slowed down microbial respiration and made it less sensitive to environmental fluctuation. 13C NMR spectra from excrements indicated preferential loss of polysaccharide-carbon and accumulation of lignin with some modification to the O-aromatic-C. Thermochemolysis showed that not only amount of lignin increased in litter but also its quality changed. Guaiacyl units were depleted, which indicate breakdown of guaiacyl associated with gut passage.

  17. Leucanthemum vulgare lam. germination, growth and mycorrhizal symbiosis under crude oil contamination.

    PubMed

    Noori, Azam Sadat; Maivan, Hassan Zare; Alaie, Ebrahim

    2014-01-01

    Oil contamination of soil limits plants' access to water and nutrients. Leucanthemum vulgare colonized by mycorrhizae could provide an effective tool in remedying oil contamination. Seeds of L. vulgare were planted in pots containing soil mixed with petroleum at 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5, and 10% w/w and propagules of mycorrhizal fungi. Plants were grown under ambient conditions for 16 weeks. Seed germination data were collected weekly for three weeks. Mycorrhizal percentage, spore counts, length and weight of roots and shoots were determined after harvesting. Results showed significant differences in seed germination rates between oil-treated, mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal plants. The overall germination rate was greater at 7.5% w/w crude oil contamination (p = 0.05) in mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal pots with significant differences between their respective Root:Shoot ratios (both length and weight). Results of this research showed L. vulgare could be germinated and grown in crude oil contaminated soils and could be used to augment plant establishment as part of phytoremediation practices.

  18. Hepatoprotective effect of Origanum vulgare in Wistar rats against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Sikander, Mohammad; Malik, Shabnam; Parveen, Kehkashan; Ahmad, Maqsood; Yadav, Deepak; Hafeez, Zubair Bin; Bansal, Manish

    2013-04-01

    The effect of an aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare (OV) leaves extract on CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity was investigated in normal and hepatotoxic rats. To evaluate the hepatoprotective activity of OV, rats were divided into six groups: control group, O. vulgare group, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4; 2 ml/kg body weight) group, and three treatment groups that received CCl4 and OV at doses of 50, 100, 150 mg/kg body weight orally for 15 days. Alanine amino transferase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and aspartate amino transferase (AST) in serum, lipid peroxide (LPO), GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH in liver tissue were estimated to assess liver function. CCl4 administration led to pathological and biochemical evidence of liver injury as compared to controls. OV administration led to significant protection against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in dose-dependent manner, maximum activity was found in CCl4 + OV3 (150 mg/kg body weight) groups and changes in the hepatocytes were confirmed through histopathological analysis of liver tissues. It was also associated with significantly lower serum ALT, ALP, and AST levels, higher GST, CAT, SOD, GPx, GR, and GSH level in liver tissue. The level of LPO also decreases significantly after the administration of OV leaves extract. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Thus, the study suggests O. vulgare showed protective activity against CCl4-induced hepatotoxicity in Wistar rats and might be beneficial for the liver toxicity.

  19. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan.

    PubMed

    Thormann, Imke; Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M M; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

  20. Effect of lixiviated sediments affected with treated water on Selenastrum capricornutum, Printz and Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Ramos, Guadalupe E; Lopez, Martin H; Flores, Antonio M; Figueroa, Guadalupe T; De Leon, Fernando G

    2010-01-01

    Xochimilco is an area of Mexico City fulfilling important ecological functions. However, the water of the canal network in the lacustrine zone of Xochimilco is supplied by the water treatment plants of the city, implying a risk of accumulated contaminants in the sediments. This study reports the effect of lixiviates obtained from sediments collected in the canals of Xochimilco on the growth of the alga Selenastrum capricornutum and the angiosperm Origanum vulgare. Three factors were tested: (a) water source in terms of the effluent from the two water treatment plants (urban waste-water, located at Cerro de la Estrella (CE) and urban-rural waters at San Luis Tlaxialtemalco (SLT); (b) sampling season (January, dry season; May and September, rainy season; and (c) distances from the water discharge point in the Xochimilco's main canal (5200 and 1000 m for CE, and 0, 200 m for SLT). The chemical water properties analyzed were: pH, electrical conductivity, N-NO(3), N-NH(3), N(Total), P-PO(4) and P(Total). The alga was more sensitive to the contaminants than O. vulgare, showing growth inhibition of 93-100%. The effect of sampling season on the inhibition of algal growth was ordered as follows: September > May > January. Lixiviates obtained from sediment samples 200 and 1000 m from the main point of water discharge caused a higher algal growth inhibition than the samples obtained at the source point. Lixiviate promoted the growth of seedlings of O. vulgare.

  1. Geography of Genetic Structure in Barley Wild Relative Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan

    PubMed Central

    Reeves, Patrick; Reilley, Ann; Engels, Johannes M. M.; Lohwasser, Ulrike; Börner, Andreas; Pillen, Klaus; Richards, Christopher M.

    2016-01-01

    Informed collecting, conservation, monitoring and utilization of genetic diversity requires knowledge of the distribution and structure of the variation occurring in a species. Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) Thell., a primary wild relative of barley, is an important source of genetic diversity for barley improvement and co-occurs with the domesticate within the center of origin. We studied the current distribution of genetic diversity and population structure in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum in Jordan and investigated whether it is correlated with either spatial or climatic variation inferred from publically available climate layers commonly used in conservation and ecogeographical studies. The genetic structure of 32 populations collected in 2012 was analyzed with 37 SSRs. Three distinct genetic clusters were identified. Populations were characterized by admixture and high allelic richness, and genetic diversity was concentrated in the northern part of the study area. Genetic structure, spatial location and climate were not correlated. This may point out a limitation in using large scale climatic data layers to predict genetic diversity, especially as it is applied to regional genetic resources collections in H. vulgare subsp. spontaneum. PMID:27513459

  2. Antioxidant capacity of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. extracts.

    PubMed

    Kaurinovic, Biljana; Popovic, Mira; Vlaisavljevic, Sanja; Trivic, Svetlana

    2011-08-30

    The antioxidant properties of five different extracts (Et₂O, CHCl₃, EtOAc, n-BuOH, and H₂O) of Ocimum basilicum L. and Origanum vulgare L. were studied. Antioxidant activity was assessed in six different model systems. Free radical scavenging capacity (RSC) was evaluated by measuring the scavenging capacity of extracts on DPPH, NO, O₂•⁻ and OH radical, as well as on hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). In addition, the protective effects on lipid peroxidation in liposomes (LPx) were evaluated by TBA-assay using the Fe²⁺/ascorbate induction system. The amount of total phenolic compounds and content of total flavonoids was also determined. EtOAc, n-BuOH and H₂O extracts of O. basilicum and O. vulgare expressed very strong scavenger activity. Furthermore, the mentioned extracts showed notable inhibition of LPx. On the other hand, Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed much weaker effect in the neutralization of DPPH, NO and O₂•⁻ radicals and the neutralization of H₂O₂. When examining the production of OH radicals and inhibition of LPx, the Et₂O and CHCl₃ extracts showed weak prooxidative properties. The observed differences in antioxidant activity could be partially explained by the levels of phenolics and flavonoids in the investigated O. basilicum and O. vulgare extracts.

  3. Insect herbivory and propagule pressure influence Cirsium vulgare invasiveness across the landscape.

    PubMed

    Eckberg, James O; Tenhumberg, Brigitte; Louda, Svata M

    2012-08-01

    A current challenge in ecology is to better understand the magnitude, variation, and interaction in the factors that limit the invasiveness of exotic species. We conducted a factorial experiment involving herbivore manipulation (insecticide-in-water vs. water-only control) and seven densities of introduced nonnative Cirsium vulgare (bull thistle) seed. The experiment was repeated with two seed cohorts at eight grassland sites uninvaded by C. vulgare in the central Great Plains, USA. Herbivory by native insects significantly reduced thistle seedling density, causing the largest reductions in density at the highest propagule inputs. The magnitude of this herbivore effect varied widely among sites and between cohort years. The combination of herbivory and lower propagule pressure increased the rate at which new C. vulgare populations failed to establish during the initial stages of invasion. This experiment demonstrates that the interaction between biotic resistance by native insects, propagule pressure, and spatiotemporal variation in their effects were crucial to the initial invasion by this Eurasian plant in the western tallgrass prairie.

  4. Multi-Infections of Feminizing Wolbachia Strains in Natural Populations of the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Valette, Victorien; Bitome Essono, Paul-Yannick; Le Clec’h, Winka; Johnson, Monique; Bech, Nicolas; Grandjean, Frédéric

    2013-01-01

    Maternally inherited Wolbachia (α-Proteobacteria) are widespread parasitic reproductive manipulators. A growing number of studies have described the presence of different Wolbachia strains within a same host. To date, no naturally occurring multiple infections have been recorded in terrestrial isopods. This is true for Armadillidium vulgare which is known to harbor non simultaneously three Wolbachia strains. Traditionally, such Wolbachia are detected by PCR amplification of the wsp gene and strains are characterized by sequencing. The presence of nucleotide deletions or insertions within the wsp gene, among these three different strains, provides the opportunity to test a novel genotyping method. Herein, we designed a new primer pair able to amplify products whose lengths are specific to each Wolbachia strain so as to detect the presence of multi-infections in A. vulgare. Experimental injections of Wolbachia strains in Wolbachia-free females were used to validate the methodology. We re-investigated, using this novel method, the infection status of 40 females sampled in 2003 and previously described as mono-infected based on the classical sequencing method. Among these females, 29 were identified as bi-infected. It is the first time that naturally occuring multiple infections of Wolbachia are detected within an individual A. vulgare host. Additionally, we resampled 6 of these populations in 2010 to check the infection status of females. PMID:24324814

  5. Biosynthesis of stable iron oxide nanoparticles in aqueous extracts of Hordeum vulgare and Rumex acetosa plants.

    PubMed

    Makarov, Valentin V; Makarova, Svetlana S; Love, Andrew J; Sinitsyna, Olga V; Dudnik, Anna O; Yaminsky, Igor V; Taliansky, Michael E; Kalinina, Natalia O

    2014-05-27

    We report the synthesis and characterization of amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles from iron salts in aqueous extracts of monocotyledonous (Hordeum vulgare) and dicotyledonous (Rumex acetosa) plants. The nanoparticles were characterized by TEM, absorbance spectroscopy, SAED, EELS, XPS, and DLS methods and were shown to contain mainly iron oxide and iron oxohydroxide. H. vulgare extracts produced amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles with diameters of up to 30 nm. These iron nanoparticles are intrinsically unstable and prone to aggregation; however, we rendered them stable in the long term by addition of 40 mM citrate buffer pH 3.0. In contrast, amorphous iron oxide nanoparticles (diameters of 10-40 nm) produced using R. acetosa extracts are highly stable. The total protein content and antioxidant capacity are similar for both extracts, but pH values differ (H. vulgare pH 5.8 vs R. acetosa pH 3.7). We suggest that the presence of organic acids (such oxalic or citric acids) plays an important role in the stabilization of iron nanoparticles, and that plants containing such constituents may be more efficacious for the green synthesis of iron nanoparticles.

  6. Screening, Purification and Characterization of Anionic Antimicrobial Proteins from Foeniculum Vulgare.

    PubMed

    Al Akeel, Raid; Mateen, Ayesha; Syed, Rabbani; Alyousef, Abdullah A; Shaik, Mohammed Rafi

    2017-04-08

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill., commonly called fennel, is a medicinal plant belonging to the Umbelliferae (Apiaceae) family, and is used in traditional medicine. Antibacterial peptides were isolated using sodium phosphate citrate buffer and, for extraction, cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB) buffer with pH 6, have been employed and antimicrobial activity tested against four reference strains. The extracted protein was subjected to 3 kDa dialysis and separation was carried out by DEAE-ion exchange chromatography and further proteins were identified by 2D gel electrophoresis. The results of Foeniculum vulgare elutes obtained from DEAE-ion exchange chromatography were tested for antibacterial activity. Elute 3 shows the highest antibacterial activity on Pseudomonas aeruginosa with a diameter of a zone of inhibition of 16 mm and IC50 value 25.02 (mcg/mL). Based on the findings of the wide usage in treatment of various ailments and day-to-day life, Foeniculum vulgare seeds were used in the present research and have shown promising antibacterial effects, which requires further proteomic research to authenticate the role of the anticipated proteins.

  7. Antinociceptive synergistic interaction between Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract encapsulated in liposome in rat.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh-Kiabi, Farshad; Negahdari, Babak

    2017-07-18

    This study aims to evaluate the antinociceptive effect of combined Achillea millefolium and Origanum extract encapsulated in liposome. The effect of Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract, and their liposome-incorporated form was assessed using 3% formalin test in rat. 12 male Wistar rats, 4 in each group, were used in this study, and increasing doses of Achillea millefolium (31.6, 100, 178, and 316 mg/kg) and Origanum vulgare L. extract (5.6, 10, 17.8, and 31.6 mg/kg), and co-administered extract were i.p. administered 10 min before 3% formalin. The mechanisms of action were evaluated for the liposomal encapsulated co-administered extract using N(G)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) (3 mg/kg) and naloxone (1 mg/kg). The interaction index and isobolographic analysis revealed a synergistic effect of the extracts. We observed a lower experimental ED30 as compared to the theoretical ED30. Naloxone also reduced the antinociceptive effect of the liposome encapsulated co-administered extract. These data suggest that the Achillea millefolium and Origanum vulgare L. extract encapsulated in liposome gave a synergistic effect.

  8. Using elevated CO2 to increase the biomass of a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. and to trigger hyperaccumulation of cesium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Huibin; Tang, Shirong; Zhang, Ximei; Guo, Junkang; Song, Zhengguo; Tian, Shuai; Smith, Donald L

    2009-10-30

    The most important challenge to use phytoremediation is how to improve its efficiency by increasing the accumulation of metals in plants, or by improving key plant biological traits that should enhance metal uptake. In this paper, we used open-top chambers to investigate the effects of elevated CO2 (860 microL L(-1)) on biomass and Cs uptake by a Sorghum vulgare x Sorghum vulgare var. sudanense hybrid and Trifolium pratense L. growing on soils spiked with various levels of cesium (0, 300, 1500 and 3000 mg Cs kg(-1)). The results showed that elevated CO2 not only increased aboveground biomass of the Sorghum and Trifolium species by 32-111%, and by 8-11%, respectively, compared to the ambient CO2 treatment, but also caused more accumulation of Cs by Sorghum species (up to 73%) than Trifolium species (up to 43%). It was speculated that the increase in biomass and the improvement in Cs accumulation ability at elevated CO2 could be related to lowered soil pH values, and changes in number and kind of microorganisms in the rhizospheres of the two tested species. This is the first report of a link among elevated CO2, increased biomass and hyperaccumulation of Cs by Sorghum and Trifolium species.

  9. Binary and Tertiary Mixtures of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils as Potent Antimicrobial Agents Against Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Natasa; Orcic, Dejan; Franciskovic, Marina; Knezevic, Petar; Beara, Ivana; Aleksic, Verica; Svircev, Emilija; Buzas, Krisztina; Mimica-Dukic, Neda

    2016-03-01

    Essential oils possess strong antimicrobial activity, even against multiresistant Helicobacter pylori. Available therapies against H. pylori infection have multiple disadvantages, indicating a great need for a development of new therapeutics. The purpose of this study was to develop a potent natural product based anti-H. pylori formulation. First, anti-H. pylori activity of nine essential oils was determined, after which the most active oils were mixed in various ratios for further testing. Satureja hortensis, Origanum vulgare subsp. vulgare and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils expressed the highest activity (MIC = 2 μL mL(-1)). Their binary and ternary mixtures exhibited notably higher antimicrobial activity (MIC ≤ 2 μL mL(-1)). The most active was the mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum oils in volume ratio 2:1, which expressed 4 times higher activity than individual oils (MIC = 0.5 μL mL(-1)). According to GC-MS, both oils in the mixture were characterized by high content of phenols (48-73%), with carvacrol as the main carrier of antimicrobial activity. Presented in vitro study pointed out binary mixture of S. hortensis and O. vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils in volume ratio 2:1 as promising candidate for further in vivo studies targeting H. pylori infection. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Terpene synthases of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and their roles in the pathway and regulation of terpene biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Crocoll, Christoph; Asbach, Julia; Novak, Johannes; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Degenhardt, Jörg

    2010-08-01

    The aroma, flavor and pharmaceutical value of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) is a consequence of its essential oil which consists mostly of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. To investigate the biosynthetic pathway to oregano terpenes and its regulation, we identified and characterized seven terpene synthases, key enzymes of terpene biosynthesis, from two cultivars of O. vulgare. Heterologous expression of these enzymes showed that each forms multiple mono- or sesquiterpene products and together they are responsible for the direct production of almost all terpenes found in O. vulgare essential oil. The correlation of essential oil composition with relative and absolute terpene synthase transcript concentrations in different lines of O. vulgare demonstrated that monoterpene synthase activity is predominantly regulated on the level of transcription and that the phenolic monoterpene alcohol thymol is derived from gamma-terpinene, a product of a single monoterpene synthase. The combination of heterologously-expressed terpene synthases for in vitro assays resulted in blends of mono- and sesquiterpene products that strongly resemble those found in vivo, indicating that terpene synthase expression levels directly control the composition of the essential oil. These results will facilitate metabolic engineering and directed breeding of O. vulgare cultivars with higher quantity of essential oil and improved oil composition.

  11. Chloroplast and Mitochondrial DNA Variation in HORDEUM VULGARE and HORDEUM SPONTANEUM

    PubMed Central

    Holwerda, Barry C.; Jana, Sakti; Crosby, William L.

    1986-01-01

    A survey of restriction fragment polymorphism in Hordeum vulgare and Hordeum spontaneum was made using 17 and 16 hexanucleotide restriction endonucleases on chloroplast (cp) and mitochondrial (mt) DNA, respectively. The plant accessions originated from various places throughout the Fertile Cresent and Mediterranean. The types of changes in cpDNA consisted of nucleotide substitutions and insertions and deletions on the order of 100 base pairs. In contrast, mtDNA has most likely undergone larger insertions and deletions of up to 20 kilobase pairs in addition to rearrangements. Grouping of mtDNA fragment data showed that in some cases geographical affinities existed between the two species, whereas in others there were no clear affinities. Nucleotide diversity estimates derived from the restriction fragment data were used in a number of comparisons of variability. Comparisons of overall mtDNA variability (nucleotide diversity = 9.68 x 10-4) with cpDNA variability (nucleotide diversity = 6.38 x 10-4 ) indicated that the former are somewhat more variable. Furthermore, there was no indication that the wild H. spontaneum (cpDNA diversity = 5.57 x 10-4; mtDNA diversity = 6.04 x 10 -4) was more variable than the land races of H. vulgare (cpDNA diversity = 5.88 x 10-4; mtDNA diversity = 9.79 x 10-4). In fact, on the basis of mtDNA diversity, H. vulgare was the more variable species. Comparison of organelle nucleotide diversity estimates with an estimate of nuclear nucleotide diversity derived from existing isozyme data provided evidence that both organelle genomes are evolving at a slower rate than the nuclear genome. PMID:17246361

  12. Histological study of some Echium vulgare, Pulmonaria officinalis and Symphytum officinale populations.

    PubMed

    Papp, Nóra; Bencsik, Tímea; Németh, Kitti; Gyergyák, Kinga; Sulc, Alexandra; Farkas, Agnes

    2011-10-01

    Plants living in different ecological habitats can show significant variability in their histological and phytochemical characters. The main histological features of various populations of three medicinal plants from the Boraginaceae family were studied. Stems, petioles and leaves were investigated by light microscopy in vertical and transverse sections. The outline of the epidermal cells, as well as the shape and cell number of trichomes was studied in leaf surface casts. Differences were measured among the populations of Echium vulgare in the width and height of epidermis cells in the stem, petiole and leaf, as well as in the size of palisade cells in the leaves. Among the populations of Pulmonaria officinalis significant differences were found in the length of trichomes and in the slightly or strongly wavy outline of epidermal radial cell walls. Populations of Symphytum officinale showed variance in the height of epidermal cells in leaves and stems, length of palisade cells and number of intercellular spaces in leaves, and the size of the central cavity in the stem. Boraginaceae bristles were found to be longer in plants in windy/shady habitats as opposed to sunny habitats, both in the leaves and stems ofP. officinalis and S. officinale, which might be connected to varying levels of exposure to wind. Longer epidermal cells were detected in the leaves and stems of both E. vulgare and S. officinale plants living in shady habitats, compared with shorter cells in sunny habitats. Leaf mesophyll cells were shorter in shady habitats as opposed to longer cells in sunny habitats, both in E. vulgare and S. officinale. This combination of histological characters may contribute to the plant's adaptation to various amounts of sunshine. The reported data prove the polymorphism of the studied taxa, as well as their ability to adapt to various ecological circumstances.

  13. In vitro activity of origanum vulgare essential oil against candida species

    PubMed Central

    Cleff, Marlete Brum; Meinerz, Ana Raquel; Xavier, Melissa; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Schuch, Luiz Filipe; Araújo Meireles, Mário Carlos; Alves Rodrigues, Maria Regina; de Mello, João Roberto Braga

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the in vitro activity of the essential oil extracted from Origanum vulgare against sixteen Candida species isolates. Standard strains tested comprised C. albicans (ATCC strains 44858, 4053, 18804 and 3691), C. parapsilosis (ATCC 22019), C. krusei (ATCC 34135), C. lusitaniae (ATCC 34449) and C. dubliniensis (ATCC MY646). Six Candida albicans isolates from the vaginal mucous membrane of female dogs, one isolate from the cutaneous tegument of a dog and one isolate of a capuchin monkey were tested in parallel. A broth microdilution technique (CLSI) was used, and the inoculum concentration was adjusted to 5 x 106 CFU mL-1. The essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger apparatus and analyzed by gas chromatography. Susceptibility was expressed as Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Fungicidal Concentration (MFC). All isolates tested in vitro were sensitive to O. vulgare essential oil. The chromatographic analysis revealed that the main compounds present in the essential oil were 4-terpineol (47.95%), carvacrol (9.42%), thymol (8.42%) and □-terpineol (7.57%). C. albicans isolates obtained from animal mucous membranes exhibited MIC and MFC values of 2.72 μL mL-1 and 5 μL mL-1, respectively. MIC and MFC values for C. albicans standard strains were 2.97 μL mL-1 and 3.54 μL mL-1, respectively. The MIC and MFC for non-albicans species were 2.10 μL mL-1 and 2.97 μL mL-1, respectively. The antifungal activity of O. vulgare essential oil against Candida spp. observed in vitro suggests its administration may represent an alternative treatment for candidiasis. PMID:24031471

  14. Silica Biominerals (Phytolith) Compound of Cultured Barley Plants (Hordeum Vulgare L.)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pamirsky, I. E.; Klykov, A. G.; Murugova, G. A.; Golokhvast, K. S.

    2017-08-01

    The comparative analysis results of the morphological and chemical composition of biomineral elements (phytolith) of cultured barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) have been presented for the first time. On the example of the biserial “Pacific” variety related to var. nutans and line 342 (var. nigricans). The optical microscopy method has been used to identify 4 morphotypes of fossil plants. The distinctive sitespecific signs were established, manifested in the size multiblade fossil plants and the presence of a disc-shaped fossil plants from one variety not only in the ear, but in the stalk.

  15. Genetic relatedness and population differentiation of Himalayan hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces inferred with SSRs.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Madhav; Wagner, Carola; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2006-08-01

    A set of 107 hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. vulgare) landraces originally collected from the highlands of Nepal along the Annapurna and Manaslu Himalaya range were studied for genetic relatedness and population differentiation using simple sequence repeats (SSRs). The 44 genome covering barley SSRs applied in this study revealed a high level of genetic diversity among the landraces (diversity index, DI = 0.536) tested. The genetic similarity (GS) based UPGMA clustering and Bayesian Model-based (MB) structure analysis revealed a complex genetic structure of the landraces. Eight genetically distinct populations were identified, of which seven were further studied for diversity and differentiation. The genetic diversity estimated for all and each population separately revealed a hot spot of genetic diversity at Pisang (DI = 0.559). The populations are fairly differentiated (theta = 0.433, R(ST) = 0.445) accounting for > 40% of the genetic variation among the populations. The pairwise population differentiation test confirmed that many of the geographic populations significantly differ from each other but that the differentiation is independent of the geographic distance (r = 0.224, P > 0.05). The high level of genetic diversity and complex population structure detected in Himalayan hulless barley landraces and the relevance of the findings are discussed.

  16. Indigenous plasmids of Bacillus megaterium WSH-002 involved in mutualism with Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH-001.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jingwen; Zheng, Qiaoshuang; Liu, Jie; Du, Guocheng; Chen, Jian

    2013-09-01

    In the two-step vitamin C fermentation process, the precursor 2-keto-l-gulonic acid (2-KLG) was synthesized using a mixed culture of Ketogulonicigenium vulgare WSH-001 and Bacillus megaterium WSH-002, which contained three plasmids, pBME1, pBME2 and pBME3. The cell growth of B. megaterium was not affected by the elimination of these plasmids. However, elimination of pBME2 and pBME3 significantly affected l-sorbose uptake and 2-KLG production. Sequence analysis of the plasmids showed that many of the pBME2 and pBME3 genes were of unknown function or could not be assigned to a specific metabolic pathway. The current work showed that the indigenous plasmids pBME2 and pBME3 of B. megaterium WSH-002 involved in mutualism with K. vulgare WSH-001. The results provided a promising new route to further demonstrate the mutualism process between the two bacteria.

  17. Antimycobacterial activity of constituents from Foeniculum vulgare var. dulce grown in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Esquivel-Ferriño, Patricia C; Favela-Hernández, Juan Manuel J; Garza-González, Elvira; Waksman, Noemí; Ríos, María Yolanda; del Rayo Camacho-Corona, María

    2012-07-13

    Bioassay guided fractionation of an antimycobacterial extract of Foeniculum vulgare var dulce (Apiaceae) led to the isolation and characterization of 5-hydroxyfurano-coumarin. The chemical structure of this compound was elucidated by 1H and 13C (1D and 2D) Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. In addition, the active fractions were analyzed by GC-MS and seventy eight compounds were identified; the major compounds were 1,3-benzenediol, 1-methoxycyclohexene, o-cymene, sorbic acid, 2-hydroxy-3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one, estragole, limonene-10-ol and 3-methyl-2-cyclopenten-1-one. Twenty compounds identified in the active fractions were tested against one sensitive and three MDR strains of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using the Alamar Blue microassay. Compounds that showed some degree of antimycobacterial activity against all strains tested were the following: linoleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), oleic acid (MIC 100 µg/mL), 1,3-benzenediol (MIC 100-200 µg/mL), undecanal (MIC 50-200 µg/mL), and 2,4-undecadienal (MIC 25-50 µg/mL), the last being the most active compound. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the presence of 5-hydroxy-furanocoumarin in F. vulgare.

  18. The effect of external marking on the behaviour of the common pill woodlouse Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Drahokoupilová, Táňa; Tuf, Ivan Hadrián

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Zoologists distinguish individual animals using marking techniques. Generally they test the potential influence of marking on survival only; the influence on behaviour is usually neglected. We evaluated the influence of two external marking techniques (nail polish and queen-bee marker) on the behaviour of common pill woodlouse, Armadillidium vulgare. The behaviour was examined from two points of view: (1) activity during 24 hours and (2) specific expressions of behaviour (exploring, feeding, resting and hiding) over a 24 hour period. We compared behaviour among woodlice marked with nail polish and queen-bee marker with the unmarked control group during a nine-day experiment. Although we did not find any influence of marking on survival, there was an evident influence on behaviour in most cases. Generally, in the groups of marked individuals of Armadillidium vulgare there were large differences observed against the control group in the overall activity. Activity of marked individuals was significantly reduced and they preferred hiding. The influence of polish and marker on the overall frequencies of behavioural categories was evident, mainly in feeding, resting and hiding. The influence on the frequency of exploring was significant in the polish marked group only. PMID:22536105

  19. Sexual bipotentiality of developing ovaries in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1997-07-01

    The androgenic glands (AG) of crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characters. The process of gonadal differentiation in females was studied morphologically in Armadillidium vulgare given a masculinizing AG implant. Gonadal masculinization was induced by implantation of an AG into females at various stages of postembryonic development. Functional sex reversal always occurred when an AG was implanted into females that were in stages 5 and 6 of development. Partial formation of testes was induced after implantation of an AG into stage 7 and 8 females. When an AG was implanted into a stage 9 female, development of a functional testis was not observed, but the ovaries were partially masculinized. These results show that after the onset of sex differentiation female gonads retain sexual bipotentiality through several stages of postembryonic development. Implantation of one AG into a female is enough to induce gonadal masculinization and sex reversal in this species. The AG implant up to stage 6 (3.4 mm in body length) is an experimental procedure certain to transform a genetic female into a functional male. The process of gonadal development in female A. vulgare is discussed.

  20. Pyrrolizidine Alkaloids from Echium vulgare in Honey Originate Primarily from Floral Nectar.

    PubMed

    Lucchetti, Matteo A; Glauser, Gaetan; Kilchenmann, Verena; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Praz, Christophe; Kast, Christina

    2016-06-29

    Pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) in honey can be a potential human health risk. So far, it has remained unclear whether PAs in honey originate from pollen or floral nectar. We obtained honey, nectar, and plant pollen from two observation sites where Echium vulgare L. was naturally abundant. The PA concentration of honey was determined by targeted analysis using a high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system (HPLC-MS/MS), allowing the quantification of six different PAs and PA-N-oxides present in E. vulgare. Echium-type PAs were detected up to 0.153 μg/g in honey. Nectar and plant pollen were analyzed by nontargeted analysis using ultrahigh pressure liquid chromatography-high resolution-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-HR-MS), allowing the detection of 10 alkaloids in small size samples. Echium-type PAs were detected between 0.3-95.1 μg/g in nectar and 500-35000 μg/g in plant pollen. The PA composition in nectar and plant pollen was compared to the composition in honey. Echimidine (+N-oxide) was the main alkaloid detected in honey and nectar samples, while echivulgarine (+N-oxide) was the main PA found in plant pollen. These results suggest that nectar contributes more significantly to PA contamination in honey than plant pollen.

  1. Chemical composition and bioactivity of different oregano (Origanum vulgare) extracts and essential oil.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Bárbara; Marques, António; Ramos, Cristina; Serrano, Carmo; Matos, Olívia; Neng, Nuno R; Nogueira, José M F; Saraiva, Jorge Alexandre; Nunes, Maria Leonor

    2013-08-30

    There is a growing interest in industry to replace synthetic chemicals by natural products with bioactive properties. Aromatic plants are excellent sources of bioactive compounds that can be extracted using several processes. As far as oregano is concerned, studies are lacking addressing the effect of extraction processes in bioactivity of extracts. This study aimed to characterise the in vitro antioxidant and antibacterial properties of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oil and extracts (in hot and cold water, and ethanol), and the chemical composition of its essential oil. The major components of oregano essential oil were carvacrol, β-fenchyl alcohol, thymol, and γ-terpinene. Hot water extract had the strongest antioxidant properties and the highest phenolic content. All extracts were ineffective in inhibiting the growth of the seven tested bacteria. In contrast, the essential oil inhibited the growth of all bacteria, causing greater reductions on both Listeria strains (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua). O. vulgare extracts and essential oil from Portuguese origin are strong candidates to replace synthetic chemicals used by the industry. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. The flavonoids of Tanacetum parthenium and T. vulgare and their anti-inflammatory properties.

    PubMed

    Williams, C A; Harborne, J B; Geiger, H; Hoult, J R

    1999-06-01

    The lipophilic flavonoids in leaf and flower of Tanacetum parthenium and T. vulgaris have been compared. While those of T. parthenium are methyl ethers of the flavonols 6-hydroxykaempferol and quercetagetin, the surface flavonoids of T. vulgare are methyl ethers of the flavones scutellarein and 6-hydroxyluteolin. Apigenin and two flavone glucuronides are surprisingly present in glandular trichomes on the lower epidermis of the ray florets of T. parthenium. The opportunity has been taken to revise the structures of the four 6-hydroxyflavonol methyl ethers of T. parthenium based on NMR measurements. These are now shown to be uniformly 6- rather than 7-O-methylated. Tanetin, previously thought to be a new structure, is now formulated as the known 6-hydroxykaempferol 3,6,4'-trimethyl ether. The vacuolar flavonoids of both plants are dominated by the presence of apigenin and luteolin 7-glucuronides; nine other glycosides were present, including the uncommon 6-hydroxyluteolin 7-glucoside in T. vulgare. When the major flavonol and flavone methyl ethers of the two plants were tested pharmacologically, they variously inhibited the major pathways of arachidonate metabolism in leukocytes. There were significant differences in potency, with the tansy 6-hydroxyflavones less active than the feverfew 6-hydroxyflavonols as inhibitors of cyclo-oxygenase and 5-lipoxygenase.

  3. Anthelmintic effects of the essential oil of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill., Apiaceae) against Schistosoma mansoni.

    PubMed

    Wakabayashi, Kamila A L; de Melo, Nathalya I; Aguiar, Daniela P; de Oliveira, Pollyanna F; Groppo, Milton; da Silva Filho, Ademar A; Rodrigues, Vanderlei; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C; Magalhães, Lizandra G; Crotti, Antônio E M

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Apiaceae), known as fennel, is a widespread aromatic herbaceous plant, and its essential oil is used as additive in the food, pharmaceutical, cosmetic, and perfume industries. The in vitro antischistosomal activity and cytotoxic effects against V79 cells of the essential oil of F. vulgare cultivated in southeastern Brazil (FV-EO) was investigated. The FV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and characterized by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses. (E)-Anethole (69.8%) and limonene (22.5%) were identified as the major constituents. Its anthelmintic activity against Schistosoma mansoni was evaluated at concentrations of 10, 50, and 100 μg/ml, and it was found to be active against adult S. mansoni worms, although it was less effective than the positive control praziquantel (PZQ) in terms of separation of the coupled pairs, mortality, and decreased motor activity. However, FV-EO elicited an interesting dose-dependent reduction in the number of S. mansoni eggs. On their own, (E)-anethole and the limonene enantiomers were much less effective than FV-EO and PZQ. An XTT-cytotoxicity-based assay evidenced no FV-EO cytotoxicity against V79 cells. In summary, FV-EO displayed moderate in vitro schistosomicidal activity against adult S. mansoni worms, exerted remarkable inhibitory effects on the egg development, and was of low toxicity.

  4. Organization of the large mitochondrial genome in the isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed Central

    Raimond, R; Marcadé, I; Bouchon, D; Rigaud, T; Bossy, J P; Souty-Grosset, C

    1999-01-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in animals is generally a circular molecule of approximately 15 kb, but there are many exceptions such as linear molecules and larger ones. RFLP studies indicated that the mtDNA in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare varied from 20 to 42 kb. This variation depended on the restriction enzyme used, and on the restriction profile generated by a given enzyme. The DNA fragments had characteristic electrophoretic behaviors. Digestions with two endonucleases always generated fewer fragments than expected; denaturation of restriction profiles reduced the size of two bands by half; densitometry indicated that a number of small fragments were present in stoichiometry, which has approximately twice the expected concentration. Finally, hybridization to a 550-bp 16S rDNA probe often revealed two copies of this gene. These results cannot be due to the genetic rearrangements generally invoked to explain large mtDNA. We propose that the large A. vulgare mtDNA is produced by the tripling of a 14-kb monomer with a singular rearrangement: one monomer is linear and the other two form a circular dimer. Densitometry suggested that these two molecular structures were present in different proportions within a single individual. The absence of mutations within the dimers also suggests that replication occurs during the monomer phase. PMID:9872960

  5. Epidemiology of coronary artery bypass grafting at the Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa, São Paulo

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Alexandre Gonçalves; Fichino, Maria Zenaide Soares; da Silva, Gilmara Silveira; Bastos, Flávia Cortez Colosimo; Piotto, Raquel Ferrari

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The knowledge of the prevalence of risk factors and comorbidities, as well as the evolution and complications in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft allows comparison between institutions and evidence of changes in the profile of patients and postoperative evolution over time. Objective To profile (risk factors and comorbidities) and clinical outcome (complications) in patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft in a national institution of great surgical volume. Methods A retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft in the hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo, from July 2009 to July 2010. Results We included 3,010 patients, mean age of 62.2 years and 69.9% male. 83.8% of patients were hypertensive, 36.6% diabetic, 44.5% had dyslipidemia, 15.3% were smokers, 65.7% were overweight/obese, 29.3% had a family history of coronary heart disease. The expected mortality calculated by logistic EuroSCORE was 2.7%. The isolated CABG occurred in 89.3% and 11.9% surgery was performed without cardiopulmonary bypass. The most common complication was cardiac arrhythmia (18.7%), especially acute atrial fibrillation (14.3%). Pneumonia occurred in 6.2% of patients, acute renal failure in 4.4%, mediastinites in 2.1%, stroke in 1.8% and AMI in 1.2%. The in-hospital mortality was 5.4% and in isolated coronary artery bypass graft was 3.5%. The average hospital stay was 11 days with a median of eight days (3-244 days). Conclusion The profile of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass graft surgery in this study is similar to other published studies. PMID:25859865

  6. In Vitro Susceptibility of Pythium insidiosum to Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare Essential Oils Combinations.

    PubMed

    de Souza Silveira Valente, Júlia; de Oliveira da Silva Fonseca, Anelise; Denardi, Laura Bedin; Dal Ben, Vanessa Silveira; de Souza Maia Filho, Fernando; Baptista, Cristiane Telles; Braga, Caroline Quintana; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Alves, Sydney Hartz; de Avila Botton, Sônia; Pereira, Daniela Isabel Brayer

    2016-08-01

    Pythium insidiosum is the etiologic agent of pythiosis, a severe and emerging disease that affects mammals. Failure of conventional antifungal therapies is partially justified by the absence of ergosterol in the plasma membrane of this oomycete. Despite research advancement, the treatment of pythiosis has not been not fully established. The present study investigated the in vitro susceptibility profile of Brazilian isolates of P. insidiosum (n = 20) against Melaleuca alternifolia, Mentha piperita and Origanum vulgare essential oils, and their combinations. Susceptibility tests were performed according to CLSI M38-A2 protocol, and combinations were evaluated by the microdilution cherkerboard method. All tested essential oils showed antimicrobial activity against P. insidiosum, and the greatest activity of O. vulgare was highlighted. Synergistic and/or indifferent effect was observed for all combinations evaluated, especially the M. piperita and O. vulgare combination, which showed 65 % synergism. This is the first study to report in vitro combinations of essential oils against P. insidiosum indicating the susceptibility of this oomycete to M. alternifolia, M. piperita and O. vulgare essential oils, as well as their combinations.

  7. Genotypic and phenotypic changes in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) during a period of climate change in Jordan

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Climate change and other anthropogenic disturbances can lead to the loss of genetic variation and thereby affect evolutionary potential and survival of plant populations in the wild. We examined these predictions in the primary wild relative of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. subsp. spontaneum (K. Koch) ...

  8. Effects of Anti-Tobacco Advertisements Based on Risk-Taking Tendencies: Realistic Fear vs. Vulgar Humor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Moon J.; Ferguson, Mary Ann

    2002-01-01

    Explores how college students with different risk-taking tendencies responded to different emotional appeals in anti-tobacco advertisements. Finds that rebellious participants who watched realistic fear advertisements reported higher levels of interest than those who watched the vulgar humor advertisements. Explains that impulsive participants…

  9. Masculinization of females of the isopod crustacean, Armadillidium vulgare, following injections of an active extract of the androgenic gland.

    PubMed

    Katakura, Y; Hasegawa, Y

    1983-01-01

    Injections of 64 U of an active extract of the androgenic gland into young females of Armadillidium vulgare induced masculinization of the external sexual characteristics and transformation of the internal female reproductive organs into testes, seminal vesicles, and vasa deferentia. Following injections of 10-U doses, the internal organs were hardly affected in 8 of 10 females although the external characteristics underwent masculinization.

  10. A new genetic linkage map of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) facilitates genetic dissection of height and spike length and angle

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Plant height and spike length and angle are important agronomic traits in the production of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) due to strong correlations with lodging and disease. The objective of this study was to use QTL analysis to identify genetic regions associated with each trait in a recombinant inb...

  11. A high-throughput RNA extraction for sprouted single-seed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) rich in polysaccharides

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the exces...

  12. Effects of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on on chickens highly infected with Eimeria tenella (Phylum Apicomplexa)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Background: Intensive poultry production systems depend on chemoprophylaxis with anticoccidial drugs to combat infection. A floor-pen study was conducted to evaluate the anticoccidial effect of Artemisia annua and Foeniculum vulgare on Eimeria tenella infection. Five experimental groups were establi...

  13. The in-vitro evaluation of antibacterial, antifungal and cytotoxic properties of Marrubium vulgare L. essential oil grown in Tunisia

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In order to validate its antiseptic and anticancer properties with respect to traditional uses, we have screened for the first time the antimicrobial activity of aerial parts of M. vulgare L. essential oil against different pathogenic microorganisms and the cytotoxic activity against HeLa cell lines. Methods The agar disk diffusion method was used to study the antibacterial activity of M. vulgare essential oil against 12 bacterial and 4 fungi strains. The disc diameters of zone of inhibition (DD), the minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) and the concentration inhibiting 50% (IC50) were investigated to characterize the antimicrobial activities of this essential oil. The in vitro cytotoxicity of M. vulgare essential oil was examined using a modified MTT assay; the viability and the IC50 were used to evaluate this test. Results The antimicrobial activity of the essential oil was investigated in order to evaluate its efficacy against the different tested microorganisms. The present results results showed a significant activity against microorganisms especially Gram (+) bacteria with inhibition zones and minimal inhibitory concentration values in the range of 6.6-25.2 mm and 1120-2600 μg/ml, respectively, whereas Gram (-) bacteria exhibited a higher resistance. As far as the antifungal activity, among four strains tested, Botrytis cinerea exhibited the strongest activity with inhibition zones of 12.6 mm. However, Fusarium solani, Penicillium digitatum and Aspergillus niger were less sensitive to M. vulgare essential oil. About the citotoxicity assay, this finding indicate the capability of this essential oil to inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cell lines under some conditions with IC50 value of 0.258 μg/ml. Conclusion This investigation showed that the M. vulgare essential oil has a potent antimicrobial activity against some Gram (+) pathogenic bacteria and Botrytis cinerea fungi. The present studies confirm the use of this essential oil as anticancer

  14. Comparison of Scolicidal Effects of Amphotricin B, Silver Nanoparticles,_and Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Hydatid Cysts Protoscoleces

    PubMed Central

    LASHKARIZADEH, Mohammad Reza; ASGARIPOUR, Keivan; SAEDI DEZAKI, Ebrahim; FASIHI HARANDI, Majid

    2015-01-01

    Background: Surgery is the preferred treatment for hydatid cyst (cystic echinococcosis, CE). At present, various scolicidal agents have been used for inactivation of protoscoleces during surgery, but they are associated with adverse side effects. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the scolicidal effects of amphotricin B, Silver nano particles, Foeniculum vulgare Mill, essential oil and hypertonic saline against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst on an in vitro model. Methods: Protoscoleces were aseptically aspirated from the naturally infected livers of sheep and goats. Various concentrations of AmB (2.5–20 mg/ml), Ag-NPs (0.5–4 mg/ml), F. vulgare essential oil (0.125–1 mg/ml) and hypertonic saline (10–20%) were used for 5–60 min. Eosin exclusion test was used to determine the viability of protoscoleces. Results: Maximum protoscolicidal effect of AmB and Ag-NPs was found at concentrations of 20 and 4 mg/mL, resulting in only 82.3% and 71.6% of the protoscoleces after 60 min of incubation, respectively. In contrast, F. vulgare essential oil at concentration of 1 mg/ml and hypertonic saline 20% killed 100% protoscoleces after 5 and 10 min of exposure, respectively. Conclusion: The results indicated weak scolicidal activity of AmB and Ag-NPs; whereas F. vulgare essential oil had potent scolicidal activity against protoscoleces of hydatid cyst that revealed the potential of F. vulgare as a natural source for the production of new scolicidal agent for use in hydatid cyst surgery. However, further studies will be needed to confirm these results by checking the essential oil and its active component in the in vivo model. PMID:26246818

  15. Genome Sequence of Bacillus endophyticus and Analysis of Its Companion Mechanism in the Ketogulonigenium vulgare-Bacillus Strain Consortium.

    PubMed

    Jia, Nan; Du, Jin; Ding, Ming-Zhu; Gao, Feng; Yuan, Ying-Jin

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus strains have been widely used as the companion strain of Ketogulonigenium vulgare in the process of vitamin C fermentation. Different Bacillus strains generate different effects on the growth of K. vulgare and ultimately influence the productivity. First, we identified that Bacillus endophyticus Hbe603 was an appropriate strain to cooperate with K. vulgare and the product conversion rate exceeded 90% in industrial vitamin C fermentation. Here, we report the genome sequencing of the B. endophyticus Hbe603 industrial companion strain and speculate its possible advantage in the consortium. The circular chromosome of B. endophyticus Hbe603 has a size of 4.87 Mb with GC content of 36.64% and has the highest similarity with that of Bacillus megaterium among all the bacteria with complete genomes. By comparing the distribution of COGs with that of Bacillus thuringiensis, Bacillus cereus and B. megaterium, B. endophyticus has less genes related to cell envelope biogenesis and signal transduction mechanisms, and more genes related to carbohydrate transport and metabolism, energy production and conversion, as well as lipid transport and metabolism. Genome-based functional studies revealed the specific capability of B. endophyticus in sporulation, transcription regulation, environmental resistance, membrane transportation, extracellular proteins and nutrients synthesis, which would be beneficial for K. vulgare. In particular, B. endophyticus lacks the Rap-Phr signal cascade system and, in part, spore coat related proteins. In addition, it has specific pathways for vitamin B12 synthesis and sorbitol metabolism. The genome analysis of the industrial B. endophyticus will help us understand its cooperative mechanism in the K. vulgare-Bacillus strain consortium to improve the fermentation of vitamin C.

  16. Endosperm structure affects the malting quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Wilhelmson, Annika; Salmenkallio-Marttila, Marjatta; Peltonen-Sainio, Pirjo; Rajala, Ari; Reinikainen, Pekka; Kotaviita, Erja; Simolin, Helena; Home, Silja

    2005-09-07

    Twenty-seven barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) samples collected from growing sites in Scandinavia in 2001 and 2002 were examined to study the effect of endosperm structure on malting behavior. Samples were micromalted, and several malt characteristics were measured. Samples were classified as having a mealier or steelier endosperm on the basis of light transflectance (LTm). Because endosperm structure is greatly dependent on protein content, three barley sample pairs with similar protein contents were chosen for further analysis. During malting, the steelier barley samples produced less root mass, but showed higher respiration losses and higher activities of starch-hydrolyzing enzymes. Malts made from steelier barley had a less friable structure, with more urea-soluble D hordein and more free amino nitrogen and soluble protein. The reason for these differences may lie in the structure or localization of the hordeins as well as the possible effects of endosperm packing on water uptake and movement of enzymes.

  17. Conglobation in the Pill Bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a Water Conservation Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Smigel, Jacob T.; Gibbs, Allen G.

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 ± 1°C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation. PMID:20233103

  18. Genome sequence of a crustacean iridovirus, IIV31, isolated from the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Piégu, Benoît; Guizard, Sébastien; Yeping, Tan; Cruaud, Corinne; Asgari, Sassan; Bideshi, Dennis K; Federici, Brian A; Bigot, Yves

    2014-07-01

    Members of the family Iridoviridae are animal viruses that infect only invertebrates and poikilothermic vertebrates. The invertebrate iridovirus 31 (IIV31) was originally isolated from adult pill bugs, Armadillidium vulgare (class Crustacea, order Isopoda, suborder Oniscidea), found in southern California on the campus of the University of California, Riverside, USA. IIV31 virions are icosahedral, have a diameter of about 135 nm, and contain a dsDNA genome 220.222 kbp in length, with 35.09 mol % G+C content and 203 ORFs. Here, we describe the complete genome sequence of this virus and its annotation. This is the eighth genome sequence of an IIV reported. © 2014 The Authors.

  19. Conglobation in the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare, as a water conservation mechanism.

    PubMed

    Smigel, Jacob T; Gibbs, Allen G

    2008-01-01

    Water balance of the terrestrial isopod, Armadillidium vulgare, was investigated during conglobation (rolling-up behavior). Water loss and metabolic rates were measured at 18 +/- 1 degrees C in dry air using flow-through respirometry. Water-loss rates decreased 34.8% when specimens were in their conglobated form, while CO2 release decreased by 37.1%. Water loss was also measured gravimetrically at humidities ranging from 6 to 75 %RH. Conglobation was associated with a decrease in water-loss rates up to 53 %RH, but no significant differences were observed at higher humidities. Our findings suggest that conglobation behavior may help to conserve water, in addition to its demonstrated role in protection from predation.

  20. Extreme Population-Dependent Linkage Disequilibrium Detected in an Inbreeding Plant Species, Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Caldwell, Katherine S.; Russell, Joanne; Langridge, Peter; Powell, Wayne

    2006-01-01

    In human genetics a detailed knowledge of linkage disequilibrium (LD) is considered a prerequisite for effective population-based, high-resolution gene mapping and cloning. Similar opportunities exist for plants; however, differences in breeding system and population history need to be considered. Here we report a detailed study of localized LD in different populations of an inbreeding crop species. We measured LD between and within four gene loci within the region surrounding the hardness locus in three different gene pools of barley (Hordeum vulgare). We demonstrate that LD extends to at least 212 kb in elite barley cultivars but is rapidly eroded in related inbreeding ancestral populations. Our results indicate that haplotype-based sequence analysis in multiple populations will provide new opportunities to adjust the resolution of association studies in inbreeding crop species. PMID:16219791

  1. [Stress response genes expression analysis of barley Hordeum vulgare under space flight environment].

    PubMed

    Shagimardanova, E I; Gusev, O A; Sychev, V N; Levinskikh, M A; Sharipova, M R; Il'inskaia, O N; Bingham, G; Sugimoto, M

    2010-01-01

    Transcriptome of barley Hordeum vulgare grown aboard International Space Station (ISS) was analyzed by means of microarray. It was revealed 500 genes with mRNA level, changed more than two folds in space environment. Among them are genes encoding stress response proteins, videlicet Heat Shock Proteins (HSP), Pathogenesis-Related Proteins (PR) and Antioxidant Proteins. Further analysis of these genes by real time PCR showed enhanced transcription level of Reactive oxygen Species (ROS) scavenging genes. The mRNA level of superoxide dismutase (sod) was 6 folds higher in space environment when compare to Earth conditions. Glutamyl transferase gene expression was enhanced 24 times in space. Transcription of catalase gene (cat) was increased 18 times and of ascorbate peroxidase was increased 3 times in space in comparison with ground control. For the first time it was shown that space flight environment may induce oxidative stress in plants.

  2. Biochemical and physiological studies on the effects of senescence leaves of Populus deltoides on Triticum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Khaket, Tejinder Pal; Kumar, Viney; Singh, Jasbir; Dhanda, Suman

    2014-01-01

    Triticum vulgare (Wheat) based products are the major dietary source of food in developing countries. In India, it grows in association with boundary plantations of Populus deltoids (poplar). During winter, poplar enters in dormancy which cause a heavy leaf fall at the time of wheat seed germination. Large number of poplar senescence leaves may adversely affect the wheat. Therefore, the present study was performed to examine the effect of senescence poplar leaves on wheat germ and some other biochemical parameters. Seed's germination rate was determined by measuring root and shoot lengths, percent germination, germination index, and inhibition percentage. Biochemical parameters, namely, pigment, carbohydrate, protein, and phenol content, were estimated. Activities of catalase and polyphenol oxidase which are stress marker enzymes were also measured. Results revealed that germination and other biochemical parameters of wheat were severely affected by senescence poplar leaves even at very low concentration. So, intercropping of poplar along with wheat may be chosen carefully as wheat is the major dietary staple.

  3. Characterization of a new UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Hordeum vulgare (barley).

    PubMed

    Wahl, Claudia; Spiertz, Markus; Elling, Lothar

    2017-09-20

    The broad substrate spectrum of UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylases from plant salvage pathways is of high interest for the synthesis of expensive nucleotide sugars by straightforward enzyme cascade reactions in combination with monosaccharide kinases. We here present a new UDP-sugar pyrophosphorylase from Hordeum vulgare with favorable biochemical properties like broad pH and temperature tolerances as well as a broad substrate spectrum and high synthesis stability. Enzyme properties were determined and reaction conditions were optimized by high-through-put multiplexed capillary electrophoresis analysis. In combination with a galactokinase UDP-α-d-galactose (UDP-Gal) was efficiently synthesized with a space-time-yield of 17g/L*h for full conversion of 10mM substrate within 20min by 1.2U of each enzyme. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Floral volatiles ofTanacetum vulgare L. attractive toLobesia botrana den. et schiff. females.

    PubMed

    Gabel, B; Thiéry, D; Suchy, V; Marion-Poll, F; Hradsky, P; Farkas, P

    1992-05-01

    The European grapevine moth (EGVM),Lobesia botrana, is a major pest of grapes in Europe. Females are attracted to a nonhost plant: tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), which is a common weed in Slovakian vineyards. A steam distillate extract of tansy flowers was analyzed by means of a GC-EAG technique to screen constituents detected by the olfactory receptors of EGVM females. From more than 200 GC peaks, nine peaks corresponding to monoterpenoids released an EAG response in more than 70% of the females (N=15):p-cymene,d-limonene,α-thujene,α-thujone,β-thujone, thujyl alcohol, terpinene-4-ol, (Z)-verbenol, and piperitone. The steam distillate of tansy as well as a synthetic blend of identified compounds released consistent attraction in a field cage. The use of nonhost plants and host plant odors in integrated pest management is discussed.

  5. Construction of a map-based reference genome sequence for barley, Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed Central

    Beier, Sebastian; Himmelbach, Axel; Colmsee, Christian; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Barrero, Roberto A.; Zhang, Qisen; Li, Lin; Bayer, Micha; Bolser, Daniel; Taudien, Stefan; Groth, Marco; Felder, Marius; Hastie, Alex; Šimková, Hana; Staňková, Helena; Vrána, Jan; Chan, Saki; Muñoz-Amatriaín, María; Ounit, Rachid; Wanamaker, Steve; Schmutzer, Thomas; Aliyeva-Schnorr, Lala; Grasso, Stefano; Tanskanen, Jaakko; Sampath, Dharanya; Heavens, Darren; Cao, Sujie; Chapman, Brett; Dai, Fei; Han, Yong; Li, Hua; Li, Xuan; Lin, Chongyun; McCooke, John K.; Tan, Cong; Wang, Songbo; Yin, Shuya; Zhou, Gaofeng; Poland, Jesse A.; Bellgard, Matthew I.; Houben, Andreas; Doležel, Jaroslav; Ayling, Sarah; Lonardi, Stefano; Langridge, Peter; Muehlbauer, Gary J.; Kersey, Paul; Clark, Matthew D.; Caccamo, Mario; Schulman, Alan H.; Platzer, Matthias; Close, Timothy J.; Hansson, Mats; Zhang, Guoping; Braumann, Ilka; Li, Chengdao; Waugh, Robbie; Scholz, Uwe; Stein, Nils; Mascher, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is a cereal grass mainly used as animal fodder and raw material for the malting industry. The map-based reference genome sequence of barley cv. ‘Morex’ was constructed by the International Barley Genome Sequencing Consortium (IBSC) using hierarchical shotgun sequencing. Here, we report the experimental and computational procedures to (i) sequence and assemble more than 80,000 bacterial artificial chromosome (BAC) clones along the minimum tiling path of a genome-wide physical map, (ii) find and validate overlaps between adjacent BACs, (iii) construct 4,265 non-redundant sequence scaffolds representing clusters of overlapping BACs, and (iv) order and orient these BAC clusters along the seven barley chromosomes using positional information provided by dense genetic maps, an optical map and chromosome conformation capture sequencing (Hi-C). Integrative access to these sequence and mapping resources is provided by the barley genome explorer (BARLEX). PMID:28448065

  6. Inhibition of melanogenesis and oxidation by protocatechuic acid from Origanum vulgare (oregano).

    PubMed

    Chou, Tzung-Han; Ding, Hsiou-Yu; Lin, Rong-Jyh; Liang, Jing-Yao; Liang, Chia-Hua

    2010-11-29

    Antioxidant and antimelanogenesis activities of protocatechuic acid (1) from Origanum vulgare (oregano) were investigated. The antioxidative capacity of 1 was confirmed from its free-radical-scavenging activities, inhibition of lipid peroxidation, and suppression of reactive oxygen species in H(2)O(2)-induced BNLCL2 cells. The inhibition by 1 of tyrosinase and DOPA oxidase activity and melanin production was possibly related to the down-regulation of melanocortin-1 receptor, microphthalmia-associated transcription factor, tyrosinase, tyrosinase-related proteins-2, and tyrosinase-related proteins-1 expression in α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone-induced B16 cells. After a gel containing 1 was applied to mice, the values of L* slightly increased, and a* and erythema-melanin levels of skin were reduced by comparing the values of untreated control groups, indicating 1 can reduce melanin production. These results suggest that 1 may act as an effective quencher of oxidative attackers with antimelanogenesis properties.

  7. Origanum vulgare and Thymbra capitata Essential Oils from Spain: Determination of Aromatic Profile and Bioactivities.

    PubMed

    Carrasco, Alejandro; Perez, Enrique; Cutillas, Ana-Belen; Martinez-Gutierrez, Ramiro; Tomas, Virginia; Tudela, Jose

    2016-01-01

    Oregano (Thymbra capitata and Origanum vulgare) essential oils (EOs), cultivated and extracted in the South-East of Spain, were analysed by GC/MS to determine their composition. (E)-β-Caryophyllene (0.5-4.9%), thymol (0.2-5.8%), p-cymene (3.8-8.2%), γ-terpinene (2.1-10.7%) and carvacrol (58.7-77.4%) were determined as the main molecules. This characterisation was completed with enantioselective gas chromatography, where (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene, (+)-a- pinene and (+)-β-pinene were determined as the main enantiomers. Antioxidant activity was evaluated positively by several methods, accounting for activity against free radicals and reducing power. Important inhibitory activity on lipoxygenase (LOX) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was observed supporting potential anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer and insecticidal activities, mainly due to carvacrol. These properties support the potential use of oregano EOs as natural cosmetic and natural pharmaceutical ingredients.

  8. Depolymerized carrageenan ameliorates growth, physiological attributes, essential oil yield and active constituents of Foeniculum vulgare Mill.

    PubMed

    Hashmi, Nadeem; Khan, M Masroor A; Moinuddin; Idrees, Mohd; Khan, Zeba H; Ali, Akbar; Varshney, Lalit

    2012-09-01

    Irradiated carrageenan (IC) elicits an array of plant defense responses and biological activities in plants. An experiment was carried out in the naturally illuminated conditions of net house in order to assess the effects of foliar spray of IC on agricultural performance of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), which is a high-value essential oil bearing medicinal crop used in pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. There were applied four IC concentrations (40, 60, 80 and 100 mg L(-1)) as foliar sprays. Application of IC significantly improved the growth attributes, physiological and biochemical parameters, essential oil yield and the contents of main components of essential oil of fennel. IC applied at 80 mg L(-1) enhanced these parameters maximally. Unirradiated carrageenan and deionized water had no effect on the attributes studied. Moreover, GLC analysis revealed a significant increase in the components of essential oil, viz. fenchone (4.48-7.82%) and anethole (78.38-86.08%) compared to the control.

  9. Antihirsutism activity of Fennel (fruits of Foeniculum vulgare) extract. A double-blind placebo controlled study.

    PubMed

    Javidnia, K; Dastgheib, L; Mohammadi Samani, S; Nasiri, A

    2003-01-01

    Idiopathic hirsutism is defined as the occurrence of excessive male pattern hair growth in women who have a normal ovulatory menstrual cycle and normal levels of serum androgens. It may be a disorder of peripheral androgen metabolism. In this study we evaluated the clinical response of idiopathic hirsutism to topical Fennel extract. Fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, is a plant, which has been used as an estrogenic agent. The ethanolic extract of Fennel was obtained by using a soxhlete apparatus. In a double blind study, 38 patients were treated with creams containing 1%, 2% of Fennel extract and placebo. Hair diameter was measured and rate of growth was considered. The efficacy of treatment with the cream containing 2% Fennel is better than the cream containing 1% Fennel and these two were more potent than placebo. The mean values of hair diameter reduction was 7.8%, 18.3% and -0.5% for patients receiving the creams containing 1%, 2% and 0% (placebo) respectively.

  10. When GIS zooms in: spatio-genetic maps of multipaternity in Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Bech, Nicolas; Depeux, Charlotte; Durand, Sylvine; Debenest, Catherine; Lafitte, Alexandra; Beltran-Bech, Sophie

    2017-09-20

    Geographic information system (GIS) tools are designed to illustrate, analyse and integrate geographic or spatial data, usually on a macroscopic scale. By contrast, genetic tools focus on a microscopic scale. Because in reality, landscapes have no predefined scale, our original study aims to develop a new approach, combining both cartographic and genetic approaches to explore microscopic landscapes. For this, we focused on Armadillidium vulgare, a terrestrial isopod model in which evolutionary pressures imposed by terrestrial life have led to the development of internal fertilisation and, consequently, to associated physiological changes. Among these, the emergence of internal receptacles, found in many taxa ranging from mammals to arthropods, allowed females to store sperm from several partners, enabling multipaternity. Among arthropods, terrestrial isopods like the polygynandrous A. vulgare present a female structure, the marsupium, in which fertilised eggs migrate and develop into mancae (larval stage). To test our innovative combined approach, we proposed different males to four independent females, and at the end of incubation in the marsupium, we mapped (using GIS methods) and genotyped (using 12 microsatellite markers) all the incubated mancae. This methodology permitted to obtain spatio-genetic maps describing heterozygosity and spatial distribution of mancae and of multipaternity within the marsupial landscape. We discussed the interest of this kind of multidisciplinary approach which could improve in this case our understanding of sexual selection mechanisms in this terrestrial crustacean. Beyond the interesting model-focused insights, the main challenge of this study was the transfer of GIS techniques to a microscopic scale and our results appear so as pioneers rendering GIS tools available for studies involving imagery whatever their study scale.

  11. Chitosan boosts the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare essential oil in modified atmosphere packaged pork.

    PubMed

    Paparella, Antonello; Mazzarrino, Giovanni; Chaves-López, Clemencia; Rossi, Chiara; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Guerrieri, Oana; Serio, Annalisa

    2016-10-01

    The potential of chitosan as a possible booster of the antimicrobial activity of Origanum vulgare EO (OEO) against spoilage bacteria and Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in fresh pork meat. Pork fillets were inoculated with 3 L. monocytogenes strains, dipped either in Origanum vulgare (oregano) Essential Oil (OEO) at 2 and 4%, or in chitosan 1% alone or added with 2 and 4% OEO, then packed under modified atmosphere (70% O2, 20% CO2, 10% N2) and stored at 4 °C for 15 days. OEO did not reduce L. monocytogenes growth, while 2 Log decrease was obtained after 2 days of storage in treatments with chitosan alone or with OEO, with growth inhibition up to day 15 in samples with chitosan and OEO 4%. When OEO was combined with chitosan, total viable counts and spoilage bacteria were reduced and contained over time, particularly Pseudomonas (2.0 Log CFU/g at day 15) and Brochothrix thermosphacta (undetectable). All the treatments applied extended meat shelf-life with respect to control, whose commercial shelf-life was 10 days. Chitosan treatments enhanced L* and maintained a* values almost stable during storage. Chitosan and OEO singly applied reduced lipid oxidation (0.62-0.75 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat) compared to control (0.99 mg malondialdehyde/Kg meat). Finally, chitosan treated samples were not recognized with respect to the control, whereas OEO gave bitter taste; chitosan with OEO instead mitigated the effect of OEO addition to meat. Chitosan combined with OEO boosts its antimicrobial activity and shows a potential for application in industrial production of fresh pork in MAP, to achieve shelf-life extension, control of L. monocytogenes growth, stability of color and protective effect from oxidation, with low sensory impact.

  12. Essential Oil Composition and Antibacterial Activity of Origanum vulgare subsp. glandulosum Desf. at Different Phenological Stages

    PubMed Central

    Chaabane, Hédia; Jemli, Maroua; Boulila, Abdennacer; Boussaid, Mohamed

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Variation in the quantity and quality of the essential oil (EO) of wild population of Origanum vulgare at different phenological stages, including vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, is reported. The oils of air-dried samples were obtained by hydrodistillation. The yield of oils (w/w%) at different stages were in the order of late vegetative (2.0%), early vegetative (1.7%), and flowering (0.6%) set. The oils were analyzed by gas chromatography (GC) and GC–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In total, 36, 33, and 16 components were identified and quantified in vegetative, late vegetative, and flowering set, representing 94.47%, 95.91%, and 99.62% of the oil, respectively. Carvacrol was the major compound in all samples. The ranges of major constituents were as follows: carvacrol (61.08–83.37%), p-cymene (3.02–9.87%), and γ-terpinene (4.13–6.34%). Antibacterial activity of the oils was tested against three Gram-positive and two Gram-negative bacteria by the disc diffusion method and determining their diameter of inhibition and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values. The inhibition zones and MIC values for bacterial strains, which were sensitive to the EO of O. vulgare subsp. glandulosum, were in the range of 9–36 mm and 125–600 μg/mL, respectively. The oils of various phenological stages showed high activity against all tested bacteria, of which Bacillus subtilis was the most sensitive and resistant strain, respectively. Thus, they represent an inexpensive source of natural antibacterial substances that exhibited potential for use in pathogenic systems. PMID:24320986

  13. Antioxidant capacity and total phenolic contents of oregano (Origanum vulgare), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) from Romania.

    PubMed

    Spiridon, Iuliana; Colceru, Svetlana; Anghel, Narcis; Teaca, Carmen Alice; Bodirlau, Ruxanda; Armatu, Alice

    2011-10-01

    The study reported here presents a comparative screening of three medicinal plants including oregano (Origanum vulgare L.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia) and lemon balm (Melissa officinalis) having the same geographical origin, the Southeast region of Romania, and growing in the same natural conditions. The contents of total phenolics and total flavonoids for the extracts of these were determined. Furthermore, the total antioxidant capacity was also evaluated. It was found that Origanum vulgare and Melissa officinalis extracts present the most effective antioxidant capacity in scavenging DPPH radicals, while Lavandula angustifolia is less active. High performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was used to identify the components of extracts. Major phenolic acids identified in the analysed species were ferulic, rosmarinic, p-coumaric and caffeic, while predominant flavonoids were quercetin, apigenin kaempherol, which were present as glucosides.

  14. Inhibition of aldose reductase and anti-cataract action of trans-anethole isolated from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits.

    PubMed

    Dongare, Vandana; Kulkarni, Chaitanya; Kondawar, Manish; Magdum, Chandrakant; Haldavnekar, Vivek; Arvindekar, Akalpita

    2012-05-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruits are routinely consumed for their carminative and mouth freshening effect. The plant was evaluated for aldose reductase inhibition and anti-diabetic action. Bioguided fractionation using silica gel column chromatography, HPLC, and GC-MS analysis revealed trans-anethole as the bioactive constituent possessing potent aldose reductase inhibitory action, with an IC50 value of 3.8μg/ml. Prolonged treatment with the pet ether fraction of the F. vulgare distillate demonstrated improvement in blood glucose, lipid profile, glycated haemoglobin and other parameters in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Trans-anethole could effectively show anti-cataract activity through the increase in soluble lens protein, reduced glutathione, catalase and SOD activity on in vitro incubation of the eye lens with 55mM glucose. Trans-anethole demonstrated noncompetitive to mixed type of inhibition of lens aldose reductase using Lineweaver Burk plot.

  15. Comparative essential oil composition and antifungal effect of bitter fennel (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) fruit oils obtained during different vegetation.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mehmet Musa; Chalchat, Jean-Claude; Arslan, Derya; Ateş, Ayşe; Unver, Ahmet

    2006-01-01

    The chemical composition of the flower and unripe and ripe fruits from fennel (bitter) (Foeniculum vulgare ssp. piperitum) has been examined by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The main identified components of the flower and unripe and ripe fruit oils were estragole (53.08%, 56.11%, and 61.08%), fenchone (13.53%, 19.18%, and 23.46%), and alpha-phellandrene (5.77%, 3.30%, and 0.72%), respectively. Minor qualitative and major quantitative variations for some compounds of essential oils were determined with respect to the different parts of F. vulgare. The oils exerted varying levels of antifungal effects on the experimental mycelial growth of Alternaria alternata, Fusarium oxysporum, and Rhizoctonia solani. The 40 ppm concentrations of fennel oils showed inhibitory effect against mycelial growth of A. alternaria, whereas 10 ppm levels were ineffective. The analyses show that fennel oils exhibited different degrees of fungistatic activity depending on the doses.

  16. Complete genomic sequence of barley (Hordeum vulgare) endornavirus (HvEV) determined by next-generation sequencing.

    PubMed

    Candresse, Thierry; Marais, Armelle; Sorrentino, Roberto; Faure, Chantal; Theil, Sébastien; Cadot, Valérie; Rolland, Mathieu; Villemot, Julie; Rabenstein, Frank

    2016-03-01

    Endornaviruses are unusual plant-, fungus- and oomycete-infecting viruses with a large, ca 14- to 17-kb linear double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) genome and a persistent lifestyle. The complete genome sequence of an endornavirus from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Nerz variety was determined from paired Illumina MySeq reads derived from purified dsRNAs. The genome is 14,243 nt long, with 5' and 3' non-coding regions of 207 and 47 nt, respectively. It encodes a single large protein of 4663 amino acids that carries conserved motifs for a methyltransferase, a helicase and an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The sequence of Hordeum vulgare endornavirus (HvEV) carries all the hallmarks of a typical member of the genus Endornavirus, with the exception of an UDP-glycosyltransferase motif observed in many, but not all, endornaviral genomes.

  17. Taxonomic complexity in the halophyte Limonium vulgare and related taxa (Plumbaginaceae): insights from analysis of morphological, reproductive and karyological data

    PubMed Central

    Cortinhas, Ana; Erben, Matthias; Paula Paes, Ana; Espírito Santo, Dalila; Guara-Requena, Miguel; Caperta, Ana D.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Limonium is a well-known example of a group of plants that is taxonomically complex due to certain biological characteristics that hamper species' delineation. The closely related polyploid species Limonium vulgare Mill., L. humile Mill. and L. narbonense Mill. are defined species and can be used for studying patterns of morphological and reproductive variation. The first two taxa are usually found in Atlantic Europe and the third in the Mediterranean region, but a number of intermediate morphological forms may be present alongside typical examples of these species. This study attempts to elucidate morphological, floral and karyological diversity representative of these taxa in the Iberian Peninsula. Methods The extent of morphological differentiation was tested through comparison of 197 specimens from both Portugal and Spain using 17 descriptive morphological characters and 19 diagnostic morphometric characters. Analyses of floral morphisms (heterostyly and pollen–stigma dimorphism) and karyological determinations were also conducted. Key Results and Conclusions Discriminant analysis using morphometric variables reliably assigned individuals in natural populations to their respective groups. In addition, the results provide the first direct evidence that L. narbonense and a new species, Limonium maritimum Caperta, Cortinhas, Paes, Guara, Espírito-Santo and Erben, sp. nov., related to L. vulgare are present on Portuguese coasts. Most of these species are found together in mixed populations, especially L. vulgare and L. narbonense. It is hypothesized that taxonomic biodiversity found in sites where distinct species co-occur facilitates the evolutionary processes of hybridization, introgression and apomixis. This study therefore contributes to the elucidation of the taxonomic diversity in L. vulgare-related species and may also help in implementing future conservation programmes to maintain the evolutionary processes generating biodiversity

  18. Effects of parasitic sex-ratio distorters on host genetic structure in the Armadillidium vulgare-Wolbachia association.

    PubMed

    Verne, S; Johnson, M; Bouchon, D; Grandjean, F

    2012-02-01

    In the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare (Crustacea, Oniscidea), Wolbachia facilitates its spread through vertical transmission via the eggs by inducing feminization of genetic males. The spread of feminizing Wolbachia within and across populations is therefore expected to influence mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) genetic structure by hitchhiking. To test this hypothesis, we analysed nuclear and mtDNA genetic structure, and Wolbachia prevalence in 13 populations of the pill bug host. Wolbachia prevalence (ranging from 0% to 100% of sampled females) was highly variable among populations. All three Wolbachia strains previously observed in A. vulgare were present (wVulC, wVulM and wVulP) with wVulC being the most prevalent (nine of 13 populations). The host showed a genetic structure on five microsatellite loci that is compatible with isolation by distance. The strong genetic structure observed on host mtDNA was correlated with Wolbachia prevalence: three mitotypes were in strong linkage disequilibrium with the three strains of Wolbachia. Neutrality tests showed that the mtDNA polymorphism is not neutral, and we thus suggest that this unusual pattern of mtDNA polymorphism found in A. vulgare was due to Wolbachia.

  19. Physiological and Biochemical Analyses Shed Light on the Response of Sargassum vulgare to Ocean Acidification at Different Time Scales.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Castellano, Immacolata; Lorenti, Maurizio; Delledonne, Massimo; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Asard, Han; Buia, Maria Cristina; Palumbo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Studies regarding macroalgal responses to ocean acidification (OA) are mostly limited to short-term experiments in controlled conditions, which hamper the possibility to scale up the observations to long-term effects in the natural environment. To gain a broader perspective, we utilized volcanic CO2 vents as a "natural laboratory" to study OA effects on Sargassum vulgare at different time scales. We measured photosynthetic rates, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and activities of oxidative metabolic enzymes in S. vulgare growing at a natural acidified site (pH 6.7) compared to samples from a site with current pH (pH 8.2), used as a control one. These variables were also tested in plants transplanted from the control to the acidified site and vice-versa. After short-term exposure, photosynthetic rates and energy metabolism were increased in S. vulgare together with oxidative damage. However, in natural populations under long-term conditions photosynthetic rates were similar, the activity of oxidative metabolic enzymes was maintained, and no sign of oxidative damages was observed. The differences in the response of the macroalga indicate that the natural population at the acidified site is adapted to live at the lowered pH. The results suggest that this macroalga can adopt biochemical and physiological strategies to grow in future acidified oceans.

  20. Anthelmintic Activity of Crude Extract and Essential Oil of Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) against Adult Worms of Schistosoma mansoni

    PubMed Central

    Godinho, Loyana Silva; Aleixo de Carvalho, Lara Soares; Barbosa de Castro, Clarissa Campos; Dias, Mirna Meana; Pinto, Priscila de Faria; Crotti, Antônio Eduardo Miller; Pinto, Pedro Luiz Silva; de Moraes, Josué; Da Silva Filho, Ademar A.

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, a parasitic disease caused by trematode flatworms of the genus Schistosoma, affects more than 200 million people worldwide, and its control is dependent on a single drug, praziquantel. Tanacetum vulgare (Asteraceae) is used in folk medicine as a vermifuge. This study aimed to investigate the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of the crude extract (TV) and the essential oil (TV-EO) from the aerial parts of T. vulgare. TV-EO was obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS, which allowed the identification of β-thujone (84.13%) as the major constituent. TV and TV-EO, at 200 μg/mL, decreased motor activity and caused 100% mortality of all adult worms. At 100 and 50 μg/mL, only TV caused death of all adult worms, while TV-EO was inactive. TV (200 μg/mL) was also able to reduce viability and decrease production of developed eggs. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed morphological alterations in the tegument of the S. mansoni surface after incubation with TV (50 and 100 μg/mL). Quantitative analysis on the schistosomes tegument showed that TV caused changes in the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni male worms in a dose-dependent manner. The findings suggest that T. vulgare is a potential source of schistosomicidal compounds. PMID:24672320

  1. Can glandular hair density be a breeding marker for Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum with high essential oil content?

    PubMed

    Szabó, Krisztina; Sárosi, Szilvia; Cserháti, Beatrix; Ferenczy, Antal

    2010-09-01

    Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart is an essential oil rich plant traditionally used as oregano. Based on the interest of the essential oil producing sector, in 2000 we have started a breeding program of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. Plant material for our breeding work consists of 6 progeny. Individual evaluation of the plant material was carried out in 2008-2009 with the primary aim of finding mother plants with appropriate morphological features, high essential oil content (> 7%) and with carvacrol as the main essential oil component. Among the survey of morphological characteristics special attention was given to glandular hair density in order to test the usability of it as a morphological marker for screening progeny for high essential oil content. The characteristics of the progeny can be described with high variability ensuring the possibility of a good selection base. Evaluating the morphology, essential oil content and constitution of the individuals, 20 plants were selected on the grounds of their high (7-8.6%) essential oil content, high ratio (70-93%) of carvacrol in the essential oil and typical morphological features of O. vulgare subsp. hirtum. From the results of glandular hair density it can be stated that the correlation between glandular hair density of the upper, middle and lower leaves either on vegetative or generative shoots and essential oil content was never strong enough (correlation coefficient < or = 0.5) to use it exclusively as a morphological marker for individual selection.

  2. HvNax3--a locus controlling shoot sodium exclusion derived from wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum).

    PubMed

    Shavrukov, Yuri; Gupta, Narendra K; Miyazaki, Junji; Baho, Manahil N; Chalmers, Kenneth J; Tester, Mark; Langridge, Peter; Collins, Nicholas C

    2010-05-01

    Previous work identified the wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) accession CPI-71284-48 as being capable of limiting sodium (Na(+)) accumulation in the shoots under saline hydroponic growth conditions. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) analysis using a cross between CPI-71284-48 and a selection of the cultivated barley (H. vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar Barque (Barque-73, a moderate Na(+) excluder) attributed the control of the Na(+) exclusion trait from CPI-71284-48 to a single locus on the short arm of chromosome 7H, which was named HvNax3. The locus reduced shoot Na(+) accumulation by 10-25% in plants grown in 150 mM NaCl. Markers generated using colinearity with rice and Brachypodium, together with the analysis of introgression lines and F(2) and F(3) families, enabled HvNax3 to be mapped to a 1.3-cM interval. Genes from the corresponding rice and Brachypodium intervals encode 16 different classes of proteins and include several plausible candidates for HvNax3. The potential of HvNax3 to provide a useful trait contributing to salinity tolerance in cultivated barley is discussed.

  3. The potential of Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species

    PubMed Central

    Carmo, Egberto Santos; de Oliveira Lima, Edeltrudes; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2008-01-01

    Origanum vulgare L. (Lamiaceae) has been currently known for their interesting antimicrobial activity being regarded as alternative antimicrobial for use is food conservation systems. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of O. vulgare essential oil in inhibiting the growth of some food-related Aspergillus species (A. flavus, A. parasiticus, A. terreus, A. ochraceus, A. fumigatus and A. niger). The essential oil revealed a strong anti-Aspergillus property providing an inhibition of all assayed mould strains. MIC values were between 80 and 20 μL/mL being found a MIC50 of 40 μL/mL. The essential oil at concentration of 80 and 40 μL/mL provided a fungicidal effect on A. flavus, A. fumigatus and A. niger noted by a total inhibition of the radial mycelial growth along 14 days of interaction. In addition, the essential oil was able to inhibit the mould spores germination when assayed at concentrations of 80 and 40 μL/mL. Our results showed the interesting anti-Aspergillus activity of O. vulgare essential oil supporting their possible use as anti-mould compound in food conservation. PMID:24031231

  4. Characterization of microRNAs and their targets in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) using deep sequencing.

    PubMed

    Deng, Pingchuan; Bian, Jianxin; Yue, Hong; Feng, Kewei; Wang, Mengxing; Du, Xianghong; Weining, Song; Nie, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small, endogenous RNAs that play a negative regulatory role in various developmental and metabolic processes of plants. Wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum), as the progenitor of cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. vulgare), has served as a valuable germplasm resource for barley genetic improvement. To survey miRNAs in wild barley, we sequenced the small RNA library prepared from wild barley using the Illumina deep sequencing technology. A total of 70 known miRNAs and 18 putative novel miRNAs were identified. Sequence analysis revealed that all of the miRNAs identified in wild barley contained the highly conserved hairpin sequences found in barley cultivars. MiRNA target predictions showed that 12 out of 52 miRNA families were predicted to target transcription factors, including 8 highly conserved miRNA families in plants and 4 wheat-barley conserved miRNA families. In addition to transcription factors, other predicted target genes were involved in diverse physiological and metabolic processes and stress defense. Our study for the first time reported the large-scale investigation of small RNAs in wild barley, which will provide essential information for understanding the regulatory role of miRNAs in wild barley and also shed light on future practical utilization of miRNAs for barley improvement.

  5. Physiological and Biochemical Analyses Shed Light on the Response of Sargassum vulgare to Ocean Acidification at Different Time Scales

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Amit; AbdElgawad, Hamada; Castellano, Immacolata; Lorenti, Maurizio; Delledonne, Massimo; Beemster, Gerrit T. S.; Asard, Han; Buia, Maria Cristina; Palumbo, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Studies regarding macroalgal responses to ocean acidification (OA) are mostly limited to short-term experiments in controlled conditions, which hamper the possibility to scale up the observations to long-term effects in the natural environment. To gain a broader perspective, we utilized volcanic CO2 vents as a “natural laboratory” to study OA effects on Sargassum vulgare at different time scales. We measured photosynthetic rates, oxidative stress levels, antioxidant contents, antioxidant enzyme activities, and activities of oxidative metabolic enzymes in S. vulgare growing at a natural acidified site (pH 6.7) compared to samples from a site with current pH (pH 8.2), used as a control one. These variables were also tested in plants transplanted from the control to the acidified site and vice-versa. After short-term exposure, photosynthetic rates and energy metabolism were increased in S. vulgare together with oxidative damage. However, in natural populations under long-term conditions photosynthetic rates were similar, the activity of oxidative metabolic enzymes was maintained, and no sign of oxidative damages was observed. The differences in the response of the macroalga indicate that the natural population at the acidified site is adapted to live at the lowered pH. The results suggest that this macroalga can adopt biochemical and physiological strategies to grow in future acidified oceans. PMID:28469628

  6. Effect of prolonged water stress on essential oil content, compositions and gene expression patterns of mono- and sesquiterpene synthesis in two oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) subspecies.

    PubMed

    Morshedloo, Mohammad Reza; Craker, Lyle E; Salami, Alireza; Nazeri, Vahideh; Sang, Hyunkyu; Maggi, Filippo

    2017-02-01

    Origanum vulgare L., recognized throughout the world as a popular medicinal and flavoring herb, contains a wide array of medicinally active components, including phenolic glucosides, flavonoids, tannins, sterols and high amounts of terpenoids. Especially the latter are often extracted by hydrodistillation resulting in the so-called essential oil that is rich in monoterpenes (e.g. carvacrol, thymol, linalyl acetate) and/or sesquiterpenes (e.g. (E)-β-caryophyllene, germacrene D, bicyclogermacrene, β-caryophyllene oxide). Water stresses in the arid and semiarid regions of the world severely affect growth and productivity of oregano. To determine the variation in essential oil and gene expression pathway of Iranian oregano under prolonged water stress, two native subspecies of O. vulgare (subsp. virens and subsp. gracile) were studied. The plants, grown in pots, were subjected to three water stress conditions, i.e. no stress, mild stress (60± 5% FMC) and moderate stress (40± 5% FMC). The studied subspecies exhibited significant differences in essential oil content, compositions, and patterns of gene expression under water stress conditions. The essential oil of O. vulgare subsp. gracile was rich in the phenolic monoterpene carvacrol (46.86-52.07%), whereas the sesquiterpene hydrocarbon (Z)-α-bisabolene (39.17-42.64%) was the major constituent in the oil of O. vulgare subsp. virens. Both the mild and moderate water stresses significantly increased the essential oil content of O. vulgare subsp. gracile, but did not significantly change the essential oil content of O. vulgare subsp. virens nor the level of carvacrol and (Z)-α-bisabolene in the investigated subspecies. Interestingly, the amount of (E)-β-caryophyllene in O. vulgare subsp. virens was significantly increased under water stress conditions. Gene expression studies supported the above findings and demonstrated that there are two different pathways affecting the biosynthesis of the terpenoid

  7. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance

    PubMed Central

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R.; Hedley, Peter E.; Foyer, Christine H.; Hancock, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture. PMID:26038307

  8. Molecular classification of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) mutants using derivative NIR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wiley, Paul R; Tanner, Greg J; Chandler, Peter M; Anderssen, Robert S

    2009-05-27

    Near-infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy was used in the characterization of grain morphology mutants of barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) in relation to grain nitrogen (N) content and protein composition. Derivative spectroscopy provided spectra with enhanced resolution, allowing wavelengths to be identified with clear differences in contribution from associated chemical bonds. Comparisons of fourth-derivative spectra of wholemeal flour from high-N grains with flour from low-N grains identified wavelengths at which there were statistically significant differences between the groups. Their importance was independently confirmed by step-up regression using these wavelengths to generate an equation predicting N content (R(2) = 0.98). Fourth-derivative spectral comparisons also allowed novel biochemical differences to be predicted. Visual assessment of the spectra of all mutants revealed a variable region (1470-1520 nm, corresponding to N-H stretch vibrations) that allowed two extreme sets to be defined. The protein extracted from these two sets differed markedly in hordein content.

  9. [Polymorphism of hordein-coding loci in cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Afghanistan].

    PubMed

    Pomortsev, A A; Martynov, S P; Kovaleva, O N; Lialina, E V

    2010-11-01

    Polymorphism of hordeins encoded by the HrdA, Hrd B, and Hrd Floci was analyzed in 84 accessions of local barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varieties from major agricultural regions of Afghanistan using starch gel electrophoresis. Forty alleles of the Hrd A locus with the frequencies from 0.12 to 32.73%, 62 alleles of the Hrd B locus with the frequencies from 0.12 to 14.29%, and five alleles of the Hrd Flocus with the frequencies from 0.59 to 32.15% have been identified. The conclusion about genetic similarity of barley populations from different regions of Afghanistan is made on the basis of cluster analysis of the matrix of allele frequencies in barley populations from 31 localities. The local barley populations form four unequal clusters. The largest cluster I includes populations from 14 localities of Afghanistan. The second largest cluster IV consists of populations from ten localities, and clusters II and III comprise populations from four and three localities, respectively. Each of the four clusters includes populations from different regions of northern and southern Afghanistan. Based on our results, we conclude that the diversity of hordein-coding loci and the distribution of their alleles among different regions of Afghanistan are the consequences of introduction of barley landraces and their distribution over trade routes.

  10. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-08-06

    Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20-80 mg/ml and 5-15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 - 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 - 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 - 27.77% tannins, 0.55-0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents.

  11. Elevated CO2 reduces stomatal and metabolic limitations on photosynthesis caused by salinity in Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Usue; Robredo, Anabel; Lacuesta, Maite; Mena-Petite, Amaia; Muñoz-Rueda, Alberto

    2012-03-01

    The future environment may be altered by high concentrations of salt in the soil and elevated [CO(2)] in the atmosphere. These have opposite effects on photosynthesis. Generally, salt stress inhibits photosynthesis by stomatal and non-stomatal mechanisms; in contrast, elevated [CO(2)] stimulates photosynthesis by increasing CO(2) availability in the Rubisco carboxylating site and by reducing photorespiration. However, few studies have focused on the interactive effects of these factors on photosynthesis. To elucidate this knowledge gap, we grew the barley plant, Hordeum vulgare (cv. Iranis), with and without salt stress at either ambient or elevated atmospheric [CO(2)] (350 or 700 μmol mol(-1) CO(2), respectively). We measured growth, several photosynthetic and fluorescence parameters, and carbohydrate content. Under saline conditions, the photosynthetic rate decreased, mostly because of stomatal limitations. Increasing salinity progressively increased metabolic (photochemical and biochemical) limitation; this included an increase in non-photochemical quenching and a reduction in the PSII quantum yield. When salinity was combined with elevated CO(2), the rate of CO(2) diffusion to the carboxylating site increased, despite lower stomatal and internal conductance. The greater CO(2) availability increased the electron sink capacity, which alleviated the salt-induced metabolic limitations on the photosynthetic rate. Consequently, elevated CO(2) partially mitigated the saline effects on photosynthesis by maintaining favorable biochemistry and photochemistry in barley leaves.

  12. Self-corrective behavior for turn alternation in pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare).

    PubMed

    Moriyama, Toru; Migita, Masao; Mitsuishi, Meiji

    2016-01-01

    Pill bugs (Armadillidium vulgare) demonstrate a behavior called turn alternation that keeps their overall direction of movement straight after obstacles in experimental settings force them to deviate from a course. For example, this behavior is seen when they alternate their path choice on successive trials of the T-maze test. However, sometimes pill bugs stop after turning and change their direction (directional change). The function of this directional change has not been investigated because such individuals are usually omitted from the data. The present paper shows that pill bugs use directional changes to prevent them from turning in the same direction on two successive turns, a behavior called turn repetition. We examined the behavior of 36 pill bugs that each completed 130 successive T-maze trials. Directional changes appeared more frequently when individuals had begun a turn repetition than when they had begun a turn alternation. Furthermore, after correcting for turn repetition, turn alternations increased. These results suggest that pill bugs have an inherent mechanism that acts to maintain turn-alternating behavior. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Biogenesis of water splitting by photosystem II during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Shevela, Dmitriy; Arnold, Janine; Reisinger, Veronika; Berends, Hans-Martin; Kmiec, Karol; Koroidov, Sergey; Bue, Ann Kristin; Messinger, Johannes; Eichacker, Lutz A

    2016-07-01

    Etioplasts lack thylakoid membranes and photosystem complexes. Light triggers differentiation of etioplasts into mature chloroplasts, and photosystem complexes assemble in parallel with thylakoid membrane development. Plastids isolated at various time points of de-etiolation are ideal to study the kinetic biogenesis of photosystem complexes during chloroplast development. Here, we investigated the chronology of photosystem II (PSII) biogenesis by monitoring assembly status of chlorophyll-binding protein complexes and development of water splitting via O2 production in plastids (etiochloroplasts) isolated during de-etiolation of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Assembly of PSII monomers, dimers and complexes binding outer light-harvesting antenna [PSII-light-harvesting complex II (LHCII) supercomplexes] was identified after 1, 2 and 4 h of de-etiolation, respectively. Water splitting was detected in parallel with assembly of PSII monomers, and its development correlated with an increase of bound Mn in the samples. After 4 h of de-etiolation, etiochloroplasts revealed the same water-splitting efficiency as mature chloroplasts. We conclude that the capability of PSII to split water during de-etiolation precedes assembly of the PSII-LHCII supercomplexes. Taken together, data show a rapid establishment of water-splitting activity during etioplast-to-chloroplast transition and emphasize that assembly of the functional water-splitting site of PSII is not the rate-limiting step in the formation of photoactive thylakoid membranes. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Chlorophyll Fluorescence as a Possible Tool for Salinity Tolerance Screening in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Belkhodja, R.; Morales, F.; Abadia, A.; Gomez-Aparisi, J.; Abadia, J.

    1994-01-01

    The application of chlorophyll fluorescence measurements to screening barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes for salinity tolerance has been investigated. Excised barley leaves were cut under water and incubated with the cut end immersed in water or in a 100-mM NaCl solution, either in the dark or in high light. Changes in rapid fluorescence kinetics occurred in excised barley leaves exposed to the saline solution only when the incubation was carried out in the presence of high light. Fluorescence changes consisted of decreases in the variable to maximum fluorescence ratio and in increases in the relative proportion of variable fluorescence leading to point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve. These relative increases in fluorescence at point I appeared to arise from a delayed plastoquinone reoxidation in the dark, since they disappeared after short, far-red illumination, which is known to excite photosystem I preferentially. We show that a significant correlation existed between some fluorescence parameters, measured after a combined salt and high-light treatment, and other independent measurements of salinity tolerance. These results suggest that chlorophyll fluorescence, and especially the relative fluorescence at point I in the Kautsky fluorescence induction curve, could be used for the screening of barley genotypes for salinity tolerance. PMID:12232117

  15. Farmers without borders—genetic structuring in century old barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Forsberg, N E G; Russell, J; Macaulay, M; Leino, M W; Hagenblad, J

    2015-01-01

    The geographic distribution of genetic diversity can reveal the evolutionary history of a species. For crop plants, phylogeographic patterns also indicate how seed has been exchanged and spread in agrarian communities. Such patterns are, however, easily blurred by the intense seed trade, plant improvement and even genebank conservation during the twentieth century, and discerning fine-scale phylogeographic patterns is thus particularly challenging. Using historical crop specimens, these problems are circumvented and we show here how high-throughput genotyping of historical nineteenth century crop specimens can reveal detailed geographic population structure. Thirty-one historical and nine extant accessions of North European landrace barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), in total 231 individuals, were genotyped on a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism assay. The historical material shows constant high levels of within-accession diversity, whereas the extant accessions show more varying levels of diversity and a higher degree of total genotype sharing. Structure, discriminant analysis of principal components and principal component analysis cluster the accessions in latitudinal groups across country borders in Finland, Norway and Sweden. FST statistics indicate strong differentiation between accessions from southern Fennoscandia and accessions from central or northern Fennoscandia, and less differentiation between central and northern accessions. These findings are discussed in the context of contrasting historical records on intense within-country south to north seed movement. Our results suggest that although seeds were traded long distances, long-term cultivation has instead been of locally available, possibly better adapted, genotypes. PMID:25227257

  16. The best timing of mate search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea).

    PubMed

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods.

  17. The Best Timing of Mate Search in Armadillidium vulgare (Isopoda, Oniscidea)

    PubMed Central

    Beauché, Fanny; Richard, Freddie-Jeanne

    2013-01-01

    Mate choice is mediated by many components with the criteria varying across the animal kingdom. Chemical cues used for mate attractiveness can also reflect mate quality. Regarding the gregarious species Armadillidium vulgare (isopod crustacean), we tested whether individuals can discriminate conspecifics at two different levels (between sex and physiological status) based on olfactory perception. Tested conspecifics were individuals of the same or opposite sex, with the females at different moult stages. We found that the attractiveness of individuals was mediated by short-distance chemical cues and tested individuals were able to discriminate and prefer individuals of the opposite sex. Moreover, male preference to female increased during their moulting status as they matured. Males were particularly more attracted by females with appearing white calcium plates, which corresponds to the beginning of their higher receptivity period. These differences in attractiveness due to sex and physiological status are likely to shape the composition of aggregates and facilitate mate finding and optimize the reproductive success for both males and females. Thus aggregation pheromones could be linked to sex pheromones in terrestrial isopods. PMID:23469225

  18. Day-length effects on protein localisation affect water absorption in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Wilhelmson, Annika; Home, Silja; Poutanen, Kaisa; Shewry, Peter R

    2012-12-01

    Hordeins are major storage proteins of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) grains and are considered to influence malting and brewing by forming a matrix surrounding the starch granules which affects the release of fermentable sugars. However, the extent to which environmental factors affect hordein location, and the impact of this on malting performance, have not so far been studied. Therefore the relationship of hordein location to water uptake and malting quality were studied by growing barley cv. Barke under different daylengths (14 h and 18 h of light) in controlled environment conditions. Differences in the locations of hordein storage proteins were observed, with C hordein being located more deeply within the endosperm of both developing grains at 35 days after anthesis and in mature grains under long-day conditions. This deeper location of C hordein was correlated positively with water uptake during the steeping phase of malting. An effect of environment (daylength) on the localisation of C hordein was demonstrated. This difference in hordein localisation was also associated with differences in malting quality with water uptake in the steeping phase being associated positively with the deeper location of C hordein. These results indicate that environmental effects on protein location may affect malting performance of barley grains. Copyright © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Purification and partial characterization of aminopeptidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds.

    PubMed

    Oszywa, Bartosz; Makowski, Maciej; Pawełczak, Małgorzata

    2013-04-01

    Aminopeptidases (EC 3.4.11) are proteolytic enzymes, which hydrolyze one amino acid from N-terminus of peptidic substrates. Inhibitors of plant aminopeptidases can find an application in agriculture as herbicides. Isolation and partial characterization of aminopeptidase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seeds has been described. The enzyme was purified to molecular homogeneity using a six-step purification procedure (precipitation with (NH4)2SO4, followed by chromatography on Sephadex G-25, DEAE-Sepharose, Sephacryl HR 300, Macro-Prep Q and Phenyl-Sepharose HP columns). The enzyme was purified 365-fold with recovery above 18%. The molecular weight of the purified enzyme was determined by SDS-PAGE and gel filtration as 58 kDa, and was found to be a monomer. Its pH and temperature optima were 7.5 and 52 °C, respectively. The enzyme behaves as standard leucine aminopeptidase by preferring bulky amino acids at the N-terminus, with phenylalanine being of choice.

  20. Differences in shoot and root terpenoid profiles and plant responses to fertilisation in Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2013-12-01

    Intraspecific chemical diversity is a common phenomenon especially found in shoots of essential oil-accumulating plant species. Abiotic factors can influence the concentration of essential oils, but the effects are inconsistent and little is known in how far these may vary within an individual and within species between chemotypes. Tanacetum vulgare L. occurs in various chemotypes that differ in the composition of mono- and sesquiterpenoids in their shoot tissues. We investigated how far shoot chemotype grouping is mirrored in root terpenoid profiles. Furthermore, we studied whether different fertilisation amounts influence the plant growth and morphological traits as well as the constitutive terpenoid concentration of leaves and roots of three chemotypes, trans-carvyl acetate, β-thujone, and camphor, to different degrees. Shoot terpenoids were dominated by monoterpenoids, while the roots contained mainly sesquiterpenoids. The clear grouping in three chemotypes based on leaf chemistry was weakly mirrored in the root terpenoid composition. Furthermore, the leaf C/N ratio and the stem height differed between chemotypes. All plants responded to increased nutrient availability with increased total biomass and specific leaf area but decreased C/N and root/shoot ratios. Leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased with increasing fertiliser supply, independent of chemotype. In contrast to the leaves, the terpenoid concentrations of the roots were unaffected by fertilisation. Our results demonstrate that aboveground and belowground organs within a species can be under different selection pressures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed Central

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E.; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V.; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G.; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O.; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer. PMID:26257756

  2. Studies of the uptake of nitrate in barley. II. Energetics. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Glass, A.D.M.; Siddiqi, M.Y.; Ruth, T.J.; Rufty, T.W. Jr. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh )

    1990-08-01

    Q{sub 10} values for {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx were determined in uninduced (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-starved) and induced (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}-pretreated) roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants at various concentrations of external NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ((NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}). At 0.02 mole per cubic meter (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}, Q{sub 10} values for influx were from 3 to 4 between 5 and 10{degree}C. As (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0} increased Q{sub 10} values decreased, reaching values of 1.2 and 2.0, respectively, at 20 moles per cubic meter in uninduced and induced plants. The metabolic dependence of {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx at low and high (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0} (0.1 and 20.0 moles per cubic meter, respectively) in uninduced and induced plants was probed by the use of various inhibitors. These experiments confirmed the findings of the Q{sub 10} studies, demonstrating that at low (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0} {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx was extremely sensitive to metabolic inhibition. By contrast, at high (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}, influx was relatively insensitive to the presence of inhibitors.

  3. Absorption and translocation of selenium by plants. [Bromus mollis; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Atkins, C.E.; Epstein, E.

    1987-04-01

    The absorption of Se by the roots and its translocation to the shoots is being studied in the range grass, Bromus mollis. Seedlings are grown in a 0.1 modified Hoagland solution which is minus SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/ for 3 days before the experiment. Se is supplied as Na/sub 2/SeO/sub 4/ at 2.5 ..mu..M. The gamma emitting /sup 75/Se is used as a tracer. Se is translocated to the shoots quickly following its absorption; after 20 minutes the Se concentration in the shoots exceeds that in the roots. The influence of pH and of other anions (i.e. SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, SiO/sub 3//sup 2 -/, NO/sub 3//sup -/, and Cl/sup -/) on the absorption and translocation of this element is currently being examined. Absorption of Se by excised barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Arivat) roots follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics over the 2.5-100 ..mu..M range; a low-affinity mechanism comes into play at higher concentrations. Absorption by the former (high-affinity) mechanism is competitively inhibited by SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, is little affected by NO/sub 3//sup -/ and Cl/sup -/, and is pH dependent. Over the 4-8 pH range absorption was maximal at pH 4, but only twice that found at pH 8.

  4. High performance liquid chromatography resolution of ubiquitin pathway enzymes from wheat germ. [Triticum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Sullivan, M.L.; Callis, J.; Vierstra, R.D. )

    1990-10-01

    The highly conserved protein ubiquitin is involved in several cellular processes in eukaryotes as a result of its covalent ligation to a variety of target proteins. Here, we describe the purification of several enzymatic activities involved in ubiquitin-protein conjugate formation and disassembly from wheat germ (Triticum vulgare) by a combination of ubiquitin affinity chromatography and anion-exchange high performance liquid chromatography. Using this procedure, ubiquitin activating enzyme (E1), several distinct ubiquitin carrier proteins (E2s) with molecular masses of 16, 20, 23, 23.5, and 25 kilodaltons, and a ubiquitin-protein hydrolase (isopeptidase) were isolated. Purified E1 formed a thiol ester linkage with {sup 125}I-ubiquitin in an ATP-dependent manner and transferred bound ubiquitin to the various purified E2s. The ubiquitin protein hydrolase fraction was sensitive to hemin, and in an ATP-independent reaction, was capable of removing the ubiquitin moiety from both ubiquitin {sup 125}I-lysozyme conjugates ({epsilon}-amino or isopeptide linkage) and the ubiquitin 52-amino acid extension protein fusion ({alpha}-amino or peptide linkage). Using this procedure, wheat germ represents an inexpensive source from which enzymes involved in the ubiquitin pathway may be isolated.

  5. Host origin and tissue microhabitat shaping the microbiota of the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Dittmer, Jessica; Lesobre, Jérôme; Moumen, Bouziane; Bouchon, Didier

    2016-05-01

    We present the first in-depth investigation of the host-associated microbiota of the terrestrial isopod crustacean Armadillidium vulgare. This species is an important decomposer of organic matter in terrestrial ecosystems and a major model organism for arthropod-Wolbachia symbioses due to its well-characterized association with feminizing Wolbachia 16S rRNA gene pyrotags were used to characterize its bacterial microbiota at multiple levels: (i) in individuals from laboratory lineages and field populations and (ii) in various host tissues. This integrative approach allowed us to reveal an unexpectedly high bacterial diversity, placing this species in the same league as termites in terms of symbiotic diversity. Interestingly, both animal groups belong to the same ecological guild in terrestrial ecosystems. While Wolbachia represented the predominant taxon in infected individuals, it was not the only major player. Together, the most abundant taxa represented a large scope of symbiotic interactions, including bacterial pathogens, a reproductive parasite (Wolbachia) and potential nutritional symbionts. Furthermore, we demonstrate that individuals from different populations harboured distinct bacterial communities, indicating a strong link between the host-associated microbiota and environmental bacteria, possibly due to terrestrial isopod nutritional ecology. Overall, this work highlights the need for more studies of host-microbiota interactions and bacterial diversity in non-insect arthropods.

  6. Green Synthesis and Characterization of Palladium Nanoparticles Using Origanum vulgare L. Extract and Their Catalytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Shaik, Mohammed Rafi; Ali, Zuhur Jameel Qandeel; Khan, Mujeeb; Kuniyil, Mufsir; Assal, Mohamed E; Alkhathlan, Hamad Z; Al-Warthan, Abdulrahman; Siddiqui, Mohammed Rafiq H; Khan, Merajuddin; Adil, Syed Farooq

    2017-01-19

    The synthesis of Palladium (Pd) nanoparticles by green methods has attracted remarkable attention in recent years because of its superiority above chemical approaches, owing to its low cost and ecological compatibility. In this present work, we describe a facile and environmentally friendly synthesis of Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) using an aqueous extract of aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OV) as a bioreductant. This plant is available in many parts of the world as well as in Saudi Arabia and is known to be a rich source of phenolic components, a feature we fruitfully utilized in the synthesis of Pd NPs, using various concentrations of plant extracts. Moreover, the OV extract phytomolecules are not only accountable for the reduction and progression of nanoparticles, but they also act as stabilizing agents, which was confirmed by several characterization methods. The as-synthesized Pd nanoparticles (Pd NPs) were analyzed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). Further, FT-IR study has proven that the OV not merely represents a bioreductant but also functionalizes the nanoparticles. Furthermore, the green synthesized metallic Pd NPs were successfully applied as catalysts for selective oxidation of alcohols.

  7. Nanobubble water's promotion effect of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) sprouts supported by RNA-Seq analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shu; Oshita, Seiichi; Kawabata, Saneyuki; Thuyet, Dang Quoc

    2017-10-01

    The physiological promotion effect of nanobubble (NB) water on living organism is a still poorly understood phenomenon which was discovered one decade ago. Here, we analysed the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) embryo transcriptome following exposure to NB water and low concentration hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) using RNA-Seq. We found that 349 genes were differentially expressed in response to 24-h exposure of NB water, and 97 genes were differentially expressed after exposure to H2O2. GO enrichment and cluster analyses revealed that NB water-induced expression of genes related to cell division and cell wall loosening. RNA-Seq, quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and enzyme activity measurements all pointed to genes encoding peroxidases as a major factor responsible for the effects of physiological enhancement due to NB water. The exogenous hydroxyl radical (•OH) produced by NB water significantly increased expression of genes related to peroxidase and NADPH, thus leading to an increased endogenous superoxide anion (O2•-) inside the barley seed. Appropriately low concentrations of exogenously added reactive oxygen species (ROS) and endogenous ROS played important roles in plant growth and development. When ROS levels were low, the endogenous ROS was eliminated by ascorbate peroxidase (APX) and other peroxidases instead of activating the catalase (CAT) and superoxidase dismutase (SOD). This dataset will serve as the foundation for a system biology approach to understand NB water's physiological promoting effects on living organisms.

  8. Senescence-induced iron mobilization in source leaves of barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rongli; Weber, Günther; Köster, Jessica; Reza-Hajirezaei, Mohammad; Zou, Chunqin; Zhang, Fusuo; von Wirén, Nicolaus

    2012-07-01

    • Retranslocation of iron (Fe) from source leaves to sinks requires soluble Fe binding forms. As much of the Fe is protein-bound and associated with the leaf nitrogen (N) status, we investigated the role of N in Fe mobilization and retranslocation under N deficiency- vs dark-induced leaf senescence. • By excluding Fe retranslocation from the apoplastic root pool, Fe concentrations in source and sink leaves from hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants were determined in parallel with the concentrations of potential Fe chelators and the expression of genes involved in phytosiderophore biosynthesis. • N supply showed opposing effects on Fe pools in source leaves, inhibiting Fe export out of source leaves under N sufficiency but stimulating Fe export from source leaves under N deficiency, which partially alleviated Fe deficiency-induced chlorosis. Both triggers of leaf senescence, shading and N deficiency, enhanced NICOTIANAMINE SYNTHASE2 gene expression, soluble Fe pools in source leaves, and phytosiderophore and citrate rather than nicotianamine concentrations. • These results indicate that Fe mobilization within senescing leaves is independent of a concomitant N sink in young leaves and that phytosiderophores enhance Fe solubility in senescing source leaves, favoring subsequent Fe retranslocation.

  9. Non-reciprocal interactions between K+ and Na+ ions in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Kronzucker, Herbert J.; Szczerba, Mark W.; Schulze, Lasse M.; Britto, Dev T.

    2008-01-01

    The interaction of sodium and potassium ions in the context of the primary entry of Na+ into plant cells, and the subsequent development of sodium toxicity, has been the subject of much recent attention. In the present study, the technique of compartmental analysis with the radiotracers 42K+ and 24Na+ was applied in intact seedlings of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to test the hypothesis that elevated levels of K+ in the growth medium will reduce both rapid, futile Na+ cycling at the plasma membrane, and Na+ build-up in the cytosol of root cells, under saline conditions (100 mM NaCl). We reject this hypothesis, showing that, over a wide (400-fold) range of K+ supply, K+ neither reduces the primary fluxes of Na+ at the root plasma membrane nor suppresses Na+ accumulation in the cytosol. By contrast, 100 mM NaCl suppressed the cytosolic K+ pool by 47–73%, and also substantially decreased low-affinity K+ transport across the plasma membrane. We confirm that the cytosolic [K+]:[Na+] ratio is a poor predictor of growth performance under saline conditions, while a good correlation is seen between growth and the tissue ratios of the two ions. The data provide insight into the mechanisms that mediate the toxic influx of sodium across the root plasma membrane under salinity stress, demonstrating that, in the glycophyte barley, K+ and Na+ are unlikely to share a common low-affinity pathway for entry into the plant cell. PMID:18562445

  10. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents

    PubMed Central

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol. PMID:27051475

  11. Response of Microcystis aeruginosa BCCUSP 232 to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) straw degradation extract and fractions.

    PubMed

    Mecina, Gustavo Franciscatti; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Chia, Mathias Ahii; Cordeiro-Araújo, Micheline Kézia; do Carmo Bittencourt-Oliveira, Maria; da Silva, Regildo Márcio Gonçalves

    2017-12-01

    The eutrophication of aquatic ecosystems is a serious environmental problem that leads to increased frequency of cyanobacterial blooms and concentrations of cyanotoxins. These changes in aquatic chemistry can negatively affect animal and human health. Environment-friendly methods are needed to control bloom forming cyanobacteria. We investigated the effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (barley) straw degradation extract and its fractions on the growth, oxidative stress, antioxidant enzyme activities, and microcystins content of Microcystis aeruginosa (Kützing) Kützing BCCUSP232. Exposure to the extract significantly (p<0.05) inhibited the growth of M. aeruginosa throughout the study, whereas only the highest concentration of fractions 1 and 2 significantly (p<0.05) reduced the growth of the cyanobacterium on day 10 of the experiment. The production of reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activities were significantly (p<0.05) altered by the extract and fractions 1 and 2. Phytochemical profiling of the extract and its fractions revealed that the barley straw degradation process yielded predominantly phenolic acids. These results demonstrate that barley straw extract and its fractions can efficiently interfere with the growth and development of M. aeruginosa under laboratory conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Photosynthetic and Photorespiratory Characteristics of Mutants of Hordeum vulgare L 1

    PubMed Central

    McCashin, Barry G.; Canvin, David T.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthesis and photorespiration was determined in normal and 26 mutants of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var. Himalaya). The rate of apparent photosynthesis ranged from 1 to 30 milligrams of CO2 per square decimeter per hour. The variation in rate of photosynthesis was due, in some cases, to differences in chlorophyll content, in others to stomatal resistance, and in still others to unknown factors; but no single factor accounted for the variation. Photorespiratory activity, as determined by the 14CO2/12CO2 technique, CO2 evolution into CO2-free air, and the response of photosynthesis to low and high O2 concentrations, was positively and significantly correlated with photosynthesis. This supports the idea that the two processes are integrally and tightly coupled. There appears to be no competition between photosynthesis and photorespiration, and the probability of finding plants with high rates of photosynthesis and low rates of photorespiration measured under natural conditions, appears to be very low. PMID:16660965

  13. Evaluation of antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects of aqueous extract of Armadillidium vulgare Latreille.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shen-Shen; Ren, Meng-Yue; Song, Shuai; Wei, Ping; Luo, Jia-Bo

    2017-02-01

    To assess the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties of the aqueous extract of Armadillidium vulgare (AV). The antinociceptive effect of AV (400, 600 and 800 mg/kg) was investigated in mice using the acetic acid-induced writhing, formalin-induced nociceptive, and hot plate tests. Phlogogen-induced paw edema using carrageenan, dextran, or compound 48/80 as phlogogen was used as inflammatory models to evaluate AV's anti-inflammatory effect. Additionally, the bioactive substances glucosamine (GLcN) and taurine in AV were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography. Oral treatment of the mice with AV (600 and 800 mg/kg) significantly reduced the number of writhes in the acetic acid-induced writhing test (P<0.01) but not the hot plate test (P>0.05). All doses tested significantly inhibited paw-withdrawal during the second phase of the formalin-induced nociceptive model (P<0.01). AV demonstrated a strong anti-inflammatory effect in all those inflammatory models (P<0.05). AV has antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects, providing scientific evidence of the efficacy of its traditional use in pain treatment. Furthermore, GLcN and taurine contribute, at least in part, to the anti-inflammatory activity of AV.

  14. Chlorophyll Biosynthetic Reactions during Senescence of Excised Barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv IB 65) Leaves.

    PubMed Central

    Hukmani, P.; Tripathy, B. C.

    1994-01-01

    The chlorophyll (Chl) biosynthetic reactions were monitored during senescence of dark-incubated excised barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv IB 65) leaves floated in double-distilled water or kinetin solution. Kinetin abolished the degradation of Chl but failed to check the net degradation of protochlorophyllide (Pchlide), suggesting that different sets of enzymes, i.e. kinetin sensitive and insensitive, are responsible for the degradation of Chl and Pchlide, respectively. Upon exposure of the leaves to light, the dark-accumulated Pchlide was efficiently phototransformed to chorophyllide (Chlide), even on the 7th d of dark incubation, demonstrating that the activity of Pchlide reductase, one of the late enzymes of the Chl biosynthetic pathway, is not substantially affected during senescence. The senescing leaves continued to synthesize Pchlide and Chlide until the 7th d, although at a reduced rate (20% of the 1st d). The decline of the rate of synthesis of Pchlide and Chlide is due to the loss of activity of two early enzymes of the Chl biosynthetic pathway, i.e. 5-aminolevulinic acid dehydratase and porphobilinogen deaminase. Kinetin substantially checked the loss of activity of these two enzymes. PMID:12232286

  15. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy surface analysis of aluminum ion stress in barley roots. [Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Millard, M.M.; Foy, C.D.; Coradetti, C.A.; Reinsel, M.D. )

    1990-06-01

    X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) has been used to analyze root surface changes when Dayton barley (Hordeum vulgare) (Al tolerant) and Kearney barley (Al sensitive) seedlings were grown in nutrient solution in the presence and absence of 37.0 micromolar Al. The electron spectra from root surfaces contained strong lines in order of decreasing intensity from organic forms of carbon, oxygen, and nitrogen and weak lines due to inorganic elements in the form of anions and cations on the surface. The surface composition of root tips from Kearney was C, 65.6%; 0, 26.8%; N, 4.4% and tips from Dayton was C, 72.7%; O, 23.6%; N, 1.9%, grown in the absence of aluminum. Electron lines characteristic of nitrate, potassium, chloride, phosphate were also present in the spectra from those roots. Dayton roots grown in the presence of 37.0 micromolar aluminum contained 2.1% aluminum while Kearney contained 1.3% aluminum. The ratio of aluminum to phosphate was close to 1.0. Dayton roots usually contained twice as much aluminum phosphate in the surface region as Kearney. Dayton may be less susceptible to Al toxic effects by accumulation of aluminum phosphate on the root surface which then acts as a barrier to the transport of aluminum into the interior of the roots.

  16. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Acid Soil Resistance in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Gaofeng; Broughton, Sue; Zhang, Xiao-Qi; Ma, Yanling; Zhou, Meixue; Li, Chengdao

    2016-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) based on linkage disequilibrium (LD) have been used to detect QTLs underlying complex traits in major crops. In this study, we collected 218 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lines including wild barley and cultivated barley from China, Canada, Australia, and Europe. A total of 408 polymorphic markers were used for population structure and LD analysis. GWAS for acid soil resistance were performed on the population using a general linkage model (GLM) and a mixed linkage model (MLM), respectively. A total of 22 QTLs (quantitative trait loci) were detected with the GLM and MLM analyses. Two QTLs, close to markers bPb-1959 (133.1 cM) and bPb-8013 (86.7 cM), localized on chromosome 1H and 4H respectively, were consistently detected in two different trials with both the GLM and MLM analyses. Furthermore, bPb-8013, the closest marker to the major Al3+ resistance gene HvAACT1 in barley, was identified to be QTL5. The QTLs could be used in marker-assisted selection to identify and pyramid different loci for improved acid soil resistance in barley. PMID:27064793

  17. Effect of three safeners on sulfur assimilation and iron deficiency response in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants.

    PubMed

    Bartucca, Maria Luce; Celletti, Silvia; Astolfi, Stefania; Mimmo, Tanja; Cesco, Stefano; Panfili, Ivan; Del Buono, Daniele

    2017-01-01

    Safeners are agrochemicals used in agriculture to protect crops from herbicide injuries. They act by stimulating herbicide metabolism. As graminaceous plants, to cope with iron (Fe) deficiency, activate sulfur (S) metabolism and release huge amounts of Fe-chelating compounds, or phytosiderophores (PSs), we investigated, in barley plants (Hordeum vulgare, L.) grown in Fe deficiency, the effects of three safeners on two enzymes of S assimilation, cysteine (Cys) and glutathione (GSH), and PS release. Finally, we monitored the root Fe content in plants treated with the most effective safener. Generally, all the safeners activated S metabolism and increased Cys and GSH contents. In addition, the safened plants excreted higher levels of PSs. Given that mefenpyr-diethyl (Mef) was the most effective in causing these effects, we assessed the Fe concentration in Mef-treated barley and found higher Fe levels than those in untreated plants. The three safeners, in different ways but specifically, activated S reductive metabolism and regulated Cys and GSH contents, PS release rate and Fe content (Mef-treated barley). The results of this research provide new indications of the biochemical and physiological mechanisms involved in the safening action. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  18. A new allele for aluminium tolerance gene in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ma, Yanling; Li, Chengdao; Ryan, Peter R; Shabala, Sergey; You, Jianfeng; Liu, Jie; Liu, Chunji; Zhou, Meixue

    2016-03-05

    Aluminium (Al) toxicity is the main factor limiting the crop production in acid soils and barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is one of the most Al-sensitive of the small-grained cereals. The major gene for Al tolerance in barley is HvAACT1 (HvMATE) on chromosome 4H which encodes a multidrug and toxic compound extrusion (MATE) protein. The HvAACT1 protein facilitates the Al-activated release of citrate from root apices which protects the growing cells and enables root elongation to continue. A 1 kb transposable element-like insert in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of HvAACT1 is associated with increased gene expression and tolerance and a PCR-based marker is available to score for this insertion. We screened a wide range of barley genotypes for Al tolerance and identified a moderately tolerant Chinese genotype named CXHKSL which did not show the typical allele in the 5' UTR of HvAACT1 associated with tolerance. We investigated the mechanism of Al tolerance in CXHKSL and concluded it also relies on the Al-activated release of citrate from roots. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of double haploid lines generated with CXHKSL and the Al-sensitive variety Gairdner mapped the tolerance locus to the same region as HvAACT1 on chromosome 4H. Our results show that the Chinese barley genotype CXHKSL possesses a novel allele of the major Al tolerance gene HvAACT1.

  19. Essential oil diversity of Origanum vulgare L. populations from Southern Italy.

    PubMed

    Mastro, Giuseppe De; Tarraf, Waed; Verdini, Leonardo; Brunetti, Gianluca; Ruta, Claudia

    2017-11-15

    Essential oils (EOs) belonging to 25 wild populations of Origanum vulgare L. samples, growing wild in different locations of Calabria Region (Southern Italy), were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The quantitative and qualitative data showed EO concentrations ranging from 0.96 to 5.10% and 37 compounds detected, representing more than 80% of the total composition of the oils. By applying hierarchical cluster analysis on the basis of the EO constituents, two main groups and three subgroups were found, reflecting the variation in the chemical composition of EOs from wild oregano populations. The first group consisted of acyclic (linalool/linalyl acetate) chemotypes with a predominant presence of linalyl acetate; the second was characterized by chemotypes rich in cymyl-compounds, mainly carvacrol, thymol and γ-terpinene. The data obtained contribute to broaden the inventory of wild oregano populations from Calabria to plan programs for the selection of chemotypes with new and specific uses. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Changing environmental conditions and applying organic fertilizers in Origanum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Amador, Bernardo; Morales-Prado, Luis E; Troyo-Diéguez, Enrique; Córdoba-Matson, Miguel V; Hernández-Montiel, Luis G; Rueda-Puente, Edgar O; Nieto-Garibay, Alejandra

    2015-01-01

    Any improvement in agricultural systems that results in higher production should also reduce negative environmental impacts and enhance sustainability. The aim of this research was to investigate the effect of two different production systems, one open-field and the other shade-enclosure with four bocashi doses, in order to find the best environmental option in terms of yield, physiological and morphometric characteristics in one oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) cultivar. In this study a completely randomized block design was used with four replications and evaluated for photosynthetic and transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, chlorophyll, leaf area and temperature, aerial and roots fresh and dry biomass, fresh and dry yield. The results showed that oregano adapted best to the shade-enclosure with increase yield of fresh and dry leaf weight of 165% and 118%, respectively, when compared to open-field. Also, higher doses of bocashi improved yield in both environments but more so in shade-enclosure. Soil moisture retention was higher in shade-enclosure which was reflected in physiological variables for soil matric potential, transpiration, stomatal conductivity, photosynthesis being significantly higher in shade-enclosure compared to open-field, thus improving yield. It seems that oregano plants can be grown and perform better under shade-enclosure than open-field and bocashi is a suitable organic fertilizer.

  1. Antioxidant, Antibacterial, and Cytotoxic Activities of the Ethanolic Origanum vulgare Extract and Its Major Constituents.

    PubMed

    Coccimiglio, John; Alipour, Misagh; Jiang, Zi-Hua; Gottardo, Christine; Suntres, Zacharias

    2016-01-01

    Oregano is a perennial shrub that grows in the mountains of the Mediterranean and Euro/Irano-Siberian regions. This study was conducted to identify the major constituents of the ethanolic Origanum vulgare extract and examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial properties of the extract but more importantly the contribution of its specific major constituent(s) or their combination to the overall extract biological activity. Gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy analysis showed that the extract contained monoterpene hydrocarbons and phenolic compounds, the major ones being carvacrol and thymol and to a lesser extent p-cymene, 1-octacosanol, creosol, and phytol. A549 epithelial cells challenged with the extract showed a concentration-dependent increase in cytotoxicity. A combination of thymol and carvacrol at equimolar concentrations to those present in the extract was less cytotoxic. The A549 cells pretreated with nonlethal extract concentrations protected against hydrogen-peroxide-induced cytotoxicity, an antioxidant effect more effective than the combination of equimolar concentrations of thymol/carvacrol. Inclusion of p-cymene and/or 1-octacosanol did not alter the synergistic antioxidant effects of the carvacrol/thymol mixture. The extract also exhibited antimicrobial properties against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains including clinical isolates. In conclusion, the oregano extract has cytotoxic, antioxidant, and antibacterial activities mostly attributed to carvacrol and thymol.

  2. Antibacterial activity of oregano (Origanum vulgare Linn.) against gram positive bacteria.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Sabahat; Tariq, Perween

    2009-10-01

    The present investigation is focused on antibacterial potential of infusion, decoction and essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare) against 111 Gram-positive bacterial isolates belonging to 23 different species related to 3 genera. Infusion and essential oil exhibited antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus saprophyticus, S. aureus, Micrococcus roseus, M. kristinae, M. nishinomiyaensis, M. lylae, M. luteus, M. sedentarius, M. varians, Bacillus megaterium, B. thuringiensis, B. alvei, B. circulans, B. brevis, B. coagulans, B. pumilus, B. laterosporus, B. polymyxa, B. macerans, B. subtilis, B. firmus, B. cereus and B. lichiniformis. The infusion exhibited maximum activity against B. laterosporus (17.5 mm mean zone of inhibition+/-1.5 Standard deviation) followed by B. polymyxa (17.0 mm+/-2.0 SD) and essential oil of oregano exhibited maximum activity against S. saprophyticus (16.8 mm+/-1.8 SD) followed by B. circulans (14.5 mm+/-0.5 SD). While all these tested isolates were found resistant to decoction of oregano.

  3. A subchronic 90-day oral toxicity study of Origanum vulgare essential oil in rats.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Maisanaba, S; Puerto, M; Pichardo, S; Jos, A; Moyano, R; Cameán, A M

    2017-03-01

    Oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) (OEO) is being used in the food industry due to its useful properties to develop new active packaging systems. In this concern, the safety assessment of this natural extract is of great interest before being commercialized. The European Food Safety Authority requests different in vivo assays to ensure the safety of food contact materials. One of these studies is a 90 days repeated-dose oral assay in rodents. In the present work, 40 male and 40 female Wistar rats were orally exposed to 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) OEO during 90 days following the OECD guideline 408. Data revealed no mortality and no treatment-related adverse effects of the OEO in food/water consumption, body weight, haematology, biochemistry, necropsy, organ weight and histopathology. These findings suggest that the oral no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of this OEO is 200 mg/kg b.w. in Wistar rats, the highest dose tested. In conclusion, the use of this OEO in food packaging appears to be safe based on the lack of toxicity during the subchronic study at doses 330-fold higher than those expected to be in contact consumers in the worst scenario of exposure.

  4. Distinguishing Foeniculum vulgare fruit from two adulterants by combination of microscopy and GC-MS analysis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Xiao-Dong; Mao, Wen-Wen; Zhou, Ping; Li, Ping; Li, Hui-Jun

    2015-07-01

    Foeniculum vulgare fruit (FVF) is a widely used traditional medicine. However, two adulterants, namely Anethum graveolens fruit (AGF) and Cuminum cyminum fruit (CCF), have been found in use as FVF in China owing to similar appearance and odor. For the purpose of accurate differentiation of the three herbal medicines, extensive anatomical examination and chemical profiling were conducted. Using light microscopy and fluorescence microscopy, the macroscopic and microscopic features of the three species were compared. It was found that some microscopic characteristics, including transverse shape of mericarp, presence or absence of reticulate cells and non-glandular hairs, as well as fluorescence of endocarp, were of diagnostic significance. Moreover, essential oils were qualitatively and semi-quantitatively analyzed using GC-MS. The analytical results indicated significant chemical variations in different species: in FVF, trans-anethole (83.20%) was the predominant volatile compound followed by estragole (5.03%) and limonene (3.45%), while in AGF, the first, second and third compounds with highest content were carvone (42.58%), apiol (20.76%) and limonene (20.32%), and in CCF were cuminlaldehyde (36.00%), 2-caren-10-al (23.25%) and γ-terpinene (9.65%), respectively. In conclusion, the proposed light microscopy coupled with fluorescence microscopy and/or GC-MS analysis allowed successful distinguishing FVF from AGF and CCF.

  5. Cytotoxicity of syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol isolated from Foeniculum vulgare on selected human cell lines.

    PubMed

    Lall, Namrita; Kishore, Navneet; Binneman, Brigitte; Twilley, Danielle; van de Venter, Maryna; du Plessis-Stoman, Debbie; Boukes, Gerhardt; Hussein, Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the cytotoxic effect of seven plant extracts and the isolated compounds - syringin and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol - on cancerous and non-cancerous cells. The ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare was found to exhibit the most significant toxicity with an IC50 value of 19.97 μg/mL on HeLa cells. Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of two compounds, syringin (1) and 4-methoxycinnamyl alcohol (2). Both compounds showed toxicity against MCF-7, HeLa and DU145 cancer cell line. The results showed that compound 2 showed high toxicity against all the cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 14.24, 7.82 and 22.10 μg/mL, respectively. 4-Methoxycinnamyl alcohol also showed no apoptotic effect in cell cycle analysis after 48 h at a concentration of 10 μg/mL. However, DNA fragmentation study revealed that necrosis took place at a concentration of 10 μg/mL after 48 h exposure.

  6. Essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. fruits from pharmacies in different countries.

    PubMed

    Raal, Ain; Orav, Anne; Arak, Elmar

    2012-01-01

    Variations in the essential oil composition of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. commercial fruits obtained from retail pharmacies in Estonia, Norway, Austria and Moldova and from a spice shop in Turkey were determined using capillary GC techniques. The essential oil content of all the samples was 5-51 mL kg(-1) and between 22 and 51 mL kg(-1) in fennel fruits bought from pharmacies. A total of 34 compounds were identified. The major component was trans-anethole (34.8-82.0%); the other principal compounds in oils were fenchone (1.6-22.8%), estragole (2.4-17.0%), limonene (0.8-16.5%), and cis-anethole (0.1-8.6%). The yield of essential oil (5.0 mL kg(-1)) and content of trans-anethole was very low (34.8%) in the Turkish spice sample. Maximum yield of essential oil was found in fennel from Norway and Austria (50.7 and 50.5 mL kg(-1), respectively); these samples were rich in fenchone (21.2% and 22.8%), but contained less trans-anethole (64.6-63.7) than samples from Estonia and Moldova (82.0% and 80.9%). The typical samples of sweet fennel (bought from Estonia and Moldova) and bitter fennel (from Norway and Austria) were found to conform completely or partially to EP standards, although fennel type was always not marked on the packages.

  7. Bulbosum to Go: A Toolbox to Utilize Hordeum vulgare/bulbosum Introgressions for Breeding and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Wendler, Neele; Mascher, Martin; Himmelbach, Axel; Johnston, Paul; Pickering, Richard; Stein, Nils

    2015-10-05

    Hordeum bulbosum L., a wild relative of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), has been considered as a valuable source of genetic diversity for barley improvement. Since the 1990s, a considerable number of barley/H. bulbosum introgression lines (IL)s has been generated, with segments introgressed from H. bulbosum harboring a diverse set of desirable traits. However, the efficient utilization of these ILs has been hampered, largely due to the lack of suitable molecular tools for their genetic characterization and highly reduced interspecific recombination frequencies in the region of the introgression. In the present study, we utilized genotyping-by-sequencing for the detailed molecular characterization of 145 ILs. Genotypic information allows the genetic diversity within the set of ILs to be determined and a strategy was outlined to tackle the obstacle of reduced recombination frequencies. Furthermore, we compiled exome capture re-sequencing information of barley and H. bulbosum and designed an integrated barley/H. bulbosum sequence resource with polymorphism information on interspecific and intraspecific sequence variations of both species. The integrated sequence will be valuable for marker development in barley/H. bulbosum ILs derived from any barley and H. bulbosum donors. This study provides the tools for the widespread utilization of barley/H. bulbosum ILs in applied barley breeding and academic research.

  8. The Discovery of Resistant Sources of Spring Barley, Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum, and Unique Greenbug Biotypes.

    PubMed

    Armstrong, J Scott; Mornhinweg, Dolores W; Payton, Mark E; Puterka, Gary J

    2016-02-01

    The genetic sources for host-plant resistance to the greenbug (Schizaphis graminum Rondani) in barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) are limited in that only two single dominant genes Rsg1 and Rsg2 are available for the complex of greenbug biotypes. We evaluated four new barley lines from the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) that previously showed potential for greenbug resistance. Three of those entries, WBDC 53, WBDC 117, WBDC 336, exhibited very dominant sources of resistance to older known biotypes B, C, E, F, H, I, and TX1, which also add to the host-plant differentials used to separate these greenbug biotypes. We also re-evaluated the earlier known set of greenbug biotypes that have been in culture for several years against the known host-plant differentials, and included seven newer greenbug isolates collected from Wyoming to the full complement of small grain differentials. This resulted in the discovery of five new greenbug biotypes, WY10 MC, WY81, WY10 B, WY12 MC, and WY86. Wyoming isolates WY4 A and WY4 B were identical in their phenotypic profile, and should be combined as a single unique greenbug biotype. These barley trials resulted in finding new sources of host-plant resistance, although more research needs to be conducted on what type of resistance was found, and how it can be used. We also document that the Wheatland, Wyoming area serves as a very conducive environment for the development of new greenbug biotypes.

  9. HvZIP7 mediates zinc accumulation in barley (Hordeum vulgare) at moderately high zinc supply.

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn K; Genc, Yusuf; Pedas, Pai; Hayes, Julie E; Toubia, John; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2014-01-01

    High expression of zinc (Zn)-regulated, iron-regulated transporter-like protein (ZIP) genes increases root Zn uptake in dicots, leading to high accumulation of Zn in shoots. However, none of the ZIP genes tested previously in monocots could enhance shoot Zn accumulation. In this report, barley (Hordeum vulgare) HvZIP7 was investigated for its functions in Zn transport. The functions of HvZIP7 in planta were studied using in situ hybridization and transient analysis of subcellular localization with a green fluorescent protein (GFP) reporter. Transgenic barley lines overexpressing HvZIP7 were also generated to further understand the functions of HvZIP7 in metal transport. HvZIP7 is strongly induced by Zn deficiency, primarily in vascular tissues of roots and leaves, and its protein was localized in the plasma membrane. These properties are similar to its closely related homologs in dicots. Overexpression of HvZIP7 in barley plants increased Zn uptake when moderately high concentrations of Zn were supplied. Significantly, there was a specific enhancement of shoot Zn accumulation, with no measurable increase in iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu) or cadmium (Cd). HvZIP7 displays characteristics of low-affinity Zn transport. The unique function of HvZIP7 provides new insights into the role of ZIP genes in Zn homeostasis in monocots, and offers opportunities to develop Zn biofortification strategies in cereals.

  10. Physiological and biochemical response of soil-grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to cerium oxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Rico, Cyren M; Barrios, Ana C; Tan, Wenjuan; Rubenecia, Rosnah; Lee, Sang Chul; Varela-Ramirez, Armando; Peralta-Videa, Jose R; Gardea-Torresdey, Jorge L

    2015-07-01

    A soil microcosm study was performed to examine the impacts of cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) on the physiology, productivity, and macromolecular composition of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The plants were cultivated in soil treated with nCeO2 at 0, 125, 250, and 500 mg kg(-1) (control, nCeO2-L, nCeO2-M, and nCeO2-H, respectively). Accumulation of Ce in leaves/grains and its effects on plant stress and nutrient loading were analyzed. The data revealed that nCeO2-H promoted plant development resulting in 331 % increase in shoot biomass compared with the control. nCeO2 treatment modified the stress levels in leaves without apparent signs of toxicity. However, plants exposed to nCeO2-H treatment did not form grains. Compared with control, nCeO2-M enhanced grain Ce accumulation by as much as 294 % which was accompanied by remarkable increases in P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Al. Likewise, nCeO2-M enhanced the methionine, aspartic acid, threonine, tyrosine, arginine, and linolenic acid contents in the grains by up to 617, 31, 58, 141, 378, and 2.47 % respectively, compared with the rest of the treatments. The findings illustrate the beneficial and harmful effects of nanoceria in barley.

  11. Nitrogen deficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare) seedlings induces molecular and metabolic adjustments that trigger aphid resistance.

    PubMed

    Comadira, Gloria; Rasool, Brwa; Karpinska, Barbara; Morris, Jenny; Verrall, Susan R; Hedley, Peter E; Foyer, Christine H; Hancock, Robert D

    2015-06-01

    Agricultural nitrous oxide (N2O) pollution resulting from the use of synthetic fertilizers represents a significant contribution to anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, providing a rationale for reduced use of nitrogen (N) fertilizers. Nitrogen limitation results in extensive systems rebalancing that remodels metabolism and defence processes. To analyse the regulation underpinning these responses, barley (Horedeum vulgare) seedlings were grown for 7 d under N-deficient conditions until net photosynthesis was 50% lower than in N-replete controls. Although shoot growth was decreased there was no evidence for the induction of oxidative stress despite lower total concentrations of N-containing antioxidants. Nitrogen-deficient barley leaves were rich in amino acids, sugars and tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates. In contrast to N-replete leaves one-day-old nymphs of the green peach aphid (Myzus persicae) failed to reach adulthood when transferred to N-deficient barley leaves. Transcripts encoding cell, sugar and nutrient signalling, protein degradation and secondary metabolism were over-represented in N-deficient leaves while those associated with hormone metabolism were similar under both nutrient regimes with the exception of mRNAs encoding proteins involved in auxin metabolism and responses. Significant similarities were observed between the N-limited barley leaf transcriptome and that of aphid-infested Arabidopsis leaves. These findings not only highlight significant similarities between biotic and abiotic stress signalling cascades but also identify potential targets for increasing aphid resistance with implications for the development of sustainable agriculture.

  12. Extraction, purification and identification of antifreeze proteins from cold acclimated malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Ding, Xiangli; Zhang, Hui; Chen, Haiying; Wang, Li; Qian, Haifeng; Qi, Xiguang

    2015-05-15

    Antifreeze proteins from cold-acclimated malting barley were extracted by infiltration-centrifugation. The infiltration time was optimised, and its extraction effect was evaluated. The effect of cold acclimation on the accumulation of barley antifreeze proteins (BaAFPs) was assessed by comparing the thermal hysteresis activities (THA) of proteins extracted from both cold acclimated and non-cold acclimated barley grain. Ultra-filtration, ammonium precipitation and column chromatography were used successively to purify the BaAFPs, and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS was used for protein identification. The results showed that infiltration-centrifugation was more targeted than the traditional method, and 10h was the optimal infiltration time. THA was observed only after cold acclimation implied that AFPs only began to accumulate after cold acclimation. After purification, BaAFP-I was obtained at an electrophoresis level and its THA was 1.04°C (18.0 mg ml(-1)). The mass fingerprinting and sequencing results indicated the homology of the BaAFP-I to alpha-amylase inhibitor BDAI-1 (Hordeum vulgare).

  13. Characterization of the association of nitrate reductase with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root membranes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyerhoff, P. A.; Fox, T. C.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    The nature of the association between nitrate reductase (NR) and membranes was examined. Nitrate reductase activity (NRA) associated with the microsomal fraction of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots amounted to 0.6 to 0.8% of soluble NRA following sonication in the presence of 250 mM KI and repeated osmotic shock. This treatment removed all contaminating soluble NRA from microsomes of uninduced barley roots that had been homogenized in a soluble extract from roots of NO3(-)-induced plants. On continuous sucrose gradients, NRA co-migrated specifically with VO4(-)-sensitive ATPase activity, a plasma membrane (PM) marker; activity of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, assayed as cytosolic marker, co-migrated with NRA. Microsomal NRA was absent in barley deficient in soluble NR. Perturbation and trypsinolysis experiments with PM vesicles isolated by aqueous two-phase partitioning indicated that NR is associated with the periphery of the cytoplasmic face of the bilayer. These results demonstrate that PM and soluble NRs are essentially the same protein but that the membrane-associated form is tightly bound. Although it is possible that PM-associated NR exists in vivo, unequivocal evidence for this has yet to be shown. However, PM NR is definitely present in vitro.

  14. Expression and characterization of a cytosolic glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots.

    PubMed

    Castiglia, Daniela; Cardi, Manuela; Landi, Simone; Cafasso, Donata; Esposito, Sergio

    2015-08-01

    In plant cells, glucose 6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH-EC 1.1.1.49) regulates the oxidative pentose phosphate pathway (OPPP), a metabolic route involved in the production of NADPH for various biosynthetic processes and stress response. In this study, we report the overexpression of a cytosolic G6PDH isoform from barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots in bacteria, and the biochemical characterization of the purified recombinant enzyme (HvCy-G6PDH). A full-length cDNA coding for a cytosolic isoform of G6PDH was isolated, and the sequence was cloned into pET3d vector; the protein was overexpressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) and purified by anion exchange and affinity chromatography. The kinetic properties were calculated: the recombinant HvCy-G6PDH showed KMs and KINADPH comparable to those observed for the enzyme purified from barley roots; moreover, the analysis of NADPH inhibition suggested a competitive mechanism. Therefore, this enzyme could be utilised for the structural and regulatory characterization of this isoform in higher plants.

  15. Differential heat sensitivity index in barley cultivars (Hordeum vulgare L.) monitored by chlorophyll a fluorescence OKJIP.

    PubMed

    Oukarroum, Abdallah; El Madidi, Saïd; Strasser, Reto J

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to differentiate the heat tolerance in ten varieties of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Morocco. Five modern varieties and five landraces (local varieties) collected at five different geographical localities in the south of Morocco were investigated in the present study. After two weeks of growth, detached leaves were short term exposure to various temperatures (25, 30, 35, 40, and 45 °C) for 10 min in the dark. Two chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters derived from chlorophyll a fluorescence transient (OKJIP) (performance index (PIABS) and relative variable fluorescence at the K-step (VK)) were analysed. Heat treatment had a significant effect on the PIABS and VK at 45 °C treatment and the analysis of variance for PIABS and VK is highly significant between all varieties. The slope of the relationship between logPIABS and VK named heat sensitivity index (HSI) was used to evaluate the thermotolerance of photosystem II (PSII) between the studied barley varieties. According to this approach, barley varieties were screened and ranked for improving heat tolerance. HSI was found to be a new indicator with regard to distinguishing heat tolerance of different barley cultivars.

  16. Bio-efficacy of the essential oil of oregano (Origanum vulgare Lamiaceae. Ssp. Hirtum).

    PubMed

    Grondona, Ezequiel; Gatti, Gerardo; López, Abel G; Sánchez, Leonardo Rodolfo; Rivero, Virginia; Pessah, Oscar; Zunino, María P; Ponce, Andrés A

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the bioactivity of the essential oil isolated from Origanum vulgare L. (EOv). We analyzed the in vivo anti-inflammatory properties in a mouse-airway inflammation model and the in vitro antimicrobial activity, genotoxicity over the anaphase-telophase with the Allium cepa strain and its cytotoxicity/viability in A549 culture cells. In vivo, EOv modified the levels of tumor necrosis factor -α and viable activated macrophages and was capable to mitigate the effects of degradation of conjugated dienes. In vitro, EOv reduced the viability of cultured A549 cells as well as the mitotic index and a number of chromosomal aberrations; however, it did not change the number of phases. We found that EOv presents antimicrobial activity against different Gram (-) and (+) strains, measured by disc-diffusion test and confirmed with a more accurate method, the AutoCad software. We postulate that EOv presents antibacterial, antioxidant and chemopreventive properties and could be play an important role as bioprotector agent.

  17. Tanacetum vulgare as a bioindicator of trace-metal contamination: a study of a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine.

    PubMed

    Jasion, Mateusz; Samecka-Cymerman, Aleksandra; Kolon, Krzysztof; Kempers, Alexander J

    2013-10-01

    We investigated the possibility of use of Tanacetum vulgare (tansy) as an ecological indicator of metal concentration in a naturally colonized open-pit lignite mine in Bełchatów (Poland). Tanacetum vulgare is the only species growing abundantly and spontaneously in the lignite mine waste dumps. Metal concentrations in roots, stems, leaves, flowers, and soil were measured in dump sites differing in type and time of reclamation and therefore differing in pollution levels. Tanacetum vulgare appeared to be an accumulator of chromium and iron in roots, whereas highest concentrations of manganese and zinc were found in leaves. A high bioaccumulation factor for cadmium (Cd) was observed in dumps and control sites, indicating that even small amounts of Cd in the environment may result in significant uptake by the plant. The lowest concentrations of metals were found in plants from sites situated on dumps reclaimed with argillaceous limestone.

  18. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes

    PubMed Central

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K.; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2009-01-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5′ end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19–37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16–21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C–U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. PMID:17534593

  19. An investigation on cardioprotective potential of Marrubium vulgare aqueous fraction against ischemia-reperfusion injury in isolated rat heart.

    PubMed

    Garjani, Alireza; Tila, Dena; Hamedeyazdan, Sanaz; Vaez, Haleh; Rameshrad, Maryam; Pashaii, Mahdiyeh; Fathiazad, Fatemeh

    2017-02-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the cardioprotective effects of aqueous fraction of M. vulgare hydroalcoholic extract on cardiac parameters in ischemic-reperfused isolated rat hearts. The aerial parts of the plant were extracted with methanol 70% by maceration. The water-soluble portion of the total hydroalcoholic extract was prepared with liquid-liquid extraction (LLE). Afterwards, the antioxidant activity, total phenolic and flavonoids content of the aqueous fraction were determined. In order to evaluate the effects of the aqueous fraction on cardiac parameters and I/R injury, the Langendroff method was used on Male Wistar rats. Harvested hearts were cannulated immediately to the langendroff apparatus and subjected into 30 min regional ischemia and 2 hrs reperfusion, either by a modified Krebs-Henseleit Buffer Solution (KHBS) or enriched KHBS with plant extract (10, 20, 40 µg/mL). The aqueous fraction was found to be a scavenger of DPPH radical with RC50 value of 47µg/mL. The total phenolic and flavonoids content of the fraction was 6.05g gallic acid equivalent and 36.13mg quercetin equivalent per 100g of dry plant material. In addition, 40 µg/mL of M. vulgare aqueous fraction significantly decreased infarct size in comparison to control group. All doses considerably reduced the total ventricular ectopic beats (VEBs) during 30 min of ischemia. The extract at dose of 40 µg/mL noticeably decreased the arrhythmias during the first 30 min of reperfusion. The results of the study indicated aqueous fraction of M. vulgare possesses a protective effect against I/R injuries in isolated rat hearts.

  20. The effect of drought on photosynthetic plasticity in Marrubium vulgare plants growing at low and high altitudes.

    PubMed

    Habibi, Ghader; Ajory, Neda

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is a biological process most affected by water deficit. Plants have various photosynthetic mechanisms that are matched to specific climatic zones. We studied the photosynthetic plasticity of C3 plants at water deficit using ecotypes of Marrubium vulgare L. from high (2,200 m) and low (1,100 m) elevation sites in the Mishou-Dagh Mountains of Iran. Under experimental drought, high-altitude plants showed more tolerance to water stress based on most of the parameters studied as compared to the low-altitude plants. Increased tolerance in high-altitude plants was achieved by lower levels of daytime stomatal conductance (g s) and reduced damaging effect on maximal quantum yield of photosystem II (PSII) (F v /F m ) coupled with higher levels of carotenoids and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). High-altitude plants exhibited higher water use efficiency (WUE) than that in low-altitude plants depending on the presence of thick leaves and the reduced daytime stomatal conductance. Additionally, we have studied the oscillation in H(+) content and diel gas exchange patterns to determine the occurrence of C3 or weak CAM (Crassulacean acid metabolism) in M. vulgare through 15 days drought stress. Under water-stressed conditions, low-altitude plants exhibited stomatal conductance and acid fluctuations characteristic of C3 photosynthesis, though high-altitude plants exhibited more pronounced increases in nocturnal acidity and phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (PEPC) activity, suggesting photosynthetic flexibility. These results indicated that the regulation of carotenoids, NPQ, stomatal conductance and diel patterns of CO2 exchange presented the larger differences among studied plants at different altitudes and seem to be the protecting mechanisms controlling the photosynthetic performance of M. vulgare plants under drought conditions.

  1. Complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera, and comparative analyses with other grass genomes.

    PubMed

    Saski, Christopher; Lee, Seung-Bum; Fjellheim, Siri; Guda, Chittibabu; Jansen, Robert K; Luo, Hong; Tomkins, Jeffrey; Rognli, Odd Arne; Daniell, Henry; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2007-08-01

    Comparisons of complete chloroplast genome sequences of Hordeum vulgare, Sorghum bicolor and Agrostis stolonifera to six published grass chloroplast genomes reveal that gene content and order are similar but two microstructural changes have occurred. First, the expansion of the IR at the SSC/IRa boundary that duplicates a portion of the 5' end of ndhH is restricted to the three genera of the subfamily Pooideae (Agrostis, Hordeum and Triticum). Second, a 6 bp deletion in ndhK is shared by Agrostis, Hordeum, Oryza and Triticum, and this event supports the sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae. Repeat analysis identified 19-37 direct and inverted repeats 30 bp or longer with a sequence identity of at least 90%. Seventeen of the 26 shared repeats are found in all the grass chloroplast genomes examined and are located in the same genes or intergenic spacer (IGS) regions. Examination of simple sequence repeats (SSRs) identified 16-21 potential polymorphic SSRs. Five IGS regions have 100% sequence identity among Zea mays, Saccharum officinarum and Sorghum bicolor, whereas no spacer regions were identical among Oryza sativa, Triticum aestivum, H. vulgare and A. stolonifera despite their close phylogenetic relationship. Alignment of EST sequences and DNA coding sequences identified six C-U conversions in both Sorghum bicolor and H. vulgare but only one in A. stolonifera. Phylogenetic trees based on DNA sequences of 61 protein-coding genes of 38 taxa using both maximum parsimony and likelihood methods provide moderate support for a sister relationship between the subfamilies Erhartoideae and Pooideae.

  2. Proteomic Response of Hordeum vulgare cv. Tadmor and Hordeum marinum to Salinity Stress: Similarities and Differences between a Glycophyte and a Halophyte

    PubMed Central

    Maršálová, Lucie; Vítámvás, Pavel; Hynek, Radovan; Prášil, Ilja T.; Kosová, Klára

    2016-01-01

    Response to a high salinity treatment of 300 mM NaCl was studied in a cultivated barley Hordeum vulgare Syrian cultivar Tadmor and in a halophytic wild barley H. marinum. Differential salinity tolerance of H. marinum and H. vulgare is underlied by qualitative and quantitative differences in proteins involved in a variety of biological processes. The major aim was to identify proteins underlying differential salinity tolerance between the two barley species. Analyses of plant water content, osmotic potential and accumulation of proline and dehydrin proteins under high salinity revealed a relatively higher water saturation deficit in H. marinum than in H. vulgare while H. vulgare had lower osmotic potential corresponding with high levels of proline and dehydrins. Analysis of proteins soluble upon boiling isolated from control and salt-treated crown tissues revealed similarities as well as differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare. The similar salinity responses of both barley species lie in enhanced levels of stress-protective proteins such as defense-related proteins from late-embryogenesis abundant family, several chaperones from heat shock protein family, and others such as GrpE. However, there have also been found significant differences between H. marinum and H. vulgare salinity response indicating an active stress acclimation in H. marinum while stress damage in H. vulgare. An active acclimation to high salinity in H. marinum is underlined by enhanced levels of several stress-responsive transcription factors from basic leucine zipper and nascent polypeptide-associated complex families. In salt-treated H. marinum, enhanced levels of proteins involved in energy metabolism such as glycolysis, ATP metabolism, and photosynthesis-related proteins indicate an active acclimation to enhanced energy requirements during an establishment of novel plant homeostasis. In contrast, changes at proteome level in salt-treated H. vulgare indicate plant tissue damage as

  3. Identification of two key genes controlling chill haze stability of beer in barley (Hordeum vulgare L).

    PubMed

    Ye, Lingzhen; Huang, Yuqing; Dai, Fei; Ning, Huajiang; Li, Chengdao; Zhou, Meixue; Zhang, Guoping

    2015-06-11

    In bright beer, haze formation is a serious quality problem, degrading beer quality and reducing its shelf life. The quality of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt, as the main raw material for beer brewing, largely affects the colloidal stability of beer. In this study, the genetic mechanism of the factors affecting beer haze stability in barley was studied. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analysis of alcohol chill haze (ACH) in beer was carried out using a Franklin/Yerong double haploid (DH) population. One QTL, named as qACH, was detected for ACH, and it was located on the position of about 108 cM in chromosome 4H and can explain about 20 % of the phenotypic variation. Two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd were identified by proteomics analysis. Bioinformatics analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd had the same position as qACH in the chromosome. It may be deduced that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd are candidate genes for qACH, controlling colloidal stability of beer. Polymorphism comparison between Yerong and Franklin in the nucleotide and amino acid sequence of BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd detected the corresponding gene specific markers, which could be used in marker-assisted selection for malt barley breeding. We identified a novel QTL, qACH controlling chill haze of beer, and two key haze active proteins, BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd. And further analysis showed that BATI-CMb and BATI-CMd might be the candidate genes associated with beer chill haze.

  4. Silver ions disrupt K+ homeostasis and cellular integrity in intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots

    PubMed Central

    Coskun, Devrim; Britto, Dev T.; Jean, Yuel-Kai; Schulze, Lasse M.; Becker, Alexander; Kronzucker, Herbert J.

    2012-01-01

    The heavy metals silver, gold, and mercury can strongly inhibit aquaporin-mediated water flow across plant cell membranes, but critical examinations of their side effects are rare. Here, the short-lived radiotracer 42K is used to demonstrate that these metals, especially silver, profoundly change potassium homeostasis in roots of intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants, by altering unidirectional K+ fluxes. Doses as low as 5 μM AgNO3 rapidly reduced K+ influx to 5% that of controls, and brought about pronounced and immediate increases in K+ efflux, while higher doses of Au3+ and Hg2+ were required to produce similar responses. Reduced influx and enhanced efflux of K+ resulted in a net loss of >40% of root tissue K+ during a 15 min application of 500 μM AgNO3, comprising the entire cytosolic potassium pool and about a third of the vacuolar pool. Silver also brought about major losses of UV-absorbing compounds, total electrolytes, and NH4+. Co-application, with silver, of the channel blockers Cs+, TEA+, or Ca2+, did not affect the enhanced efflux, ruling out the involvement of outwardly rectifying ion channels. Taken together with an examination of propidium iodide staining under confocal microscopy, the results indicate that silver ions affect K+ homeostasis by directly inhibiting K+ influx at lower concentrations, and indirectly inhibiting K+ influx and enhancing K+ efflux, via membrane destruction, at higher concentrations. Ni2+, Cd2+, and Pb2+, three heavy metals not generally known to affect aquaporins, did not enhance K+ efflux or cause propidium iodide incorporation. The study reveals strong and previously unknown effects of major aquaporin inhibitors and recommends caution in their application. PMID:21948852

  5. Antibacterial and phytochemical screening of Anethum graveolens, Foeniculum vulgare and Trachyspermum ammi

    PubMed Central

    Kaur, Gurinder J; Arora, Daljit S

    2009-01-01

    Background Anethum graveolens Linn., Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Trachyspermum ammi L. are widely used traditional medicinal plants to treat various ailments. To provide a scientific basis to traditional uses of these plants, their aqueous and organic seed extracts, as well as isolated phytoconstituents were evaluated for their antibacterial potential. Methods Antibacterial activity of aqueous and organic seed extracts was assessed using agar diffusion assay, minimum inhibitory concentration and viable cell count studies; and their antibacterial effect was compared with some standard antibiotics. The presence of major phytoconstituents was detected qualitatively and quantitatively. The isolated phytoconstituents were subjected to disc diffusion assay to ascertain their antibacterial effect. Results Hot water and acetone seed extracts showed considerably good antibacterial activity against all the bacteria except Klebsiella pneumoniae and one strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Minimum inhibitory concentration for aqueous and acetone seed extracts ranged from 20–80 mg/ml and 5–15 mg/ml respectively. Viable cell count studies revealed the bactericidal nature of the seed extracts. Statistical analysis proved the better/equal efficacy of some of these seed extracts as compared to standard antibiotics. Phytochemical analysis showed the presence of 2.80 – 4.23% alkaloids, 8.58 – 15.06% flavonoids, 19.71 – 27.77% tannins, 0.55–0.70% saponins and cardiac glycosides. Conclusion Antibacterial efficacy shown by these plants provides a scientific basis and thus, validates their traditional uses as homemade remedies. Isolation and purification of different phytochemicals may further yield significant antibacterial agents. PMID:19656417

  6. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N.; Casao, M. Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S.; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod–insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states. PMID:26068005

  7. Allene oxide synthases of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Salome): tissue specific regulation in seedling development.

    PubMed

    Maucher, H; Hause, B; Feussner, I; Ziegler, J; Wasternack, C

    2000-01-01

    Allene oxide synthase (AOS) is the first enzyme in the lipoxygenase (LOX) pathway which leads to formation of jasmonic acid (JA). Two full-length cDNAs of AOS designated as AOS1 and AOS2, respectively, were isolated from barley (H. vulgare cv. Salome) leaves, which represent the first AOS clones from a monocotyledonous species. For AOS1, the open reading frame encompasses 1461 bp encoding a polypeptide of 487 amino acids with calculated molecular mass of 53.4 kDa and an isoelectric point of 9.3, whereas the corresponding data of AOS2 are 1443 bp, 480 amino acids, 52.7 kDa and 7.9. Southern blot analysis revealed at least two genes. Despite the lack of a putative chloroplast signal peptide in both sequences, the protein co-purified with chloroplasts and was localized within chloroplasts by immunocytochemical analysis. The barley AOSs, expressed in bacteria as active enzymes, catalyze the dehydration of LOX-derived 9- as well as 13-hydroperoxides of polyenoic fatty acids to the unstable allene oxides. In leaves, AOS mRNA accumulated upon treatment with jasmonates, octadecanoids and metabolizable carbohydrates, but not upon floating on abscisic acid, NaCl, Na-salicylate or infection with powdery mildew. In developing seedlings, AOS mRNA strongly accumulated in the scutellar nodule, but less in the leaf base. Both tissues exhibited elevated JA levels. In situ hybridizations revealed the preferential occurrence of AOS mRNA in parenchymatic cells surrounding the vascular bundles of the scutellar nodule and in the young convoluted leaves as well as within the first internode. The properties of both barley AOSs, their up-regulation of their mRNAs and their tissue specific expression suggest a role during seedling development and jasmonate biosynthesis.

  8. Genome-Wide Association Mapping of Stem Rust Resistance in Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum.

    PubMed

    Sallam, Ahmad H; Tyagi, Priyanka; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Muehlbauer, Gary J; Hulse, Alex; Steffenson, Brian J

    2017-08-30

    Stem rust was one of the most devastating diseases of barley in North America. Through the deployment of cultivars with the resistance gene Rpg1, losses to stem rust have been minimal over the past 70 years. However, there exist both domestic (QCCJB) and foreign (TTKSK aka isolate Ug99) pathotypes with virulence for this important gene. To identify new sources of stem rust resistance for barley, we evaluated the Wild Barley Diversity Collection (WBDC) (314 ecogeographically diverse accessions of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) for seedling resistance to four pathotypes (TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and HKHJC) of the wheat stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. tritici, Pgt) and one isolate (92-MN-90) of the rye stem rust pathogen (Puccinia graminis f. sp. secalis, Pgs). Based on a coefficient of infection, the frequency of resistance in the WBDC was low ranging from 0.6% with HKHJC to 19.4% with 92-MN-90. None of the accessions was resistant to all five cultures of P. graminis A genome-wide association study was conducted to map stem rust resistance loci using 50,842 single nucleotide polymorphic markers generated by genotype-by-sequencing and ordered using the new barley reference genome assembly. After proper accounting for genetic relatedness and structure among accessions, 45 quantitative trait loci were identified for resistance to P. graminis across all seven barley chromosomes. Three novel loci associated with resistance to TTKSK, QCCJB, MCCFC, and 92-MN-90 were identified on chromosomes 5H and 7H, and two novel loci associated with resistance to HKHJC were identified on chromosomes 1H and 3H. These novel alleles will enhance the diversity of resistance available for cultivated barley. Copyright © 2017, G3: Genes, Genomes, Genetics.

  9. Native plant recovery in study plots after fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) control on Santa Cruz Island

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Power, Paula; Stanley, Thomas R.; Cowan, Clark; Robertson, James R.

    2014-01-01

    Santa Cruz Island is the largest of the California Channel Islands and supports a diverse and unique flora which includes 9 federally listed species. Sheep, cattle, and pigs, introduced to the island in the mid-1800s, disturbed the soil, browsed native vegetation, and facilitated the spread of exotic invasive plants. Recent removal of introduced herbivores on the island led to the release of invasive fennel (Foeniculum vulgare), which expanded to become the dominant vegetation in some areas and has impeded the recovery of some native plant communities. In 2007, Channel Islands National Park initiated a program to control fennel using triclopyr on the eastern 10% of the island. We established replicate paired plots (seeded and nonseeded) at Scorpion Anchorage and Smugglers Cove, where notably dense fennel infestations (>10% cover) occurred, to evaluate the effectiveness of native seed augmentation following fennel removal. Five years after fennel removal, vegetative cover increased as litter and bare ground cover decreased significantly (P < 0.0001) on both plot types. Vegetation cover of both native and other (nonfennel) exotic species increased at Scorpion Anchorage in both seeded and nonseeded plots. At Smugglers Cove, exotic cover decreased significantly (P = 0.0001) as native cover comprised of Eriogonum arborescensand Leptosyne gigantea increased significantly (P < 0.0001) in seeded plots only. Nonseeded plots at Smugglers Cove were dominated by exotic annual grasses, primarily Avena barbata. The data indicate that seeding with appropriate native seed is a critical step in restoration following fennel control in areas where the native seed bank is depauperate.

  10. Regulation of the Flavonoid Biosynthesis Pathway Genes in Purple and Black Grains of Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Mock, Hans-Peter; Kukoeva, Tatjana V.; Börner, Andreas; Khlestkina, Elena K.

    2016-01-01

    Barley grain at maturity can have yellow, purple, blue, and black pigmentations which are suggested to play a protective role under stress conditions. The first three types of the colors are caused by phenolic compounds flavonoids; the last one is caused by phytomelanins, oxidized and polymerized phenolic compounds. Although the genetic basis of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway in barley has been thoroughly studied, there is no data yet on its regulation in purple and black barley grains. In the current study, genetic model of Hordeum vulgare ‘Bowman’ near-isogenic lines (NILs) was used to investigate the regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis in white, purple, and black barley grains. Microsatellite genotyping revealed donor segments in the purple- and black-grained lines on chromosomes 2H (in region of the Ant2 gene determining purple color of grains) and 1H (in region of the Blp gene determining black lemma and pericarp), respectively. The isolated dominant Ant2 allele of the purple-grained line has high level of sequence similarity with the recessive Bowman’s ant2 in coding region, whereas an insertion of 179 bp was detected in promoter region of ant2. This structural divergence between Ant2 and ant2 alleles may underlie their different expression in grain pericarp: Bowman’s Ant2 is not transcribed, whereas it was up-regulated in the purple-grained line with coordinately co-expressed flavonoid biosynthesis structural genes (Chs, Chi, F3h, F3’h, Dfr, Ans). This led to total anthocyain content increase in purple-grained line identified by ultra-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Collectively, these results proved the regulatory function of the Ant2 gene in anthocyanin biosynthesis in barley grain pericarp. In the black-grained line, the specific transcriptional regulation of the flavonoid biosynthesis pathway genes was not detected, suggesting that flavonoid pigments are not involved in development of black lemma and pericarp trait. PMID

  11. Drought stress and leaf herbivory affect root terpenoid concentrations and growth of Tanacetum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Kleine, Sandra; Müller, Caroline

    2014-10-01

    Plant responses of both shoots and roots to combined abiotic and biotic stress have been rarely investigated. However, stresses such as drought and aboveground herbivory might lead to conflicting resource allocation patterns and pronounced shifts in shoot vs. root defenses. In the present study, the effects of water availability and leaf herbivory by caterpillars of a generalist on various shoot and root traits of the aromatic plant Tanacetum vulgare L. were investigated. This species contains terpenoids in leaves and roots, which can differ in composition among individuals, forming so-called chemotypes. To test for intraspecific variation, responses were investigated in two chemotypes, the thujone and the carvyl acetate chemotype. Furthermore, effects of differences in plant quality on the herbivores were studied. Shoot biomass significantly decreased due to drought and herbivory, whereas the root/shoot ratio increased following drought but was unaffected by herbivory. No shifts in C/N ratios were found. In contrast to our expectation, leaf terpenoid concentrations decreased only slightly due to drought, whereas root terpenoids were significantly induced by both drought and herbivory. Chemotypes showed distinct responses to drought at least in the root/shoot ratio, with a higher drought sensitivity of the carvyl acetate chemotype. The body mass of the caterpillars was unaffected by the irrigation treatment but depended on chemotype and terpenoid concentration of the plants. Thus, both qualitative and quantitative defenses strongly affect herbivore development. The present results offer new insights into the above- and belowground organ-specific responses of plants. They highlight the importance of roots in response to various environmental challenges.

  12. Tissue-Specific Epigenetic Modifications in Root Apical Meristem Cells of Hordeum vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Braszewska-Zalewska, Agnieszka J.; Wolny, Elzbieta A.; Smialek, Lukasz; Hasterok, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Epigenetic modifications of chromatin structure are essential for many biological processes, including growth and reproduction. Patterns of DNA and histone modifications have recently been widely studied in many plant species, although there is virtually no data on the spatial and temporal distribution of epigenetic markers during plant development. Accordingly, we have used immunostaining techniques to investigate epigenetic modifications in the root apical meristem of Hordeum vulgare. Histone H4 acetylation (H4K5ac), histone H3 dimethylation (H3K4me2, H3K9me2) and DNA methylation (5mC) patterns were established for various root meristem tissues. Distinct levels of those modifications were visualised in the root cap, epidermis, cortex and vascular tissues. The lateral root cap cells seem to display the highest level of H3K9me2 and 5mC. In the epidermis, the highest level of 5mC and H3K9me2 was detected in the nuclei from the boundary of the proximal meristem and the elongation zone, while the vascular tissues were characterized by the highest level of H4K5ac. Some of the modified histones were also detectable in the cytoplasm in a highly tissue-specific manner. Immunolocalisation of epigenetic modifications of chromatin carried out in this way, on longitudinal or transverse sections, provides a unique topographic context within the organ, and will provide some answers to the significant biological question of tissue differentiation processes during root development in a monocotyledon plant species. PMID:23935955

  13. Localization and Pattern of Graviresponse across the Pulvinus of Barley Hordeum vulgare1

    PubMed Central

    Brock, Thomas G.; Lu, Casey R.; Ghosheh, Najati S.; Kaufman, Peter B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv `Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0° and the lowermost point 180°. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40° of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation. Images Figure 1 Figure 5 PMID:11537463

  14. Mesophyll distribution of ‘antioxidant’ flavonoid glycosides in Ligustrum vulgare leaves under contrasting sunlight irradiance

    PubMed Central

    Agati, Giovanni; Stefano, Giovanni; Biricolti, Stefano; Tattini, Massimiliano

    2009-01-01

    Background and Aims Flavonoids have the potential to serve as antioxidants in addition to their function of UV screening in photoprotective mechanisms. However, flavonoids have long been reported to accumulate mostly in epidermal cells and surface organs in response to high sunlight. Therefore, how leaf flavonoids actually carry out their antioxidant functions is still a matter of debate. Here, the distribution of flavonoids with effective antioxidant properties, i.e. the orthodihydroxy B-ring-substituted quercetin and luteolin glycosides, was investigated in the mesophyll of Ligustrum vulgare leaves acclimated to contrasting sunlight irradiance. Methods In the first experiment, plants were grown at 20 % (shade) or 100% (sun) natural sunlight. Plants were exposed to 100 % sunlight irradiance in the presence or absence of UV wavelengths, in a second experiment. Fluorescence microspectroscopy and multispectral fluorescence microimaging were used in both cross sections and intact leaf pieces to visualize orthodihydroxy B-ring-substituted flavonoids at inter- and intracellular levels. Identification and quantification of individual hydroxycinnamates and flavonoid glycosides were performed via HPLC-DAD. Key Results Quercetin and luteolin derivatives accumulated to a great extent in both the epidermal and mesophyll cells in response to high sunlight. Tissue fluorescence signatures and leaf flavonoid concentrations were strongly related. Monohydroxyflavone glycosides, namely luteolin 4′-O-glucoside and two apigenin 7-O-glycosides were unresponsive to changes in sunlight irradiance. Quercetin and luteolin derivatives accumulated in the vacuoles of mesophyll cells in leaves growing under 100 % natural sunlight in the absence of UV wavelengths. Conclusions The above findings lead to the hypothesis that flavonoids play a key role in countering light-induced oxidative stress, and not only in avoiding the penetration of short solar wavelengths in the leaf. PMID:19633310

  15. Origanum vulgare leaf extract protects mice bone marrow cells against ionizing radiation

    PubMed Central

    Ghasemnezhad Targhi, Reza; Changizi, Vahid; Haddad, Farhang; Homayoun, Mansour; Soleymanifard, Shokouhozaman

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Ionizing radiation produces free radicals which induce DNA damage and cell death. Origanum vulgare leaf extract (OVLE) is a natural compound and its capability of scavenging free radicals and its antioxidant activity have been demonstrated by many researchers. In this study, using micronucleus assay, radioprotective effect of OVLE against clastogenic and cytotoxic effect of gamma irradiation has been investigated in mice bone marrow cells. Materials and Methods: OVLE was injected intraperitoneally to the BALB/c mice 1hr prior to gamma irradiation (3Gy) at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Twenty four hours after irradiation or treatment, animals were killed and smears were prepared from the bone marrow cells. The slides were stained with May Grunwald–Giemsa method and analyzed microscopically. The frequency of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MnPCEs), micronucleated normochromatic erythrocyte (MnNCEs) and cell proliferation ratio PCE/PCE+NCE (polychromatic erythrocyte/polychromatic erythrocyte + normochromatic erythrocyte) were calculated. Results: The results showed that gamma irradiation (3Gy) increased the frequency of MnPCEs, MnNCEs and reduced the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio in mice bone marrow compared to the non-irradiated control group (p<0.0001). Injection of OVLE significantly reduced the frequency of MnPCEs (p<0.0001) and MnNCEs (p<0.05) and increased the PCE/PCE+NCE ratio as compared to the irradiated control group (p<0.05). Conclusion: It seems that OVLE with its antioxidant properties and its capability of scavenging free radicals and reactive oxygen species can reduce the cytotoxic effects of gamma irradiation in mice bone marrow cells. PMID:28078248

  16. Additive toxicity of zinc and arsenate on barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation.

    PubMed

    Guzmán-Rangel, Georgina; Versieren, Liske; Qiu, Hao; Smolders, Erik

    2017-06-01

    Zinc (Zn) and arsenic (As) are typically present as mixed contaminants in mining-impacted areas; however, their joined effects have rarely been evaluated. The present study was set up to test whether the Zn(2+) and H2 AsO4(-) (hereafter, As) mixture toxicity to plants is additive or whether interactions occur. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) root elongation was measured in resin buffered nutrient solutions. The design included ranges of single-element concentrations and combinations at 3 different Ca(2+) concentrations (0.5 mM, 2.2 mM, and 15.0 mM) to vary the relative toxicity of Zn(2+) . Increasing Ca concentrations decreased Zn toxicity, whereas As toxicity was unaffected by Ca. Root elongation was generally more affected in Zn-As mixtures than in corresponding single-element treatments. This is merely a joint additive effect, as 96% of the root elongation data were within a factor of 1.2 from predictions using the independent action (IA) or concentration addition (CA) model. The CA and IA predictions were similar, and data did not allow identification of equal or dissimilar modes of action. Small but significant Zn-As antagonisms were only found at high effects (>50% inhibition). The present study suggests that mixture effects of Zn and As are environmentally relevant and that current risk assessment underestimates toxicity in multielement-contaminated environments. The CA model can be used as a conservative model for risk assessment; however, for soil-grown plants, soil-exposed studies are needed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:1556-1562. © 2016 SETAC. © 2016 SETAC.

  17. Fine mapping and chromosome walking towards the Ror1 locus in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Acevedo-Garcia, Johanna; Collins, Nicholas C; Ahmadinejad, Nahal; Ma, Lu; Houben, Andreas; Bednarek, Pawel; Benjdia, Mariam; Freialdenhoven, Andreas; Altmüller, Janine; Nürnberg, Peter; Reinhardt, Richard; Schulze-Lefert, Paul; Panstruga, Ralph

    2013-12-01

    The Ror1 gene was fine-mapped to the pericentric region of barley chromosome 1HL. Recessively inherited loss-of-function alleles of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) Mildew resistance locus o (Mlo) gene confer durable broad-spectrum disease resistance against the obligate biotrophic fungal powdery mildew pathogen Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei. Previous genetic analyses revealed two barley genes, Ror1 and Ror2, that are Required for mlo-specified resistance and basal defence. While Ror2 was cloned and shown to encode a t-SNARE protein (syntaxin), the molecular nature or Ror1 remained elusive. Ror1 was previously mapped to the centromeric region of the long arm of barley chromosome 1H. Here, we narrowed the barley Ror1 interval to 0.18 cM and initiated a chromosome walk using barley yeast artificial chromosome (YAC) clones, next-generation DNA sequencing and fluorescence in situ hybridization. Two non-overlapping YAC contigs containing Ror1 flanking genes were identified. Despite a high degree of synteny observed between barley and the sequenced genomes of the grasses rice (Oryza sativa), Brachypodium distachyon and Sorghum bicolor across the wider chromosomal area, the genes in the YAC contigs showed extensive interspecific rearrangements in orientation and order. Consequently, the position of a Ror1 homolog in these species could not be precisely predicted, nor was a barley gene co-segregating with Ror1 identified. These factors have prevented the molecular identification of the Ror1 gene for the time being.

  18. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family

    PubMed Central

    Hove, Runyararo M.; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). PMID:26057533

  19. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Brock, T G; Lu, C R; Ghosheh, N S; Kaufman, P B

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  20. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Lu, C. R.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  1. The mechanism of boron tolerance for maintenance of root growth in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Choi, Eun-Young; Kolesik, Peter; McNeill, Ann; Collins, Helen; Zhang, Qisen; Huynh, Bao-Lam; Graham, Robin; Stangoulis, James

    2007-08-01

    Cultivar differences in root elongation under B toxic conditions were observed in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A significant increase in the length and width of the root meristematic zone (RMZ) was observed in Sahara 3771 (B tolerant) when it was grown under excessive B concentration, compared to when grown at adequate B supply. This coincided with an increase in cell width and cell numbers in the meristematic zone (MZ), whereas a significant decrease in the length and no significant effect on the width of the MZ was observed in Clipper (B intolerant) when it was grown under excessive B supply. This was accompanied by a decrease in cell numbers, but an increase in the length and width of individual cells present along the MZ. Excessive B concentrations led to a significantly lower osmotic potential within the cell sap of the root tip in SloopVic (B tolerant) and Sahara 3771, while the opposite was observed in Clipper. Enhanced sugar levels in the root tips of SloopVic were observed between 48 and 96 h after excess B was applied. This coincided with an increase in the root elongation rate and with a 2.7-fold increase in sucrose level within mature leaf tissue. A significant decrease in reducing sugar levels was observed in the root tips of Clipper under excessive B concentrations. This coincided with significantly lower root elongation rates and lower sucrose levels in leaf tissues. Results indicate a B tolerance mechanism associated with a complex control of sucrose levels between leaf and root tip that assist in maintaining root growth under B toxicity.

  2. Larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti of Foeniculum vulgare essential oils from Portugal and Cape Verde.

    PubMed

    Rocha, Diara Kady; Matosc, Olivia; Novoa, Maria Teresa; Figueiredo, Ana Cristina; Delgado, Manuel; Moiteiro, Cristina

    2015-04-01

    Dengue is a potentially fatal mosquito-borne infection with 50 million cases per year and 2.5 billion people vulnerable to the disease. This major public health problem has recurrent epidemics in Latin America and occurred recently in Cape Verde and Madeira Island. The lack of anti-viral treatment or vaccine makes the control of mosquito vectors a high option to prevent virus transmission. Essential oil (EO) constituents can affect insect's behaviour, being potentially effective in pest control. The present study evaluated the potential use of Foenicultm vulgare (fennel) EO in the control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti. EOs isolated from fennel aerial parts collected in Cape Verde and from a commercial fennel EO of Portugal were analysed by NMR, GC and GC-MS. trans-Anethole (32 and 30%, respectively), limonene (28 and 18%, respectively) and fenchone (10% in both cases) were the main compounds identified in the EOs isolated from fennel from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. The larvicidal activity of the EOs and its major constituents were evaluated, using WHO procedures, against third instar larvae ofAe. aegypti for 24 h. Pure compounds, such as limonene isomers, were also assayed. The lethal concentrations LC50, C90 and LC99 were determined by probit analysis using mortality rates of bioassays. A 99% mortality of Ae. aegypti larvae was estimated at 37.1 and 52.4 µL L-1 of fennel EOs from Cape Verde and Portugal, respectively. Bioassays showed that fennel EOs from both countries displayed strong larvicidal effect against Ae. aegypti, the Cape Verde EO being as active as one of its major constituents, (-)-limonene.

  3. Structure of Hordeum vulgare NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase 2. Unwinding the reaction mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Kirkensgaard, Kristine G.; Hägglund, Per; Finnie, Christine; Svensson, Birte; Henriksen, Anette

    2009-09-01

    The first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, a protein involved in seed development and germination, has been determined. The structure is in a conformation that excludes NADPH binding and indicates that a domain reorientation facilitated by Trx binding precedes NADPH binding in the reaction mechanism. Thioredoxins (Trxs) are protein disulfide reductases that regulate the intracellular redox environment and are important for seed germination in plants. Trxs are in turn regulated by NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductases (NTRs), which provide reducing equivalents to Trx using NADPH to recycle Trxs to the active form. Here, the first crystal structure of a cereal NTR, HvNTR2 from Hordeum vulgare (barley), is presented, which is also the first structure of a monocot plant NTR. The structure was determined at 2.6 Å resolution and refined to an R{sub cryst} of 19.0% and an R{sub free} of 23.8%. The dimeric protein is structurally similar to the structures of AtNTR-B from Arabidopsis thaliana and other known low-molecular-weight NTRs. However, the relative position of the two NTR cofactor-binding domains, the FAD and the NADPH domains, is not the same. The NADPH domain is rotated by 25° and bent by a 38% closure relative to the FAD domain in comparison with AtNTR-B. The structure may represent an intermediate between the two conformations described previously: the flavin-oxidizing (FO) and the flavin-reducing (FR) conformations. Here, analysis of interdomain contacts as well as phylogenetic studies lead to the proposal of a new reaction scheme in which NTR–Trx interactions mediate the FO to FR transformation.

  4. Dawn and Dusk Set States of the Circadian Oscillator in Sprouting Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Seedlings.

    PubMed

    Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Boden, Scott; Oliver, Sandra N; Casao, M Cristina; Ford, Brett; Anderssen, Robert S; Trevaskis, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The plant circadian clock is an internal timekeeper that coordinates biological processes with daily changes in the external environment. The transcript levels of clock genes, which oscillate to control circadian outputs, were examined during early seedling development in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a model for temperate cereal crops. Oscillations of clock gene transcript levels do not occur in barley seedlings grown in darkness or constant light but were observed with day-night cycles. A dark-to-light transition influenced transcript levels of some clock genes but triggered only weak oscillations of gene expression, whereas a light-to-dark transition triggered robust oscillations. Single light pulses of 6, 12 or 18 hours induced robust oscillations. The light-to-dark transition was the primary determinant of the timing of subsequent peaks of clock gene expression. After the light-to-dark transition the timing of peak transcript levels of clock gene also varied depending on the length of the preceding light pulse. Thus, a single photoperiod can trigger initiation of photoperiod-dependent circadian rhythms in barley seedlings. Photoperiod-specific rhythms of clock gene expression were observed in two week old barley plants. Changing the timing of dusk altered clock gene expression patterns within a single day, showing that alteration of circadian oscillator behaviour is amongst the most rapid molecular responses to changing photoperiod in barley. A barley EARLY FLOWERING3 mutant, which exhibits rapid photoperiod-insensitive flowering behaviour, does not establish clock rhythms in response to a single photoperiod. The data presented show that dawn and dusk cues are important signals for setting the state of the circadian oscillator during early development of barley and that the circadian oscillator of barley exhibits photoperiod-dependent oscillation states.

  5. High-throughput transcriptome analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) exposed to excessive boron.

    PubMed

    Tombuloglu, Guzin; Tombuloglu, Huseyin; Sakcali, M Serdal; Unver, Turgay

    2015-02-15

    Boron (B) is an essential micronutrient for optimum plant growth. However, above certain threshold B is toxic and causes yield loss in agricultural lands. While a number of studies were conducted to understand B tolerance mechanism, a transcriptome-wide approach for B tolerant barley is performed here for the first time. A high-throughput RNA-Seq (cDNA) sequencing technology (Illumina) was used with barley (Hordeum vulgare), yielding 208 million clean reads. In total, 256,874 unigenes were generated and assigned to known peptide databases: Gene Ontology (GO) (99,043), Swiss-Prot (38,266), Clusters of Orthologous Groups (COG) (26,250), and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) (36,860), as determined by BLASTx search. According to the digital gene expression (DGE) analyses, 16% and 17% of the transcripts were found to be differentially regulated in root and leaf tissues, respectively. Most of them were involved in cell wall, stress response, membrane, protein kinase and transporter mechanisms. Some of the genes detected as highly expressed in root tissue are phospholipases, predicted divalent heavy-metal cation transporters, formin-like proteins and calmodulin/Ca(2+)-binding proteins. In addition, chitin-binding lectin precursor, ubiquitin carboxyl-terminal hydrolase, and serine/threonine-protein kinase AFC2 genes were indicated to be highly regulated in leaf tissue upon excess B treatment. Some pathways, such as the Ca(2+)-calmodulin system, are activated in response to B toxicity. The differential regulation of 10 transcripts was confirmed by qRT-PCR, revealing the tissue-specific responses against B toxicity and their putative function in B-tolerance mechanisms.

  6. Drought acclimation in wild and cultivated barley lines. [Hordeum spontaneum; Hordeum vulgare

    SciTech Connect

    Glinka, Z. ); Gunasekera, D.; Mane, S.; Berkowitz, G. )

    1991-05-01

    Wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum) seeds collected from arid and temperate regions in Israel were used, along with cultivated barley (H. vulgare) in a study to evaluate the range of acclimation responses to low leaf water potential ({Psi}w). Stress was imposed on plants by withholding water until {Psi}w was {minus}2 megapascals (MPa). Protoplast volume (PV) was measured at {minus}0.2 and {minus}2 MPa (imposed in vitro) in leaf tissue from well-watered and stressed plants. In well-watered plants, PV declined at {minus}2, as compared to {minus}0.2 MPa in all lines. With tissue from in situ stressed plants, PV reduction at {minus}2 MPa was not as great in some lines. The change in the extent of PV reduction occurring at {minus}2 MPa was used as an index of drought acclimation. The 13 wild barley lines were separated into high, medium, and low acclimation groups. Lines collected from arid regions scored in the high acclimation group. The cultivated barley lines scored in the medium and low groups. Relative water content decline at low leaf {Psi}w in situ was not a good indicator of acclimation; all lines responded similarly. Photosynthesis in situ was measured at high and low leaf {Psi}w in lines from the three groupings. Photosynthetic sensitivity to low {Psi}w was twice as great in low acclimation, as compared to high acclimation lines. It was concluded that PV response to low {Psi}w is a good indicator of drought acclimation in barley, and that wild lines offer a range of acclimation potential which could be used in breeding programs.

  7. Localization and pattern of graviresponse across the pulvinus of barley Hordeum vulgare

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, T. G.; Lu, C. R.; Ghosheh, N. S.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Pulvini of excised stem segments from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv Larker') were pretreated with 1 millimolar coumarin before gravistimulation to reduce longitudinal cell expansion and exaggerate radial cell enlargement. The cellular localization and pattern of graviresponse across individual pulvini were then evaluated by cutting the organ in cross-section, photographing the cross-section, and then measuring pulvinus thickness and the radial width of cortical and epidermal cells in enlargements of the photomicrographs. With respect to orientation during gravistimulation, we designated the uppermost point of the cross-section 0 degrees and the lowermost point 180 degrees. A gravity-induced increase in pulvinus thickness was observable within 40 degrees of the vertical in coumarin-treated pulvini. In upper halves of coumarin-treated gravistimulated pulvini, cells in the inner cortex and inner epidermis had increased radial widths, relative to untreated gravistimulated pulvini. In lower halves of coumarin-treated pulvini, cells in the central and outer cortex and in the outer epidermis showed the greatest increase in radial width. Cells comprising the vascular bundles also increased in radial width, with this pattern following that of the central cortex. These results indicate (a) that all cell types are capable of showing a graviresponse, (b) that the graviresponse occurs in both the top and the bottom of the responding organ, and (c) that the magnitude of the response increases approximately linearly from the uppermost point to the lowermost. These results are also consistent with models of gravitropism that link the pattern and magnitude of the graviresponse to graviperception via statolith sedimentation.

  8. A novel approach to monitor the hydrolysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare L) malt: a chemometrics approach.

    PubMed

    Cozzolino, D; Degner, S; Eglinton, J

    2014-12-03

    Malting barley is a process that has been profusely studied and is known to be influenced by several physical and biochemical properties of the grain. In particular, the amount of material that can be extracted from the malt (malt extract) is an important measure of brewing performance and end quality. The objectives of this study were (a) to compare the time course of hydrolysis of different malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L) varieties and (b) to evaluate the usefulness of mid-infrared (MIR) spectroscopy as high-throughput method to monitor malt hydrolysis. Differences in the pattern of hydrolysis were observed between the malt samples analyzed where samples from the same variety that have similar hot water extract (HWE) values tend to have the same pattern of hydrolysis. Principal component score plots based on the MIR spectra showed similar results. Partial least-squares discriminate analysis (PLS-DA) was used to classify malt samples according to their corresponding variety and time course of hydrolysis. The coefficient of determination (R(2)) and the standard error of cross validation (SECV) obtained for the prediction of variety and time course of hydrolysis were 0.67 (1.01) and 0.38 (19.90), respectively. These differences might be the result of the different composition in sugars between the barley varieties analyzed after malting, measured as wort density and not observed when only the HWE value at the end point is reported. This method offers the possibility to measure several parameters in malt simultaneously, reducing the time of analysis as well as requiring minimal sample preparation.

  9. Identification and Expression Analysis of the Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Aquaporin Gene Family.

    PubMed

    Hove, Runyararo M; Ziemann, Mark; Bhave, Mrinal

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporins (AQPs) are major intrinsic proteins (MIPs) that mediate bidirectional flux of water and other substrates across cell membranes, and play critical roles in plant-water relations, dehydration stress responses and crop productivity. However, limited data are available as yet on the contributions of these proteins to the physiology of the major crop barley (Hordeum vulgare). The present work reports the identification and expression analysis of the barley MIP family. A comprehensive search of publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data, draft barley genome data, GenBank transcripts and sixteen new annotations together revealed that the barley MIP family is comprised of at least forty AQPs. Alternative splicing events were likely in two plasma membrane intrinsic protein (PIP) AQPs. Analyses of the AQP signature sequences and specificity determining positions indicated a potential of several putative AQP isoforms to transport non-aqua substrates including physiological important substrates, and respond to abiotic stresses. Analysis of our publicly available leaf mRNA-seq data identified notable differential expression of HvPIP1;2 and HvTIP4;1 under salt stress. Analyses of other gene expression resources also confirmed isoform-specific responses in different tissues and/or in response to salinity, as well as some potentially inter-cultivar differences. The work reports systematic and comprehensive analysis of most, if not all, barley AQP genes, their sequences, expression patterns in different tissues, potential transport and stress response functions, and a strong framework for selection and/or development of stress tolerant barley varieties. In addition, the barley data would be highly valuable for genetic studies of the evolutionarily closely related wheat (Triticum aestivum L.).

  10. Identification and expression analyses of cytosolic glutamine synthetase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Goodall, Andrew J; Kumar, Pankaj; Tobin, Alyson K

    2013-04-01

    Glutamine synthetase (GS) is a key enzyme in nitrogen (N) assimilation, particularly during seed development. Three cytosolic GS isoforms (HvGS1) were identified in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Golden Promise). Quantitation of gene expression, localization and response to N supply revealed that each gene plays a non-redundant role in different tissues and during development. Localization of HvGS1_1 in vascular cells of different tissues, combined with its abundance in the stem and its response to changes in N supply, indicate that it is important in N transport and remobilization. HvGS1_1 is located on chromosome 6H at 72.54 cM, close to the marker HVM074 which is associated with a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) for grain protein content (GPC). HvGS1_1 may be a potential candidate gene to manipulate barley GPC. HvGS1_2 mRNA was localized to the leaf mesophyll cells, in the cortex and pericycle of roots, and was the dominant HvGS1 isoform in these tissues. HvGS1_2 expression increased in leaves with an increasing supply of N, suggesting its role in the primary assimilation of N. HvGS1_3 was specifically and predominantly localized in the grain, being highly expressed throughout grain development. HvGS1_3 expression increased specifically in the roots of plants grown on high NH(+)4, suggesting that it has a primary role in grain N assimilation and also in the protection against ammonium toxicity in roots. The expression of HvGS1 genes is directly correlated with protein and enzymatic activity, indicating that transcriptional regulation is of prime importance in the control of GS activity in barley.

  11. Enhanced Pb Absorption by Hordeum vulgare L. and Helianthus annuus L. Plants Inoculated with an Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi Consortium.

    PubMed

    Arias, Milton Senen Barcos; Peña-Cabriales, Juan José; Alarcón, Alejandro; Maldonado Vega, María

    2015-01-01

    The effect of an arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) consortium conformed by (Glomus intraradices, Glomus albidum, Glomus diaphanum, and Glomus claroideum) on plant growth and absorption of Pb, Fe, Na, Ca, and (32)P in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) plants was evaluated. AMF-plants and controls were grown in a substrate amended with powdered Pb slag at proportions of 0, 10, 20, and 30% v/v equivalent to total Pb contents of 117; 5,337; 13,659, and 19,913 mg Pb kg(-1) substrate, respectively. Mycorrhizal root colonization values were 70, 94, 98, and 90%, for barley and 91, 97, 95, and 97%, for sunflower. AMF inoculum had positive repercussions on plant development of both crops. Mycorrhizal barley absorbed more Pb (40.4 mg Pb kg(-1)) shoot dry weight than non-colonized controls (26.5 mg Pb kg(-1)) when treated with a high Pb slag dosage. This increase was higher in roots than shoots (650.0 and 511.5 mg Pb kg(-1) root dry weight, respectively). A similar pattern was found in sunflower. Plants with AMF absorbed equal or lower amounts of Fe, Na and Ca than controls. H. vulgare absorbed more total P (1.0%) than H. annuus (0.9%). The arbuscular mycorrizal consortium enhanced Pb extraction by plants.

  12. Influence of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium and pH on copper toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Lock, K; Criel, P; De Schamphelaere, K A C; Van Eeckhout, H; Janssen, C R

    2007-10-01

    The extent to which Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) ions and pH independently influence copper toxicity to barley (Hordeum vulgare) was assessed by measuring root growth in nutrient solutions. Increased Ca(2+) activity resulted in a sixfold decrease in [EC50(cu2+)] values, while a positive relationship between the cation activity and the EC50 was expected. Increased Mg(2+) activity resulted in a twofold increase in [EC50(cu2+)] values. Na(+), K(+) and H(+) activities did not significantly affect Cu(2+) toxicity. The obtained results indicated that competition for binding sites between Cu(2+) and cations such as Ca(2+), Mg(2+), Na(+), K(+) and H(+) is not an important factor in determining Cu(2+) toxicity to H. vulgare. However, the EC50s could, with one exception, be predicted within a factor three based on the free Cu(2+) activity, indicating that the free Cu(2+) activity cannot only be used to predict metal toxicity to aquatic, but also to terrestrial organisms.

  13. A herbal antifungal formulation of Thymus serpillum, Origanum vulgare and Rosmarinus officinalis for treating ovine dermatophytosis due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes.

    PubMed

    Mugnaini, Linda; Nardoni, Simona; Pistelli, Luisa; Leonardi, Michele; Giuliotti, Lorella; Benvenuti, Maria N; Pisseri, Francesca; Mancianti, Francesca

    2013-05-01

    A number of herbal products with anti-inflammatory, antiseptic and antimycotic properties are available for dermatological usage. The successful treatment of 13 sheep affected by ringworm due to Trichophyton mentagrophytes with a mixture consisting of essential oils (EOs) of Thymus serpillum 2%, Origanum vulgare 5% and Rosmarinus officinalis 5% in sweet almond (Prunus dulcis) oil. The effectiveness of EOs and of the major components of the mixture (thymol, carvacrol, 1,8 cineole, α-pinene, p-cymene, γ-terpinene) against the fungal clinical isolate was evaluated by a microdilution test. Thirteen animals were topically administered with the mixture twice daily for 15 days. The other sheep were administered with a conventional treatment (seven animals) or left untreated (two animals). Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values were 0.1% for T. serpillum, 0.5% for O. vulgare, 2.5% for I. verum and 5% for both R. officinalis and C. limon. Thymol and carvacrol showed MICs of 0.125% and 0.0625%. A clinical and aetiological cure was obtained at the end of each treatment regimen in only the treated animals. Specific antimycotic drugs licenced for food-producing sheep are not available within the European Community. The mixture tested here appeared to be a versatile tool for limiting fungal growth.

  14. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome.

  15. Combined application of origanum vulgare l. essential oil and acetic acid for controlling the growth of staphylococcus aureus in foods

    PubMed Central

    de Souza, Evandro Leite; de Barros, Jefferson Carneiro; da Conceição, Maria Lúcia; Neto, Nelson Justino Gomes; da Costa, Ana Caroliny Vieira

    2009-01-01

    This study evaluated the occurrence of an enhancing inhibitory effect of the combined application of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil and acetic acid against Staphylococcus aureus by the determination of Fractional Inhibitory Concentration (FIC) index and kill-time assay in nutrient broth, meat broth and in a food model (meat pieces). Acetic acid showed MIC and MFC of 0.6 and 1.25 μL.mL-1, respectively. For O. vulgare essential oil MIC and MBC were 1.25 and 2.5 μL.mL-1, respectively. FIC indexes of the mixture of essential oil and acetic acid at MIC x ½ were ≤ 1.0, showing an additive effect. No synergy was found at kill-time study. Anti-staphylococcal effect of the antimicrobials alone or in mixture (MIC x ½) was lower in meat than in nutrient and meat broths. The effective combination of essential oils and organic acids could appear as an attractive alternative for the food industry, as the doses to inhibit the microbial growth in foods can be lowered. PMID:24031377

  16. Large gene overlaps and tRNA processing in the compact mitochondrial genome of the crustacean Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Doublet, Vincent; Ubrig, Elodie; Alioua, Abdelmalek; Bouchon, Didier; Marcadé, Isabelle; Maréchal-Drouard, Laurence

    2015-01-01

    A faithful expression of the mitochondrial DNA is crucial for cell survival. Animal mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) presents a highly compact gene organization. The typical 16.5 kbp animal mtDNA encodes 13 proteins, 2 rRNAs and 22 tRNAs. In the backyard pillbug Armadillidium vulgare, the rather small 13.9 kbp mtDNA encodes the same set of proteins and rRNAs as compared to animal kingdom mtDNA, but seems to harbor an incomplete set of tRNA genes. Here, we first confirm the expression of 13 tRNA genes in this mtDNA. Then we show the extensive repair of a truncated tRNA, the expression of tRNA involved in large gene overlaps and of tRNA genes partially or fully integrated within protein-coding genes in either direct or opposite orientation. Under selective pressure, overlaps between genes have been likely favored for strong genome size reduction. Our study underlines the existence of unknown biochemical mechanisms for the complete gene expression of A. vulgare mtDNA, and of co-evolutionary processes to keep overlapping genes functional in a compacted mitochondrial genome. PMID:26361137

  17. Contact and fumigant activities of constituents of Foeniculum vulgare fruit against three coleopteran stored-product insects.

    PubMed

    Kim, D H; Ahn, Y J

    2001-03-01

    The insecticidal activities of materials derived from the fruit of fennel, Foeniculum vulgare, against adults of Sitophilus oryzae, Callosobruchus chinensis and Lasioderma serricorne were examined using direct contact application and fumigation methods. The biologically active constituents of the Foeniculum fruits were characterized as the phenylpropenes (E)-anethole and estragole, and the monoterpene (+)-fenchone, by spectroscopic analysis. Responses varied with insect species, compound, dose and exposure time. In a filter paper diffusion test, estragole at 0.168 mg cm-2 caused 91% mortality to S oryzae adults within 1 day after treatment (DAT), whereas (+)-fenchone and (E)-anethole gave over 90% mortality at 2 and 4 DAT, respectively. Against C chinensis adults, all test compounds revealed potent insecticidal activities at 0.021 mg cm-2 at 2 DAT. Against L serricorne adults at 0.105 mg cm-2, (E)-anethole gave 100% mortality at 1 DAT, whereas 90 and 60% mortality at 4 DAT was achieved with estragole and (+)-fenchone, respectively. In a fumigation test, the compounds were much more effective against adults of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne in closed cups than in open ones, indicating that the insecticidal activity of test compounds was largely attributable to fumigant action. As naturally occurring insect-control agents, the F vulgare fruit-derived materials described could be useful for managing field populations of S oryzae, C chinensis and L serricorne.

  18. Molecular response of Sargassum vulgare to acidification at volcanic CO2 vents - insights from de novo transcriptomic analysis.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Amit; Castellano, Immacolata; Patti, Francesco Paolo; Delledonne, Massimo; Abdelgawad, Hamada; Beemster, Gerrit T S; Asard, Han; Palumbo, Anna; Buia, Maria Cristina

    2017-01-30

    Ocean acidification is an emerging problem that is expected to impact ocean species to varying degrees. Currently, little is known about its effect on molecular mechanisms induced in fleshy macroalgae. To elucidate genome wide responses to acidification, a comparative transcriptome analysis was carried out between Sargassum vulgare populations growing under acidified conditions at volcanic CO2 vents and a control site. Several transcripts involved in a wide range of cellular and metabolic processes were differentially expressed. No drastic changes were observed in the carbon acquisition processes and RuBisCO level. Moreover, relatively few stress genes, including those for antioxidant enzymes and heat shock proteins, were affected. Instead, increased expression of transcripts involved in energy metabolism, photosynthetic processes, and ion homeostasis suggested that algae increased energy production to maintain ion-homeostasis and other cellular processes. Also, an increased allocation of carbon to cell wall and carbon storage was observed. A number of genes encoding proteins involved in cellular signaling, information storage and processing, and transposition were differentially expressed between the two conditions. The transcriptional changes of key enzymes were largely confirmed by enzymatic activity measurements. Altogether, the changes induced by acidification indicate an adaptation of growth and development of S. vulgare at the volcanic CO2 vents, suggesting that this fleshy alga exhibits a high plasticity to low pH and can adopt molecular strategies to grow also in future more acidified waters. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Antinociceptive Effect of Aqueous Extract of Origanum vulgare L. in Male Rats: Possible Involvement of the GABAergic System

    PubMed Central

    Afarineshe Khaki, Mohammad Reza; Pahlavan, Yasamin; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Pahlavan, Bahare

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to assess the possible involvement of GABAergic mechanism in analgesic effect of aqueous extract of Origanum Vulgare (ORG) in a rat model of acute pain test. Sixty-three anaesthetized male Wistar rats (200-250 g) were cannulated into the left ventricle. Five to seven days after the recovery from surgery, ORG extract was intraventricularly injected at dose of 3 μg/rat i.c.v. Then, baclofen (10 mg/Kg, IP), CGP35348 (100 nmol/Kg, i.c.v), muscimol (1 mg/Kg IP) and bicuculline (5 mg/Kg IP) were separately injected 20 min before the injection of ORG. The experimental groups were compared with intact (control) group (n = 7). The response latency of rats to thermal stimulation was recorded using Tail-Flick test. Injection of ORG extract resulted in a significant and dose-dependent increase in the response latency. There was also a significant increase in the response latency after co-administration of ORG extract with baclofen when compared with control group. However, following co-administration of ORG extract/bicuculline, a significant decrease in the response latency was observed compared to control group. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggest that aqueous extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. viridis possesses antinociceptive activity in a dose-dependent manner and ORG-induced antinociception might be mediated, at least in part, by both GABA receptors. PMID:24250616

  20. Effect of cadmium on selected physiological and morphological parameters in metallicolous and non-metallicolous populations of Echium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Bednarek, Wiesław; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2014-06-01

    Cadmium tolerance of three populations of Echium vulgare L., naturally occurring on two Zn-Pb waste deposits (metallicolous populations M1, M2) and on an uncontaminated site (non-metallicolous population, NM) was investigated. The plants were cultivated in hydroponics at 0, 5, 15, 30, or 50μM Cd for 14 days. Although Cd reduced the content of photosynthetic pigments indifferently in the three populations, plant growth parameters and root viability analyses confirmed different Cd tolerances decreasing in the order M1>M2>NM in the populations studied. Organic acids (tartrate, malate, citrate, succinate) were not responsible for the elevated Cd tolerance of the metallicolous populations, although malate and citrate might participate in Cd detoxification in the roots of the M1 and M2. Phytochelatin concentrations were higher in the roots of M1 and M2 populations of E. vulgare, suggesting their role in Cd detoxification and different Cd tolerances. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease.

    PubMed

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21(st) day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model.

  2. Inhibitory effect of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare essential oils on virulence factors of phytopatogenic Pseudomonas syringae strains.

    PubMed

    Carezzano, M E; Sotelo, J P; Primo, E; Reinoso, E B; Paletti Rovey, M F; Demo, M S; Giordano, W F; de Las M Oliva, M

    2017-04-12

    Pseudomonas syringae is a phytopathogenic bacterium that causes lesions in the leaves during the colonization process. The damage is associated to the production of many virulence factors such as biofilm and phytotoxins. The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare have demonstrated the ability to inhibit P. syringae. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of T. vulgaris and O. vulgare essential oils on the production of virulence factors of phytopatogenic P. syringae strains, including anti-biofilm and anti-toxins activities. The broth microdilution method was performed for the determination of MIC and biofilm inhibition assays. Coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin was pheno- and genotipically evaluated. Both oils showed good inhibitory activity with MIC values ranging from 1.43 to 11.5 mg/mL for thyme and 5.8 to 11.6 mg/mL for oregano. The biofilm formation, the production of coronatine, syringomycin and tabtoxin were inhibited by thyme and oregano essential oils in the majority of the strains. The results presented here are promising, demonstrating the bactericidal activity and the reduction of the virulence factor production by thymus and oregano oils, providing some insight into how they exert their antibacterial activity. These natural products could be considered in the future for the control of bacteriosis caused by P. syringae. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  3. Genetic Transformation of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum for the Development of a Transposon-Based Insertional Mutagenesis System.

    PubMed

    Cardinal, Marie-Josée; Kaur, Rajvinder; Singh, Jaswinder

    2016-10-01

    Domestication and intensive selective breeding of plants has triggered erosion of genetic diversity of important stress-related alleles. Researchers highlight the potential of using wild accessions as a gene source for improvement of cereals such as barley, which has major economic and social importance worldwide. Previously, we have successfully introduced the maize Ac/Ds transposon system for gene identification in cultivated barley. The objective of current research was to investigate the response of Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum wild barley accessions in tissue culture to standardize parameters for introduction of Ac/Ds transposons through genetic transformation. We investigated the response of ten wild barley genotypes for callus induction, regenerative green callus induction and regeneration of fertile plants. The activity of exogenous Ac/Ds elements was observed through a transient assay on immature wild barley embryos/callus whereby transformed embryos/calli were identified by the expression of GUS. Transient Ds expression bombardment experiments were performed on 352 pieces of callus (3-5 mm each) or immature embryos in 4 genotypes of wild barley. The transformation frequency of putative transgenic callus lines based on transient GUS expression ranged between 72 and100 % in wild barley genotypes. This is the first report of a transformation system in H. vulgare ssp. spontaneum.

  4. Evidence for Lack of Acquisition of Tolerance in Salmonella enterica Serovar Typhimurium ATCC 14028 after Exposure to Subinhibitory Amounts of Origanum vulgare L. Essential Oil and Carvacrol

    PubMed Central

    Luz, Isabelle da Silva; Gomes Neto, Nelson Justino; Tavares, Adassa Gama; Nunes, Pollyana Campos; Magnani, Marciane

    2012-01-01

    Overnight exposure of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium to sublethal amounts of Origanum vulgare essential oil (OV) and carvacrol (CAR) did not result in direct and cross-bacterial protection. Cells subcultured with increasing amounts of OV or CAR survived up to the MIC of either compound, revealing few significant changes in bacterial susceptibility. PMID:22544235

  5. Isolation of diterpenoid alkaloids from herb and flowers of aconitum napellus ssp. vulgare and electrospray ion trap multiple MS study of these alkaloids

    PubMed

    Chen; Koelliker; Oehme; Katz

    1999-05-01

    Chemical investigation of herb and flowers of Aconitum napellus L. ssp. vulgare led to the isolation of 12 diterpenoid alkaloids. Their chemical structures were identified on the basis of NMR and MS and of their complete ion trap multiple fragmentation mass spectrometry study.

  6. Broadly conserved fungal effector BEC1019 suppresses host cell death and enhances pathogen virulence in powdery mildew of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the biotrophic powdery mildew fungus, Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, is an ideal model to address fundamental questions in host resistance and susceptibility. Effector proteins secreted by B. graminis act to inhibit, induce, or accelerate host pr...

  7. Selected secondary metabolites in Echium vulgare L. populations from nonmetalliferous and metalliferous areas.

    PubMed

    Dresler, Sławomir; Rutkowska, Ewelina; Bednarek, Wiesław; Stanisławski, Grzegorz; Kubrak, Tomasz; Bogucka-Kocka, Anna; Wójcik, Małgorzata

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of severe environmental conditions prevailing on metalliferous waste heaps and heavy metal-contaminated growth substrates on accumulation of selected secondary metabolites, antioxidant capacity, and heavy metal concentration in two metallicolous (MC, MZ) and one nonmetallicolous (NM) populations of Echium vulgare L. The shoots and the roots of the three studied populations were collected from their natural habitats. Additionally, the plants were cultivated on different growth substrates, i.e. a contaminated substrate obtained from the areas of growth of the MZ and MC populations and an uncontaminated one from the NM population site. Several compounds, i.e. allantoin, rutin, rosmarinic acid, chlorogenic acid, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid were identified in the shoots. Moreover, rosmarinic acid, allantoin, and shikonin were measured in the roots. The adverse environmental conditions contributed to a ca. 10- and 4-fold increase in the concentration of allantoin in the roots and shoots, respectively, as well as a ca. 4-fold and ca. 3-fold increase in the level of 4-hydroxybenzoic acid and shikonin, respectively, in comparison with the plants from the uncontaminated site. Similarly, a great impact of the contaminated substrate on the compounds was demonstrated in the soil experiment. Regardless of the populations, even ca. 20-fold higher levels of allantoin and shikonin were observed in plants grown on the MC and MZ substrates. In contrast, the chlorogenic acid concentration was lower in plants collected from the metalliferous areas and in all populations cultivated on the contaminated substrates in comparison with plants from the uncontaminated soil. Unambiguous results were obtained in the case of rutin, i.e. decreased accumulation in both metallicolous populations from the natural environment and increased accumulation in plants grown on the contaminated substrates. The high concentrations of heavy metals in the

  8. Distillation time modifies essential oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill).

    PubMed

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Horgan, Thomas; Astatkie, Tess; Schlegel, Vicki

    2013-01-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an essential oil crop grown worldwide for production of essential oil, as medicinal or as culinary herb. The essential oil is extracted via steam distillation either from the whole aboveground biomass (herb) or from fennel fruits (seed). The hypothesis of this study was that distillation time (DT) can modify fennel oil yield, composition, and antioxidant capacity of the oil. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of eight DT (1.25, 2.5, 5, 10, 20, 40, 80, and 160 min) on fennel herb essential oil. Fennel essential oil yield (content) reached a maximum of 0.68% at 160 min DT. The concentration of trans-anethole (32.6-59.4% range in the oil) was low at 1.25 min DT, and increased with an increase of the DT. Alpha-phelandrene (0.9-10.5% range) was the lowest at 1.25 min DT and higher at 10, 80, and 160 min DT. Alpha-pinene (7.1-12.4% range) and beta-pinene (0.95-1.64% range) were higher in the shortest DT and the lowest at 80 min DT. Myrcene (0.93-1.95% range), delta-3-carene (2.1-3.7% range), cis-ocimene (0-0.23% range), and gamma-terpinene (0.22-2.67% range) were the lowest at 1.25 min DT and the highest at 160 min DT. In contrast, the concentrations of paracymene (0.68-5.97% range), fenchone (9.8-22.7% range), camphor (0.21-0.51% range), and cis-anethole (0.14-4.66% range) were highest at shorter DT (1.25-5 min DT) and the lowest at the longer DT (80-160 min DT). Fennel oils from the 20 and 160 min DT had higher antioxidant capacity than the fennel oil obtained at 1.25 min DT. DT can be used to obtain fennel essential oil with differential composition. DT must be reported when reporting essential oil content and composition of fennel essential oil. The results from this study may be used to compare reports in which different DT to extract essential oil from fennel biomass were used.

  9. Effect of the dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) on Cu and Zn balance in weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Untea, Arabela; Criste, Rodica; Panaite, Tatiana; Costache, Iulian

    2011-01-01

    A 4-week study conducted on 20 weaned piglets (average initial weight 15 kg) evaluated the effects of dietary oregano (Origanum vulgare) used in the presence/absence of phytase on the Cu and Zn balance, while reducing/eliminating their inclusion in the diet as inorganic salts. Oregano was harvested from the wild flora. The Cu and Zn concentrations that were taken into consideration (9.85 ppm and 53.31 pmm, respectively) were the consensus values obtained in an interlaboratory study. The piglets were assigned to 4 groups (C, E1, E2, E3), housed in individual metabolic cages and fed on corn-soybean meal-based diets. The diet of the control group (C) with addition of 1% inorganic mineral premix (MP), contained: 40.92 ppm Cu, 144.96 ppm Zn. The experimental diets differed from the C diet as follows: E1--3% oregano, 0% phytase (5000 PU/g), 0% MP; E2--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0% MP; E3--3% oregano, 0% phytase, 0.5% MP, E4--3% oregano, 0.01% phytase, 0,5% premix. For groups E1, E2, E3 and E4, 0.5% Zn of the MP were included in the diet, because the dietary oregano amount did not meet the requirements (NRC) for piglets. The mineral balance was determined during 3 periods of 5 days each. The levels of Cu and Zn were measured by FAAS in the samples (weekly samples/piglet) of ingesta, faeces and urine. It was noticed that although the dietary Cu ingested by the groups without MP was 75% (10.08 ppm) lower than C, the absorption coefficients were only 47% (28.83) lower than for group C (54.22%), while in the groups with 0.5% MP, the absorption was just 10% (48.86%) lower than for group C. For Zn, where the amount ingested by the experimental groups was 33% (97.62 ppm) lower than for group C, the absorption coefficients were just 20% (46.3%) lower than for group C (57.64%). No significant differences were noticed for Cu and Zn in terms of apparent absorption, between the groups with/without phytase. The deposits of Cu and Zn in the main organs and serum (from slaughtered

  10. Seed germination of medicinal plant, fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill), as affected by different priming techniques.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Amirreza; Soleymani, Ali; Shams, Majid

    2016-09-01

    Reduced seed germination is among the most important factors adversely affecting crop stand and subsequent plant growth. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) is an important medicinal plant with poor seed germination rate, occasionally. It is accordingly pertinent to find methods which can enhance fennel seed germination and remove the barriers of dormancy breaking. The present experiments studied the effects of two different priming (cold moist stratification and osmopriming) and 14 dormancy breaking techniques (hormonal, osmopriming, biopriming, chemical priming, and hydropriming) on the seed germination and seedling growth of two different fennel genotypes under growth chamber conditions. In the first and second experiment, the priming techniques including the time lengths of cold moist stratification (0, 15, 30, and 45 days) and the concentrations of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG6000, osmopriming at -0.99, -1.35, and -2.33 MPa) were used as the main plots. However, in both experiments, the dormancy breaking techniques and fennel genotypes were factorially combined and used as the subplots. Different seed- and seedling-related parameters including germination (%), plumule, radicle and seedling length, average germination time, rate and homogeneity of germination, and seed vigor index were determined. Both priming techniques were efficient on the enhancement of seed germination and seedling growth. Among the dormancy breaking techniques, Aminol Forte (biopriming), kadostim (biopriming), benzyl adenine + kinetin (biopriming), distilled water (hydropriming), gibberellin + kinetin (hormonal priming), and benzyl adenine + kinetin + gibberellin (biopriming) were the most effective ones. The related concentrations were equal to 100 mg/l, 10(-5) M, and 0.4 %. The fennel genotypes reacted significantly different under priming conditions. It is possible to enhance seed germination and seedling growth of fennel using priming and dormancy breaking

  11. HPLC-HRMS method for fast phytochelatins determination in plants. Application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Bardarov, Krum; Naydenov, Mladen; Djingova, Rumyana

    2015-09-01

    An optimized analytical method based on C8 core-shell reverse phase chromatographic separation and high resolution mass spectral (HRMS) detection is developed for a fast analysis of unbound phytochelatins (PCs) in plants. Its application to analysis of Clinopodium vulgare L. is demonstrated where proper PCs liberating and preservation conditions were employed using dithiotreitol in the extraction step. A baseline separation of glutathione (GSH) and phytochelatins from 2 to 5 (PC2-PC5) for 3 min was achieved at conventional HPLC backpressure, with detection limits from 3 ppt (for GSH) to 2.5 ppb (for PC5). It is shown, that the use of HRMS with tandem mass spectral (MS/MS) capabilities permits additional wide range screening ability for iso-phytochelatins and PC similar compounds, based on exact mass and fragment spectra in a post acquisition manner.

  12. A High-Throughput RNA Extraction for Sprouted Single-Seed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Rich in Polysaccharides

    PubMed Central

    Rashid, Abdur; Baldwin, Thomas; Gines, Michael; Bregitzer, Phil; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-01-01

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the excess polysaccharides. Here, we compare the current methods for RNA extraction applicable to germinated barley tissue. We found that although some of these standard methods produced high-quality RNA, the process of extraction was drastically slow, mostly because the frozen seed tissue powder from liquid N2 grinding became recalcitrant to buffer mixing. Our suggested modifications to the protocols removed the need for liquid N2 grinding and significantly increased the output efficiency of RNA extraction. Our modified protocol has applications in other cereal tissues rich in polysaccharides, including oat. PMID:28025509

  13. [Mechanism of the refractory state of androgen hormone in Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (crustacean, isopod, oniscoid) harboring a feminizing bacteria].

    PubMed

    Juchault, P; Legrand, J J

    1985-12-01

    In thelygenous lines of Armadillidium vulgare, neo-females and intersex males (iM) with feminizing symbiotic bacteria are not masculinized by an extract from iM androgenic gland, which, however, masculinizes bacterialess genetic females. Injection of iM hemolymph extract masculinizes these genetic females. This indicates that androgenic hormone is present in iM hemolymph. Lack of androgenic hormone activity in thelygenous lines is supposed to result from the action of bacteria on the androgenic hormone receptors. Since a temporary recovery of the male differentiation of iM can be induced by implantation of different parts of central nervous system, bacteria effect is probably indirect, through an action on a neurosecretory system, perhaps one of those controlling the functioning of the androgenic gland.

  14. A High-Throughput RNA Extraction for Sprouted Single-Seed Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Rich in Polysaccharides.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Abdur; Baldwin, Thomas; Gines, Michael; Bregitzer, Phil; Esvelt Klos, Kathy

    2016-12-22

    Germinated seed from cereal crops including barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an important tissue to extract RNA and analyze expression levels of genes that control aspects of germination. These tissues are rich in polysaccharides and most methods for RNA extraction are not suitable to handle the excess polysaccharides. Here, we compare the current methods for RNA extraction applicable to germinated barley tissue. We found that although some of these standard methods produced high-quality RNA, the process of extraction was drastically slow, mostly because the frozen seed tissue powder from liquid N₂ grinding became recalcitrant to buffer mixing. Our suggested modifications to the protocols removed the need for liquid N₂ grinding and significantly increased the output efficiency of RNA extraction. Our modified protocol has applications in other cereal tissues rich in polysaccharides, including oat.

  15. The role of pollination in the population biology of the monocarpic species Cirsium palustre and Cirsium vulgare.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, B H

    1981-10-01

    The absence of cross-pollination in Cirsium palustre and Cirsium vulgare resulted in reduced achene production while the achenes produced were heavier than those produced after cross-pollimation. Establishment of plants from non-cross-pollinated achenes is comparatively higher, facilitating the founding of a population from isolated individuals in these wind-dispersed species.If achene weight is the result of a balance between cross-pollination and self-pollination (and/or apomixis), the first causing more and thereby lighter achenes to develop, increasing density of flowering individuals in a population may lower achene weight and consequently seedling survival. This may account for the frequently observed decline of populations of fugitive monocarpic perennials.

  16. Development of PLA films containing oregano essential oil (Origanum vulgare L. virens) intended for use in food packaging.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruiz-Cabello, M; Pichardo, S; Bermúdez, J M; Baños, A; Núñez, C; Guillamón, E; Aucejo, S; Cameán, A M

    2016-08-01

    Consumers' concerns about the environment and health have led to the development of new food packaging materials avoiding petroleum-based matrices and synthetic additives. The present study has developed polylactic acid (PLA) films containing different concentrations of essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. virens (OEO). The effectiveness of this new active packaging was checked for use in ready-to-eat salads. A plasticising effect was observed when OEO was incorporated in PLA films. The rest of the mechanical and physical properties of developed films did not show much change when OEO was included in the film. An antioxidant effect was recorded only for films containing the highest percentages of the active agent (5% and 10%). In addition, films exhibited in vitro antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Yersinia enterocolitica, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus carnosus. Moreover, in ready-to-eat salads, antimicrobial activity was only observed against yeast and moulds, where 5% and 10% of OEO was the most effective.

  17. Near-infrared analysis of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) on different spectrometers--basic considerations for a reliable network.

    PubMed

    Steuer, Boris; Schulz, Hartwig

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy and transferability of near-infrared (NIR) calibrations for estimating the content and composition of the volatile fraction in fennel fruits (Foeniculum vulgare Miller) as an example of medicinal and spice plants. A master calibration with spectra obtained on a scanning monochromator was generated using 345 samples from three different harvests (1997-1999). A subset of 70 samples from 1999 was also measured on a dispersive grating and a scanning diode array system to gain an insight into the influence of sample presentation and scanning techniques. For all instruments, calibrations with standard errors in the range of the reference method were achieved. Furthermore the influence of storage on NIR spectra and, additionally, the potential of transferring spectra between both scanning monochromators was studied.

  18. Investigation of the cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptosis-inducing effects of estragole isolated from fennel (Foeniculum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Villarini, Milena; Pagiotti, Rita; Dominici, Luca; Fatigoni, Cristina; Vannini, Samuele; Levorato, Sara; Moretti, Massimo

    2014-04-25

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate, in the HepG2 human hepatoma cell line, the in vitro cytotoxic, genotoxic, and apoptotic activities of estragole (1), contained in the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) and suspected to induce hepatic tumors in susceptible strains of mice. Toward this end, an MTT cytotoxicity assay, a trypan blue dye exclusion test, a double-staining (acridine orange and DAPI) fluorescence viability assay, a single-cell microgel-electrophoresis (comet) assay, a mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψm) assay, and a DNA fragmentation analysis were conducted. In terms of potential genotoxic effects, the comet assay indicated that estragole (1) was not able to induce DNA damage nor apoptosis under the experimental conditions used.

  19. Physiochemical Properties of the Pulp and Almonds of TUCUMÃ (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) for Oil Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longo, R. M.; Ribeiro, A. I.; Melo, W. J.; Queiroz, M. R.; Russo, A. C.; Amaral, J. B.

    2009-04-01

    Tucumã (Astrocaryum vulgare Mart) it is a palm tree commonly found at the Amazonian forest of firm earth, it produces nutritious fruits, quite appreciated by the local population. The seeds are for the obtaining of eatable olive oil and soap, the endocarp is employee for the local population in the making of earrings, rings, bracelets, necklaces and other workmanships. This species has occurrence also in Acre, Rondônia, Pará, Mato Grosso, Roraima, Trindad, Guyana and Bolivia. The objective of this work was to accomplish mechanical tests on the fruits with the purpose of studying the rupture of the shell and the whole income almonds and to obtain the impact loads in tucumã fruits. It was also characterized biochemical compositions of the pulp and the almond seeking the use for the other ends. The physiochemical parameters analyzed were: moisture content, fats gray, total protein, fiber, carbohydrate, calorie, fats acids and vitamins, just in the pulp: vitamin E, vitamin B1, vitamin B2, vitamin B5, vitamin B3, vitamin B6, vitamin B12, vitamin C, vitamin D3 and vitamin E. The obtained results revealed that the maximum force of rupture was of approximately 6200 N for the direction apex-insert and 7200 N for the perpendicular direction; then this the tucumã fruit with high shell hardness when compared to the other types of chestnuts, being necessary studies to design machines capable to promote mechanical breaking and thus facilitating, its commercial exploration. The pulp of the tucumã fruits, presented a significant amount of fats (32%), following by carbohydrates (19,7%) and fibers (18,4). The caloric value was of 380 Kcal/g. Also the pulp presented good amount of vitamin B3 (niacin - 76,7%) and C (acid ascorbic - 23,6%). In relation to the fat acids the pulp presents contents of acid oleic (C18.1) about 72,8% following for linoléico (C18.2), being a good product for the human and animal feeding,. In the almond 24,2% of fiber, 10,7% of fats, 17,0% of

  20. Rumen fermentation and production effects of Origanum vulgare L. leaves in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Tekippe, J A; Hristov, A N; Heyler, K S; Cassidy, T W; Zheljazkov, V D; Ferreira, J F S; Karnati, S K; Varga, G A

    2011-10-01

    A lactating cow trial was conducted to study the effects of dietary addition of oregano leaf material (Origanum vulgare L.; OV; 0, control vs. 500 g/d) on ruminal fermentation, methane production, total tract digestibility, manure gas emissions, N metabolism, organoleptic characteristics of milk, and dairy cow performance. Eight primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows (6 of which were ruminally cannulated) were used in a crossover design trial with two 21-d periods. Cows were fed once daily. The OV material was top-dressed and mixed with a portion of the total mixed ration. Cows averaged 80 ± 12.5 d in milk at the beginning of the trial. Rumen pH, concentration of total and individual volatile fatty acids, microbial protein outflow, and microbial profiles were not affected by treatment. Ruminal ammonia-N concentration was increased by OV compared with the control (5.3 vs. 4.3mM). Rumen methane production, which was measured only within 8h after feeding, was decreased by OV. Intake of dry matter (average of 26.6 ± 0.83 kg/d) and apparent total tract digestibly of nutrients did not differ between treatments. Average milk yield, milk protein, lactose, and milk urea nitrogen concentrations were unaffected by treatment. Milk fat content was increased and 3.5% fat-corrected milk yield tended to be increased by OV, compared with the control (3.29 vs. 3.12% and 42.4 vs. 41.0 kg/d, respectively). Fat-corrected (3.5%) milk feed efficiency and milk net energy for lactation (NE(L)) efficiency (milk NE(L) ÷ NE(L) intake) were increased by OV compared with the control (1.64 vs. 1.54 kg/kg and 68.0 vs. 64.4%, respectively). Milk sensory parameters were not affected by treatment. Urinary and fecal N losses, and manure ammonia and methane emissions were unaffected by treatment. Under the current experimental conditions, supplementation of dairy cow diets with 500 g/d of OV increased milk fat concentration, feed and milk NE(L) efficiencies, and tended to increase 3.5% fat

  1. Effect of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi Essential Oils on the Growth and Mycotoxins Production by Aspergillus Species

    PubMed Central

    Woldeamanuel, Yimtubezinash; Asrat, Daniel; Debella, Asfaw

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate effect of essential oils on Aspergillus spore germination, growth, and mycotoxin production. In vitro antifungal and antiaflatoxigenic activities of Cymbopogon martinii, Foeniculum vulgare, and Trachyspermum ammi essential oils were carried out on toxigenic strains of Aspergillus species. Plant materials were hydrodistilled for 4-5 h in Clevenger apparatus. 0.25 μL/mL, 0.5 μL/mL, 1 μL/mL, 2 μL/mL, and 4 μL/mL concentrations of each essential oil were prepared in 0.1% Tween 80 (V/V). T. ammi oil showed highest antifungal activity. Absolute mycelial inhibition was recorded at 1 μL/mL by essential oils of T. ammi. The oil also showed complete inhibition of spore germination at a concentration of 2 μL/mL. In addition, T. ammi oil showed significant antiaflatoxigenic potency by totally inhibiting toxin production from A. niger and A. flavus at 0.5 and 0.75 μL/mL, respectively. C. martinii, F. vulgare, and T. ammi oils as antifungals were found superior over synthetic preservative. Moreover, a concentration of 5336.297 μL/kg body weight was recorded for LC50 on mice indicating the low mammalian toxicity. In conclusion, the essential oils from T. ammi can be a potential source of safe natural food preservative for food commodities contamination by Aspergillus species. PMID:26904653

  2. Continuous 2-keto-L-gulonic acid fermentation from L-sorbose by Ketogulonigenium vulgare DSM 4025.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Yoshinori; Sugisawa, Teruhide; Hoshino, Tatsuo

    2009-04-01

    A single-stage continuous fermentation process for the production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2KGA) from L-sorbose using Ketogulonigenium vulgare DSM 4025 was developed. The chemostat culture with the dilution rate that was calculated based on the relationship between the 2KGA production rate and the 2KGA concentration was feasible for production with high concentration of 2KGA. In this system, 112.2 g/L of 2KGA on the average was continuously produced from 114 g/L of L-sorbose. A steady state of the fermentation was maintained for the duration of more than 110 h. The dilution rate was kept in the range of 0.035 and 0.043 h(-1), and the 2KGA productivity was 3.90 to 4.80 g/L/h. The average molar conversion yield of 2KGA from L-sorbose was 91.3%. Under the optimal conditions, L-sorbose concentration was kept at 0 g/L. Meanwhile, the dissolved oxygen level was changing in response to the dilution rate and 2KGA concentration. In the dissolved oxygen (DO) range of 16% to 58%, it was revealed that the relationship between DO and D possessed high degree of positive correlation under the L-sorbose limiting condition (complete consumption of L-sorbose). Increasing D closer to the critical value for washing out point of the continuous fermentation, DO value tended to be gradually increased up to 58%. In conclusion, an efficient and reproducible continuous fermentation process for 2KGA production by K. vulgare DSM 4025 could be developed using a medium containing baker's yeast without using a second helper microorganism.

  3. Sex reversal by implantations of ethanol-treated androgenic glands of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare (Malacostraca, crustacea).

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S; Yamasaki, K

    1998-09-01

    The androgenic glands (AGs) of malacostracan crustaceans are responsible for differentiation of male sexual characteristics, and sex reversal is readily obtained by implantation of AGs in female crustaceans. In order to induce sex reversal, we implanted inactive AGs (dead cells) into young females of Armadillidium vulgare. Before implantation fresh AGs (living cells) were treated twice with 80% ethanol for 3 min and kept in crustacean physiological saline for 30 s. We refer to these AGs as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Stage 6 females were used as recipients of t-AG implantation. They received an implant of three t-AGs (3 t-AGs) three times, once each week. Testis formation in recipients was used as an indicator of the masculinized levels of female gonads. Female sexual characteristics were masculinized in proportion to the number of 3 t-AG implantations. Three implantations (total number of t-AGs, nine glands) induced development of testes, penes, and male copulatory organs in the recipient females. Furthermore, they could produce progeny. These results show that t-AG implantations are capable of inducing masculinization of female sexual characteristics. The procedure of three implantations with 3 t-AGs at stage 6 is enough to transform the sex from a genetic female into a functional male. If t-AGs are used to implant instead of fresh AGs, we can detect the effects induced by newly formed AGs of recipient females, not by implanted donor's AGs. The present method may be useful for examining the regulatory mechanism of sex differentiation of female A. vulgare.

  4. [The hygienic characteristic and effectiveness of the application of natural sylvinite screens for the combined treatment of the patients presenting with vulgar psoriasis].

    PubMed

    El'kin, V D; Vladimirskiĭ, E V; Barannikov, V G; Gorovits, É S; Kopytova, E A

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to provide hygienic assessment of hospital wards equipped with the therapeutic sylvinite screens (TSS) and compare the results of the treatment of 80 patients suffering vulgar psoriasis with the use of TSS and without them. The sylvinite screens made it possible to create comfortable microenvironment in the wards and moderately increased the radiation background (0,15+/-0,005 Sv/hour) thereby promoting saturation of the ward atmosphere with aeroions dominated by the light negative particles (491,5+/-14,4 units/cm3). Such healthy environment hadc beneficial effect on the clinical course of the psoriatic process, the state of functional systems of the patients and their quality of life. It is concluded that the introduction of halotherapy in the treatment in patients presenting with vulgar psoriasis makes it possible to achieve clinical remission in 65% of them compared with 20% of the patients given the traditional treatment.

  5. [Study of the synthesis of vitellogenin in intersexual males of Armadillidium vulgare Latreille (oniscoid isopod crustacean): comparison with males and with intact or ovariectomized females].

    PubMed

    Souty-Grosset, C; Juchault, P

    1987-05-01

    In some natural populations of Armadilidium vulgare, intersex animals are genetic males which are feminized by maternally transmitted symbiotic bacteria. In these intersex males (iM) the fat body synthesizes vitellogenin, although their gonads are testes with hypertrophied--but nonfunctional--androgenic glands. Vitellogenin is present in the hemolymph of males changed experimentally into iM 90 days after inoculation of the feminizing bacteria. During the molting cycle, vitellogenin synthesis in iM varies as in ovariectomized females or in vitellogenic females, with a peak at the stage D1." In A. vulgare, vitellogenin synthesis is a neutral character since it can be observed in a genetic male or in an ovariectomized female; however, it is inhibited by the androgenic hormone. In intersex males, vitellogenin synthesis is the result of their refractoriness to androgenic hormone.

  6. Effects of Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera on growth and yield of essential oil in fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) under greenhouse conditions.

    PubMed

    Dolatabadi, Hossein Kari; Goltapeh, Ebrahim Mohammadi; Jaimand, Kamkar; Rohani, Neda; Varma, Ajit

    2011-02-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a very important plant in the family of Apiaceae. Effects of inoculation of two endophytic fungi (Piriformospora indica and Sebacina vermifera) in growth, yield and composition of the essential oil of fennel (F. vulgare) were evaluated in pot cultures. Dry fruits were ground with an electric grinder and oil was extracted by hydrodistillation, and their composition was determined by GC/MS. In pot experiment, the maximum dry weight of the green tissue and root and plant height were obtained with P. indica, and maximum number of umbels per plant and dry weight of 1000 fruits were produced with S. vermifera. The P. indica and S. vermifera inoculation significantly increased oil yield as compared to non-inoculated control plants. GC and GC/MS studies revealed that the level of anethole was increased with P. indica and S. vermifera.

  7. A biomimetic synthesis of stable gold nanoparticles derived from aqueous extract of Foeniculum vulgare seeds and evaluation of their catalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choudhary, Manoj Kumar; Kataria, Jyoti; Sharma, Shweta

    2017-08-01

    A facile biomimetic approach for the synthesis of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) using aqueous extract of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) seeds have been reported in this article. The seeds of F. vulgare are rich in various plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals) such as polyphenolic acids, flavonoids, and saponins. The phytochemicals of F. vulgare seeds play dual role of reducing and stabilizing agents. The formation of gold nanoparticles was evidenced from the appearance of intense purple color at room temperature with λ max around 550 nm in the UV-Vis absorption spectra. The stable AuNPs were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis. The synthesized nanoparticles were observed to be polydispersed, spherical and ranged from 10 to 30 nm with an average size of 20 ± 2 nm, as obtained from TEM images. The catalytic activity of gold nanoparticles was investigated by studying the reduction of anthropogenic dyes such as methylene blue (MB) and rhodamine B (Rh-B) with sodium borohydride. Results showed the possible applications of biogenic AuNPs in environment related problems.

  8. Androgenic gland hormone is a sex-reversing factor but cannot be a sex-determining factor in the female crustacean isopods Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, S

    1999-09-01

    Sex reversal of female isopods, Armadillidium vulgare, has been induced by implantation of the androgenic gland (AG) into individuals after the initiation of morphological sex differentiation. The focus of the present study is to examine whether female gonads are reversed by the androgenic gland hormone (AGH) during the sexually undifferentiated period through postembryonic development in A. vulgare. Instead of injections of AGH, three AGs were implanted into each genetic female at various developmental stages to induce sex reversal. Before implantation fresh AGs were treated with ethanol to stop AGH synthesis, but then still contained AGH. These AGs have been referred to as ethanol-treated AGs (t-AGs). Development of a testis was used as an indicator of gonadal sex reversal. The gonads of genetic females were transformed into testes by implantations of t-AGs during the sex differentiation period. However, when genetic females received implants at sexually undifferentiated stages, development of their gonads was not reversed in the male direction. These results suggest that after the onset of gonadal sex differentiation, AGH is a sex-reversing factor that can turn a female gonad into a male gonad. AGH cannot be a sex-determining factor in female A. vulgare, as undifferentiated gonads of genetic females are not sex reversed by the hormone.

  9. Chemical composition, antimicrobial and insecticidal activity against the lesser mealworm Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link) and Artemisia dracunculus L. essential oils.

    PubMed

    Szczepanik, Maria; Walczak, Maciej; Zawitowska, Beata; Michalska-Sionkowska, Marta; Szumny, Antoni; Wawrzeńczyk, Czesław; Swiontek Brzezinska, Maria

    2017-07-04

    Essential oils (EOs) from Artemisia dracunculus L. and Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum were obtained and the qualitative and quantitative chemical composition of the extracts was investigated. The insecticidal activity of EOs against the larval stages of Alphitobius diaperinus (Panzer) was studied. Moreover, the antimicrobial activity of these oils against pathogens transmitted by this pest was also investigated. The obtained results indicate the possibility of using Greek oregano EO with a high content of carvacrol as a feed additive in poultry nutrition. The use of the Greek oregano oil at 1% dose shows stronger reduction of body weight gain of larvae IV stage. Their body mass was only 10.92% of the control. Moreover, essential oils from Origanum vulgare strongly inhibit the growth of tested bacteria strain as well as growth of Candida albicans. This may be a good alternative to antibiotic growth promoters and coccidiostats whose use in feeding farm animals has been prohibited from January 2006 under European Union Directives. The introduction of O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum EO into the premises of farm and poultry houses may help to improve sanitary conditions and the control of the lesser mealworm inhabiting these buildings. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Treatment of experimental pythiosis with essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita singly, in association and in combination with immunotherapy.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Anelise O S; Pereira, Daniela I B; Botton, Sônia A; Pötter, Luciana; Sallis, Elisa S V; Júnior, Sérgio F V; Filho, Fernando S M; Zambrano, Cristina Gomes; Maroneze, Beatriz P; Valente, Julia S S; Baptista, Cristiane T; Braga, Caroline Q; Ben, Vanessa Dal; Meireles, Mario C A

    2015-08-05

    This study investigated the in vivo antimicrobial activity of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare and Mentha piperita both singly, associated and in combination with immunotherapy to treat experimental pythiosis. The disease was reproduced in 18 rabbits divided into six groups (n=3): group 1, control; group 2, treated with essential oil of Mentha piperita; group 3, treated with essential oil of Origanum vulgare; group 4, treated with commercial immunotherapic; group 5, treated with a association of oils of M. piperita and O. vulgare and group 6, treated with a combination of both oils plus immunotherapy. Essential oils were added in a topical cream base formula, and lesions were treated daily for 45 days. The animals in groups 4 and 6 received a dose of immunotherapeutic agent every 14 days. The results revealed that the evolution of lesions in groups 5 and 6 did not differ from one another but differed from the other groups. The lesions of group 5 increased 3.16 times every measurement, while those of group 6 increased 1.83 times, indicating that the smallest growth of the lesions occurred when the combination of therapies were used. A rabbit from group 5 showed clinical cure at day 20 of treatment. This research is the pioneer in the treatment of experimental pythiosis using essential oils from medicinal plants and a combination of therapies. This study demonstrated that the use of essential oils can be a viable alternative treatment to cutaneous pythiosis, particularly when used in association or combination with immunotherapy.

  11. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  12. Construction of a barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) YAC library and isolation of a Hor1-specific clone.

    PubMed

    Kleine, M; Michalek, W; Graner, A; Herrmann, R G; Jung, C

    1993-08-01

    We have constructed an EcoRI-based YAC (yeast artificial chromosome) library from barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Franka) using the vector pYAC4. The library consists of approximately 18,000 recombinant YACs with insert sizes ranging between 100 and 1000 kb (average of 160 kb) corresponding to 50% of the barley genome. Size fractionation after ligation resulted in an increased average insert size (av. 370 kb) but also in a substantial decrease in cloning efficiency. Less than 1% of the colonies showed homology to a plastome-specific probe; approximately 50% of the colonies displayed a signal with a dispersed, highly repetitive barley-specific probe. Using a primer combination deduced from the sequence of a member of the small Hor1 gene family coding for the C-hordein storage proteins, the library was screened by polymerase chain reaction and subsequently by the colony hybridization technique. A single YAC, designated Y66C11, with a 120 kb insert was isolated. This DNA fragment represents a coherent stretch from the terminal part of the Hor1 gene region as judged from the correspondence of the restriction patterns between Y66C11 DNA and barley DNA after hybridization with the Hor1-specific probe. Restriction with the isoschizomeric enzymes HpaII/MspI suggests a high degree of methylation of the Hor1 region in mesophyll cells but not in YAC-derived (yeast) DNA.

  13. The cytotoxic effect of essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. and/or Rosmarinus officinalis L. on Aeromonas hydrophila.

    PubMed

    Azerêdo, Geíza Alves de; Stamford, Tânia Lúcia Montenegro; Figueiredo, Regina Celia Bressan Queiroz de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

    2012-04-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the antibacterial activities of the essential oils from Origanum vulgare L. (OV) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (RO), both singly and in combination at sub-inhibitory concentrations (¼ MIC + ¼ MIC), against Aeromonas hydrophila and to investigate the possible mechanisms underlying these activities. Used singly (OV: 2.5 μL/mL; RO: 20 μL/mL) or in a mixture (OV: 0.625 μL/mL + RO: 5 μL/L), these essential oils led to a significant decrease (p<0.01) in bacterial viability after 24 h of exposure. A decrease in glucose consumption by A. hydrophila and release of cellular material were observed immediately after the addition of the essential oils, both singly and as a mixture, and continued for up to 6 h. Electron microscopy of cells exposed to the essential oils revealed severe changes in the plasma membrane, cytoplasmic appearance, and cell shape during the 6-h exposure period. OV and RO essential oils combined at sub-inhibitory concentrations could be rationally applied to inhibit the growth of A. hydrophila in food products, particularly minimally processed vegetables.

  14. Combination Studies of Oreganum Vulgare Extract Fractions and Volatile Oil along with Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole against Common Fish Pathogens

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Dhuhan, Joginder Singh

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The study is aimed at finding new antibiotic therapy for aquaculture due to potential of bacteria to develop resistance to the existing therapies. Use of large quantities of synthetic antibiotics in aquaculture thus has the potential to be detrimental to fish health, to the environment and wildlife and to human health. Methods: Antimicrobial potential of volatile oil and fractions of chloroform extract of Oreganum vulgare was evaluated alone and in the presence of standard antimicrobials against common fish pathogens by disc-diffusion, agar well assay and two fold microdilution method by nanodrop spectrophotometric method. Results: The best results were represented by volatile oil followed by phenolic fraction by disc-diffusion, agar well and microdilution assays (Minimum inhibitory concentration). By the interaction studies, it was observed that the volatile oil and phenolic fraction were able to inhibit the pathogens at very low concentration compared to standard drugs. The fractional inhibitory concentration index (FICI) was calculated and volatile oil and phenolic fractions were found to be synergistic against Pseudomonas fluorescens and Candida albicans. Conclusion: The experimental data suggests the use of volatile oil and phenolic fraction in combination with standard antimicrobials to maintain healthy aquaculture with lesser adverse effects as compared to synthetic antibiotic therapy. PMID:24312842

  15. Characterization of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) NAC transcription factors suggests conserved functions compared to both monocots and dicots

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The NAC transcription factor family is involved in the regulation of traits in both monocots and dicots of high agronomic importance. Understanding the precise functions of the NAC genes can be of utmost importance for the improvement of cereal crop plants through plant breeding. For the cereal crop plant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) only a few NAC genes have so far been investigated. Results Through searches in publicly available barley sequence databases we have obtained a list of 48 barley NAC genes (HvNACs) with 43 of them representing full-length coding sequences. Phylogenetic comparisons to Brachypodium, rice, and Arabidopsis NAC proteins indicate that the barley NAC family includes members from all of the eight NAC subfamilies, although by comparison to these species a number of HvNACs still remains to be identified. Using qRT-PCR we investigated the expression profiles of 46 HvNACs across eight barley tissues (young flag leaf, senescing flag leaf, young ear, old ear, milk grain, late dough grain, roots, and developing stem) and two hormone treatments (abscisic acid and methyl jasmonate). Conclusions Comparisons of expression profiles of selected barley NAC genes with the published functions of closely related NAC genes from other plant species, including both monocots and dicots, suggest conserved functions in the areas of secondary cell wall biosynthesis, leaf senescence, root development, seed development, and hormone regulated stress responses. PMID:21851648

  16. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-01-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. PMID:27580625

  17. Tolerance response of multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica strains to habituation to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil

    PubMed Central

    Monte, Daniel F. M.; Tavares, Adassa G.; Albuquerque, Allan R.; Sampaio, Fábio C.; Oliveira, Tereza C. R. M.; Franco, Octavio L.; Souza, Evandro L.; Magnani, Marciane

    2014-01-01

    Multidrug-resistant Salmonella enterica isolates from human outbreaks or from poultry origin were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance to sodium chloride, potassium chloride, lactic acid, acetic acid, and ciprofloxacin after habituation in subinhibitory amounts ( of the minimum inhibitory concentration – (MIC) and of the minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO) at different time intervals. The habituation of S. enterica to OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by the modulation of MIC values. However, cells habituated to OVEO maintained or increased susceptibility to the tested antimicrobials agents, with up to fourfold double dilution decrease from previously determined MIC values. This study reports for the first time the non-inductive effect of OVEO on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in multidrug-resistant S. enterica strains to antimicrobial agents that are largely used in food preservation, as well as to CIP, the therapeutic drug of salmonellosis. PMID:25566231

  18. Study of anticancer and antibacterial activities of Foeniculum vulgare, Justicia adhatoda and Urtica dioica as natural curatives.

    PubMed

    Batool, R; Salahuddin, H; Mahmood, T; Ismail, M

    2017-09-30

    High-throughput technologies, such as synthetic biology and genomics have paved new paths for discovery and utility of medicinally beneficial plants. Bioactive molecules isolated from different plants have significantly higher biological activities. The present study was done to analyze antibacterial potential of some medicinal plants against multi drug resistant (MDR) pathogens and anticancer effect against MCF-7 cell line. Methanolic and ethanolic extracts were tested for their antibacterial activity by disc diffusion method against six MDR bacterial strains and for cytotoxicity evaluation by MTT assay. Ethanolic extracts of the three tested plants exhibited growth inhibitory effect against Klebsiella pneumonia, Serratia marcescens and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was more resistant to all extracts as its growth was least inhibited by the extracts of all tested plants. Ethanol extract of Foeniculum vulgare exhibited significant inhibition of cancer cells proliferation. Methanol extract of Justicia adhatoda also showed considerable inhibition of cancer cells. Future studies must converge on detailed investigation of modes of action of extracts of tested plants.

  19. Characterization of volatile organic compounds emitted by barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) roots and their attractiveness to wireworms.

    PubMed

    Gfeller, Aurélie; Laloux, Morgan; Barsics, Fanny; Kati, Djamel Edine; Haubruge, Eric; du Jardin, Patrick; Verheggen, François J; Lognay, Georges; Wathelet, Jean-Paul; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure

    2013-08-01

    Root volatile organic compounds (VOCs), their chemistry and ecological functions have garnered less attention than aboveground emitted plant VOCs. We report here on the identification of VOCs emitted by barley roots (Hordeum vulgare L.). Twenty nine VOCs were identified from isolated 21-d-old roots. The detection was dependent on the medium used for root cultivation. We identified 24 VOCs from 7-d-old roots when plants were cultivated on sterile Hoagland gelified medium, 33 when grown on sterile vermiculite, and 34 on non-sterile vermiculite. The major VOCs were fatty acid derived compounds, including hexanal, methyl hexanoate, (E)-hex-2-enal, 2-pentylfuran, pentan-1-ol, (Z)-2-(pentenyl)-furan, (Z)-pent-2-en-1-ol, hexan-1-ol, (Z)-hex-3-en-1-ol, (E)-hex-2-en-1-ol, oct-1-en-3-ol, 2-ethylhexan-1-ol (likely a contaminant), (E)-non-2-enal, octan-1-ol, (2E,6Z)-nona-2,6-dienal, methyl (E)-non-2-enoate, nonan-1-ol, (Z)-non-3-en-1-ol, (E)-non-2-en-1-ol, nona-3,6-dien-1-ol, and nona-2,6-dien-1-ol. In an olfactometer assay, wireworms (larvae of Agriotes sordidus Illiger, Coleoptera: Elateridae) were attracted to cues emanating from barley seedlings. We discuss the role of individual root volatiles or a blend of the root volatiles detected here and their interaction with CO2 for wireworm attraction.

  20. Barley (Hordeum vulgare) circadian clock genes can respond rapidly to temperature in an EARLY FLOWERING 3-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Ford, Brett; Deng, Weiwei; Clausen, Jenni; Oliver, Sandra; Boden, Scott; Hemming, Megan; Trevaskis, Ben

    2016-10-01

    An increase in global temperatures will impact future crop yields. In the cereal crops wheat and barley, high temperatures accelerate reproductive development, reducing the number of grains per plant and final grain yield. Despite this relationship between temperature and cereal yield, it is not clear what genes and molecular pathways mediate the developmental response to increased temperatures. The plant circadian clock can respond to changes in temperature and is important for photoperiod-dependent flowering, and so is a potential mechanism controlling temperature responses in cereal crops. This study examines the relationship between temperature, the circadian clock, and the expression of flowering-time genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare), a crop model for temperate cereals. Transcript levels of barley core circadian clock genes were assayed over a range of temperatures. Transcript levels of core clock genes CCA1, GI, PRR59, PRR73, PRR95, and LUX are increased at higher temperatures. CCA1 and PRR73 respond rapidly to a decrease in temperature whereas GI and PRR59 respond rapidly to an increase in temperature. The response of GI and the PRR genes to changes in temperature is lost in the elf3 mutant indicating that their response to temperature may be dependent on a functional ELF3 gene. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  1. Increased yield stability of field-grown winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varietal mixtures through ecological processes.

    PubMed

    Creissen, Henry E; Jorgensen, Tove H; Brown, James K M

    2016-07-01

    Crop variety mixtures have the potential to increase yield stability in highly variable and unpredictable environments, yet knowledge of the specific mechanisms underlying enhanced yield stability has been limited. Ecological processes in genetically diverse crops were investigated by conducting field trials with winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare), grown as monocultures or as three-way mixtures in fungicide treated and untreated plots at three sites. Mixtures achieved yields comparable to the best performing monocultures whilst enhancing yield stability despite being subject to multiple predicted and unpredicted abiotic and biotic stresses including brown rust (Puccinia hordei) and lodging. There was compensation through competitive release because the most competitive variety overyielded in mixtures thereby compensating for less competitive varieties. Facilitation was also identified as an important ecological process within mixtures by reducing lodging. This study indicates that crop varietal mixtures have the capacity to stabilise productivity even when environmental conditions and stresses are not predicted in advance. Varietal mixtures provide a means of increasing crop genetic diversity without the need for extensive breeding efforts. They may confer enhanced resilience to environmental stresses and thus be a desirable component of future cropping systems for sustainable arable farming.

  2. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karuppiah, N.; Vadlamudi, B.; Kaufman, P. B.

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  3. Conflict between feminizing sex ratio distorters and an autosomal masculinizing gene in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare Latr.

    PubMed

    Rigaud, T; Juchault, P

    1993-02-01

    Female sex determination in the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare is frequently under the control of feminizing parasitic sex factors (PSF). One of these PSF is an intracytoplasmic Wolbachia-like bacterium (F), while the other (f) is suspected of being an F-bacterial DNA sequence unstably integrated into the host genome. In most wild populations harboring PSF, all individuals are genetic males (ZZ), and female phenotypes occur only due to the presence of PSF which overrides the male determinant carried by the Z chromosome (females are thus ZZ +F or ZZ +f neo-females). Here we report the effects of the conflict between these PSF and a dominant autosomal masculinizing gene (M) on phenotypes. The M gene is able to override the feminizing effect of the f sex factor and, consequently, male sex may be restored. However, M is unable to restore male sex when competing with the F bacteria. It seems that the main effect of M is to delay the expression of F bacteria slightly, inducing intersex phenotypes. Most of these intersexes are functional females, able to transmit the masculinizing gene. The frequency of M and its effects on the sex ratio in wild populations are discussed.

  4. Adaptation and diversity along an altitudinal gradient in Ethiopian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces revealed by molecular analysis

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Among the cereal crops, barley is the species with the greatest adaptability to a wide range of environments. To determine the level and structure of genetic diversity in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) landraces from the central highlands of Ethiopia, we have examined the molecular variation at seven nuclear microsatellite loci. Results A total of 106 landrace populations were sampled in the two growing seasons (Meher and Belg; the long and short rainy seasons, respectively), across three districts (Ankober, Mojanawadera and Tarmaber), and within each district along an altitudinal gradient (from 1,798 to 3,324 m a.s.l). Overall, although significant, the divergence (e.g. FST) is very low between seasons and geographical districts, while it is high between different classes of altitude. Selection for adaptation to different altitudes appears to be the main factor that has determined the observed clinal variation, along with population-size effects. Conclusions Our data show that barley landraces from Ethiopia are constituted by highly variable local populations (farmer's fields) that have large within-population diversity. These landraces are also shown to be locally adapted, with the major driving force that has shaped their population structure being consistent with selection for adaptation along an altitudinal gradient. Overall, our study highlights the potential of such landraces as a source of useful alleles. Furthermore, these landraces also represent an ideal system to study the processes of adaptation and for the identification of genes and genomic regions that have adaptive roles in crop species. PMID:20565982

  5. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-01-01

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg·kg−1 cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO2) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO2) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO2 and nTiO2 treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO2 treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO2 stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO2. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO2 aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO2 was not present in the form of nanoclusters. PMID:26999181

  6. Direct measurement of recombination frequency in interspecific hybrids between Hordeum vulgare and H. bulbosum using genomic in situ hybridization.

    PubMed

    Zhang, L; Pickering, R; Murray, B

    1999-09-01

    Two different genotypes of diploid Hordeum vulgare x H. bulbosum hybrids, which differ in their pattern of meiotic metaphase pairing behaviour, were investigated at MI and AI by genomic in situ hybridization (GISH). One hybrid, 102C2, showed a high frequency of bivalents at metaphase I whereas the other, 103K5, showed a high frequency of univalents. The GISH analysis of both hybrids established that pairing occurred only between chromosomes of different parental genomes and revealed that pairing frequency greatly exceeded recombination. Hybrid 102C2 had a significantly higher recombination frequency than 103K5, but in both hybrids recombination involved only distal chromosome regions. However, an interesting finding is that the ratio of recombination to pairing frequency in 103K5 (1:8.9) is twice as high compared with 102C2 (1:17). The hybrids also differed in chromosome stability; little chromosome elimination occurred in 102C2 but 103K5 showed extensive chromosome loss. It appears that the high frequency of bound arms at MI favours retention of H. bulbosum chromosomes and maintains stability of chromosome numbers in PMCs. Various ideas are put forward to explain the discrepancy between meiotic pairing frequency and recombination in these hybrids.

  7. Water uptake by seminal and adventitious roots in relation to whole-plant water flow in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Knipfer, Thorsten; Fricke, Wieland

    2011-01-01

    Prior to an assessment of the role of aquaporins in root water uptake, the main path of water movement in different types of root and driving forces during day and night need to be known. In the present study on hydroponically grown barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) the two main root types of 14- to 17-d-old plants were analysed for hydraulic conductivity in dependence of the main driving force (hydrostatic, osmotic). Seminal roots contributed 92% and adventitious roots 8% to plant water uptake. The lower contribution of adventitious compared with seminal roots was associated with a smaller surface area and number of roots per plant and a lower axial hydraulic conductance, and occurred despite a less-developed endodermis. The radial hydraulic conductivity of the two types of root was similar and depended little on the prevailing driving force, suggesting that water uptake occurred along a pathway that involved crossing of membrane(s). Exudation experiments showed that osmotic forces were sufficient to support night-time transpiration, yet transpiration experiments and cuticle permeance data questioned the significance of osmotic forces. During the day, 90% of water uptake was driven by a tension of about –0.15 MPa. PMID:20974734

  8. Increased yield stability of field-grown winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) varietal mixtures through ecological processes

    PubMed Central

    Creissen, Henry E.; Jorgensen, Tove H.; Brown, James K.M.

    2016-01-01

    Crop variety mixtures have the potential to increase yield stability in highly variable and unpredictable environments, yet knowledge of the specific mechanisms underlying enhanced yield stability has been limited. Ecological processes in genetically diverse crops were investigated by conducting field trials with winter barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare), grown as monocultures or as three-way mixtures in fungicide treated and untreated plots at three sites. Mixtures achieved yields comparable to the best performing monocultures whilst enhancing yield stability despite being subject to multiple predicted and unpredicted abiotic and biotic stresses including brown rust (Puccinia hordei) and lodging. There was compensation through competitive release because the most competitive variety overyielded in mixtures thereby compensating for less competitive varieties. Facilitation was also identified as an important ecological process within mixtures by reducing lodging. This study indicates that crop varietal mixtures have the capacity to stabilise productivity even when environmental conditions and stresses are not predicted in advance. Varietal mixtures provide a means of increasing crop genetic diversity without the need for extensive breeding efforts. They may confer enhanced resilience to environmental stresses and thus be a desirable component of future cropping systems for sustainable arable farming. PMID:27375312

  9. Detection of QTLs for salt tolerance in Asian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) by association analysis with SNP markers

    PubMed Central

    Sbei, Hanen; Sato, Kazuhiro; Shehzad, Tariq; Harrabi, Moncef; Okuno, Kazutoshi

    2014-01-01

    Two hundred ninety-six Asian barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) accessions were assessed to detect QTLs underlying salt tolerance by association analysis using a 384 single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) marker system. The experiment was laid out at the seedling stage in a hydroponic solution under control and 250 mM NaCl solution with three replications of four plants each. Salt tolerance was assessed by leaf injury score (LIS) and salt tolerance indices (STIs) of the number of leaves (NL), shoot length (SL), root length (RL), shoot dry weight (SDW) and root dry weight (RDW). LIS was scored from 1 to 5 according to the severity of necrosis and chlorosis observed on leaves. There was a wide variation in salt tolerance among Asian barley accessions. LIS and STI (SDW) were the most suitable traits for screening salt tolerance. Association was estimated between markers and traits to detect QTLs for LIS and STI (SDW). Seven significant QTLs were located on chromosomes 1H (2 QTLs), 2H (2 QTLs), 3H (1 QTL), 4H (1 QTL) and 5H (1 QTL). Five QTLs were associated with LIS and 2 QTLs with STI (SDW). Two QTLs associated with LIS were newly identified on chromosomes 3H and 4H. PMID:25914593

  10. Limitation of Cell Elongation in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves Through Mechanical and Tissue-Hydraulic Properties.

    PubMed

    Touati, Mostefa; Knipfer, Thorsten; Visnovitz, Tamás; Kameli, Abdelkrim; Fricke, Wieland

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess the mechanical and hydraulic limitation of growth in leaf epidermal cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in response to agents which affect cellular water (mercuric chloride, HgCl(2)) and potassium (cesium chloride, CsCl; tetraethylammonium, TEA) transport, pump activity of plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and wall acidification (fusicoccin, FC). Cell turgor (P) was measured with the cell pressure probe, and cell osmotic pressure (π) was analyzed through picoliter osmometry of single-cell extracts. A wall extensibility coefficient (M) and tissue hydraulic conductance coefficient (L) were derived using the Lockhart equation. There was a significant positive linear relationship between relative elemental growth rate and P, which fit all treatments, with an overall apparent yield threshold of 0.368 MPa. Differences in growth between treatments could be explained through differences in P. A comparison of L and M showed that growth in all except the FC treatment was co-limited through hydraulic and mechanical properties, though to various extents. This was accompanied by significant (0.17-0.24 MPa) differences in water potential (ΔΨ) between xylem and epidermal cells in the leaf elongation zone. In contrast, FC-treated leaves showed ΔΨ close to zero and a 10-fold increase in L.

  11. Conflict between Feminizing Sex Ratio Distorters and an Autosomal Masculinizing Gene in the Terrestrial Isopod Armadillidium Vulgare Latr

    PubMed Central

    Rigaud, T.; Juchault, P.

    1993-01-01

    Female sex determination in the pill bug Armadillidium vulgare is frequently under the control of feminizing parasitic sex factors (PSF). One of these PSF is an intracytoplasmic Wolbachia-like bacterium (F), while the other (f) is suspected of being an F-bacterial DNA sequence unstably integrated into the host genome. In most wild populations harboring PSF, all individuals are genetic males (ZZ), and female phenotypes occur only due to the presence of PSF which overrides the male determinant carried by the Z chromosome (females are thus ZZ +F or ZZ +f neo-females). Here we report the effects of the conflict between these PSF and a dominant autosomal masculinizing gene (M) on phenotypes. The M gene is able to override the feminizing effect of the f sex factor and, consequently, male sex may be restored. However, M is unable to restore male sex when competing with the F bacteria. It seems that the main effect of M is to delay the expression of F bacteria slightly, inducing intersex phenotypes. Most of these intersexes are functional females, able to transmit the masculinizing gene. The frequency of M and its effects on the sex ratio in wild populations are discussed. PMID:8436273

  12. Occurrence of Trichosirocalus horridus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) on native Cirsium altissimum versus exotic C. vulgare in North American tallgrass prairie.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masaru; Louda, Svata M; Miller, Tom E X; O'Brien, Charles W

    2009-06-01

    Postrelease studies can provide data with which to evaluate expectations based on prerelease tests of biological control insects. In 2004, we observed Trichosirocalus horridus Panzer (Coleoptera: Curculionidae), the rosette weevil introduced into North America against Eurasian thistles, feeding on native tall thistle, Cirsium altissimum L. Spreng., in tallgrass prairie. In this study, we examined the rosette weevil's use of tall thistle, compared with its use of the co-occurring exotic bull thistle, C. vulgare (Savi) Tenore. For both thistle species, we quantified weevil frequency, abundance, and seasonal variation in incidence, using both timed observations at two sites over two growing seasons (2004, 2005) and dissections of thistle flowering shoots from 13 sites (2005). Based on prerelease information, we expected the Eurasian thistle to be the quantitatively preferred host plant for this Eurasian weevil. Instead, we found that both the frequency of infestation and the mean number of adult rosette weevils per plant were at least as high, and sometimes higher, on the native thistle as on the exotic thistle. Furthermore, adult weevil phenology coincided on the two host species. This study provides new quantitative evidence of nontarget feeding by another weevil released for thistle biological control; and it raises important questions for further research. We conclude that continued new releases, as well as augmentation of existing populations, of T. horridus should wait until more research is done on the impact of the nontarget occurrence now reported for this biological control insect.

  13. Purification and characterization of soluble (cytosolic) and bound (cell wall) isoforms of invertases in barley (Hordeum vulgare) elongating stem tissue.

    PubMed

    Karuppiah, N; Vadlamudi, B; Kaufman, P B

    1989-01-01

    Three different isoforms of invertases have been detected in the developing internodes of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Based on substrate specificities, the isoforms have been identified to be invertases (beta-fructosidases EC 3.2.1.26). The soluble (cytosolic) invertase isoform can be purified to apparent homogeneity by diethylaminoethyl cellulose, Concanavalin-A Sepharose, organo-mercurial Sepharose, and Sephacryl S-300 chromatography. A bound (cell wall) invertase isoform can be released by 1 molar salt and purified further by the same procedures as above except omitting the organo-mercurial Sepharose affinity chromatography step. A third isoform of invertase, which is apparently tightly associated with the cell wall, cannot be isolated yet. The soluble and bound invertase isoforms were purified by factors of 60- and 7-fold, respectively. The native enzymes have an apparent molecular weight of 120 kilodaltons as estimated by gel filtration. They have been identified to be dimers under denaturing and nondenaturing conditions. The soluble enzyme has a pH optimum of 5.5, Km of 12 millimolar, and a Vmax of 80 micromole per minute per milligram of protein compared with cell wall isozyme which has a pH optimum of 4.5, Km of millimolar, and a Vmax of 9 micromole per minute per milligram of protein.

  14. Reconstitution of cyanogenesis in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and its implications for resistance against the barley powdery mildew fungus.

    PubMed

    Nielsen, Kirsten A; Hrmova, Maria; Nielsen, Janni Nyvang; Forslund, Karin; Ebert, Stefan; Olsen, Carl E; Fincher, Geoffrey B; Møller, Birger Lindberg

    2006-04-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) produces a leucine-derived cyanogenic beta-D-glucoside, epiheterodendrin that accumulates specifically in leaf epidermis. Barley leaves are not cyanogenic, i.e. they do not possess the ability to release hydrogen cyanide, because they lack a cyanide releasing beta-D-glucosidase. Cyanogenesis was reconstituted in barley leaf epidermal cells through single cell expression of a cDNA encoding dhurrinase-2, a cyanogenic beta-D-glucosidase from sorghum. This resulted in a 35-60% reduction in colonization rate by an obligate parasite Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei, the causal agent of barley powdery mildew. A database search for barley homologues of dhurrinase-2 identified a (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII that is located in the starchy endosperm of barley grain. The purified barley (1,4)-beta-D-glucan exohydrolase isozyme betaII was found to hydrolyze the cyanogenic beta-D-glucosides, epiheterodendrin and dhurrin. Molecular modelling of its active site based on the crystal structure of linamarase from white clover, demonstrated that the disposition of the catalytic active amino acid residues was structurally conserved. Epiheterodendrin stimulated appressoria and appressorial hook formation of B. graminis in vitro, suggesting that loss of cyanogenesis in barley leaves has enabled the fungus to utilize the presence of epiheterodendrin to facilitate host recognition and to establish infection.

  15. Protective effect of Sargussum vulgare sulfated polysaccharide against molecular, biochemical and histopathological damage caused by alloxan in experimental diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ben Abdallah Kolsi, Rihab; Bkhairia, Intidhar; Gargouri, Lamia; Ktari, Naourez; Chaaben, Rim; El Feki, Abdelfattah; Nasri, Moncef; Jamoussi, Kamel; Fki, Lotfi; Belghith, Karima

    2017-07-14

    Diabetes is a serious condition that is linked to the development of oxidative stress. In the context of enhancing the biodiversity of Tunisia's flora, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Sargussum vulgare sulfated polysaccharide (SVSP) on hyperglycemia and diabetes complications in the alloxan-induced diabetic rats. Our results showed a disturbance of carbohydrate, lipid, hematological and histopathological parameters, an increase in the α-amylase enzyme activity and damage to the pancreatic, hepatic and renal tissues in rats rendered diabetic by alloxan. In contrast, treatment with SVSP resulted in a correction of fasting and postprandial blood glucose and HbA1c through inhibition of pancreatic α-amylase. We also noticed an improvement in hemogram parameters and an attenuation of the pancreatic oxidative stress markers as well as histological protections. On the other hand, the administration of SVSP to diabetic rats caused, besides the correction of glycemic and lipid parameters, a good defense against hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of diabetes as well as good antioxidant status and histological protections. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgare on phytopathogenic strains isolated from soybean.

    PubMed

    Oliva, M de las M; Carezzano, M E; Giuliano, M; Daghero, J; Zygadlo, J; Bogino, P; Giordano, W; Demo, M

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the antimicrobial activity of essential oils obtained from Thymus vulgaris (thyme) and Origanum vulgare (oregano) on phytopathogenic Pseudomonas species isolated from soybean. Strains with characteristics of P. syringae were isolated from leaves of soybean plants with blight symptoms. Ten of these could be identified in Group Ia of LOPAT as P. syringae. Six of these were confirmed as P. syringae using 16S rRNA, indicating the presence of these phytopathogenic bacteria in east and central Argentina. All the phytopathogenic bacteria were re-isolated and identified from the infected plants. MIC values for thyme were 11.5 and 5.7 mg·ml(-1) on P. syringae strains, while oregano showed variability in the inhibitory activity. Both essential oils inhibited all P. syringae strains, with better inhibitory activity than the antibiotic streptomycin. The oils were not bactericidal for all pseudomonads. Both oils contained high carvacrol (29.5% and 19.7%, respectively) and low thymol (1.5%). Natural products obtained from aromatic plants represent potential sources of molecules with biological activity that could be used as new alternatives for the treatment of phytopathogenic bacteria infections.

  17. Antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) by using different extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Karakaya, Sibel; El, Sedef Nehir; Karagözlü, Nural; Sahin, Serpil

    2011-06-01

    In this study, antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of essential oils obtained from oregano (Origanum vulgare ssp. hirtum) were determined by using solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME), supercritical fluid extraction, and conventional hydrodistillation (CH) methods. The inhibitory effects on the 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) radical of essential oils obtained from oregano by using SFME and CH were similar. However, essential oil extracted by CH showed greater (2.69 μmol/μL of oil) Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC) than oregano oils obtained by SFME (P < .05). The difference between percentage inhibition and TEAC values most probably is due to the fact that undiluted and diluted samples are used in the percentage inhibition assay and the TEAC assay, respectively. TEAC values of oregano essential oils obtained by SFME at different microwave power levels were found to be similar and ranged from 0.72 to 0.84 μmol/μL of oil. Essential oils obtained by CH and SFME at different microwave powers inhibited the survival of Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Escherichia coli O157:H7, whereas survival of Staphylococcus aureus was not influenced. In addition, oregano oil obtained by SFME at 40% power level did not show any inhibitory effect on E. coli O157:H7.

  18. Optimization of multiple shoot induction and plant regeneration in Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars using mature embryos.

    PubMed

    Rostami, Hassan; Giri, Archana; Nejad, Amir Sasan Mozaffari; Moslem, Amir

    2013-07-01

    Barley is the fourth most important crop in the world. Development of a regeneration system using immature embryos is both time consuming and laborious. The present study was initiated with a view to develop a regeneration system in six genotypes of Indian barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivars as a prerequisite to transformation. The mature embryos were excised from seeds and cultured on MS medium supplemented with high and low concentrations of cytokinins and auxins respectively. The MS medium containing 3 mg/L N(6)-benzylaminopurine (BA) and 0.5 mg/L 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) was found to be the most effective for multiple shoot formation in HOR7231 cultivar that could produce 12 shoots per explant. The other cultivars HOR4409 and HOR3844 produced a minimum number of adventitious shoots (1.33 and 1.67 respectively) on MS medium supplemented with 1 mg/L BA and 0.3 mg/L 2,4-D. The elongated shoots were separated and successfully rooted on MS medium containing 1 mg/L indole-3-acetic acid (IAA). The response of different barley cultivars was found to be varying with respect to multiple shoot production. This is the first report of multiple shoot induction and plantlet regeneration in Indian cultivar of barley which would be useful for genetic transformation.

  19. High frequency plant regeneration from immature embryos of an elite barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Morex).

    PubMed

    Chang, Y; von Zitzewitz, J; Hayes, P M; Chen, T H H

    2003-04-01

    An efficient plant regeneration system was developed for Hordeum vulgare L. 'Morex' barley, an important United States malting cultivar. The protocol was based on a series of experiments involving the sizes of immature embryos and the culture media. We found that the embryo size is critical for the establishment of embryogenic callus. Smaller embryos (0.5-1.5 mm) showed a much higher ability to produce embryogenic callus capable of regenerating green plants with fewer albinos than did the larger embryos (1.6-3.0 mm). Either 3 mg/l 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid or dicamba in modified Murashige and Skoog's (MS) medium was optimum for the induction of embryogenic callus. The embryogenic callus maintained high regeneration during six subcultures in the callus induction medium. Efficient shoot regeneration was obtained on modified MS medium containing 0.5-1.0 mg/l 6-benzylaminopurine (BA). Regenerated shoots were rooted on half-strength MS medium containing 0.2 mg/l IBA. Plants were successfully transferred to soil and grown to maturity in the greenhouse. This efficient plant regeneration system provides a foundation for generating transgenic plants of this important barley cultivar.

  20. Investigation of antimutagenic potential of Foeniculum vulgare essential oil on cyclophosphamide induced genotoxicity and oxidative stress in mice.

    PubMed

    Tripathi, Pankaj; Tripathi, Rina; Patel, Rakesh K; Pancholi, Shyam S

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the protective effects of Foeniculum vulgare (fennel) essential oil (FEO) against genotoxicity induced by cyclophosphamide (CP). Mice bone marrow chromosomal aberration (CA), micronucleus, and sperm abnormality assays were employed to measure genotoxicity and cytotoxicity, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), catalase (CAT), and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in the liver were also investigated spectrophotometrically. Animals were administered two different doses of FEO (1 and 2 mL/kg) continuously for 3 days at intervals of 24 hours by the oral route before tissue sampling. The results showed that CP produced a significant increase in the average percentage of aberrant metaphases and CAs, excluding gap and micronuclei formation in polychromatic erythrocytes (PCEs), produced cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells, and induced abnormal sperms in the male germ line. CP also markedly inhibited the activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH and increased MDA content. Pretreatments with FEO significantly inhibited the frequencies of aberrant metaphases, CAs, micronuclei formation, and cytotoxicity in mouse bone marrow cells induced by CP and also produced a significant reduction of abnormal sperm and antagonized the reduction of CP-induced SOD, CAT, and GSH activities and inhibited increased MDA content in the liver. FEO inhibits genotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by CP.

  1. Outbreak of fatal nitrate toxicosis associated with consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare) in cattle farmed in Campania region (southern Italy).

    PubMed

    Costagliola, Alessandro; Roperto, Franco; Benedetto, Domenico; Anastasio, Aniello; Marrone, Raffaele; Perillo, Antonella; Russo, Valeria; Papparella, Serenella; Paciello, Orlando

    2014-05-01

    Nitrate and nitrite are toxicants that have become increasingly significant environmental chemicals. Increase in environmental distribution of nitrogenous compounds, especially in surface and ground water, has been attributed to the intensive use of nitrate as agricultural fertilizers and to increasing amounts of nitrogenous wastes produced by municipalities, industries, and feedlots. The purpose of this study is to illustrate a fatal nitrate toxicosis in cattle associated with the consumption of fennels (Foeniculum vulgare). Fifteen cows from the same farm suddenly developed weakness, muscular tremors, respiratory distress, and finally convulsions. The affected animals died within 24 to 48 h from the onset of the clinical signs. Five cows underwent a complete post-mortem examination. In all examined animals, gross lesions included presence of dark unclotted blood around the nostrils and the anal region, moderate inflammation of the gastrointestinal mucosa, and brown discoloration of the skeletal muscles and kidneys. The histological examination showed tubular degeneration and congestion of glomerular vessels in the kidney. Toxicological analysis detected nitrates at 4 672.2 ppm in the fennels used to feed the animals. The source of exposure to nitrates was identified in the fennels. The fennels were grown in a polluted area of the Campania region in southern Italy and distributed in a public market for human consumption. The waste from the sale of the fennels was fed to the cows. The accumulation of nitrates in some vegetables poses a risk not only for animal health but also for human and environmental safety.

  2. Effect of planting date and spacing on growth and yield of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) under irrigated conditions.

    PubMed

    Al-Dalain, Saddam Aref; Abdel-Ghani, Adel H; Al-Dala'een, Jawad A; Thalaen, Haditha A

    2012-12-01

    Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) plant is a medicinal aromatic herb and belongs to Apiaceae family. It has a rich nutritional value and has many medicinal usages. Very limited information is available in the literature about fennel cultivation and production practices. Therefore, this study was carried out to evaluate the effect of planting date and plant spacing and their interactive effects on yield, yield components and growth of Fennel under irrigation. Three planting dates (Oct. 1st, Nov. 1st and Dec. 1st) and four plant spacings (10, 20, 30 and 40 cm with constant row width, 60 cm) were used. Fruit yield was significantly (p<0.05) influenced by plant spacing and planting date and their interaction. Early planting significantly increased the fruit yield combined with higher number of branches per plant, number of umbrella per plant, number of fruit per plant and plant height. The percentage of increases in Oct. 1st were 34.4 and 32.2% in fruit and biological yield respectively compared with Dec. 1st. Harvest index and thousand fruit weight was not significantly affected by planting date. Increase plant spacing to 30 cm led to more than 15% increase in fruit and biological yield. The early planting date with 30 cm plant spacing resulted in higher fruit (4136 kg ha(-1)) and biological yield (10,114 kg ha(-1)).

  3. Spatial distribution of calcite and amorphous calcium carbonate in the cuticle of the terrestrial crustaceans Porcellio scaber and Armadillidium vulgare.

    PubMed

    Hild, Sabine; Marti, Othmar; Ziegler, Andreas

    2008-07-01

    The crustacean cuticle is an interesting model to study the properties of mineralized bio-composites. The cuticle consists of an organic matrix composed of chitin-protein fibres associated with various amounts of crystalline and amorphous calcium carbonate. It is thought that in isopods the relative amounts of these mineral polymorphs depend on its function and the habitat of the animal. In addition to the composition, the distribution of the various components should affect the properties of the cuticle. However, the spatial distribution of calcium carbonate polymorphs within the crustacean cuticle is unknown. Therefore, we analyzed the mineralized cuticles of the terrestrial isopods Armadillidium vulgare and Porcellio scaber using scanning electron-microscopy, electron probe microanalysis and confocal mu-Raman spectroscopic imaging. We show for the first time that the mineral phases are arranged in distinct layers. Calcite is restricted to the outer layer of the cuticle that corresponds to the exocuticle. Amorphous calcium carbonate is located within the endocuticle that lies below the exocuticle. Within both layers mineral is arranged in rows of granules with diameters of about 20 nm. The results suggest functional implications of mineral distribution that accord to the moulting and escape behaviour of the animals.

  4. Genome-wide identification, characterisation and expression profiles of calcium-dependent protein kinase genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Fedorowicz-Strońska, Olga; Koczyk, Grzegorz; Kaczmarek, Małgorzata; Krajewski, Paweł; Sadowski, Jan

    2017-02-01

    In plant cells, calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPKs) are important sensors of Ca(2+) flux resulting from various environmental stresses like cold, drought or salt stress. Previous genome sequence analysis and comparative studies in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana L.) and rice (Oryza sativa L.) defined a multi-gene family of CDPKs. Here, we identified and characterised the CDPK gene complement of the model plant, barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Comparative analysis encompassed phylogeny reconstruction based on newly available barley genome sequence, as well as established model genomes (e.g. O. sativa, A. thaliana, Brachypodium distachyon). Functional gene copies possessed characteristic CDPK domain architecture, including a serine/threonine kinase domain and four regulatory EF-hand motifs. In silico verification was followed by measurements of transcript abundance via real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The relative expression of CDPK genes was determined in the vegetative growth stage under intensifying drought stress conditions. The majority of barley CDPK genes showed distinct changes in patterns of expression during exposure to stress. Our study constitutes evidence for involvement of the barley CDPK gene complement in signal transduction pathways relating to adaptation to drought. Our bioinformatics and transcriptomic analyses will provide an important foundation for further functional dissection of the barley CDPK gene family.

  5. Evolutionary history of wild barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) analyzed using multilocus sequence data and paleodistribution modeling.

    PubMed

    Jakob, Sabine S; Rödder, Dennis; Engler, Jan O; Shaaf, Salar; Ozkan, Hakan; Blattner, Frank R; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-03-01

    Studies of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of cultivated barley, have mostly relied on materials collected decades ago and maintained since then ex situ in germplasm repositories. We analyzed spatial genetic variation in wild barley populations collected rather recently, exploring sequence variations at seven single-copy nuclear loci, and inferred the relationships among these populations and toward the genepool of the crop. The wild barley collection covers the whole natural distribution area from the Mediterranean to Middle Asia. In contrast to earlier studies, Bayesian assignment analyses revealed three population clusters, in the Levant, Turkey, and east of Turkey, respectively. Genetic diversity was exceptionally high in the Levant, while eastern populations were depleted of private alleles. Species distribution modeling based on climate parameters and extant occurrence points of the taxon inferred suitable habitat conditions during the ice-age, particularly in the Levant and Turkey. Together with the ecologically wide range of habitats, they might contribute to structured but long-term stable populations in this region and their high genetic diversity. For recently collected individuals, Bayesian assignment to geographic clusters was generally unambiguous, but materials from genebanks often showed accessions that were not placed according to their assumed geographic origin or showed traces of introgression from cultivated barley. We assign this to gene flow among accessions during ex situ maintenance. Evolutionary studies based on such materials might therefore result in wrong conclusions regarding the history of the species or the origin and mode of domestication of the crop, depending on the accessions included.

  6. Changes in Physiological and Agronomical Parameters of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) Exposed to Cerium and Titanium Dioxide Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Marchiol, Luca; Mattiello, Alessandro; Pošćić, Filip; Fellet, Guido; Zavalloni, Costanza; Carlino, Elvio; Musetti, Rita

    2016-03-17

    The aims of our experiment were to evaluate the uptake and translocation of cerium and titanium oxide nanoparticles and to verify their effects on the growth cycle of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Barley plants were grown to physiological maturity in soil enriched with either 0, 500 or 1000 mg · kg(-1) cerium oxide nanoparticles (nCeO₂) or titanium oxide nanoparticles (nTiO₂) and their combination. The growth cycle of nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ treated plants was about 10 days longer than the controls. In nCeO₂ treated plants the number of tillers, leaf area and the number of spikes per plant were reduced respectively by 35.5%, 28.3% and 30% (p ≤ 0.05). nTiO₂ stimulated plant growth and compensated for the adverse effects of nCeO₂. Concentrations of Ce and Ti in aboveground plant fractions were minute. The fate of nanomaterials within the plant tissues was different. Crystalline nTiO₂ aggregates were detected within the leaf tissues of barley, whereas nCeO₂ was not present in the form of nanoclusters.

  7. Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) low phytic acid 1-1: an endosperm-specific, filial determinant of seed total phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Raboy, Victor; Cichy, Karen; Peterson, Kevin; Reichman, Sarah; Sompong, Utumporn; Srinives, Peerasak; Saneoka, Hirofumi

    2014-01-01

    Inositol hexaphosphate (Ins P6 or "phytic acid") typically accounts for 75 (± 10%) of seed total phosphorus (P). In some cases, genetic blocks in seed Ins P6 accumulation can also alter the distribution or total amount of seed P. In nonmutant barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) caryopses, ~80% of Ins P6 and total P accumulate in the aleurone layer, the outer layer of the endosperm, with the remainder in the germ. In barley low phytic acid 1-1 (Hvlpa1-1) seed, both endosperm Ins P6 and total P are reduced (~45% and ~25%, respectively), but germs are phenotypically wild type. This translates into a net reduction in whole-seed total P of ~15%. Nutrient culture studies demonstrate that the reduction in endosperm total P is not due to a reduction in the uptake of P into the maternal plant. Genetic tests (analyses of testcross and F2 seed) reveal that the Hvlpa1-1 genotype of the filial seed conditions the seed total P reduction; sibling seed in the same head of barley that differ in their Hvlpa1-1 genotype (heterozygous vs. homozygous recessive) differ in their total P (normal vs. reduced, respectively). Therefore, Hvlpa1 functions as a seed-specific or filial determinant of barley endosperm total P.

  8. Oxygen deficiency and salinity affect cell-specific ion concentrations in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Kotula, Lukasz; Clode, Peta L; Striker, Gustavo G; Pedersen, Ole; Läuchli, André; Shabala, Sergey; Colmer, Timothy D

    2015-12-01

    Oxygen deficiency associated with soil waterlogging adversely impacts root respiration and nutrient acquisition. We investigated the effects of O2 deficiency and salinity (100 mM NaCl) on radial O2 concentrations and cell-specific ion distributions in adventitious roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare). Microelectrode profiling measured O2 concentrations across roots in aerated, aerated saline, stagnant or stagnant saline media. X-ray microanalysis at two positions behind the apex determined the cell-specific elemental concentrations of potassium (K), sodium (Na) and chloride (Cl) across roots. Severe O2 deficiency occurred in the stele and apical regions of roots in stagnant solutions. O2 deficiency in the stele reduced the concentrations of K, Na and Cl in the pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells at the subapical region. Near the root apex, Na declined across the cortex in roots from the aerated saline solution but was relatively high in all cell types in roots from the stagnant saline solution. Oxygen deficiency has a substantial impact on cellular ion concentrations in roots. Both pericycle and xylem parenchyma cells are involved in energy-dependent K loading into the xylem and in controlling radial Na and Cl transport. At root tips, accumulation of Na in the outer cell layers likely contributed to reduction of Na in inner cells of the tips.

  9. Milling, water uptake, and modification properties of different barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots in relation to grain composition and structure.

    PubMed

    Holopainen, Ulla R M; Pihlava, Juha-Matti; Serenius, Marjo; Hietaniemi, Veli; Wilhelmson, Annika; Poutanen, Kaisa; Lehtinen, Pekka

    2014-09-03

    Milling properties, water uptake, and modification in malting were studied in 14 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lots from two consecutive crop years. In all barley lots studied, grains with lower β-glucan and protein content and higher starch content produced finer flours upon milling. Grains with lower β-glucan content also hydrated more rapidly during steeping. A detailed study of two cultivars from two crop years indicated that similar environmental conditions could induce a higher β-glucan content and concentration of aggregated B hordein in the peripheral endosperm and a lower proportion of C hordein entrapped among aggregated hordeins deeper within the endosperm. These characteristics were associated with production of coarser flours during milling as well as with slower water uptake and lower modification. However, the data do not distinguish between the effect of β-glucan content and that of hordein localization. Distribution of β-glucan or total protein within the kernel was not linked to hydration or modification.

  10. Overexpression, purification and enzymatic characterization of a recombinant plastidial glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase from barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Nure) roots.

    PubMed

    Cardi, Manuela; Chibani, Kamel; Castiglia, Daniela; Cafasso, Donata; Pizzo, Elio; Rouhier, Nicolas; Jacquot, Jean-Pierre; Esposito, Sergio

    2013-12-01

    In plant cells, the plastidial glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (P2-G6PDH, EC 1.1.1.49) represents one of the most important sources of NADPH. However, previous studies revealed that both native and recombinant purified P2-G6PDHs show a great instability and a rapid loss of catalytic activity. Therefore it has been difficult to describe accurately the catalytic and physico-chemical properties of these isoforms. The plastidial G6PDH encoding sequence from barley roots (Hordeum vulgare cv. Nure), devoid of a long plastidial transit peptide, was expressed as recombinant protein in Escherichia coli, either untagged or with an N-terminal his-tag. After purification from both the soluble fraction and inclusion bodies, we have explored its kinetic parameters, as well as its sensitivity to reduction. The obtained results are consistent with values determined for other P2-G6PDHs previously purified from barley roots and from other land plants. Overall, these data shed light on the catalytic mechanism of plant P2-G6PDH, summarized in a proposed model in which the sequential mechanism is very similar to the mammalian cytosolic G6PDH. This study provides a rational basis to consider the recombinant barley root P2-G6PDH as a good model for further kinetic and structural studies.

  11. Differential sensitivity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to chlorpyrifos and propiconazole: Morphology, cytogenetic assay and photosynthetic pigments.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pragyan; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Shukla, Pratiksha; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation was performed to evaluate the effects of an insecticide and fungicide, namely, chlorpyrifos (CP) and propiconazole (PZ) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety Karan-16). The seeds were treated with three concentrations of CP and PZ, i.e., 0.05%, 0.1% and 0.5% for 6 hours after different pre-soaking durations of 7, 17 and 27 hours. Different pre-soaking durations (7, 17 and 27 h) represent three phases of the cell cycle i.e., G1, S and G2, respectively. Double distilled water and ethyl methane sulfonate were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. As compared to their respective controls, treated root tip meristematic cells of barley showed significant reductions in the germination percentage, seedling height, mitotic index and comparative increase in chromosomal aberrations against both the pesticides, and the magnitude was higher in CP. After treatment with the pesticides, chlorophyll and carotenoid contents increased up to 0.1% but reduced at 0.5% and the decrease was more prominent in CP as compared to PZ. In treated cells, fragmentation, stickiness, bridges, multipolar anaphase and diagonal anaphase were observed as aberrations. As compared to control, chromosomal aberrations were higher in CP as compared to PZ. The results of the present study concluded that CP induced chromosomal aberrations were more frequent than PZ; hence it has higher probability to cause genotoxicity in barley.

  12. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED).

    PubMed

    Dinis-Ribeiro, M; Areia, M; de Vries, A C; Marcos-Pinto, R; Monteiro-Soares, M; O'Connor, A; Pereira, C; Pimentel-Nunes, P; Correia, R; Ensari, A; Dumonceau, J M; Machado, J C; Macedo, G; Malfertheiner, P; Matysiak-Budnik, T; Megraud, F; Miki, K; O'Morain, C; Peek, R M; Ponchon, T; Ristimaki, A; Rembacken, B; Carneiro, F; Kuipers, E J

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods.

  13. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED).

    PubMed

    Dinis-Ribeiro, M; Areia, M; de Vries, A C; Marcos-Pinto, R; Monteiro-Soares, M; O'Connor, A; Pereira, C; Pimentel-Nunes, P; Correia, R; Ensari, A; Dumonceau, J M; Machado, J C; Macedo, G; Malfertheiner, P; Matysiak-Budnik, T; Megraud, F; Miki, K; O'Morain, C; Peek, R M; Ponchon, T; Ristimaki, A; Rembacken, B; Carneiro, F; Kuipers, E J

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy, the European Helicobacter Study Group, the European Society of Pathology, and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach. A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia and the need for adequate staging in the case of high-grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods.

  14. Management of precancerous conditions and lesions in the stomach (MAPS): guideline from the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), European Society of Pathology (ESP), and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED)

    PubMed Central

    Dinis-Ribeiro, M.; Areia, M.; de Vries, A. C.; Marcos-Pinto, R.; Monteiro-Soares, M.; O'Connor, A.; Pereira, C.; Pimentel-Nunes, P.; Correia, R.; Ensari, A.; Dumonceau, J. M.; Machado, J. C.; Macedo, G.; Malfertheiner, P.; Matysiak-Budnik, T.; Megraud, F.; Miki, K.; O'Morain, C.; Peek, R. M.; Ponchon, T.; Ristimaki, A.; Rembacken, B.; Carneiro, F.; Kuipers, E. J.

    2012-01-01

    Atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and epithelial dysplasia of the stomach are common and are associated with an increased risk for gastric cancer. In the absence of guidelines, there is wide disparity in the management of patients with these premalignant conditions. The European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE), the European Helicobacter Study Group (EHSG), the European Society of Pathology (ESP) and the Sociedade Portuguesa de Endoscopia Digestiva (SPED) have therefore combined efforts to develop evidence-based guidelines on the management of patients with precancerous conditions and lesions of the stomach (termed MAPS). A multidisciplinary group of 63 experts from 24 countries developed these recommendations by means of repeat online voting and a meeting in June 2011 in Porto, Portugal. The recommendations emphasize the increased cancer risk in patients with gastric atrophy and metaplasia, and the need for adequate staging in the case of high grade dysplasia, and they focus on treatment and surveillance indications and methods. PMID:22198778

  15. Larvicidal potential of carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol from the essential oil of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) against Anopheles stephensi, Anopheles subpictus, Culex quinquefasciatus and Culex tritaeniorhynchus (Diptera: Culicidae).

    PubMed

    Govindarajan, Marimuthu; Rajeswary, Mohan; Hoti, S L; Benelli, Giovanni

    2016-02-01

    Mosquito-borne diseases represent a deadly threat for millions of people worldwide. However, the use of synthetic insecticides to control Culicidae may lead to resistance, high operational costs and adverse non-target effects. Nowadays, plant-borne mosquitocides may serve as suitable alternative in the fight against mosquito vectors. In this study, the mosquito larvicidal activity of Origanum vulgare (Lamiaceae) leaf essential oil (EO) and its major chemical constituents was evaluated against the malaria vectors Anopheles stephensi and An. subpictus, the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus and the Japanese encephalitis vector Cx. tritaeniorhynchus. The chemical composition of the EO was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. GC-MS revealed that the essential oil of O. vulgare contained 17 compounds. The major chemical components were carvacrol (38.30%) and terpinen-4-ol (28.70%). EO had a significant toxic effect against early third-stage larvae of An. stephensi, An. subpictus, Cx. quinquefasciatus and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, with LC50 values of 67.00, 74.14, 80.35 and 84.93 μg/ml. The two major constituents extracted from the O. vulgare EO were tested individually for acute toxicity against larvae of the four mosquito vectors. Carvacrol and terpinen-4-ol appeared to be most effective against An. stephensi (LC50=21.15 and 43.27 μg/ml, respectively) followed by An. subpictus (LC50=24.06 and 47.73 μg/ml), Cx. quinquefasciatus (LC50=26.08 and 52.19 μg/ml) and Cx. tritaeniorhynchus (LC50=27.95 and 54.87 μg/ml). Overall, this research adds knowledge to develop newer and safer natural larvicides against malaria, filariasis and Japanese encephalitis mosquito vectors.

  16. Identification of 6-octadecynoic acid from a methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ agonist

    SciTech Connect

    Ohtera, Anna; Miyamae, Yusaku; Nakai, Naomi; Kawachi, Atsushi; Kawada, Kiyokazu; Han, Junkyu; Isoda, Hiroko; Neffati, Mohamed; Akita, Toru; Maejima, Kazuhiro; Masuda, Seiji; Kambe, Taiho; Mori, Naoki; Irie, Kazuhiro; Nagao, Masaya

    2013-10-18

    Highlights: •6-ODA, a rare fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified from Marrubium vulgare. •6-ODA was synthesized from petroselinic acid as a starting material. •6-ODA stimulated lipid accumulation in HSC-T6 and 3T3-L1 cells. •The first report of a fatty acid with a triple bond functioning as a PPARγ agonist. •This study sheds light on novel functions of a fatty acid with a triple bond. -- Abstract: 6-Octadecynoic acid (6-ODA), a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified in the methanol extract of Marrubium vulgare L. as an agonist of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ). Fibrogenesis caused by hepatic stellate cells is inhibited by PPARγ whose ligands are clinically used for the treatment of diabetes. Plant extracts of Marrubium vulgare L., were screened for activity to inhibit fibrosis in the hepatic stellate cell line HSC-T6 using Oil Red-O staining, which detects lipids that typically accumulate in quiescent hepatic stellate cells. A methanol extract with activity to stimulate accumulation of lipids was obtained. This extract was found to have PPARγ agonist activity using a luciferase reporter assay. After purification using several chromatographic methods, 6-ODA, a fatty acid with a triple bond, was identified as a candidate of PPARγ agonist. Synthesized 6-ODA and its derivative 9-octadecynoic acid (9-ODA), which both have a triple bond but in different positions, activated PPARγ in a luciferase reporter assay and increased lipid accumulation in 3T3-L1 adipocytes in a PPARγ-dependent manner. There is little information about the biological activity of fatty acids with a triple bond, and to our knowledge, this is the first report that 6-ODA and 9-ODA function as PPARγ agonists.

  17. Intensification of marrubiin concentration by optimization of microwave-assisted (low CO2 yielding) extraction process for Marrubium vulgare using central composite design and antioxidant evaluation.

    PubMed

    Mittal, Vineet; Nanda, Arun

    2017-12-01

    Marrubium vulgare Linn (Lamiaceae) was generally extracted by conventional methods with low yield of marrubiin; these processes were not considered environment friendly. This study extracts the whole plant of M. vulgare by microwave assisted extraction (MAE) and optimizes the effect of various extraction parameters on the marrubiin yield by using Central Composite Design (CCD). The selected medicinal plant was extracted using ethanol: water (1:1) as solvent by MAE. The plant material was also extracted using a Soxhlet and the various extracts were analyzed by HPTLC to quantify the marrubiin concentration. The optimized conditions for the microwave-assisted extraction of selected medicinal plant was microwave power of 539 W, irradiation time of 373 s and solvent to drug ratio, 32 mL per g of the drug. The marrubiin concentration in MAE almost doubled relative to the traditional method (0.69 ± 0.08 to 1.35 ± 0.04%). The IC50 for DPPH was reduced to 66.28 ± 0.6 μg/mL as compared to conventional extract (84.14 ± 0.7 μg/mL). The scanning electron micrographs of the treated and untreated drug samples further support the results. The CCD can be successfully applied to optimize the extraction parameters (MAE) for M. vulgare. Moreover, in terms of environmental impact, the MAE technique could be assumed as a 'Green approach' because the MAE approach for extraction of plant released only 92.3 g of CO2 as compared to 3207.6 g CO2 using the Soxhlet method of extraction.

  18. Assessment of free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) seed extracts.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Nandini; Chatterjee, Sreemoyee

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry.

  19. Assessment of Free Radical Scavenging Potential and Oxidative DNA Damage Preventive Activity of Trachyspermum ammi L. (Carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (Fennel) Seed Extracts

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Oxidation of biomolecules such as carbohydrates, proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids results in generation of free radicals in an organism which is the major cause of onset of various degenerative diseases. Antioxidants scavenge these free radicals, thereby protecting the cell from damage. The present study was designed to examine the free radical scavenging potential and oxidative DNA damage preventive activity of traditionally used spices Trachyspermum ammi L. (carom) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel). The aqueous, methanolic, and acetonic extracts of T. ammi and F. vulgare seeds were prepared using soxhlet extraction assembly and subjected to qualitative and quantitative estimation of phytochemical constituents. Free radical scavenging potential was investigated using standard methods, namely, DPPH radical scavenging assay and ferric reducing antioxidant power assay along with the protection against oxidative DNA damage. The results stated that acetonic seed extracts (AAcSE and FAcSE) of both the spices possessed comparatively high amount of total phenolics whereas methanolic seed extracts (AMSE and FMSE) were found to have highest amount of total flavonoids. At 1 mg/mL concentration, highest DPPH radical scavenging activity was shown by FMSE (96.2%), AAcSE was recorded with highest FRAP value (2270.27 ± 0.005 μmol/L), and all the seed extracts have been shown to mitigate the damage induced by Fenton reaction on calf thymus DNA. Therefore, the study suggests that T. ammi and F. vulgare seed extracts could contribute as a highly significant bioresource of antioxidants to be used in our day-to-day life and in food and pharmaceutical industry. PMID:25143939

  20. Binary mixture of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils: in vivo therapeutic efficiency against Helicobacter pylori infection.

    PubMed

    Harmati, Maria; Gyukity-Sebestyen, Edina; Dobra, Gabriella; Terhes, Gabriella; Urban, Edit; Decsi, Gabor; Mimica-Dukić, Neda; Lesjak, Marija; Simin, Nataša; Pap, Bernadett; Nemeth, Istvan B; Buzas, Krisztina

    2017-04-01

    Helicobacter pylori can cause many gastrointestinal and also extra-gastrointestinal disorders and is a major risk factor for gastric carcinoma and MALT lymphoma. Currently, numerous antibiotic-based therapies are available; however, these therapies have numerous drawbacks, mainly due to increasing prevalence of antibiotic resistant strains. Thus, there is an urgent need to develop novel therapeutic agents against H. pylori infections. In this study, the anti-H. pylori activity of 2:1 mixture of Satureja hortensis and Origanum vulgare subsp. hirtum essential oils (2MIX) was investigated in vivo. After screening in vitro cytotoxicity of 2MIX on mammalian cell lines, the therapeutic efficiency was studied in a mouse model, where changes in H. pylori colonization were detected by PCR and histology of gastric samples. The immune reaction of mice was tested based on cytokine and chemokine production, and the in vivo toxicity of 2MIX was also investigated by measuring ALT and AST enzyme activities and Cyp3a11 and HO-1 mRNA levels in livers of mice. 2MIX had not shown in vitro cytotoxicity against cell lines, only the highest concentration caused significant decrease in their survival rates. In the in vivo experiments, 2MIX successfully eradicated the pathogen in 70% of the mice. We could not detect toxicity or altered cytokine and chemokine balance after in vivo treatments in mice. These results show that 2MIX is effective in reducing H. pylori colonization suggesting that this essential oil mixture has great potential as a new, effective, and safe therapeutic agent against H. pylori. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. BAC library resources for map-based cloning and physical map construction in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although second generation sequencing (2GS) technologies allow re-sequencing of previously gold-standard-sequenced genomes, whole genome shotgun sequencing and de novo assembly of large and complex eukaryotic genomes is still difficult. Availability of a genome-wide physical map is therefore still a prerequisite for whole genome sequencing for genomes like barley. To start such an endeavor, large insert genomic libraries, i.e. Bacterial Artificial Chromosome (BAC) libraries, which are unbiased and representing deep haploid genome coverage, need to be ready in place. Result Five new BAC libraries were constructed for barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Morex. These libraries were constructed in different cloning sites (HindIII, EcoRI, MboI and BstXI) of the respective vectors. In order to enhance unbiased genome representation and to minimize the number of gaps between BAC contigs, which are often due to uneven distribution of restriction sites, a mechanically sheared library was also generated. The new BAC libraries were fully characterized in depth by scrutinizing the major quality parameters such as average insert size, degree of contamination (plate wide, neighboring, and chloroplast), empty wells and off-scale clones (clones with <30 or >250 fragments). Additionally a set of gene-based probes were hybridized to high density BAC filters and showed that genome coverage of each library is between 2.4 and 6.6 X. Conclusion BAC libraries representing >20 haploid genomes are available as a new resource to the barley research community. Systematic utilization of these libraries in high-throughput BAC fingerprinting should allow developing a genome-wide physical map for the barley genome, which will be instrumental for map-based gene isolation and genome sequencing. PMID:21595870

  2. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation.

    PubMed

    Picon, Paulo D; Picon, Rafael V; Costa, Andry F; Sander, Guilherme B; Amaral, Karine M; Aboy, Ana L; Henriques, Amélia T

    2010-04-30

    A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. ClinicalTrial.gov NCT00872430.

  3. Randomized clinical trial of a phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum, Foeniculum vulgare, Sambucus nigra, and Cassia augustifolia for chronic constipation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A phytotherapic compound containing Pimpinella anisum L., Foeniculum vulgare Miller, Sambucus nigra L., and Cassia augustifolia is largely used in Brazil for the treatment of constipation. However, the laxative efficacy of the compound has never been tested in a randomized clinical trial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the product. Methods This randomized, crossover, placebo-controlled, single-blinded trial included 20 patients presenting with chronic constipation according to the criteria of the American Association of Gastroenterology. The order of treatments was counterbalanced across subjects: half of the subjects received the phytotherapic compound for a 5-day period, whereas the other half received placebo for the same period. Both treatment periods were separated by a 9-day washout period followed by the reverse treatment for another 5-day period. The primary endpoint was colonic transit time (CTT), measured radiologically. Secondary endpoints included number of evacuations per day, perception of bowel function, adverse effects, and quality of life. Results Mean CTT assessed by X ray was 15.7 hours (95%CI 11.1-20.2) in the active treatment period and 42.3 hours (95%CI 33.5-51.1) during the placebo treatment (p < 0.001). Number of evacuations per day increased during the use of active tea; significant differences were observed as of the second day of treatment (p < 0.001). Patient perception of bowel function was improved (p < 0.01), but quality of life did not show significant differences among the study periods. Except for a small reduction in serum potassium levels during the active treatment, no significant differences were observed in terms of adverse effects throughout the study period. Conclusions The findings of this randomized controlled trial allow to conclude that the phytotherapic compound assessed has laxative efficacy and is a safe alternative option for the treatment of constipation. Trial

  4. A single gene encodes two different transcripts for the ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase small subunit from barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed Central

    Thorbjørnsen, T; Villand, P; Kleczkowski, L A; Olsen, O A

    1996-01-01

    ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (AGPase), a heterotetrameric enzyme composed of two small and two large subunits, catalyses the first committed step of starch synthesis in plant tissues. In an attempt to learn more about the organization and expression of the small-subunit gene of AGPase, we have studied the small-subunit transcripts as well as the structure of the gene encoding these transcripts in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Bomi). Two different transcripts (bepsF1 and blps14) were identified: bepF1 was abundantly expressed in the starchy endosperm but not in leaves, whereas blps14 was isolated from leaves but was also found to be present at a moderate level in the starchy endosperm. The sequences for the two transcripts are identical over approx. 90% of the length, with differences being confined solely to their 5' ends. In blps14, the unique 5' end is 259 nt long and encodes a putative plastid transit peptide sequence. For the 178-nt 5' end of bepsF1, on the other hand, no transit peptide sequence could be recognized. A lambda clone that hybridized to the AGPase transcripts was isolated from a barley genomic library and characterized. The restriction map has suggested a complex organization of the gene, with alternative exons encoding the different 5' ends of the two transcripts followed by nine exons coding for the common part of the transcripts. The sequence of a portion of the genomic clone, covering the alternative 5'-end exons as well as upstream regions, has verified that both transcripts are encoded by the gene. The results suggest that the small-subunit gene of barley AGPase transcribes two different mRNAs by a mechanism classified as alternative splicing. PMID:8546676

  5. Precursor structure, distribution and possible functions of pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare (Latreille).

    PubMed

    Fouda, Maged Mohamed Ali; Hiragaki, Susumu; Tufail, Muhammad; Shao, Qi-Miao; Takeda, Makio

    2010-12-01

    Pigment-dispersing hormone (PDH) is an 18 amino acid neuropeptide that induces pigment migration in Decapoda and serves as a circadian neurotransmitter in the locomotor activity rhythm in Drosophila. In this study, a cDNA encoding PDH was cloned from adult brains of the pill bug, Armadillidium vulgare (Av). The cDNA comprising 529 bp encodes a peptide (AvPDH) that consists of a putative 26 amino acid signal peptide, and a 34 amino acid PDH-precursor-related peptide containing an 18 amino acid mature peptide. The peptide shows a high sequence identity (55-77%) to crustacean β-PDHs and insect PDFs. The tissue-specific expression pattern was examined by reverse transcription PCR. The transcript is expressed in the brain strongly and ventral nerve cord weakly, but the signal was not detected in the intestinal tract. A similar expression profile appeared in Western blot analyses. Western blot analyses with timed samples showed more intense expression of PDH-like antigen at night. PDH-like immunohistochemical reactivity (PDH-ir) was detected in the optic lobe, anteromedian protocerebrum, accessory lobe, tritocerebrum, and suboesophageal ganglion but the reactivity was faint or nil in the pseudofrontal organ (sinus gland). These results were substantiated by in situ hybridization. Co-localization using anti-Gryllus bimaculatus (Gb)-PDF, anti-Bombyx mori (Bm)-CLK, and anti-Bm-CYC showed a co-localization of these antigens in the optic lobe and SOG. The results provide the first structural and immunocytochemical identification of PDH neurons in terrestrial isopods, and the co-localization of PDH with CLK and CYC supports its possible involvement in circadian clock. A day/night rhythm of PDH content is also a new feature.

  6. Calcium transport in protoplasts isolated from ml-o barley isolines resistant and susceptible to powdery mildew. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Wrona, A.F.; Spanswick, R.M.; Aist, J.R. )

    1988-12-01

    Free cytoplasmic calcium has been postulated to play a role in preventing powdery mildew in a series of homozygous ml-o mutants of barley, Hordeum vulgare L. Protoplasts isolated from 7-day-old plants of the ml-o resistant-susceptible (R-S) barley isolines, Riso 5678/3* {times} Carlsberg II R and S, were used to test for differences in fluxes of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma. Greater influx or lesser efflux might account for a higher free cytosolic Ca{sup 2+} postulated to exist in ml-o R mutants. Uniform patterns of uptake were maintained for 3 hours from solutions of 0.2 and 2 millimolar Ca{sup 2+}. Washout curves of {sup 45}Ca{sup 2+} from R and S protoplasts revealed three compartments - presumed to represent release from the vacuole, organelles, and the cytoplasm (which included bound as well as free Ca{sup 2+}). Uptake and washout did not differ between isolines. On the basis of recent determinations of submicromolar levels of free cytoplasmic Ca{sup 2+} and their initial rates of {sup 45}ca-labeled Ca{sup 2+} uptake, they show that measurement of the unidirectional influx of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not feasible because the specific activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium increases almost instantaneously to a level that would result in a significant, but unknown, efflux of label. Similarly, measurement of the efflux of Ca{sup 2+} across the plasmalemma is not possible since the activity of the pool of free cytoplasmic calcium is a factor of 350 smaller than the most rapid component of the washout experiment. This pool of cytoplasmic free Ca{sup 2+} will wash out too rapidly and be too small to detect under the conditions of these experiments.

  7. Metabolite profiling reveals distinct changes in carbon and nitrogen metabolism in phosphate-deficient barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Huang, Chun Y; Roessner, Ute; Eickmeier, Ira; Genc, Yusuf; Callahan, Damien L; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Bacic, Antony

    2008-05-01

    Plants modify metabolic processes for adaptation to low phosphate (P) conditions. Whilst transcriptomic analyses show that P deficiency changes hundreds of genes related to various metabolic processes, there is limited information available for global metabolite changes of P-deficient plants, especially for cereals. As changes in metabolites are the ultimate 'readout' of changes in gene expression, we profiled polar metabolites from both shoots and roots of P-deficient barley (Hordeum vulgare) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The results showed that mildly P-deficient plants accumulated di- and trisaccharides (sucrose, maltose, raffinose and 6-kestose), especially in shoots. Severe P deficiency increased the levels of metabolites related to ammonium metabolism in addition to di- and trisaccharides, but reduced the levels of phosphorylated intermediates (glucose-6-P, fructose-6-P, inositol-1-P and glycerol-3-P) and organic acids (alpha-ketoglutarate, succinate, fumarate and malate). The results revealed that P-deficient plants modify carbohydrate metabolism initially to reduce P consumption, and salvage P from small P-containing metabolites when P deficiency is severe, which consequently reduced levels of organic acids in the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. The extent of the effect of severe P deficiency on ammonium metabolism was also revealed by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) quantitative analysis of free amino acids. A sharp increase in the concentrations of glutamine and asparagine was observed in both shoots and roots of severely P-deficient plants. Based on these data, a strategy for improving the ability of cereals to adapt to low P environments is proposed that involves alteration in partitioning of carbohydrates into organic acids and amino acids to enable more efficient utilization of carbon in P-deficient plants.

  8. Variability in Proline-Accumulating Ability of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Cultivars Induced by Vapor Pressure Deficit.

    PubMed

    Naidu, B P; Aspinall, D; Paleg, L G

    1992-02-01

    This work was undertaken in an effort to reconcile the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, Excelsior and Proctor, reported by Singh et al. (1972) and Hanson et al. (1976). It deals with the effects of different vapor pressure deficits (VPD) during growth and subsequent drought stress on several barley cultivars. A higher VPD (1.2 kilopascals) during Clipper seedling growth resulted in higher solute-accumulating ability, seemingly independently of leaf water potential, than a lower VPD (0.12 kilopascals). The higher VPD during stress also resulted in higher solute contents, and this response may be more closely related to leaf water potential. When the responses of Excelsior and Proctor were examined in detail, it was found that the relative proline-accumulating ability of the two cultivars was dependent upon the VPD under which they were grown. At low VPD, Proctor accumulated significantly more proline than did Excelsior; whereas at higher VPD, Excelsior accumulated more proline than did Proctor. The crossover occurred at a VPD of about 0.72 kilopascals. This reversal of cultivar response was enhanced by multiplying seed under the two VPD extremes. Glycinebetaine accumulation did not demonstrate the crossover effect, although the concentration of this compound in all cultivars also depended on the VPD prevailing during growth and/or stress. Solute levels, in general, were more closely related to the decrease in relative water content than to a decrease in leaf water potential. It is concluded that the conflicting proline-accumulating responses of Excelsior and Proctor could be explained by these findings.

  9. Evolutionary History of Wild Barley (Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum) Analyzed Using Multilocus Sequence Data and Paleodistribution Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Jakob, Sabine S.; Rödder, Dennis; Engler, Jan O.; Shaaf, Salar; Özkan, Hakan; Blattner, Frank R.; Kilian, Benjamin

    2014-01-01

    Studies of Hordeum vulgare subsp. spontaneum, the wild progenitor of cultivated barley, have mostly relied on materials collected decades ago and maintained since then ex situ in germplasm repositories. We analyzed spatial genetic variation in wild barley populations collected rather recently, exploring sequence variations at seven single-copy nuclear loci, and inferred the relationships among these populations and toward the genepool of the crop. The wild barley collection covers the whole natural distribution area from the Mediterranean to Middle Asia. In contrast to earlier studies, Bayesian assignment analyses revealed three population clusters, in the Levant, Turkey, and east of Turkey, respectively. Genetic diversity was exceptionally high in the Levant, while eastern populations were depleted of private alleles. Species distribution modeling based on climate parameters and extant occurrence points of the taxon inferred suitable habitat conditions during the ice-age, particularly in the Levant and Turkey. Together with the ecologically wide range of habitats, they might contribute to structured but long-term stable populations in this region and their high genetic diversity. For recently collected individuals, Bayesian assignment to geographic clusters was generally unambiguous, but materials from genebanks often showed accessions that were not placed according to their assumed geographic origin or showed traces of introgression from cultivated barley. We assign this to gene flow among accessions during ex situ maintenance. Evolutionary studies based on such materials might therefore result in wrong conclusions regarding the history of the species or the origin and mode of domestication of the crop, depending on the accessions included. PMID:24586028

  10. Effect of Hordeum vulgare L. (Barley) on blood glucose levels of normal and STZ-induced diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Movahedian, A.; Hakim-Elahi, I.

    2014-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the world's fourth most important cereal crop after wheat, rice and maize. It is readily available with reasonable cost, and has the highest amount of dietary fiber among the cereals which may be beneficial for metabolic syndrome. In the present study, the effect of hydroalcoholic extract of barley seeds and a protein enriched fraction on blood glucose of normal and streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats (STZ, 55 mg/kg, i.p) were investigated. Normal and diabetic male Wistar rats were treated daily with normal saline (1 ml), barley hydroalcoholic extract (BHE) (0.1, 0.25, 0.5 g/kg), protein enriched fraction (PEF) (0.1, 0.2, 0.4 g/kg) and glibenclamide (1 and 3 mg/kg), separately and the treatment was continued for 11 days. Blood samples were taken at 0, 1, 2, 3, 9 h in the first day and the days 5 (120 h) and 11 (264 h) for measuring the blood glucose levels (BGL). Our results indicated that none of the BHE and PEF, were effective to reduce BGL in normal or diabetic rats in acute phase of treatment (1st day). Nevertheless, BHE at doses of 0.25 and 0.5 g/kg, were only effective in detracting BGL of diabetic rats after 11 days of continued daily therapy. Moreover, BHE restored body weight of diabetic rats at the end of treatment. Glibenclamide had also hypoglycemic action in normal and diabetic rats after both acute and extended treatments. These findings suggest that barley seeds hydroalcoholic extract, has a role in diabetic control in long term consumption, and this effect might be at least due to its high fiber content. More detailed studies are warranted to demonstrate its mechanism of action and identify active components. PMID:25657786

  11. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels

    PubMed Central

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-01-01

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO2) and titanium oxide (nTiO2) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg−1 on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO2 and nTiO2 had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO2·kg−1. On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO2·kg−1, and Ca by both nTiO2 treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO2 while nTiO2 can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production. PMID:27294945

  12. Effects of Cerium and Titanium Oxide Nanoparticles in Soil on the Nutrient Composition of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Kernels.

    PubMed

    Pošćić, Filip; Mattiello, Alessandro; Fellet, Guido; Miceli, Fabiano; Marchiol, Luca

    2016-06-09

    The implications of metal nanoparticles (MeNPs) are still unknown for many food crops. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of cerium oxide (nCeO₂) and titanium oxide (nTiO₂) nanoparticles in soil at 0, 500 and 1000 mg·kg(-1) on the nutritional parameters of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) kernels. Mineral nutrients, amylose, β-glucans, amino acid and crude protein (CP) concentrations were measured in kernels. Whole flour samples were analyzed by ICP-AES/MS, HPLC and Elemental CHNS Analyzer. Results showed that Ce and Ti accumulation under MeNPs treatments did not differ from the control treatment. However, nCeO₂ and nTiO₂ had an impact on composition and nutritional quality of barley kernels in contrasting ways. Both MeNPs left β-glucans unaffected but reduced amylose content by approximately 21%. Most amino acids and CP increased. Among amino acids, lysine followed by proline saw the largest increase (51% and 37%, respectively). Potassium and S were both negatively impacted by MeNPs, while B was only affected by 500 mg nCeO₂·kg(-1). On the contrary Zn and Mn concentrations were improved by 500 mg nTiO₂·kg(-1), and Ca by both nTiO₂ treatments. Generally, our findings demonstrated that kernels are negatively affected by nCeO₂ while nTiO₂ can potentially have beneficial effects. However, both MeNPs have the potential to negatively impact malt and feed production.

  13. A synergistic effect of pretreatment on cell wall structural changes in barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) for efficient bioethanol production.

    PubMed

    Sheikh, Md Mominul Islam; Kim, Chul-Hwan; Park, Hyeong-Hun; Nam, Hye-Gyeong; Lee, Gyeong Sun; Jo, Hu Seung; Lee, Ji-Young; Kim, Jae Won

    2015-03-15

    Barley straw (Hordeum vulgare L.) is an attractive lignocellulosic material and one of the most abundant renewable resources for fuel ethanol production. Although it has high cellulose and hemicellulose contents, there are several challenges and limitations in the process of converting it to fuel ethanol. High ash, silica and lignin contents in barley straw make it an inferior feedstock for enzymatic hydrolysis. Therefore pretreatment of barley straw could play an important role in inducing structural and compositional changes that increase the efficiency of enzymatic hydrolysis and make the whole process economically viable. Saccharification was enhanced using various concentrations (0.0, 0.5, 1.0, 2.0 and 3.0% v/v) of a solution of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO) and hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) and various reaction times (15, 30 and 45 min) during pretreatment at 121 °C. The highest yield of glucose (447 mg g⁻¹) was achieved by pretreatment with 2.0% NaClO+H₂O₂ solution for 30 min, representing an increase of 65.99% compared with untreated barley straw (152 mg g⁻¹). During fermentation, the highest amount of ethanol (207 mg g⁻¹) was obtained under anaerobic plus 0.4 mmol L⁻¹ benzoic acid conditions, representing an increase of 57.49, 38.16 and 10.14% compared with untreated sample (88 mg g⁻¹), aerobic (128 mg g⁻¹) and anaerobic (186 mg g⁻¹) conditions respectively. The results suggest that pretreatment with 2.0% NaClO+H₂O₂ solution disrupted the recalcitrant structure of barley straw and enhanced the glucose yield and subsequent bioethanol production. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Identification of regulated proteins in naked barley grains (Hordeum vulgare nudum) after Fusarium graminearum infection at different grain ripening stages.

    PubMed

    Trümper, Christina; Paffenholz, Katrin; Smit, Inga; Kössler, Philip; Karlovsky, Petr; Braun, Hans-Peter; Pawelzik, Elke

    2016-02-05

    We analyzed the effect of Fusarium graminearum infection on field-grown naked barley (Hordeum vulgare nudum). The ears were inoculated with F. graminearum spores during anthesis. In the course of ripening, grains in five phenological growth stages of naked barley from milk ripe to plant death were sampled. The albumin and globulin proteins of inoculated grains and untreated (control) grains were separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Forty-five spots composing of proteins that were changed in abundance due to F. graminearum infection were subsequently identified by mass spectrometry. Various proteins showing altered expression pattern after Fusarium infection were linked to stress response such as plant signal transduction pathways, fungal defense and oxidative burst. More proteins changed during early grain ripening stages than during later ripening stages. Protease inhibitors occurred at increased abundancy during milk ripe stage. A thaumatin-like protein accumulated at plant death stage. Proteins linked to nitrogen metabolism and protein biosynthesis were mainly reduced, whereas those linked to carbon metabolism were predominantly increased in infected grains. Fusarium graminearum infection can lead to significant contamination of grains with mycotoxins. With this 2D-based proteomics study we give an insight into plant–pathogen interactions between the non-model plant naked barley and the fungus F. graminearum during five stages of grain development. Over the multiple developmental stages we observed specific patterns of changes induced by the fungus: the primary plant metabolism and inhibition of fungal protease were predominantly affected during early grain development stages. During the entire grain development we found an induced accumulation of thaumatin-like proteins due to the fungal infection indicating their fundamental role for naked barley defense.

  15. The Effect of Hydro-Alcoholic Extract of Foeniculum vulgare Mill on Leukocytes and Hematological Tests in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mansouri, Esrafil; Kooti, Wesam; Bazvand, Maryam; Ghasemi Boroon, Maryam; Amirzargar, Ashraf; Afrisham, Reza; Afzalzadeh, Mohammad Reza; Ashtary-Larky, Damoon; Jalali, Nasrin

    2015-01-01

    Background: Medicinal plants have a long history in treating blood disorders, which is one of the most common problems in today's advanced world. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) is a medicinal plant with a high content of polyphenols and has antioxidant and immunomodulatory properties. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydro-alcoholic extract of fennel on some hematological indices in male rats. Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, thirty male Wistar rats were divided into six groups (five rats in each group). The first group (control) did not receive any dose; the second group (sham) received 1 mL normal saline (extraction solvent); and the experimental groups 1, 2, 3 and 4 respectively received 1 mL hydro alcoholic extract of fennel in four doses of 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg/kg of body weight every 48 hours for 30 days by gavage. One day after the last gavage following induction of anesthesia and taking blood from the heart of rats, measurement of red and white blood cells, hemoglobin, hematocrit and tests of bleeding and coagulation time (CT) were performed. The data was analyzed by one-way ANOVA test using SPSS15 software. Results: Fennel increased mean RBC (7.54 ± 0.53 × 106) and WBC (5.89 ± 0.78 × 103) values, especially at a dose of 250 mg/mL and CT (2.45 ± 0.20) at a dose of 500mg/mL compared to the control group (P < 0.05). Conclusions: Fennel increased red and white blood cells probably due to the presence of polyphenols and antioxidant activity of fennel and reduced negative effects of free radicals on blood cells. PMID:25866717

  16. Methanolic extract of Origanum vulgare ameliorates type 1 diabetes through antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic activity.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Orescanin-Dusic, Zorana; Blagojevic, Dusko; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2015-03-14

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D), an autoimmune inflammatory disorder, develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell destruction and results in hyperglycaemia. Since current T1D therapy mainly involves insulin replacement, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the therapeutic potential of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) leaf extract rich in biophenols for the treatment of T1D. The phytochemical profile of methanolic oregano extract (MOE) and aqueous oregano extract (AOE) was determined by liquid chromatography/electrospray ion-trap tandem MS (LC/DAD/ESI-MSn), while their main compounds were quantified by HPLC with diode array detection. After establishing their potent in vitro antioxidant activity, the extracts were administered to C57BL/6 mice treated with multiple low doses of streptozotocin for diabetes induction. While prophylactic AOE therapy had no impact on diabetes induction, MOE reduced diabetes incidence and preserved normal insulin secretion. In addition, MOE scavenged reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and, therefore, alleviated the need for the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes. MOE treatment specifically attenuated the pro-inflammatory response mediated by T helper 17 cells and enhanced anti-inflammatory T helper 2 and T regulatory cells through the impact on specific signalling pathways and transcription factors. Importantly, MOE preserved β-cells from in vitro apoptosis via blockade of caspase 3. Finally, rosmarinic acid, a predominant compound in MOE, exhibited only partial protection from diabetes induction. In conclusion, acting as an antioxidant, immunomodulator and in an anti-apoptotic manner, MOE protected mice from diabetes development. Seemingly, there is more than one compound responsible for the beneficial effect of MOE.

  17. Ethyl Acetate Extract of Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum Prevents Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetes in C57BL/6 Mice.

    PubMed

    Vujicic, Milica; Nikolic, Ivana; Kontogianni, Vassiliki G; Saksida, Tamara; Charisiadis, Pantelis; Vasic, Bobana; Stosic-Grujicic, Stanislava; Gerothanassis, Ioannis P; Tzakos, Andreas G; Stojanovic, Ivana

    2016-07-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is an autoimmune disease that develops as a consequence of pancreatic β-cell death induced by proinflammatory mediators. Because Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Greek oregano) contains antiinflammatory molecules, we hypothesized that it might be beneficial for the treatment of T1D. An ethyl acetate extract of oregano (EAO) was prepared from the leaves by a polar extraction method. Phytochemical composition was determined by liquid chromatography-UV diode array coupled to ion-trap mass spectrometry with electrospray ionization interface (LC/DAD/ESI-MS(n) ). In vitro immunomodulatory effect of EAO was estimated by measuring proliferation (MTT) or cytokine secretion (ELISA) from immune cells. Diabetes was induced by multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MLDS) in male C57BL/6 mice and EAO was administered intraperitoneally for 10 d. Determination of cellular composition (flow cytometry) and cytokine production (ELISA) was performed on 12th d after diabetes induction. EAO suppressed the function of both macrophages and lymphocytes in vitro. In vivo, EAO treatment significantly preserved pancreatic islets and reduced diabetes incidence in MLDS-challenged mice. Besides down-modulatory effect on macrophages, EAO reduced the number of total CD4(+) and activated CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells. Furthermore, EAO affected the number of T helper 1 (Th1) and T helper 17 (Th17) cells through downregulation of their key transcription factors T-bet and RORγT. Because EAO treatment protects mice from development of hyperglycemia by reducing proinflammatory macrophage/Th1/Th17 response, this plant extract could represent a basis for future diabetes therapy.

  18. Physiological and proteomic characterization of manganese sensitivity and tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa) in comparison with barley (Hordeum vulgare)

    PubMed Central

    Führs, Hendrik; Behrens, Christof; Gallien, Sébastien; Heintz, Dimitri; Van Dorsselaer, Alain; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Background and Aims Research on manganese (Mn) toxicity and tolerance indicates that Mn toxicity develops apoplastically through increased peroxidase activities mediated by phenolics and Mn, and Mn tolerance could be conferred by sequestration of Mn in inert cell compartments. This comparative study focuses on Mn-sensitive barley (Hordeum vulgare) and Mn-tolerant rice (Oryza sativa) as model organisms to unravel the mechanisms of Mn toxicity and/or tolerance in monocots. Methods Bulk leaf Mn concentrations as well as peroxidase activities and protein concentrations were analysed in apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) in both species. In rice, Mn distribution between leaf compartments and the leaf proteome using 2D isoelectic focusing IEF/SDS–PAGE and 2D Blue native BN/SDS–PAGE was studied. Key Results The Mn sensitivity of barley was confirmed since the formation of brown spots on older leaves was induced by low bulk leaf and AWF Mn concentrations and exhibited strongly enhanced H2O2-producing and consuming peroxidase activities. In contrast, by a factor of 50, higher Mn concentrations did not produce Mn toxicity symptoms on older leaves in rice. Peroxidase activities, lower by a factor of about 100 in the rice leaf AWF compared with barley, support the view of a central role for these peroxidases in the apoplastic expression of Mn toxicity. The high Mn tolerance of old rice leaves could be related to a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls. Proteomic studies suggest that the lower Mn tolerance of young rice leaves could be related to Mn excess-induced displacement of Mg and Fe from essential metabolic functions. Conclusions The results provide evidence that Mn toxicity in barley involves apoplastic lesions mediated by peroxidases. The high Mn tolerance of old leaves of rice involves a high Mn binding capacity of the cell walls, whereas Mn toxicity in less Mn-tolerant young leaves is related to Mn-induced Mg and Fe deficiencies. PMID:20237113

  19. EST-SSR markers derived from an elite barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare L. 'Morex'): polymorphism and genetic marker potential.

    PubMed

    Emebiri, Livinus C

    2009-08-01

    Microsatellites or simple sequence repeats have become the markers of choice for marker-assisted selection because of their low template DNA requirement, high reproducibility, and high level of polymorphism. This study investigated a new set of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) EST-derived SSR markers designed to target gene sequences expressed during grain development, as they are more likely to be important in determining grain quality. The EST sequences (HVSMEh and HVSMEi) were derived from cDNA libraries of the elite six-rowed cultivar Morex, made from spikes harvested at 5 to 45 days after pollination. Approximately half of the 110 SSR markers derived from the ESTs were polymorphic in a panel of 8 diverse barley genotypes, with PIC values between 0.19 and 0.79. Twenty of the new markers were mapped to chromosomal locations using 2 doubled haploid populations. To demonstrate marker potential, quantitative trait locus (QTL) analyses were carried out with phenotypic data on wort beta-glucan content and beta-glucanase activity, two traits with a long history of genetic studies. Most of the EST-SSR markers mapped to within 10 cM of the cellulose synthase (HvCesA) and cellulose synthase-like (HvCslF) genes, which provides highly informative functional markers for tracking these genes in breeding programs. It was also observed that on any given chromosome, the QTL for beta-glucan content and beta-glucanase activity were rarely coincident but tended to occur in adjacent intervals along chromosomal regions, which agreed with their independent genetic basis; the adjacent localization may be important for coordination of cell wall degradation during germination and malting.

  20. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. increases cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and inhibits store-operated Ca(2+) entry in vascular endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Han, A Young; Lee, Hui Su; Seol, Geun Hee

    2016-12-01

    This study assessed the effects of essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel oil) and of trans-anethole, the main component of fennel oil, on extracellular Ca(2+)-induced store-operated Ca(2+) entry (SOCE) into vascular endothelial (EA) cells and their mechanisms of action. Components of fennel oil were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)]c) in EA cells was determined using Fura-2 fluorescence. In the presence of extracellular Ca(2+), fennel oil significantly increased [Ca(2+)]c in EA cells; this increase was significantly inhibited by the Ca(2+) channel blockers La(3+) and nifedipine. In contrast, fennel oil induced [Ca(2+)]c was significantly lower in Ca(2+)-free solution, suggesting that fennel oil increases [Ca(2+)]c mainly by enhancing Ca(2+) influx into EA cells. [Ca(2+)]c mobilization by trans-anethole was similar to that of fennel oil. Moreover, SOCE was suppressed by fennel oil and trans-anethole. SOCE was also attenuated by lanthanum (La(3+)), a non-selective cation channel (NSC) blocker; 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borane (2-APB), an inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate (IP3) receptor inhibitor and SOCE blocker; and U73122, an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC). Further, SOCE was more strongly inhibited by La(3+) plus fennel oil or trans-anethole than by La(3+) alone. These findings suggest that fennel oil and trans-anethole significantly inhibit SOCE-induced [Ca(2+)]c increase in vascular endothelial cells and that these reactions may be mediated by NSC, IP3-dependent Ca(2+) mobilization, and PLC activation.

  1. Variation between Ethiopian and North American barley varieties (Hordeum vulgare) in response to Russian wheat aphid (Diuraphis noxia) populations.

    PubMed

    Araya, Alemu; Belay, Tesfay; Hussein, Temam

    2014-03-15

    The Russian wheat aphid, Diuraphis noxia (Mordvilko) (Hemiptera: Aphididae), causes severe damage to barley, Hordeum vulgare L. (Poales: Poaceae), in the highlands of Ethiopia. Little information is available on the control of this pest in Ethiopia. An experiment aimed at evaluating the resistance of barley varieties from the USA to D. noxia populations and determining biotypic variation between Ethiopian and North American D. noxia populations was conducted. The D. noxia-resistant barley varieties Burton and RWA-1758 from the USA, the resistant barley line 3296-15 from Ethiopia, and a local Ethiopian susceptible variety were included in a randomized design in a greenhouse under natural light conditions. There were highly significant differences (P < 0.001) in the mean D. noxia population, leaf chlorosis, leaf rolling, plant stunting, number of tillers per plant, and the percentage of infested tillers per plant between the resistant and susceptible varieties. The aphid population per tiller was lower on the resistant barley plants than on the susceptible plants. Severe plant damage was observed on the local barley variety, while the least damage was observed on Burton, followed by RWA-1758. Burton and RWA-1758 were therefore highly resistant and moderately resistant, respectively, to the northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations, indicating similarities in biotypes between the United States and northern Ethiopian D. noxia populations. The damage to variety 3296-15 was greater than to Burton and RWA-1758. Leaf chlorosis scores and leaf rolling scores for variety 3296-15 upon treatment with the north Ethiopian D. noxia population indicate likely biotypic variation between D. noxia populations of northern and central Ethiopia.

  2. Anti-oxidant studies and anti-microbial effect of Origanum vulgare Linn in combination with standard antibiotics

    PubMed Central

    Bharti, Veni; Vasudeva, Neeru; Kumar, Suresh

    2014-01-01

    Background: Origanum is one of the over 200 genera in the Lamiaceae (mint family), and this genus includes culinary, fragrant, and medicinal properties. The plant is reported to contain anti-microbial properties, but it lacks combination studies with that of synthetic antibiotics. Aim: To investigate the anti-oxidant and anti-microbial interaction studies of Origanum vulgare with standard drugs against Bacillus species of bacteria and Aspergillus niger. Materials and Methods: The anti-oxidant properties of phenolic, non-phenolic fractions of chloroform extract and volatile oil were evaluated by free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide radical-scavenging assay, reducing power, and metal chelating assays. Results: The minimum inhibitory concentration and fractional inhibitory concentration index were determined which demonstrates the behavior of volatile oil, phenolic, and non-phenolic fractions of volatile oil with that of ciprofloxacin and fluconazole. The IC50 value for volatile oil was found to be 15, 30, and 30 μg/ml and that of phenolic fraction was 60, 120, and 120 μg/ml for free radical-scavenging, hydrogen peroxide-scavenging, and metal chelating assays respectively. Non-phenolic fraction was found to act antagonistically along with ciprofloxacin against B. cereus and B. subtilis, while the phenolic fraction exhibited indifferent activity along with ciprofloxacin against both the bacterial strains. Conclusion: This combination of drug therapy will not only prove effective in antibiotic resistance, but these natural constituents will also help in preventing body from harmful radicals which lead to fatal diseases. PMID:25364204

  3. Neuroprotective Effects of Herbal Extract (Rosa canina, Tanacetum vulgare and Urtica dioica) on Rat Model of Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease

    PubMed Central

    Daneshmand, Parvaneh; Saliminejad, Kioomars; Dehghan Shasaltaneh, Marzieh; Kamali, Koorosh; Riazi, Gholam Hossein; Nazari, Reza; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Khorram Khorshid, Hamid Reza

    2016-01-01

    Background: Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease (SAD) is caused by genetic risk factors, aging and oxidative stresses. The herbal extract of Rosa canina (R. canina), Tanacetum vulgare (T. vulgare) and Urtica dioica (U. dioica) has a beneficial role in aging, as an anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative agent. In this study, the neuroprotective effects of this herbal extract in the rat model of SAD was investigated. Methods: The rats were divided into control, sham, model, herbal extract -treated and ethanol-treated groups. Drug interventions were started on the 21st day after modeling and each treatment group was given the drugs by intraperitoneal (I.P.) route for 21 days. The expression levels of the five important genes for pathogenesis of SAD including Syp, Psen1, Mapk3, Map2 and Tnf-α were measured by qPCR between the hippocampi of SAD model which were treated by this herbal extract and control groups. The Morris Water Maze was adapted to test spatial learning and memory ability of the rats. Results: Treatment of the rat model of SAD with herbal extract induced a significant change in expression of Syp (p=0.001) and Psen1 (p=0.029). In Morris Water Maze, significant changes in spatial learning seen in the rat model group were improved in herbal-treated group. Conclusion: This herbal extract could have anti-dementia properties and improve spatial learning and memory in SAD rat model. PMID:27563424

  4. Some characteristics of segregation in hybrids of Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch emend. Bacht. × H. vulgare (L.) emend. Vav. et Bacht.

    PubMed

    Bakhteyev, F K

    1969-01-01

    The analysis of hybrid generations, that had arisen from crosses of various forms of H. spontaneum, as well as comparison of the results of crossing representatives of H. spontaneum with two and six-row forms of H. vulgare warrant the following statements: 1. When various morphological races of H. spontaneum were intercrossed, no morphologically new types arose among the progeny of hybrid generations as a result of these crosses. Various morphological hybrid groups, eight up to F 3, remained strictly within the variability of the system of the species Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch emend. Bacht. 2. When various morphological races of H. spontaneum were hybridized with two- and six-row forms of H. vulgare, marked dominance of characters of the wild parent were observed, nevertheless even in F 3 occasional hybrid individuals with a nonbrittle ear have been obtained. This fact is an evidence that cultivated barley may take part in the formation of such hybrids. In the fourth generation of the above interspecific crosses besides individuals which had inherited the characters of one or the other of the parents new morphological types arise. The latter are characterized by new combinations, inherited from both parents. In studies reported previously such casual hybrid individuals were provisionally named by us "sessiliproskowetzii". At first glance, the latter seemed not to differ from H. spontaneum v. proskowetzii, but more thorough observation showed that such hybrids differ from genuine individuals of v. proskowetzii: their sterile lateral spikelets are sessile, i.e. deprived of pedicels.

  5. Armadillidin H, a Glycine-Rich Peptide from the Terrestrial Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, Displays an Unexpected Wide Antimicrobial Spectrum with Membranolytic Activity.

    PubMed

    Verdon, Julien; Coutos-Thevenot, Pierre; Rodier, Marie-Helene; Landon, Celine; Depayras, Segolene; Noel, Cyril; La Camera, Sylvain; Moumen, Bouziane; Greve, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47%) cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed toward Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin), from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity toward human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study [by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs.

  6. Armadillidin H, a Glycine-Rich Peptide from the Terrestrial Crustacean Armadillidium vulgare, Displays an Unexpected Wide Antimicrobial Spectrum with Membranolytic Activity

    PubMed Central

    Verdon, Julien; Coutos-Thevenot, Pierre; Rodier, Marie-Helene; Landon, Celine; Depayras, Segolene; Noel, Cyril; La Camera, Sylvain; Moumen, Bouziane; Greve, Pierre; Bouchon, Didier; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc; Braquart-Varnier, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are key components of innate immunity and are widespread in nature, from bacteria to vertebrate animals. In crustaceans, there are currently 15 distinct AMP families published so far in the literature, mainly isolated from members of the Decapoda order. Up to now, armadillidin is the sole non-decapod AMP isolated from the haemocytes of Armadillidium vulgare, a crustacean isopod. Its first description demonstrated that armadillidin is a linear glycine-rich (47%) cationic peptide with an antimicrobial activity directed toward Bacillus megaterium. In the present work, we report identification of armadillidin Q, a variant of armadillidin H (earlier known as armadillidin), from crude haemocyte extracts of A. vulgare using LC-MS approach. We demonstrated that both armadillidins displayed broad spectrum antimicrobial activity against several Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, fungi, but were totally inactive against yeasts. Membrane permeabilization assays, only performed with armadillidin H, showed that the peptide is membrane active against bacterial and fungal strains leading to deep changes in cell morphology. This damaging activity visualized by electronic microscopy correlates with a rapid decrease of cell viability leading to highly blebbed cells. In contrast, armadillidin H does not reveal cytotoxicity toward human erythrocytes. Furthermore, no secondary structure could be defined in this study [by circular dichroism (CD) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)] even in a membrane mimicking environment. Therefore, armadillidins represent interesting candidates to gain insight into the biology of glycine-rich AMPs. PMID:27713732

  7. Volatile oil composition and antiproliferative activity of Laurus nobilis, Origanum syriacum, Origanum vulgare, and Salvia triloba against human breast adenocarcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Al-Kalaldeh, Jelnar Z; Abu-Dahab, Rana; Afifi, Fatma U

    2010-04-01

    Medicinal plants and culinary herbs have gained importance in the last decade as cytotoxic and antitumor agents. We hypothesized that some of the commonly used spices with reported antimicrobial activity might have antiproliferative activity. In the present study, selected spices used in Jordan were chemically analyzed and investigated for their antiproliferative activity to the adenocarcinoma of breast cell line (MCF7). The composition of the essential oils of Laurus nobilis L, Origanum syriacum L, Origanum vulgare L, and Salvia triloba L was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The antiproliferative activities of the hydrodistilled volatile oils and the crude ethanol and water extracts were evaluated using the sulphorhodamine B assay. 1,8-Cineol was the major constituent in the hydrodistilled oils of both plants, L nobilis and S triloba, with concentrations of 40.91% and 45.16%, respectively. The major constituent of O syriacum was the carvacrol (47.10%), whereas that of O vulgare was trans-sabinene hydrate (27.19%). The ethanol crude extracts of O syriacum, L nobilis, and S triloba showed antiproliferative activity to MCF7 with IC(50) values 6.40, 24.49, and 25.25 microg/mL, respectively. However, none of the hydrodistilled essential oils of the tested plant species or their aqueous extracts demonstrated cytotoxic activity.

  8. Chemometrics applied to the analysis of induced phytochelatins in Hordeum vulgare plants stressed with various toxic non-essential metals and metalloids.

    PubMed

    Dago, Àngela; González, Inmaculada; Ariño, Cristina; Díaz-Cruz, José Manuel; Esteban, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    Hordeum vulgare plants were stressed with Hg, Cd and As and their phytotoxicity was evaluated in terms of growth inhibition and total metal uptake by the plant. The synthesised phytochelatins ((γ-Glu-Cys)n-Gly, n=2-5; PCs) were determined by HPLC with amperometric detection at a glassy carbon electrode. The results indicate that H. vulgare is a good phytostabilisation plant due to its capacity to accumulate heavy metals in roots. Cd and Hg are the most uptake toxic elements, being Cd the most potent inducer of PCs. The data obtained on the different PCs and related peptides induced by each heavy metal were used to perform a Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the results as a function of the contaminating toxic element or its concentration level. The nature of the stressor element could be predicted from the pattern of PCs and related peptides identified by PCA. PCs were the most strongly induced peptides under Cd and Hg stress, whereas As only tended to synthesise small thiols such as glutathione and γ-glutamylcysteine, both precursors of PCs synthesis. This finding indicates that PCs are induced at different rates depending on the metal stressor used. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Evolutionary Significance of Wolbachia-to-Animal Horizontal Gene Transfer: Female Sex Determination and the f Element in the Isopod Armadillidium vulgare

    PubMed Central

    Cordaux, Richard; Gilbert, Clément

    2017-01-01

    An increasing number of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) events from bacteria to animals have been reported in the past years, many of which involve Wolbachia bacterial endosymbionts and their invertebrate hosts. Most transferred Wolbachia genes are neutrally-evolving fossils embedded in host genomes. A remarkable case of Wolbachia HGT for which a clear evolutionary significance has been demonstrated is the “f element”, a nuclear Wolbachia insert involved in female sex determination in the terrestrial isopod Armadillidium vulgare. The f element represents an instance of bacteria-to-animal HGT that has occurred so recently that it was possible to infer the donor (feminizing Wolbachia closely related to the wVulC Wolbachia strain of A. vulgare) and the mechanism of integration (a nearly complete genome inserted by micro-homology-mediated recombination). In this review, we summarize our current knowledge of the f element and discuss arising perspectives regarding female sex determination, unstable inheritance, population dynamics and the molecular evolution of the f element. Overall, the f element unifies three major areas in evolutionary biology: symbiosis, HGT and sex determination. Its characterization highlights the tremendous impact sex ratio distorters can have on the evolution of sex determination mechanisms and sex chromosomes in animals and plants. PMID:28753988

  10. Population-genetic analysis of HvABCG31 promoter sequence in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The cuticle is an important adaptive structure whose origin played a crucial role in the transition of plants from aqueous to terrestrial conditions. HvABCG31/Eibi1 is an ABCG transporter gene, involved in cuticle formation that was recently identified in wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum). To study the genetic variation of HvABCG31 in different habitats, its 2 kb promoter region was sequenced from 112 wild barley accessions collected from five natural populations from southern and northern Israel. The sites included three mesic and two xeric habitats, and differed in annual rainfall, soil type, and soil water capacity. Results Phylogenetic analysis of the aligned HvABCG31 promoter sequences clustered the majority of accessions (69 out of 71) from the three northern mesic populations into one cluster, while all 21 accessions from the Dead Sea area, a xeric southern population, and two isolated accessions (one from a xeric population at Mitzpe Ramon and one from the xeric ‘African Slope’ of “Evolution Canyon”) formed the second cluster. The southern arid populations included six haplotypes, but they differed from the consensus sequence at a large number of positions, while the northern mesic populations included 15 haplotypes that were, on average, more similar to the consensus sequence. Most of the haplotypes (20 of 22) were unique to a population. Interestingly, higher genetic variation occurred within populations (54.2%) than among populations (45.8%). Analysis of the promoter region detected a large number of transcription factor binding sites: 121–128 and 121–134 sites in the two southern arid populations, and 123–128,125–128, and 123–125 sites in the three northern mesic populations. Three types of TFBSs were significantly enriched: those related to GA (gibberellin), Dof (DNA binding with one finger), and light. Conclusions Drought stress and adaptive natural selection may have been important determinants in the observed

  11. Impact of fungicides on active oxygen species and antioxidant enzymes in spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) exposed to ozone.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yue-xuan; von, Tiedemann Andreas

    2002-01-01

    Two modern fungicides, a strobilurin, azoxystrobin (AZO), and a triazole, epoxiconazole (EPO), applied as foliar spray on spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Scarlett) 3 days prior to fumigation with injurious doses of ozone (150-250 ppb; 5 days; 7 h/day) induced a 50-60% protection against ozone injury on leaves. Fungicide treatments of barley plants at growth stage (GS) 32 significantly increased the total leaf soluble protein content. Additionally, activities of the antioxidative enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate-peroxidase (APX) and glutathione reductase (GR) were increased by both fungicides at maximal rates of 16, 75, 51 and 144%, respectively. Guiacol-peroxidase (POX) activity was elevated by 50-110% only in AZO treated plants, while this effect was lacking after treatments with EPO. This coincided with elevated levels of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) only in EPO and not in AZO treated plants. The enhancement of the plant antioxidative system by the two fungicides significantly and considerably reduced the level of superoxide (O2*-) in leaves. Fumigation of barley plants for 4 days with non-injurious ozone doses (120-150 ppb, 7 h/day) markedly and immediately stimulated O2*- accumulation in leaves, while H2O2 was increased only after the third day of fumigation. Therefore, O2*- itself or as precursor of even more toxic oxyradicals appears to be more indicative for ozone-induced leaf damage than H2O2. Ozone also induced significant increases in the activity of antioxidant enzymes (SOD, POX and CAT) after 2 days of fumigation in fungicide untreated plants, while after 4 days of fumigation these enzymes declined to a level lower than in unfumigated plants, due to the oxidative degradation of leaf proteins. This is the first report demonstrating the marked enhancement of plant antioxidative enzymes and the enhanced scavenging of potentially harmful O2*- by fungicides as a mechanism of protecting plants against noxious oxidative stress

  12. Effect of Origanum vulgare L. leaves on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in lactating dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Hristov, A N; Lee, C; Cassidy, T; Heyler, K; Tekippe, J A; Varga, G A; Corl, B; Brandt, R C

    2013-02-01

    This experiment investigated the effects of dietary supplementation of Origanum vulgare L. leaf material (OR) on rumen fermentation, production, and milk fatty acid composition in dairy cows. The experimental design was a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square with 8 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows and 20-d experimental periods. Treatments were control (no OR supplementation), 250 g/cow per day OR (LOR), 500 g/d OR (MOR), and 750 g/d OR (HOR). Oregano supplementation had no effect on rumen pH, volatile fatty acid concentrations, and estimated microbial protein synthesis, but decreased ammonia concentration and linearly decreased methane production per unit of dry matter intake (DMI) compared with the unsupplemented control: 18.2, 16.5, 11.7, and 13.6g of methane/kg of DMI, respectively. Proportions of rumen bacterial, methanogen, and fungal populations were not affected by treatment. Treatment had no effect on total-tract apparent digestibility of dietary nutrients, except neutral detergent fiber digestibility was slightly decreased by all OR treatments compared with the control. Urinary N losses and manure odor were not affected by OR, except the proportion of urinary urea N in the total excreted urine N tended to be decreased compared with the control. Oregano linearly decreased DMI (28.3, 28.3, 27.5, and 26.7 kg/d for control, LOR, MOR, and HOR, respectively). Milk yield was not affected by treatment: 43.4, 45.2, 44.1, and 43.4 kg/d, respectively. Feed efficiency was linearly increased with OR supplementation and was greater than the control (1.46, 1.59, 1.60, and 1.63 kg/kg, respectively). Milk composition was unaffected by OR, except milk urea-N concentration was decreased. Milk fatty acid composition was not affected by treatment. In this short-term study, OR fed at 250 to 750 g/d decreased rumen methane production in dairy cows within 8h after feeding, but the effect over a 24-h feeding cycle has not been determined. Supplementation of the diet with OR linearly

  13. Evaluation of phytotoxicity effect of olive mill wastewater treated by different technologies on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Rusan, Munir J M; Albalasmeh, Ammar A; Zuraiqi, Said; Bashabsheh, Mohammad

    2015-06-01

    Olive-mill wastewater (OMW) is a by-product effluent of olive oil extraction process that is produced in large amount in the Mediterranean region. OMW is believed to induce phytotoxic effect on organisms including seed germination and plant growth. The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of untreated and treated OMW with different techniques on seed germination of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). The following treatments were investigated: (1) tap water (control); (2) OMW treated by aerobic biological technology in a Jacto Reactor (JR); (3) OMW treated by solar fenton oxidation (SFO); (4) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by nanofiltration (MF+NF); (5) OMW treated by microfiltration followed by reverse osmosis (MF+RO) process; (6) diluted OMW with tap water (25 % OMW); (7) diluted OMW with tap water (50 % OMW); (8) diluted OMW with tap water (75 % OMW); and (9) untreated OMW (100 % OMW). A germination test was conducted in an incubator at temperature of 23 (∘)C. In each petri dish, a filter paper was mounted and ten seeds of barley were placed on the filter paper. Five milliliter of water were added to each petri dish. The seed germination was determined by counting the number of germinated seeds to calculate the percentage of germination (G %). Germination rate index (GRI), seed vigor index (SVI), and phytotoxicity index (PI) were also calculated. Then, the dry weights and lengths of the shoots and the roots of the germinated seeds were measured. The results show that 100, 75, and 50 %OMW were very phytotoxic and completely prohibited seed germination. However, phytotoxicity decreased significantly following treatments of OMW with all techniques investigated and by the 25 % OMW dilution, as results of removing the phenols and other phytotoxic organic compounds from the OMW or by diluting it. This was evidenced by relative enhancement of the dry weights and lengths of shoot and root as well as the G %, GRI, SVG, and PI. It was concluded that if

  14. Comparison of the effects of Origanum vulgare with LHRH-A2 and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus.

    PubMed

    Bagheri Ziari, Sedigheh; Naji, Tahereh; Hosseinzadeh Sahafi, Homayoun

    2015-10-01

    Origanum vulgare is a plant of the mint family that contains phytoestrogens. This study compared the effects of O. vulgare, LHRH-A2, and 17β-estradiol on the ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells and ovarian oogenesis in immature Trichogaster trichopterus. Fish (5.1±0.032cm and 2.1±0.043g, n=150) were randomly divided into four treatment groups (three hormonal treatments and control) and treated intramuscularly at four levels with 17β-estradiol or O. vulgare at 10, 20, 30 and 50mg/kg body weight and with LHRH-A2 at 0.001, 0.002, 0.003, and 0.005mg/kg body weight. There were three control treatments: saline, ethanol and placebo. Fish were kept in 15 tanks, with 10 fish per tank, injected a total of seven doses over 13 days. Gonadosomatic index (GSI) and oocyte diameter were lower (P≤0.05) in the control than in the three hormonal treatments. The highest GSI and oocyte diameter responses were observed in fish treated with 17β-estradiol (2.76±0.23%, 149.8±15.43mm) followed by O. vulgare (1.86±0.18%, 104.3±11.5mm) and LHRH-A2 (1.52±0.12%, 91.75±9.02mm) (P≤0.05). Moreover, there was a significant effect of dose level within all the hormonal treatments (P≤0.05). The effect of treatment on the length and weight was likely GSI. Ovarian tissue results showed faster oogenesis of oocytes in fish treated with O. vulgare, after 17β-estradiol. Ultrastructure of gonadotroph cells demonstrated less stimulation by O. vulgare than by 17β-estradiol and LHRH-A2. This study suggests that compared with the two hormonal treatments, O. vulgare dose-dependently affects ovarian oogenesis and gonadotroph cells.

  15. Study the Antinociceptive Effect of Intracerebroventricular Injection of Aqueous Extract of Origanum Vulgare Leaves in Rat: Possible Involvement of Opioid System

    PubMed Central

    Pahlavan, Yasaman; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Sheibani, Vahid; Afarinesh khaki, Mohammadreza; Gojazadeh, Morteza; Pahlavan, Bahare; Pahlavan, Fereshteh

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): The aim of study was to investigate the antinociceptive effect of intracerebroventricular (ICV) microinjection of Origanum vulgare (ORG) extract and possible involvement of opioid receptors. Materials and Methods: Cannula was inserted into left ventricle of male rats. Five days after surgery Tail Flick Latency (TFL) was measured after ICV microinjection of, ORG (1, 3 and 6 µg / rat). Effective dose of ORG was injected ICV in concomitant with morphine (2 mg/kg, IP), naloxone (2 mg / kg, IP) and saline (0.5 µl/rat) and TFL was recorded. Results: The co- administration of ORG extract with morphine showed a significant increase in TFL and naloxone, pretreatment significantly inhibited the antinociceptive activity of ORG and morphine. Conclusion: The aqueous extract of ORG possesses antinociceptive activities in the tail-flick test in a dose dependent manner. ORG - induced antinociception may have been mediated by opioid systems. PMID:24379969

  16. Antioxidant effect rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) extracts on TBARS and colour of model raw pork batters.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, E; Ponce-Alquicira, E; Jaramillo-Flores, M E; Guerrero Legarreta, I

    2009-02-01

    Herbs and spices are traditional used as food ingredients as well as for their antioxidant properties. The objective of this work was to study the concentration of carnosol, rosmarinic and carnosic acids in rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L.) and oregano leaves (Origanum vulgare L.), and their effect on the oxidation and colour of model pork batters. Extracts were obtained by maceration with ethanol and reflux with chloroform. Rosemary extracts showed higher antioxidant activity, even more than the phenol compounds separately. These extracts also showed the highest antioxidant capacity, possibly due to the presence of high concentrations of carnosic acid and carnosol and unidentified active compounds. However, ethanol oregano extracts containing high concentrations of phenols, mainly rosmarinic acid, efficiently prevented colour deterioration. The antioxidant effect of the studied extracts depends, not only on the concentration of phenol compounds (rosmarinic acid, carnosol and carnosic acid), but also on the extraction method and solvent.

  17. Use of Co speciation and soil properties to explain variation in Co toxicity to root growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in different soils.

    PubMed

    Micó, C; Li, H F; Zhao, F J; McGrath, S P

    2008-12-01

    The influence of soil properties on the bioavailability and toxicity of Co to barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) root elongation was investigated. Ten soils varying widely in soil properties were amended with seven doses of CoCl2. Soil properties greatly influenced the expression of Co toxicity. The effective concentration of added Co causing 50% inhibition (EC50) ranged from 45 to 863 mg kg(-1), representing almost 20-fold variation among soils. Furthermore, we investigated Co toxicity in relation to Co concentrations and free Co2+ activity in soil solution. The EC50 values showed variation among soils of 17- and 29-fold, based on the Co concentration in soil solution and free Co2+ activity, respectively. Single regressions were carried out between Co toxicity threshold values and selected soil properties. Models obtained showed that soil effective cation exchange capacity (eCEC) and exchangeable calcium were the most consistent single predictors of the EC50 values based on soil added Co.

  18. Effects of Substituted Pyridazinones (San 6706, San 9774, San 9785) on Glycerolipids and Their Associated Fatty Acids in the Leaves of Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare1

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Mobashsher-Uddin; Lem, Nora W.; Chandorkar, Kashinath R.; Williams, John P.

    1979-01-01

    The fatty acids of the major glycerolipids from the leaves of Vicia faba and Hordeum vulgare plants treated with three different concentrations of pyridazinone derivatives were analyzed. These compounds showed multiple effects on the levels of lipids and pigments. At low concentrations, the primary effect of San 9785 was on the level of linolenic acid (18:3) in the galactolipids of V. faba, whereas the effect of San 6706 was primarily on the trans-Δ3-hexadecenoic acid (16:1) content in phosphatidylglycerol. At higher concentrations, the two compounds reduced the content of both fatty acids in the leaves. The results appear to indicate a differential effect of these herbicides on fatty acid accumulation and a difference in susceptibility of two fatty acids in the species examined. Electron microscopic studies revealed that two herbicides caused different abnormalities in V. faba chloroplast ultrastructure. Images PMID:16660953

  19. Influence of Phenological Stages on Yield and Quality of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Under the Agroclimatic Condition of Doon Valley (Uttarakhand)

    PubMed Central

    Chauhan, N. K.; Singh, S.; Haider, S. Z.; Lohani, H.

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, in order to determine the effects of phenological stages on herbage yield and quality of oil in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Plants were harvested in five phenological stages, i.e. early vegetative, late vegetative, flower initiation, full bloom, and fruit set stages. Results showed the significant effects of phenological stages on herbage, yield, and quality of oregano. Harvesting at full bloom stage showed better results in terms of herbage and oil yield. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC/MS. Thymol content was rich in all the stages (46.90-62.26%) followed by γ-terpinene (1.11-11.75%) and p-cymene (3.11-5.32%). PMID:24302806

  20. Edible films from methylcellulose and nanoemulsions of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils as shelf life extenders for sliced bread.

    PubMed

    Otoni, Caio G; Pontes, Silvania F O; Medeiros, Eber A A; Soares, Nilda de F F

    2014-06-04

    Consumers are increasingly demanding foods with lower synthetic preservatives. Plant essential oils are natural compounds with remarkable antimicrobial properties and may be incorporated as emulsions into water-soluble polymers to form antimicrobial films. Coarse emulsions (diameters of 1.3-1.9 μm) and nanoemulsions (diameters of 180-250 nm) of clove bud (Syzygium aromaticum) and oregano (Origanum vulgare) essential oils were produced through low-speed mixing and ultrasonication, respectively. Methylcellulose was added for film-forming purposes. Both essential oils reduced the rigidity and increased the extensibility of the methylcellulose films, effects that were even more pronounced for nanodroplets. Both essential oils lessened the counts of yeasts and molds in sliced bread during 15 days, and droplet size reduction provided a further improvement in antimicrobial properties. Due to increased bioavailability, less preservative content might be used and still deliver the same antimicrobial efficiency if encapsulated in smaller particles.

  1. Influence of Phenological Stages on Yield and Quality of Oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) Under the Agroclimatic Condition of Doon Valley (Uttarakhand).

    PubMed

    Chauhan, N K; Singh, S; Haider, S Z; Lohani, H

    2013-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted under the agroclimatic conditions of Doon valley, in order to determine the effects of phenological stages on herbage yield and quality of oil in oregano (Origanum vulgare L.). Plants were harvested in five phenological stages, i.e. early vegetative, late vegetative, flower initiation, full bloom, and fruit set stages. Results showed the significant effects of phenological stages on herbage, yield, and quality of oregano. Harvesting at full bloom stage showed better results in terms of herbage and oil yield. The quality of essential oil was evaluated using GC and GC/MS. Thymol content was rich in all the stages (46.90-62.26%) followed by γ-terpinene (1.11-11.75%) and p-cymene (3.11-5.32%).

  2. Sublethal Effects of Essential Oils From Eucalyptus staigeriana (Myrtales: Myrtaceae), Ocimum gratissimum (Lamiales: Laminaceae), and Foeniculum vulgare (Apiales: Apiaceae) on the Biology of Spodoptera frugiperda (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Cruz, G S; Wanderley-Teixeira, V; Oliveira, J V; Lopes, F S C; Barbosa, D R S; Breda, M O; Dutra, K A; Guedes, C A; Navarro, D M A F; Teixeira, A A C

    2016-04-01

    Spodoptera frugiperda (Smith 1797) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a major pest of maize, Zea mays L. Its control is often achieved through repeated applications per season of insecticides, which may lead to adverse effects on the ecosystem. Thus, the study of alternative methods with less environmental impact has expanded to include the use of essential oils. These oils are products of the secondary metabolism in plants, and their insecticidal activity has been widely demonstrated in populations of many pest insects. This study evaluated the insecticidal activities of essential oils from Eucalyptus staigeriana, Ocimum gratissimum, and Foeniculum vulgare on Spodoptera frugiperda. Gas chromatography–mass spectrometry profiles and contact toxicity of these oils as well as their sublethal effects on larvae and reproductive parameters in adults were evaluated. All three oils had sublethal effects on S. frugiperda; however, the oil of O. gratissimum showed the best results at all doses tested. These essential oils may have promise for control of S. frugiperda.

  3. A Spectrophotometric Assay for Robust Viability Testing of Seed Batches Using 2,3,5-Triphenyl Tetrazolium Chloride: Using Hordeum vulgare L. as a Model

    PubMed Central

    Lopez Del Egido, Laura; Navarro-Miró, David; Martinez-Heredia, Victor; Toorop, Peter E.; Iannetta, Pietro P. M.

    2017-01-01

    A comparative analysis was carried out of published methods to assess seed viability using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) based assays of seed batches. The tests were carried out on seeds of barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Optic) as a model. We established that 10% [w/v] trichloroacetic acid (TCA)/methanol is superior to the acetone and methanol-only based methods: allowing the highest recovery of formazan and the lowest background optical density (OD) readings, across seed lots comprising different ratios of viable and dead seeds. The method allowed a linear-model to accurately capture the statistically significant relationship between the quantity of formazan that could be extracted using the method we developed and the seed temperature-response, and seed viability as a function of artificially aged seed lots. Other quality control steps are defined to help ensure the assay is robust and these are reported in a Standard Operating Procedure. PMID:28559902

  4. Quantitative Determination of Secoiridoids and Phenylpropanoids in Different Extracts of Ligustrum Vulgare L. Leaves by a Validated HPTLC-Photodensitometry Method.

    PubMed

    Czerwińska, Monika E; Ziarek, Marlena; Bazylko, Agnieszka; Osińska, Ewa; Kiss, Anna K

    2015-01-01

    The genus Ligustrum (Oleaceae) is distributed in Europe and Asia (south China and Korea), where it is used to prevent hypertension, sore throats, inflammation and diabetes. The main groups of compounds in extracts of Ligustrum vulgare are biologically active secoiridoids and phenylpropanoids. The aim of the study was primarily the development and validation of a HPTLC-photodensitometry method for separation and determination of secoiridoids (oleacein, oleuropein) and phenylpropanoids (echinacoside) in different extracts prepared from leaves of L. vulgare. A secondary issue was the quantitative screening of oleacein, oleuropein and echinacoside in extracts from leaves collected at different stages of plant growth (from May to September). A HPTLC-photodensitometry method was developed and validated for quantification of oleuropein, oleacein and echinacoside in plant extracts (aqueous and ethanolic extract, decoction, infusion). Silica gel was used as the stationary phase and dichloromethane:methanol:formic acid:water (80:25:1.5:4, v/v/v/v) as the mobile phase. The HPTLC-photodensitometry method developed for quantification of oleacein, oleuropein and echinacoside was specific, accurate and precise. The presence of oleacein was detected in aqueous extracts, whereas oleuropein was present, in particular, in ethanolic extracts, decoctions and infusions. Echinacoside was detected in all the extracts prepared. The content of secoiridoids was variable from May to September, whereas the amount of echinacoside increased in this term. The developed and validated HPTLC-photodensitometry method allowed performing fast screening of quantitative profiles of oleacein, oleuropein and echinacoside in preparations of privet leaves. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  5. Spaceflight-induced enhancement of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid production by a mixed culture of Ketogulonigenium vulgare and Bacillus thuringiensis.

    PubMed

    Yang, W; Han, L; Mandlaa, M; Chen, H; Jiang, M; Zhang, Z; Xu, H

    2013-07-01

    Two bacterial strains used for industrial production of 2-keto-L-gulonic acid (2-KLG), Ketogulonigenium vulgare 2 and Bacillus thuringiensis 1514, were loaded onto the spacecraft Shenzhou VII and exposed to space conditions for 68 h in an attempt to increase their fermentation productivities of 2-KLG. An optimal combination of mutants B. thuringiensis 320 and K. vulgare 2194 (KB2194-320) was identified by systematically screening the pH and 2-KLG production of 16 000 colonies. Compared with the coculture of parent strains, the conversion rate of L-sorbose to 2-KLG by KB2194-320 in shake flask fermentation was increased significantly from 82·7% to 95·0%. Furthermore, a conversion rate of 94·5% and 2-KLG productivity of 1·88 g l(-1)  h(-1) were achieved with KB2194-320 in industrial-scale fermentation (260 m(3) fermentor). An observed increase in cell number of K2194 (increased by 47·8%) during the exponential phase and decrease in 2-KLG reductase activity (decreased by 46·0%) were assumed to explain the enhanced 2-KLG production. The results suggested that the mutants KB2194-320 could be ideal substitutes for the currently employed strains in the 2-KLG fermentation process and demonstrated the feasibility of using spaceflight to breed high-yielding 2-KLG-producing strains for vitamin C production. KB2194-320, a combination of two bacterial strains bred by spaceflight mutation, exhibited significantly improved 2-KLG productivity and hence could potentially increase the efficiency and reduce the cost of vitamin C production by the two-step fermentation process. In addition, a new pH indicator method was applied for rational screening of K2, which dramatically improved the efficiency of screening. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Catabolism of (+/-)-abscisic acid by excised leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan and its modification by chemical and environmental factors

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, A.K.; Railton, I.D.

    1987-05-01

    Excised light-grown leaves and etiolated leaves of Hordeum vulgare L. cv Dyan catabolized applied (+/-)-(2-/sup 14/C)abscisic acid ((+/-)-(2-/sup 14/C)ABA) to phaseic acid (PA), dihydrophaseic acid (DPA), and 2'-hydroxymethyl ABA (2'-HMABA). Identification of these catabolites was made by microchemical methods and by combined capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following high dose feeds of nonlabeled substrate to leaves. Circular dichroism analysis revealed that 2'-HMABA was derived from the (-) enantiomer of ABA. Refeeding studies were used to confirm the catabolic route. The methyl ester of (+/-)-(2/sup 14/C)-ABA was hydrolyzed efficiently by light-grown leaves of H. vulgare. Leaf age played a significant role in (+/-)-ABA catabolism, with younger leaves being less able than their older counterparts to catabolize this compound. The catabolism of (+/-)-ABA was inhibited markedly in water-stressed Hordeum leaves which was characterized by a decreased incorporation of label into 2'-HMABA, DPA, and conjugates. The specific, mixed function oxidase inhibitor, ancymidol, did not inhibit, dramatically (+/-)-ABA catabolism in light-grown leaves of Hordeum whereas the 80s ribosome, translational inhibitor, cycloheximide, inhibited this process markedly. The 70s ribosome translational inhibitors, lincomycin and chloramphenicol, were less effective than cycloheximide in inhibiting (+/-)-ABA catabolism, implying that cytoplasmic protein synthesis is necessary for the catabolism of (+/-)-ABA in Hordeum leaves whereas chloroplast protein synthesis plays only a minor role. This further suggests that the enzymes involved in (+/-)-ABA catabolism in this plant are cytoplasmically synthesized and are turned-over rapidly, although the enzyme responsible for glycosylating (+/-)-ABA itself appeared to be stable.

  7. The study of mechanisms of biological activity of copper oxide nanoparticle CuO in the test for seedling roots of Triticum vulgare.

    PubMed

    Korotkova, Anastasia Mickhailovna; Lebedev, Svyatoslav Valeryevich; Gavrish, Irina Aleksandrovna

    2017-03-06

    The rapid development of nanotechnology raises questions assessment of their impact on living objects. In the present study, we evaluated the impact of nanoparticle (NP) CuO at concentrations ranging from 0.8 to 63.5 g/l in the test on wheat seedlings Triticum vulgare during 1-72 h. In the viability test (WST-test), cells were isolated from the roots of seedlings T. vulgare, 12 h not observed increase reductase activity after 24 h decreased rate of not more than 19% compared with the control. The number of dead cells in seedlings of T. vulgaris after exposure with CuO nanoparticles to the test with Evans blue increased by 5-15% compared to control. We observed that a significant increase in copper revenues leaves 4.5-8.9 times more in relation to the control and the roots-in 5-9.7 times. During the determined amount of active oxygen species, a significant proportional increase in the total pool of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in roots increased to 27.6% after exposure to NP CuO compared with the control. It is shown that in the introduction in medium, the NP CuO in the doses ranging from 3.2 to 63.5 g/l leads to DNA fragmentation and increases the fragments less than 3000 bp on 51.4-62.8%. The totality of our results influences nanoforms of copper oxide on the amount of ROS, and the viability of the genomic component of the cells shows different mechanisms of damage in the activation of a metabolic reaction, to determine the concentration of nano-CuO.

  8. [Specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic lines obtained based on hybridization of self-fertilized offspring of barley-wheat (Hordeum vulgare L. x Triticum aestivum L.) amphiploid with common wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 and Pyrotrix 28].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Deviatkina, E P; Trubacheeva, N V; Kravtsova, L A; Dobrovol'skaia, O B

    2012-12-01

    The problems of fertility restoration in the progeny of barley-wheat hybrids (H. vulgare x T. aestivum) are explained by incompatibility between the cytoplasm of cultivated barley and the nuclear genome of common wheat. Suitable models for studying these problems are alloplasmic lines that combine the cytoplasm of barley and the nuclear genome of wheat. In this work, the specific features of fertility restoration in alloplasmic common wheat lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum were studied depending on the influence of wheat varieties Saratovskaya 29 (Sar29) and Pyrotrix 28 (Pyr28) used to produce these lines. The alloplasmic lines were created using hybrids between the 48-chromosome offspring (Amph1) of the barley-wheat amphiploid H. vulgare (ya-319) x T. aestivum (Sar29) and these wheat varieties. Backcrossing of the Amph1 (2n = 48) x Sar29 hybrid with the wheat variety Sar29 resulted in the complete sterility in the (H. vulgare)-Sar29 line, which suggests the incompatibility of the nuclear genome of the common wheat variety Sar29 with the cytoplasm of H. vulgare. Crossing of Amph1 (2n = 48) with Pyr28 resulted in the restoration of self-fertility in the hybrid with 2n = 44. In the alloplasmic lines (2n = 42) formed based on plants of the self-fertilized generations of this hybrid, the barley chromosomes were eliminated, and recombination between the nuclear genomes of the parental wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28 took place. Alloplasmic recombinant lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum with different levels of fertility were isolated. As was shown by the SSR analysis, differences in the fertility traits between these lines are determined by variations in the content of the genetic material from the wheat varieties Sar29 and Pyr28. The complete restoration of fertility in these alloplasmic recombinant lines is accompanied by the formation of a nuclear genome in which the genetic material of Pyr28 significantly prevails. The conclusion is made that the common wheat variety

  9. A pair of chiral flavonolignans as novel anti-cyanobacterial allelochemicals derived from barley straw (Hordeum vulgare): characterization and comparison of their anti-cyanobacterial activities.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Xi; Huang, Haomin; Ge, Zhiwei; Rounge, Trine B; Shi, Jiyan; Xu, Xinhua; Li, Ruobing; Chen, Yingxu

    2014-05-01

    The inhibitory effect of barley straw (Hordeum vulgare) on cyanobacteria has been observed in many field and laboratory studies for over 30 years, although the compounds responsible for this anti-cyanobacterial effect have remained unknown. In this study, a pair of chiral flavonolignans were isolated from barley straw extract using a bioassay-guided isolation procedure against Microcystis sp. The structures of the allelopathic compounds were elucidated by NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) and HPLC-MS (high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry), and turned out to be salcolin A and B. The enantiomers differ in their anti-cyanobacterial abilities. Both enantiomers exhibited inhibitory effects on Microcystis sp., and the EC50 (concentration for 50% of maximal effect) of salcolin A and B were 6.02 × 10(-5) and 9.60 × 10(-5 ) mol l(-1) , respectively. Furthermore, the modes of actions of the enantiomers were investigated and compared at a single cell level by flow cytometry. Salcolin A was found to induce an increase on cyanobacterial intracellular ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and to inhibit esterase activity, whereas salcolin B caused leakages of cyanobacterial cytoplasms. Thus, salcolin A was more 'algistatic', and salcolin B was more 'algicidal'. This study suggests that salcolin is the key allelochemical in barley straw's inhibitory effect on cyanobacteria and could be used as an agent in the future control of cyanobacterial harmful algae blooms.

  10. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids.

    PubMed

    Tavares, Adassa Gama; Monte, Daniel Farias Marinho do; Albuquerque, Allan Dos Reis; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Magnani, Marciane; Siqueira Júnior, José Pinto de; Souza, Evandro Leite de

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO). The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation.

  11. Efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. and Rosmarinus officinalis L. essential oils in combination to control postharvest pathogenic Aspergilli and autochthonous mycoflora in Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes).

    PubMed

    de Sousa, Larissa Lima; de Andrade, Sonálle Carolina Albuquerque; Athayde, Ana Júlia Alves Aguiar; de Oliveira, Carlos Eduardo Vasconcelos; de Sales, Camila Veríssimo; Madruga, Marta Suely; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2013-08-01

    This study evaluated the efficacy of the application of the essential oils of Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) and Rosmarinus officinalis L. (ROEO) alone and in combination to inhibit Aspergillus flavus URM 4540 and Aspergillus niger URM 5842 in fungal growth media and on Vitis labrusca L. (table grapes). The influence on the autochthonous mycoflora and the physical, physicochemical and sensory characteristics of the grapes during storage (25°C, 12days and 12°C, 24days) were also studied. The application of the essential oils in different concentrations (Minimum Inhibitory Concentration - MIC, 1/2 MIC+1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC+1/4 MIC) inhibited the mycelial growth and spore germination of the test fungi and inhibited the growth of the assayed fungal strains in artificially contaminated grapes and the autochthonous mycoflora of grapes stored at both room and cold temperatures. In general, the application of OVEO and/or ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations preserved the quality of grapes as measured by their physical, physicochemical and sensory attributes throughout the assessed storage time. These results demonstrate the potential of the combination of OVEO and ROEO at sub-lethal concentrations to control postharvest pathogenic fungi in fruits, particularly, A. flavus and A. niger in table grapes.

  12. Molecular mapping of a non-host resistance gene YrpstY1 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) for resistance to wheat stripe rust.

    PubMed

    Sui, Xinxia; He, Zhonghu; Lu, Yaming; Wang, Zhenlin; Xia, Xianchun

    2010-10-01

    Cultivated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is considered as a non-host or inappropriate host species for wheat stripe rust caused by Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici. Most barley cultivars show a broad-spectrum resistance to wheat stripe rust. To determine the genes for resistance to wheat stripe rust in barley, a cross was made between a resistant barley line Y12 and a susceptible line Y16. The two parents, F(1) and 147 BC(1) plants were tested at seedling stage with Chinese prevalent race CYR32 of Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici by artificial inoculation in greenhouse. The results indicated that Y12 possessed one dominant resistance gene to wheat stripe rust, designated YrpstY1 provisionally. A total of 388 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers were used to map the resistance gene in Y12 using bulked segregant analysis. A linkage map, including nine SSR loci on chromosome 7H and YrpstY1, was constructed using the BC(1) population, indicating that the resistance gene YrpstY1 is located on chromosome 7H. It is potential to transfer the resistance gene into common wheat for stripe rust resistance.

  13. Uptake, degradation and chiral discrimination of N-acyl-D/L-homoserine lactones by barley (Hordeum vulgare) and yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus) plants.

    PubMed

    Götz, Christine; Fekete, Agnes; Gebefuegi, Istvan; Forczek, Sándor T; Fuksová, Kvetoslava; Li, Xiaojing; Englmann, Matthias; Gryndler, Milan; Hartmann, Anton; Matucha, Miroslav; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Schröder, Peter

    2007-11-01

    Bacterial intraspecies and interspecies communication in the rhizosphere is mediated by diffusible signal molecules. Many Gram-negative bacteria use N-acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) as autoinducers in the quorum sensing response. While bacterial signalling is well described, the fate of AHLs in contact with plants is much less known. Thus, adsorption, uptake and translocation of N-hexanoyl- (C6-HSL), N-octanoyl- (C8-HSL) and N-decanoyl-homoserine lactone (C10-HSL) were studied in axenic systems with barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and the legume yam bean (Pachyrhizus erosus (L.) Urban) as model plants using ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry (FTICR-MS) and tritium-labelled AHLs. Decreases in AHL concentration due to abiotic adsorption or degradation were tolerable under the experimental conditions. The presence of plants enhanced AHL decline in media depending on the compounds' lipophilicity, whereby the legume caused stronger AHL decrease than barley. All tested AHLs were traceable in root extracts of both plants. While all AHLs except C10-HSL were detectable in barley shoots, only C6-HSL was found in shoots of yam bean. Furthermore, tritium-labelled AHLs were used to determine short-term uptake kinetics. Chiral separation by GC-MS revealed that both plants discriminated D-AHL stereoisomers to different extents. These results indicate substantial differences in uptake and degradation of different AHLs in the plants tested.

  14. Genome-Wide Analysis of APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Shen; Luan, Haiye; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Song, Xiyun; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) gene family is plant specific transcription factor. It plays critical roles in development process, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and responses to plant hormones. However, limited data are available on the contributions of AP2/ERF gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the present study, 121 HvAP2/ERF genes in barley were identified by using bioinformatics methods. A total of 118 HvAP2/ERF (97.5%) genes were located on seven chromosomes. According to phylogenetic classification of AP2/ERF family in Arabidopsis, HvAP2/ERF proteins were divided into AP2 (APETALA2), RAV (Related to ABI3/VP), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and soloist sub families. The analysis of duplication events indicated that tandem repeat and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the AP2/ERF family in barley. HvDREB1s/2s genes displayed various expression patterns under abiotic stress and phytohormone. Taken together, the data generated in this study will be useful for genome-wide analysis to determine the precise role of the HvAP2/ERF gene during barley development, abiotic stress and phytohormone responses with the ultimate goal of improving crop production. PMID:27598245

  15. Molecular cloning and characterization of cDNAs encoding cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) from barley (Hordeum vulgare) and potato (Solanum tuberosum).

    PubMed

    Larsen, Knud

    2004-01-01

    Cinnamoyl CoA reductase catalyzes the reduction of cinnamic acid CoA esters into their corresponding aldehydes, the first step of the phenylpropanoid pathway specifically dedicated to monolignol biosynthesis. Two cDNA clones encoding cinnamoyl CoA reductase (CCR) have been isolated from Hordeum vulgare (HvCCR) and Solanum tuberosum (StCCR1). Amino acid sequence alignment revealed the motif, NWYCY, representing the active site of CCR, conserved in both the encoded HvCCR and StCCR1 amino acid sequences. The HvCCR encoded protein possesses substantial homology with CCRs isolated and cloned form other sources; the highest identity (89%) was observed with CCR from fescue (Festuca arundicinea). Expression analysis by RT-PCR demonstrated that the HvCCR gene is expressed in barley stem and root tissue while no expression is detected in leaves and flowers. This expression pattern suggests that HvCCR is involved in constitutive lignification. Transcripts of StCCR1 were detected in potato root, leaf and also in stem although at a very low level.

  16. Studies of the uptake of nitrate in barley. I. Kinetics of sup 13 NO sub 3 sup minus influx. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, M.Y.; Glass, A.D.M.; Ruth, T.J.; Rufty, T.W. Jr. North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh )

    1990-08-01

    {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} was used to investigate patterns of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx into roots of barley plants (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Klondike) previously grown with (induced) or without (uninduced) a source of external NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} ((NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}). In both induced and uninduced plants, {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx was biphasic in the range from 0.005 to 50 moles per cubic meter (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}){sub 0}. In the low concentration range (<1 mole per cubic meter for induced plants and <0.3 mole per cubic meter for uninduced plants), influx was saturable and V{sub max} and K{sub m} values for influx either increased or decreased according to NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} pretreatment. By contrast, {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx in the high concentration range revealed a strictly linear concentration dependence. These fluxes appeared to be mediated by a constitutive, rather than an inducible, transport system.

  17. Determination of trace alkaline phosphatase by solid-substrate room-temperature phosphorimetry based on Triticum vulgare lectin labeled with fullerenol.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jia-Ming; Gao, Fei; Huang, Hong-Hua; Zeng, Li-Qing; Huang, Xiao-Mei; Zhu, Guo-Hui; Li, Zhi-Ming

    2008-04-01

    Fullerenol (F) shows a strong and stable room-temperature phosphorescence (RTP) signal on the surface of nitrocellulose membrane (NCM) at lambda ex max/ lambda em max =542.0/709.4 nm. When modified by dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid sodium salt (DBS), fullerenol emits a stronger signal. It was also found that quantitative specific affinity-adsorption reaction can be carried out between Triticum vulgare lectin (WGA) labeled with DBS-F and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) on the surface of NCM, and the product obtained (WGA-ALP-WGA-F-DBS) emits a strong and stable RTP signal. Furthermore, the content of ALP was proportional to the DeltaI(p) value. Based on the facts above, a new method for the determination of trace amounts of ALP by affinity-adsorption solid-substrate room-temperature phosphorimetry (AA-SS-RTP) was established, using fullerenol modified with DBS to label WGA. The detection limit was 0.011 fg spot(-1) (corresponding concentration: 2.8x10(-14) g ml(-1), namely 2.8x10(-16) mol l(-1)). This method with high sensitivity, accuracy, and precision has been successfully applied to the determination of the content of ALP in human serum survey and forecast human disease, and the results are tallied with those using alkaline phosphatase kits. The mechanism for the determination of ALP using AA-SS-RTP was also discussed.

  18. Interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus availability on growth, water relations, nutritional status and photosynthetic activity of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Talbi Zribi, O; Abdelly, C; Debez, A

    2011-11-01

    The interactive effects of salinity and phosphorus availability on growth, water relations, nutritional status and photosynthetic activity were investigated in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv. Manel). Seedlings were grown hydroponically under low or sufficient phosphorus (P) supply (5 or 180 μmol KH(2) PO(4) plant(-1) week(-1) , respectively), with or without 100 mm NaCl. Phosphorus deficiency or salinity significantly decreased whole plant growth, leaf water content, leaf osmotic potential and gas exchange parameters, with a more marked impact of P stress. The effect of both stresses was not additive since the response of plants to combined salinity and P deficiency was similar to that of plants grown under P deficiency alone. In addition, salt-treated plants exposed to P deficiency showed higher salt tolerance compared to plants grown with sufficient P supply. This was related to plant ability to significantly increase root:shoot DW ratio, root length, K(+)/Na(+) ratio, leaf proline and soluble sugar concentrations and total non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity, together with restricting Na(+) accumulation in the upper leaves. As a whole, our results indicate that under concomitant exposure to both salt and P deficiency, the impact of the latter constraint is pre-dominant.

  19. Assessment of tolerance induction by Origanum vulgare L. essential oil or carvacrol in Pseudomonas aeruginosa cultivated in a meat-based broth and in a meat model.

    PubMed

    da Silva Luz, Isabelle; Gomes-Neto, Nelson Justino; Magnani, Marciane; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-12-01

    This study assessed the efficacy of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO) and carvacrol in inhibiting the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 9027, as well as the development of direct tolerance and cross-tolerance when this bacterium was challenged with sublethal amounts of these substances in a meat-based broth and in a meat model. OVEO and carvacrol at their minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs), 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC decreased the viable cell counts of P. aeruginosa in meat-based broth. Direct tolerance or cross-tolerance was not induced after exposure of the assayed bacterial strain to sublethal amounts of OVEO or carvacrol in meat-based broth and in an artificially contaminated ground beef. Bacterial cells progressively subcultured in meat-based broth with increasing amounts of the tested substances survived up to the MIC of OVEO and to 1/2 MIC of carvacrol. The results reveal a lack of induction of tolerance in P. aeruginosa by exposure to OVEO or carvacrol in meat-based broth and in a meat model.

  20. Evaluation of the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (fennel) fruits extracted by three different extraction methods by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Hammouda, Faiza M; Saleh, Mahmoud A; Abdel-Azim, Nahla S; Shams, Khaled A; Ismail, Shams I; Shahat, Abdelaaty A; Saleh, Ibrahim A

    2014-01-01

    Hydrodistillation (HD) and steam-distillation, or solvent extraction methods of essential oils have some disadvantages like thermal decomposition of extracts, its contamination with solvent or solvent residues and the pollution of residual vegetal material with solvent which can be also an environmental problem. Thus, new green techniques, such as supercritical fluid extraction and microwave assisted techniques, are potential solutions to overcome these disadvantages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the essential oil of Foeniculum vulgare subsp. Piperitum fruits extracted by three different extraction methods viz. Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) using CO2, microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and hydro-distillation (HD) using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The results revealed that both MAE and SFE enhanced the extraction efficiency of the interested components. MAE gave the highest yield of oil as well as higher percentage of Fenchone (28%), whereas SFE gave the highest percentage of anethol (72%). Microwave-assisted extraction (MAE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) not only enhanced the essential oil extraction but also saved time, reduced the solvents use and produced, ecologically, green technologies.

  1. The Effect of Homoeologous Meiotic Pairing in Tetraploid Hordeum bulbosum L. × H. vulgare L. Hybrids on Alien Introgressions in Offspring.

    PubMed

    Scholz, Margret; Pendinen, Galina

    2016-01-01

    The pairing behaviour of the individual chromosome arms of Hordeum vulgare (Hv) with their homoeologous arms of H. bulbosum (Hb) at metaphase I of meiosis in tetraploid Hb × Hv hybrids and the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosome arms in selfed offspring were studied on differentially visualized chromosomes after fluorescent in situ hybridisation. The frequencies of paired Hv-Hb arms in the F2 and F3 hybrids were correlated with the frequencies of recombined Hv chromosomes in progenies. Self-generation of hybrids, the number of Hv and Hb chromosomes, and the number of recombined Hv chromosomes of the hybrids strongly influenced the Hv-Hb pairing frequency in meiosis. Within the offspring of F2 and F3 hybrids both Hv plants and hybrids were detected. In contrast, all progenies of the F4 hybrid were hybrids which exhibited centromere misdivisions. The highest frequencies of homoeologous pairing in hybrids and most recombinants were obtained for the barley chromosome 1HL. Recombinants for 4HL, 5HS, 6HS, and 7HS were rarely found. Meiotic pairing and recombinants involving chromosome 1HS were never observed. The results of this study demonstrate that fertile tetraploid interspecific hybrids with a high intergenomic pairing at meiosis are valuable basic material for introgression breeding in barley.

  2. Interactions and Toxicity of Cu-Zn mixtures to Hordeum vulgare in Different Soils Can Be Rationalized with Bioavailability-Based Prediction Models.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Hao; Versieren, Liske; Rangel, Georgina Guzman; Smolders, Erik

    2016-01-19

    Soil contamination with copper (Cu) is often associated with zinc (Zn), and the biological response to such mixed contamination is complex. Here, we investigated Cu and Zn mixture toxicity to Hordeum vulgare in three different soils, the premise being that the observed interactions are mainly due to effects on bioavailability. The toxic effect of Cu and Zn mixtures on seedling root elongation was more than additive (i.e., synergism) in soils with high and medium cation-exchange capacity (CEC) but less than additive (antagonism) in a low-CEC soil. This was found when we expressed the dose as the conventional total soil concentration. In contrast, antagonism was found in all soils when we expressed the dose as free-ion activities in soil solution, indicating that there is metal-ion competition for binding to the plant roots. Neither a concentration addition nor an independent action model explained mixture effects, irrespective of the dose expressions. In contrast, a multimetal BLM model and a WHAM-Ftox model successfully explained the mixture effects across all soils and showed that bioavailability factors mainly explain the interactions in soils. The WHAM-Ftox model is a promising tool for the risk assessment of mixed-metal contamination in soils.

  3. Sexual differentiation traits in functional males with female genital apertures (male symbol fga) in the woodlice Armadillidium vulgare Latr. (Isopoda, Crustacea).

    PubMed

    Azzouna, Atf; Greve, Pierre; Martin, Gilbert

    2004-08-01

    This study reports the results of examination of the gonadal morphology and ultrastructural features of the androgenic hormone (AH)-producing androgenic gland cells of laboratory stocks of functional male woodlice, Armadillidium vulgare, with female genital apertures ( male symbol fga), with and without experimentally induced infections of the sex-ratio-distorting endobacterial parasite, Wolbachia. Males ( male symbol fga) have been reported in wild populations containing individuals infected with this maternally transmitted sex-ratio-distorting parasite. We report a reduction of testicular segment (utricle) number, androgenic gland cell hypertrophy, and electron-dense ultrastructural cytological features in male symbol fga males. The presence of the Wolbachia parasite had no effect on the features we examined. These results suggest that male symbol fga males are produced as the result of a delayed expression/action of the male sex-determining AH which causes a "lag-phase" delay in male differentiation in genetic males and is not due to the presence, in genetic females, of a hypothetical, epigenetic "M" gene as suggested by Rigaud and Juchault. Our results favor the interpretation of males as true genetic (ZZ) males in which the delayed AH action appears to involve cellular AH trafficking pathways which may be controlled by an impaired autosomal gene responsible for AH action.

  4. Real-time PCR quantification and live-cell imaging of endophytic colonization of barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots by Fusarium equiseti and Pochonia chlamydosporia.

    PubMed

    Maciá-Vicente, Jose G; Jansson, Hans-Börje; Talbot, Nicholas J; Lopez-Llorca, Luis V

    2009-01-01

    *New tools were developed for the study of the endophytic development of the fungal species Fusarium equiseti and Pochonia chlamydosporia in barley (Hordeum vulgare) roots. These were applied to monitor the host colonization patterns of these potential candidates for biocontrol of root pathogens. * Molecular beacons specific for either F. equiseti or P. chlamydosporia were designed and used in real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) quantification of fungal populations in roots. Genetic transformation of isolates with the green fluorescent protein (GFP) gene was carried out using an Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation protocol, and spatial patterns of root colonization were investigated by laser confocal microscopy. * Quantification of endophytes by real-time PCR in roots of barley gave similar results for all fungi, and was more accurate than culturing methods. Conversely, monitoring of root colonization by GFP-expressing transformants showed differences in the endophytic behaviours of the two species, and provided evidence of a plant response against endophyte colonization. * Both F. equiseti and P. chlamydosporia colonized barley roots endophytically, escaping attempts by the host to prevent fungal growth within root tissues. This strongly supports a balanced antagonism between the virulence of the colonizing endophyte and the plant defence response. Development of real-time PCR techniques and GFP transformants of these fungal species will facilitate future work to determine their biocontrol capacity.

  5. Habituation of enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus to Origanum vulgare L. essential oil does not induce direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to salts and organic acids

    PubMed Central

    Tavares, Adassa Gama; do Monte, Daniel Farias Marinho; Albuquerque, Allan dos Reis; Sampaio, Fábio Correia; Magnani, Marciane; de Siqueira, José Pinto; de Souza, Evandro Leite

    2015-01-01

    Enterotoxigenic Staphylococcus aureus strains that were isolated from foods were investigated for their ability to develop direct-tolerance and cross-tolerance to sodium chloride (NaCl), potassium chloride (KCl), lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) after habituation in sublethal amounts (1/2 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/2 MIC and 1/4 of the minimum inhibitory concentration - 1/4 MIC) of Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO). The habituation of S. aureus to 1/2 MIC and 1/4 MIC of OVEO did not induce direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested strains, as assessed by modulation of MIC values. Otherwise, exposing the strains to OVEO at sublethal concentrations maintained or increased the sensitivity of the cells to the tested stressing agents because the MIC values of OVEO, NaCl, KCl, LA and AA against the cells that were previously habituated to OVEO remained the same or decreased when compared with non-habituated cells. These data indicate that OVEO does not have an inductive effect on the acquisition of direct-tolerance or cross-tolerance in the tested enterotoxigenic strains of S. aureus to antimicrobial agents that are typically used in food preservation. PMID:26413067

  6. Low-Resolution Structure of the Full-Length Barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 Protein in Solution, Obtained Using Small-Angle X-Ray Scattering

    PubMed Central

    Taube, Michał; Pieńkowska, Joanna R.; Jarmołowski, Artur; Kozak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR), the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS), and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS)), and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2). In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS) was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an α-helical TPR domain, a β-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed. PMID:24714665

  7. A genome-wide analysis of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.)* #

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Bao-jian; Wang, Jun; Lin, Shen; Tian, Zheng; Zhou, Kai; Luan, Hai-ye; Lyu, Chao; Zhang, Xin-zhong; Xu, Ru-gen

    2016-01-01

    ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) genes are a family of plant specific transcription factors, which play an important role in the regulation of plant lateral organ development and metabolism. However, a genome-wide analysis of the AS2/LOB gene family is still not available for barley. In the present study, 24 AS2-like (ASL)/LOB domain (LBD) genes were identified based on the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genome sequence. A phylogenetic tree of ASL/LBD proteins from barley, Arabidopsis, maize, and rice was constructed. The ASL/LBD genes were classified into two classes, class I and class II, which were divided into five and two subgroups, respectively. Genes homologous in barley and Arabidopsis were analyzed. In addition, the structure and chromosomal locations of the genes were analyzed. Expression profiles indicated that barley HvASL/LBD genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes. This genome-wide analysis of the barley AS2/LOB gene family contributes to our understanding of the functions of the AS2/LOB gene family. PMID:27704746

  8. Amino acid transport across the tonoplast of vacuoles isolated from barley mesophyll protoplasts: Uptake of alanine, leucine, and glutamine. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Dietz, K.J.; Jaeger, R.; Kaiser, G.; Martinoia, E. )

    1990-01-01

    Mesophyll protoplasts from leaves of well-fertilized barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) plants contained amino acids at concentrations as high as 120 millimoles per liter. With the exception of glutamic acid, which is predominantly localized in the cytoplasm, a major part of all other amino acids was contained inside the large central vacuole. Alanine, leucine, and glutamine are the dominant vacuolar amino acids in barley. Their transport into isolated vacuoles was studied using {sup 14}C-labeled amino acids. Uptake was slow in the absence of ATP. A three- to sixfold stimulation of uptake was observed after addition of ATP or adenylyl imidodiphosphate an ATP analogue not being hydrolyzed by ATPases. Other nucleotides were ineffective in increasing the rate of uptake. ATP-Stimulated amino acid transport was not dependent on the transtonoplast pH or membrane potential. p-Chloromercuriphenylsulfonic acid and n-ethyl maleimide increased transport independently of ATP. Neutral amino acids such as valine or leucine effectively decreased the rate of alanine transport. Glutamine and glycine were less effective or not effective as competitive inhibitors of alanine transport. The results indicate the existence of a uniport translocator specific for neutral or basic amino acids that is under control of metabolic effectors.

  9. A genome-wide analysis of the ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Bao-Jian; Wang, Jun; Lin, Shen; Tian, Zheng; Zhou, Kai; Luan, Hai-Ye; Lyu, Chao; Zhang, Xin-Zhong; Xu, Ru-Gen

    ASYMMETRIC LEAVES2/LATERAL ORGAN BOUNDARIES (AS2/LOB) genes are a family of plant specific transcription factors, which play an important role in the regulation of plant lateral organ development and metabolism. However, a genome-wide analysis of the AS2/LOB gene family is still not available for barley. In the present study, 24 AS2-like (ASL)/LOB domain (LBD) genes were identified based on the barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genome sequence. A phylogenetic tree of ASL/LBD proteins from barley, Arabidopsis, maize, and rice was constructed. The ASL/LBD genes were classified into two classes, class I and class II, which were divided into five and two subgroups, respectively. Genes homologous in barley and Arabidopsis were analyzed. In addition, the structure and chromosomal locations of the genes were analyzed. Expression profiles indicated that barley HvASL/LBD genes exhibit a variety of expression patterns, suggesting that they are involved in various aspects of physiological and developmental processes. This genome-wide analysis of the barley AS2/LOB gene family contributes to our understanding of the functions of the AS2/LOB gene family.

  10. Genome-Wide Analysis of APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) Gene Family in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Guo, Baojian; Wei, Yafeng; Xu, Ruibin; Lin, Shen; Luan, Haiye; Lv, Chao; Zhang, Xinzhong; Song, Xiyun; Xu, Rugen

    2016-01-01

    APETALA2/Ethylene-Responsive Factor (AP2/ERF) gene family is plant specific transcription factor. It plays critical roles in development process, tolerance to biotic and abiotic stresses, and responses to plant hormones. However, limited data are available on the contributions of AP2/ERF gene family in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). In the present study, 121 HvAP2/ERF genes in barley were identified by using bioinformatics methods. A total of 118 HvAP2/ERF (97.5%) genes were located on seven chromosomes. According to phylogenetic classification of AP2/ERF family in Arabidopsis, HvAP2/ERF proteins were divided into AP2 (APETALA2), RAV (Related to ABI3/VP), DREB (dehydration responsive element binding), ERF (ethylene responsive factors) and soloist sub families. The analysis of duplication events indicated that tandem repeat and segmental duplication contributed to the expansion of the AP2/ERF family in barley. HvDREB1s/2s genes displayed various expression patterns under abiotic stress and phytohormone. Taken together, the data generated in this study will be useful for genome-wide analysis to determine the precise role of the HvAP2/ERF gene during barley development, abiotic stress and phytohormone responses with the ultimate goal of improving crop production.

  11. Response of the rhizosphere prokaryotic community of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) to elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration in open-top chambers.

    PubMed

    Szoboszlay, Márton; Näther, Astrid; Mitterbauer, Esther; Bender, Jürgen; Weigel, Hans-Joachim; Tebbe, Christoph C

    2017-08-01

    The effect of elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2 ] on the diversity and composition of the prokaryotic community inhabiting the rhizosphere of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) was investigated in a field experiment, using open-top chambers. Rhizosphere samples were collected at anthesis (flowering stage) from six chambers with ambient [CO2 ] (approximately 400 ppm) and six chambers with elevated [CO2 ] (700 ppm). The V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene was PCR-amplified from the extracted DNA and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq instrument. Above-ground plant biomass was not affected by elevated [CO2 ] at anthesis, but plants exposed to elevated [CO2 ] had significantly higher grain yield. The composition of the rhizosphere prokaryotic communities was very similar under ambient and elevated [CO2 ]. The dominant taxa were Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, Alpha-, Gamma-, and Betaproteobacteria. Elevated [CO2 ] resulted in lower prokaryotic diversity in the rhizosphere, but did not cause a significant difference in community structure. © 2017 The Authors. MicrobiologyOpen published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  12. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress

    PubMed Central

    Shelden, Megan C.; Dias, Daniel A.; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S.; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-01-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. PMID:26946124

  13. Identifying inflorescence phytoliths from selected species of wheat (Triticum monococcum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum) and barley (Hordeum vulgare and H. spontaneum) (Gramineae).

    PubMed

    Ball, T B; Gardner, J S; Anderson, N

    1999-11-01

    Analysis of microfossil silica phytoliths is becoming an increasingly important research tool for taxonomists, archaeobotanists, and paleoecologists. Expanded use of phytolith analysis by researchers is dependent upon development of phytolith systematics. In this study phytoliths produced by the inflorescence bracts from four species of wheat, Triticum monoccocum, T. dicoccon, T. dicoccoides, and T. aestivum, and two species of barley, Hordeum vulgare, and H. spontaneum, were analyzed using computer-assisted image and statistical analysis with the intent to develop taxonomic tools to distinguish among the taxa. A classification key based on significant differences among the mean morphometries of the inflorescence phytoliths produced by each species was created and tested. Discriminant analysis of the morphometries of several morphotypes of phytoliths was also conducted to determine whether this computer-assisted statistical procedure could be used as another method to classify the taxa and to determine which morphotypes have measurements that can best be used in discriminant functions. Test results indicated that, at the genus level, both the classification key and discriminant analysis of certain morphotypes of phytoliths were relatively reliable tools for distinguishing among phytoliths produced in the inflorescence bracts of the taxa considered. For distinguishing among the taxa at the species level, the classification key was most reliable. Of the discriminant analyses tested, that based on all the phytolith morphotypes combined was more reliable than those based on only one morphotype.

  14. Heterologous expression and characterization of wild-type and mutant forms of a 26 kDa endochitinase from barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed Central

    Andersen, M D; Jensen, A; Robertus, J D; Leah, R; Skriver, K

    1997-01-01

    To investigate structure-function relationships in plant chitinases, we have developed a heterologous expression system for the 26 kDa endochitinase from Hordeum vulgare L. (barley). Escherichia coli cells harbouring the gene in a T7 RNA polymerase-based expression vector synthesized completely insoluble recombinant protein under standard induction conditions at 37 degrees C. However, a concentration of soluble recombinant protein of approx. 15 mg/l was achieved by inducing bacteria at low temperature (15 degrees C). Recombinant endochitinase was purified to homogeneity and shown to be structurally and functionally identical to the seed protein. An average of three disulphide bonds are present in the recombinant enzyme, consistent with the number found in the natural form. The seed and recombinant proteins showed the same specific activity towards a high-molecular-mass substrate and exhibited similar anti-fungal activity towards Tricoderma reesei. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to replace residues that are likely to be involved in the catalytic event, based on structural similarities with lysozyme and on sequence alignments with related chitinases. The Glu67-->Gln mutation resulted in a protein with undetectable activity, while the Glu89-->Gln mutation yielded an enzyme with 0. 25% of wild-type specific activity. This suggests that two acidic residues are essential for catalytic activity, similar to the situation with many other glycosyl hydrolases. Examination of conserved residues stretching into the proposed substrate binding cleft suggests that Asn124 also plays an important functional role. PMID:9148754

  15. Molecular characterisation of a bio-based active packaging containing Origanum vulgare L. essential oil using pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Llana-Ruíz-Cabello, María; Pichardo, Silvia; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T; Bermúdez, José M; Aucejo, Susana; González-Vila, Francisco J; Cameán, Ana M; González-Pérez, José A

    2016-07-01

    Environmental, economic and safety challenges motivate shift towards safer materials for food packaging. New bioactive packaging techniques, i.e. addition of essential plant oils (EOs), are gaining attention by creating barriers to protect products from spoilage. Analytical pyrolysis gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (Py-GC-MS) was used to fingerprint a bioactive polylactic acid (PLA) with polybutylene succinate (PBS) (950 g kg(-1) :50 g kg(-1) ) film extruded with variable quantities (0, 20, 50 and 100 g kg(-1) ) of Origanum vulgare EO. Main PLA:PBS pyrolysis products were lactide enantiomers and monomer units from the major PLA fraction and succinic acid anhydride from the PBS fraction. Oregano EO pyrolysis released cymene, terpinene and thymol/carvacrol peaks as diagnostic peaks for EO. In fact, linear correlation coefficients better than 0.950R(2) value (P < 0.001) were found between the chromatographic area of the diagnostic peaks and the amount of oregano EO in the bioplastic. The pyrolytic behaviour of a bio-based active package polymer including EO is studied in detail. Identified diagnostic compounds provide a tool to monitor the quantity of EO incorporated into the PLA:PBS polymeric matrix. Analytical pyrolysis is proposed as a rapid technique for the identification and quantification of additives within bio-based plastic matrices. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Microencapsulation, Chemical Characterization, and Antimicrobial Activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) Oregano Essential Oils

    PubMed Central

    Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E.

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano. PMID:25177730

  17. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit.

    PubMed

    Barreto, Tainá A; Andrade, Sonalle C A; Maciel, Janeeyre F; Arcanjo, Narciza M O; Madruga, Marta S; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M T; Souza, Evandro L; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1-9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit.

  18. Effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) essential oils on Trypanosoma cruzi (Protozoa: Kinetoplastida) growth and ultrastructure.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Giani F; das Graças Cardoso, Maria; Guimarães, Luiz Gustavo L; Salgado, Ana Paula S P; Menna-Barreto, Rubem F S; Soares, Maurilio J

    2007-03-01

    In the present work, we have investigated the effect of essential oils obtained from Origanum vulgare L. (oregano) and Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) on growth and ultrastructure of diverse evolutive forms of Trypanosoma cruzi. Culture epimastigotes and bloodstream trypomastigotes were incubated for 24 h with different concentrations of oregano or thyme essential oils and with thymol (the main constituent of thyme), and the inhibitory concentration (IC)(50) was determined by cell counting. Crude extract of oregano essential oil inhibited epimastigote growth (IC(50)/24 h = 175 microg/ml) and also induced trypomastigote lysis (IC(50)/24 h = 115 microg/ml). Thyme essential oil presented IC(50)/24 h values of 77 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 38 mug/ml for trypomastigotes, while treatment with thymol resulted in an IC(50)/24 h of 62 microg/ml for epimastigotes and 53 microg/ml for trypomastigotes. Scanning electron microscopy of treated cells showed few morphological alterations at the plasma membrane. Observation by transmission electron microscopy showed cytoplasmic swelling with occasional morphological alterations in plasma and flagellar membrane. Our data indicate that oregano and thyme essential oils are effective against T. cruzi, with higher activity of thyme, and that thymol may be the main component responsible for the trypanocidal activity.

  19. Microencapsulation, chemical characterization, and antimicrobial activity of Mexican (Lippia graveolens H.B.K.) and European (Origanum vulgare L.) oregano essential oils.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Hernández, Elvia; Regalado-González, Carlos; Vázquez-Landaverde, Pedro; Guerrero-Legarreta, Isabel; García-Almendárez, Blanca E

    2014-01-01

    The effect of solvent polarity (methanol and pentane) on the chemical composition of hydrodistilled essential oils (EO's) of Lippia graveolens H.B.K. (MXO) and Origanum vulgare L. (EUO) was studied by GC-MS. Composition of modified starch microencapsulated EO's was conducted by headspace-solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME). The antimicrobial activity of free and microencapsulated EO's was evaluated. They were tested against Salmonella sp., Brochothrix thermosphacta, Pseudomonas fragi, Lactobacillus plantarum, and Micrococcus luteus. Thymol and carvacrol were among the main components of EO's and their free and microencapsulated inhibitory activity was tested against M. luteus, showing an additive combined effect. Chemical composition of EO's varied according to the solvent used for GC analysis and to volatile fraction as evaluated by HS-SPME. Thymol (both solvents) was the main component in essential oil of MXO, while carvacrol was the main component of the volatile fraction. EUO showed α-pinene (methanol) and γ-terpinene (pentane) as major constituents, the latter being the main component of the volatile fraction. EO's showed good stability after 3 months storage at 4°C, where antimicrobial activity of microencapsulated EO's remained the same, while free EO's decreased 41% (MXO) and 67% (EUO) from initial activity. Microencapsulation retains most antimicrobial activity and improves stability of EO's from oregano.

  20. Dose-dependent effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Srihari, Thummala; Sengottuvelan, Murugan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2008-06-01

    Colon cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Diet and dietary constituents play a major role in the aetiology of colon cancer. We have investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of oregano (Origanum vulgare. L.) on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. We aimed to identify the important antioxidants present in Indian oregano using RP-HPLC. DMH (20 mgkg(-1)) was administered subcutaneously once a week for the first four weeks and then discontinued. Oregano was supplemented every day orally at a dose of 20, 40 or 60 mgkg(-1) to different groups of rats for 15 weeks. After this time the rats were killed and the colons were examined visually and evaluated biochemically. The levels of lipid peroxidation products, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and conjugated dienes were significantly higher in the liver whereas in caecum and colon the levels were lower in DMH-treated animals as compared with control rats. The levels of the anti-oxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were decreased in DMH-treated rats, but were significantly reversed on oregano supplementation. Oregano supplementation (40 mgkg(-1)) had a modulatory role on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant profile in colon cancer-bearing rats, which suggested a possible anti-cancer property of oregano.

  1. Supercritical fluid extraction of oregano (Origanum vulgare) essentials oils: anti-inflammatory properties based on cytokine response on THP-1 macrophages.

    PubMed

    Ocaña-Fuentes, A; Arranz-Gutiérrez, E; Señorans, F J; Reglero, G

    2010-06-01

    Two fractions (S1 and S2) of an oregano (Origanum vulgare) extract obtained by supercritical fluid extraction have been used to test anti-inflammatory effects on activated human THP-1 cells. The main compounds present in the supercritical extract fractions of oregano were trans-sabinene hydrate, thymol and carvacrol. Fractions toxicity was assessed using the mitochondrial-respiration-dependent 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) reduction method for several concentrations during 24 and 48 h of incubation. Concentrations higher than 30 microg/mL of both supercritical S1 and S2 oregano fractions caused a reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. Oxidized-LDLs (oxLDLs) activated THP-1 macrophages were used as cellular model of atherogenesis and the release/secretion of cytokines (TNT-alpha, IL-1beta, IL-6 and IL-10) and their respective mRNA expressions were quantified both in presence or absence of supercritical oregano extracts. The results showed a decrease in pro-inflammatory TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 cytokines synthesis, as well as an increase in the production of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. These results may suggest an anti-inflammatory effect of oregano extracts and their compounds in a cellular model of atherosclerosis.

  2. Co-bombardment, integration and expression of rice chitinase and thaumatin-like protein genes in barley (Hordeum vulgare cv. Conlon).

    PubMed

    Tobias, Dennis J; Manoharan, Muthusamy; Pritsch, Clara; Dahleen, Lynn S

    2007-05-01

    Pathogenesis-related (PR) proteins associated with degradation of structural components of pathogenic filamentous fungi were overexpressed in the two-rowed malting barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar Conlon. Transgenes were introduced by co-bombardment with two plasmids, one carrying a rice (Oryza sativa L.) chitinase gene (chi11) and another carrying a rice thaumatin-like protein gene (tlp). Each gene was under the control of the maize ubiquitin (Ubi1) promoter. Fifty-eight primary transformants from three independent transformation events were regenerated. T(1) plants with high rice chi11 and tlp protein expression levels were advanced to identify T(2) homozygotes by herbicide spray and subjected to further molecular analyses. T(3) progeny from one event (E2) had stable integration and expression of the rice chi11 and tlp while those from the other events (E1 and E3) showed stable integration only of tlp. The successful production of these lines overexpressing the antifungal chi and tlp proteins provides materials to test the effects of these genes on a variety of fungal diseases that attack barley and to serve as potential additional sources of disease resistance.

  3. Volatile components and key odorants of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.) oil extracts obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction and supercritical fluid extraction.

    PubMed

    Díaz-Maroto, M Consuelo; Díaz-Maroto Hidalgo, Ignacio Javier; Sánchez-Palomo, Eva; Pérez-Coello, M Soledad

    2005-06-29

    Volatile oil extracts of fennel seeds (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) and thyme leaves (Thymus vulgaris L.) were obtained by simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE) and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In general, fennel oil extracted by SDE and SFE showed similar compositions, with trans-anethole, estragole, and fenchone as the main components. In contrast, thymol and p-cymene, the most abundant compounds in thyme leaves, showed big differences, with generally higher amounts of monoterpenes obtained by SDE. However, in this case, the differences between the extracts were higher. Key odorants of fennel seeds determined by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) showed similar patterns when applying SDE and SFE. trans-Anethole (anise, licorice), estragole (anise, licorice, sweet), fenchone (mint, camphor, warm), and 1-octen-3-ol (mushroom) were the most intense odor compounds detected in fennel extracts. Thymol and carvacrol, with oregano, thyme, and spicy notes, were identified as key compounds contributing to the aroma of thyme leaves.

  4. Chemomodulatory action of Foeniculum vulgare (Fennel) on skin and forestomach papillomagenesis, enzymes associated with xenobiotic metabolism and antioxidant status in murine model system.

    PubMed

    Singh, B; Kale, R K

    2008-12-01

    The chemopreventive effect of different doses of test diet of Foeniculum vulgare Mill (Fennel) seeds was examined on DMBA-induced skin and B(a)P-induced forestomach papillomagenesis in Swiss albino mice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of Fennel seeds exhibiting a significant reduction in the skin and the forestomach tumor incidence and tumor multiplicity as compared to the control group. Further, biochemical assays showed a significant increase in the content/activities of phase I enzymes especially in the case of 6% test diet. A concomitant increase in the activities of the phase II enzymes were observed with all the doses of test diet under study. A significant enhancement in the activities of antioxidant enzymes were observed especially at 4% and 6% test diets of Fennel. Glyoxalase I activity and the content of reduced glutathione were significantly elevated. Expectedly, the levels of peroxidative damage along with lactate dehydrogenase activity, exhibited a significant reduction at all three doses of test diets. These findings were indicative of chemopreventive potential of Fennel against carcinogenesis.

  5. Inhibition on human liver cytochrome P450 3A4 by constituents of fennel (Foeniculum vulgare): identification and characterization of a mechanism-based inactivator.

    PubMed

    Subehan; Zaidi, Syed F H; Kadota, Shigetoshi; Tezuka, Yasuhiro

    2007-12-12

    Fennel, a seed of Foeniculum vulgare, is used as a culinary spice and traditional medicine. The methanolic extract of fennel showed a characteristic of mechanism-based inactivation on erythromycin N-demethylation mediated by human liver microsomal cytochrome P450 3A4 (CYP3A4). The present study was conducted to identify the fennel constituent having the inhibition. Thirteen compounds have been isolated from a methanol extract of fennel and tested for their inhibition on CYP3A4. Among them, 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP) showed the strongest inhibition with an IC50 value of 18.3 microM and a mixed type of inhibition. In addition, with the preincubation time of 20 min only 5-MOP showed preincubation time dependency; the IC50 value decreased from 18.3 microM with a preincubation time of 0 min to 4.6 microM with a preincubation time of 20 min. Further investigation on 5-MOP showed the characteristics of time-dependent inhibition, requirement of NADPH, lack of protecting effect of nucleophiles, and recovery of CYP3A4 activity by the competitive inhibitor. This result suggests that the inhibitory activity of CYP3A4 by 5-MOP was a mechanism-based inactivation. The kinetic parameter for mechanism-based inactivation was characterized by a KI value of 15.0 microM and a kinact value of 0.098 min(-1).

  6. Cell cycle stage specific application of municipal landfill leachates to assess the genotoxicity in root meristem cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Srivastava, Anjil Kumar; Kumar, Ravi Ranjan; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2014-12-01

    Municipal solid wastes (MSW) are unavoidable sources of environmental pollution. Improper disposal of municipal waste results in the leaching of toxic metals and organic chemicals, which can contaminate the surface and ground water leading to serious health hazard. In this study, the toxic effects of the leachate prepared from municipal solid waste samples were examined in root meristem cells of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) at various stages of cell cycle, i.e., G1, S, and G2. Seeds of barley were exposed to 2.5, 5, and 10 % of leachates in soil and aqueous media in 48 h at different cell cycle stages. The physicochemical data of the present study revealed that municipal solid waste leachate contains high amount of heavy metals, which significantly affected growth and physiological activities of barley. Significant inhibition in hypocotyl length, germination, and mitotic index were observed at all concentration of leachate treatment. Induction of chromosomal aberrations (CA's) and micronuclei (MN) formation were also observed with different concentrations of leachate treatment at 7, 17, and 27 h of presoaking durations, which falls in G1, S, and G2 phase of the cell cycle, respectively. Also, exposure of leachate at S phase of the cell cycle had significant effects in barley through chromosomal aberration and micronuclei formation.

  7. Low-resolution structure of the full-length barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution, obtained using small-angle X-ray scattering.

    PubMed

    Taube, Michał; Pieńkowska, Joanna R; Jarmołowski, Artur; Kozak, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    SGT1 is an evolutionarily conserved eukaryotic protein involved in many important cellular processes. In plants, SGT1 is involved in resistance to disease. In a low ionic strength environment, the SGT1 protein tends to form dimers. The protein consists of three structurally independent domains (the tetratricopeptide repeats domain (TPR), the CHORD- and SGT1-containing domain (CS), and the SGT1-specific domain (SGS)), and two less conserved variable regions (VR1 and VR2). In the present study, we provide the low-resolution structure of the barley (Hordeum vulgare) SGT1 protein in solution and its dimer/monomer equilibrium using small-angle scattering of synchrotron radiation, ab-initio modeling and circular dichroism spectroscopy. The multivariate curve resolution least-square method (MCR-ALS) was applied to separate the scattering data of the monomeric and dimeric species from a complex mixture. The models of the barley SGT1 dimer and monomer were formulated using rigid body modeling with ab-initio structure prediction. Both oligomeric forms of barley SGT1 have elongated shapes with unfolded inter-domain regions. Circular dichroism spectroscopy confirmed that the barley SGT1 protein had a modular architecture, with an α-helical TPR domain, a β-sheet sandwich CS domain, and a disordered SGS domain separated by VR1 and VR2 regions. Using molecular docking and ab-initio protein structure prediction, a model of dimerization of the TPR domains was proposed.

  8. Characterization of plant growth promoting traits of bacterial isolates from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) grown under Fe sufficiency and deficiency.

    PubMed

    Scagliola, M; Pii, Y; Mimmo, T; Cesco, S; Ricciuti, P; Crecchio, C

    2016-10-01

    Plant Growth Promoting Bacteria (PGPB) are considered a promising approach to replace the conventional agricultural practices, since they have been shown to affect plant nutrient-acquisition processes by influencing nutrient availability in the rhizosphere and/or those biochemical processes determining the uptake at root level of nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and iron (Fe), that represent the major constraints for crop productivity worldwide. We have isolated novel bacterial strains from the rhizosphere of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicon L.) plants, previously grown in hydroponic solution (either Fe deficient or Fe sufficient) and subsequently transferred onto an agricultural calcareous soil. PGPB have been identified by molecular tools and characterized for their capacity to produce siderophores and indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), and to solubilize phosphate. Selected bacterial isolates, showing contemporarily high levels of the three activities investigated, were finally tested for their capacity to induce Fe reduction in cucumber roots two isolates, from barley and tomato plants under Fe deficiency, significantly increased the root Fe-chelate reductase activity; interestingly, another isolate enhanced the reduction of Fe-chelate reductase activity in cucumber plant roots, although grown under Fe sufficiency.

  9. Increased expression of six ZIP family genes by zinc (Zn) deficiency is associated with enhanced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare).

    PubMed

    Tiong, Jingwen; McDonald, Glenn; Genc, Yusuf; Shirley, Neil; Langridge, Peter; Huang, Chun Y

    2015-09-01

    Low zinc (Zn) in soils reduces yield and grain Zn content. Regulation of ZRT/IRT-like protein (ZIP) family genes is a major mechanism in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil. Although several Zn deficiency-inducible ZIP genes are identified in cereals, there has been no systematic study on the association of Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation with expression of ZIP family genes. We measured Zn deficiency-induced uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn in barley (Hordeum vulgare) plants by resupplying 0.5 μM Zn, and quantified the transcripts of thirteen HvZIP genes. Subcellular localization and tissue-specific expression were also determined for Zn deficiency-inducible HvZIP genes. Zn deficiency enhanced the capacity of uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn, and sustained the enhanced capacity for 6 d after Zn resupply. Six HvZIP genes were highly induced in roots of Zn-deficient plants, and their proteins were localized in the plasma membrane. Tissue-specific expression in roots supports their roles in uptake and root-to-shoot translocation of Zn under low Zn conditions. Our results provide a comprehensive view on the physiological roles of ZIP genes in plant adaptation to low and fluctuating Zn in soil, and pave the way for development of new strategies to improve Zn-deficiency tolerance and biofortification in cereals.

  10. Paradox of plant growth promotion potential of rhizobacteria and their actual promotion effect on growth of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) under salt stress.

    PubMed

    Cardinale, Massimiliano; Ratering, Stefan; Suarez, Christian; Zapata Montoya, Ana Maria; Geissler-Plaum, Rita; Schnell, Sylvia

    2015-12-01

    From the rhizosphere of two salt tolerant plant species, Hordeum secalinum and Plantago winteri growing in a naturally salt meadow, 100 strains were isolation on enrichment media for various plant growth-promoting (PGP) functions (ACC deaminase activity, auxin synthesis, calcium phosphate mobilization and nitrogen fixation). Based on the taxonomic affiliation of the isolated bacteria and their enrichment medium 22 isolates were selected to test their growth promotion effect on the crop barley (Hordeum vulgare) under salt stress in pot experiment. In parallel the isolates were characterized in pure culture for their plant growth-promoting activities. Surprisingly the best promotors did not display a promising set of PGP activities. Isolates with multiple PGP-activities in pure culture like Microbacterium natoriense strain E38 and Pseudomonas brassicacearum strain E8 did not promote plant growth. The most effective isolate was strain E108 identified as Curtobacterium flaccumfaciens, which increased barley growth up to 300%. In pure culture strain E108 showed only two out of six plant growth promoting activities and would have been neglected. Our results highlight that screening based on pure culture assays may not be suitable for recognition of best plant growth promotion candidates and could preclude the detection of both new PGPR and new plant promotion mechanisms.

  11. Broadly Conserved Fungal Effector BEC1019 Suppresses Host Cell Death and Enhances Pathogen Virulence in Powdery Mildew of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Whigham, Ehren; Qi, Shan; Mistry, Divya; Surana, Priyanka; Xu, Ruo; Fuerst, Gregory; Pliego, Clara; Bindschedler, Laurence V; Spanu, Pietro D; Dickerson, Julie A; Innes, Roger W; Nettleton, Dan; Bogdanove, Adam J; Wise, Roger P

    2015-09-01

    The interaction of barley, Hordeum vulgare L., with the powdery mildew fungus Blumeria graminis f. sp. hordei is a well-developed model to investigate resistance and susceptibility to obligate biotrophic pathogens. The 130-Mb Blumeria genome encodes approximately 540 predicted effectors that are hypothesized to suppress or induce host processes to promote colonization. Blumeria effector candidate (BEC)1019, a single-copy gene encoding a putative, secreted metalloprotease, is expressed in haustorial feeding structures, and host-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 restricts haustorial development in compatible interactions. Here, we show that Barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing of BEC1019 significantly reduces fungal colonization of barley epidermal cells, demonstrating that BEC1019 plays a central role in virulence. In addition, delivery of BEC1019 to the host cytoplasm via Xanthomonas type III secretion suppresses cultivar nonspecific hypersensitive reaction (HR) induced by Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzicola, as well as cultivar-specific HR induced by AvrPphB from Pseudomonas syringae pv. phaseolicola. BEC1019 homologs are present in 96 of 241 sequenced fungal genomes, including plant pathogens, human pathogens, and free-living nonpathogens. Comparative analysis revealed variation at several amino acid positions that correlate with fungal lifestyle and several highly conserved, noncorrelated motifs. Site-directed mutagenesis of one of these, ETVIC, compromises the HR-suppressing activity of BEC1019. We postulate that BEC1019 represents an ancient, broadly important fungal protein family, members of which have evolved to function as effectors in plant and animal hosts.

  12. Genomics-based high-resolution mapping of the BaMMV/BaYMV resistance gene rym11 in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Lüpken, Thomas; Stein, Nils; Perovic, Dragan; Habekuss, Antje; Krämer, Ilona; Hähnel, Urs; Steuernagel, Burkhard; Scholz, Uwe; Zhou, Rounan; Ariyadasa, Ruvini; Taudien, Stefan; Platzer, Matthias; Martis, Mihaela; Mayer, Klaus; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2013-05-01

    Soil-borne barley yellow mosaic virus disease, caused by different strains of Barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) and Barley mild mosaic virus (BaMMV), is one of the most important diseases of winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in Europe and East Asia. The recessive resistance gene rym11 located in the centromeric region of chromosome 4HL is effective against all so far known strains of BaMMV and BaYMV in Germany. In order to isolate this gene, a high-resolution mapping population (10,204 meiotic events) has been constructed. F2 plants were screened with co-dominant flanking markers and segmental recombinant inbred lines (RILs) were tested for resistance to BaMMV under growth chamber and field conditions. Tightly linked markers were developed by exploiting (1) publicly available barley EST sequences, (2) employing barley synteny to rice, Brachypodium distachyon and sorghum and (3) using next-generation sequencing data of barley. Using this approach, the genetic interval was efficiently narrowed down from the initial 10.72 % recombination to 0.074 % recombination. A marker co-segregating with rym11 was developed providing the basis for gene isolation and efficient marker-assisted selection.

  13. Localisation of genes for resistance against Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei and Puccinia graminis in a cross between a barley cultivar and a wild barley (Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line.

    PubMed

    Backes, G; Madsen, L H; Jaiser, H; Stougaard, J; Herz, M; Mohler, V; Jahoor, A

    2003-01-01

    The aims of this investigation have been to map new (quantitative) resistance genes against powdery mildew, caused by Blumeria graminis f.sp. hordei L., and leaf rust, caused by Puccinia hordei L., in a cross between the barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. vulgare) cultivar "Vada" and the wild barley ( Hordeum vulgare ssp. spontaneum) line "1B-87" originating from Israel. The population consisted of 121 recombinant inbred lines. Resistance against leaf rust and powdery mildew was tested on detached leaves. The leaf rust isolate "I-80" and the powdery mildew isolate "Va-4", respectively, were used for the infection in this experiment. Moreover, powdery mildew disease severity was observed in the field at two different epidemic stages. In addition to other DNA markers, the map included 13 RGA (resistance gene analog) loci. The structure of the data demanded a non-parametric QTL-analysis. For each of the four observations, two QTLs with very high significance were localised. QTLs for resistance against powdery mildew were detected on chromosome 1H, 2H, 3H, 4H and 7H. QTLs for resistance against leaf rust were localised on 2H and 6H. Only one QTL was common for two of the powdery mildew related traits. Three of the seven QTLs were localised at the positions of the RGA-loci. Three of the five powdery mildew related QTLs are sharing their chromosomal position with known qualitative resistance genes. All detected QTLs behaved additively. Possible sources of the distorted segregation observed, the differences between the results for the different powdery mildew related traits and the relation between qualitative and quantitative resistance are discussed.

  14. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions between monocots and dicots.

    PubMed

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W; Kolukisaoglu, Uner H; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-04-28

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far as regulators in sucrose signaling, pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features, the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in monocot and dicot species.

  15. Cell-Type-Specific H+-ATPase Activity in Root Tissues Enables K+ Retention and Mediates Acclimation of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) to Salinity Stress1[OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor; Bose, Jayakumar; Zhu, Min; Velarde-Buendia, Ana; Massart, Amandine; Azzarello, Elisa; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-01-01

    While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms conferring higher sensitivity of apical root cells to salinity in barley (Hordeum vulgare). We show that salinity application to the root apex arrests root growth in a highly tissue- and treatment-specific manner. Although salinity-induced transient net Na+ uptake was about 4-fold higher in the root apex compared with the mature zone, mature root cells accumulated more cytosolic and vacuolar Na+, suggesting that the higher sensitivity of apical cells to salt is not related to either enhanced Na+ exclusion or sequestration inside the root. Rather, the above differential sensitivity between the two zones originates from a 10-fold difference in K+ efflux between the mature zone and the apical region (much poorer in the root apex) of the root. Major factors contributing to this poor K+ retention ability are (1) an intrinsically lower H+-ATPase activity in the root apex, (2) greater salt-induced membrane depolarization, and (3) a higher reactive oxygen species production under NaCl and a larger density of reactive oxygen species-activated cation currents in the apex. Salinity treatment increased (2- to 5-fold) the content of 10 (out of 25 detected) amino acids in the root apex but not in the mature zone and changed the organic acid and sugar contents. The causal link between the observed changes in the root metabolic profile and the regulation of transporter activity is discussed. PMID:27770060

  16. Cell-Type-Specific H+-ATPase Activity in Root Tissues Enables K+ Retention and Mediates Acclimation of Barley (Hordeum vulgare) to Salinity Stress.

    PubMed

    Shabala, Lana; Zhang, Jingyi; Pottosin, Igor; Bose, Jayakumar; Zhu, Min; Fuglsang, Anja Thoe; Velarde-Buendia, Ana; Massart, Amandine; Hill, Camilla Beate; Roessner, Ute; Bacic, Antony; Wu, Honghong; Azzarello, Elisa; Pandolfi, Camilla; Zhou, Meixue; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Mancuso, Stefano; Shabala, Sergey

    2016-12-01

    While the importance of cell type specificity in plant adaptive responses is widely accepted, only a limited number of studies have addressed this issue at the functional level. We have combined electrophysiological, imaging, and biochemical techniques to reveal the physiological mechanisms conferring higher sensitivity of apical root cells to salinity in barley (Hordeum vulgare). We show that salinity application to the root apex arrests root growth in a highly tissue- and treatment-specific manner. Although salinity-induced transient net Na(+) uptake was about 4-fold higher in the root apex compared with the mature zone, mature root cells accumulated more cytosolic and vacuolar Na(+), suggesting that the higher sensitivity of apical cells to salt is not related to either enhanced Na(+) exclusion or sequestration inside the root. Rather, the above differential sensitivity between the two zones originates from a 10-fold difference in K(+) efflux between the mature zone and the apical region (much poorer in the root apex) of the root. Major factors contributing to this poor K(+) retention ability are (1) an intrinsically lower H(+)-ATPase activity in the root apex, (2) greater salt-induced membrane depolarization, and (3) a higher reactive oxygen species production under NaCl and a larger density of reactive oxygen species-activated cation currents in the apex. Salinity treatment increased (2- to 5-fold) the content of 10 (out of 25 detected) amino acids in the root apex but not in the mature zone and changed the organic acid and sugar contents. The causal link between the observed changes in the root metabolic profile and the regulation of transporter activity is discussed.

  17. Zinc absorption from low phytic acid genotypes of maize (Zea mays L.), Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), and Rice (Oryza sativa L.) assessed in a suckling rat pup model.

    PubMed

    Lönnerdal, Bo; Mendoza, Concepcion; Brown, Kenneth H; Rutger, J Neil; Raboy, Victor

    2011-05-11

    Dietary phytic acid is a major causative factor for low Zn bioavailability in many cereal- and legume-based diets. The bioavailability of Zn in seed of low phytic acid (lpa) variants of maize ( Zea mays L.), rice ( Oryza sativa L.), and barley ( Hordeum vulgare L.) was evaluated using a suckling rat pup model. Suckling rat pups (14 days old, n = 6-8/treatment) were fasted for 6 h and intubated with (65)Zn-radiolabeled suspensions prepared using seed produced by either wild-type (normal phytic acid) or lpa genotypes of each cereal. Test solutions were radiolabeled overnight (all genotypes) or immediately prior to intubation (barley genotypes). Pups were killed 6 h postintubation and tissues removed and counted in a gamma counter. Zn absorption was low from wild-type genotypes of maize (21, 33%) and rice (26%), and phytic acid reduction resulted in significantly higher Zn absorption, 47-52 and 35-52%, respectively. Zn absorption from wild-type barley incubated overnight was high (86-91%), and phytate reduction did not improve Zn absorption (84-90%), which is likely due to endogenous phytase activity. When the wild-type barley solutions were prepared immediately before intubation, Zn absorption was significantly lower (63, 78%) than from the lpa cultivars (92, 96%). Variation in seed or flour phenolic acid levels did not affect Zn absorption. Differences in seed Zn levels did not substantially affect Zn absorption. Thus, when phytic acid is abundant in a diet, it has a larger effect on Zn absorption than the level of Zn. Therefore, reducing the phytic acid content of staple cereal grains may contribute to enhancing Zn nutrition of populations consuming these staple foods.

  18. Molecular mapping of Rym17, a dominant and rym18 a recessive barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) resistance genes derived from Hordeum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Kai, Hiroomi; Takata, Kinuko; Tsukazaki, Morihiro; Furusho, Masahiko; Baba, Takahide

    2012-02-01

    PK23-2, a line of six-rowed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) originating from Pakistan, has resistance to Japanese strains I and III of the barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV). To identify the source of resistance in this line, reciprocal crosses were made between the susceptible cultivar Daisen-gold and PK23-2. Genetic analyses in the F(1) generation, F(2) generation, and a doubled haploid population (DH45) derived from the F(1) revealed that PK23-2 harbors one dominant and one recessive resistance genes. A linkage map was constructed using 61 lines of DH45 and 127 DNA markers; this map covered 1268.8 cM in 10 linkage groups. One QTL having a LOD score of 4.07 and explaining 26.8% of the phenotypic variance explained (PVE) for resistance to BaYMV was detected at DNA marker ABG070 on chromosome 3H. Another QTL having a LOD score of 3.53 and PVE of 27.2% was located at marker Bmag0490 on chromosome 4H. The resistance gene on chromosome 3H, here named Rym17, showed dominant inheritance, whereas the gene on chromosome 4H, here named rym18, showed recessive inheritance in F(1) populations derived from crosses between several resistant lines of DH45 and Daisen-gold. The BaYMV recessive resistance genes rym1, rym3, and rym5, found in Japanese barley germplasm, were not allelic to rym18. These results revealed that PK23-2 harbors two previously unidentified resistance genes, Rym17 on 3H and rym18 on 4H; Rym17 is the first dominant BaYMV resistance gene to be identified in primary gene pool. These new genes, particularly dominant Rym17, represent a potentially valuable genetic resource against BaYMV disease.

  19. Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate and NO2- transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3- and NO2- was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3- and NO2-. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3- and NO2- uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3- and NO2- uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3- uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2- uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3- and NO2- inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3- was a more effective inhibitor than NO2-. Nitrate and NO2- transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited.

  20. Chemical fingerprinting identifies Echium vulgare, Eupatorium cannabinum and Senecio spp. as plant species mainly responsible for pyrrolizidine alkaloids in bee-collected pollen.

    PubMed

    Kast, Christina; Kilchenmann, Verena; Reinhard, Hans; Droz, Benoit; Lucchetti, Matteo Angelo; Dübecke, Arne; Beckh, Gudrun; Zoller, Otmar

    2017-09-28

    Various studies have shown that bee-collected pollen sold as nutritional supplements may contain toxic pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and, thus, pose a potential health risk for consumers. The level of contamination may vary according to its geographical and botanical origin. Here, the PA content of pollen produced in Switzerland was studied and 32 commercially available bee-collected pollen supplements produced between 2010 and 2014 were analysed. In addition, at what time period bees collect PA-containing pollen was investigated. Hence, this study looked into the occurrence of PAs in pollen samples collected daily during two-to-three consecutive seasons. Furthermore, the PA spectrum in pollen was compared to the spectrum found in flower heads of PA-plants to unambiguously identify plants responsible for PA contamination of pollen. The PA concentration of commercial and daily collected pollen was determined by target analysis using an HPLC-MS/MS system, allowing the detection of 18 different PAs and PA N-oxides found in the genera Echium, Eupatorium and Senecio, while the comparison of the PA spectrum in pollen and flower heads was performed by LC-HR-MS, allowing the detection of all PA types in a sample, including saturated, non-carcinogenic PAs. Of the commercially available pollen, 31% contained PAs with a mean concentration of 319 ng/g, mainly Echium- and Eupatorium-type PAs, while the PA concentrations were below the limit of quantitation (LOQ) in 69% of the pollen samples. Bees collected pollen containing Echium-type PAs mainly in June and July, while they gathered pollen containing Eupatorium-type PAs from mid-July to August. Senecio-type PAs appeared from June to September. Comparison of the PA array in pollen and plants identified E. vulgare and E. cannabinum as the main plants responsible for PA contamination of Swiss bee-collected pollen, and to a lesser extent also identified plants belonging to the genus Senecio.

  1. Effects of the Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. on Survival of Pathogenic Bacteria and Starter Lactic Acid Bacteria in Semihard Cheese Broth and Slurry.

    PubMed

    de Souza, Geany Targino; de Carvalho, Rayssa Julliane; de Sousa, Jossana Pereira; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Schaffner, Donald; de Souza, Evandro Leite; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-02-01

    This study assessed the inhibitory effects of the essential oil from Origanum vulgare L. (OVEO) on Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and a mesophilic starter coculture composed of lactic acid bacteria (Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis and L. lactis subsp. cremoris) in Brazilian coalho cheese systems. The MIC of OVEO was 2.5 μl/ml against both S. aureus and L. monocytogenes and 0.6 μl/ml against the tested starter coculture. In cheese broth containing OVEO at 0.6 μl/ml, no decrease in viable cell counts (VCC) of both pathogenic bacteria was observed, whereas the initial VCC of the starter coculture decreased approximately 1.0 log CFU/ml after 24 h of exposure at 10°C. OVEO at 1.25 and 2.5 μl/ml caused reductions of up to 2.0 and 2.5 log CFU/ml in S. aureus and L. monocytogenes, respectively, after 24 h of exposure in cheese broth. At these same concentrations, OVEO caused a greater decrease of initial VCC of the starter coculture following 4 h of exposure. Higher concentrations of OVEO were required to decrease the VCC of all target bacteria in semisolid coalho cheese slurry compared with cheese broth. The VCC of Lactococcus spp. in coalho cheese slurry containing OVEO were always lower than those of pathogenic bacteria under the same conditions. These results suggest that the concentrations of OVEO used to control pathogenic bacteria in semihard cheese should be carefully evaluated because of its inhibitory effects on the growth of starter lactic acid cultures used during the production of the product.

  2. The enzymology of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) isoforms from Hordeum vulgare and other organisms, and the HvAlaAT crystal structure.

    PubMed

    Duff, Stephen M G; Rydel, Timothy J; McClerren, Amanda L; Zhang, Wenlan; Li, Jimmy Y; Sturman, Eric J; Halls, Coralie; Chen, Songyang; Zeng, Jiamin; Peng, Jiexin; Kretzler, Crystal N; Evdokimov, Artem

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we describe the expression, purification, kinetics and biophysical characterization of alanine aminotransferase (AlaAT) from the barley plant (Hordeum vulgare). This dimeric PLP-dependent enzyme is a pivotal element of several key metabolic pathways from nitrogen assimilation to carbon metabolism, and its introduction into transgenic plants results in increased yield. The enzyme exhibits a bi-bi ping-pong reaction mechanism with a K(m) for alanine, 2-oxoglutarate, glutamate and pyruvate of 3.8, 0.3, 0.8 and 0.2 mM, respectively. Barley AlaAT catalyzes the forward (alanine-forming) reaction with a k(cat) of 25.6 s(-1), the reverse (glutamate-forming) reaction with k(cat) of 12.1 s(-1) and an equilibrium constant of ~0.5. The enzyme is also able to utilize aspartate and oxaloacetate with ~10% efficiency as compared to the native substrates, which makes it much more specific than related bacterial/archaeal enzymes (that also have lower K(m) values). We have crystallized barley AlaAT in complex with PLP and l-cycloserine and solved the structure of this complex at 2.7 Å resolution. This is the first example of a plant AlaAT structure, and it reveals a canonical aminotransferase fold similar to structures of the Thermotoga maritima, Pyrococcus furiosus, and human enzymes. This structure bridges our structural understanding of AlaAT mechanism between three kingdoms of life and allows us to shed some light on the specifics of the catalysis performed by these proteins.

  3. Transgenic barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) expressing the wheat aluminium resistance gene (TaALMT1) shows enhanced phosphorus nutrition and grain production when grown on an acid soil.

    PubMed

    Delhaize, Emmanuel; Taylor, Phillip; Hocking, Peter J; Simpson, Richard J; Ryan, Peter R; Richardson, Alan E

    2009-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.), genetically modified with the Al(3+) resistance gene of wheat (TaALMT1), was compared with a non-transformed sibling line when grown on an acidic and highly phosphate-fixing ferrosol supplied with a range of phosphorus concentrations. In short-term pot trials (26 days), transgenic barley expressing TaALMT1 (GP-ALMT1) was more efficient than a non-transformed sibling line (GP) at taking up phosphorus on acid soil, but the genotypes did not differ when the soil was limed. Differences in phosphorus uptake efficiency on acid soil could be attributed not only to the differential effects of aluminium toxicity on root growth between the genotypes, but also to differences in phosphorus uptake per unit root length. Although GP-ALMT1 out-performed GP on acid soil, it was still not as efficient at taking up phosphorus as plants grown on limed soil. GP-ALMT1 plants grown in acid soil possessed substantially smaller rhizosheaths than those grown in limed soil, suggesting that root hairs were shorter. This is a probable reason for the lower phosphorus uptake efficiency. When grown to maturity in large pots, GP-ALMT1 plants produced more than twice the grain as GP plants grown on acid soil and 80% of the grain produced by limed controls. Expression of TaALMT1 in barley was not associated with a penalty in either total shoot or grain production in the absence of Al(3+), with both genotypes showing equivalent yields in limed soil. These findings demonstrate that an important crop species can be genetically engineered to successfully increase grain production on an acid soil.

  4. Studies of the regulation of nitrate influx by barley seedlings using sup 13 NO sub 3 sup minus 1. [Hordeum vulgare L

    SciTech Connect

    Siddiqi, M.Y.; Glass, A.D.M.; Ruth, T.J.; Fernando, M.

    1989-07-01

    Using {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}, effects of various NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} pretreatments upon NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx were studied in intact roots of barley (Hordeum vulgare L. cv Klondike). Prior exposure of roots to NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} increased NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx and net NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} uptake. This induction of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} uptake was dependent both on time and external NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} concentration ((NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}})). During induction influx was positively correlated with root (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}). In the postinduction period, however, NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx declined as root (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) increased. It is suggested that induction and negative feedback regulation are independent processes: induction appears to depend upon some critical cytoplasmic (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}); removal of external NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} caused a reduction of {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx even though mean root (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) remained high. It is proposed that cytoplasmic (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) is depleted rapidly under these conditions resulting in deinduction of the NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} transport system. Beyond 50 micromoles per gram (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}), {sup 13}NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} influx was negatively correlated with root (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}). However, it is unclear whether root (NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}}) per se or some product(s) of NO{sub 3}{sup {minus}} assimilation are responsible for the negative feedback effects.

  5. Analysis of Drought-Induced Proteomic and Metabolomic Changes in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves and Roots Unravels Some Aspects of Biochemical Mechanisms Involved in Drought Tolerance

    PubMed Central

    Chmielewska, Klaudia; Rodziewicz, Paweł; Swarcewicz, Barbara; Sawikowska, Aneta; Krajewski, Paweł; Marczak, Łukasz; Ciesiołka, Danuta; Kuczyńska, Anetta; Mikołajczak, Krzysztof; Ogrodowicz, Piotr; Krystkowiak, Karolina; Surma, Maria; Adamski, Tadeusz; Bednarek, Paweł; Stobiecki, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    In this study, proteomic and metabolomic changes in leaves and roots of two barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes, with contrasting drought tolerance, subjected to water deficit were investigated. Our two-dimensional electrophoresis (2D-PAGE) combined with matrix-assisted laser desorption time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF and MALDI-TOF/TOF) analyses revealed 121 drought-responsive proteins in leaves and 182 in roots of both genotypes. Many of the identified drought-responsive proteins were associated with processes that are typically severely affected during water deficit, including photosynthesis and carbon metabolism. However, the highest number of identified leaf and root proteins represented general defense mechanisms. In addition, changes in the accumulation of proteins that represent processes formerly unassociated with drought response, e.g., phenylpropanoid metabolism, were also identified. Our tandem gas chromatography – time of flight mass spectrometry (GC/MS TOF) analyses revealed approximately 100 drought-affected low molecular weight compounds representing various metabolite types with amino acids being the most affected metabolite class. We compared the results from proteomic and metabolomic analyses to search for existing relationship between these two levels of molecular organization. We also uncovered organ specificity of the observed changes and revealed differences in the response to water deficit of drought susceptible and tolerant barley lines. Particularly, our results indicated that several of identified proteins and metabolites whose accumulation levels were increased with drought in the analyzed susceptible barley variety revealed elevated constitutive accumulation levels in the drought-resistant line. This may suggest that constitutive biochemical predisposition represents a better drought tolerance mechanism than inducible responses. PMID:27512399

  6. Rapid Buildup of Genetic Diversity in Founder Populations of the Gynodioecious Plant Species Origanum vulgare after Semi-Natural Grassland Restoration

    PubMed Central

    Helsen, Kenny; Jacquemyn, Hans; Hermy, Martin; Vandepitte, Katrien; Honnay, Olivier

    2013-01-01

    In most landscapes the success of habitat restoration is largely dependent on spontaneous colonization of plant species. This colonization process, and the outcome of restoration practices, can only be considered successful if the genetic makeup of founding populations is not eroded through founder effects and subsequent genetic drift. Here we used 10 microsatellite markers to investigate the genetic effects of recent colonization of the long-lived gynodioecious species Origanum vulgare in restored semi-natural grassland patches. We compared the genetic diversity and differentiation of fourteen recent populations with that of thirteen old, putative source populations, and we evaluated the effects of spatial configuration of the populations on colonization patterns. We did not observe decreased genetic diversity in recent populations, or inflated genetic differentiation among them. Nevertheless, a significantly higher inbreeding coefficient was observed in recent populations, although this was not associated with negative fitness effects. Overall population genetic differentiation was low (FST = 0.040). Individuals of restored populations were assigned to on average 6.1 different source populations (likely following the ‘migrant pool’ model). Gene flow was, however, affected by the spatial configuration of the grasslands, with gene flow into the recent populations mainly originating from nearby source populations. This study demonstrates how spontaneous colonization after habitat restoration can lead to viable populations in a relatively short time, overcoming pronounced founder effects, when several source populations are nearby. Restored populations can therefore rapidly act as stepping stones and sources of genetic diversity, likely increasing overall metapopulation viability of the study species. PMID:23840642

  7. Phylogenetic and comparative gene expression analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare)WRKY transcription factor family reveals putatively retained functions betweenmonocots and dicots

    SciTech Connect

    Mangelsen, Elke; Kilian, Joachim; Berendzen, Kenneth W.; Kolukisaoglu, Uner; Harter, Klaus; Jansson, Christer; Wanke, Dierk

    2008-02-01

    WRKY proteins belong to the WRKY-GCM1 superfamily of zinc finger transcription factors that have been subject to a large plant-specific diversification. For the cereal crop barley (Hordeum vulgare), three different WRKY proteins have been characterized so far, as regulators in sucrose signaling, in pathogen defense, and in response to cold and drought, respectively. However, their phylogenetic relationship remained unresolved. In this study, we used the available sequence information to identify a minimum number of 45 barley WRKY transcription factor (HvWRKY) genes. According to their structural features the HvWRKY factors were classified into the previously defined polyphyletic WRKY subgroups 1 to 3. Furthermore, we could assign putative orthologs of the HvWRKY proteins in Arabidopsis and rice. While in most cases clades of orthologous proteins were formed within each group or subgroup, other clades were composed of paralogous proteins for the grasses and Arabidopsis only, which is indicative of specific gene radiation events. To gain insight into their putative functions, we examined expression profiles of WRKY genes from publicly available microarray data resources and found group specific expression patterns. While putative orthologs of the HvWRKY transcription factors have been inferred from phylogenetic sequence analysis, we performed a comparative expression analysis of WRKY genes in Arabidopsis and barley. Indeed, highly correlative expression profiles were found between some of the putative orthologs. HvWRKY genes have not only undergone radiation in monocot or dicot species, but exhibit evolutionary traits specific to grasses. HvWRKY proteins exhibited not only sequence similarities between orthologs with Arabidopsis, but also relatedness in their expression patterns. This correlative expression is indicative for a putative conserved function of related WRKY proteins in mono- and dicot species.

  8. Methanol extract of the aerial parts of barley (Hordeum vulgare) suppresses lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory responses in vitro and in vivo.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ki-Choon; Hwang, Jung-Min; Bang, Sung-Jun; Son, Young-Ok; Kim, Beom-Tae; Kim, Dong-Hern; Lee, Seung-Ah; Chae, Minseon; Kim, Da Hye; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2013-08-01

    Recently, there has been renewed interest in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. Poaceae) as a functional food and for its medicinal properties. This study examines the anti-inflammatory potential of the active fractions of barley and the mechanisms involved. The macrophages were exposed to 100 μg/mL of each of the barley extracts in the presence of 1 μg/mL lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and after 24 or 48 h of incubation, cells or culture supernatants were analyzed by various assays. The anti-inflammatory potential of barley fractions was also investigated using the LPS-injected septic mouse model. The active constituents in the fractions were identified using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The active fractions, named F₄, F₇, F₉ and F₁₂, inhibited almost completely the LPS-induced production of nitric oxide (NO) and inducible NO synthase. Pre-treatment with these fractions at 100 μg/mL diminished the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) levels to 19.8, 3.5, 1.2 and 1.7 ng/mL, respectively, compared to LPS treatment alone (41.5 ng/mL). These fractions at 100 μg/mL also suppressed apparently the secretion of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-1β and the DNA-binding activity of nuclear factor-κB in LPS-stimulated cells. Mice injected intraperitoneally with LPS (30 mg/kg BW) showed 20% survival at 48 h after injection, whereas oral administration of the fractions improved the survival rates to 80%. GC-MS analysis revealed the presence of the derivatives of benzoic and cinnamic acids and fatty acids in the fractions. The aerial parts of barley are useful as functional food to prevent acute inflammatory responses.

  9. Evidence of Phytotoxicity and Genotoxicity in Hordeum vulgare L. Exposed to CeO2 and TiO2 Nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Mattiello, Alessandro; Filippi, Antonio; Pošćić, Filip; Musetti, Rita; Salvatici, Maria C.; Giordano, Cristiana; Vischi, Massimo; Bertolini, Alberto; Marchiol, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Engineered nanoscale materials (ENMs) are considered emerging contaminants since they are perceived as a potential threat to the environment and the human health. The reactions of living organisms when exposed to metal nanoparticles (NPs) or NPs of different size are not well known. Very few studies on NPs–plant interactions have been published, so far. For this reason there is also great concern regarding the potential NPs impact to food safety. Early genotoxic and phytotoxic effects of cerium oxide NPs (nCeO2) and titanium dioxide NPs (nTiO2) were investigated in seedlings of Hordeum vulgare L. Caryopses were exposed to an aqueous dispersion of nCeO2 and nTiO2 at, respectively 0, 500, 1000, and 2000 mg l-1 for 7 days. Genotoxicity was studied by Randomly Amplified Polymorphism DNA (RAPDs) and mitotic index on root tip cells. Differences between treated and control plants were observed in RAPD banding patterns as well as at the chromosomal level with a reduction of cell divisions. At cellular level we monitored the oxidative stress of treated plants in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and ATP content. Again nCeO2 influenced clearly these two physiological parameters, while nTiO2 were ineffective. In particular, the dose 500 mg l-1 showed the highest increase regarding both ROS generation and ATP content; the phenomenon were detectable, at different extent, both at root and shoot level. Total Ce and Ti concentration in seedlings was detected by ICP-OES. TEM EDSX microanalysis demonstrated the presence of aggregates of nCeO2 and nTiO2 within root cells of barley. nCeO2 induced modifications in the chromatin aggregation mode in the nuclei of both root and shoot cells. PMID:26635858

  10. QTLs for straw quality characteristics identified in recombinant inbred lines of a Hordeum vulgare x H. spontaneum cross in a Mediterranean environment.

    PubMed

    Grando, S; Baum, M; Ceccarelli, S; Goodchild, A; El-Haramein, F Jaby; Jahoor, A; Backes, G

    2005-02-01

    Barley straw is commonly used as animal feed in many developing countries. Even a small increase in its nutritive value can have a large impact on animal production, and hence, on rural livelihood and human nutrition. Straw quality is strongly affected by environmental factors and is, therefore, difficult to improve with empirical breeding. The objective of this study was to identify molecular markers to facilitate the improvement of straw quality in barley. For this purpose, we have used the genetic linkage map that was already developed for recombinant inbred lines (RILs) of the cross between a Hordeum vulgare cultivar ('Arta') and a H. spontaneum line (H. spontaneum 41-1), covering a total of 890 cM. Straw parameters from RILs grown at Tel Hadya and Breda (ICARDA's research stations) in 2 years (1996/1997 and 1997/1998) were analyzed by NIRS for predicted nutritional characteristics including neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, lignin, digestible organic matter in dry matter, voluntary intake, crude protein, and straw morphology (the percentage of blades, sheaths, and stems). Localization of QTLs was performed using Windows QTL Cartographer, version 2.0. Seventy-three QTLs were identified, the majority of which (17) in the driest of the four environments. Only six QTLs were identified in two environments; in five cases, one of the two was the wettest environment. This is discussed in relation to the possibility of improving straw quality in favorable environments where yields are higher, rather than in dry environments where straw quality is already relatively good.

  11. Comparative Kinetics and Reciprocal Inhibition of Nitrate and Nitrite Uptake in Roots of Uninduced and Induced Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Seedlings 1

    PubMed Central

    Aslam, Muhammad; Travis, Robert L.; Huffaker, Ray C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate and NO2− transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3− and NO2− was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3− and NO2−. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3− and NO2− uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3− and NO2− uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3− uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2− uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3− and NO2− inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3− was a more effective inhibitor than NO2−. Nitrate and NO2− transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited. PMID:11537883

  12. Genetic mapping of the labile (lab) gene: a recessive locus causing irregular spikelet fertility in labile-barley (Hordeum vulgare convar. labile).

    PubMed

    Youssef, Helmy M; Koppolu, Ravi; Rutten, Twan; Korzun, Viktor; Schweizer, Patrick; Schnurbusch, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The recessive labile locus mapped on chromosome 5HL causes irregular spikelet fertility and controls floret development as well as row-type in barley. The labile-barley displays a variable number of fertile spikelets at each rachis internode (0-3 fertile spikelets/rachis internode) which is intermediate between that observed in two- or six-rowed types. Previous re-sequencing of Vrs1 in 219 labile-barley (Hordeum vulgare L. convar. labile) accessions showed that all carried a six-rowed specific allele. We therefore hypothesized that this seemingly random reduction in spikelet fertility is most likely caused by the labile (lab) locus, which we aimed to phenotypically and genetically define. Here, we report a detailed phenotypic analysis of spikelet fertility in labile-barleys in comparison to two- and six-rowed genotypes using scanning electron microscopy analysis. We found that the first visible morphological deviation occurred during the stamen primordium stage, when we regularly observed the appearance of arrested central floral primordia in labile but not in two- or six-rowed barleys. At late stamen and early awn primordium stages, lateral florets in two-rowed and only some in labile-barley showed retarded development and reduction in size compared with fully fertile lateral florets in six-rowed barley. We used two F2 mapping populations to generate whole genome genetic linkage maps and ultimately locate the lab locus as a recessive Mendelian trait to a 4.5-5.8 cM interval at approximately 80 cM on chromosome 5HL. Our results will help identifying the role of the lab gene in relation to other spikelet fertility factors in barley.

  13. The inter-relationship between processing-induced molecular structure features and metabolic and digestive characteristics in hulled and hulless barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains with altered carbohydrate traits.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaogang; Zhang, Fangyu; Yu, Peiqiang

    2017-03-01

    The present study aimed to determine the microwave irradiation (MIR)-induced changes in protein molecular structures in barley (Hordeum vulgare) grains in relation to the truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. Samples from hulled and hulless cultivars of barley, harvested in consecutive years from four replicate plots, were evaluated. The samples were either kept raw or were irradiated with microwaves for 3 min (MIR3) or 5 min (MIR5). The truly absorbable protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems was evaluated using the DVE/OEB system (DVE, truly absorbed protein in the small intestine; OEB, degraded protein balance). Molecular structure changes as a result of processing were revealed by vibrational molecular spectroscopy in the mid-infrared electromagnetic radiation region. Compared to the raw samples, MIR processing decreased (P < 0.05) the truly absorbable microbial crude protein and increased (P < 0.05) the truly absorbable rumen undegraded protein and endogenous protein supply without affecting the total truly absorbed protein supply to the small intestine (DVE) and degraded protein balance (OEB) in ruminant livestock systems. Changes in protein molecular structure (spectral intensities) were highly correlated with the changes in the truly absorbed protein nutrient supply to ruminant livestock systems. The results of the present study show that the changes in protein molecular structure as a result of MIR feed processing were associated with the truly absorbed protein supply to ruminant livestock systems. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Root spatial metabolite profiling of two genotypes of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) reveals differences in response to short-term salt stress.

    PubMed

    Shelden, Megan C; Dias, Daniel A; Jayasinghe, Nirupama S; Bacic, Antony; Roessner, Ute

    2016-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) is the most salt-tolerant cereal crop and has excellent genetic and genomic resources. It is therefore a good model to study salt-tolerance mechanisms in cereals. We aimed to determine metabolic differences between a cultivated barley, Clipper (tolerant), and a North African landrace, Sahara (susceptible), previously shown to have contrasting root growth phenotypes in response to the early phase of salinity stress. GC-MS was used to determine spatial changes in primary metabolites in barley roots in response to salt stress, by profiling three different regions of the root: root cap/cell division zone (R1), elongation zone (R2), and maturation zone (R3). We identified 76 known metabolites, including 29 amino acids and amines, 20 organic acids and fatty acids, and 19 sugars and sugar phosphates. The maintenance of cell division and root elongation in Clipper in response to short-term salt stress was associated with the synthesis and accumulation of amino acids (i.e. proline), sugars (maltose, sucrose, xylose), and organic acids (gluconate, shikimate), indicating a potential role for these metabolic pathways in salt tolerance and the maintenance of root elongation. The processes involved in root growth adaptation and the underlying coordination of metabolic pathways appear to be controlled in a region-specific manner. This study highlights the importance of utilizing spatial profiling and will provide us with a better understanding of abiotic stress response(s) in plants at the tissue and cellular level. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology.

  15. A novel interpretation of the Fractional Inhibitory Concentration Index: The case Origanum vulgare L. and Leptospermum scoparium J. R. et G. Forst essential oils against Staphylococcus aureus strains.

    PubMed

    Fratini, Filippo; Mancini, Simone; Turchi, Barbara; Friscia, Elisabetta; Pistelli, Luisa; Giusti, Giulia; Cerri, Domenico

    2017-01-01

    Origanum vulgare (oregano) and Leptospermum scoparium (manuka) were traditionally employed as natural remedies for infected wounds and skin injuries where Staphylococcus aureus is mainly involved. The first aim of this study was to investigate oregano and manuka essential oils (EOs) chemical compositions and evaluate their antibacterial activity (MIC, Minimum Inhibitory Concentration) against fourteen S. aureus wild strains. The second aim was to evaluate the antibacterial activities of oregano and manuka EOs mixed in different combination (FIC, Fractional Inhibitory Concentration) with an improved chequerboard technique. This allowed to avoid the usual uncertainty in the determination of MIC and FIC values and to obtain a more precise interpretation of FIC indexes (FICIs). Moreover, FICIs were discussed on the basis of a novel interpretation method to evaluate the synergistic/antagonistic effect of EOs mixtures. The most representative compounds in oregano EO were Carvacrol (65.93%), p-Cymene (9.33%) and γ-Terpinene (5.25%), while in manuka EO were Leptospermone (31.65%), cis-Calamenene (15.93%) and Flavesone (6.92%). EOs presented MIC values ranging from 1:2048 to 1:4096 v/v and FIC values ranging from 0.125 to 1. According to our interpretation, a synergistic effect (34.68%), a commutative effect (15.32%) and an indifferent effect (50.00%) and no antagonistic effect were observed. Conversely, according to two previously proposed FICI interpretation models, 1.80% synergistic effect could be observed and, respectively, 98.20% indifferent effect or 48.20% additive effect and 50.00% indifferent effect. As practical results, oregano and manuka EOs may be an effective alternative to chemotherapic drugs in staphylococcal infections and useful tools to enhance food security. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  16. Diurnal changes in assimilate concentrations and fluxes in the phloem of castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) and tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Kallarackal, Jose; Bauer, Susanne N; Nowak, Heike; Hajirezaei, Mohammad-Reza; Komor, Ewald

    2012-07-01

    Reports about diurnal changes of assimilates in phloem sap are controversial. We determined the diurnal changes of sucrose and amino acid concentrations and fluxes in exudates from cut aphid stylets on tansy leaves (Tanacetum vulgare), and sucrose, amino acid and K(+) concentrations and fluxes in bleeding sap of castor bean pedicel (Ricinus communis). Approximately half of the tansy sieve tubes exhibited a diurnal cycle of sucrose concentrations and fluxes in phloem sap. Data from many tansy plants indicated an increased sucrose flux in the phloem during daytime in case of low N-nutrition, not at high N-nutrition. The sucrose concentration in phloem sap of young Ricinus plants changed marginally between day and night, whereas the sucrose flux increased 1.5-fold during daytime (but not in old Ricinus plants). The amino acid concentrations and fluxes in tansy sieve tubes exhibited a similar diurnal cycle as the sucrose concentrations and fluxes, including their dependence on N-nutrition. The amino acid fluxes, but not the concentrations, in phloem sap of Ricinus were higher at daytime. The sucrose/amino acid ratio showed no diurnal cycle neither in tansy nor in Ricinus. The K(+)-concentrations in phloem sap of Ricinus, but not the K(+) fluxes, decreased slightly during daytime and the sucrose/K(+)-ratio increased. In conclusion, a diurnal cycle was observed in sucrose, amino acid and K(+) fluxes, but not necessarily in concentrations of these assimilates. Because of the large variations between different sieve tubes and different plants, the nutrient delivery to sink tissues is not homeostatic over time.

  17. [Nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility and the state of mitochondrial and chloroplast DNA regions in alloplasmic recombinant and introgressive lines (H. vulgare)-T. aestivum].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Trubacheva, N V; Sinyavskaya, M G; Devyatkina, E P; Kravtsova, L A

    2014-10-01

    Alloplasmic lines combining alien nuclear and cytoplasmic genomes are convenient models for studying the mechanisms of nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility/incompatibility. In the.present study, we have investigated the correlation between the characters and state of mitochondrial (mt) and chloroplast (cp) DNA regions in alloplasmic recombinant common wheat lines with barley cytoplasm characterized by partial or total fertility. Fertility restoration in the studied lines (Hordeum vulgare)-Triticum aestivum is determined by different ratios of the genetic material of common wheat variety Pyrotrix 28, which is a fertility restorer in the cytoplasm of barley, and varietySaratovskaya 29, which is a fixer of sterility. In partially fertile lines with nuclear genomes dominated by the genetic material of Saratovskaya 29, plant growth and development are suppressed. In these lines we have identified the barley homoplasmy of cpDNA regions infA and rpoB and the heteroplasmy of the 18S/5S mt repeat and the cpDNA ycf5 region. Nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility in lines with reduced fertility (the genetic material of Pyrotrix 28 predominates in their nuclear genomes) is associated with restoration of normal plant growth and development and the changes in thestate of the studied cpDNA and mtDNA regions towards the wheat type. Thus, in fertile lines, the cpDNA regions (infA, rpoB) and the 18S/5S mt repeat were identified in the homoplasmic wheat state; though the cpDNAycf5 region was in the heteroplasmic state, it was dominated by the wheat type of the copies. The nuclearicytoplasmic compatibility is not broken as a result of introgression of the alien genetic material into the nuclear genome of one of the fertile lines; the plants of introgressive lines are fertile and normally developed, and the states of the cpDNA and mtDNA regions correspond to their states in fertile recombinant lines.

  18. A Chitosan Coating Containing Essential Oil from Origanum vulgare L. to Control Postharvest Mold Infections and Keep the Quality of Cherry Tomato Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Barreto, Tainá A.; Andrade, Sonalle C. A.; Maciel, Janeeyre F.; Arcanjo, Narciza M. O.; Madruga, Marta S.; Meireles, Bruno; Cordeiro, Ângela M. T.; Souza, Evandro L.; Magnani, Marciane

    2016-01-01

    The efficacy of an edible chitosan coating (CHI; 4 mg/mL) and Origanum vulgare L. essential oil (OVEO; 1.25 μL/mL) for maintaining the quality of cherry tomato fruit during storage at room (25°C; 12 days) and cold (12°C; 24 days) temperatures was assessed. CHI and OVEO in combination showed in vitro fungicidal effects against R. stolonifer and Aspergillus niger. CHI-OVEO coating reduced the incidence of black mold and soft rot caused by these fungi in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit during storage at both temperatures. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the appearance of the first visible signs of black mold and soft rot in artificially contaminated cherry tomato fruit stored at room temperature by 6 days and by more than 9 days in those stored at cold temperature. At the end of storage at room and cold temperature fruit coated with CHI-OVEO showed higher firmness (>2 N/mm) and lower weight loss (>2%) compared to uncoated tomato fruit. CHI-OVEO coating delayed the decrease of lycopene, ascorbic citric acid, glucose and fructose during the storage time assessed at room or cold temperatures. The increase of catechin, myricetin, caffeic and syringic acids was higher (1–9 mg/g) in cherry tomato fruit coated with CHI-OVEO compared to uncoated fruit during the storage at both temperatures studied. CHI-OVEO coating is a feasible treatment for maintaining the storage quality of cherry tomato fruit. PMID:27877156

  19. Mobility of boron-polyol complexes in the hemiparasitic association between Rhinanthus minor and Hordeum vulgare: the effects of nitrogen nutrition.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Fan; Jeschke, W Dieter; Hartung, Wolfram; Cameron, Duncan D

    2008-09-01

    Boron (B) is an essential nutrient required for plant growth and physiological processes. Long-distance B transport is facilitated by the formation of B-polyol complexes. We investigated B uptake and distribution in response to differing levels of exogenous nitrogen supply in the hemiparasitic association between Rhinanthus minor and Hordeum vulgare (barley) and in unparasitised barley and single Rhinanthus plants. In this system, the polyol mannitol is the major assimilate in Rhinanthus, whereas polyols are not detectable in barley. Furthermore, previous studies have shown that the accumulation of polyols within Rhinanthus is negatively affected by the application of exogenous nitrogen. Within the association, the strongest accumulation of B was detected in lateral buds and inflorescences of Rhinanthus, consistent with the greatest B demand in strong sink organs supplied through the phloem that contain high concentrations of mannitol. In the host, the strongest B accumulation was found in xylem-supported leaf lamellae. Roots and sheaths did not accumulate substantial amounts of B, while re-circulation of B through the phloem vessels accounted for only 10% (unparasitised) and 8% (parasitised) of the xylem sap-imported B in the mannitol-free barley hosts. In contrast, 53% (attached) and 39% (in the absence of a host) of the xylem sap-imported B was re-circulated in the phloem in the mannitol-rich Rhinanthus. We therefore present the first quantitative uptake and flow models of long-distance B transport in polyol-rich and polyol-free plants. Our findings are consistent with a close relationship between B re-translocation and mannitol concentrations in phloem vessels.

  20. A native QTL for Fusarium head blight resistance in North American barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) independent of height, maturity, and spike type loci.

    PubMed

    Yu, G T; Franckowiak, J D; Neate, S M; Zhang, B; Horsley, R D

    2010-02-01

    Fusarium head blight (FHB), caused by Fusarium graminearum Schwabe (teleomorph Gibberella zeae (Schwein.) Petch), is one of the major diseases of barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) in eastern China, the Upper Midwest of the USA, and the eastern Prairie Provinces of Canada. To identify quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling FHB resistance, a recombinant inbred line population (F6:7) was developed from the cross Zhenongda 7/PI 643302. The population was phenotyped for resistance to FHB in two experiments in China and four experiments in North Dakota. Accumulation of the mycotoxin deoxynivalenol was determined in one experiment in China and two in North Dakota. Simplified composite interval mapping was performed on the whole genome level using the software MQTL. The QTL FHB-2 from PI 643302 for FHB resistance was found on the distal portion of chromosome 2HL in all six FHB screening environments. This QTL accounted for 14% of phenotypic variation over six environments and was not associated with heading date or plant height. The FHB resistance QTL FHB-2 detected near the end of chromosome 2HL is in a different location from those found previously and is therefore probably unique. Because the QTL was not contributed by the Chinese cultivar Zhenongda 7, it is likely a native QTL present in North American barley. The QTL FHB-2 represents the first reported QTL for native FHB resistance in North American germ plasm and has been given the provisional name Qrgz-2H-14. This QTL should be considered for pyramiding with other FHB QTL previously mapped.

  1. A novel high-amylose barley cultivar (Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292) lowers plasma cholesterol and alters indices of large-bowel fermentation in pigs.

    PubMed

    Bird, Anthony R; Jackson, Michelle; King, Roger A; Davies, Debra A; Usher, Sylvia; Topping, David L

    2004-10-01

    Hordeum vulgare var. Himalaya 292 is a new barley cultivar with altered starch synthesis and less total starch but more amylose, resistant starch (RS) and total and soluble NSP including beta-glucan. To determine its nutritional potential, young pigs were fed diets containing stabilised wholegrain flours from either Himalaya 292, Namoi (a commercial barley), wheat bran or oat bran at equivalent dietary NSP concentrations for 21 d. Serum total cholesterol was significantly lowered by the Himalaya 292 diet relative to wheat bran, indicating that Himalaya 292 retained its hypocholesterolaemic potential. In all groups SCFA concentrations were highest in the proximal colon and decreased towards the rectum. Digesta pH was lowest in the proximal colon and highest in the distal colon. Large-bowel and faecal pH were significantly lower in the pigs fed the barley and oat diets, indicating greater bacterial fermentation. Caecal and proximal colonic pH was lowest and SCFA pools highest in the pigs fed Himalaya 292. Total and individual SCFA were lowest in the mid- and distal colon of the pigs fed Himalaya 292 or oat bran. These data suggest the presence of more RS in Himalaya 292 and suggest that its fermentation was rapid relative to transit. Differences in faecal and large-bowel anaerobic, aerobic, coliform and lactic acid bacteria were relatively small, indicating a lack of a specific prebiotic action. These data support the potential of this novel barley cultivar to improve health through plasma cholesterol reduction and increased large-bowel SCFA production.

  2. A Substantial Fraction of Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Low Phytic Acid Mutations Have Little or No Effect on Yield across Diverse Production Environments.

    PubMed

    Raboy, Victor; Peterson, Kevin; Jackson, Chad; Marshall, Juliet M; Hu, Gongshe; Saneoka, Hirofumi; Bregitzer, Phil

    2015-04-29

    The potential benefits of the low phytic acid (lpa) seed trait for human and animal nutrition, and for phosphorus management in non-ruminant animal production, are well documented. However, in many cases the lpa trait is associated with impaired seed or plant performance, resulting in reduced yield. This has given rise to the perception that the lpa trait is tightly correlated with reduced yield in diverse crop species. Here we report a powerful test of this correlation. We measured grain yield in lines homozygous for each of six barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) lpa mutations that greatly differ in their seed phytic acid levels. Performance comparisons were between sibling wild-type and mutant lines obtained following backcrossing, and across two years in five Idaho (USA) locations that greatly differ in crop yield potential. We found that one lpa mutation (Hvlpa1-1) had no detectable effect on yield and a second (Hvlpa4-1) resulted in yield losses of only 3.5%, across all locations. When comparing yields in three relatively non-stressful production environments, at least three lpa mutations (Hvlpa1-1, Hvlpa3-1, and Hvlpa4-1) typically had yields similar to or within 5% of the wild-type sibling isoline. Therefore in the case of barley, lpa mutations can be readily identified that when simply incorporated into a cultivar result in adequately performing lines, even with no additional breeding for performance within the lpa line. In conclusion, while some barley lpa mutations do impact field performance, a substantial fraction appears to have little or no effect on yield.

  3. Foeniculum vulgare Mill. Protects against Lipopolysaccharide-induced Acute Lung Injury in Mice through ERK-dependent NF-κB Activation.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hui Su; Kang, Purum; Kim, Ka Young; Seol, Geun Hee

    2015-03-01

    Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) is used to flavor food, in cosmetics, as an antioxidant, and to treat microbial, diabetic and common inflammation. No study to date, however, has assessed the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in experimental models of inflammation. The aims of this study were to investigate the anti-inflammatory effects of fennel in model of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury. Mice were randomly assigned to seven groups (n=7~10). In five groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with 1% Tween 80-saline (vehicle), fennel (125, 250, 500µl/kg), or dexamethasone (1 mg/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of LPS (1.5 mg/kg). In two groups, the mice were intraperitoneally injected with vehicle or fennel (250µl/kg), followed 1 h later by intratracheal instillation of sterile saline. Mice were sacrificed 4 h later, and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and lung tissues were obtained. Fennel significantly and dose-dependently reduced LDH activity and immune cell numbers in LPS treated mice. In addition fennel effectively suppressed the LPS-induced increases in the production of the inflammatory cytokines interleukin-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha, with 500µl/kg fennel showing maximal reduction. Fennel also significantly and dose-dependently reduced the activity of the proinflammatory mediator matrix metalloproteinase 9 and the immune modulator nitric oxide (NO). Assessments of the involvement of the MAPK signaling pathway showed that fennel significantly decreased the LPS-induced phosphorylation of ERK. Fennel effectively blocked the inflammatory processes induced by LPS, by regulating pro-inflammatory cytokine production, transcription factors, and NO.

  4. Comparative kinetics and reciprocal inhibition of nitrate and nitrite uptake in roots of uninduced and induced barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) seedlings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aslam, M.; Travis, R. L.; Huffaker, R. C.

    1992-01-01

    Nitrate and NO2- transport by roots of 8-day-old uninduced and induced intact barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var CM 72) seedlings were compared to kinetic patterns, reciprocal inhibition of the transport systems, and the effect of the inhibitor, p-hydroxymercuribenzoate. Net uptake of NO3- and NO2- was measured by following the depletion of the ions from the uptake solutions. The roots of uninduced seedlings possessed a low concentration, saturable, low Km, possibly a constitutive uptake system, and a linear system for both NO3- and NO2-. The low Km system followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation between 40 and 100 micromolar, whereas the linear system was detected between 100 and 500 micromolar. In roots of induced seedlings, rates for both NO3- and NO2- uptake followed Michaelis-Menten kinetics and approached saturation at about 200 micromolar. In induced roots, two kinetically identifiable transport systems were resolved for each anion. At the lower substrate concentrations, less than 10 micromolar, the apparent low Kms of NO3- and NO2- uptake were 7 and 9 micromolar, respectively, and were similar to those of the low Km system in uninduced roots. At substrate concentrations between 10 and 200 micromolar, the apparent high Km values of NO3- uptake ranged from 34 to 36 micromolar and of NO2- uptake ranged from 41 to 49 micromolar. A linear system was also found in induced seedlings at concentrations above 500 micromolar. Double reciprocal plots indicated that NO3- and NO2- inhibited the uptake of each other competitively in both uninduced and induced seedlings; however, Ki values showed that NO3- was a more effective inhibitor than NO2-. Nitrate and NO2- transport by both the low and high Km systems were greatly inhibited by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, whereas the linear system was only slightly inhibited.

  5. Genome-wide association studies of agronomic and quality traits in a set of German winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT).

    PubMed

    Lex, Jeannette; Ahlemeyer, Jutta; Friedt, Wolfgang; Ordon, Frank

    2014-08-01

    A set of about 100 winter barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivars, comprising diverse and economically important German barley elite germplasm released during the last six decades, was previously genotypically characterized by single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) markers using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology to detect associations with phenotypic data estimated in three-year field trials at 12 locations. In order to identify further associations and to obtain information on whether the marker type influences the outcome of association genetics studies, the set of winter barley cultivars was re-analyzed using Diversity Arrays Technology (DArT) markers. As with the analysis of the SNPs, only polymorphic markers present at an allele frequency >5% were included to detect associations in a mixed linear model (MLM) approach using the TASSEL software (P ≤ 0.001). The population structure and kinship matrix were estimated on 72 simple sequence repeats (SSRs) covering the whole barley genome. The respective average linkage disequilibrium (LD) analyzed with DArT markers was estimated at 5.73 cM. A total of 52 markers gave significant associations with at least one of the traits estimated which, therefore, may be suitable for marker-assisted breeding. In addition, by comparing the results to those generated using the Illumina GoldenGate BeadArray Technology, it turned out that a different number of associations for respective traits is detected, depending on the marker system. However, as only a few of the respective DArT and Illumina markers are present in a common map, no comprehensive comparison of the detected associations was feasible, but some were probably detected in the same chromosomal regions. Because of the identification of additional marker-trait associations, it may be recommended to use both marker techniques in genome-wide association studies.

  6. Comparative analyses of genotoxicity, oxidative stress and antioxidative defence system under exposure of methyl parathion and hexaconazole in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    Dubey, Pragyan; Mishra, Amit Kumar; Singh, Ashok Kumar

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to evaluate the comparative effects of methyl parathion and hexaconazole on genotoxicity, oxidative stress, antioxidative defence system and photosynthetic pigments in barley (Hordeum vulgare L. variety karan-16). The seeds were exposed with three different concentrations, i.e. 0.05, 0.1 and 0.5 % for 6 h after three pre-soaking durations 7, 17 and 27 h which represents G1, S and G2 phases of the cell cycle, respectively. Ethyl methane sulphonate, a well-known mutagenic agent and double distilled water, was used as positive and negative controls, respectively. The results indicate significant decrease in mitotic index with increasing concentrations of pesticides, and the extent was higher in methyl parathion. Chromosomal aberrations were found more frequent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Treatment with the pesticides induced oxidative stress which was evident with higher contents of H2O2 and lipid peroxidation, and the increase was more prominent in methyl parathion. Contents of total phenolics were increased; however, soluble protein content showed a reverse trend. Among the enzymatic antioxidants, activities of superoxide dismutase and peroxidase were significantly up-regulated, and more increase was noticed in hexaconazole. Increments in total chlorophyll and carotenoid contents were observed up to 0.1 % but decreased at higher concentration (0.5 %), and the reductions were more prominent in methyl parathion than hexaconazole as compared to their respective controls. Methyl parathion treatment caused more damage in the plant cells of barley as compared to hexaconazole, which may be closely related to higher genotoxicity and oxidative stress.

  7. Quantitative trait loci for water-use efficiency in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) measured by carbon isotope discrimination under rain-fed conditions on the Canadian Prairies.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Chang, Scott X; Anyia, Anthony O

    2012-06-01

    Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) yield is commonly limited by low rainfall and high temperature during the growing season on the Canadian Prairies. Empirical knowledge suggests that carbon isotope discrimination (Δ(13)C), through its negative relationship with water-use efficiency (WUE), is a good index for selecting stable yielding crops in some rain-fed environments. Identification of quantitative trait loci (QTL) and linked markers for Δ(13)C will enhance its use efficiency in breeding programs. In the present study, two barley populations (W89001002003 × I60049 or W × I, six-row type, and Merit × H93174006 or M × H, two-row type), containing 200 and 127 recombinant inbred lines (RILs), were phenotyped for leaf Δ(13)C and agronomic traits under rain-fed environments in Alberta, Canada. A transgressive segregation pattern for leaf Δ(13)C was observed among RILs. The broad-sense heritability (H (2)) of leaf Δ(13)C was 0.8, and there was no significant interaction between genotype and environment for leaf Δ(13)C in the W × I RILs. A total of 12 QTL for leaf Δ(13)C were detected in the W × I RILs and 5 QTL in the M × H RILs. For the W × I RILs, a major QTL located on chromosome 3H near marker Bmag606 (9.3, 9.4 and 10.7 cM interval) was identified. This major QTL overlapped with several agronomic traits, with W89001002003 alleles favoring lower leaf Δ(13)C, increased plant height, and reduced leaf area index, grain yield, harvest index and days to maturity at this locus or loci. This major QTL and its associated marker, when validated, maybe useful in breeding programs aimed at improving WUE and yield stability of barley on the Canadian Prairies.

  8. A proteomics approach to study the molecular basis of enhanced salt tolerance in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) conferred by the root mutualistic fungus Piriformospora indica.

    PubMed

    Alikhani, Mehdi; Khatabi, Behnam; Sepehri, Mozhgan; Nekouei, Mojtaba Khayam; Mardi, Mohsen; Salekdeh, Ghasem Hosseini

    2013-06-01

    Piriformospora indica is a root-interacting mutualistic fungus capable of enhancing plant growth, increasing plant resistance to a wide variety of pathogens, and improving plant stress tolerance under extreme environmental conditions. Understanding the molecular mechanisms by which P. indica can improve plant tolerance to stresses will pave the way to identifying the major mechanisms underlying plant adaptability to environmental stresses. We conducted greenhouse experiments at three different salt levels (0, 100 and 300 mM NaCl) on barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) cultivar "Pallas" inoculated with P. indica. Based on the analysis of variance, P. indica had a significant impact on the barley growth and shoot biomass under normal and salt stress conditions. P. indica modulated ion accumulation in colonized plants by increasing the foliar potassium (K(+))/sodium (Na(+)) ratio, as it is considered a reliable indicator of salt stress tolerance. P. indica induced calcium (Ca(2+)) accumulation and likely influenced the stress signal transduction. Subsequently, proteomic analysis of the barley leaf sheath using two-dimensional electrophoresis resulted in detection of 968 protein spots. Of these detected spots, the abundance of 72 protein spots changed significantly in response to salt treatment and P. indica-root colonization. Mass spectrometry analysis of responsive proteins led to the identification of 51 proteins. These proteins belonged to different functional categories including photosynthesis, cell antioxidant defense, protein translation and degradation, energy production, signal transduction and cell wall arrangement. Our results showed that P. indica induced a systemic response to salt stress by altering the physiological and proteome responses of the plant host.

  9. A laser ablation ICP-MS based method for multiplexed immunoblot analysis: applications to manganese-dependent protein dynamics of photosystem II in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.).

    PubMed

    de Bang, Thomas Christian; Petersen, Jørgen; Pedas, Pai Rosager; Rogowska-Wrzesinska, Adelina; Jensen, Ole Noerregaard; Schjoerring, Jan Kofod; Jensen, Poul Erik; Thelen, Jay J; Husted, Søren

    2015-08-01

    Manganese (Mn) constitutes an essential co-factor in the oxygen-evolving complex of photosystem II (PSII). Consequently, Mn deficiency reduces photosynthetic efficiency and leads to changes in PSII composition. In order to study these changes, multiplexed protein assays are advantageous. Here, we developed a multiplexed antibody-based assay and analysed selected PSII subunits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). A selection of antibodies were labelled with specific lanthanides and immunoreacted with thylakoids exposed to Mn deficiency after western blotting. Subsequently, western blot membranes were analysed by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), which allowed selective and relative quantitative analysis via the different lanthanides. The method was evaluated against established liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) methods, based on data-dependent acquisition (DDA) and selected reaction monitoring (SRM). Manganese deficiency resulted in a general decrease in PSII protein abundances, an effect that was shown to be reversible upon Mn re-supplementation. Specifically, the extrinsic proteins PsbP and PsbQ showed Mn-dependent changes in abundances. Similar trends in the response to Mn deficiency at the protein level were observed when comparing DDA, SRM and LA-ICP-MS results. A biologically important exception to this trend was the loss of PsbO in the SRM analysis, which highlights the necessity of validating protein changes by more than one technique. The developed method enables a higher number of proteins to be multiplexed in comparison to existing immunoassays. Furthermore, multiplexed protein analysis by LA-ICP-MS provides an analytical platform with high throughput appropriate for screening large collections of plants.

  10. An eceriferum locus, cer-zv, is associated with a defect in cutin responsible for water retention in barley (Hordeum vulgare) leaves.

    PubMed

    Li, Chao; Wang, Aidong; Ma, Xiaoying; Pourkheirandish, Mohammad; Sakuma, Shun; Wang, Ning; Ning, Shunzong; Nevo, Eviatar; Nawrath, Christiane; Komatsuda, Takao; Chen, Guoxiong

    2013-03-01

    Drought limits plant growth and threatens crop productivity. A barley (Hordeum vulgare) ethylene imine-induced monogenic recessive mutant cer-zv, which is sensitive to drought, was characterized and genetically mapped in the present study. Detached leaves of cer-zv lost 34.2 % of their initial weight after 1 h of dehydration. The transpiration was much higher in cer-zv leaves than in wild-type leaves under both light and dark conditions. The stomata of cer-zv leaves functioned normally, but the cuticle of cer-zv leaves showed increased permeability to ethanol and toluidine blue dye. There was a 50-90 % reduction in four major cutin monomers, but no reduction in wax loads was found in the cer-zv mutant as compared with the wild type. Two F(2) mapping populations were established by the crosses of 23-19 × cer-zv and cer-zv × OUH602. More polymorphisms were found in EST sequences between cer-zv and OUH602 than between cer-zv and 23-19. cer-zv was located in a pericentromeric region on chromosome 4H in a 10.8 cM interval in the 23-19 × cer-zv map based on 186 gametes tested and a 1.7 cM interval in the cer-zv × OUH602 map based on 176 gametes tested. It co-segregated with EST marker AK251484 in both maps. The results indicated that the cer-zv mutant is defective in cutin, which might be responsible for the increased transpiration rate and drought sensitivity, and that the F(2) of cer-zv × OUH602 might better facilitate high resolution mapping of cer-zv.

  11. [Features of crossability, haploidy and polyembryony in hybrid combinations between common barley Hordeum vulgare L. (2n = 14) and wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L., cultivar Saratovskaya 29/Secale cereale L., cultivar Onokhoiskaya].

    PubMed

    Pershina, L A; Belova, L I; Deviatkina, E P; Rakovtseva, T S; Kravtsova, L A; Shchapova, A I

    2005-06-01

    The role of individual chromosomes of rye in the manifestation of crossability and seedling development in hybrid combinations between common barley Hordeum vulgare L., cultivar Nepolegayushchii (2n = 14) and five wheat-rye substitution lines Triticum aestivum L., cultivar Saratovskaya 29/Secale cereale L., cultivar Onokhoiskaya (2n = 40 wheat + 2 rye chromosomes). Crossability, which was measured by two parameters--frequency of set grains and frequency of grains with embryos--was shown to be significantly affected by each of the five rye chromosomes examined: 1R, 2R, 3R, 5R, and 6R; the development of barley haploids was affected by rye chromosomes 1 R, 3R, and 5R. We were the first to demonstrate that polyembryony could be induced by mutual effects of barley cytoplasm and rye chromosome 1R. Possible mechanisms controlling the development of haploids and twins in hybrid combinations H. vulgare x T. aestivum/S. cereale are discussed. The conclusion is drawn that hybrid combinations between common barley and wheat-rye substitution lines can serve as new models for studying incompatibility mechanisms in distant crosses and genetic control of parthenogenesis.

  12. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils of Origanum onites L., Origanum vulgare L. subspecies hirtum (Link) Ietswaart, Satureja thymbra L., and Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. growing wild in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Sarac, Nurdan; Ugur, Aysel

    2008-09-01

    In the present study, four separate samples of Origanum onites L., three separate samples of Satureja thymbra L., Origanum vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (Link) Ietswaart, and Thymus cilicicus Boiss. & Bal. were collected from various regions of Mugla, Turkey. The essential oils of these plants were obtained by the hydrodistillation method. Antimicrobial activities of the essential oils against microorganisms, including multiple antibiotic-resistant bacteria, were investigated using the disc diffusion method. Different antibiotic discs were used for comparison to the inhibition zones. All the essential oils used in this study were very effective against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, which included multiple resistant strains, except Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853 and Pseudomonas fluorescens MU 87. The essential oils of the O. onites, O. vulgare ssp. hirtum, and S. thymbra were especially very effective against the resistant strains such as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia MU 64, S. maltophilia MU 99, and Chryseomonas luteola MU 65. The maximum antimicrobial activity was observed with the essential oils of O. onites. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils varied depending on the species, subspecies, or variety. In fact, the essential oils of some plants belonging to the same species that were collected from different locations showed different levels of antimicrobial activities.

  13. Elemental fingerprint analysis of barley (Hordeum vulgare) using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry, isotope-ratio mass spectrometry, and multivariate statistics.

    PubMed

    Husted, Søren; Mikkelsen, Birgitte F; Jensen, Jacob; Nielsen, Niels Erik

    2004-01-01

    Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and isotope-ratio mass spectrometry (IR-MS) have been used to examine the multi-elemental composition and (15)N/(14)N and (13)C/(12)C isotope ratios of three spring barley (Hordeum vulgare) genotypes (Orthega, Barke, and Bartok) grown in three typical Danish agricultural soils (North Jutland, West Jutland, and East Zealand) differing in soil fertility. The aim of the study was to examine whether it was possible to generate a unique elemental fingerprint of individual barley genotypes irrespective of the elemental imprint plants had received from soils differing in fertility and agricultural practice. Multivariate statistics were used to analyze the elemental fingerprints of the barley genotypes at different times during a full growing season from early tillering to full maturity of the barley grains. Initially, 36 elements were analyzed in the plant samples but this number was subsequently reduced to 15 elements: B, Ba, C, Ca, Cu, Fe, K, Mg, Mn, N, Na, P, S, Sr, and Zn. These elements exceeded the limit of detection ( LOD) for all genotypes, soil types, and plant growth stages and for these elements the accuracy was better than 90% compared with apple leaf certified reference material (CRM). Principal component analysis (PCA) separated multi-elemental data in accordance with soil type when plants of similar physiological age were compared, whereas this separation disappeared if plants of all ages were compared simultaneously. Isotope ratios (delta(15)N) of plants also proved to be a highly accurate property for classification of samples according to soil type. In contrast, the differences in delta(13)C were too small to enable such classification. The differences in delta(15)N among soils were so pronounced that separation of samples according to the physiological age of plants became redundant. However, delta(15)N and the multi-elemental analysis revealed no differences between the three barley genotypes

  14. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E.; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Background Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Methods Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration – MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Results Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8–28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage

  15. Cellular Localization of Protoporphyrinogen-Oxidizing Activities of Etiolated Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Leaves (Relationship to Mechanism of Action of Protoporphyrinogen Oxidase-Inhibiting Herbicides).

    PubMed Central

    Lee, H. J.; Duke, M. V.; Duke, S. O.

    1993-01-01

    Seven-day-old, etiolated barley (Hordeum vulgare L. var Post) leaves were fractionated into crude and purified etioplast, microsomal, and plasma membrane (PM) fractions. Protoporphyrinogen oxidase (Protox) specific activities of crude etioplast, purified etioplast, microsome, and PM fractions were approximately 29, 26, 23, and 12 nmol h-1 mg-1 of protein, respectively. The herbicide acifluorfen-methyl (AFM), at 1 [mu]M, inhibited Protox activity from crude etioplasts, purified etioplasts, microsomes, and PM by 58, 59, 23, and 0% in the absence of reductants. Reductants (ascorbate, glutathione [GSH], dithiothreitol [DTT], and NADPH) individually reduced the Protox activity of all fractions, except that microsomal Protox activity was slightly stimulated by NADPH. Ascorbate, GSH, or a combination of the two reductants enhanced Protox inhibition by AFM, and AFM inhibition of Protox was greatest in all fractions with DTT. NADPH enhanced AFM inhibition significantly only in etioplast fractions. Uroporphyrinogen I (Urogen I) and coproporphyrinogen I (Coprogen I) oxidase activities were found in all fractions; however, etioplast fractions had significantly more substrate specificity for protoporphyrinogen IX (Protogen IX) than the other fractions. Urogen I and Coprogen I oxidase activities were unaffected by AFM in all fractions, and 2 mM DTT almost completely inhibited these activities from all fractions. Diethyldithiocarbamate inhibited PM Protox activity by 62% but had less effect on microsome and little or no effect on etioplast Protox. Juglone and duroquinone stimulated microsomal and PM Protox activity, whereas the lesser effect of these quinones on etioplast Protox activity was judged to be due to PM and/or microsomal contaminants. These data indicate that there are microsomal and PM Protogen IX-oxidizing activities that are not the same as those associated with the etioplast and that these activities are not inhibited in vivo by AFM. In summary, these data support

  16. Antimicrobial activity of essential oils of cultivated oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) against clinical isolates of Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Fournomiti, Maria; Kimbaris, Athanasios; Mantzourani, Ioanna; Plessas, Stavros; Theodoridou, Irene; Papaemmanouil, Virginia; Kapsiotis, Ioannis; Panopoulou, Maria; Stavropoulou, Elisavet; Bezirtzoglou, Eugenia E; Alexopoulos, Athanasios

    2015-01-01

    Oregano (Origanum vulgare), sage (Salvia officinalis), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris) are aromatic plants with ornamental, culinary, and phytotherapeutic use all over the world. In Europe, they are traditionally used in the southern countries, particularly in the Mediterranean region. The antimicrobial activities of the essential oils (EOs) derived from those plants have captured the attention of scientists as they could be used as alternatives to the increasing resistance of traditional antibiotics against pathogen infections. Therefore, significant interest in the cultivation of various aromatic and medicinal plants is recorded during the last years. However, to gain a proper and marketable chemotype various factors during the cultivation should be considered as the geographical morphology, climatic, and farming conditions. In this frame, we have studied the antimicrobial efficiency of the EOs from oregano, sage, and thyme cultivated under different conditions in a region of NE Greece in comparison to the data available in literature. Plants were purchased from a certified supplier, planted, and cultivated in an experimental field under different conditions and harvested after 9 months. EOs were extracted by using a Clevenger apparatus and tested for their antibacterial properties (Minimum inhibitory concentration - MIC) against clinical isolates of multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (n=27), Klebsiella oxytoca (n=7), and Klebsiella pneumoniae (n=16) strains by using the broth microdilution assay. Our results showed that the most sensitive organism was K. oxytoca with a mean value of MIC of 0.9 µg/mL for oregano EOs and 8.1 µg/mL for thyme. The second most sensitive strain was K. pneumoniae with mean MIC values of 9.5 µg/mL for thyme and 73.5 µg/mL for oregano EOs. E. coli strains were among the most resistant to EOs antimicrobial action as the observed MICs were 24.8-28.6 µg/mL for thyme and above 125 µg/mL for thyme and sage. Most efficient were the EOs

  17. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants

    PubMed Central

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A. M.; Voesenek, Laurentius A. C. J.; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant–plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar ‘Alva’ cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar ‘Kara’. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant–plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant–plant signalling between ‘Alva’ and ‘Kara’. Methods The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by ‘Alva’ under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS). ‘Kara’ plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the ‘Alva’ plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for ‘Kara’ plants exposed to ‘Alva’ VOCs, and also for ‘Alva’ plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Key Results Total VOC emissions by ‘Alva’ were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by ‘Alva’ plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of ‘Kara’. Conclusions The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions

  18. Red:far-red light conditions affect the emission of volatile organic compounds from barley (Hordeum vulgare), leading to altered biomass allocation in neighbouring plants.

    PubMed

    Kegge, Wouter; Ninkovic, Velemir; Glinwood, Robert; Welschen, Rob A M; Voesenek, Laurentius A C J; Pierik, Ronald

    2015-05-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) play various roles in plant-plant interactions, and constitutively produced VOCs might act as a cue to sense neighbouring plants. Previous studies have shown that VOCs emitted from the barley (Hordeum vulgare) cultivar 'Alva' cause changes in biomass allocation in plants of the cultivar 'Kara'. Other studies have shown that shading and the low red:far-red (R:FR) conditions that prevail at high plant densities can reduce the quantity and alter the composition of the VOCs emitted by Arabidopsis thaliana, but whether this affects plant-plant signalling remains unknown. This study therefore examines the effects of far-red light enrichment on VOC emissions and plant-plant signalling between 'Alva' and 'Kara'. The proximity of neighbouring plants was mimicked by supplemental far-red light treatment of VOC emitter plants of barley grown in growth chambers. Volatiles emitted by 'Alva' under control and far-red light-enriched conditions were analysed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). 'Kara' plants were exposed to the VOC blend emitted by the 'Alva' plants that were subjected to either of the light treatments. Dry matter partitioning, leaf area, stem and total root length were determined for 'Kara' plants exposed to 'Alva' VOCs, and also for 'Alva' plants exposed to either control or far-red-enriched light treatments. Total VOC emissions by 'Alva' were reduced under low R:FR conditions compared with control light conditions, although individual volatile compounds were found to be either suppressed, induced or not affected by R:FR. The altered composition of the VOC blend emitted by 'Alva' plants exposed to low R:FR was found to affect carbon allocation in receiver plants of 'Kara'. The results indicate that changes in R:FR light conditions influence the emissions of VOCs in barley, and that these altered emissions affect VOC-mediated plant-plant interactions. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on

  19. How aphids decide what is good for them: experiments to test aphid feeding behaviour on Tanacetum vulgare (L.) using different nitrogen regimes.

    PubMed

    Nowak, Heike; Komor, Ewald

    2010-08-01

    Leaf-chewing herbivores select food with a protein/carbohydrate ratio of 0.8-1.5, whereas phloem sap, which aphids feed on, has a ratio of approximately 0.1. Enhanced N fertilization increases the amino acid concentration in phloem sap and elevates the N/C ratio. The study examines: (1) whether aphids select between plants of different N nutrition, (2) whether feeding time correlates with the amino acid composition of phloem sap, and (3) at which stage of probing aphids identify the quality of the plant. Uroleucon tanaceti (Mordvilko) and Macrosiphoniella tanacetaria (Kaltenbach), specialist aphids feeding on tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.), were reared on this host plant grown essentially hydroponically (in Vermiculite) in the greenhouse on 1, 3, 6, or 12 mM NH(4)NO(3). One and 3 mM NH(4)NO(3) corresponds to the situation found in natural tansy stands. Aphid stylet penetration was monitored by electrical penetration graphs whilst phloem sap was sampled by stylectomy. Both aphid species settled 2-3 times more frequently on plants fertilized with 6 or 12 mM NH(4)NO(3). The phloem sap of these plants contained up to threefold higher amino acid concentrations, without a change in the proportion of essential amino acids. No time differences were observed before stylet penetration of plant tissue. After the first symplast contact, most aphids penetrated further, except M. tanacetaria on low-N plants, where 50% withdrew the stylet after the first probing. The duration of phloem feeding was 2-3 times longer in N-rich plants and the time spent in individual sieve tubes was up to tenfold longer. Aphids identified the nutritional quality of the host plant mainly by the amino acid concentration of phloem sap, not by leaf surface cues nor the proportion of essential amino acids. However, U. tanaceti infestation increased the percentage of methionine plus tryptophan in phloem tenfold, thus manipulating the plants nutritional quality, and causing premature leaf senescence.

  20. Chemical compositions and antibacterial effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare) on common foodborne pathogens.

    PubMed

    Dadalioglu, Itir; Evrendilek, Gulsun Akdemir

    2004-12-29

    Chemical compositions and inhibitory effects of essential oils of Turkish oregano (Origanum minutiflorum O. Schwarz & P. H. Davis), bay laurel (Laurus nobilis L.), Spanish lavender (Lavandula stoechas subsp. stoechas L.), and fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) on Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, Salmonella typhimurium, and Staphylococcus aureus were determined. After the essential oils were applied on the foodborne pathogens at doses of 0 (control), 5, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 80 microL/mL, the resultant numbers of cells surviving were counted. Results revealed that all essential oils exhibited a very strong antibacterial activity against the tested bacteria (P < 0.05). Gas chromatography-mass spectrophotometry analyses revealed that carvacrol (68.23%), 1,8-cineole (60.72%), fenchone (55.79%), and trans-anethole (85.63%) were the predominant constituents in Turkish oregano, bay laurel, Spanish lavender, and fennel essential oils, respectively.

  1. Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum) florets, a traditional culinary spice in Italy: evaluation of phenolics and volatiles in local populations, and comparison with the composition of other plant parts.

    PubMed

    Ferioli, Federico; Giambanelli, Elisa; D'Antuono, L Filippo

    2017-05-13

    Wild fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill. subsp. piperitum) florets are used as a typical spice in central and southern Italy. Although fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.), belonging to the Apiaceae (syn. Umbelliferae) family, is a well-known vegetable and aromatic plant, whose main phytochemical compounds have been extensively analysed and investigated as flavouring agents and for their putative health promoting functions, its florets have not been specifically considered up to now. Therefore, the volatile and phenolic composition of florets from an Italian wild fennel crop was determined at different developmental stages, and compared to that of leaves and fruits. Moreover, florets of nine Italian wild fennel populations of different geographical origin from northern-central Italy were also analysed. The total phenolic amount increased from leaves to florets, reaching its highest value in early florets, at 58 012 mg kg(-1) of dry matter (DM), then constantly decreased in fruits. In florets of wild populations, phenolics ranged from 6666 to 43 368 mg kg(-1) DM. The total amount of volatile compounds was more than twice higher in florets (21 449 mg kg(-1) DM) than in leaves (10 470 mg kg(-1) DM), reaching its highest value in fruits (50 533 mg kg(-1) DM). Estragole and trans-anethole were the main compounds of the volatile fraction. Total volatiles ranged from 24 367 to 60 468 mg kg(-1) DM in florets of local populations. Significant changes in the total amount and profile of both phenolic and volatile compounds occurred during plant development. The consistent increase of estragole at later developmental stages supported the claim of different sensory properties of florets and fruits. Geographical origin significantly affected phenolic and volatile composition of wild fennel florets. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Toxic essential oils. Part V: Behaviour modulating and toxic properties of thujones and thujone-containing essential oils of Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.

    PubMed

    Radulović, Niko S; Genčić, Marija S; Stojanović, Nikola M; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović-Radić, Zorica Z; Stojiljković, Nenad I

    2017-07-01

    Neurotoxic thujones (α- and β-diastereoisomers) are common constituents of plant essential oils. In this study, we employed a statistical approach to determine the contribution of thujones to the overall observed behaviour-modulating and toxic effects of essential oils (Salvia officinalis L., Artemisia absinthium L., Thuja occidentalis L. and Tanacetum vulgare L.) containing these monoterpene ketones. The data from three in vivo neuropharmacological tests on rats (open field, light-dark, and diazepam-induced sleep), and toxicity assays (brine shrimp, and antimicrobial activity against a panel of microorganisms), together with the data from detailed chemical analyses, were subjected to a multivariate statistical treatment to reveal the possible correlation(s) between the content of essential-oil constituents and the observed effects. The results strongly imply that the toxic and behaviour-modulating activity of the oils (hundreds of constituents) should not be associated exclusively with thujones. The statistical analyses pinpointed to a number of essential-oil constituents other than thujones that demonstrated a clear correlation with either the toxicity, antimicrobial effect or the activity on CNS. Thus, in addition to the thujone content, the amount and toxicity of other constituents should be taken into consideration when making risk assessment and determining the regulatory status of plants in food and medicines. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Tracking and identification of antibacterial components in the essential oil of Tanacetum vulgare L. by the combination of high-performance thin-layer chromatography with direct bioautography and mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Móricz, Ágnes M; Häbe, Tim T; Böszörményi, Andrea; Ott, Péter G; Morlock, Gertrud E

    2015-11-27

    Two tansy (Tanacetum vulgare L.) essential oils were obtained by steam distillation of the capitula with subsequent liquid-liquid extraction (oil 1) or with use of an auxiliary phase for the trapping of the steam components (oil 2). These oils were investigated against Bacillus subtilis F1276, B. subtilis spizizenii (DSM 618), Xanthomonas euvesicatoria, Pseudomonas syringae pv. maculicola, Ralstonia solanacearum strain GMI1000 and Aliivibrio fischeri, using the coupling of high-performance thin-layer chromatography to direct bioautography (HPTLC-DB). Using this method with the potato and tomato pathogen R. solanacearum is shown for the first time. Due to the advanced extraction process, oil 2 was richer in components and provided more inhibition zones. The main bioactive components were identified by scanning HPTLC-Direct Analysis in Real Time mass spectrometry (HPTLC-DART-MS) and solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography electron impact MS (SPME-GC-EI-MS) as cis- and trans-chrysanthenol as well as trans-chrysanthenyl acetate. cis-Chrysanthenol exhibited antibacterial effects against all tested bacteria, whereas trans-chrysanthenol inhibited B. subtilis, R. solanacearum and A. fischeri. trans-Chrysanthenyl acetate was an inhibitor for X. euvesicatoria, R. solanacearum and A. fischeri. Although HPTLC-DART-MS resulted in a comparable fragmentation, the ionization characteristics and the recorded mass spectra clearly showed that DART is a softer ionization technique than EI. It is also more affected by ambient conditions and thus prone to additional oxidation products.

  4. Clinical evaluation of the efficacy and safety of a medical device in various forms containing Triticum vulgare for the treatment of venous leg ulcers – a randomized pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Romanelli, Marco; Macchia, Michela; Panduri, Salvatore; Paggi, Battistino; Saponati, Giorgio; Dini, Valentina

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out to assess the efficacy and tolerability of the topical application of an aqueous extract of Triticum vulgare (TV) in different vehicles (cream, impregnated gauzes, foam, hydrogel, and dressing gel) for the treatment of venous lower leg ulcers. Fifty patients were randomized to receive one of the five investigational vehicles. Treatment was performed up to complete healing or to a maximum of 29 days. The wound size reduction from baseline was the primary efficacy variable, which was measured by means of a noninvasive laser scanner instrument for wound assessment. In all groups, apart from the foam group, a similar trend toward the reduction of the surface area was observed. The cream showed the greatest effect on the mean reduction of the lesion size. At last visit, six ulcers were healed: two in the cream group, three in the gauze group, and one in the dressing gel group. In the patients treated with the cream, the gauzes, the hydrogel, and the dressing gel, the reduction of lesion size was 40%–50%; the reduction was smaller in the foam group. No impact in terms of age on the healing process was found. The Total Symptoms Score decreased in all groups during the study; a greater efficacy in terms of signs/symptoms was observed in the patients treated with the gauzes. In the dressing gel group, one patient had an infection of the wound after 3 weeks of treatment and 2 of colonization, leading to a systemic antibiotic treatment. The events were judged as nonrelated to the device used. On the basis of the results, it could be argued that the medical device may be useful in the treatment of chronic venous ulcers. PMID:26060395