Science.gov

Sample records for portuguese restoration war

  1. Portuguese man-of-war envenomation.

    PubMed

    Kaufman, M B

    1992-02-01

    Portuguese man-of-war and jellyfish stings are common occurrence in the coastal waters of the southern United States. Signs and symptoms of Portuguese man-of-war envenomation usually appear immediately following a sting but may be delayed for several hours. Reactions are commonly localized and comprise pain, paresthesia, and intense burning with a linear, red, papular eruption or urticaria at the contact site. Systemic signs may include nausea, myalgia, headache, chills, or pallor. Cardiovascular collapse and death have been reported. Venom can be inactivated with dilute acetic acid (vinegar), proteolytic meat tenderizer, or baking soda. Tentacle debris should be removed. Resolution of symptoms usually occurs within 72 hours, without sequelae. PMID:1351283

  2. Fatal Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia physalis) envenomation.

    PubMed

    Stein, M R; Marraccini, J V; Rothschild, N E; Burnett, J W

    1989-03-01

    A fatal case of Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-o'-war) envenomation occurred on the Florida Atlantic coast in 1987. Despite appropriate beachside first aid, the patient was conscious only several minutes before having primary respiratory arrest and, later, cardiovascular collapse that resulted in death. Discharged nematocysts were still visible on the injured stratum corneum five days after envenomation. Additional treatment maneuvers suggested by this case include testing the tentacle fragments found on the victim's skin before their removal to ensure that nematocyst firing has been counteracted. We document the first human fatality caused by P physalis envenomation. PMID:2564268

  3. Cellular basis for tentacle adherence in the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis).

    PubMed

    Cormier, S M; Hessinger, D A

    1980-01-01

    The fishing tentacles of Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-of-war) adhere to prey and human victims by the penetration of a barbed tubule connected to an intracellular nematocyst. The nematocyst is surrounded by a fibrillar system of microtubules and microfilaments that terminate in hemidesmosomal processes which anchor the nematocyst to the acellular mesoglea of the tentacle. PMID:6111136

  4. A case of severe stinging caused by venomous marine animal, "Portuguese man of war" (Physalia species) in all probability.

    PubMed

    Kajfasz, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    There are about 150 million jellyfish stings every year. "Portuguese man of war" is responsible for substantial proportion of stings worldwide. The biggest risk from a jellyfish stings may come from incorrect management. A 42-year-old woman was severely stung by venomous marine animal while bathing in waters of the Thai Gulf. It was most likely "Portuguese man of war". The patient didn't remember while being rescued. Looking at damages it seems that first aid was incorrect. Inappropriate and delayed management caused disfiguring scars. On the ground of this case, first aid for "Portuguese man of war" stings is reminded.

  5. Envenoming caused by a Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia physalis) manifesting as purpuric papules.

    PubMed

    Risk, Yamin José; Cardoso, João Luiz Costa; Haddad Junior, Vidal

    2012-01-01

    We report the case of a 42-year old woman who was envenomed by a Portuguese man-o'-war (Physalia physalis). She presented an anomalous reaction manifested by purpuric papules that appeared after the initial phase of envenoming (around 24 hours later), when linear erythematous and edematous papules were observed. Late-onset reactions in accidents involving cnidarians commonly include chronic eruptions and local pigmentation. PMID:22892787

  6. Hydrodynamics of sailing of the Portuguese man-of-war Physalia physalis

    PubMed Central

    Iosilevskii, G.; Weihs, D.

    2008-01-01

    Physalia physalis, commonly known as the Portuguese man-of-war (PMW), is a peculiar looking colony of specialized polyps. The most conspicuous members of this colony are the gas-filled sail-like float and the long tentacles, budding asymmetrically beneath the float. This study addresses the sailing of the PMW, and, in particular, the hydrodynamics of its trailing tentacles, the interaction between the tentacles and the float and the actual sailing performance. This paper attempts to provide answers for two of the many open questions concerning P. physalis: why does it need a sail? and how does it harness the sail? PMID:19091687

  7. Hydrodynamics of sailing of the Portuguese man-of-war Physalia physalis.

    PubMed

    Iosilevskii, G; Weihs, D

    2009-07-01

    Physalia physalis, commonly known as the Portuguese man-of-war (PMW), is a peculiar looking colony of specialized polyps. The most conspicuous members of this colony are the gas-filled sail-like float and the long tentacles, budding asymmetrically beneath the float. This study addresses the sailing of the PMW, and, in particular, the hydrodynamics of its trailing tentacles, the interaction between the tentacles and the float and the actual sailing performance. This paper attempts to provide answers for two of the many open questions concerning P. physalis: why does it need a sail? and how does it harness the sail? PMID:19091687

  8. Isolation of hybridomas secreting monoclonal antibodies against Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-o'war) nematocyst venom.

    PubMed

    Gaur, P K; Anthony, R L; Calton, G J; Burnett, J W

    1982-01-01

    Balb/C mice were immunized with crude Portuguese Man-O'War (Physalia physalis) nematocyst venom and their spleen immunocytes were fused with plasmacytoma cells. Nine hybridomas which produced IgG specific for Man-O'War venom were identified using a specific ELISA technique. Ammonium sulfate and DEAE cellulose-purified monoclonal anti-venom antibody had an ELISA titer of 1:4000 and an ability to neutralize the lethal activity (4 LD50/0.6 ml ascites fluid) of an i.v. challenge of crude venom. Indirect immunofluorescence testing demonstrated that the monoclonal antibody isolated in these experiments reacted against a venom component located in the nematocyst wall and thread. PMID:6123165

  9. Operational protocol for the sighting and tracking of Portuguese man-of-war in the southeastern Bay of Biscay: Observations and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, L.; Zaldua-Mendizabal, N.; Del Campo, A.; Franco, J.; Mader, J.; Cotano, U.; Fraile, I.; Rubio, A.; Uriarte, Ad.; Caballero, A.

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes the operational protocol established in the southeastern Bay of Biscay (study area) for the sighting and tracking of Portuguese man-of-war. This action protocol combines sightings of Portuguese man-of-war at sea with hourly surface currents and winds obtained with the Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS) and the Weather Research and Forecasting model (WRF), respectively. These data are used in the Sediment, Oil spill and Fish Tracking model (SOFT) to estimate the drift of Portuguese man-of-war. Here we provide information on sightings of Portuguese man-of-war in the study area and show the most relevant results of the SOFT calibration obtained using trajectories from eight satellite pop-up tags for fish tracking. These tags have similar characteristics (such as weight and density) to the Portuguese man-of-war that reach the study area. In 2012 and 2013, there were a total of 48 sightings of Portuguese man-of-war, most of them located in the Zarautz beach area (Basque Country coast). The SOFT calibration shows that the tag drift is mainly controlled by the wind. With winds from the southern and western sectors (third quadrant), SOFT is able to reproduce the tag drift using surface current velocities estimated as ~1.8% of the WRF wind velocities. The SOFT simulations carried out using the ROMS current velocities (with or without the WRF wind velocities) do not improve the results.

  10. Effect of Portuguese man-of-war venom on isolated vascular segments.

    PubMed

    Loredo, J S; Gonzalez, R R; Hessinger, D A

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the mode of action of nematocyst venom from the Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) on isolated rabbit arterial ring segments, and to see if these in vitro effects were similar to those observed in the intact skeletal muscle vasculature of the dog (see Loredo et al., J. Pharmacol. Exp. Ther. 232: 301-304, 1985). The venom (0.021-4.28 micrograms/ml) produced dose-dependent relaxations of norepinephrine precontracted arterial segments from various vascular beds. Venom-induced relaxations were blocked by sodium meclofenamate (10-20 micrograms/ml), but not by atropine (6 micrograms/ml), propranolol (4-12 micrograms/ml) or quinacrine (2-4 X 10(-5) M). These results were similar to those observed in the intact skeletal muscle vascular bed of the dog and further implicate the stimulation of endogenous prostaglandin synthesis as the mechanism by which P. physalis venom dilates vasculature. PMID:2867212

  11. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Restoration of... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). (a) Restoration of contributions when no entitlement is charged. If the provisions of §...

  12. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Restoration of... Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War). (a) Restoration of contributions when no entitlement is charged. If the provisions of §...

  13. Childhood maltreatment in adult offspring of Portuguese war veterans with and without PTSD

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Aida; Sales, Luisa; Cardoso, Rui M.; Kleber, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    Background The colonial war that Portugal was involved in between 1961 and 1974 had a significant impact on veterans and their families. However, it is unclear what the consequences of this war are, in particular with regard to levels of childhood maltreatment (CM) in offspring. Objective Our study aims to analyze the influences of fathers’ war exposure and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on the offspring's CM and simultaneously test the hypothesis of the intergenerational transmission of father–child CM. Method Cross-sectional data were collected, using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire—Short Form, from 203 adult children and 117 fathers. Subjects were distributed according to three conditions based on the father's war exposure status: did not participate in war, or non-war-exposed (NW); participated in war, or war-exposed (W); and war-exposed with PTSD diagnosis (WP). The data were examined using correlations, variance/covariance, and regression analyses. Results Children of war veterans with PTSD reported more emotional and physical neglect, while their fathers reported increased emotional and physical abuse exposure during their own childhood. Significant father–child CM correlations were found in the war veteran group but less in the war veteran with PTSD group. Father CM predicted 16% of offspring CM of children of war veterans. Conclusions The father's war-related PTSD might be a risk factor for offspring neglect but potentially a protective one for the father–child abuse transmission. War-exposed fathers without PTSD did transmit their own CM experiences more often. Therefore, father's war exposure and father's war PTSD may each be important variables to take into account in the study of intergenerational transmission of CM. PMID:24505510

  14. Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) in the Mediterranean: A permanent invasion or a casual appearance?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prieto, L.; Macías, D.; Peliz, A.; Ruiz, J.

    2015-06-01

    In 2010, the Mediterranean basin experienced Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) swarms that had dramatic consequences, including the region’s first recorded human fatality attributed to a jellyfish sting. Despite the impact of jellyfish on coastal economic activity and the importance of the tourism industry for the Mediterranean region (accounting for 15% of global tourism), no scientific consensus has been achieved regarding the causes of this episode. Here, we analyse the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the North-East Atlantic Ocean during the months previous to the appearance of P. physalis in the Mediterranean. We simulate the probable drift of Atlantic populations into the Mediterranean basin with a numerical model and compare model results with available observations. We conclude that the summer 2010 P. Physalis swarm was the result of an unusual combination of meteorological and oceanographic conditions during the previous winter and not a permanent invasion favoured by climatic changes.

  15. Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) in the Mediterranean: A permanent invasion or a casual appearance?

    PubMed

    Prieto, L; Macías, D; Peliz, A; Ruiz, J

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Mediterranean basin experienced Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) swarms that had dramatic consequences, including the region's first recorded human fatality attributed to a jellyfish sting. Despite the impact of jellyfish on coastal economic activity and the importance of the tourism industry for the Mediterranean region (accounting for 15% of global tourism), no scientific consensus has been achieved regarding the causes of this episode. Here, we analyse the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the North-East Atlantic Ocean during the months previous to the appearance of P. physalis in the Mediterranean. We simulate the probable drift of Atlantic populations into the Mediterranean basin with a numerical model and compare model results with available observations. We conclude that the summer 2010 P. Physalis swarm was the result of an unusual combination of meteorological and oceanographic conditions during the previous winter and not a permanent invasion favoured by climatic changes. PMID:26108978

  16. Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) in the Mediterranean: A permanent invasion or a casual appearance?

    PubMed Central

    Prieto, L.; Macías, D.; Peliz, A.; Ruiz, J.

    2015-01-01

    In 2010, the Mediterranean basin experienced Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) swarms that had dramatic consequences, including the region’s first recorded human fatality attributed to a jellyfish sting. Despite the impact of jellyfish on coastal economic activity and the importance of the tourism industry for the Mediterranean region (accounting for 15% of global tourism), no scientific consensus has been achieved regarding the causes of this episode. Here, we analyse the meteorological and oceanographic conditions of the North-East Atlantic Ocean during the months previous to the appearance of P. physalis in the Mediterranean. We simulate the probable drift of Atlantic populations into the Mediterranean basin with a numerical model and compare model results with available observations. We conclude that the summer 2010 P. Physalis swarm was the result of an unusual combination of meteorological and oceanographic conditions during the previous winter and not a permanent invasion favoured by climatic changes. PMID:26108978

  17. Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalia physalis) venom induces calcium influx into cells by permeabilizing plasma membranes.

    PubMed

    Edwards, L; Hessinger, D A

    2000-08-01

    Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalia physalis) nematocyst venom dose-dependently stimulates calcium (45Ca(2+)) influx into L-929, GH(4)C(1), FRL, and embryonic chick heart cells. Venom-induced calcium influx is not blocked by ouabain, vanadate, nor organic calcium channel blockers, but is blocked by transition metal cations, such as lanthanum and zinc. Venom-induced calcium influx is accompanied in a dose-dependent manner by the release of intracellular lactate dehydrogenase, indicating a loss in plasma membrane integrity and cytolysis. Concentrations of zinc that block 45Ca(2+) influx also block lactate dehydrogenase release. Lanthanum, which also blocks 45Ca(2+) uptake, does not neutralize the cytolytic activity of the venom, but rather inhibits the venom's cytolytic action at the level of the target cell plasma membrane. Our findings indicate that Man-of-war venom causes an influx of calcium into several different cells types, not just those of the cardiovascular system, and this influx likely occurs by permeabilizing the plasma membranes of cells. PMID:10708794

  18. Apparent membrane pore-formation by Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalia physalis) venom in intact cultured cells.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Lincoln P; Whitter, Ernest; Hessinger, David A

    2002-09-01

    Intracellular, ratiometric microfluorimetry with fura-2 reveals that low doses of Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalia physalis) venom cause a linear increase in intracellular calcium accumulation by cultured L-929 cells. The influx of calcium is preceded by a lag period that is relatively independent of venom concentration, except at very low concentrations. Electron micrographs of negatively stained preparations of membranes from venom-treated L-929 and GH(4)C(1) cells exhibit 10-80 nm diameter lesions. The number and diameter of these lesions correlate with venom concentration. The venom forms lesions in GH(4)C(1) cells at much lower concentrations than in L-929 cells. Osmotic protectants such as sucrose and polyethylene glycol (PEG), reduce the extent of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release from venom-treated cells with the higher molecular weight PEG causing a greater inhibition of LDH release than sucrose. These results imply that Man-of-war venom produces pore-like structures in the membranes of target cells, which leads to colloid osmotic swelling with subsequent release of intracellular proteins and cell lysis. PMID:12220715

  19. Exocytotic and cytolytic release of histamine from mast cells treated with Portuguese man-of-war (Physalia physalis) venom.

    PubMed

    Cormier, S M

    1984-07-01

    Electron microscopic observations suggest that venom from isolated nematocysts of the stinging tentacles of the Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis, causes histamine release via a rapid, short-duration exocytosis of granules and a slower, long-duration lysis of mast cells. Fine structural changes in mast cells are concurrent with histamine release and are independent of the presence of leukocytes. Vesiculation of the plasma membrane and release of granules nearest the cell surface occur within 10 sec after exposure to 100 micrograms venom/10(5) cells. Released granules and granules retained in plasma membrane invaginations are fibrous and less electron opaque than more centrally located granules. Complex channels to the external medium continue to form, and within 1 min, characteristics of both degranulation and cytolysis are well advanced. Mitochondria are swollen or disrupted. Microridges are absent. Intracellular granules are significantly fewer in venom-treated mast cells, but are more widely separated than in controls. This suggests that degranulation occurs at early stages but is halted as cytolysis proceeds. PMID:6206195

  20. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf...

  1. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf...

  2. 38 CFR 21.5053 - Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf War).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... contributions (Persian Gulf War). 21.5053 Section 21.5053 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS (CONTINUED) VOCATIONAL REHABILITATION AND EDUCATION Post-Vietnam Era Veterans' Educational Assistance Under 38 U.S.C. Chapter 32 Participation § 21.5053 Restoration of contributions (Persian Gulf...

  3. The effect of Portuguese Man-of-war (Physalia physalis) venom on calcium, sodium and potassium fluxes of cultured embryonic chick heart cells.

    PubMed

    Edwards, L; Luo, E; Hall, R; Gonzalez, R R; Hessinger, D A

    2000-03-01

    Portuguese Man-of-war venom markedly increases calcium (45Ca2+) influx into primary, cultured, embryonic chick heart cells. This action is dose-dependent, but is unaffected by organic calcium blockers (diltiazem, verapamil, nifedipine, nimodipine and mibefradil). On the other hand, certain trivalent (La3+, Gd3+) and divalent (Zn2+, Ni2+, Cu2+, Mn2+) metals inhibit venom-induced calcium influx. Sodium (22Na+) influx into chick heart cells is also significantly increased by Man-of-war venom. Flecainide does not block venom-induced sodium influx. The efflux of the potassium analogue, 86Rb+, from heart cells is also significantly increased by the venom. The venom, however, has little or no effect on rubidium (86Rb+) or 2-deoxy-D-[2-3H] glucose influx. PMID:10669022

  4. Skin lesions in envenoming by cnidarians (Portuguese man-of-war and jellyfish): etiology and severity of accidents on the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Silveira, Fábio Lang da; Migotto, Alvaro Esteves

    2010-01-01

    This work attempts to establish dermatological identification patterns for Brazilian cnidarian species and a probable correlation with envenoming severity. In an observational prospective study, one hundred and twenty-eight patients from the North Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil were seen between 2002 and 2008. About 80% of these showed only local effects (erythema, edema, and pain) with small, less than 20 cm, oval or round skin marks and impressions from small tentacles. Approximately 20% of the victims had long, more than 20 cm, linear and crossed marks with frequent systemic phenomena, such as malaise, vomiting, dyspnea, and tachycardia. The former is compatible with the common hydromedusa from Southeast and Southern Brazil (Olindias sambaquiensis). The long linear marks with intense pain and systemic phenomena are compatible with envenoming by the box jellyfish Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus and the hydrozoan Portuguese man-of-war (Physalis physalis). There was an association between skin marks and probable accident etiology. This simple observation rule can be indicative of severity, as the Cubozoa Class (box jellyfish) and Portuguese man-of-war cause the most severe accidents. In such cases, medical attention, including intensive care, is important, as the systemic manifestations can be associated with death. PMID:20305955

  5. Skin lesions in envenoming by cnidarians (Portuguese man-of-war and jellyfish): etiology and severity of accidents on the Brazilian coast.

    PubMed

    Haddad Junior, Vidal; Silveira, Fábio Lang da; Migotto, Alvaro Esteves

    2010-01-01

    This work attempts to establish dermatological identification patterns for Brazilian cnidarian species and a probable correlation with envenoming severity. In an observational prospective study, one hundred and twenty-eight patients from the North Coast region of São Paulo State, Brazil were seen between 2002 and 2008. About 80% of these showed only local effects (erythema, edema, and pain) with small, less than 20 cm, oval or round skin marks and impressions from small tentacles. Approximately 20% of the victims had long, more than 20 cm, linear and crossed marks with frequent systemic phenomena, such as malaise, vomiting, dyspnea, and tachycardia. The former is compatible with the common hydromedusa from Southeast and Southern Brazil (Olindias sambaquiensis). The long linear marks with intense pain and systemic phenomena are compatible with envenoming by the box jellyfish Tamoya haplonema and Chiropsalmus quadrumanus and the hydrozoan Portuguese man-of-war (Physalis physalis). There was an association between skin marks and probable accident etiology. This simple observation rule can be indicative of severity, as the Cubozoa Class (box jellyfish) and Portuguese man-of-war cause the most severe accidents. In such cases, medical attention, including intensive care, is important, as the systemic manifestations can be associated with death.

  6. Immunolocalization of a voltage-gated calcium channel β subunit in the tentacles and cnidocytes of the Portuguese man-of-war, Physalia physalis.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, Christelle; Anderson, Peter A V

    2014-12-01

    This study investigated the localization of a voltage-gated calcium channel (VGCC) β subunit in the tentacles and cnidocytes of the Portuguese man-of-war using confocal immunocytochemistry. An antibody specific to the Ca(2+) channel β subunit of the Portuguese-man-of-war (PpCaVβ) was generated, and characterized by Western immunoblotting. The antibody labeling was widespread in the ectoderm of cnidosacs of the tentacles. The binding of the antibody on isolated cnidocytes was distributed at the base of the cell and appeared as multiple strong fluorescent plaques located around the basal hemisphere of the cell. The distribution of PpCaVβ in the cnidocyte is consistent with previous studies on other hydrozoans that demonstrated that cnidocytes convey sensory information to other cnidocytes through chemical synapses in which the cnidocyte is pre-synaptic to elements of the animal's nervous system. Importantly and surprisingly, PpCaVβ did not localize to the apical surface of the cnidocyte where the exocytotic events involved in cnidocyst discharge are thought to take place. PMID:25572213

  7. The effect of verapamil on the cardiotoxic activity of Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) and sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) venoms.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Gean, C J; Calton, G J; Warnick, J E

    1985-01-01

    Verapamil, a calcium antagonist, is effective in delaying death in mice after i.v. challenge with sea nettle (Chrysaora quinquecirrha) or Portuguese man-o'war (Physalia physalis) crude venom. Death caused by these venoms could also be delayed by prior medication of the animals. Continuous EKG monitoring of sea nettle venom-challenged rats demonstrated that a single rapid injection of verapamil might require 4 min to be effective and that up to four repeated injections may be necessary to counteract the venom-induced abnormalities. Verapamil reduced the sea nettle venom-induced positive inotropic effect on isolated guinea pig atrial strips. These data further indicate the effectiveness of verapamil as a therapeutic agent against jellyfish cardiotoxins. PMID:2865830

  8. Things Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo, Margaret F.

    Presented in this booklet are brief descriptions of items and activities that are symbolic of Portuguese culture. Some of the items and activities described include traditional costumes, musical instruments, the Portuguese flag and national symbol, and cassette recordings of Portuguese songs. Several recipes for Portuguese dishes are provided. A…

  9. Isolation and partial characterization of a hemolytic and toxic protein from the nematocyst venom of the Portuguese Man-of-War, Physalia physalis.

    PubMed

    Tamkun, M M; Hessinger, D A

    1981-01-30

    Nematocysts isolated from the stinging tentacles of the Atlantic Portuguese Man-of-War (Physalia physalis) possess a potent venom composed of several proteins. A hemolytic protein lethal to mice has been isolated from this nematocyst venom. This protein, physalitoxin, appears to be responsible for both the venom's hemolytic and lethal activities. The hemolysin has a molecular weight of approx. 240 000, a sedimentation coefficient of 7.8 S, and is rod-like in shape with a calculated axial ratio of about 1 : 10. It appears to be composed of three subunits of unequal size, each of which is glycosylated. Two of these subunits seem to have pKi values near 8.2 and the third near 5.5. Physalitoxin comprises about 28% of the total nematocyst venom protein. It is 10.6% carbohydrate by weight and represents the major glycoprotein of the venom. Physalitoxin is inactivated by concanavalin A and this inactivation can be blocked with alpha-methyl-mannoside. The inactivation by concanavalin A is temperature-dependent about 12 degrees C and the hemolytic activity of untreated venom is temperature-dependent below 12 degrees C. Physalitoxin is the first hemolytic toxin from a cnidarian to be purified directly from isolated nematocysts. PMID:6111356

  10. Cloning and functional expression of voltage-gated ion channel subunits from cnidocytes of the Portuguese Man O'War Physalia physalis.

    PubMed

    Bouchard, C; Price, R B; Moneypenny, C G; Thompson, L F; Zillhardt, M; Stalheim, L; Anderson, P A V

    2006-08-01

    Cnidocytes were dissociated from the tentacles of the Portuguese Man O'War Physalia physalis using heat treatment, and purified using density centrifugation. Visual observation confirmed that these cnidocytes contained a nucleus, a cnidocyst and an apical stereocilium, confirming that the cells were intact. A cnidocyte-specific amplified cDNA library was then prepared using RNA isolated from the cnidocytes, and screened for voltage-gated ion channel subunits using conventional molecular cloning techniques. A variety of channel proteins were identified and full-length sequence obtained for two of them, a Ca(2+) channel beta subunit (PpCa(V)beta) and a Shaker-like K(+) channel (PpK(V)1). The location of the transcripts was confirmed by RT-PCR of total RNA isolated from individually selected and rinsed cnidocytes. The functional properties of these two channel proteins were characterized electrophysiologically using heterologous expression. PpCa(V)beta modulates currents carried by both cnidarian and mammalian alpha(1) subunits although the specifics of the modulation differ. PpK(V)1 produces fast transient outward currents that have properties typical of other Shaker channels. The possible role of these channel proteins in the behavior of cnidocytes is discussed. PMID:16857882

  11. Rehabilitation and restoration: orthopaedics and disabled soldiers in Germany and Britain in the First World War.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Julie; Perry, Heather R

    2014-01-01

    This article offers a comparative analysis of the evolution of orthopaedics and rehabilitation within German and British military medicine during the Great War. In it, we reveal how the field of orthopaedics became integral to military medicine by tracing the evolution of the discipline and its practitioners in each nation during the war. In doing so, however, we document not only when and why both medical specialists and military officials realized that maintaining their respective national fighting forces depended upon the efficient rehabilitation of wounded soldiers, but also how these rehabilitative practices and goals reflected the particularities of the military context, civilian society and social structure of each nation. Thus, while our comparison reveals a number of similarities in the orthopaedic developments within each nation as a response to the Great War, we also reveal significant national differences in war-time medical goals, rehabilitation treatments and soldierly 'medical experiences'. Moreover, as we demonstrate, a social and cultural re-conceptualization of the disabled body accompanied the medical advancements developed for him; however, this re-conceptualization was not the same in each nation. Thus, what our article reveals is that although the guns of August fell silent in 1918, the war's medical experiences lingered long thereafter shaping the future of disability medicine in both nations.

  12. Portuguese Guitar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inacio, Octavio

    When referring to Portuguese traditional music, fado inevitably comes to mind. In this particular style of Portuguese music a singer is accompanied by two instruments: a classical guitar (more commonly known as viola) and a pear-shaped plucked chordophone, with six courses of double strings - the Portuguese guitar. The characteristic sonority of this instrument is a great part of what makes fado so distinguishable from any other style of traditional music in Europe. While from an ethnological and a musicological perspective this instrument has gained the attention of a handful of researchers (de Oliveira 2000; Cabral 1998), the scientific study of the vibroacoustic dynamics of these instruments is very recent. Fortunately, as with most other instruments, decades of refining craftsmanship have provided Portuguese guitars of excellent quality. Even if still unknown to the greater part of the musical world, the sonority, timbre and dynamical range of the Portuguese guitar continue to seduce many new listeners.

  13. [Gil Eannes--the hospital ship of the Portuguese fishing fleet].

    PubMed

    Ramos, Samuel; Doria, José Luís; Pina, Madalena Esperança

    2008-06-01

    The history of Portuguese hospital-ships dates back to the fleets in the era of the Great Discoveries. In 1916, during the First World War, the Allies appealed to Portugal to act as a neutral country. All the German ships on the river Tagus were impounded and adapted for tasks related to the war. The Hanseatic line vessel Lahneck had its name changed to Gil Eannes and was modified for troop transport and to give assistance to fishing boats. Many years later, when the old Gil Eanes came to the end of its life and needed to be replaced, a new ship was built in the Viana do Castelo shipyard, using up-to-date designs for a hospital-ship. The new ship was launched in 1955, mainly to assist the Portuguese cod fish fleet, working in the seas around Newfoundland. More recently, it has returned to Viana do Castelo docks and, after restoration, has been transformed into a nautical museum and a student residence, to keep alive the memories of this traditional Portuguese fishermen's activity. PMID:19579337

  14. Portuguese Special Course: 12 Weeks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Defense Language Inst., Washington, DC.

    This 12-week course in beginning Portuguese comprises four volumes of student text (Lessons 1-55) and a fifth volume of Portuguese-English/English-Portuguese vocabulary. Lesson materials consist of basic dialogs with English translation, recombination dialogs, readings and comprehension questions, oral exercises, and in later units, additional…

  15. Issues in Portuguese Bilingual Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macedo, Donaldo P., Ed.

    The following articles are included: (1) "Bilingual-Bicultural Education for Portuguese-Americans: An Overview" (Nelson H. Vieira); (2) "Minority Status for the Portuguese: Its Implication in Higher Education" (Gilbert R. Cavaco); (3) "The Luso-American Limbo: Closer to Heaven or Hell?" (Ana M. Fonseca); (4) "Bicognition: A Treatise on Conflict…

  16. The Portuguese Climate Portal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Sandra; Deus, Ricardo; Nogueira, Miguel; Viterbo, Pedro; Miranda, Miguel; Antunes, Sílvia; Silva, Alvaro; Miranda, Pedro

    2016-04-01

    The Portuguese Local Warming Website (http://portaldoclima.pt) has been developed in order to support the society in Portugal in preparing for the adaptation to the ongoing and future effects of climate change. The climate portal provides systematic and easy access to authoritative scientific data ready to be used by a vast and diverse user community from different public and private sectors, key players and decision makers, but also to high school students, contributing to the increase in knowledge and awareness on climate change topics. A comprehensive set of regional climate variables and indicators are computed, explained and graphically presented. Variables and indicators were built in agreement with identified needs after consultation of the relevant social partners from different sectors, including agriculture, water resources, health, environment and energy and also in direct cooperation with the Portuguese National Strategy for Climate Change Adaptation (ENAAC) group. The visual interface allows the user to dynamically interact, explore, quickly analyze and compare, but also to download and import the data and graphics. The climate variables and indicators are computed from state-of-the-art regional climate model (RCM) simulations (e.g., CORDEX project), at high space-temporal detail, allowing to push the limits of the projections down to local administrative regions (NUTS3) and monthly or seasonal periods, promoting local adaptation strategies. The portal provides both historical data (observed and modelled for the 1971-2000 period) and future climate projections for different scenarios (modelled for the 2011-2100 period). A large effort was undertaken in order to quantify the impacts of the risk of extreme events, such as heavy rain and flooding, droughts, heat and cold waves, and fires. Furthermore the different climate scenarios and the ensemble of RCM models, with high temporal (daily) and spatial (~11km) detail, is taken advantage in order to

  17. Orthographic Context Sensitivity in Vowel Decoding by Portuguese Monolingual and Portuguese-English Bilingual Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vale, Ana Paula

    2011-01-01

    This study examines the pronunciation of the first vowel in decoding disyllabic pseudowords derived from Portuguese words. Participants were 96 Portuguese monolinguals and 52 Portuguese-English bilinguals of equivalent Portuguese reading levels. The results indicate that sensitivity to vowel context emerges early, both in monolinguals and in…

  18. War Is Not the Answer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Besteman, Karst J.

    1989-01-01

    Concludes that a war on drugs is not the answer to the problem of drug abuse in the United States. Stresses that the hostile atmosphere generated by the overemphasis upon interdiction and enforcement of penalties undermines the healing and restoring efforts needed in reducing the individual's demand for drugs. (KO)

  19. Rutherford's war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Campbell, John

    2016-02-01

    Seagulls, sea lions and the comic-book hero Professor Radium were all recruited to fight the threat of submarines during the First World War. But as John Campbell explains, it was Ernest Rutherford who led the way a century ago in using acoustics to deter these deadly craft.

  20. Portuguese version of the PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M)-I: Confirmatory Factor Analysis and reliability.

    PubMed

    Carvalho, Teresa; Cunha, Marina; Pinto-Gouveia, José; Duarte, Joana

    2015-03-30

    The PTSD Checklist-Military Version (PCL-M) is a brief self-report instrument widely used to assess Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptomatology in war Veterans, according to DSM-IV. This study sought out to explore the factor structure and reliability of the Portuguese version of the PCL-M. A sample of 660 Portuguese Colonial War Veterans completed the PCL-M. Several Confirmatory Factor Analyses were conducted to test different structures for PCL-M PTSD symptoms. Although the respecified first-order four-factor model based on King et al.'s model showed the best fit to the data, the respecified first and second-order models based on the DSM-IV symptom clusters also presented an acceptable fit. In addition, the PCL-M showed adequate reliability. The Portuguese version of the PCL-M is thus a valid and reliable measure to assess the severity of PTSD symptoms as described in DSM-IV. Its use with Portuguese Colonial War Veterans may ease screening of possible PTSD cases, promote more suitable treatment planning, and enable monitoring of therapeutic outcomes.

  1. Portuguese as a Minority Language: Attitudes of Undergraduate Students Studying Portuguese Literature

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reis, Sonia Maria Nunes

    2011-01-01

    The differences between European Portuguese (EP) and Brazilian Portuguese (BP) raise some interesting issues that are well worth considering through undergraduate university students' perceptions and attitudes. Instructors of undergraduate courses in Portuguese literature suggest that in terms of curriculum design, curriculum delivery, and…

  2. Water Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Clark-Casey, Justin

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder roles and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.

  3. Water Wars

    2012-09-11

    Sandia National Laboratories and Intel Corporation are cooperating on a project aimed at developing serious games to assist in resource planners in conducting open and participatory projects. Water Wars serves as a prototype game focused on water issues. Water Wars is a multi-player, online role-playing "serious game" combining large-scale simulation (e.g. SimCity), with strategy and interpersonal interaction (e.g. Diplomacy). The game is about water use set in present-day New Mexico. Players enact various stakeholder rolesmore » and compete for water while simultaneously cooperating to prevent environmental collapse. The gamespace utilizes immersive 3D graphics to bring the problem alive. The game integrates Intel's OpenSim visualization engine with Sandia developed agent-based and system dynamics models.« less

  4. The Forgotten War: Korea.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleming, Dan B.; Kaufman, Burton I.

    1990-01-01

    Evaluates the coverage of the Korean War in 12 high school history textbooks. Lists the books, and reviews the coverage of each in the areas of: total coverage and illustrations; Korean war background; causes of the War; the Truman response; waging the War; the Truman-MacArthur controversy; and the results of the War. (GG)

  5. Academic Inbreeding in the Portuguese Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tavares, Orlanda; Cardoso, Sónia; Carvalho, Teresa; Sousa, Sofia Branco; Santiago, Rui

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyses the inbreeding phenomena in Portuguese public universities. Inbreeding is defined as the recruitment of academics by the same institution that awarded their PhDs. Focusing on 1,217 PhD-holding Portuguese academics, belonging to four public universities and to six disciplinary areas, inbreeding is analysed in order to understand…

  6. The Great War and Remembrance in Jose Leon Machado's "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Azevedo, Milton M.

    2011-01-01

    This article analyzes Jose Leon Machado's novel, "Memoria das Estrelas sem Brilho," as a multilayered historical novel in which a war story provides a background for comments on aspects of early twentieth-century Portuguese society, such as male bonding, religion, sexual mores, and social stratification. (Contains 11 notes.)

  7. Scientific research and Portuguese colonial policy: developments and articulations, 1936-1974.

    PubMed

    Castelo, Cláudia

    2012-06-01

    The development of a colonial scientific policy by the Portuguese state in the twentieth century is investigated by studying the Junta de Investigações do Ultramar. Directly subordinated to the Ministério das Colônias/do Ultramar and based in Lisbon, this entity's main attribute was to coordinate the scientific studies to be undertaken in colonial territories under Portuguese rule. The aim is to identify the institution's origins and objectives, to understand how its activities tied in with colonial policies, to detect what impacts the international scenario had on its trajectory and its strategic options. Special attention is given to the period that started after the Second World War, which was aligned with the mirage of development and reacted against the progress of the anti-colonial movement. PMID:22872386

  8. CANFOR Portuguese version: validation study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The increase in prisoner population is a troublesome reality in several regions of the world. Along with this growth there is increasing evidence that prisoners have a higher proportion of mental illnesses and suicide than the general population. In order to implement strategies that address criminal recidivism and the health and social status of prisoners, particularly in mental disordered offenders, it is necessary to assess their care needs in a comprehensive, but individual perspective. This assessment must include potential harmful areas like comorbid personality disorder, substance misuse and offending behaviours. The Camberwell Assessment of Need – Forensic Version (CANFOR) has proved to be a reliable tool designed to accomplish such aims. The present study aimed to validate the CANFOR Portuguese version. Methods The translation, adaptation to the Portuguese context, back-translation and revision followed the usual procedures. The sample comprised all detainees receiving psychiatric care in four forensic facilities, over a one year period. A total of 143 subjects, and respective case manager, were selected. The forensic facilities were chosen by convenience: one prison hospital psychiatric ward (n=68; 47.6%), one male (n=24; 16.8%) and one female (n=22; 15.4%) psychiatric clinic and one civil security ward (n=29; 20.3%), all located nearby Lisbon. Basic descriptive statistics and Kappa weighted coefficients were calculated for the inter-rater and the test-retest reliability studies. The convergent validity was evaluated using the Global Assessment of Functioning and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale scores. Results The majority of the participants were male and single, with short school attendance, and accused of a crime involving violence against persons. The most frequent diagnosis was major depression (56.1%) and almost half presented positive suicide risk. The reliability study showed average Kappa weighted coefficients of 0.884 and 0

  9. Vietnam: Historians at War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyar, Mark

    2008-01-01

    Although the Vietnam War ended more than thirty years ago, historians remain as divided on what happened as the American people were during the war. Mark Moyar maps the ongoing battle between "orthodox" and "revisionist" Vietnam War historians: the first group, those who depict Vietnam as a bad war that the United States should not have fought,…

  10. War and Children's Mortality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlton-Ford, Steve; Houston, Paula; Hamill, Ann

    2000-01-01

    Examines impact of war on young children's mortality in 137 countries. Finds that years recently at war (1990-5) interact with years previously at war (1946-89) to elevate mortality rates. Religious composition interacts with years recently at war to reduce effect. Controlling for women's literacy and access to safe water eliminates effect for…

  11. Fiocruz as an actor in Brazilian foreign relations in the context of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries: an untold story.

    PubMed

    Roa, Alejandra Carrillo; Baptista e Silva, Felipe Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian foreign policy paradigms and changes in the global scenario since the Cold War created conditions for stronger ties between Brazil and Portuguese-speaking African countries. Recently, Brazil took the lead in regional integration processes and in South-South cooperation initiatives. These strategies and Fiocruz's acknowledged technical expertise resulted in its direct involvement in Brazilian foreign public health policy in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Fiocruz developed cooperation projects in various areas, sharing its know-how and best practices in the most critical fields in partner countries, consolidating "public health framework cooperation" and contributing to diversifying Brazil's partners and promoting Brazil as a global actor. PMID:25742104

  12. Fiocruz as an actor in Brazilian foreign relations in the context of the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries: an untold story.

    PubMed

    Roa, Alejandra Carrillo; Baptista e Silva, Felipe Ricardo

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian foreign policy paradigms and changes in the global scenario since the Cold War created conditions for stronger ties between Brazil and Portuguese-speaking African countries. Recently, Brazil took the lead in regional integration processes and in South-South cooperation initiatives. These strategies and Fiocruz's acknowledged technical expertise resulted in its direct involvement in Brazilian foreign public health policy in the Community of Portuguese-Speaking Countries. Fiocruz developed cooperation projects in various areas, sharing its know-how and best practices in the most critical fields in partner countries, consolidating "public health framework cooperation" and contributing to diversifying Brazil's partners and promoting Brazil as a global actor.

  13. Butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines.

    PubMed

    Azenha, Manuel; Vasconcelos, Maria Teresa

    2002-04-24

    Butyltin compounds are widespread contaminants that have also been found in some wines. The purpose of the present work was to make a survey of butyltin compounds in Portuguese wines. Forty-three table wines and 14 Port wines were analyzed for butyltin contents by using solid-phase microextraction gas chromatography mass spectrometry (SPME-GC-MS). In 14% of the analyzed wine samples, measurable dibutyltin (DBT) was found at concentrations ranging between 0.05 and 0.15 microg/L as Sn. Monobutyltin (MBT) was also observed (0.05 microg/L as Sn) in just a single wine. A search for the possible sources of DBT residues found in the wines was carried out. Therefore, some plastics and oak wood used in the process of wine-making, which have been directly in contact with the musts or the wines, were studied to check their possible release of butyltins. The eventual presence of DBT was also tested directly along the vinification process, from the must to the finished product. The results suggest that high-density polyethylene containers used in the transfer of wine in an early stage of the vinification process may be the main sources of these contaminants. Therefore, it is recommendable that plastic materials to be used in wineries be previously tested for the release of butyltin compounds. PMID:11958646

  14. Health Information in Portuguese (português): MedlinePlus

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newborn Care Coping with Your Baby's Crying Como lidar com o choro do bebê - português (Portuguese) Bilingual ... Health Information Translations Stress Coping with Stress Como lidar com o estresse - português (Portuguese) Bilingual PDF Health ...

  15. Nuclear war: Opposing viewpoints

    SciTech Connect

    Szumski, B.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents opposing viewpoints on nuclear war. Topics discussed include: how nuclear would begin; would humanity survive; would civil defense work; will an arms agreement work; and can space weapons reduce the risk of nuclear war.

  16. River restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohl, Ellen; Angermeier, Paul L.; Bledsoe, Brian; Kondolf, G. Mathias; Macdonnell, Larry; Merritt, David M.; Palmer, Margaret A.; Poff, N. Leroy; Tarboton, David

    2005-10-01

    River restoration is at the forefront of applied hydrologic science. However, many river restoration projects are conducted with minimal scientific context. We propose two themes around which a research agenda to advance the scientific basis for river restoration can be built. First, because natural variability is an inherent feature of all river systems, we hypothesize that restoration of process is more likely to succeed than restoration aimed at a fixed end point. Second, because physical, chemical, and biological processes are interconnected in complex ways across watersheds and across timescales, we hypothesize that restoration projects are more likely to be successful in achieving goals if undertaken in the context of entire watersheds. To achieve restoration objectives, the science of river restoration must include (1) an explicit recognition of the known complexities and uncertainties, (2) continued development of a theoretical framework that enables us to identify generalities among river systems and to ask relevant questions, (3) enhancing the science and use of restoration monitoring by measuring the most effective set of variables at the correct scales of measurement, (4) linking science and implementation, and (5) developing methods of restoration that are effective within existing constraints. Key limitations to river restoration include a lack of scientific knowledge of watershed-scale process dynamics, institutional structures that are poorly suited to large-scale adaptive management, and a lack of political support to reestablish delivery of the ecosystem amenities lost through river degradation. This paper outlines an approach for addressing these shortcomings.

  17. Science and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roland, Alex

    1985-01-01

    Provides a wide-ranging survey of relations between war, science, and technology from the days of the American colonies to the Vietnam War, indicating that the overall impact of science and technology on war has been overstated by historians in many fields. Includes military histories that science/technology historians have not used. (JN)

  18. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Harwell, M.A.; Hutchinson, T.C.; Cropper, W.P. Jr.; Harwell, C.C.; Grover, H.D.

    1989-01-01

    This book addresses the ecological, agricultural, and human effects of nuclear war. The topics covered include: Ecological principles relevant to nuclear war; Vulnerability of ecological systems to climatic effects on nuclear war; Additional potential effects of nuclear war on ecological systems; Potential effects of nuclear war on agricultural productivity; Food availability after nuclear war; and Experiences and extrapolations from Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

  19. Validation of a Portuguese Version of the Children's Hope Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques, Susana C.; Pais-Ribeiro, J. L.; Lopez, Shane J.

    2009-01-01

    The article describes the development of the Portuguese version of the Children's Hope Scale and the examination of its psychometric properties. A sample of 367 Portuguese students completed the Portuguese-language versions of the Children's Hope Scale (CHS; Snyder et al., 1997), Students' Life Satisfaction Scale (SLSS; Huebner, 1991), Global…

  20. Teaching Portuguese to Spanish Speakers: A Case for Trilingualism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Ana M.; Freire, Juliana Luna; da Silva, Antonio J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Portuguese is the sixth-most-spoken native language in the world, with approximately 240,000,000 speakers. Within the United States, there is a growing demand for K-12 language programs to engage the community of Portuguese heritage speakers. According to the 2000 U.S. census, 85,000 school-age children speak Portuguese at home. As a result, more…

  1. 26 CFR 1.1334-1 - Restoration of value of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... was treated as a war loss under section 127(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 (see 26 CFR... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Restoration of value of investments. 1.1334-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) War Loss Recoveries § 1.1334-1 Restoration of value...

  2. 26 CFR 1.1334-1 - Restoration of value of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... treated as a war loss under section 127(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 (see 26 CFR (1939) 29... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Restoration of value of investments. 1.1334-1... TAX (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES War Loss Recoveries § 1.1334-1 Restoration of value of investments....

  3. Women in Portuguese Society. Proceedings of the Second Annual Symposium on the Portuguese Experience in the United States (Adelpi University).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Neil; And Others

    The following reports on women in Portuguese or Portuguese American society are included: (1) "The Story of Maria a.k.a. Mary" by Steven Samuel Ussach, (2) "Portuguese-American Women: Portraits in Fact and in Fiction" by Mary T. Vermette, (3) "A Different Vision of a New England Childhood: The Cape Verdean Experience on Cape Cod" by Maria Luisa…

  4. Probing next Generation Portuguese Academic Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friacas, Carlos; Massano, Emanuel; Domingues, Monica; Veiga, Pedro

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to provide several viewpoints about monitoring aspects related to recent deployments of a new technology (IPv6). Design/methodology/approach: Several views and domains were used, with a common point: the Portuguese research and education network (RCTS). Findings: A significant amount of work is yet to be…

  5. The Evolution of Brazilian Portuguese: A Survey.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This third section of the research project, "The Syntax of Contemporary Brazilian Portuguese," presents a descriptive and historical survey of the evolution of the language. Included in the work are: (1) a summary of historical concern with this subject reflecting literary and linguistic interest, (2) classification and discussion of language…

  6. About the Portuguese VIM3 version

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pellegrino, O.; Cruz, A.; Oliveira, J. C.; Filipe, E.

    2015-02-01

    For the first time, a unique Portuguese version of the International Vocabulary of Metrology (VIM) was organized and published by the National Metrology Institutes (NMIs) of Portugal and Brazil. This challenge could be met thanks to the experiences of the respective translations of the previous editions of the VIM and to the new Orthographic Agreement (AO) of the Portuguese speaking countries. After a brief historical review of the VIMs and their Portuguese versions, this communication aims to display the main steps that led to the final joint translation. Advantage was taken of this 3rd edition and of the AO to update the Portuguese multiplicative prefix writing "kilo" in coherence with the respective symbol "k". By way of answer to the questions raised by the recent edition of the VIM (VIM3) that stresses on the concepts associated to the terms, some suggestions are proposed and inconsistencies are identified, in order to facilitate the understanding and the dissemination of the document. These few suggestions for the next edition of the VIM also intended to standardize the terminology found in normative texts of different scientific fields which unfortunately does not necessarily tend to be consistent between them.

  7. Syllable Structure in Dysfunctional Portuguese Children's Speech

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Candeias, Sara; Perdigao, Fernando

    2010-01-01

    The goal of this work is to investigate whether children with speech dysfunctions (SD) show a deficit in planning some Portuguese syllable structures (PSS) in continuous speech production. Knowledge of which aspects of speech production are affected by SD is necessary for efficient improvement in the therapy techniques. The case-study is focused…

  8. Reading and Spelling Development in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pinheiro, Angela Maria Vieira

    1995-01-01

    Describes the development of reading and spelling procedures in Portuguese-speaking children from first to fourth grade and discusses whether existing developmental models may account for this development. Finds that results contradict U. Frith's strictly sequential theory but not P. Seymour's model, which allows for concurrent development of…

  9. Strategic Planning in Portuguese Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machado, Maria de Lourdes; Taylor, James S.; Farhangmehr, Minoo; Wilkinson, Robert B.

    2005-01-01

    A national study on strategic planning in Portuguese higher education was conducted. The presidents or rectors of 61 public and private higher education institutions in Portugal responded regarding their knowledge of and involvement in strategic planning. The questionnaire addressed whether or not the institutions were using a planning process,…

  10. Preservation & Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 2000

    2000-01-01

    This theme issue on preservation and restoration presents selected resources for elementary and secondary education that include Web sites, CD-ROM and software, videos, books, magazines, and professional resources as well as classroom activities. Age levels are specified for most materials. I Sidebars discuss restoring a masterpiece, a bug's life,…

  11. To Win a Nuclear War: The Pentagon's secret war plans

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

    1986-01-01

    Kaku and Axelrod trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star Wars. To Win a Nuclear War takes readers beyond the details of the costs of nuclear attack into the attitudes of war planners and Presidents from Eisenhower to Reagan.

  12. Nurses at war.

    PubMed

    Dean, Erin

    The first world war opened up nursing to a wider range of women and earned new status for the profession. Nursing service records from the conflict, available online for the first time at www.national archives.gov.uk, provide a detailed insight into the lives of nurses who were the first to handle war casualties on an industrial scale.

  13. Fighting the Drug War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    The Journal of State Government, 1990

    1990-01-01

    All nine articles in this periodical issue focus on the theme of the war against illegal drug use, approaching the topic from a variety of perspectives. The articles are: "The Drug War: Meeting the Challenge" (Stanley E. Morris); "Ways to Fight Drug Abuse" (Bruce A. Feldman); "Treatment Key to Fighting Drugs" (Stan Lundine); "Patience and…

  14. War Literature. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soderquist, Alisa

    Based on Stephen Crane's poems about war and his novel "The Red Badge of Courage," this lesson plan presents activities designed to help students understand that Crane examined war-related themes in prose and poetry; that close study of a poem for oral presentation helps readers see meaning or techniques not noted earlier; and that not all readers…

  15. Workbook to End War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA. Peace Literature Service.

    A workbook, written for use in local churches and synagogues, suggests projects and programs for concerned individuals who wish to contribute to an effort to end war. An introduction presents the rationale of the workbook, the creation of a network to end war, and ways in which groups and individuals can become involved in this endeavor. A chapter…

  16. Economics of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The author describes and elaborates on how to use his public-television reports on the costs of the war in Iraq to teach economics. He shows how the Iraq war can provide economics instructors with an example for discussing cost-benefit analysis and opportunity costs in class. (Contains 4 notes.)

  17. World War II Homefront.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcia, Rachel

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography that provides Web sites focusing on the U.S. homefront during World War II. Covers various topics such as the homefront, Japanese Americans, women during World War II, posters, and African Americans. Includes lesson plan sources and a list of additional resources. (CMK)

  18. In Time of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Patti Clayton

    2003-01-01

    Examines the role of libraries, particularly public libraries, in times of war. Discusses similarities between responses after World War Two and the September 11, 2001 attacks; government restrictions on information; American Library Association responses, including propaganda and libraries; and the library and the community. (LRW)

  19. Portuguese wine regions under a changing climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, João A.; Fraga, Helder; Malheiro, Aureliano C.; Moutinho-Pereira, José; Jones, Gregory V.; Pinto, Joaquim G.

    2014-05-01

    Viticulture and wine production are among the most important sectors of the Portuguese economy. However, as grapevines are strongly affected by weather and climate, climate change may represent an important threat to wine production. The current (1950-2000) and future (2041-2070) bioclimatic conditions in Portugal are discussed by analyzing a number of indices suitable for viticultural zoning, including a categorized bioclimatic index. A two-step method of spatial pattern downscaling is applied in order to achieve a very high spatial resolution (of approximately 1 km) throughout Portugal. Future projections are based on an ensemble of 13 climate model transient experiments, forced by the SRES A1B emission scenario. Results for the recent past are in clear agreement with the current distribution of vineyards and of the established Denomination of Origin regions. Furthermore, the typical climatic conditions associated with each grapevine variety that are currently grown in Portugal are assessed. Under future scenarios, nevertheless, the current conditions are projected to change significantly towards a lower bioclimatic diversity. This can be explained by the projected warming and drying in future decades. The resulting changes in varietal suitability and wine characteristics of each region may thereby bring important challenges for the Portuguese winemaking sector. As such, new measures need to be timely implemented to adapt to these climate change projections and to mitigate their likely detrimental impacts on the Portuguese economy. Acknowledgments: this work is supported by European Union Funds (FEDER/COMPETE - Operational Competitiveness Programme) and by national funds (FCT - Portuguese Foundation for Science and Technology) under the project ClimVineSafe (PTDC/AGR-ALI/110877/2009).

  20. War Experiences and War-related Distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina Eight Years after War

    PubMed Central

    Ringdal, Gerd Inger; Ringdal, Kristen; Simkus, Albert

    2008-01-01

    Aim To examine the relationship between war experiences and war-related distress in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Methods The survey was performed in the late 2003 on a representative sample of 3313 respondents. The face-to-face interviews included 15 items on war-related distress and 24 items on war experiences. From these items we developed the War-related Distress Scale, the Direct War Experiences Scale, and the Indirect War Experiences Scale. Regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between war-related distress symptoms and war experiences variables, controlling for a range of other variables. Results Almost half of the respondents did not report any war-related distress symptoms, while about 13% reported 7 or more symptoms. Direct war experiences had a significant effect on war-related distress even eight years after the war, while indirect war experiences showed no significant effect on war-related distress. We found that marital status weakly decreased war-related distress, while household size increased it. Conclusion Direct war experiences seem to have a long-lasting traumatic effect on a substantial number of residents of Bosnia and Herzegovina. PMID:18293460

  1. Thinking About Preventing Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ground Zero, Washington, DC.

    Potential paths to nuclear war and the available means of prevention of nuclear war are discussed. Presented is a detailed description of six nuclear war scenarios, and brief examples of types of potential deterrents to nuclear war (firebreaks) which are relevant for each. To be effective, the right combination of firebreaks must be used, the…

  2. Natural restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Kamlet, K.S.

    1993-02-01

    After a company pays millions of dollars to clean up contaminated site, its liability may not be over. It may have to spend tens of millions more to restore damaged natural resources under an oft-overlooked Superfund program. Examples of liability are cited in this report from the Exxon Valdez oil spill and a pcb leak which contaminated a harbor.

  3. An Optimality-Theoretic Analysis of Codas in Brazilian Portuguese

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodin-Mayeda, C. Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese allows only /s, N, l, r/ syllable finally, and of these, only /s/ is realized faithfully (as well as /r/ for some speakers). In order to avoid unacceptable codas, dialects of Brazilian Portuguese employ such strategies as epenthesis, nasal absorption, debucalization, and gliding. The current analysis argues that codas in…

  4. How Portuguese and American Teachers Plan for Literacy Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Lopes, Joao; Oliveira, Celia; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2016-01-01

    This study explored American and Portuguese elementary teachers' preferences in planning for literacy instruction using the Language Arts Activity Grid (LAAG; Cunningham, Zibulsky, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2009), on which teachers described their preferred instructional activities for a hypothetical 2-h language arts block. Portuguese teachers…

  5. Portuguese Study in Higher Education in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milleret, Margo

    2012-01-01

    This study reports the results of a national survey of Portuguese instructors that investigates enrollment growth in regions and institutions of higher education in the United States. It details the reasons why Portuguese enrollments have grown steadily since 1998, while providing data on the numbers of students enrolled in classes and the number…

  6. Restoring Ancestral Language, Restoring Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bannon, Kay T.

    1999-01-01

    Describes the Cherokee Language Renewal Program that was designed to help Cherokee elementary school children learn to function in the dominant culture without sacrificing their own cultural heritage. Explains how the program got started, and reports on how it helps restore a cultural identify to a people who are at risk of losing their identity.…

  7. Sex differences in Portuguese lonely hearts advertisements.

    PubMed

    Neto, Félix

    2005-10-01

    Advertisements from "Lonely Hearts" columns in the major daily Portuguese newspaper (Jornal de Notícias) were used to test hypotheses about the mate preferences of men and women. A total of 484 advertisements were coded for demographic descriptors and offers of and appeals for attractiveness, financial security, sincerity, expressiveness, and instrumentality, e.g., intelligence and ambition. Some results supported social exchange and evolutionary predictions: men sought younger women and offered security; women sought older men with status and resources. However, other results challenged such predictions: attractiveness and expressiveness did not differ by sex. PMID:16383069

  8. Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy: Portuguese case.

    PubMed

    Elfatoiki, Fatima Zahra; Cordoliani, Florance; Pascal Regane, Pascal; Afforitit-Demoge, Aude

    2016-01-01

    Hypotrichosis with juvenile macular dystrophy is a rare congenital disease mainly found in the Druze population of Northern Israel. This disorder is caused by the CDH3 mutation encoding P-cadherin, which is expressed in retinal pigment epithelium and hair follicles. An 11-year-old girl who was born to related Portuguese parents, had hypotrichosis since birth and macular dystrophy diagnosed at age 5. Fundus examination and fluorescein angiography revealed located macular pigmentary abnormalities. No molecular analysis was done. A fundus examination should be considered mandatory in the assessment of congenital hypotrichosis. PMID:27617529

  9. Approaches to Studying in Higher Education Portuguese Students: A Portuguese Version of the Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valadas, Sandra A. T. S.; Goncalves, Fernando R.; Faisca, Luis

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the validity of the "Approaches and Study Skills Inventory for Students--short version" (ASSIST; Tait et al. in "Improving student learning: Improving students as learners", 1998), to be used with Portuguese undergraduate students. The ASSIST was administrated to 566 students, in order to analyse a Portuguese version of this…

  10. Children and war.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    2003-04-01

    Children bear disproportionate consequences of armed conflict. The 21st century continues to see patterns of children enmeshed in international violence between opposing combatant forces, as victims of terrorist warfare, and, perhaps most tragically of all, as victims of civil wars. Innocent children so often are the victims of high-energy wounding from military ordinance. They sustain high-energy tissue damage and massive burns - injuries that are not commonly seen in civilian populations. Children have also been deliberately targeted victims in genocidal civil wars in Africa in the past decade, and hundreds of thousands have been killed and maimed in the context of close-quarter, hand-to-hand assaults of great ferocity. Paediatricians serve as uniformed military surgeons and as civilian doctors in both international and civil wars, and have a significant strategic role to play as advocates for the rights and welfare of children in the context of the evolving 'Laws of War'. One chronic legacy of contemporary warfare is blast injury to children from landmines. Such blasts leave children without feet or lower limbs, with genital injuries, blindness and deafness. This pattern of injury has become one of the post-civil war syndromes encountered by all intensivists and surgeons serving in four of the world's continents. The continued advocacy for the international ban on the manufacture, commerce and military use of antipersonnel landmines is a part of all paediatricians' obligation to promote the ethos of the Laws of War. Post-traumatic stress disorder remains an undertreated legacy of children who have been trapped in the shot and shell of battle as well as those displaced as refugees. An urgent, unfocused and unmet challenge has been the increase in, and plight of, child soldiers themselves. A new class of combatant comprises these children, who also become enmeshed in the triad of anarchic civil war, light-weight weaponry and drug or alcohol addiction. The

  11. Restoration Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    In the accompanying photos, a laboratory technician is restoring the once-obliterated serial number of a revolver. The four-photo sequence shows the gradual progression from total invisibility to clear readability. The technician is using a new process developed in an applications engineering project conducted by NASA's Lewis Research Center in conjunction with Chicago State University. Serial numbers and other markings are frequently eliminated from metal objects to prevent tracing ownership of guns, motor vehicles, bicycles, cameras, appliances and jewelry. To restore obliterated numbers, crime laboratory investigators most often employ a chemical etching technique. It is effective, but it may cause metal corrosion and it requires extensive preparatory grinding and polishing. The NASA-Chicago State process is advantageous because it can be applied without variation to any kind of metal, it needs no preparatory work and number recovery can be accomplished without corrosive chemicals; the liquid used is water.

  12. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2014-12-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is part of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations more socially susceptible to floods, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels, when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  13. Continental Portuguese Territory Flood Social Susceptibility Index

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grosso, N.; Dias, L.; Costa, H. P.; Santos, F. D.; Garrett, P.

    2015-08-01

    The combination of human exposure, extreme weather events and lack of adaptation strategies to cope with flood-related impacts can potentially increase losses not only on infrastructure but also on human lives. These impacts are usually difficult to quantify due to the lack of data, and for this reason most of the studies developed at the national scale only include the main characteristics that define the societal or individual predisposition to be affected, resist, adapt or recover, when exposed to a flood. The main objective of this work was to develop a flood social susceptibility index for the continental Portuguese territory based on the most representative variables able to characterize different influencing factors. This index is a component of the national vulnerability index developed in the scope of Flood Maps in Climate Change Scenarios (CIRAC) project, supported by the Portuguese Association of Insurers (APS). The main results showed that the proposed index correctly identified populations less prepared to avoid flood effects or able to cope with them, mostly concentrated in rural inland areas with lower income and education levels when compared with the coastal region between Viana do Castelo and Setúbal.

  14. Preventing nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Fisher, R.

    1981-03-01

    By focusing on military hardware, we ignore the human side of the nuclear war problem and how we think about nuclear weapons. Three sets of assumptions are examined: our goals, the means of pursuing these goals, and how to allocate responsibility. The quest for power and peace, for example, will not be attained by a war of mutual destruction. The assumption that every problem has a military solution forecloses diplomacy and negotiation, approaches that require understanding and reconciling different interests. With no military solution, a new security system should be one of shared responsibility in which each person will seize opportunities that help to educate the public, lead to wiser decisions, and reduce the risk of war. (DCK)

  15. Wars, disasters and kidneys.

    PubMed

    Lameire, N

    2014-12-01

    This paper summarizes the impact that wars had on the history of nephrology, both worldwide and in the Ghent Medical Faculty notably on the definition, research and clinical aspects of acute kidney injury. The paper briefly describes the role of 'trench nephritis' as observed both during World War I and II, supporting the hypothesis that many of the clinical cases could have been due to Hantavirus nephropathy. The lessons learned from the experience with crush syndrome first observed in World War II and subsequently investigated over many decades form the basis for the creation of the Renal Disaster Relief Task Force of the International Society of Nephrology. Over the last 15 years, this Task Force has successfully intervened both in the prevention and management of crush syndrome in numerous disaster situations like major earthquakes.

  16. Life without war.

    PubMed

    Fry, Douglas P

    2012-05-18

    An emerging evolutionary perspective suggests that nature and human nature are less "red in tooth and claw" than generally acknowledged by a competition-based view of the biological world. War is not always present in human societies. Peace systems, defined as groups of neighboring societies that do not make war on each other, exist on different continents. A comparison of three peace systems--the Upper Xingu River basin tribes of Brazil, the Iroquois Confederacy of upper New York State, and the European Union--highlight six features hypothesized to be important in the creation and maintenance of intersocietal peace: (i) an overarching social identity, (ii) interconnections among subgroups, (iii) interdependence, (iv) nonwarring values, (v) symbolism and ceremonies that reinforce peace, and (vi) superordinate institutions for conflict management. The existence of peace systems demonstrates that it is possible to create social systems free of war. PMID:22605769

  17. United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War: Nuclear War Course Summaries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of College Science Teaching, 1983

    1983-01-01

    Briefly describes 46 courses on nuclear war available from United Campuses to Prevent Nuclear War (UCAM). These courses are currently being or have been taught at colleges/universities, addressing effects of nuclear war, arms race history, new weapons, and past arms control efforts. Syllabi (with assignments/reading lists) are available from UCAM.…

  18. War Damage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    During and after the Persian Gulf war, hundreds of "oil lakes" were created in Kuwait by oil released from damaged wells. The lakes are a hazard to the Kuwait atmosphere, soil and ground water and must be carefully monitored. Boston University Center for Remote Sensing, assisted by other organizations, has accurately mapped the lakes using Landsat and Spot imagery. The war damage included the formation of over 300 oil lakes, oil pollution and sand dune movement. Total damage area is over 5,400 square kilometers - 30 percent of Kuwait's total surface area.

  19. Radiological Effects of Nuclear War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shapiro, Charles S.

    1988-01-01

    Described are the global effects of nuclear war. Discussed are radiation dosages, limited nuclear attacks, strategic arms reductions, and other results reported at the workshop on nuclear war issues in Moscow in March 1988. (CW)

  20. Nuclear weapons and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Cassel, C.; McCally, M.; Abraham, H.

    1984-01-01

    This book examines the potential radiation hazards and environmental impacts of nuclear weapons. Topics considered include medical responsibility and thermonuclear war, the threat of nuclear war, nuclear weaponry, biological effects, radiation injury, decontamination, long-term effects, ecological effects, psychological aspects, the economic implications of nuclear weapons and war, ethics, civil defense, arms control, nuclear winter, and long-term biological consequences of nuclear war.

  1. Integrating Environmental Restoration and Ecological Restoration: Long-Term Stewardship at the Department of Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burger, Joanna

    2000-11-01

    With the ending of the Cold War, several federal agencies are reclaiming land through remediation and restoration and are considering potential future land uses that are compatible with current uses and local needs. Some sites are sufficiently contaminated that it is likely that the responsible federal agency will retain control over the land for the foreseeable future, providing them with a stewardship mission. This is particularly true of some of the larger Department of Energy (DOE) facilities contaminated during the production of nuclear weapons. The use of the term "restoration" is explored in this paper because the word means different things to the public, ecologists, and environmental managers responsible for contaminated sites, such as Superfund sites and the DOE facilities. While environmental restoration usually refers to remediation and removal of hazardous wastes, ecological restoration refers to the broader process of repairing damaged ecosystems and enhancing their productivity and/or biodiversity. The goals of the two types of restoration can be melded by considering environmental restoration as a special case of ecological restoration, one that involves risk reduction from hazardous wastes, and by broadening environmental restoration to include a more extensive problem-formulation phase (both temporal and spatial), which includes the goal of reestablishing a functioning ecosystem after remediation. Further, evaluating options for the desired post remediation result will inform managers and policy-makers concerning the feasibility and efficacy of environmental restoration itself.

  2. The Great War. [Teaching Materials].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Public Broadcasting Service, Washington, DC.

    This package of teaching materials is intended to accompany an eight-part film series entitled "The Great War" (i.e., World War I), produced for public television. The package consists of a "teacher's guide,""video segment index,""student resource" materials, and approximately 40 large photographs. The video series is not a war story of battles,…

  3. Nuclear War and Science Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hobson, Art

    1983-01-01

    Suggests that science-related material on nuclear war be included in introductory courses. Lists nuclear war topics for physics, psychology, sociology, biology/ecology, chemistry, geography, geology/meteorology, mathematics, and medical science. Also lists 11 lectures on nuclear physics which include nuclear war topics. (JN)

  4. The Great War: Online Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncanson, Bruce

    2002-01-01

    Presents an annotated bibliography of Web sites about World War I. Includes: (1) general Web sites; (2) Web sites with information during the war; (3) Web sites with information about post-World War I; (4) Web sites that provide photos, sound files of speeches, and propaganda posters; and (5) Web sites with lesson plans. (CMK)

  5. The Technological Culture of War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pretorius, Joelien

    2008-01-01

    The article proceeds from the argument that war is a social institution and not a historical inevitability of human interaction, that is, war can be "unlearned." This process involves deconstructing/dismantling war as an institution in society. An important step in this process is to understand the philosophical and cultural bases on which…

  6. War Finance: Economic and Historic Lessons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boldt, David J.; Kassis, Mary Mathewes

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the authors provide a historical review of how the U.S. government has funded its participation in major wars during the past 150 years. They focus attention on five conflicts--the Civil War, World War I, World War II, the Korean War and the Vietnam War. Those conflicts were funded in different ways, with each funding method…

  7. 'War neurosis' during the Spanish Civil War (1936-39).

    PubMed

    Villasante, Olga

    2010-12-01

    The aim of this contribution is to analyse the incidence and treatment of war neurosis in Madrid during the Spanish Civil War. First, the scientific papers published on war neurosis during and after the war are examined. Then the work of Gregorio Bermann (1894-1972), a member of the International Brigades who organized the frontline Neuropsychiatric Service at the Hospital de Chamartín de La Rosa (Madrid), is analysed. Las neurosis en la guerra, published in 1941, which recounts Bermann's personal experience in the care of war neurosis in Spain, is also discussed.

  8. Stabilizing Star Wars

    SciTech Connect

    Weinberg, A.M.; Barkenbus, J.N.

    1984-01-01

    An orderly replacement of offensive with defensive nuclear weapons is part of the defense-protected build-down (DPB) strategy described by Weinberg and Barkenbus. Differing from the administration's Star Wars approach by relying on interceptor missiles rather than costly and unproven lasers and particle beams, the plan also calls for a simultaneous freeze on offensive weapons. (DCK)

  9. Medicalized weapons & modern war.

    PubMed

    Gross, Michael L

    2010-01-01

    "Medicalized" weapons--those that rely on advances in neuroscience, physiology, and pharmacology--offer the prospect of reducing casualties and protecting civilians. They could be especially useful in modern asymmetric wars in which conventional states are pitted against guerrilla or insurgent forces. But may physicians and other medical workers participate in their development?

  10. The Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Alan H.

    2004-01-01

    During the 1990s, the teaching of mathematics became the subject of heated controversies known as the math wars. The immediate origins of the conflicts can be traced to the "reform" stimulated by the National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards for School Mathematics." Traditionalists fear that reform-oriented,…

  11. The War Against Pests

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Ray F.

    1973-01-01

    Insecticides should not be the only weapons of war used against pests; in addition to them, a strategy aimed at winning the millenial warfare should combine the tactical use of natural plant enemies, reinforced plant genetic qualities, and the application of adequate ecological techniques. (BL)

  12. Recent Cold War Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pineo, Ronn

    2003-01-01

    Cold War historiography has undergone major changes since the 1991 collapse of the Soviet Union. For two years (1992-1993) the principal Soviet archives fell open to scholars, and although some of the richest holdings are now once again closed, new information continues to find its way out. Moreover, critical documentary information has become…

  13. End the Math Wars

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhn, Matt; Dempsey, Kathleen

    2011-01-01

    In 1999, Richard Lee Colvin published an article in "The School Administrator" titled "Math Wars: Tradition vs. Real-World Applications" that described the pendulum swing of mathematics education reform. On one side are those who advocate for computational fluency, with a step-by-step emphasis on numbers and skills and the…

  14. Cold War Propaganda.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Paul W.

    1988-01-01

    Briefly discusses the development of Cold War propaganda in the United States, Canada, and the USSR after 1947. Presents two movie reviews and a Canadian magazine advertisement of the period which illustrate the harshness of propaganda used by both sides in the immediate postwar years. (GEA)

  15. Education and War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blair, Elizabeth E., Ed.; Miller, Rebecca B., Ed.; Tieken, Mara Casey, Ed.

    2009-01-01

    This book examines the complex and varied relations between educational institutions and societies at war. Drawn from the pages of the "Harvard Educational Review," the essays provide multiple perspectives on how educational institutions support and oppose wartime efforts. As the editors of the volume note, the book reveals how people swept up in…

  16. War, Terrorism, and Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeRanieri, Joseph T.; Clements, Paul T.; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S.

    2004-01-01

    Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the…

  17. Grading the War Story

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdick, Melanie

    2009-01-01

    This article considers the emotional and psychological complexities of responding to personal narratives when the focus is war. The author teaches at a community college and she always begins her semester with a narrative assignment for the usual reasons: students write better when they write what they know; teachers should scaffold writing…

  18. Caries in Portuguese children with Down syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Areias, Cristina Maria; Sampaio-Maia, Benedita; Guimaraes, Hercilia; Melo, Paulo; Andrade, David

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Oral health in Down syndrome children has some peculiar aspects that must be considered in the follow-up of these patients. This study focuses on characterizing the environmental and host factors associated with dental caries in Portuguese children with and without Down syndrome. METHODS: A sibling-matched, population-based, cross-sectional survey was performed. RESULTS: Down syndrome children presented a significantly greater percentage of children without caries, 78% vs. 58% of non-Down syndrome siblings. This difference in the DMFT index (number of decayed, missing and filled teeth) essentially reflects data obtained from treated teeth, for which 91% of children with Down syndrome had never had a tooth treated vs. 67% of siblings. This result was statistically significant, whereas results for decayed and lost teeth did not differ between Down syndrome children and their unaffected siblings. Additionally, in Down syndrome children, a delayed eruption of the second molar occurs. Down syndrome children and their siblings have similar oral hygiene habits, but a higher percentage of Down syndrome children visit a dentist before the age of three years, in comparison to their siblings. Bruxism was also more common in Down syndrome children compared to their siblings. CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that Portuguese children with Down syndrome have lower caries rates than children without Down syndrome. This reduced prevalence may be associated with the parents' greater concern about oral health care in Down syndrome children, resulting in their taking them sooner to visit a dentist, as well as to a higher bruxism prevalence and delayed tooth eruption. PMID:21876971

  19. A fatal jellyfish envenomation by the Portuguese man-o'war.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Gable, W D

    1989-01-01

    The documented case of a human fatality resulting from envenomation by Physalia physalis is presented. Although this case is only the second scientifically recorded fatality, several similar cases have been suspected. PMID:2571201

  20. Differential toxicity of Physalia physalis (Portuguese man-o'war) nematocysts separated by flow cytometry.

    PubMed

    Burnett, J W; Ordonez, J V; Calton, G J

    1986-01-01

    Flow cytometric separation of Physalia physalis nematocysts resulted in isolation of the two previously reported sizes of organelles measuring 10.6 and 23.5 nm in diameter. The venom of the smaller nematocysts, which are present in greater abundance, was lethal in vitro to chick embryonic cardiocytes at doses of 0.6 microgram protein/culture, whereas 20 micrograms protein prepared from the larger nematocysts was inocuous. SDS gel electrophoresis revealed common proteins of 69,000, 82,000 and 50,000-65,000 mol. wt in the nematocyst contents of both sizes of organelles. PMID:2872738

  1. Os Portugueses No Sudoeste Da Nova Inglaterra E A Sua Literatura Infantil (The Portuguese in Southeast New England and Their Children's Literature).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clinkscales, Rosalie Duggan

    The four sections of this paper deal with Portuguese immigrants in southeast New England and with Portuguese-language children's literature. The first section contains a description of Portuguese immigration to the United States from 1511 to the present and notes changes in immigration laws. The second section presents descriptions of the…

  2. 24th Portuguese National Astronomy and Astrophysics Meeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gomes, Nuno; Ascenso, Joana

    2014-08-01

    ENAA is the annual meeting of the Portuguese Astronomy and Astrophysics community. The goal of the meeting is to present a panorama of the Portuguese research and development in all areas currently being developed in the country. The meeting is also an opportunity to strengthen the interactions between the members of the community, for young researchers to present their work, and to debate the national science policy for Astronomy & Astrophysics.

  3. How Portuguese and American teachers plan for literacy instruction.

    PubMed

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Lopes, Joao; Oliveira, Celia; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    This study explored American and Portuguese elementary teachers' preferences in planning for literacy instruction using the Language Arts Activity Grid (LAAG; Cunningham, Zibulsky, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2009), on which teachers described their preferred instructional activities for a hypothetical 2-h language arts block. Portuguese teachers (N = 186) completed Portuguese versions of a background questionnaire and LAAG electronically, in Survey Monkey; American teachers (N = 102) completed identical English measures using paper and pencil. Results showed that teachers in both groups usually addressed comprehension and reading fluency on their LAAGs and that they also allocated the most time to these two areas. However, American teachers were more likely to include teacher-directed fluency activities, whereas Portuguese teachers were more likely to include fluency activities that were not teacher directed. Significantly more American than Portuguese teachers addressed phonics in their planning, whereas significantly more Portuguese than American teachers addressed writing processes such as revision. Both groups of educators demonstrated large variability in planning, with many teachers omitting important components of literacy identified by researchers, for writing as well as reading. The study highlights the importance of providing teachers with comprehensive, research-based core literacy curricula as well as professional development on key components of literacy. Study findings also suggest significant relationships between orthographic transparency and teachers' instructional planning. PMID:26271914

  4. How Portuguese and American teachers plan for literacy instruction.

    PubMed

    Spear-Swerling, Louise; Lopes, Joao; Oliveira, Celia; Zibulsky, Jamie

    2016-04-01

    This study explored American and Portuguese elementary teachers' preferences in planning for literacy instruction using the Language Arts Activity Grid (LAAG; Cunningham, Zibulsky, Stanovich, & Stanovich, 2009), on which teachers described their preferred instructional activities for a hypothetical 2-h language arts block. Portuguese teachers (N = 186) completed Portuguese versions of a background questionnaire and LAAG electronically, in Survey Monkey; American teachers (N = 102) completed identical English measures using paper and pencil. Results showed that teachers in both groups usually addressed comprehension and reading fluency on their LAAGs and that they also allocated the most time to these two areas. However, American teachers were more likely to include teacher-directed fluency activities, whereas Portuguese teachers were more likely to include fluency activities that were not teacher directed. Significantly more American than Portuguese teachers addressed phonics in their planning, whereas significantly more Portuguese than American teachers addressed writing processes such as revision. Both groups of educators demonstrated large variability in planning, with many teachers omitting important components of literacy identified by researchers, for writing as well as reading. The study highlights the importance of providing teachers with comprehensive, research-based core literacy curricula as well as professional development on key components of literacy. Study findings also suggest significant relationships between orthographic transparency and teachers' instructional planning.

  5. War, terrorism, and children.

    PubMed

    DeRanieri, Joseph T; Clements, Paul T; Clark, Kathleen; Kuhn, Douglas Wolcik; Manno, Martin S

    2004-04-01

    Many caregivers are encountering the issue of communicating with children and adolescents about current world events, specifically war and terrorism. As health care providers, it is important to raise awareness of how children may understand, interpret, and respond to related fears and concerns. Although honesty and reassurance are clearly the best approach, it is important to provide information that is developmentally appropriate. Providing education and guidance can reduce stress and enhance understanding of the chaotic events confronting our nation. It also provides a platform for communication and exploration should additional terrorist attacks or acts of war occur. It is important to examine how to approach children and adolescents to communicate with them about these sensitive issues.

  6. Australia and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Denborough, M.A.

    1985-01-01

    This volume compiles the papers presented in the conference held in May 1983 under the auspices of the Center for Continuing Education at the Australian National University. It also includes some previously unpublished scientific research. The papers range from analyses of the atmospheric and medical consequences of nuclear war to summaries of the efforts of people in all walks of life to prevent a global catastrophe.

  7. War on fear

    PubMed Central

    Burney, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This article examines the processes through which civilian fear was turned into a practicable investigative object in the inter-war period and the opening stages of the Second World War, and how it was invested with significance at the level of science and of public policy. Its focus is on a single historical actor, Solly Zuckerman, and on his early war work for the Ministry of Home Security-funded Extra Mural Unit based in Oxford’s Department of Anatomy (OEMU). It examines the process by which Zuckerman forged a working relationship with fear in the 1930s, and how he translated this work to questions of home front anxiety in his role as an operational research officer. In doing so it demonstrates the persistent work applied to the problem: by highlighting it as an ongoing research project, and suggesting links between seemingly disparate research objects (e.g. the phenomenon of ‘blast’ exposure as physical and physiological trauma), the article aims to show how civilian ‘nerve’ emerged from within a highly specific analytical and operational matrix which itself had complex foundations. PMID:23626409

  8. [The Great War 1914-1918 and oral and maxillofacial surgery].

    PubMed

    Koole, R

    2014-11-01

    One hundred years ago the Great War, also known as the first world war, started. Historians consider the attack on the Austrian Archduke Franz Ferdinand on June 18, 1914 as the cause of the catastrophe. The initial war of movement turned into a 'Sitz Krieg', trench warfare. Many hundreds of thousands of military casualties were treated for a wide variety of facial wounds that resulted from the conflict. The origin of the specialisation oralmaxillofacial surgery is considered to be a consequence of these treatments. Several treatments dating from the first world war are still in use, such as the application of the 'dental splint' in fracture treatment, intra-oral transposition flaps for sealing small injuries and bone transplants from the iliac crest to restore defects of the jaw. In the Netherlands, which was neutral, experiences from the Great War were retained by the appointment in 1919 of a Lecturer in Oral Diagnosis and Oral Surgery at the University of Utrecht. PMID:26188477

  9. Croatia and Bosnia: the imprints of war--I. Consequences.

    PubMed

    Horton, R

    1999-06-19

    As Serbia and Kosovo emerge from yet another European war, their people's health and the region's health care, scientific research, and medical education have been seriously damaged and disrupted. There are lessons to be learned from recent Balkan wars, lessons that might help doctors, international relief organisations, and governments to do better than they have done elsewhere during the long reconstruction period that will follow this recent savage conflict. An analysis of the medical legacies of war may also raise issues for doctors worldwide to consider as part of their role in a larger public-health community. For a week in May, 1999, I travelled to Croatia and the Croat-Muslim Federation of Bosnia-Herzegovina to meet doctors working in peace but next to war. In the first part of this essay, I briefly survey some of the medical consequences of the Croatian and Bosnian conflicts. In the second part, to be published in the June 26 Issue, I consider plans for and limitations to restoration, and try to identify possible opportunities for prevention of the adverse health effects of war in a newly enlarged Europe.

  10. Nutritional supplements usage by Portuguese athletes.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Mónica; Fernandes, Maria João; Moreira, Pedro; Teixeira, Vítor Hugo

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we determined the prevalence of nutritional supplements (NS) usage, the type of supplements used, the reasons for usage, and the source of nutritional advice among Portuguese athletes. Two hundred ninety-two athletes (68 % male, 12 - 37 years old) from 13 national sports federations completed a questionnaire that sought information on socio-demographics, sports data, and NS usage. Most athletes (66 %) consumed NS, with a median consumption of 4 supplements per athlete. The most popular supplements included multivitamins/minerals (67 %), sport drinks (62 %), and magnesium (53 %). Significant differences for the type of NS consumed were found between gender and age groups and the number of weekly training hours. Most athletes used NS to accelerate recovery (63 %), improve sports performance (62 %), and have more energy/reduce fatigue (60 %). Athletes sought advice on supplementation mainly from physicians (56 %) and coaches (46 %). Age and gender were found to influence reasons for use and the source of information. Reasons for NS usage were supported scientifically in some cases (e. g., muscle gain upon protein supplementation), but others did not have a scientific basis (e. g., use of glutamine and magnesium). Given the high percentage of NS users, there is an urgent need to provide athletes with education and access to scientific and unbiased information, so that athletes can make assertive and rational choices about the utilization of these products.

  11. Aspectos linguisticos dos emprestimos em portugues (Linguistic Aspects of Adaptation into Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harmon, Ronald M.

    1994-01-01

    Examines the process through which modern Portuguese borrows from other languages, mainly French and English. Portuguese adapts these derivatives to conform to its own rules of phonology, morphology, and semantics. (four references) (Author/CK)

  12. The Effect of War on Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldson, Edward

    1996-01-01

    This paper discusses the effects of modern war on children in the 20th century, focusing on direct and indirect effects of World War II, Vietnam War, war in Afghanistan, conflicts in Africa and in Central America, and Persian Gulf War. The paper notes the devastating effects on children of disruption of education and other public services in…

  13. Portuguese validation of the Internet Addiction Test: An empirical study

    PubMed Central

    PONTES, HALLEY M.; PATRÃO, IVONE M.; GRIFFITHS, MARK D.

    2014-01-01

    Background and aims: Research into Internet addiction (IA) has increased greatly over the last decade. Despite its various definitions and general lack of consensus regarding its conceptualisation amongst researchers, instruments for measuring this phenomenon have proliferated in a number of countries. There has been little research on IA in Portugal and this may be partly due to the absence of standardised measurement tools for assessing IA. Methods: This study attempted to address this issue by adapting a Portuguese version of the Internet Addiction Test (IAT) via a translation-back translation process and Confirmatory Factor Analysis in a sample of 593 Portuguese students that completed a Portuguese version of the IAT along with questions related to socio-demographic variables. Results: The findings suggested that the IAT appears to be a valid and reliable instrument for measuring IA among Portuguese young adults as demonstrated by its satisfactory psychometric properties. However, the present findings also suggest the need to reword and update some of the IAT’s items. Prevalence of IA found in the sample was 1.2% and is discussed alongside findings relating to socio-demographic correlates. Limitations and implications of the present study are also discussed. Conclusions: The present study calls for a reflection of the IAT while also contributing to a better understanding of the basic aspects of IA in the Portuguese community since many health practitioners are starting to realise that Internet use may pose a risk for some individuals. PMID:25215221

  14. Fluency profile: comparison between Brazilian and European Portuguese speakers.

    PubMed

    Castro, Blenda Stephanie Alves e; Martins-Reis, Vanessa de Oliveira; Baptista, Ana Catarina; Celeste, Letícia Correa

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the speech fluency of Brazilian Portuguese speakers with that of European Portuguese speakers. The study participants were 76 individuals of any ethnicity or skin color aged 18-29 years. Of the participants, 38 lived in Brazil and 38 in Portugal. Speech samples from all participants were obtained and analyzed according to the variables of typology and frequency of speech disruptions and speech rate. Descriptive and inferential statistical analyses were performed to assess the association between the fluency profile and linguistic variant variables. We found that the speech rate of European Portuguese speakers was higher than the speech rate of Brazilian Portuguese speakers in words per minute (p=0.004). The qualitative distribution of the typology of common dysfluencies (p<0.001) also discriminated between the linguistic variants. While a speech fluency profile of European Portuguese speakers is not available, speech therapists in Portugal can use the same speech fluency assessment as has been used in Brazil to establish a diagnosis of stuttering, especially in regard to typical and stuttering dysfluencies, with care taken when evaluating the speech rate.

  15. Negative Transfer from Spanish and English to Portuguese Pronunciation: The Roles of Inhibition and Working Memory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trude, Alison M.; Tokowicz, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    We examined negative transfer from English and Spanish to Portuguese pronunciation. Participants were native English speakers, some of whom spoke Spanish. Participants completed a computer-based Portuguese pronunciation tutorial and then pronounced trained letter-to-sound correspondences in unfamiliar Portuguese words; some shared orthographic…

  16. Why Is It Difficult to Grasp the Impacts of the Portuguese Quality Assurance System?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Veiga, Amélia; Rosa, Maria João; Dias, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2013-01-01

    This article analyses the impacts of the Portuguese quality assurance system on academic cultures, using the Cultural Theory proposed by Douglas (1970, 1982) and developed by Thompson, Ellis and Wildavsky (1990) as an explanatory framework for Portuguese academics' preference formation in relation to quality assessment. The Portuguese higher…

  17. Raising the Achievement of Portuguese Pupils in British Schools: A Case Study of Good Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demie, Feyisa; Lewis, Kirstin

    2010-01-01

    The aim of the research was to study the experiences of Portuguese heritage pupils in British schools. The main findings from empirical data suggest Portuguese children are underachieving at the end of primary education but the case study confirms that in good schools Portuguese pupils do well and have made huge improvements over the periods. The…

  18. Factors Affecting Student Attitudes toward War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David

    1994-01-01

    Reviews previous research on attitudes toward war. Describes a study of undergraduate student attitudes toward war compared with personality traits. Finds that, although personality traits were only minimally associated with attitudes toward war, men were more prowar then women. (CFR)

  19. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research

    PubMed Central

    Estivalet, Gustavo L.; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional’s corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior. PMID:26630138

  20. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon: An Instrument for Psycholinguistic Research.

    PubMed

    Estivalet, Gustavo L; Meunier, Fanny

    2015-01-01

    In this article, we present the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon, a new word-based corpus for psycholinguistic and computational linguistic research in Brazilian Portuguese. We describe the corpus development, the specific characteristics on the internet site and database for user access. We also perform distributional analyses of the corpus and comparisons to other current databases. Our main objective was to provide a large, reliable, and useful word-based corpus with a dynamic, easy-to-use, and intuitive interface with free internet access for word and word-criteria searches. We used the Núcleo Interinstitucional de Linguística Computacional's corpus as the basic data source and developed the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon by deriving and adding metalinguistic and psycholinguistic information about Brazilian Portuguese words. We obtained a final corpus with more than 30 million word tokens, 215 thousand word types and 25 categories of information about each word. This corpus was made available on the internet via a free-access site with two search engines: a simple search and a complex search. The simple engine basically searches for a list of words, while the complex engine accepts all types of criteria in the corpus categories. The output result presents all entries found in the corpus with the criteria specified in the input search and can be downloaded as a.csv file. We created a module in the results that delivers basic statistics about each search. The Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon also provides a pseudoword engine and specific tools for linguistic and statistical analysis. Therefore, the Brazilian Portuguese Lexicon is a convenient instrument for stimulus search, selection, control, and manipulation in psycholinguistic experiments, as also it is a powerful database for computational linguistics research and language modeling related to lexicon distribution, functioning, and behavior.

  1. The restoration potential of the Mesopotamian marshes of Iraq.

    PubMed

    Richardson, Curtis J; Reiss, Peter; Hussain, Najah A; Alwash, Azzam J; Pool, Douglas J

    2005-02-25

    Uncontrolled releases of Tigris and Euphrates River waters after the 2003 war have partially restored some former marsh areas in southern Iraq, but restoration is failing in others because of high soil and water salinities. Nearly 20% of the original 15,000-square-kilometer marsh area was reflooded by March 2004, but the extent of marsh restoration is unknown. High-quality water, nonsaline soils, and the densest native vegetation were found in the only remaining natural marsh, the Al-Hawizeh, located on the Iranian border. Although substantially reduced in area and under current threat of an Iranian dike, it has the potential to be a native repopulation center for the region. Rapid reestablishment, high productivity, and reproduction of native flora and fauna in reflooded former marsh areas indicate a high probability for successful restoration, provided the restored wetlands are hydraulically designed to allow sufficient flow of noncontaminated water and flushing of salts through the ecosystem.

  2. Laryngeal war injuries.

    PubMed

    Danić, D; Milicić, D; Prgomet, D; Leović, D

    1995-01-01

    During the war in Croatia in the region of Brodska Posavina at the Medical Center in Slavonski Brod, 7,043 wounded were treated. The Otolaryngology and Oral Surgery Service treated 728 wounded, of whom 20 had laryngeal injuries. Most of the injuries were caused by shrapnel from shells, mines, and hand grenades. Nineteen wounded had associated injuries of the neck, head, and the neck and/or other parts of the body. The authors performed in 8 surgical explorations and immediate reconstruction with the median layer of the deep cervical fascia (MLDCF). Upon termination of the treatment, the nineteen wounded had good respiration without signs of stenosis of the larynx. Twelve had good phonation, five satisfactory phonation, and two bad. None had swallowing difficulties. Among the eight wounded on whom the reconstruction of the larynx was done with cervical fascia, four had very good phonation, three satisfactory, and the eight died on the sixth postoperative day because of associated injuries to the cervical spine. The cervical fascia proved itself to be a suitable material in the immediate reconstruction of exogenous war injuries of the larynx.

  3. Suicide among War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Rozanov, Vsevolod; Carli, Vladimir

    2012-01-01

    Studies aiming to identify if war veterans are at higher risk of suicide have often produced inconsistent results; this could be due to the complexity of comparisons and different methodological approaches. It should be noted that this contingent has many risk factors, such as stressful exposures, wounds, brain trauma and pain syndrome. Most recent observations confirm that veterans are really more likely to die of suicide as compared to the general population; they are also more likely to experience suicidal ideation and suffer from mental health problems. Suicides are more frequent in those who develop PTSD, depression and comorbid states due to war exposure. Combat stress and its’ frequency may be an important factor leading to suicide within the frame of the stress-vulnerability model. According to this model, the effects of stress may interact with social factors, interpersonal relations and psychological variables producing suicidal tendencies. Modern understanding of stress-vulnerability mechanisms based on genetic predispositions, early life development, level of exposure to stress and stress-reactivity together with interpersonal aspects may help to build more effective suicide prevention programs based on universal/selective/indicated prevention principles. PMID:22851956

  4. Children of War. [Lesson Plan].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Discovery Communications, Inc., Bethesda, MD.

    This lesson plan presents activities in which students read, analyze, and discuss excerpts from children's war diaries; and create a storyboard for a public service announcement on children's rights in wartime. It includes objectives, materials, procedures, extension activities, excerpts of children's war diaries, suggested readings, and web…

  5. Teaching War Literature, Teaching Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powers, Janet M.

    2007-01-01

    This article explores literature taught in three different courses and the peace education approaches used for each, including epics in literature courses, Vietnam War literature, and literature of anger and hope. The author recommends the teaching of war literature as an essential part of a peace education curriculum. Devastating events such as…

  6. Getting the Civil War Right

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loewen, James W.

    2011-01-01

    William Faulkner famously wrote, "The past is never dead. It's not even past." He would not be surprised to learn that Americans, 150 years after the Civil War began, are still getting it wrong. Did America's most divisive war start over slavery or states' rights? The author says that too many people--including educators--get it wrong. The author…

  7. War, Peace, and the Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Barrie, Ed.

    Written for editors, reporters, and researchers, this publication contains background information on war and peace. Included are newspaper articles, essays, and excerpts from radio commentaries. The information is intended to help journalists provide more accurate coverage of war-and-peace issues, in particular more accurate coverage of the Soviet…

  8. Behavior, society, and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Tetlock, P.E.; Husbands, J.L.; Jervis, R.; Stern, P.C.; Tilly, C.

    1989-01-01

    This book contains chapters on the following topics related to nuclear arms and nuclear war: crisis decision making; behavioral aspects of negotiations on mutual security; democracy, public opinion, and nuclear weapons; the case of wars; A review of theories; methodological themes and variations.

  9. Primary Sources Enliven Civil War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.

    2011-01-01

    Today, a growing number of teachers are moving beyond the textbook in teaching about the war, and U.S. history more broadly. Teachers are digging directly into primary sources and harnessing technology, all in an attempt to help students better understand the past and bring it to life. Doing so may be especially important with the Civil War,…

  10. Reconstructive challenges in war wounds

    PubMed Central

    Bhandari, Prem Singh; Maurya, Sanjay; Mukherjee, Mrinal Kanti

    2012-01-01

    War wounds are devastating with extensive soft tissue and osseous destruction and heavy contamination. War casualties generally reach the reconstructive surgery centre after a delayed period due to additional injuries to the vital organs. This delay in their transfer to a tertiary care centre is responsible for progressive deterioration in wound conditions. In the prevailing circumstances, a majority of war wounds undergo delayed reconstruction, after a series of debridements. In the recent military conflicts, hydrosurgery jet debridement and negative pressure wound therapy have been successfully used in the preparation of war wounds. In war injuries, due to a heavy casualty load, a faster and reliable method of reconstruction is aimed at. Pedicle flaps in extremities provide rapid and reliable cover in extremity wounds. Large complex defects can be reconstructed using microvascular free flaps in a single stage. This article highlights the peculiarities and the challenges encountered in the reconstruction of these ghastly wounds. PMID:23162233

  11. Power to the people? Restoring citizen participation.

    PubMed

    Morone, James A; Kilbreth, Elizabeth H

    2003-01-01

    This article investigates a lost ideal--citizen participation in health policy. We begin by mapping the different types of participation. We then suggest what direct citizen action has achieved in the past, why it ought to be restored today, and how we might go about reviving it. A changing social environment--marked by globalization, immigration, a culture war, and managed care--could be addressed by robust, local, democratic health reforms. Finally, we contrast the top-down health sector with education and crime policies that take communities far more seriously.

  12. Water and wars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleick, Peter H.

    In “Challenging the Rhetoric of Water Wars” (Eos, In Brief, September 5, 2000, p. 410) Randy Showstack reported on the speech given by Minister Kader Asmal upon receiving the 2000 Stockholm Water Prize. This prize was well deserved for the tremendous progress South Africa has made under Minister Asmal's leadership in addressing basic water needs after apartheid. Indeed, I was one of his nominators for this prize and am an ardent fan of his bold programs. But his remarks about water-related conflicts need to be qualified. In his speech, Minister Asmal noted that water scarcity is a “crisis of biblical proportion,” but also suggested “there is not a shred of evidence” to back up arguments that there are water “wars.”

  13. Kepler's "War on Mars"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorsey, William; Orchiston, W.; Stephenson, F. R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents an interpretation of how Johannes Kepler changed the study of astronomy. We propose that in his metaphorical "War on Mars,” the Astronomia Nova, Kepler used a revolutionary rhetoric to bring about the usurpation of seventeenth-century astronomy. We discuss how Kepler approached the well-established conceptual framework within which the hypotheses of Ptolemy, Copernicus and Tycho Brahe functioned, and how he sought comprehensive physical principles that could determine the true cause and form of the known Universe. We examine Kepler's need to redefine reality and his use of rhetoric in shaping his astronomical argument for a new astronomy, and we show that his new `laws’ represent a fusion of physics and geometry based upon astronomical observations. We suggest that although Kepler may have believed in and defended some Copernican ideas, his innovative Astronomia Nova opened up a whole new vista for international astronomy.

  14. The unfought chemical war

    SciTech Connect

    Freeman, K. )

    1991-12-01

    In December 1943, in the middle of the scorching northern Australia summer, a young Australian commando, Tom Mitchell, sweated in his respirator and gas-protective clothing as he got ready to take part in a mustard-gas experiment. He grimly watched six US aircraft, B-24 Liberators, drop bombs filled with mustard gas on Brook Island, near Innisfail in the state of Queensland. Ten minutes later, Mitchell was rushing around the island to tend sampling equipment. But a few hours later, he and another Australian soldier were ordered back onto the island - this time, stripped of their respirators and protective clothing. They were forced to camp on the island from dusk to dawn in ordinary clothing without any safety equipment. Mitchell now suffers from lung and heart disease. Last year, nearly 47 years after he was burned, Mitchell settled with the Australian government for $25,000 (Australian). Publicity over his lawsuit, filed in 1981, along with revelations made in a documentary film broadcast in Australia in 1989, has prompted thousands of other Australian survivors of chemical-warfare tests to ask the Australian Department of Veterans Affairs for disability benefits. Veterans of chemical-warfare tests are also breaking their silence in the United States and Canada, stepping forward to seek compensation for their injuries. The impetus behind the US revelations came from a campaign begun in 1989 by Cong. Porter Goss, a Florida Republican, to win benefits for four participants in US Navy mustard-gas tests. During a flurry of publicity in mid-June 1991, the Department of Veterans Affairs announced that it was relaxing its rules to make it easier for World War 2 mustard-gas victims to collect benefits. In Canada, an information hot line run by the Department of National Defense in 1988 and a 1989 book by John Bryden, Deadly Allies: Canada's Secret War 1937-1947, brought the tests to national attention.

  15. Dyslexia Heterogeneity: Cognitive Profiling of Portuguese Children with Dyslexia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pacheco, Andreia; Reis, Alexandra; Araújo, Susana; Inácio, Filomena; Petersson, Karl Magnus; Faísca, Luís

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies have emphasized that developmental dyslexia is a multiple-deficit disorder, in contrast to the traditional single-deficit view. In this context, cognitive profiling of children with dyslexia may be a relevant contribution to this unresolved discussion. The aim of this study was to profile 36 Portuguese children with dyslexia from…

  16. Physical Activity Levels in Portuguese High School Physical Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marmeleira, Jose Francisco Filipe; Aldeias, Nuno Micael Carrasqueira; da Graca, Pedro Miguel dos Santos Medeira

    2012-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to evaluate the physical activity (PA) levels of high school Portuguese students during physical education (PE) and investigate the association of PA levels with students' goal orientation and intrinsic motivation. Forty-six students from three high schools participated. Heart rate telemetry and pedometry were used…

  17. Tense Usage Analysis in Verb Distribution in Brazilian Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoge, Henry W., Comp.

    This section of a four-part research project investigating the syntax of Brazilian Portuguese presents data concerning tense usage in verb distribution. The data are derived from the analysis of selected literary samples from representative and contemporary writers. The selection of authors and tabulation of data are also described. Materials…

  18. On Utterance Final [1] and [u] in Portuguese.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feldman, David M.

    Although standard descriptions of spoken Brazilian Portuguese assign separate allophones to both /1/ and /u/ in utterance-final position after a vowel, it has been observed that in rapid speech native speakers articulate /l/ and /u/ in this position so that they are indistinguishable to the average speaker. To answer questions about the possible…

  19. Students in Higher Education Governance: The Portuguese Case

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cardoso, Sonia; dos Santos, Sergio Machado

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at analysing and discussing student participation in Portuguese higher education institutions and, specifically, in university governance. In a first moment, it describes this participation under both the previous (1988-2007) and the new legal frameworks (since 2007). A discussion of the changes introduced by this last framework…

  20. Overweight and obesity in Portuguese children: prevalence and correlates.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T; dos Santos, Fernanda K; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A R

    2014-11-03

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children's BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9-11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287-0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23-0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27-0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children's BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI.

  1. All-Day Schooling: Improving Social and Educational Portuguese Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Jorge; Vale, Ana; Mouraz, Ana

    2015-01-01

    Over the past decade, several European countries have implemented policies and programmes leading to the introduction of the concept of "all-day schooling," thus acknowledging the need to guarantee the guard of all children and to enhance equal opportunities of success at school. The Portuguese Ministry of Education created and funded…

  2. English, French, Spanish, Italian, Portuguese? Code Choice and Austrian Export

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lavric, Eva; Back, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This article deals with how "export oriented Austrian companies effect code choice in their business relationships with customers from Romance language speaking countries". The focus lies on the most widespread Romance languages, therefore on French, Spanish, Italian and Portuguese speaking customers.The question of code choice in export should be…

  3. Sickly Americans, Kindly Portuguese, and Lithuanian Couch Potatoes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bracey, Gerald W.

    2000-01-01

    Of 27 countries in a World Health Organization survey, American children report the most physical complaints, Portuguese children are most kind to one another, and Lithuanians watch more TV. U.S. and Czech teens are great dieters. Northern Irish, Scottish, and Finnish youngsters love computer games. (MLH)

  4. Funding Allocation and Staff Management. A Portuguese Example

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosa, Maria Joao; Amado, Diana; Amaral, Alberto

    2009-01-01

    For many years the Portuguese Ministry of Education used a funding formula to allocate the State budget to public higher education institutions. Some of its major objectives were higher enrolments and allocation equity. As the expenditure on salaries was a major component of the budget, the formula was supposed to force convergence to established…

  5. Competencia Comunicativa em Portuges (Communicative Competence in Portuguese).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paiva, Ricardo

    A textbook designed to give speech and writing practice to intermediate and advanced students of Portuguese as a second language includes 14 units intended to cover two semesters' work with approximately five hours per week of instruction. The units typically include: a text forming the basis for free conversation and practice of language…

  6. Changing Values and Norms in Portuguese Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magalhaes, Antonio M.; Amaral, Alberto

    2007-01-01

    The main objective of this paper is to identify emerging changes in the values and norms related to governance and management in Portuguese higher education and to identify how different kinds of stakeholders perceive these changes. The University Autonomy Act (1988) and the Polytechnics Autonomy Act (1990) by transferring greater responsibility…

  7. Individualism and collectivism: what differences between Portuguese and Romanian adolescents?

    PubMed

    Ciochină, Laura; Faria, Luísa

    2009-11-01

    This article presents the results of a series of preliminary comparisons, between the Portuguese and Romanian cultural contexts, on the individualism-collectivism (IND/COL) cultural dimension. The IND/COL was evaluated with the Individualism-Collectivism Questionnaire - ICQ -, constructed in New Zealand by Shulruf, Hattie and Dixon (2003, Anonymous Questionnaire of Self-Attitudes - AQSA), and adapted to the Portuguese and Romanian contexts by Ciochină and Faria (2007), using studies of confirmatory factor analysis. The ICQ composed by 26 items, 15 evaluating the IND scale--with three subscales (Uniqueness, Competition and Responsibility)--, and 11 evaluating the COL scale--with two subscales (Harmony and Advice)--, was administered to 395 subjects, 200 Portuguese and 195 Romanian, 10th and 12th graders. On the whole, in the Portuguese and Romanian samples, the multivariate and univariate statistical analyses evidenced the existence of two independent variables--gender and cultural context--, with significant effects, main and of interaction, on the scales and subscales of the ICQ. The results were discussed taking into consideration the specificities of the educational systems in the two cultural contexts, which are inevitably shaped by socio-cultural factors characteristic of the two countries considered in the present study--Portugal and Romania.

  8. Subject Expression in Brazilian Portuguese: Construction and Frequency Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silveira Neto, Agripino De Souza

    2012-01-01

    Brazilian Portuguese (henceforth BP) has for long been considered as a Null-subject language due to its variability in regards to subject expression (e.g. "Era bom porque eu diminuia de peso...era muito gordinha" "That was good because then I could lose some weight...(I) was a bit chubby." C33:179). Such variability has been…

  9. Representations of Television in Portuguese Language Textbooks in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergmann, Leila Mury

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses representations of television in written texts found in elementary school Portuguese language textbooks (PLTb) from 5th to 8th grade. In order to obtain the necessary information for this article, six PLTb collections were selected (out of the 35 that were analyzed and approved by Brazil's National Textbook Program--PNLD--in…

  10. Parental Attachment and Identity in Portuguese Late Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matos, Paula Mena; Barbosa, Sonia; de Almeida, Helena Milheiro; Costa, Maria Emilia

    1999-01-01

    Based on life span attachment perspective and on identity status paradigm, this study investigated the relationship between attachment and identity in a sample of 361 Portuguese late adolescents as a function of parental and adolescent gender. The results indicated gender differences in the association between attachment variables and identity…

  11. Affiliative Structures and Social Competence in Portuguese Preschool Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, João R.; Santos, António J.; Peceguina, Inês; Vaughn, Brian E.

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this study was to determine whether peer social competence (SC), defined as the capacity to use behavioral, cognitive, and emotional resources in the service of achieving personal goals within preschool peer groups, was related to the type of affiliative subgroups to which children belonged. Two hundred forty Portuguese preschool…

  12. Translation into Portuguese of questionnaires to assess knee injuries

    PubMed Central

    Nunes, Guilherme; de Castro, Lisaura Veiga; Wageck, Bruna; Kume, Vanessa; Chiesa, Gabriela Sulzbach; de Noronha, Marcos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this systematic review was to review the quality of the translation and the measurement properties from questionnaires that assess injuries of the knee. We included questionnaires that were developed in foreign language and have been translated and validated into Portuguese. The databases used were CINAHL, SPORTDiscus, LILACS, PUBMED and SCIELO and the final search resulted in a total of 868 studies included, from which 16 were eligible. Most included questionnaires presented all steps expected in a translation process; however there were some deficiencies in measurement properties among the questionnaires. The VISA-P Brazil was the best questionnaire when analyzing translation process and measurement properties tested. It was the only questionnaire that tested all measurement properties investigated and presented adequate values for all of them. KOS-ADLS was the best questionnaire translated to Portuguese from Portugal. Among all, the VISA-P Brazil is the best questionnaire to be used with Brazilian Portuguese speakers when the condition is related to patellar tendinopathy and the LEFS is the best questionnaire for other general conditions of the knee. For Portuguese from Portugal, the best questionnaire is the KOS-ADLS, and like the LEFS it does not target any specific injury. PMID:24453685

  13. Genetic characterization of Microcystis aeruginosa isolates from Portuguese freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Moreira, Cristiana; Vasconcelos, Vitor; Antunes, Agostinho

    2016-07-01

    Cyanobacteria are microorganisms that pose a serious threat to the aquatic waterways through the production of dense blooms under eutrophic conditions and the release of toxic secondary metabolites-cyanotoxins. Within cyanobacteria, the colonial planktonic Microcystis aeruginosa is widely distributed in both fresh and brackish aquatic environments throughout the world being frequently observed in the Portuguese water systems. Apart from the well-established distribution of M. aeruginosa in Portugal, knowledge of its genetic diversity and population structure is unknown. Therefore, in this study twenty-seven strains were obtained from the North, Centre and South regions of Portugal and were subjected to extensive phylogenetic analyses using simultaneously four distinct genetic markers (16S rRNA, 16S-23S ITS, DNA gyrase subunit ß and cell division protein (ftsZ)) encompassing in total 2834 bp. With this work we characterized the phylogenetic relationship among the Portuguese strains, with the southern strains showing higher genetic structure relatively to the North and Centre strains. A total of fifteen genotypes were determined for M. aeruginosa in Portuguese water systems revealing a high genetic diversity. This is also the first study to report geographic variation on the population structure of the Portuguese M. aeruginosa.

  14. The Faculty Conjugated as Feminine: A Portrait of Portuguese Academia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dias, Diana; Sa, Maria Jose; de Lourdes Machado-Taylor, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Portuguese higher education is changing, with a significant impact on academic careers, reinforcing the academic "estate." The focus of this paper is the analysis not only of the gender differences per se, but it also relates them to other variables such as the higher education subsystem, career positioning, the sociocultural background…

  15. The Performance of Portuguese Secondary Schools: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrico, Claudia S.; Rosa, Maria J.; Coelho, Ines P.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to measure and compare the performance of Portuguese secondary schools. Design/methodology/approach: Some data on the schools were collected via an electronic questionnaire sent to 103 secondary schools of the centre region of Portugal; other needed data were available through the Centre Regional Education…

  16. Health service quality scale: Brazilian Portuguese translation, reliability and validity

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The Health Service Quality Scale is a multidimensional hierarchical scale that is based on interdisciplinary approach. This instrument was specifically created for measuring health service quality based on marketing and health care concepts. The aim of this study was to translate and culturally adapt the Health Service Quality Scale into Brazilian Portuguese and to assess the validity and reliability of the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument. Methods We conducted a cross-sectional, observational study, with public health system patients in a Brazilian university hospital. Validity was assessed using Pearson’s correlation coefficient to measure the strength of the association between the Brazilian Portuguese version of the instrument and the SERVQUAL scale. Internal consistency was evaluated using Cronbach’s alpha coefficient; the intraclass (ICC) and Pearson’s correlation coefficients were used for test-retest reliability. Results One hundred and sixteen consecutive postoperative patients completed the questionnaire. Pearson’s correlation coefficient for validity was 0.20. Cronbach's alpha for the first and second administrations of the final version of the instrument were 0.982 and 0.986, respectively. For test-retest reliability, Pearson’s correlation coefficient was 0.89 and ICC was 0.90. Conclusions The culturally adapted, Brazilian Portuguese version of the Health Service Quality Scale is a valid and reliable instrument to measure health service quality. PMID:23327598

  17. Nature of Science and Models: Comparing Portuguese Prospective Teachers' Views

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Joana; Vasconcelos, Clara

    2015-01-01

    Despite the relevance of nature of science and scientific models in science education, studies reveal that students do not possess adequate views regarding these topics. Bearing in mind that both teachers' views and knowledge strongly influence students' educational experiences, the main scope of this study was to evaluate Portuguese prospective…

  18. Evaluating Student Allocation in the Portuguese Public Higher Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portela, Miguel; Areal, Nelson; Sa, Carla; Alexandre, Fernando; Cerejeira, Joao; Carvalho, Ana; Rodrigues, Artur

    2008-01-01

    This paper characterizes and evaluates the student allocation in the Portuguese public higher education system. It describes the supply and demand sides of the system by looking at the "numerus clausus" across areas of study and institutions, institutions' degree of diversity, and performance and adjustment indicators based on students' revealed…

  19. Creating Schools of Peace and Nonviolence in a Time of War and Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavanagh, Tom

    2009-01-01

    In this post 9/11 era Western cultures are focusing on values that support war and violence. In this article an ethnographer explores the impact of these values on schools. These values, seen through the lens of restorative justice, include: (a) punishment, (b) adversarial relationships, (c) monopolization of power, (d) problemization and…

  20. Restoration technology branch

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2007-01-01

    The mission of Leetown Science Center (LSC), Restoration Technology Branch (RTB) is to conduct research needed to restore or protect the chemical, physical and biological integrity of desirable aquatic systems.

  1. Nuclear war: preventable or inevitable?

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard

    1984-06-23

    Smith reports at length on the fourth meeting of International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War, held in Helsinki in 1984 and attended by 450 doctors from 53 countries. Among the topics addressed by the delegates were the preventability of nuclear war, the threat of nuclear winter, the expenditure on atomic weapons of funds that could be used for health programs, the effects on children of the threat of nuclear conflict, and the danger of accidental nuclear war. The meeting concluded with a letter sent from the conference to the leaders of the United States and the Soviet Union.

  2. Wars of the 1990s.

    PubMed

    Firket, H

    2001-01-01

    The 40 wars of the past decade, all 'minor', have resulted in a total of more than two million deaths and 20 million refugees or displaced persons. Few have been the international wars typical of previous periods. Nine out of ten began as internal or civil wars, foreign intervention--when it occurred--being always secondary. The weapons used, the effects on the civilian populations, the type and extension of damages are different but equally destructive. The main causes of these conflicts are cultural or religious, rather than economic. The best attitudes to attempt to prevent or stop them are surveyed.

  3. Literature of War and Peace. Section III: Why War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bettendorf, Joline; And Others

    This 13-day curriculum unit is designed for use in English and language arts classrooms, grades 7-12 and junior college. While it is the third section in a series of five on the literature of war and peace, it can be used with or without the other four sections. Each section of the series focuses on a different genre of the literature of war and…

  4. World War I psychoneuroses: hysteria goes to war.

    PubMed

    Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2014-01-01

    During the First World War, military physicians from the belligerent countries were faced with soldiers suffering from psychotrauma with often unheard of clinical signs, such as camptocormia. These varied clinical presentations took the form of abnormal movements, deaf-mutism, mental confusion, and delusional disorders. In Anglo-Saxon countries, the term 'shell shock' was used to define these disorders. The debate on whether the war was responsible for these disorders divided mobilized neuropsychiatrists. In psychological theories, war is seen as the principal causal factor. In hystero-pithiatism, developed by Joseph Babinski (1857-1932), trauma was not directly caused by the war. It was rather due to the unwillingness of the soldier to take part in the war. Permanent suspicion of malingering resulted in the establishment of a wide range of medical experiments. Many doctors used aggressive treatment methods to force the soldiers exhibiting war neuroses to return to the front as quickly as possible. Medicomilitary collusion ensued. Electrotherapy became the basis of repressive psychotherapy, such as 'torpillage', which was developed by Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), or psychofaradism, which was established by Gustave Roussy (1874-1948). Some soldiers refused such treatments, considering them a form of torture, and were brought before courts-martial. Famous cases, such as that of Baptiste Deschamps (1881-1953), raised the question of the rights of the wounded. Soldiers suffering from psychotrauma, ignored and regarded as malingerers or deserters, were sentenced to death by the courts-martial. Trials of soldiers or doctors were also held in Germany and Austria. After the war, psychoneurotics long haunted asylums and rehabilitation centers. Abuses related to the treatment of the Great War psychoneuroses nevertheless significantly changed medical concepts, leading to the modern definition of 'posttraumatic stress disorder'.

  5. Contributions of Psychology to War and Peace

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Daniel J.; Montiel, Cristina J.

    2013-01-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years…

  6. Lessons on the Cold War. Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Susan J.

    1994-01-01

    Contends that the end of the Cold War requires teachers to change their teaching methods and content. Presents six lessons, most with three individual student activities, that trace the Cold War from the pre-World War I era through the end of the Vietnam War. (CFR)

  7. Reducing the risk of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, R.J.; Garrity

    1985-01-01

    This report seeks to outline a strategy for reducing the chances of nuclear war and to place arms control in proper perspective within it. Chapter titles include: The Risks of Nuclear War; The Fundamental and Proximate Causes of U.S.-Soviet Nuclear War; and Policies to Reduce the Risk of Nuclear War.

  8. The Lessons of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Starr, Jerold M., Ed.

    This text book on the Vietnam War is to be used in teaching high students. Each of the volume's 12 chapters is a self-contained unit on an aspect of the War. The chapters are: (1) Introduction to Vietnam: land, history, and culture; (2) America at war in Vietnam: decisions and consequences; (3) Was the Vietnam War legal? (4) who fought for the…

  9. American Women and the Great War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dumenil, Lynn

    2002-01-01

    Provides information on the idealized images of women during World War I. Features the use of posters and propaganda during the war. Focuses on voluntary activities in which women participated, the fight for women's suffrage during the war, and the effect of the war on women working. Includes poster reproductions. (CMK)

  10. Linking restoration ecology with coastal dune restoration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lithgow, D.; Martínez, M. L.; Gallego-Fernández, J. B.; Hesp, P. A.; Flores, P.; Gachuz, S.; Rodríguez-Revelo, N.; Jiménez-Orocio, O.; Mendoza-González, G.; Álvarez-Molina, L. L.

    2013-10-01

    Restoration and preservation of coastal dunes is urgently needed because of the increasingly rapid loss and degradation of these ecosystems because of many human activities. These activities alter natural processes and coastal dynamics, eliminate topographic variability, fragment, degrade or eliminate habitats, reduce diversity and threaten endemic species. The actions of coastal dune restoration that are already taking place span contrasting activities that range from revegetating and stabilizing the mobile substrate, to removing plant cover and increasing substrate mobility. Our goal was to review how the relative progress of the actions of coastal dune restoration has been assessed, according to the ecosystem attributes outlined by the Society of Ecological Restoration: namely, integrity, health and sustainability and that are derived from the ecological theory of succession. We reviewed the peer reviewed literature published since 1988 that is listed in the ISI Web of Science journals as well as additional references, such as key books. We exclusively focused on large coastal dune systems (such as transgressive and parabolic dunefields) located on natural or seminatural coasts. We found 150 articles that included "coastal dune", "restoration" and "revegetation" in areas such as title, keywords and abstract. From these, 67 dealt specifically with coastal dune restoration. Most of the studies were performed in the USA, The Netherlands and South Africa, during the last two decades. Restoration success has been assessed directly and indirectly by measuring one or a few ecosystem variables. Some ecosystem attributes have been monitored more frequently (ecosystem integrity) than others (ecosystem health and sustainability). Finally, it is important to consider that ecological succession is a desirable approach in restoration actions. Natural dynamics and disturbances should be considered as part of the restored system, to improve ecosystem integrity, health and

  11. The "War Poets": Evolution of a Literary Conscience in World War I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galambos, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Pre-World War I poetry often used picturesque images which blinded people to the actual horrors of war. The war poets, who experienced the destruction of World War I, led the way in expressing new images of the devastation and death of war, rather than focusing on honor and glory. (IS)

  12. How Much War Should Be Included in a Course on World War II?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Donald G.

    1993-01-01

    Contends that end of Cold War increases need for students to understand causes and aftermath of World War II. Recommends spending less time on military aspects of the war and more time on the economic, social, and cultural impact of total war. Provides a selected list of resources to be used in a college level course on the war. (CFR)

  13. AMS studies in Portuguese variscan granites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sant'Ovaia, Helena; Martins, Helena; Noronha, Fernando

    2014-05-01

    A large volume of Variscan granitic rocks outcrop in Central Iberian Zone which are well documented concerning geological mapping, petrography and geochemistry but whose magnetic characteristics and fabric remain unknown. In this study we summarize the available AMS data from approximately 644 sampling stations (5152 samples) on different massifs of Variscan Portuguese granites. Despite their different geological, petrographic and geochemical characteristics, magnetic susceptibility (K) values obtained for the majority of the studied granites range from 15 to 300 × 10-6 SI. The dominant paramagnetic behaviour of the granite bodies reflects the presence of ilmenite as the main iron oxide. This feature indicates the reduced conditions involved in the granite melt formation during the Variscan orogeny. The two-mica granites show K values ranging between 15 to 70 × 10-6 SI which are lower than values displayed by the biotite-rich facies scattered within the interval of 70 and 300 × 10-6 SI. The magnetite-bearing granites are scarce but represented in Lavadores, Gerês and Manteigas. Even so, only the Lavadores body could be considered as a true magnetite-type granite (K >3.0 × 10-3 SI) in face of its K, comprised between 1550 and 19303 × 10-6 SI. Magnetic anisotropy can be used as a "marker" for the deformation experienced by granite mushes during their crustal emplacement and further cooling. Magnetic anisotropy can thus be correlated with the finite deformation of a rock, as record by mineral fabrics. Post-tectonic granites, such as those from Vila Pouca de Aguiar, Pedras Salgadas, Caria, Vila da Ponte, Chaves and Lamas de Olo, have a magnetic anisotropy <2.5% which corresponds to a deformation hardly visible to the naked eye. Nevertheless, at microscopic scale, these granites display almost ubiquitous magmatic to submagmatic microstructures (rare wavy extinction in quartz, erratic subgrain boundaries in quartz and, eventually, folded or kinked biotites). For

  14. Women, Gender, and the War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffords, Susan

    1989-01-01

    Examines the representation of women in Vietnam War literature and films within a context of changing gender relationships in American society. Argues that critical attention needs to be given to the structure of masculinity and its relationship to warfare. (MS)

  15. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-09

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  16. Rockets in World War I

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    World War I enlisted rockets once again for military purposes. French pilots rigged rockets to the wing struts of their airplanes and aimed them at enemy observation balloons filled with highly inflammable hydrogen.

  17. Environmental consequences of nuclear war

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toon, Owen B.; Robock, Alan; Turco, Richard P.

    2014-05-01

    A regional war involving 100 Hiroshima-sized weapons would pose a worldwide threat due to ozone destruction and climate change. A superpower confrontation with a few thousand weapons would be catastrophic.

  18. Psychological aspects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, J.

    1985-01-01

    Exploring the nature of nuclear war, this treatise examines human reaction to nuclear disaster and accidental explosions. The discussion is based on evidence of human fallibility that has emerged from the psychology of accidents and from research into decision-making in military and political contexts. The book draws on the psychology of negotiation and conflict resolution to suggest ways in which the threat of nuclear war might be reduced.

  19. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam.

  20. Neurology in the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Gunderson, Carl H; Daroff, Robert B

    2016-01-01

    Between December 1965 and December 1971, the United States maintained armed forces in Vietnam never less than 180,000 men and women in support of the war. At one time, this commitment exceeded half a million soldiers, sailors, and airmen from both the United States and its allies. Such forces required an extensive medical presence, including 19 neurologists. All but two of the neurologists had been drafted for a 2-year tour of duty after deferment for residency training. They were assigned to Vietnam for one of those 2 years in two Army Medical Units and one Air Force facility providing neurological care for American and allied forces, as well as many civilians. Their practice included exposure to unfamiliar disorders including cerebral malaria, Japanese B encephalitis, sleep deprivation seizures, and toxic encephalitis caused by injection or inhalation of C-4 explosive. They and neurologists at facilities in the United States published studies on all of these entities both during and after the war. These publications spawned the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Study, which was conceived during the Korean War and continues today as the Defense and Veterans Head Injury Center. It initially focused on post-traumatic epilepsy and later on all effects of brain injury. The Agent Orange controversy arose after the war; during the war, it was not perceived as a threat by medical personnel. Although soldiers in previous wars had developed serious psychological impairments, post-traumatic stress disorder was formally recognized in the servicemen returning from Vietnam. PMID:27035455

  1. Prevention of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Lifton, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    Physicians are exercising their responsibility as healers in their efforts to prevent nuclear war. Death for Hiroshima survivors was experienced in four stages: the immediate impact of destruction, the acute impact of radiation, delayed radiation effects, and later identification as an atomic bomb survivor. Each phase had its physical and psychological impacts and negates Hiroshima as a model for rational behavior despite those who claim survival is possible for those who are prepared. The psychic effects of modern nuclear, chemical, and germ warfare need to be challenged with a symbolization of life and immortality. Studies of psychological reactions to the terror children felt during practice air-raid drills indicate that the fears can be surpressed and re-emerge in adult life as a linking of death with collective annihilation. Other themes which emerge are feelings of impermanence, craziness, identification with the bomb, and a double existence. Psychic numbing and the religion of nuclearism cause dangerous conflicts with the anxieties caused by increasing awareness of death. (DCK)

  2. Star Wars software debate

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, W.

    1986-02-01

    David L. Parnas, Landsdowne Professor of Computer Science at the University of Victoria resigned from the SDI Organization's Panel on Computing in Support of Battle Management on June 28, 1985. Parnas, with 20 years of research on software engineering plus 8 years of work on military aircraft real-time software, says the software portion of SDI cannot be built error-free and he doesn't expect the next 20 years of research to change that fact. Since Parnas resigned, there have been several public debates on Star Wars software questions. In November 1985 the SDIO panel from which Parnas resigned released a draft of its report, reflecting its effort to critics of the project. While one might think that errors could be entirely eliminated with enough care and checking, most software professionals believe there will always be some residue of errors in a system of this size and complexity. The general line of the critics' argument is that the larger the amount of software in a single, unified system, the higher the percentage of errors it will contain. Proponents counter that the one very large system can be divided into a number of smaller, relatively independent pieces, thus reducing the proportionate number of errors in each separate piece. This approach is in turn countered by those who point to the intricate relations between these pieces, which themselves contribute to error.

  3. Portuguese Ornamental Stones - Identity and Cultural Heritage around the World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopes, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Portugal has established itself as an independent state on October, 5th 1143 being confined to the south-eastern tip of Europe, with sealed land access to the rest of the continent by the others Iberian Peninsula kingdoms, enemies at the time who did not accept Portuguese autonomy. From the fourteenth century, the history of Portugal reports a period of epic discoveries. New commercial maritime routes have been established. Those routes sailing around Africa, passing through India, drove Portuguese people to Macao and Timor. To the East other routes reach the South American continent. Besides commercial interest, and because the church also financed these trips, they had the mission to evangelize the native peoples that were found. In every formed captaincies, over 29 actual countries, numerous churches, hospitals and fortifications were built. Combining a long tradition and mastery of monumental stone building and stonemasonry, which dates back to the Roman Period, Portuguese were able to combine the need to provide ships stability, using already worked stone as ballast. When arrived to these remote locations, quickly and with few local resources, could erect towering and admirable structures that still prevail today. Most of these regions were colonized and gave rise to independent countries in the 70's of the 20th Century, in some of them Portuguese is the official language and these constitutes the Community of Portuguese Language Countries (CPLP). This work shows that in addition to the language, traditions, customs, and architecture, there's also a very rich Portuguese Natural Stones monumental heritage building record, which constitutes a very strong link that binds this so special community. References Casal Moura, A., 2000. Granitos e Rochas Similares de Portugal, Instituto Geológico e Mineiro, Lisboa, ISBN 972-98469-5-2. 179. Casal Moura, A.; Carvalho, C.; Almeida, I.; Saúde, J. G.; Farinha Ramos, J.; Augusto, J.; Rodrigues, J. D.; Carvalho, J.; Martins

  4. World War I: an air war of consequence.

    PubMed

    Hallion, Richard P

    2014-06-01

    On December 17, 1903, the brothers Wilbur and Orville Wright flew the world's first successful airplane, following this with the first military airplane in 1908. (The 1908 Flyer was built by the brothers in response to a 1907 requirements specification for a 2-place aircraft capable of flying at 40 mph and able to be broken down and transported in a horse-drawn wagon. Technically, since it crashed during its demonstration program and was not formally delivered to the Army, it never became Army property. But the trials had been so impressive that the Army ordered a second, delivered in 1909.) Just six years later, Europe erupted in a general war. Often portrayed as a sideshow to the war on land and sea, the air war heralded the advent of mechanized warfare, the airplane being one of four great technological advances--the submarine, the tank, and radio communication--that, together, revolutionized military affairs. Aircraft reconnaissance influenced the conduct of military operations from the war's earliest days, and airborne observers routinely governed the fall of artillery barrages, crucially important in an artillery-dominant war.

  5. Size distribution of Portuguese firms between 2006 and 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascoal, Rui; Augusto, Mário; Monteiro, A. M.

    2016-09-01

    This study aims to describe the size distribution of Portuguese firms, as measured by annual sales and total assets, between 2006 and 2012, giving an economic interpretation for the evolution of the distribution along the time. Three distributions are fitted to data: the lognormal, the Pareto (and as a particular case Zipf) and the Simplified Canonical Law (SCL). We present the main arguments found in literature to justify the use of distributions and emphasize the interpretation of SCL coefficients. Methods of estimation include Maximum Likelihood, modified Ordinary Least Squares in log-log scale and Nonlinear Least Squares considering the Levenberg-Marquardt algorithm. When applying these approaches to Portuguese's firms data, we analyze if the evolution of estimated parameters in both lognormal power and SCL is in accordance with the known existence of a recession period after 2008. This is confirmed for sales but not for assets, leading to the conclusion that the first variable is a best proxy for firm size.

  6. Overweight and Obesity in Portuguese Children: Prevalence and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Thayse Natacha; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; dos Santos, Fernanda K.; Souza, Michele; Pereira, Sara; Maia, José A. R.

    2014-01-01

    There are widespread differences in overweight/obesity prevalence in children, and understanding the reasons for this is very important. The present study aims: (I) to conduct a meta-analysis on overweight/obesity prevalence in Portuguese children; (II) to identify differences in biological and behavioural characteristics between normal-weight and overweight/obese children; and (III) to investigate the importance of individual- and school-level correlates of variation in children’s BMI using multilevel modelling. A search was done for all published papers including Portuguese children during the last decade; further, 686 Portuguese children (9–11 years old) were sampled and their BMI, family income, maturity offset, nutritional habits, physical activity, sedentariness, sleep time, and school environment information were collected. Results showed a stabilization of overweight/obesity during the last decade, 30.6% (95%CI: 0.287–0.34) for boys, 28.4% (95%CI: 0.23–0.35) for girls, and 30.3% (95%CI: 0.27–0.34) for boys and girls together. Differences between weight groups were only found in individual-level biological traits. The multilevel analysis did not identify significant contributions of school-level variables to children’s BMI variation. In conclusion, no increase was found in the prevalence of overweight/obesity among Portuguese children since 2000. Normal-weight and overweight/obese children only differ in individual-level characteristics, and school context variables were not related to variation in BMI. PMID:25372884

  7. Portuguese National Registry on Cardiac Electrophysiology, 2013 and 2014.

    PubMed

    Cavaco, Diogo; Morgado, Francisco; Bonhorst, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    The authors present the results of the national registry of electrophysiology of the Portuguese Association for Arrhythmology, Pacing and Electrophysiology (APAPE) for 2013 and 2014. The registry is annual and voluntary, and data are collected retrospectively. Data for electrophysiological studies, ablations and cardioverter-defibrillator implantations for 2013 and 2014 are presented. Developments over the years and their implications are analyzed and discussed. PMID:27396627

  8. Watershed Restoration Project

    SciTech Connect

    Julie Thompson; Betsy Macfarlan

    2007-09-27

    In 2003, the U.S. Department of Energy issued the Eastern Nevada Landscape Coalition (ENLC) funding to implement ecological restoration in Gleason Creek and Smith Valley Watersheds. This project was made possible by congressionally directed funding that was provided through the US Department of Energy, Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Office of the Biomass Program. The Ely District Bureau of Land Management (Ely BLM) manages these watersheds and considers them priority areas within the Ely BLM district. These three entities collaborated to address the issues and concerns of Gleason Creek and Smith Valley and prepared a restoration plan to improve the watersheds’ ecological health and resiliency. The restoration process began with watershed-scale vegetation assessments and state and transition models to focus on restoration sites. Design and implementation of restoration treatments ensued and were completed in January 2007. This report describes the restoration process ENLC undertook from planning to implementation of two watersheds in semi-arid Eastern Nevada.

  9. Restoring the worn dentition.

    PubMed

    Ibsen, R L; Ouellet, D F

    1992-01-01

    Strong dental materials and dental porcelains are providing dentists with restorative opportunities that are more conservative because they require less destruction of healthy tooth structure and yield a more esthetic result. In cases of severe wear due to attrition, abrasion, and erosion, this process can be stopped, restoring the esthetics and function by using proper techniques and materials. The case report described in this article demonstrates the conservative restoration of severe wear due to attrition and erosion. Teeth were lengthened, wear was restored, and further wear was ceased by using a combination of bonded porcelain, a heat, light, and self-cure resin system, and a new glass-ionomer restorative material. The result was a strong, durable restoration (that required no anesthesia) with high esthetics.

  10. Fitness Profiles of Elite Portuguese Rugby Union Players

    PubMed Central

    Vaz, Luís; Morais, Tomaz; Rocha, Henrique; James, Nic

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the fitness profiles of senior elite Portuguese rugby players. Forty-six senior Portuguese rugby players, classified as backs (n=22; age 26.2±2.8) and forwards (n=24; age 26.7±2.9) were assessed during physical testing sessions carried out for the Portuguese National rugby team. The body composition, maximum strength and anaerobic capacity of players are hypothesized to be important physical characteristics as successful performance in rugby is predicated on the ability to undertake skilled behaviours both quickly and whilst withstanding large forces when in contact situations. No absolute differences were found between the backs and forwards for the speed performance variables although positional differences were found across all speeds when assessed relative to body mass since the forwards were significantly heavier. Coaches and the management team can use this information for monitoring progressive improvements in the physiological capacities of rugby players. These physical characteristics of elite rugby players provide normative profiles for specific positions and should form the basis of developmental programmes for adolescents. PMID:25114750

  11. Life-cycle assessment of typical Portuguese cork oak woodlands.

    PubMed

    González-García, Sara; Dias, Ana Cláudia; Arroja, Luis

    2013-05-01

    Cork forest systems are responsible for making an important economic contribution to the Mediterranean region, especially Portugal where the cork oak woodlands or montados contain about 32% of the world's area. The environmental profile derived from reproduction cork production and extraction in two Portuguese regions (Tagus valley and Alentejo) representative of the Portuguese sector were assessed in detail using the Life-Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology from a cradle-to-gate perspective. The production line was divided into four stages considering all the processes involved: stand establishment, stand management, cork stripping and field recovery. According to the environmental results, there were remarkable differences between the two production scenarios mainly due to the intensity and repetition of forest activities even though the cork yield was reported to be the same. The management system in the Alentejo region presented the worse environmental profile in almost all the impact categories under assessment, mainly due to the shorter cycle duration of the mechanical cleaning and pruning processes. Cork stripping was identified in both scenarios as the production stage with the highest contribution to the environmental profile due to the cleaning and pruning processes. A sensitivity assessment concerning the cork yield was performed since the average production yields in the Portuguese montados are lower than the ones used in this study. Thus, if the cork yield is reduced, the environmental profile in both scenarios gets worse since almost all the forest activities involved are the same.

  12. Astronomers in the Chemist's War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trimble, Virginia L.

    2012-01-01

    World War II, with radar, rockets, and "atomic" bombs was the physicists' war. And many of us know, or think we know, what our more senior colleagues did during it, with Hubble and Hoffleit at Aberdeen; M. Schwarzschild on active duty in Italy; Bondi, Gold, and Hoyle hunkered down in Dunsfeld, Surrey, talking about radar, and perhaps steady state; Greenstein and Henyey designing all-sky cameras; and many astronomers teaching navigation. World War I was The Chemists' War, featuring poison gases, the need to produce liquid fuels from coal on one side of the English Channel and to replace previously-imported dyesstuffs on the other. The talke will focus on what astronomers did and had done to them between 1914 and 1919, from Freundlich (taken prisoner on an eclipse expedition days after the outbreak of hostilities) to Edwin Hubble, returning from France without ever having quite reached the front lines. Other events bore richer fruit (Hale and the National Research Council), but very few of the stories are happy ones. Most of us have neither first nor second hand memories of The Chemists' War, but I had the pleasure of dining with a former Freundlich student a couple of weeks ago.

  13. Relative importance of estuarine flatfish nurseries along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabral, Henrique N.; Vasconcelos, Rita; Vinagre, Catarina; França, Susana; Fonseca, Vanessa; Maia, Anabela; Reis-Santos, Patrick; Lopes, Marta; Ruano, Miguel; Campos, Joana; Freitas, Vânia; Santos, Paulo T.; Costa, Maria José

    2007-02-01

    The relative importance of nursery areas and their relationships with several environmental variables were evaluated in nine estuarine systems along the Portuguese coast based on trawl surveys. Historical data were used to outline changes and trends in the nursery function of some of these estuaries over the past decades. The dominant flatfish species in Portuguese estuaries were Platichthys flesus (Linnaeus, 1758), Solea solea (Linnaeus, 1758), Solea senegalensis Kaup, 1858 and Monochirus hispidus Rafinesque, 1814, but their occurrence differed among the estuaries. P. flesus only occurred in estuaries north of the Tejo estuary (39°N), S. solea was quite rare along the southern Portuguese coast (south of 37°30'N), S. senegalensis occurred in estuaries throughout the coast, but its abundance varied considerably, and the occurrence of M. hispidus was limited to the Sado estuary and Ria Formosa. A Correspondence Analysis was performed to evaluate the relationships between flatfish species abundance and geomorphologic and hydrologic characteristics of estuaries (latitude, freshwater flow, estuarine area, intertidal area, mean depth and residence time). Abiotic characteristics (depth, temperature, salinity, sediment type) of nursery grounds of each flatfish species were also evaluated. Results showed that some estuaries along the Portuguese coast have nursery grounds used by several flatfish species (e.g. Ria de Aveiro, Sado estuary), while in other systems a segregation was noticed, with juveniles of different species occurring in distinct estuarine areas (e.g. Minho and Mondego estuaries). This emphasizes the relevance of niche overlap, but the potential for competition may be considerably minimized by differences in resource use patterns and by an extremely high abundance of resources. Peak densities of flatfishes recorded in nurseries areas along the Portuguese coast were within the range of values reported for other geographical areas. Inter-annual abundance

  14. Restoring the smile: Inexpensive biologic restorations

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Neeti P.

    2014-01-01

    Extensive breakdown of primary teeth to the cervical level and their loss in very young children is not uncommon. Owing to increasing concerns over self-appearance, due considerations to esthetic aspects in addition to restoring function are necessary aspects of rehabilitation of mutilated teeth to help children grow into a psychologically balanced personality. The present article describes rehabilitation of grossly decayed teeth with biologic restorations such as dentine posts, dentine post and core and biologic shell crown. This treatment modality provided a cost-effective esthetic solution. PMID:25097656

  15. War rape, natality and genocide.

    PubMed

    Schott, Robin May

    2011-01-01

    Feminist philosophy can make an important contribution to the field of genocide studies, and issues relating to gender and war are gaining new attention. In this article I trace legal and philosophical analyses of sexual violence against women in war. I analyze the strengths and limitations of the concept of social death—introduced into this field by Claudia Card—for understanding the genocidal features of war rape, and draw on the work of Hannah Arendt to understand the central harm of genocide as an assault on natality. The threat to natality posed by the harms of rape, forced pregnancy and forced maternity lie in the potential expulsion from the public world of certain groups—including women who are victims, members of the 'enemy' group, and children born of forced birth.

  16. War injuries of the extremities.

    PubMed

    Korzinek, K

    1993-05-01

    This paper describes experience acquired during the war against Croatia under improvised conditions at the Kutina War Hospital in the immediate vicinity of the first front lines. Over a period of almost 6 months a total of 701 soldiers and civilians, 546 of whom had been wounded by firearm missiles, were treated at the Kutina War Hospital, which has a capacity of 30-40 beds. As many as 87% of the injuries were due to mine, bomb or artillery shell shrapnel. The percentage of gunshot wounds was very low, mainly caused by sniper shots. Most patients (419, or 76.7%) were admitted with injuries to the extremities, including 893 severe soft tissue injuries and 182 fractures (32.3%). Soft tissue injuries were treated by routine procedures of war surgery, associated with ample use of Lavasept, an antiseptic solution (Fresenius, Stans, Switzerland), which has proved to be highly efficacious in preventing and decontaminating infection without disturbance of the wound healing process. Long bone fractures were fixed with the aid of external fixators of various designs, including the CMC external fixator of our own construction. External fixators have once again proved indispensable in the treatment of open fractures sustained in war settings. Amputations were performed in 10.4% of cases, including fingers and toes. Only 8 patients died during or immediately after surgery, corresponding to a very low mortality rate of 1.46%. The main prerequisites for successful treatment are a professional relationship to war surgery and its specific requirements, satisfactory technical equipment, and excellent organization of medical and non-medical services.

  17. War and the demographic trap.

    PubMed

    Last, J M

    1993-08-28

    Advice is offered on alleviating environmental damage and the suffering of women and children from the effects of war. It is postured that the demographic trap, which was described by King and Elliott, is responsible for environmental stress and many wars. The surface cause may be identified as ideology, politics, or ethnicity, but as in the case of Bosnia, the "ethnic cleansing" makes farmland available to sustain expanding Serbian or Croatian populations. If the land is environmentally damaged by war, then there is little hope of sustainable development. Conflicts in many countries have driven people to urban areas or periurban slums because of displacement and the failure of subsistence economics. Mortality from wars has reached more than a 100 million since the early 1990s. A comparable number have died indirectly from famine and disease associated with the disruption of agriculture and infrastructure from wars. Since 1945, 66-75% of mortality victims have been civilians, of whom 15 million have been women and children. In 1993, there were at least 30 conflicts ongoing throughout the world. Not all of these conflicts are as "ferocious" as the Bosnian conflict, but these "so called low intensity wars" nonetheless disrupt and kill. The manifestations of the demographic trap can be alleviated through interventions that focus on multisectoral aid and conflict resolution. There must be a cooperative effort on the part of health workers, agricultural scientists, mediators, and development personnel. Unfortunately, the amount of development assistance from Europe and America has been reduced in recent years. The recession has affected the provision of international aid. African nations, in particular, have been affected, yet these countries remain the neediest in the world. It would appear that aid agencies have given up hope that the demographic trap can be closed. Population growth must be limited, as the only hope for relieving environmental stress, ecological

  18. Glut, war slow Mideast activity

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-07-20

    Oilpatch activity in the Middle East has been on the slow side recently, and with a heated-up war between Iran and Iraq throwing off violent sparks around the Arabian Gulf, it's difficult to keep one's mind on business-as-usual. The article deals with the rising cost of insurance for shipping because of the war and the effects on drilling, production and the environment (oil spills). The development and production of offshore oil and gas in Egypt, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates is also discussed.

  19. Utah Paiute Tribal Restoration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Allen C.

    The Paiute Indian Tribe of Utah Restoration Act (1980) restored federal recognition of the tribe after a quarter century of ambiguous political status, and resulted in significant improvements of educational status of tribal members and intensification of the political presence of Southern Paiutes. Following the Paiute Indian Termination Act…

  20. Power system restoration issues

    SciTech Connect

    Adibi, M.M. ); Kafka, R.J. )

    1991-04-01

    This article describes some of the problems encountered in the three phases of power system restoration (PSR). The three phases of PSR are: Planning for restart and reintegration of the bulk power supply; Actions during system degradation for saving and retaining critical sources of power; Restoration when the power system has stabilized at some degraded level.

  1. Gill's 'History' restored

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurn, Mark

    2009-06-01

    Note about the restoration of the copy of Sir David Gill's 'A History and Description of the Royal Observatory, Cape of Good Hope' in the Library of the Institute of Astronomy, Cambridge. The book was restored with funds provided by the SHA in thanks for facilities for meetings provided to the Institute.

  2. War, peace, and international politics. Fourth edition

    SciTech Connect

    Ziegler, D.W. )

    1987-01-01

    We must conclude that war remains a major problem in the last quarter of the twentieth century. My intention in this book is to introduce you to international relations by focusing on this problem. War is not the only problem of international relations, and so this book does not exhaust the field. But war is a central problem, and the possibility of resort to war affects other aspects of international relations. Whatever else we may look at, we cannot avoid looking at war. In fact, in looking at war, we will touch on most of the other subjects important in international relations. War is conflict among states carried on by their armed forces. To distinguish war from border skirmishes and other minor incidents we usually say it must reach a certain magnitude (for example, at least 1,000 soldiers killed in battle over a year). It would be ideal if we could systematically study all the wars in the last hundred years, but such an exhaustive study would be out of place here. At the same time we cannot discuss such subjects as the cause of war or proposals for preventing it without some knowledge about actual wars. We must test theories against historical facts. What follows in Part I is a somewhat detailed history of seven wars (or groups of wars) fought in the last hundred years. These include the most destructive of the wars World War I (1914-1918), World War II (1939-1945), and the Korean War (1950-1953). By way of background to World War I, we will look at the wars of German unification (1864-1871), which preceded and in some ways prepared the way for it. To balance our account, we will also look at several recent wars India and Pakistan (1971), Uganda and Tanzania (1978-1979), and Cambodia, Vietnam, and China (1978-1980). After looking at some of the major wars of the last hundred years, we will look at what people have the about the causes of war in general.

  3. Women and War, Children and War: Stretching the Bonds of Caregiving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNamee, Abigail S.

    Many things stretch the bonds between caregiver and child, such as war, stress, and trauma. This paper reviews the literature on children who are in direct contact with war or indirect contact with war through television or others' conversations. It also describes the effects of war on children and their families, and children's psychological…

  4. 77 FR 43117 - Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-23

    ... National Park Service Meeting of the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study AGENCY... with the Federal Advisory Committee Act, 5 U.S.C. Appendix, that the Cold War Advisory Committee for the Cold War Theme Study will conduct a teleconference meeting on August 3, 2012. Members of...

  5. Ain't Gonna Study War No More? Explorations of War through Picture Books

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crawford, Patricia A.; Roberts, Sherron Killingsworth

    2009-01-01

    At the height of the Vietnam War, Down by the Riverside was transformed from a traditional folk song to a popular anti-war anthem. The raucous and repetitive chorus, "I ain't gonna study war no more ...," became a rallying cry for those who wanted nothing to do with the war and the pain and controversy that surrounded it. Although it seems…

  6. United States Historians, Cold War Rhetoric, and The Finnish Winter War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Keith W.

    The U.S. attitude toward Finland during the Cold War years reveals much about U.S. society and politics. In particular, the war between Finland and the Soviet Union during 1939 and 1940 (Finnish Winter War) and the way in which the United States reacted to it at the time and in the years following World War II has relevance for better…

  7. Retributive and restorative justice.

    PubMed

    Wenzel, Michael; Okimoto, Tyler G; Feather, Norman T; Platow, Michael J

    2008-10-01

    The emergence of restorative justice as an alternative model to Western, court-based criminal justice may have important implications for the psychology of justice. It is proposed that two different notions of justice affect responses to rule-breaking: restorative and retributive justice. Retributive justice essentially refers to the repair of justice through unilateral imposition of punishment, whereas restorative justice means the repair of justice through reaffirming a shared value-consensus in a bilateral process. Among the symbolic implications of transgressions, concerns about status and power are primarily related to retributive justice and concerns about shared values are primarily related to restorative justice. At the core of these processes, however, lies the parties' construal of their identity relation, specifically whether or not respondents perceive to share an identity with the offender. The specific case of intergroup transgressions is discussed, as are implications for future research on restoring a sense of justice after rule-breaking.

  8. Suicide Prevention in the Pacific War (WWII).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suzuki, Peter T.

    1991-01-01

    During war against Japan, there were two facets of U.S. program to prevent suicide among the Japanese: research component in Foreign Morale Analysis Division of Office of War Information and a suicide prevention program itself put into effect toward the end of the war in battles of Saipan and Okinawa and undertaken by U.S. GIs. (Author/NB)

  9. World War II Memorial Learning Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennessee State Dept. of Education, Nashville.

    These learning activities can help students get the most out of a visit to the Tennessee World War II Memorial, a group of ten pylons located in Nashville (Tennessee). Each pylon contains informational text about the events of World War II. The ten pylons are listed as: (1) "Pylon E-1--Terror: America Enters the War against Fascism, June 1940";…

  10. An Anthropology of Violence and War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balandier, Georges

    1986-01-01

    Describes anthropological thinking about primeval violence; how it originated, was manifested, and controlled. Discusses the role of war in Mawri of Niger society as an example of a society which preferred war to peace. Concludes with reflections on present 'secondary or induced wars,' and the need to understand these conflicts in terms of an…

  11. Peace-keeping Forces: YA War Books.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowe Chris

    2000-01-01

    Argues that good young adult books about war can help teenagers appreciate the blessings of peace and the horrors of war, and perhaps may inspire them to do what they can to preserve peace. Describes briefly 71 young adult war books worth reading. (SR)

  12. Fighting the War on Academic Terrorism. Advocacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Sandra N.

    2005-01-01

    While the attention of the country is focused on the global and national war on terrorism, the war on academic terrorism is being waged in classrooms, infiltrating the gifted programs, and altering the outcomes derived for students participating in gifted programs. The war on academic terrorism is related to the broad areas of curriculum and…

  13. World War II Homefront: A Historiography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winkler, Allan M.

    2002-01-01

    Highlights the scholarship that exists on the World War II homefront covering topics such as World War II as a good war, Franklin D. Roosevelt, economic policy, propaganda, status of women and women's employment, the role of African Americans, racial violence, and the Japanese American experience. (CMK)

  14. The Persian Gulf War: civilian war-related stress and the influence of age, religious faith, and war attitudes.

    PubMed

    Plante, T G; Manuel, G M

    1992-03-01

    This study examined the stress response of 86 civilian subjects at the onset of the Persian Gulf War. The Impact of Events Scale (IES) and the Symptom Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R) were used to measure participants' subjective stress response and symptoms of psychological distress. Subjects also completed a demographic questionnaire that included questions that ranged from religious affiliation to approval of the war effort. The study describes war-related stress and the influence of age, religious faith, and attitudes about war on reported levels of stress. Results indicate measurable levels of war-related stress in this civilian population.

  15. The Politics of Star Wars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Lee

    George Lucas's Star Wars trilogy is used as the basis for the creation of a political subtext arising from one of America's most enduring literary myths--the American Adam. That subtext, when translated into a modern political context, pinpoints two central issues to face this democracy in the coming years, as well as a national ambivalence about…

  16. Cold War Geopolitics: Embassy Locations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogeler, Ingolf

    1995-01-01

    Asserts that the geopolitics of the Cold War can be illustrated by the diplomatic ties among countries, particularly the superpowers and their respective allies. Describes a classroom project in which global patterns of embassy locations are examined and compared. Includes five maps and a chart indicating types of embassy locations. (CFR)

  17. Images of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chomsky, Noam

    1989-01-01

    The conventional U.S. picture traces the Cold War to Soviet violation of wartime agreements, while the U.S.S.R. defends its actions as responses to American violations and foreign adventurism. An understanding of how ideology is shaped by national self-interest will help students see beyond propaganda and myth in interpreting past and current…

  18. The Civil War and Iowa.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gore, Deborah, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    This journal issue explores Iowa's participation in the U.S. Civil War and primarily focuses on what happened to the men, women, and children who remained at home. A number of social, political, and economic changes are examined, including: (1) the increased responsibilities of women and children; (2) the growth of abolitionism; (3) the role of…

  19. Organisational Cultures in Public and Private Portuguese Universities: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, Aristides I.; Hill, Manuela M.

    2008-01-01

    Perceptions of organisational culture made by three categories of staff playing managerial roles in each of two Portuguese Universities (one public and the other private) were compared using a questionnaire adapted from the Organisational Culture Assessment Instrument and translated into Portuguese. The four scales of the questionnaire, designed…

  20. Early Sound Patterns in the Speech of Two Brazilian Portuguese Speakers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Teixeira, Elizabeth Reis; Davis, Barbara L.

    2002-01-01

    Compares sound patterns in the speech of two Brazilian-Portuguese speaking children with early production patterns in English-learning children as well as English and Brazilian-Portuguese characteristics. Results emphasize the primacy of production system effects in early acquisition, although even the earliest word forms show evidence of…

  1. Evaluating the Portuguese National Reading Plan: Teachers' Perceptions on the Impact in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Costa, António Firmino; Pegado, Elsa; Ávila, Patrícia; Coelho, Ana Rita

    2015-01-01

    This article focuses on teachers' perceptions of the implementation and impact in Portuguese schools of a wide-ranging and long-term reading promotion programme. The Portuguese National Reading Plan (PNRP) was a public policy initiative whose purpose was to increase literacy levels and reading habits among the population. The Plan identified…

  2. The Differential Use of Spanish and Portuguese along the Uruguayan-Brazilian Border

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waltermire, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Since the late 1800s, the Uruguayan Government has attempted to enforce cultural and linguistic norms along the border with Brazil through the prohibition of Portuguese, especially in schools, despite the fact that this is the heritage language of most border residents. This research focuses on the differential use of Spanish and Portuguese in…

  3. Research Article Introductions in English for Specific Purposes: A Comparison between Brazilian Portuguese and English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirano, Eliana

    2009-01-01

    This paper compares the rhetorical organization of research article introductions in Brazilian Portuguese and in English within a subfield of Applied Linguistics. Using Swales' (1990) CARS model as an analytical tool, this exploratory study investigated 20 research articles. The findings indicate that introductions in Brazilian Portuguese tend to…

  4. And Yet They Come: Portuguese Immigration from the Azores to the United States.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Jerry R.

    This book is about the Portuguese who immigrated from the Azores Islands to the United States during the years 1800-1870, 1870-1920, and 1957-1982. The earliest Portuguese immigrants were employed in the whaling industry, and settled in New England and California. Another major concentration can be found in the Hawaiian Islands, where they were…

  5. Factorial Validity and Invariance of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale among Portuguese Youngsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vasconcelos-Raposo, Jose; Fernandes, Helder Miguel; Teixeira, Carla M.; Bertelli, Rosangela

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine the reliability, factorial validity and measurement invariance (across gender, age and physical activity participation) of a Portuguese version of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES). The sample consisted of 1,763 Portuguese youngsters (731 male and 1,032 female) with ages between 15 and 20 years.…

  6. Masculinities and Sport: The Emphasis on Hegemonic Masculinity in Portuguese Physical Education Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silva, Paula; Botelho-Gomes, Paula; Goellner, Silvana Vilodre

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyse representations of hegemonic masculinity in physical education (PE) mixed classes, the only curricular discipline having sport as its contents in the Portuguese educational system. The analysed data come from semi-structured interviews with Portuguese secondary school teachers and students and from class…

  7. Syntactic Structure and Information Structure: The Acquisition of Portuguese Clefts and "Be"-Fragments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobo, Maria; Santos, Ana Lúcia; Soares-Jesel, Carla

    2016-01-01

    This article investigates the acquisition of different types of clefts and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese. We first present the main syntactic and discourse properties of different cleft structures and of "be"-fragments in European Portuguese, and we discuss how data from first language acquisition may contribute to…

  8. New Challenges for Women Seeking an Academic Career: The Hiring Process in Portuguese Higher Education Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carvalho, Teresa; Santiago, Rui

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides an analysis of the potential impact of changes in recruitment and hiring processes in Portuguese higher education institutions--under the New Public Management framework--on the representation of women in academia. Based on official data from the Portuguese Ministry of Science, Technology and Higher Education, two major…

  9. Design Management, Learning and Innovation: Results from a Portuguese Online Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monteiro Barata, José M.

    2013-01-01

    This paper is an output of a Portuguese public research project: "DeSid"--"design as a company's strategic resource: a study of the impacts of design" (FCT). The "DeSid" research project was created with the main purpose to make a diagnosis of the use of design inside the Portuguese manufacturing industry. This…

  10. Computer Assisted Language Learning and the Internationalisation of the Portuguese Language in Higher Education Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sevilla-Pavón, Ana

    2015-01-01

    The internationalisation of the Portuguese language has become a priority for academic institutions of different Portuguese-speaking countries which are trying to adapt to the current context of globalisation and ubiquitous communications through digital media. In order to achieve it, several challenges should be faced, namely providing…

  11. Measuring the Economic Value of the Electronic Scientific Information Services in Portuguese Academic Libraries

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melo, Luiza Baptista; Pires, Cesaltina Pacheco

    2011-01-01

    This article has three main objectives: i) to describe the use patterns of electronic and traditional resources in Portuguese academic libraries; ii) to estimate the value of the Portuguese electronic scientific information consortium b-on by using two alternative valuation methodologies; iii) to relate the use patterns with the valuation of b-on.…

  12. SIMOcean: Maritime Open Data and Services Platform for Portuguese Institutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almeida, Nuno; Grosso, Nuno; Catarino, Nuno; Gutierrez, Antonio; Lamas, Luísa; Alves, Margarida; Almeida, Sara; Deus, Ricardo; Oliveira, Paulo

    2016-04-01

    Portugal is the country with the largest EEZ in the EU and the 10th largest EEZ in the world, at 3,877,408 km2, rendering the existence of an integrated management of Portuguese marine system crucial to monitor a wide range of interdependent domains. A system like this assimilates data and information from different thematic areas, ranging from ocean and atmosphere state variables to higher level datasets describing human activities and related environmental, social and economic impacts. Currently, these datasets are collected by a wide number of public and private institutions with very diverse purposes (e.g., monitoring, research, recreation, vigilance) leading to dataset duplication, inexistence of common data and metadata standards across organizations, and the propagation of closed information systems with different implementation solutions. This lack of coordination and visibility hinders the marine management, monitoring and vigilance capabilities, not only by making it more difficult to access, or even be aware of, the existence of certain datasets, but also by minimizing the ability to create added value products or services through dataset integration from different sources. Adopting Open Data approach will bring significant benefits by reducing the cost of information exchange and data integration, promoting the extensive use of this data. SIMOcean (System for Integrated Monitoring of the Ocean), co-funded by the EEA Grants Programme, is integrated in the initiative of the Portuguese Government to develop a set of coordinated systems providing access to national marine data. These systems aim to improve the Portuguese marine management, monitoring and vigilance capabilities, aggregating different data, including specific human activities datasets (vessel traffic, fishing records, oil spills), and environment variables (waves, currents, wind). Those datasets, currently scattered among different departments of the Portuguese Meteorological (IPMA) and the

  13. Homogenized focal parameters for Portuguese earthquakes between 1900 and 1960

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Ricardo; Cruz, Jorge; Batlló, Josep; Custódio, Susana; Carrilho, Fernando

    2015-04-01

    The INSPIRE project, funded by Portuguese FCT, started in 2012 and aims to review the instrumental seismicity of Portugal in the period 1900-1960. Prior to the deployment of the new Portuguese seismic network in the early eighties, many earthquakes with epicentre in the Atlantic and even in continental Portugal were undetected or not located instrumentally. But knowledge of the occurrence and location of earthquakes prior to this period is fundamental to understand the seismicity of the region and for studies of seismic hazard and risk. Relocation of events instrumentally recorded until 1960 is particularly difficult due to several factors: Namely, the poor sensitivity of the seismographs and the few available stations, but also the incompleteness of the reports and the lack of accuracy of the station chronometers. Thus, different catalogues give different locations for the same event, with no information about how they were obtained, or there are conspicuous gaps in the instrumental records of Portuguese stations. For many earthquakes of the studied period records regard only felt effects. In general, there is no control on the accuracy or quality of epicentral coordinates of events consigned in the catalogues. To correct these problems and improve the knowledge of the seismicity of the area it has been necessary to review all available materials, which include diverse sources. Moreover, the problems posed by data quality forced us to perform an analysis of the events one by one. Here we present our final results, with around 350 earthquakes reviewed. Now location procedures are homogenized and repeatable. Also, at the end of the run, more than 160 additional events have been consigned in the resulting catalogue. A further step will be calculation of homogenized magnitudes for all of them and calculation of focal mechanism whenever possible.

  14. MOCASSIM - an operational forecast system for the Portuguese coastal waters.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vitorino, J.; Soares, C.; Almeida, S.; Rusu, E.; Pinto, J.

    2003-04-01

    An operational system for the forecast of oceanographic conditions off the Portuguese coast is presently being implemented at Instituto Hidrográfico (IH), in the framework of project MOCASSIM. The system is planned to use a broad range of observations provided both from IH observational networks (wave buoys, tidal gauges) and programs (hydrographic surveys, moorings) as well as from external sources. The MOCASSIM system integrates several numerical models which, combined, are intended to cover the relevant physical processes observed in the geographical areas of interest. At the present stage of development the system integrates a circulation module and a wave module. The circulation module is based on the Harvard Ocean Prediction System (HOPS), a primitive equation model formulated under the rigid lid assumption, which includes a data assimilation module. The wave module is based on the WaveWatch3 (WW3) model, which provides wave conditions in the North Atlantic basin, and on the SWAN model which is used to improve the wave forecasts on coastal or other specific areas of interest. The models use the meteorological forcing fields of a limited area model (ALADIN model) covering the Portuguese area, which are being provided in the framework of a close colaboration with Instituto de Meteorologia. Although still under devellopment, the MOCASSIM system has already been used in several operationnal contexts. These included the operational environmental assessment during both national and NATO navy exercises and, more recently, the monitoring of the oceanographic conditions in the NW Iberian area affected by the oil spill of MV "Prestige". The system is also a key component of ongoing research on the oceanography of the Portuguese continental margin, which is presently being conducted at IH in the framework of national and European funded projects.

  15. Portuguese nurses' knowledge of and attitudes toward hospitalized older adults.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Tavares, João Paulo; da Silva, Alcione Leite; Sá-Couto, Pedro; Boltz, Marie; Capezuti, Elizabeth

    2015-03-01

    Portugal is impacted by the rapid growth of the aging population, which has significant implications for its health care system. However, nurses have received little education focusing on the unique and complex care needs of older adults. This gap in the nurses' education has an enormous impact in their knowledge and attitudes and affects the quality of nursing care provided to older adults. A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1068 Portuguese nurses in five hospitals (northern and central region) with the following purposes: (i) explore the knowledge and attitudes of nurses about four common geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcer, incontinence, restraint use and sleep disturbance) in Portuguese hospitals; and (ii) evaluate the influence of demographic, professional and nurses' perception about hospital educational support, geriatric knowledge, and burden of caring for older adults upon geriatric nursing knowledge and attitudes. The mean knowledge and attitudes scores were 0.41 ± 0.15 and 0.40 ± 0.21, respectively (the maximum score was 1). Knowledge of nurses in Portuguese hospitals about the four geriatric syndromes (pressure ulcers, sleep disturbance, urinary incontinence and restraint use) was found inadequate. The nurses' attitudes towards caring for hospitalized older adults were generally negative. Nurses who work in academic hospitals demonstrated significantly more knowledge than nurses in hospital centers. The attitudes of nurses were significantly associated with the hospital and unit type, region, hospital educational support, staff knowledge, and perceived burden of caring for older adults. The study findings support the need for improving nurses' knowledge and attitudes towards hospitalized older adults and implementing evidence-based guidelines in their practice.

  16. 26 CFR 1.1334-1 - Restoration of value of investments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... investments. If any interest of the taxpayer in or with respect to property was determined to be worthless and was treated as a war loss under section 127(a)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code of 1939 (see 26 CFR... 26 Internal Revenue 11 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Restoration of value of investments....

  17. Bearing restoration by grinding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanau, H.; Parker, R. J.; Zaretsky, E. V.; Chen, S. M.; Bull, H. L.

    1976-01-01

    A joint program was undertaken by the NASA Lewis Research Center and the Army Aviation Systems Command to restore by grinding those rolling-element bearings which are currently being discarded at aircraft engine and transmission overhaul. Three bearing types were selected from the UH-1 helicopter engine (T-53) and transmission for the pilot program. No bearing failures occurred related to the restoration by grinding process. The risk and cost of a bearing restoration by grinding programs was analyzed. A microeconomic impact analysis was performed.

  18. Fracture resistance of posterior teeth restored with modern restorative materials

    PubMed Central

    Hamouda, Ibrahim M.; Shehata, Salah H.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the fracture resistance of maxillary premolars restored with recent restorative materials. Fifty maxillary premolars were divided into five groups: Group 1 were unprepared teeth; Group 2 were teeth prepared without restoration; Group 3 were teeth restored with tetric ceram HB; Group 4 were teeth restored with InTen S; and Group 5 were teeth restored with Admira. The samples were tested using a universal testing machine. Peak loads at fracture were recorded. The teeth restored with Admira had the highest fracture resistance followed by those restored with InTen-S and tetric ceram HB. Prepared, unrestored teeth were the weakest group. There was a significant difference between the fracture resistance of intact teeth and the prepared, unrestored teeth. There was also a significant difference among the tested restorative materials. Teeth restored with Admira showed no significant difference when compared with the unprepared teeth. It was concluded that the teeth restored with Admira exhibited the highest fracture resistance. PMID:23554719

  19. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being. PMID:24128314

  20. Contributions of psychology to war and peace.

    PubMed

    Christie, Daniel J; Montiel, Cristina J

    2013-10-01

    The contributions of American psychologists to war have been substantial and responsive to changes in U.S. national security threats and interests for nearly 100 years. These contributions are identified and discussed for four periods of armed conflict: World Wars I and II, the Cold War, and the Global War on Terror. In contrast, about 50 years ago, largely in reaction to the threat of nuclear war, some psychologists in the United States and around the world broke with the tradition of supporting war and began focusing their scholarship and activism on the prevention of war and promotion of peace. Today, peace psychology is a vibrant area of psychology, with theory and practice aimed at understanding, preventing, and mitigating both episodes of organized violence and the pernicious worldwide problem of structural violence. The growth, scope, and content of peace psychology are reviewed along with contributions to policies that promote peace, social justice, and human well-being.

  1. [War casualty triage during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Ferrandis, Jean-Jacques; Lefort, Hugues; Tabbagh, Xavier; Pons, François

    2014-06-01

    Along with the front hospitals (HOE), the action of sorting out the injured was one of the most important innovations of the Great War. Progressively, it was implemented and codified on each level of the evacuating chain, with variations due to the different phases of the conflict, such as in Verdun or in the Somme. From 1917 onwards, specific sorting centers, managed by experimented soldiers, were set up in the evacuating hospitals.

  2. Ecosystem restoration: Chapter 4

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cullinane Thomas, Catherine M.; Skrabis, K. E.; Gascoigne, William

    2012-01-01

    The Department of the Interior extensively supports―through its mission, policy, programs, and funding― the study, planning, implementation, and monitoring of ecosystem restoration. This commitment is reflected in the Department's FY2011-2016 Strategic Plan.

  3. Restoration of Ailing Wetlands

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Oswald J.

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide. PMID:22291573

  4. ESTUARINE HABITAT RESTORATION

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Borde, Amy B.

    2015-09-01

    Restoring estuarine habitats generally means repairing damages caused by humans and natural forces. Because of the extensive human occupation, development, and use of coastal areas for centuries, the extensive estuarine habitats have been either destroyed or significantly impaired.

  5. Restoration of ailing wetlands.

    PubMed

    Schmitz, Oswald J

    2012-01-01

    It is widely held that humankind's destructive tendencies when exploiting natural resources leads to irreparable harm to the environment. Yet, this thinking runs counter to evidence that many ecological systems damaged by severe natural environmental disturbances (e.g., hurricanes) can restore themselves via processes of natural recovery. The emerging field of restoration ecology is capitalizing on the natural restorative tendencies of ecological systems to build a science of repairing the harm inflicted by humans on natural environment. Evidence for this, for example, comes from a new meta-analysis of 124 studies that synthesizes recovery of impacted wetlands worldwide. While it may take up to two human generations to see full recovery, there is promise, given human will, to restore many damaged wetlands worldwide.

  6. Informe Especial: O Ensino e a Promocao do Portugues na Romenia (Special Report: The Teaching and Promotion of Portuguese in Romania).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ploae-Hanganu, Mariana

    1996-01-01

    This article reflects the most significant advances made in the teaching and promotion of Portuguese in Romania in the past 20 years. The Portuguese program at the University of Bucharest is described as are special courses given in commemoration of landmark dates in Portuguese history and special events celebrating Portuguese history and culture.…

  7. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen.

  8. Restoring primary anterior teeth.

    PubMed

    Waggoner, William F

    2002-01-01

    A variety of esthetic restorative materials are available for restoring primary incisors. Knowledge of the specific strengths, weakness, and properties of each material will enhance the clinician's ability to make the best choice of selection for each individual situation. Intracoronal restorations of primary teeth may utilize resin composites, glass ionomer cements, resin-modified ionomers, or polyacid-modified resins. Each has distinct advantages and disadvantages and the clinical conditions of placement may be a strong determining factor as to which material is utilized. Full coronal restoration of primary incisors may be indicated for a number of reasons. Crowns available for restoration of primary incisors include those that are directly bonded onto the tooth, which generally are a resin material, and those crowns that are luted onto the tooth and are some type of stainless steel crown. However, due to lack of supporting clinical data, none of the crowns can be said to be superior to the others under all circumstances. Though caries in the mandibular region is rare, restorative solutions for mandibular incisors are needed. Neither stainless steel crowns nor celluloid crown forms are made specifically for mandibular incisors. Many options exist to repair carious primary incisors, but there is insufficient controlled, clinical data to suggest that one type of restoration is superior to another. This does not discount the fact that dentists have been using many of these crowns for years with much success. Operator preferences, esthetic demands by parents, the child's behavior, and moisture and hemorrhage control are all variables which affect the decision and ultimate outcome of whatever restorative treatment is chosen. PMID:12412967

  9. Dental fillings in Civil War skulls: what do they tell us?

    PubMed

    Glenner, R A; Willey, P; Sledzik, P S; Junger, E P

    1996-11-01

    This article discusses the dental techniques, methods and materials used in the South during the Civil War based on the dental restorations found in the skulls of four confederate soldiers. The skulls display a variety of dental filling materials, including thorium, lead, tin and tin amalgam. These materials were used at a time when more valuable materials, such as gold and silver, were not readily available in the South. PMID:8952248

  10. War, peace and professional responsibility.

    PubMed

    Cassel, C K

    1983-01-01

    The technology of modern weapons, especially nuclear weapons, poses a critical threat to the health of all people. In addition to the unprecedented risk of massive destruction to living things and to the ecosphere, the resources used in production of these arsenals cause an economic threat to the health of populations even if the weapons are never used. Medical and social scientists have a responsibility to work for the prevention of nuclear war and the reversal of the arms race. This may imply an obligation to work towards the prevention of war in general. Professional responsibility in this regard is based on (1) special expertise, (2) influence in society and (3) the symbolic power of the values of life, health and human dignity.

  11. Neurosurgical notes: World War II.

    PubMed

    Pool, J L

    2000-03-01

    This concerns my activities as a neurosurgeon in the European Theater of Operations and the North African, Tunisian campaign, during World War II. Action during the Battle of the Bulge came later. Our mobile tent hospital, the 9th Evacuation Hospital, was similar to that depicted in the television show M*A*S*H. To lend flavor to these comments, I have referred to medical and surgical matters in other units as well as our own, mentioned global aspects of the war, and included vignettes of life off-duty. The story begins after induction into the Army Medical Corps as a volunteer in July 1942 and ends with honorable discharge in April 1946. PMID:10719869

  12. Medical responsibility and thermonuclear war.

    PubMed

    Cassel, C; Jameton, A

    1982-09-01

    The attention of physicians is being drawn to the issue of nuclear weapons and nuclear war, creating controversy about whether a political concern is appropriate for health care professionals. The use of nuclear weapons would incur human death and injury on a scale both unprecedented and unimaginable, and possibly damage the ecosphere far beyond the weapons' immediate effects. Medical supplies and facilities would be nonexistent; no meaningful medical response would be possible. A physician's responsibility to prevent nuclear war is based on the imperative to prevent a devastating incurable disease that cannot be treated. Such an imperative is consistent with the historic tradition of the social responsibility of health professionals, and can be justified by philosophical argument.

  13. Genetic relationships of the Portuguese Lidia bovine populations.

    PubMed

    Correia, P; Baron, E; da Silva, J M; Cortés, O

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the genetic relationships among the Lidia breed lineages and two main Portuguese Lidia bovine populations, Casta Portuguesa and Brava dos Açores, 24 autosomal microsatellites were analyzed in 120 samples. Brava dos Açores showed the highest observed and expected heterozygosity (0.73 and 0.70, respectively) while Casta Portuguesa showed the lowest observed and expected heterozygosity (0.51 and 0.50, respectively). The results of this study were compared with the previous microsatellites data from the main Lidia bovine lineages. Casta Portuguesa was the most genetically isolated Lidia bovine population as revealed by the average FST genetic distance value with respect to the other lineages (32%). All the populations of Portuguese Lidia had negative FIS values. The Neighbour-joining dendrogram grouped Casta Portuguesa in the same branch with Miura, which was supported by the STRUCTURE software. The results evidenced low levels of genetic diversity and high levels of genetic differentiation in Casta Portuguesa and high levels of genetic diversity in Brava dos Açores populations, probably due to the crossbreeding of different bovine lineages at origin, and genetic flow among herds. PMID:27175132

  14. Genetic relationships of the Portuguese Lidia bovine populations

    PubMed Central

    Correia, P; Baron, E; da Silva, J. M; Cortés, O

    2014-01-01

    To clarify the genetic relationships among the Lidia breed lineages and two main Portuguese Lidia bovine populations, Casta Portuguesa and Brava dos Açores, 24 autosomal microsatellites were analyzed in 120 samples. Brava dos Açores showed the highest observed and expected heterozygosity (0.73 and 0.70, respectively) while Casta Portuguesa showed the lowest observed and expected heterozygosity (0.51 and 0.50, respectively). The results of this study were compared with the previous microsatellites data from the main Lidia bovine lineages. Casta Portuguesa was the most genetically isolated Lidia bovine population as revealed by the average FST genetic distance value with respect to the other lineages (32%). All the populations of Portuguese Lidia had negative FIS values. The Neighbour-joining dendrogram grouped Casta Portuguesa in the same branch with Miura, which was supported by the STRUCTURE software. The results evidenced low levels of genetic diversity and high levels of genetic differentiation in Casta Portuguesa and high levels of genetic diversity in Brava dos Açores populations, probably due to the crossbreeding of different bovine lineages at origin, and genetic flow among herds. PMID:27175132

  15. Core conversion of the Portuguese research reactor to LEU fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Marques, J.G.; Ramos, A.R.; Kocher, A.

    2008-07-15

    Core conversion of the Portuguese Research Reactor (RPI) to LEU fuel is being performed within IAEA's Technical Cooperation project POR/4/016, with financial support from the US and Portugal. CERCA was selected as manufacturer of the LEU assemblies by the IAEA after an international call for bids. CERCA provided a comprehensive package to the RPI which included the mechanical verification of the design of the assemblies, their manufacture and arrangements for a joint inspection of the finished assemblies. The LEU fuel assemblies were manufactured within 8 months upon final approval of the design. The safety analyses for the core conversion to LEU fuel were made with the assistance of the RERTR program and were submitted for review by the IAEA and by Portuguese authorities in January 2007. Revised documents were submitted in June 2007 addressing the issues raised during review. Regulatory approval was received in early August and core conversion was done in early September. All measured safety parameters are within the defined acceptance limits. Operation at full power is expected by the end of October. (author)

  16. War zone paediatrics in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1996-08-01

    Children are particularly vulnerable to injury and death in two types of 20th century conflicts; terrorist attack and civil war. This account describes some first-hand experiences of the aftermath of the Rwandan Civil War of 1994. Events leading to the conflict are described, eye witness accounts of child trauma during the war are recorded and the medical problems (currently ongoing) affecting children are described. Over a period of 3 months from April to June 1994, between half and one million Rwandese, a significant proportion of them women and children, were murdered in brutal hand-to-hand killing, dying from close-quarter gunshot and machete slaughter. Nearly half of the population became refugees in neighbouring countries or displaced persons in their own land. UNAMIR II, the United Nations Emergency Humanitarian Response, grew to some 7000 persons by May 1995. Medical aid was provided by emergency medical contingents from the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, the latter through its Australian Medical Support Force, providing the definitive emergency medical infrastructure from August 1994. In the consequent post-war civil and social disruption, children suffered from burns, cholera and from motor vehicle trauma. Ongoing landmine blasts continue to affect children and adolescents especially. A new International humanitarian code to build a time-expiry device into landmines and other similar ordinance is urgently required as the post-conflict ongoing disasters in Rwanda, Afghanistan and Cambodia illustrate. Current problems affecting children include an increasing risk of HIV infection, trauma and the special humanitarian needs of thousands of orphans.

  17. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations.

  18. War zone paediatrics in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Pearn, J

    1996-08-01

    Children are particularly vulnerable to injury and death in two types of 20th century conflicts; terrorist attack and civil war. This account describes some first-hand experiences of the aftermath of the Rwandan Civil War of 1994. Events leading to the conflict are described, eye witness accounts of child trauma during the war are recorded and the medical problems (currently ongoing) affecting children are described. Over a period of 3 months from April to June 1994, between half and one million Rwandese, a significant proportion of them women and children, were murdered in brutal hand-to-hand killing, dying from close-quarter gunshot and machete slaughter. Nearly half of the population became refugees in neighbouring countries or displaced persons in their own land. UNAMIR II, the United Nations Emergency Humanitarian Response, grew to some 7000 persons by May 1995. Medical aid was provided by emergency medical contingents from the United Kingdom, Canada and Australia, the latter through its Australian Medical Support Force, providing the definitive emergency medical infrastructure from August 1994. In the consequent post-war civil and social disruption, children suffered from burns, cholera and from motor vehicle trauma. Ongoing landmine blasts continue to affect children and adolescents especially. A new International humanitarian code to build a time-expiry device into landmines and other similar ordinance is urgently required as the post-conflict ongoing disasters in Rwanda, Afghanistan and Cambodia illustrate. Current problems affecting children include an increasing risk of HIV infection, trauma and the special humanitarian needs of thousands of orphans. PMID:8844531

  19. [Endovascular surgery in the war].

    PubMed

    Reva, V A; Samokhvalov, I M

    2015-01-01

    Rapid growth of medical technologies has led to implementation of endovascular methods of diagnosis and treatment into rapidly developing battlefield surgery. This work based on analysing all available current publications generalizes the data on using endovascular surgery in combat vascular injury. During the Korean war (1950-1953) American surgeons for the first time performed endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta - the first intravascular intervention carried out in a zone of combat operations. Half a century thereafter, with the beginning of the war in Afghanistan (2001) and in Iraq (2003) surgeons of central hospitals of the USA Armed Forces began performing delayed endovascular operations to the wounded. The development of technologies, advent of mobile angiographs made it possible to later on implement high-tech endovascular interventions in a zone of combat operations. At first, more often they performed implantation of cava filters, somewhat afterward - angioembolization of damaged accessory vessels, stenting and endovascular repair of major arteries. The first in the theatre of war endovascular prosthetic repair of the thoracic aorta for severe closed injury was performed in 2008. Russian experience of using endovascular surgery in combat injuries is limited to diagnostic angiography and regional intraarterial perfusion. Despite the advent of stationary angiographs in large hospitals of the RF Ministry of Defence in the early 1990s, endovascular operations for combat vascular injury are casuistic. Foreign experience in active implementation of endovascular technologies to treatment of war-time injuries has substantiated feasibility of using intravascular interventions in tertiary care military hospitals. Carrying out basic training courses on endovascular surgery should become an organic part of preparing multimodality general battlefield surgeons rendering care on the theatre of combat operations. PMID:26035580

  20. Climatic effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Turco, R.P.; Toon, O.B.; Ackerman, T.P.; Pollack, J.B.; Sagan, C.

    1984-08-01

    Recent findings by this group confirmed by workers in Europe, the US and the USSR, suggest that the long-term climatic effects of a major nuclear war are likely to be much severer and farther-reaching than had been supposed. In the aftermath of such a war vast areas of the earth could be subjected to prolonged darkness, abnormally low temperatures, violent windstorms, toxic smog and persistent radioactive fallout - in short, the combination of conditions that has come to be known as nuclear winter. In brief, the authors' initial results, published in Science in December, 1983, showed that the potential global atmospheric and climatic consequences of nuclear war...are serious. Significant hemispherical attenuation of the solar radiation flux and subfreezing land temperatures may be caused by fine dust raised in high-yield nuclear surface bursts and by smoke from city and forest fires ignited by airbursts of all yields. Subsequent studies, based on more powerful models of the general circulation of the earth's atmosphere, have tended to confirm both the validity of the authors' investgative approach and the main thrust of their findings. Most of this article is devoted to reviewing the current state of knowledge on this vital issue.

  1. The War of Jenkins’ Ear

    PubMed Central

    Graboyes, Evan M.; Hullar, Timothy E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective In 1731, Spanish sailors boarded the British brig Rebecca off the coast of Cuba and sliced off the left ear of its captain, Robert Jenkins. This traumatic auriculectomy was used as a pretext by the British to declare war on Spain in 1739, a conflict that is now known as the War of Jenkins’ Ear. Here, we examine the techniques available for auricular repair at the time of Jenkins’ injury and relate them to the historical events surrounding the incident. Methods Review of relevant original published manuscripts and monographs. Results Surgeons in the mid-18th century did not have experience with repair of traumatic total auriculectomies. Some contemporary surgeons favored auricular prostheses over surgical treatment. Methods for the reconstruction of partial defects were available, and most authors advocated a local post-auricular flap instead of a free tissue transfer. Techniques for repair of defects of the auricle lagged behind those for repair of the nose. Conclusion Limitations in care of traumatic auricular defects may have intensified the significance of Jenkins’ injury and helped lead to the War of Jenkins’ Ear, but conflict between Britain and Spain was probably unavoidable due to their conflicting commercial interests in the Caribbean. PMID:23444484

  2. Portuguese Society of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery/Portuguese Society of Cardiology recommendations for waiting times for cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Neves, José; Pereira, Hélder; Sousa Uva, Miguel; Gavina, Cristina; Leite Moreira, Adelino; Loureiro, Maria José

    2015-11-01

    Appointed jointly by the Portuguese Society of Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery (SPCCTV) and the Portuguese Society of Cardiology (SPC), the Working Group on Waiting Times for Cardiac Surgery was established with the aim of developing practical recommendations for clinically acceptable waiting times for the three critical phases of the care of adults with heart disease who require surgery or other cardiological intervention: cardiology appointments; the diagnostic process; and invasive treatment. Cardiac surgery has specific characteristics that are not comparable to other surgical specialties. It is important to reduce maximum waiting times and to increase the efficacy of systems for patient monitoring and tracking. The information in this document is mainly based on available clinical information. The methodology used to establish the criteria was based on studies on the natural history of heart disease, clinical studies comparing medical treatment with intervention, retrospective and prospective analyses of patients on waiting lists, and the opinions of experts and working groups. Following the first step, represented by publication of this document, the SPCCTV and SPC, as the bodies best suited to oversee this process, are committed to working together to define operational strategies that will reconcile the clinical evidence with the actual situation and with available resources.

  3. Fluvial Geomorphology and River Restoration: Uneasy Allies (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kondolf, G. M.

    2009-12-01

    A growing body of literature demonstrates that river restoration based on understanding of geomorphic and ecological process is more likely to be sustainable than form-based approaches. In the early days of river ‘restoration’ in North America, most projects involved bank stabilization, habitat structure placement, or construction of rocked meandering channels, at odds with restoration of the dynamic processes we now see as fundamental to effective, sustainable restoration. Recent years have seen a growing body of restoration programs emphasizing restoration of connectivity and geomorphic process. This evolution has been reflected in publications, from the form-based approach advocated in the early 1990s by an NRC panel (which did not include a geomorphologist) to more recent works by interdisciplinary panels emphasizing process restoration. Large-scale river restoration came later to Europe, motivated by the EU Water Framework Directive (2000) requirements that member states implement measures to improve ecological status of degraded rivers. Interestingly, European approaches to restoration have often reflected a more nuanced understanding of process, including deliberate recreation of unstable braided channels, removal of bank protection, and reconnecting floodplains. In part this may reflect a reaction to the more thorough post-war channelization of rivers in western Europe. In part it may also reflect a greater influence of academic and research laboratories upon practitioners than in the US, where a strong anti-intellectual strain, cultural preference for easy fixes, and reluctance to conduct objective post-project assessments have contributed to the adoption of form-based approaches by many public agencies.

  4. Validation of the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form among Portuguese juvenile delinquents.

    PubMed

    Pechorro, Pedro; Barroso, Ricardo; Poiares, Carlos; Oliveira, João Pedro; Torrealday, Ohiana

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to validate the Buss-Perry Aggression Questionnaire-Short Form (BPAQ-SF) among Portuguese juvenile delinquents. With a total sample of 237 male participants, subdivided into an incarcerated forensic sample (n=192) and a community sample (n=45), the Portuguese version of the BPAQ-SF demonstrated good psychometric properties in terms of factor structure, internal consistency, convergent validity, discriminant validity, predictive validity and known-groups validity that generally justify its use among Portuguese youth. Statistically significant associations were found with drug use and alcohol abuse.

  5. Science, ethics and war: a pacifist's perspective.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Jeffrey

    2013-06-01

    This article considers the ethical aspects of the question: should a scientist engage in war-related research, particularly use-inspired or applied research directed at the development of the means for the better waging of war? Because scientists are simultaneously professionals, citizens of a particular country, and human beings, they are subject to conflicting moral and practical demands. There are three major philosophical views concerning the morality of war that are relevant to this discussion: realism, just war theory and pacifism. In addition, the requirements of professional codes of ethics and common morality contribute to an ethical analysis of the involvement of scientists and engineers in war-related research and technology. Because modern total warfare, which is facilitated by the work of scientists and engineers, results in the inevitable killing of innocents, it follows that most, if not all, war-related research should be considered at least as morally suspect and probably as morally prohibited.

  6. Social science in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life.

  7. Children exposed to war/terrorism.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Jon A

    2003-12-01

    This paper reviews the prevalence of psychological morbidities in children who have been exposed to war-related traumas or terrorism as well as the diversity of war-related casualties and their associated psychological responses. The psychological responses to war-related stressors are categorized as (1) little or no reaction, (2) acute emotional and behavioral effects, and (3) long-term effects. Specific categories of war-related casualties discussed include refugee status, traumatic bereavement, effects of parental absence, and child soldiers. Psychological responses associated with terrorism and bioterrorism are presented. Lastly, mediators of the psychological response to war-related stressors are discussed, to include exposure effects, gender effects, parental, family and social factors, and child-specific factors. Children exposed to war-related stressors experience a spectrum of psychological morbidities including posttraumatic stress symptomatology, mood disorders, externalizing and disruptive behaviors, and somatic symptoms determined by exposure dose effect. Specific questions for future research are identified.

  8. Social science in the Cold War.

    PubMed

    Engerman, David C

    2010-06-01

    This essay examines ways in which American social science in the late twentieth century was--and was not--a creature of the Cold War. It identifies important work by historians that calls into question the assumption that all social science during the Cold War amounts to "Cold War social science." These historians attribute significant agency to social scientists, showing how they were enmeshed in both long-running disciplinary discussions and new institutional environments. Key trends in this scholarship include a broadening historical perspective to see social scientists in the Cold War as responding to the ideas of their scholarly predecessors; identifying the institutional legacies of World War II; and examining in close detail the products of extramural--especially governmental--funding. The result is a view of social science in the Cold War in which national security concerns are relevant, but with varied and often unexpected impacts on intellectual life. PMID:20718280

  9. The challenge of corporatisation: the experience of Portuguese public hospitals.

    PubMed

    Rego, Guilhermina; Nunes, Rui; Costa, José

    2010-08-01

    The inability of traditional state organisations to respond to new economic, technological and social challenges and the associated emerging problems has made it necessary to adopt new methods of health management. As a result, new directions have emerged in the reform of Public Administration together with the introduction of innovative models. The aim is to achieve a type of management that focuses on results as well as on effort and efficiency. We intend to analyse to what extent the adoption of business management models by hospital healthcare units can improve their performance, mainly in terms of standards of efficiency. Data envelopment analysis (DEA) was used to investigate the efficiency of a set of public Portuguese hospitals. The aim was to evaluate the impact of business management in Portuguese public hospitals with regards to efficiency, specifically taking into account the fact that lack of resources and increased health care needs are a present and future reality. From a total of 83 public hospitals, a sample of 59 hospitals was chosen, of which 21 are state-owned hospital enterprises (SA) and 38 are traditional public administration sector hospitals (SPA). This study evaluates hospital performance by calculating two efficiency measures associated with two categories of inputs. The first efficiency measures the costs associated with hospital production lines and the number of beds (representing fixed capacity) as inputs. The annual costs generated by the hospitals in the consumption of capital and work (direct and indirect costs) are used. A second measure of efficiency is calculated separately. This measure includes in the inputs the number of beds as well as the human resources available (number of doctors, number of nurses and other personnel) in each hospital. With regard to output, the variables that best reflect the hospital services rendered were considered: number of inpatient days, patients discharged, outpatient visits, emergencies

  10. If war is "just," so is abortion.

    PubMed

    Kissling, F

    1991-01-01

    Currently Catholic bishops are applying an inconsistent ethical paradigm to the issues of war and abortion. Based on the seamless garment theory war, abortion and capital punishment are all immoral acts because they are of the same garment. They are all "killing acts" and as such they are immoral. However there is within the Catholic paradigm the idea of a just war. The just war theory states that the destruction of human life in war is justified if it is for a greater good. However abortion has no exceptions, there is no just abortion in the rules of the Catholic Church. The author takes the just war doctrine as presented by the Catholic Church and shows how it could easily apply to abortion. Both war and abortion involve the taking of a human life, but in the case of war the taking of a life is justified if it is done to protect your own life. The same exception in abortion would be to allow abortion when the mother's life is in danger. yet no such exception exists. The just war theory further states that was is necessary to protect national integrity, particularly if the violation erodes the quality of life for its citizens. The same exception for abortion would include allowing abortions for women who already have more children then they can care for or if having the child would erode the quality of life for the woman. Other aspects of the just war theory include the competence and goals of the national leaders. Women must also be allowed to be competent moral agents. Proponents of the seamless garment theory will bring up the fact that in a just war only combatants die yet the fetus is innocent. But no war has ever been fought without the loss of innocent civilians.

  11. Care and meaning in war zone nursing.

    PubMed

    Cuellar, Ernestine Tina

    2009-12-01

    During the past century, nurses have served as caregivers for United States military personnel in every major theater of war. Military nurses in the war zone deliver patient care while working in austere conditions, and are under constant threat of personal danger. This article gives a historical overview of the role of nurses in war zones, followed by a review from the perspectives of environment, safety, the nature of injuries, and treatment of military personnel and civilians. PMID:19850184

  12. To win a nuclear war: The Pentagon's secret strategy

    SciTech Connect

    Kaku, M.; Axelrod, D.

    1986-01-01

    This book provides a survey of U.S. plans concerning nuclear war from 1945 through the present. The authors explain U.S. nuclear war plans and contingencies. They also trace the evolution of the strategies and technologies of nuclear war planning, and the personalities of the planners, through post-war foreign policy from the Berlin Crisis to Star wars.

  13. Creating esthetic composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Grin, D

    2000-05-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe a fabrication technique to assist dental technicians creating esthetic indirect composite restorations. After the teeth have been prepared and the models completed, the technician can begin the fabrication process. Translucent dentin is selected to reduce opacity and enhance the blend with the remaining dentition. High chroma modifiers can then be placed into the fossa area to replicate dentin seen in natural dentition. Different incisal materials can then be layered into the build-up to regulate the value of the restoration. Special effects such as hypocalcification are placed internally to mimic naturally occurring esthetics. Realistic anatomy is created using a small-tipped instrument directly into the final layer of uncured enamel material. Fissure characterization is placed in the restoration to match existing dentition. Fit and margins are verified on separate dies to minimize discrepancies. Path of insertion and proximal contacts are established on a solid model to minimize chairside adjustments.

  14. Restoring the prairie

    SciTech Connect

    Mlot, C.

    1990-12-01

    The US DOE at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory in Batavia, Illinois, prairie restoration is taking place in order to conserve the rich topsoil. This is the largest of many prairie restoration experiments. Big bluestem grass (Andropogon gerardi), blue grama (Bouteloua gracilis), and buffalo grass (Buchloe dactyloides) are the main initial grasses grown. After their growth reaches enough biomass to sustain a fire, other prairie plants such as purple prairie clover and dropseed grass appear. The goal of this is to provide a generous refuge for disappearing native plants and animals, a site for scientific research, and a storehouse of genes adapted to a region that produces much of the worlds food. Plans for restoring the marsh and oak savanna, also native to the Fermilab site are also in the works.

  15. Restoration of Shoulder Function.

    PubMed

    Boe, Chelsea C; Elhassan, Bassem T

    2016-08-01

    Restoration of shoulder function in patients with brachial plexus injury can be challenging. Initial reported efforts were focused on stabilizing the shoulder, improving inferior subluxation and restoring abduction and flexion of the joint. Recent advancements and improved understanding of coordinated shoulder motion and the biomechanical properties of the muscles around the shoulder applicable to tendon transfer have expanded available surgical options to improve shoulder function, specifically external rotation. Despite the advances in reconstructive options, brachial plexus injury remains a serious problem that requires complex surgical solutions, prolonged recovery, and acceptance of functional loss. PMID:27387074

  16. The Quotidianisation of the War in Everyday Life at German Schools during the First World War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholz, Joachim; Berdelmann, Kathrin

    2016-01-01

    The outbreak of the First World War had a powerful impact on German schools. Undoubtedly, schools were institutions of socialisation that did offer support to the war. Indeed, research has shown that a specific "war pedagogy" made an aggressive propaganda possible in the classroom. This research usually emphasises the enthusiasm for war…

  17. Civil War Preservation Trust Two Week Curriculum for Teaching the Civil War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Civil War Preservation Trust, Washington, DC.

    The Civil War was perhaps the greatest turning point in U.S. history. The dual themes of slavery and power deeply divided the growing nation during the first half of the 19th century. The mission of the Civil War Preservation Trust (CWPT) is to preserve the significant Civil War battlefields by protecting the land and educating the public about…

  18. Children's Attitudes to War and Peace: When a Peace Agreement Means War

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLernon, Frances; Cairns, Ed

    2006-01-01

    Previous research into children's concepts of peace, war and strategies to attain peace suggests that peace and war are developmentally constructed concepts. In order to examine the impact of the immediate sociocultural context, 343 adolescents in Northern Ireland in 2002 were questioned about their concepts of war and peace, and their strategies…

  19. Winning the War: A Historical Analysis of the FFA during World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolf, Kattlyn J.; Connors, James J.

    2009-01-01

    The United States' participation in World War II affected millions of men, women, and children, both at home and around the world. The war effort also affected the Future Farmers of America (FFA). FFA members, agriculture teachers, and national FFA officers all volunteered to serve their country during the war. Local FFA chapters and individual…

  20. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  1. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  2. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  3. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  4. 36 CFR 1229.12 - What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... during a state of war or threatened war? 1229.12 Section 1229.12 Parks, Forests, and Public Property... § 1229.12 What are the requirements during a state of war or threatened war? (a) Destruction of records... war between the United States and any other nation or when hostile action appears imminent, the...

  5. Rasch-modeling the Portuguese SOCRATES in a clinical sample.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Paulo; Prieto, Gerardo; Delgado, Ana R; Gamito, Pedro; Trigo, Hélder

    2010-06-01

    The Stages of Change Readiness and Treatment Eagerness Scale (SOCRATES) assesses motivation for treatment in the drug-dependent population. The development of adequate measures of motivation is needed in order to properly understand the role of this construct in rehabilitation. This study probed the psychometric properties of the SOCRATES in the Portuguese population by means of the Rasch Rating Scale Model, which allows the conjoint measurement of items and persons. The participants were 166 substance abusers under treatment for their addiction. Results show that the functioning of the five response categories is not optimal; our re-analysis indicates that a three-category system is the most appropriate one. By using this response category system, both model fit and estimation accuracy are improved. The discussion takes into account other factors such as item format and content in order to make suggestions for the development of better motivation-for-treatment scales.

  6. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  7. Marine litter in bottom trawls off the Portuguese coast.

    PubMed

    Neves, Diogo; Sobral, Paula; Pereira, Tânia

    2015-10-15

    Benthic marine litter along the Portuguese coast, was recorded in 14 trips on stern trawlers covering a distance of 2117 km and an area of 56.2 km(2), average depth range 90-349 m. 2034 items of marine litter were registered, 76% were plastics and 38.6% were originated from fishing related activities. Plastic was present in all the trawls and had the highest average density of all litter categories, 50 items km(-2). The highest density of marine litter (178.9 ± 64.0 items km(-2)) was found in the proximity of the Tagus river mouth, probably related to the high population density in the Lisbon metropolitan area. This study highlights the need to raise fishermen awareness for the adoption of good environmental practices that will contribute to the reduction of marine litter. PMID:26231069

  8. Validation of a Portuguese form of Templer's Death Anxiety Scale.

    PubMed

    Donovan, J M

    1993-08-01

    To translate Templer's Death Anxiety Scale into the Brazilian Portuguese Escala de Ansiedade de Morte, linguistic validity was first established by back-translation and calculating bilingual split-half reliability coefficients. Even-numbered items achieved a minimally adequate .59, while the odd-numbered items attained a satisfactory .91. The internal consistency of the Escala (.77) matches that found for the original scale. The construct validity was tested by replicating the interactions of the English form with (1) the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, (2) the Purpose-in-Life Test, and (3) Levenson's measure of locus of control. The Escala performed as expected, save for some difficulty with the locus of control measure.

  9. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  10. ELSa interventional Portuguese health program to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mourão Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins; Fonseca, Sandra; de Castro Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the communication was to present the baseline data from incidence of obesity, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, before ELSa, interventional Portuguese health program. The sample was composed of 496 children (238 girls and 258 boys) with an average 7.7 (± 2.5) years of age. Thinness, overweight and obesity were calculated by using the BMI and the cut off of Cole et al., 24 h dietary recalls and a general questionnaire was completed by the parents to provide information about eating habits, sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results indicated high incidence of overweight and obesity, many hours in screen activities and low level of physical activity. The eating habits seemed healthy, but our children's lifestyles were sedentary. To combat the high incidence of obesity it is very urgent to design a multi-level intervention aimed to modify key behaviours: physical activity, screen time and nutrition. PMID:21923295

  11. ELSa interventional Portuguese health program to promote physical activity.

    PubMed

    Mourão Carvalhal, Maria Isabel Martins; Fonseca, Sandra; de Castro Coelho, Eduarda Maria Rocha Teles

    2011-10-01

    The aim of the communication was to present the baseline data from incidence of obesity, eating habits, physical activity and sedentary behaviour, before ELSa, interventional Portuguese health program. The sample was composed of 496 children (238 girls and 258 boys) with an average 7.7 (± 2.5) years of age. Thinness, overweight and obesity were calculated by using the BMI and the cut off of Cole et al., 24 h dietary recalls and a general questionnaire was completed by the parents to provide information about eating habits, sedentary behaviour and physical activity. The results indicated high incidence of overweight and obesity, many hours in screen activities and low level of physical activity. The eating habits seemed healthy, but our children's lifestyles were sedentary. To combat the high incidence of obesity it is very urgent to design a multi-level intervention aimed to modify key behaviours: physical activity, screen time and nutrition.

  12. Gulf war depleted uranium risks.

    PubMed

    Marshall, Albert C

    2008-01-01

    US and British forces used depleted uranium (DU) in armor-piercing rounds to disable enemy tanks during the Gulf and Balkan Wars. Uranium particulate is generated by DU shell impact and particulate entrained in air may be inhaled or ingested by troops and nearby civilian populations. As uranium is slightly radioactive and chemically toxic, a number of critics have asserted that DU exposure has resulted in a variety of adverse health effects for exposed veterans and nearby civilian populations. The study described in this paper used mathematical modeling to estimate health risks from exposure to DU during the 1991 Gulf War for both US troops and nearby Iraqi civilians. The analysis found that the risks of DU-induced leukemia or birth defects are far too small to result in an observable increase in these health effects among exposed veterans or Iraqi civilians. The analysis indicated that only a few ( approximately 5) US veterans in vehicles accidentally targeted by US tanks received significant exposure levels, resulting in about a 1.4% lifetime risk of DU radiation-induced fatal cancer (compared with about a 24% risk of a fatal cancer from all other causes). These veterans may have also experienced temporary kidney damage. Iraqi children playing for 500 h in DU-destroyed vehicles are predicted to incur a cancer risk of about 0.4%. In vitro and animal tests suggest the possibility of chemically induced health effects from DU internalization, such as immune system impairment. Further study is needed to determine the applicability of these findings for Gulf War exposure to DU. Veterans and civilians who did not occupy DU-contaminated vehicles are unlikely to have internalized quantities of DU significantly in excess of normal internalization of natural uranium from the environment.

  13. Pharmaceutical Compounding in Portuguese Community Pharmacies: CHARACTERIZATION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES.

    PubMed

    Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Rita; Macedo, Marina; Machado, Rita M; Pacheco, Ana Filipa; Palmeira-de-Oliveira, Ana; Martinez-de-Oliveira, José; Duarte, Paulo

    2016-01-01

    A study of compounding practices among Portuguese community pharmacies from 2008 to 2011 and pharmacists' perspectives concerning compounding was conducted. The retrospective study was based on an online questionnaire developed to gather information on pharmacies characteristics frequency, and type of compounded preparations. Additionally, difficulties, motivations, and pharmacist's perspectives regarding compounding were assessed. Up to 1,450 Portuguese pharmacies were contacted, and 250 completed questionnaires obtained. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS Version 21. Frequency and cross-tab analysis was used to describe data. Chi-square test was used to assess statistical significant differences between compounding and non-compounding pharmacies' characteristics. Among all pharmacies, 75.2% reported compounding practices, although the majority prepared less than 50 preparations per year, corresponding to less than 10 different formulations. Those pharmacies' with a higher lifetime activity, number of customers, and team members were associated to compounding practices. Dermatological preparations were the most frequently prepared formulations, followed by oral solutions, and otorhinolaryngological preparations. Dermatologists and pediatricians were the most frequent prescribers of compounded medicines. Regarding future perspectives, 51.4% of pharmacists believed that compounding will decrease. However, 79.1% indicated that they will continue to compound, and 70.7% considered that compounded prescriptions should be encouraged. Patient satisfaction (66.1%) and improvement of the pharmacy image (63.8%) were considered the main advantages of compounding services. Compounded medicines are still prepared in the community pharmacy setting to fulfill special patients' therapeutic needs, especially following dermatologists' and pediatricians' prescriptions. Offering compounding services is perceived by pharmacists as an important factor for high

  14. Mental health literacy about depression: a survey of portuguese youth

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Depression is a common disorder in adolescents and young adults, but help seeking is low. Mental health literacy about depression is a key concept to plan interventions for improving help seeking. This study aimed to evaluate youth mental literacy about depression in order to design school-based interventions. Methods During 2012, a survey was conducted with a stratified cluster sample of 4938 Portuguese young people between 14 and 24 years of age. Following the presentation of a vignette describing depression, a series of questions was asked concerning: recognition of the disorder; knowledge of professional help and treatments available; knowledge of effective self-help strategies; knowledge and skills to give first aid and support to others; and knowledge of how to prevent this disorder. Results In response to an open-ended question, around a quarter of the participants failed to recognize depression in the vignette. When asked about the potential helpfulness of various people, most of the participants considered mental health professionals, family and friends to be helpful. However, teachers, social workers and a helpline were less likely to be considered as helpful. With regard to medications, vitamins received more positive views than psychotropics. Some interventions were frequently rated as likely to be helpful, whereas for others there was a lack of knowledge about their effectiveness. A positive finding is that alcohol and tobacco consumption were seen as harmful. When asked about mental health first aid strategies, participants supported the value of listening to the person in the vignette and advising professional help, but some unhelpful strategies were commonly endorsed as well. Conclusion Deficits were found in some aspects of depression literacy in Portuguese youth. Therefore intervention in this area is needed. PMID:23651637

  15. Trans fatty acids in the Portuguese food market

    PubMed Central

    Costa, Nádia; Cruz, Rebeca; Graça, Pedro; Breda, João; Casal, Susana

    2016-01-01

    Consistent evidence exist on the harmful health effects of industrial trans fatty acids (TFA). In order to have accurate data on TFA intake and implement adequate measures to reduce their intake, each country should have updated estimates of TFA content in the diet. The objective of the present study was to provide data on the TFA content in food commercialized in the Portuguese market. The results on the TFA content of 268 samples acquired between October and December 2013 are reported. Samples were categorized as margarines and shortenings (n = 16), spreadable chocolate fats (n = 6), fried potatoes and chips (n = 25), industrial bakery (n = 4), breakfast cereals (n = 3), pastry products (n = 120), seasonings (n = 5), instant soups (n = 5), instant desserts (n = 6), chocolate snacks (n = 4), microwave popcorn (n = 4), cookies, biscuits and wafers (n = 53), and fast-food (n = 13), with butter (n = 4) included for comparison purposes. TFA were quantified by gas chromatography. Total TFA content in the fat ranged from 0.06% to 30.2% (average 1.9%), with the highest average values in the “biscuits, wafers and cookies” group (3.4% TFA), followed by the pastry group (2.0%). Fifty samples (19%) had TFA superior to 2% in the fat. These findings highlight there is still much need for improvement in terms of the TFA content in Portuguese foods, particularly in traditional pastry. PMID:27274619

  16. Family planning of Portuguese immigrants and integration in Belgium.

    PubMed

    Ferro Bucher, A S

    1978-01-01

    A substantial immigration of Portuguese and other foreign nationals to Belgium due to a favorable immigration policy guides this investigation to focus on this group in order to study the influence of the acculturation experience on birth-control practices. Choosing a sample of 100 married women within a group of 998 Portuguese immigrants in an urban municipality in Brussels, the study sets out specifically to investigate whether these immigrants adopt attitude patterns of the receiving social group or if they preserve the customs of their original community. The hypothesis held by the study was that the better the woman's integration into Belgian society, the larger her knowledge and acceptance of contraceptives would be. The study found that the majority of interviewed immigrants remained poorly integrated into the Belgian society, and that the transition from a traditional to an industrial society had not included great changes in attitudinal behavior which would facilitate social and cultural integration into the new society. In terms of attitudes toward contraception, negative behavior was observed to be linked not to levels of acculturation, but rather to lack of information. Though the majority of respondents expressed desires for controlled fecundity even when still in Portugal, those who came to Belgium with no previous knowledge or desires admitted to having felt the need for contraceptive practice. The crucial factor in acceptance of modern contraceptive practices is singled out as one of communication. Access to information about contraception is readily available in the Belgian society. The information actually obtained by the women, however, depended on their access to informational channels, the circumstances through which they got in touch with such sources, and their problems with a language barrier when relying on the media through which contraceptive knowledge was made available.

  17. Energy-Saving Opportunities for Manufacturing Companies (English/Portuguese Brochure)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-07-01

    This English/Portuguese brochure describes the Industrial Technologies Program Save Energy Now model and provides information on tools and resources to help manufacturing facilities reduce industrial energy intensity.

  18. Acquired dyslexia in three writing systems: study of a Portuguese-Japanese bilingual aphasic patient.

    PubMed

    Senaha, Mirna Lie Hosogi; de Mattos Pimenta Parente, Maria Alice

    2012-01-01

    The Japanese language is represented by two different codes: syllabic and logographic while Portuguese employs an alphabetic writing system. Studies on bilingual Portuguese-Japanese individuals with acquired dyslexia therefore allow an investigation of the interaction between reading strategies and characteristics of three different writing codes. The aim of this study was to examine the differential impact of an acquired brain lesion on the reading of the logographic, syllabic and alphabetic writing systems of a bilingual Portuguese-Japanese aphasic patient (PF). Results showed impaired reading in the logographic system and when reading irregularly spelled Portuguese words but no effects on reading regular words and nonwords in syllabic and alphabetic writing systems. These dissociations are interpreted according to a multi-route cognitive model of reading assuming selective damage in the lexical route can result in acquired dyslexia across at least three different writing codes.

  19. Restoring Fossil Creek

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flaccus, Kathleen; Vlieg, Julie; Marks, Jane C.; LeRoy, Carri J.

    2004-01-01

    Fossil Creek had been dammed for the past 90 years, and plans were underway to restore the stream. The creek runs through Central Arizona and flows from the high plateaus to the desert, cutting through the same formations that form the Grand Canyon. This article discusses the Fossil Creek monitoring project. In this project, students and teachers…

  20. Model for Coastal Restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Ronald M.; Judd, Chaeli

    2007-07-27

    Successful restoration of wetland habitats depends on both our understanding of our system and our ability to characterize it. By developing a conceptual model, looking at different spatial scales and integrating diverse data streams: GIS datasets and NASA products, we were able to develop a dynamic model for site prioritization based on both qualitative and quantitative relationships found in the coastal environment.

  1. Profiteering on the Iran-Iraq war

    SciTech Connect

    Brzoska, M.

    1987-06-01

    The military gear delivered from the US in the Iran-contra affair represents only a minor portion of arms sales to the combatants in the Iraq-Iran war. That war has now lasted more than six years and has deeply influenced the international arms market. Occurring during a period when other demand for arms has been relatively low, the war has nourished new suppliers and has revived both the legal and illegal private arms market. The erratic behavior of the USSR and the US, until recently by far the most important arms suppliers to the Third World, has pushed Iran and Iraq toward more commercially oriented sources, including many in the Third World. Both countries have had ample supplies of weapons during the war, and these weapons have served their purpose. Mainly because of its duration, the war already ranks third among post-World War II wars - after the Vietnam war and the Biafra war - in battlefield victims, with 300,000-500,000 casualties. The economic cost has risen to nearly $500 billion in weapons, destruction, and lost income. While it is hard to see anything but losers on the battlefield, the arms traffickers are profiting. Total Iranian arms imports since August 1980 have been higher than $10 billion, while Iraq has imported more than $30 billion worth. It is difficult to know whether making arms more difficult to obtain would have stopped the war, but judging from other recent wars, such as those between India and Pakistan, between Uganda and Tanzania, and in the Middle East, it seems likely that hostilities could have been stopped long ago. 12 references.

  2. From Combat to Legacies: Novels of the Vietnam War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johannessen, Larry R.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses novels of the Vietnam War, their usefulness, and the interest they hold for students. Considers four categories of Vietnam novels: the Vietnam experience, the war at home, the refugee experience, and the war's effect on the next generation. (SR)

  3. 14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. EAST ELEVATION, COTTAGE. EXTERIOR NEARLY RESTORED. INTERIOR UNDERGOING RESTORATION. EUCALYPTUS TREE PLANTED BY GERTRUDE KEIL PLANNED FOR REMOVAL. - Gold Ridge Farm, 7777 Bodega Avenue, Sebastopol, Sonoma County, CA

  4. [Influence of implant restoration on traditional restoration idea].

    PubMed

    Liu, H C

    2016-01-01

    Implant restoration affected the traditional restoration idea. Artificial implant restoration has a profound influence on the design of dental restoration. Implant supported prostheses have not only changed the method of oral rehabilitation, but also integrated revolutionary concept with the traditional treatment protocol. By using implants, posterior missing molars can be effectively restored and thus eliminating the disadvantages of traditional removable partial denture for Kennedy classification Ⅰ, Ⅱ partically edentulous dentition. Full edentulous arch can also be restored with implant fixed denture which provide much better oral health related quality of life compared with the traditional complete denture. It is useful to master the theory and skills of artificial implant restoration, and to provide a reference for the restoration of oral physiological function.

  5. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Arthur G

    2015-10-01

    The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points), the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion.

  6. Women as prisoners of war.

    PubMed

    Skelton, W P; Skelton, N K

    1995-11-01

    American women are increasingly becoming involved in combat-related roles. Inevitably, our country will have several killed and taken prisoner. No National Academy of Science/National Research Council or VA study has ever been undertaken to examine the chronic sequelae of the experiences undergone by these captured women. This paper examines the after-effects of 3.5 years of incarceration on the 79 American women taken prisoner by the Japanese in the Philippines during World War II. Emphasis is given to their living conditions in a prisoner-of-war camp and their resulting long-term disabilities. Comparison of data reported in this paper with those of several epidemiological studies of male survivors of Philippine camps allows several novel points to be made. Overall, half of the women had a service-connected disability, exactly like the men. Furthermore, although the average degree of service-connected disability, 37%, is the same as that of the men, not one of the women in this study was service-connected for tuberculosis or peptic ulcer disease. This is a major finding, since, compared to age-matched combat controls, the men had a higher post-repatriation death rate for the first 7 years due to tuberculosis; likewise, peptic ulcer disease is so common in the male survivors that it is a presumptive service-connected disability. PMID:8538890

  7. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points), the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion.

  8. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points), the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion. PMID:27648216

  9. The Star Wars Scroll Illusion.

    PubMed

    Shapiro, Arthur G

    2015-10-01

    The Star Wars Scroll Illusion is a dynamic version of the Leaning Tower Illusion. When two copies of a Star-Wars-like scrolling text are placed side by side (with separate vanishing points), the two scrolls appear to head in different directions even though they are physically parallel in the picture plane. Variations of the illusion are shown with one vanishing point, as well as from an inverted perspective where the scrolls appear to originate in the distance. The demos highlight the conflict between the physical lines in the picture plane and perspective interpretation: With two perspective points, the scrolling texts are parallel to each other in the picture plane but not in perspective interpretation; with one perspective point, the texts are not parallel to each other in the picture plane but are parallel to each other in perspective interpretation. The size of the effect is linearly related to the angle of rotation of the scrolls into the third dimension; the Scroll Illusion is stronger than the Leaning Tower Illusion for rotation angles between 35° and 90°. There is no effect of motion per se on the strength of the illusion. PMID:27648216

  10. The Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale (GSS1) in a sample of inmates.

    PubMed

    Pires, Rute; Silva, Danilo R; Ferreira, Ana Sousa

    2014-01-01

    This paper comprises two studies which address the validity of the Portuguese adaptation of the Gudjonsson Suggestibility Scale, GSS1. In study 1, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of a sample of Portuguese inmates (N=40, Mage=37.5 years, SD=8.1) were compared to those of a sample of Icelandic inmates (Gudjonsson, 1997; Gudjonsson & Sigurdsson, 1996). Portuguese inmates' results were in line with the original results. In study 2, the means and standard deviations for the suggestibility results of the sample of Portuguese inmates were compared to those of a general Portuguese population sample (N=57, Mage=36.1 years, SD=12.7). The forensic sample obtained significantly higher scores in suggestibility measures than the general population sample. ANOVA confirmed that the increased suggestibility in the inmates sample was due to the limited memory capacity of this latter group. Given that the results of both studies 1 and 2 are in keeping with the author's original results (Gudjonsson, 1997), this may be regarded as a confirmation of the validity of the Portuguese GSS1.

  11. Portuguese migration to the Canary Islands: an analysis based on surnames.

    PubMed

    Román-Busto, J; Fuster, V; Colantonio, S E

    2012-01-01

    As a part of a wider analysis of population and genetic exchange between Spain and Portugal, the long-term pattern of Portuguese immigration to the Canary Islands was studied by means of the frequency of Portuguese surnames. A database of 1,995,833 individuals was obtained from the Spanish National Statistics Institute (2006). Among the 826 most frequent surnames to appear, 79 surnames of Portuguese origin were selected. The distribution of these surnames by municipalities and islands, the Fisher index of diversity, and the Lasker inter-population relationship coefficients R(ij) were considered. These coefficients were inter-correlated and correlated with other variables that could have influenced the distribution of surnames. From the observed distribution of the frequency of surnames, a non-random migration pattern conditioned by economic factors was found. The greatest diversity of surnames existed in cane cultivating areas after the first arrival of Portuguese immigrants. A later dispersion of surnames among islands was correlated with the inter-island geographic distances. In some islands the arrival of new immigrants continued due to their strategic location within the Canary archipelago. The Canary Islands reveal a high frequency and diversity of Portuguese surnames. The results also prove a heterogeneous distribution of these surnames throughout the archipelago. In contrast to the Portuguese archipelagos, some Canary localities have received immigrants continuously because of their economic importance in sugar cane cultivation and strategic geographic location on the maritime routes to Africa and America.

  12. Validation of Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (B-YAACQ): Portuguese version.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Joaquim A; Martins, Jorge S; Coelho, Mariana S; Kahler, Christopher W

    2014-01-01

    Extant literature suggests that Portuguese college students frequently drinking alcohol and experience a variety of alcohol-related negative consequences. However, to our knowledge, there is no validated measure to assess negative consequences of drinking alcohol for college students in Portugal. This article describes a validation of the Portuguese version of the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire. Originally developed by Kahler, Strong, and Read (2005), this 24-item questionnaire is a widely used self-report measure with strong psychometric properties and validity for the evaluation of the negative consequences of drinking in college students. We collected data from 620 students at the University of Coimbra (Portugal). Participants completed (a) a background questionnaire, (b) the Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT), (c) the Daily Drinking Questionnaire - Revised (DDQ-R), and (d) the Brief Young Adult Alcohol Consequences Questionnaire (B-YAACQ) translated into Portuguese as part of this study. Analyses showed that items fit a unidimensional Rasch model well with items infit statistics raging from .82 to 1.27, supporting using all items to create a total sum score of the Portuguese version of the B-YAACQ. The Portuguese version of the B-YAACQ showed adequate internal reliability (α = .87) and concurrent validity. Results support its use and integration in research on interventions targeted to reduce adverse effects associated with excessive drinking among Portuguese college students.

  13. Leicester Cough Questionnaire: translation to Portuguese and cross-cultural adaptation for use in Brazil*

    PubMed Central

    Felisbino, Manuela Brisot; Steidle, Leila John Marques; Gonçalves-Tavares, Michelle; Pizzichini, Marcia Margaret Menezes; Pizzichini, Emilio

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To translate the Leicester Cough Questionnaire (LCQ) to Portuguese and adapt it for use in Brazil. Methods: Cross-cultural adaptation of a quality of life questionnaire requires a translated version that is conceptually equivalent to the original version and culturally acceptable in the target country. The protocol used consisted of the translation of the LCQ to Portuguese by three Brazilian translators who were fluent in English and its back-translation to English by another translator who was a native speaker of English and fluent in Portuguese. The back-translated version was evaluated by one of the authors of the original questionnaire in order to verify its equivalence. Later in the process, a provisional Portuguese-language version was thoroughly reviewed by an expert committee. In 10 patients with chronic cough, cognitive debriefing was carried out in order to test the understandability, clarity, and acceptability of the translated questionnaire in the target population. On that basis, the final Portuguese-language version of the LCQ was produced and approved by the committee. Results: Few items were questioned by the source author and revised by the committee of experts. During the cognitive debriefing phase, the Portuguese-language version of the LCQ proved to be well accepted and understood by all of the respondents, which demonstrates the robustness of the process of translation and cross-cultural adaptation. Conclusions: The final version of the LCQ adapted for use in Brazil was found to be easy to understand and easily applied. PMID:25029643

  14. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace.

  15. How Could a Beaver Start a War?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Millward, Robert

    2010-01-01

    Students gain a better understanding of war and economics when the variables come alive through stories, artifacts, and paintings. In this article, the author describes a short story about the fur trade which can generate lots of student questions about the fur economics, the Eastern Woodland Indians, trade artifacts, and war. The author also…

  16. Madonnas, Whores, and the Persian Gulf War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Maria F.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses reactions and attitudes of students in a women's studies course during the Gulf War. Contends that the imagery of war as a sexual, phallic event was a major topic of class discussion. Presents excerpts from teacher and student conversations. (CFR)

  17. World War II: A Technology Lesson Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagar, Suzy

    1990-01-01

    Presents a class activity on the history, causes, and consequences of World War II. Focuses on the development and deployment of the atomic bomb. Utilizes a Video Encyclopedia Program for historical background. Divides the class into groups that are responsible for researching and preparing a videotape on a World War II topic. (RW)

  18. Girl's Schooling in War-Torn Somalia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyi, Peter

    2012-01-01

    A civil war has raged in Somalia since 1991. The civil war was the final blow to an already collapsed education system. Somalia has received little research and policy attention yet children, especially girls, are very vulnerable during times of conflict. The different gender roles, activities, and status in society create gender differentiated…

  19. Adverse health consequences of the Vietnam War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2015-01-01

    The 40th anniversary of the end of the Vietnam War is a useful time to review the adverse health consequences of that war and to identify and address serious problems related to armed conflict, such as the protection of noncombatant civilians. More than 58,000 U.S. servicemembers died during the war and more than 150,000 were wounded. Many suffered from posttraumatic stress disorders and other mental disorders and from the long-term consequences of physical injuries. However, morbidity and mortality, although difficult to determine precisely, was substantially higher among the Vietnamese people, with at least two million of them dying during the course of the war. In addition, more than one million Vietnamese were forced to migrate during the war and its aftermath, including many "boat people" who died at sea during attempts to flee. Wars continue to kill and injure large numbers of noncombatant civilians and continue to damage the health-supporting infrastructure of society, expose civilians to toxic chemicals, forcibly displace many people, and divert resources away from services to benefit noncombatant civilians. Health professionals can play important roles in promoting the protection of noncombatant civilians during war and helping to prevent war and create a culture of peace. PMID:26754766

  20. World War Two and the Holocaust.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boas, Jacob

    This resource book presents readings that could be used to teach about the Holocaust. The readings are brief and could be appropriate for middle school and high school students. Several photographs accompany the text. The volume has the following chapters: (1) "From War to War" (history of Germany from late 19th Century through the end of World…

  1. The Origins of the Cold War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Thomas G.

    1986-01-01

    Briefly reviews conventional reasoning about the start of the Cold War. Describes contemporary revisionist views of the Cold War and the reasons they arose. Maintains that American leaders exaggerated the Soviet ideological and military threat, spurring an American arms build-up which ultimately led to the present-day arms race. (JDH)

  2. War on Rats, 1972 Progress Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    District of Columbia Dept. of Environmental Services, Washington, DC.

    The City of Washington, D.C., with federal funding, declared war on one of the city's most pressing problems--rats. The War on Rats Program, in conjunction with Operation Clean Sweep, made a city-wide survey of rat infestations and recorded the areas of heavy rat infestation. After the problem areas had been identified, community organizations…

  3. Health and Civil War in Rural Burundi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bundervoet, Tom; Verwimp, Philip; Akresh, Richard

    2009-01-01

    We combine household survey data with event data on the timing and location of armed conflicts to examine the impact of Burundi's civil war on children's health status. The identification strategy exploits exogenous variation in the war's timing across provinces and the exposure of children's birth cohorts to the fighting. After controlling for…

  4. The Life of a Civil War Soldier.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanders, Barbara J.

    2002-01-01

    Provides a lesson plan that is based on the Gettysburg National Military Park's "Life of a Civil War Soldier" traveling trunk program. Explains that this lesson offers a recipe for using a trunk to present the life of a Civil War soldier in the classroom. Includes activities and learning stations. (CMK)

  5. Telling War Stories: The Things They Carry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paquette, Paige; Warren, Mike

    2010-01-01

    This webtext reveals two modern-day methods for soldiers to share their war stories: 1) soldiers sharing their stories with cadets from West Point through a project linking veterans from the Global War on Terror with composition students; and 2) soldiers learning in online composition classrooms designed specifically for them.

  6. 76 FR 21223 - Civil War Sesquicentennial

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-15

    ... States of America the two hundred and thirty-fifth. (Presidential Sig.) [FR Doc. 2011-9368 Filed 4-14-11...#0;#0; ] Proclamation 8654 of April 12, 2011 Civil War Sesquicentennial By the President of the... in an attack on Fort Sumter. These were the first shots of a civil war that would stretch across...

  7. The long-term consequences of war: the experience of World War II.

    PubMed

    Hunt, N; Robbins, I

    2001-05-01

    Seven hundred and thirty-one World War II and Korean War veterans completed a questionnaire about their experiences and their current psychological reactions to the war. Nineteen percent scored above the cut-off points for both the General Health Questionnaire and the (war-related) Impact of Event Scale, demonstrating that, even over 50 years after the event, many veterans still experience problems relating to their war experiences. Psychological distress was in part directly related to particular experiences, but intrusion and avoidance both played an important role as mediating variables. Other factors, such as prisoner of war (POW) status, type of service, rank, and illness were also considered. The findings indicate that the effects of a traumatic experience such as war can persist into later life.

  8. Proportionality, just war theory and weapons innovation.

    PubMed

    Forge, John

    2009-03-01

    Just wars are supposed to be proportional responses to aggression: the costs of war must not greatly exceed the benefits. This proportionality principle raises a corresponding 'interpretation problem': what are the costs and benefits of war, how are they to be determined, and a 'measurement problem': how are costs and benefits to be balanced? And it raises a problem about scope: how far into the future do the states of affairs to be measured stretch? It is argued here that weapons innovation always introduces costs, and that these costs cannot be determined in advance of going to war. Three examples, the atomic bomb, the AK-47 and the ancient Greek catapult, are given as examples. It is therefore argued that the proportionality principle is inapplicable prospectively. Some replies to the argument are discussed and rejected. Some more general defences of the proportionality principle are considered and also rejected. Finally, the significance of the argument for Just War Theory as a whole is discussed.

  9. Mothering during war and postwar in Bosnia.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Cheryl Lee; Duckett, Laura

    2007-11-01

    The study aim was to describe displaced Bosnian mothers' experiences caring for their children during and immediately after the war (1992-1995). Mothers described their progression into war, through war, and into vastly changed lives. Using ethnographic methods, narrative data were collected near Sarajevo, Bosnia, from 14 displaced women who participated in one to three interviews each between 1996 and 1999. Data from the semistructured interviews were analyzed to determine patterns in participants' descriptions of mothering during war. Four common themes of mothering were identified in the data: "on the move," "I have to feed them," "living somewhere in between," and "still living the war inside." As care providers and policy makers develop initiatives to improve the health of women and children during complex humanitarian emergencies, there is much to learn from the narratives of Bosnian women about their extraordinary struggle to protect the lives of their children amid violence and loss.

  10. Ecosystem Restoration Research at GWERD

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ground Water and Ecosystems Restoration Division, Ada, OK Mission: Conduct research and technical assistance to provide the scientific basis to support the development of strategies and technologies to protect and restore ground water, surface water, and ecosystems impacted b...

  11. Environmental Restoration Strategic Plan. Remediating the nuclear weapons complex

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    With the end of the cold war, the US has a reduced need for nuclear weapons production. In response, the Department of Energy has redirected resources from weapons production to weapons dismantlement and environmental remediation. To this end, in November 1989, the US Department of Energy (DOE) established the Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (renamed the Office of Environmental Management in 1994). It was created to bring under a central authority the management of radioactive and hazardous wastes at DOE sites and inactive or shut down facilities. The Environmental Restoration Program, a major component of DOE`s Environmental Management Program, is responsible for the remediation and management of contaminated environmental media (e.g., soil, groundwater, sediments) and the decommissioning of facilities and structures at 130 sites in over 30 states and territories.

  12. Comparison of aesthetic posterior restorations.

    PubMed

    Trushkowsky, R D

    1991-09-01

    In the past decade there has been an increased desire by the profession and the public for an aesthetic restoration that will restore a posterior tooth to its original form and function. The currently available aesthetic posterior restoration materials and techniques are porcelain, cast ceramic, direct composite, direct-indirect composite, indirect composite, and CAD-CAM fabrications. The indications and contraindications of these restorative materials and proper diagnosis and case selection are described.

  13. Combined amalgam and composite restorations.

    PubMed

    Abu-Hanna, Amer A; Mjör, Ivar A

    2004-01-01

    All indirect restorative techniques involving cast metals, ceramics or resin-based materials are expensive compared to directly placed restorations. A restorative technique is presented that combines the esthetic properties of directly bonded resin-based composite material and the wide range of indications for dental amalgam in stress-bearing areas.

  14. Volume restoration and facial aesthetics.

    PubMed

    Glasgold, Mark J; Glasgold, Robert A; Lam, Samuel M

    2008-11-01

    This article discusses the rationale for the use of volume restoration to restore natural, youthful contours to an aging face. Topics discussed include the discrepancy that can exist between patients' stated wishes and optimal results and the concepts of framing the eye, creating highlights, and restoring facial shape and volume.

  15. Engineering approaches to ecosystem restoration

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, D.F.

    1998-07-01

    This proceedings CD ROM contains 127 papers on developing and evaluating engineering approaches to wetlands and river restoration. The latest engineering developments are discussed, providing valuable insights to successful approaches for river restoration, wetlands restoration, watershed management, and constructed wetlands for stormwater and wastewater treatment. Potential solutions to a wide variety of ecosystem concerns in urban, suburban, and coastal environments are presented.

  16. Prairie Restoration for Wisconsin Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murray, Molly Fifield; Greenler, Robin McC.

    This packet is composed of several resources for teachers interested in prairie ecology and restoration. "A Guide to Restoration from Site Analysis to Management" focuses on the Prairie/Oak Savanna communities of Wisconsin and takes teachers through the planning and design process for a restoration project on school grounds including site…

  17. Adaptive wiener image restoration kernel

    DOEpatents

    Yuan, Ding

    2007-06-05

    A method and device for restoration of electro-optical image data using an adaptive Wiener filter begins with constructing imaging system Optical Transfer Function, and the Fourier Transformations of the noise and the image. A spatial representation of the imaged object is restored by spatial convolution of the image using a Wiener restoration kernel.

  18. Relativistic Linear Restoring Force

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, D.; Franklin, J.; Mann, N.

    2012-01-01

    We consider two different forms for a relativistic version of a linear restoring force. The pair comes from taking Hooke's law to be the force appearing on the right-hand side of the relativistic expressions: d"p"/d"t" or d"p"/d["tau"]. Either formulation recovers Hooke's law in the non-relativistic limit. In addition to these two forces, we…

  19. Restoration of Elbow Flexion.

    PubMed

    Loeffler, Bryan J; Lewis, Daniel R

    2016-08-01

    Active elbow flexion is required to position the hand in space, and loss of this function is debilitating. Nerve transfers or nerve grafts to restore elbow flexion may be options when the target muscle is viable, but in delayed reconstruction when the biceps and brachialis are atrophied or damaged, muscle transfer options should be considered. Muscle transfer options are discussed with attention to the advantages and disadvantages of each transfer option. PMID:27387075

  20. Japan's anti-nuclear weapons policy misses its target, even in the war on terrorism.

    PubMed

    DiFilippo, Anthony

    2003-01-01

    While actively working to promote the abolition of all nuclear weapons from the world since the end of the cold war, Japan's disarmament policies are not without problems. Promoting the elimination of nuclear weapons as Japan remains under the US nuclear umbrella creates a major credibility problem for Tokyo, since this decision maintains a Japanese deterrence policy at the same time that officials push for disarmament. Tokyo also advocates a gradual approach to the abolition of nuclear weapons, a decision that has had no effect on those countries that have been conducting sub-critical nuclear testing, nor stopped India and Pakistan from carrying out nuclear tests. Consistent with Article 9 of the Constitution, the Japanese war-renouncing constitutional clause, Tokyo toughened Japan's sizeable Official Development Assistance (ODA) programme in the early 1990s. Because of the anti-military guidelines included in Japan's ODA programme, Tokyo stopped new grant and loan aid to India and Pakistan in 1998 after these countries conducted nuclear tests. However, because of the criticism Japan faced from its failure to participate in the 1991 Gulf War, Tokyo has been seeking a new Japanese role in international security during the post-cold war period. Deepening its commitment to the security alliance with the US, Tokyo has become increasingly influenced by Washington's global polices, including the American war on terrorism. After Washington decided that Pakistan would be a key player in the US war on terrorism, Tokyo restored grant and loan aid to both Islamabad and New Delhi, despite the unequivocal restrictions of Japan's ODA programme.

  1. Crisis stability and nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    The authors summarize their viewpoint on and recommendations for strategic command and forces, and arms control and crisis stability. They pressent a study of the paths which might lead the superpowers from a crisis to nuclear war. This book examines the various arenas in which superpower crises may occur. The authors describe the strategies, command structures, and forces of NATO and the Warsaw Pact, paying particular attention to the ladder of alert postures and operations that their forces might mount as a crisis intensifies. They address the Middle East, with special emphasis on the confrontation between Syria and Israel, and the dangers posed by locally-owned chemical and nuclear weapons. The authors also consider the oceans and space.

  2. War injuries of the talus.

    PubMed

    Davila, S; Mikulić, D

    2001-08-01

    Twenty-eight patients with war fractures of the talus were reviewed to determine the incidence of infection and late functional results. The average age of our patients was 37.5 years. Twenty-one injuries were explosive fractures that resulted from shell fragments or mines; seven fractures resulted from gunshot missiles. Seven patients had isolated talus injuries, whereas 21 patients had associated fractures of other bones of the foot or lower leg. All patients were initially treated with debridement, tetanus immunization, intravenous antibiotics, and stabilization, either with cast immobilization or an external fixator. Five days after injury, wound cultures were positive in 25 of 28 feet. Infection was eventually eradicated in all patients, allowing for soft tissue coverage. One patient eventually required a below-knee amputation. The patients were reviewed for functional outcome at 36 to 60 months after injury. Most patients reported a certain degree of residual complaints. The overall result can be considered excellent in only one patient.

  3. Compensating for cold war cancers.

    PubMed

    Parascandola, Mark J

    2002-07-01

    Although the Cold War has ended, thousands of workers involved in nuclear weapons production are still living with the adverse health effects of working with radioactive materials, beryllium, and silica. After a series of court battles, the U.S. government passed the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Act in October 2000 to financially assist workers whose health has been compromised by these occupational exposures. Now work is underway to set out guidelines for determining which workers will be compensated. The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health has been assigned the task of developing a model that can scientifically make these determinations, a heavy task considering the controversies that lie in estimating low-level radiation risks and the inadequate worker exposure records kept at many of the plants.

  4. Chronic Condition and Risk Behaviours in Portuguese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Teresa; Ferreira, Mafalda; Simões, Maria Celeste; Machado, Maria Céu; de Matos, Margarida Gaspar

    2014-01-01

    Living with a chronic condition (CC) in adolescence has been historically considered protective for risk behaviours. However, research from the last decade suggest that when compared with healthy peers, adolescents living with a chronic condition can engage in risky behaviours in a similar if not higher rate than their counterparts living with out a CC. This study aims to characterize and evaluate the impact of 1) living with a chronic condition (CC), and 2) how the perception of living with a CC affects school participation, and its association with risk/protective behaviours (drunkenness, physical fight, sadness and self-harm). For this purpose 4 groups were identified: adolescents with mostly healthy behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk behaviours, adolescents with mostly risk-internalizing behaviours and adolescents with mostly risk-externalizing behaviours. A large sample was included in this study, composed by 3494 Portuguese adolescents with an average age of 15 years, who participated in the Portuguese Survey of Health Behaviour in School-aged Children/WHO (HBSC). Main results show that adolescents living with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours when compared to adolescents without CC, who present more healthy behaviors. Furthermore, adolescents that report that having a CC affects school participation show more risky behaviours than those not affected by a CC who present more healthy behaviours. Boys with a CC show more healthy behaviours, and those who feel that the CC affects school participation present more risky behaviours. On the other hand, girls with a CC have more risk-internalizing behaviours and less healthy behaviours It is important to point out that dolescents living with a CC represent a vulnerable group, and may engage in experimental/risky behaviours as likely as their non CC peers. Thus, potential benefits can arise from reinforcing interventions within protective contexts (family/peers/school setting). Health

  5. Gulf War illness: a view from Australia

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Malcolm; Kelsall, Helen

    2006-01-01

    Australia sent a small, mostly naval, deployment to the 1991 Gulf War. When papers and media concerns arose about unexplained Gulf War illnesses in Gulf War troops from other countries, Australia decided to undertake its own study of Australian veterans. Undertaking a later study, more than 10 years after the Gulf War, allowed us to incorporate some methodological improvements on previous research, such as the inclusion of a face-to-face health assessment where more objective health data could be collected in addition to using a postal questionnaire. Despite the different Gulf War experience for the mostly naval Australian group, there were remarkable consistencies in the patterns of multiple symptom reporting found in overseas studies, including the fact that no unique symptom clusters were identified. In general, this excess symptom reporting was not found to occur with excesses in more objective measures of physical health. These objective physical measures included a wide range of haematological, biochemical and serological markers, a physical examination, spirometry and a step test of fatigability. In contrast, several psychological disorders, including anxiety, post-traumatic stress disorder, depression and substance abuse, were found to occur in excess in the Australian Gulf War group and were associated with Gulf War psychological stressors. These findings have helped raise awareness in Australia of psychological health problems in deployed military personnel. PMID:16687266

  6. Wars2 is a determinant of angiogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mao; Sips, Patrick; Khin, Ester; Rotival, Maxime; Sun, Ximing; Ahmed, Rizwan; Widjaja, Anissa Anindya; Schafer, Sebastian; Yusoff, Permeen; Choksi, Pervinder Kaur; Ko, Nicole Shi Jie; Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, David; Guan, Yuguang; Houštěk, Josef; Mracek, Tomas; Nuskova, Hana; Mikell, Brittney; Tan, Jessie; Pesce, Francesco; Kolar, Frantisek; Bottolo, Leonardo; Mancini, Massimiliano; Hubner, Norbert; Pravenec, Michal; Petretto, Enrico; MacRae, Calum; Cook, Stuart A

    2016-01-01

    Coronary flow (CF) measured ex vivo is largely determined by capillary density that reflects angiogenic vessel formation in the heart in vivo. Here we exploit this relationship and show that CF in the rat is influenced by a locus on rat chromosome 2 that is also associated with cardiac capillary density. Mitochondrial tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase (Wars2), encoding an L53F protein variant within the ATP-binding motif, is prioritized as the candidate at the locus by integrating genomic data sets. WARS2(L53F) has low enzyme activity and inhibition of WARS2 in endothelial cells reduces angiogenesis. In the zebrafish, inhibition of wars2 results in trunk vessel deficiencies, disordered endocardial-myocardial contact and impaired heart function. Inhibition of Wars2 in the rat causes cardiac angiogenesis defects and diminished cardiac capillary density. Our data demonstrate a pro-angiogenic function for Wars2 both within and outside the heart that may have translational relevance given the association of WARS2 with common human diseases. PMID:27389904

  7. Translation, cultural adaptation and validation for Brazilian Portuguese of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index instrument*

    PubMed Central

    Grando, Luciana Rosa; Horn, Roberta; Cunha, Vivian Trein; Cestari, Tania Ferreira

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The Cardiff Acne Disability Index was originally developed in English for measuring quality of life of acne patients. Considering the psychosocial impact of this disease, it is important to have instruments culturally and linguistically validated for use in Brazilian adolescents. OBJECTIVE To translate the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese, culturally adapt it, and verify its reliability and validity in adolescent patients with acne. METHODS In the first step, the Cardiff Acne Disability Index was translated and validated linguistically to Brazilian Portuguese in accordance with international guidelines published. In the second step, the validation of the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese instrument was performed, when patients aged from 12 to 20 years with acne were selected. The participants were interviewed to collect demographic data, submitted to the classification of acne by the Global Acne Grading System and invited to respond the Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version and DLQI (>16 years) or CDLQI (≤16 years). The internal consistency of Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese was assessed by Cronbach’s alpha coefficient and concurrent validity was measured by the Spearman correlation coefficient and Student ‘s t-test for paired samples. RESULTS The study included 100 adolescents. The Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version showed good reliability and internal consistency (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.73). The concurrent validity of the scale was supported by a strong and significant correlation with CDLQI / DLQI instruments (rs=0.802;p<0.001). CONCLUSIONS Cardiff Acne Disability Index into Brazilian Portuguese version is a reliable, valid and valuable tool to measure the impact of acne on quality of life in adolescent patients. PMID:27192517

  8. The causes and prevention of war

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, S.

    1987-01-01

    This book seeks to answer what has become a species-survival question: how can humankind reduce the role of large-scale violence in society. Based partially on the serious thought of past scholars and statesmen on the determinants of war and the conditions for peace, but mainly on the author's own studies and observations of world politics, a wide-ranging examination of both small-scale and international acts of violence are provided. The author realistically appraises the efforts and means of reducing the role of war in international relations and concludes by offering an integrated strategy to prevent and control war.

  9. Toward understanding the effects of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.; White, G.F.

    1985-10-01

    The authors discuss the scientific justifications for studying the consequences of nuclear war. The consequences of nuclear war and nuclear winter - biotic impoverishment, climate change, pollution of the air, water, and soil - recapitulate in compressed time the patterns of ecological change humankind is even now imposing on the planet. By studying the biological consequences of nuclear war, important discoveries about the intricate nature of the global ecosystem may be made. Wiser management practices and more thorough appreciation of alterations in the physical and biological environment could results.

  10. Preventing Nuclear War: What Physicians Can Achieve

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Don G.

    1986-01-01

    On its fifth anniversary, the International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear War was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize. The organization was conceived by two Boston cardiologists who joined with some Soviet colleagues to create an international forum for considering the medical consequences of and means for preventing nuclear war. This article by the organization's archivist documents its difficult progress yet remarkable growth. Overcoming serious obstacles has added to its strength and credibility: now involving organizations with 145,000 members in 41 countries, IPPNW has become the international voice of medicine's concern about nuclear war. PMID:21274253

  11. War casualties on the home front

    SciTech Connect

    Brenda J. Flinn

    2005-11-01

    On May 12, 1942, at Christopher coal mine No. 3 in Osage, West Virginia, a continent away from the frontlines of World War II, Superintendent Ed O'Neil saw the mine ventilation fan suddenly run backwards, propelled by a strong gust of air that tore the belt off the huge blower. The second shift mantrip of 115 coal miners, traversing the drift mouth for the 3:00 p.m. shift, ground to an uneasy halt. The article recounts the tragic consequences of this incident. It also tells of other events affecting coal miners during World War I and World War II.

  12. Perceptions of nuclear war. Research report

    SciTech Connect

    Alexandrow, N.

    1987-05-01

    Mutual deterrence has been the keystone of U.S. nuclear strategic policy with respect to the Soviet Union. But for mutual deterrence to be viable, the perceptions of nuclear weapons and nuclear war must be shared by both nations. There are currently many misconceptions in the West about Soviet views of nuclear war. These misconceptions have been reinforced over the years by Soviet public pronouncements. Through an examination of the mindset of the Soviet people, Soviet doctrinal literature, and Soviet offensive and defensive systems, this paper provides compelling evidence for the way the Soviet Union really perceives nuclear war.

  13. Epidemiological study of suicide in the Republic of Croatia -- comparison of war and post-war periods and areas directly and indirectly affected by war.

    PubMed

    Grubisić-Ilić, Mirjana; Kozarić-Kovacić, Dragica; Grubisić, Frane; Kovacić, Zrnka

    2002-09-01

    We examined the differences in the suicide characteristics between areas directly and indirectly affected by war activities and in war and post-war periods according to the following variables: suicide rate, sex, age and method of suicide. Analysis was done on 5349 suicides committed in the period 1993-1998 (war and post-war years). The suicide rates in the Republic of Croatia oscillated in the pre-war, war and post-war periods (1985-2000) but without significant differences. In the areas directly affected by war, the suicide rate was significantly lower than in other areas during the study period 1993-1998 (chi-square = 10.3245; P = 0.0017). The number of suicides in both sexes declined in the areas directly affected by war-more in men than in women; the difference between sexes was statistically significant (chi-square = 3.6697; P = 0.055). Middle- and old-aged people were the population with high suicide risk in both areas (t = 1.76; P = 0.078). There were significant differences in the methods of suicides between war and non-war areas (chi-square = 108.8473; P = 0.001). Firearms or explosive devices were the methods used more significantly for suicides in the areas directly affected by war than in other areas, whereas hanging was more frequently used in the areas indirectly affected by war. PMID:12381495

  14. Developmental dyslexia and phonological processing in European Portuguese orthography.

    PubMed

    Moura, Octávio; Moreno, Joana; Pereira, Marcelino; Simões, Mário R

    2015-02-01

    This study analysed the performance of phonological processing, the diagnostic accuracy and the influence on reading in children who were native speakers of an orthography of intermediate depth. Portuguese children with developmental dyslexia (DD; N=24; aged 10-12 years), chronological age (CA)-matched controls (N=24; aged 10-12 years) and reading level (RL)-matched controls (N=24; aged 7-9 years) were tested on measures of phonological processing (phonological awareness, naming speed and verbal short-term memory) and reading. The results indicated that the children with DD performed significantly poorer in all measures compared with the CA and RL. Phonological awareness and naming speed showed a high accuracy (receiver operating characteristics curve analysis) for discriminating the children with DD from the CA and RL, whereas the presence of abnormally low scores in phonological awareness and naming speed was more frequent in the DD group than in the controls and the normative population. Hierarchical linear regression analyses revealed that phonological awareness was the most important predictor of all reading accuracy measures, whereas naming speed was particularly related to text reading fluency.

  15. Eating behaviour patterns and BMI in Portuguese higher education students.

    PubMed

    Poínhos, Rui; Oliveira, Bruno M P M; Correia, Flora

    2013-12-01

    Our aim was to determine prototypical patterns of eating behaviour among Portuguese higher education students, and to relate these patterns with BMI. Data from 280 higher education students (63.2% females) aged between 18 and 27 years were analysed. Several eating behaviour dimensions (emotional and external eating, flexible and rigid restraint, binge eating, and eating self-efficacy) were assessed, and eating styles were derived through cluster analysis. BMI for current, desired and maximum self-reported weights and the differences between desired and current BMI and between maximum and current BMI were calculated. Women scored higher in emotional eating and restraint, whereas men showed higher eating self-efficacy. Men had higher current, desired and maximum BMI. Cluster analysis showed three eating styles in both male and female subsamples: "Overeating", "High self-efficacy" and "High restraint". High self-efficacy women showed lower BMI values than the others, and restrictive women had higher lost BMI. High self-efficacy men showed lower desired BMI than overeaters, and lower maximum and lost BMI than highly restrictive ones. Restrictive women and men differ on important eating behaviour features, which may be the cause of differences in the associations with BMI. Eating self-efficacy seems to be a central variable influencing the relationships between other eating behaviour dimensions and BMI.

  16. Fungal contamination assessment in Portuguese elderly care centers.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Almeida-Silva, M; Gomes, A Quintal; Wolterbeek, H T; Almeida, S M

    2014-01-01

    Individuals spend 80-90% of their day indoors and elderly subjects are likely to spend even a greater amount of time indoors. Thus, indoor air pollutants such as bioaerosols may exert a significant impact on this age group. The aim of this study was to characterize fungal contamination within Portuguese elderly care centers. Fungi were measured using conventional as well as molecular methods in bedrooms, living rooms, canteens, storage areas, and outdoors. Bioaerosols were evaluated before and after the microenvironments' occupancy in order to understand the role played by occupancy in fungal contamination. Fungal load results varied from 32 colony-forming units CFU m(-3) in bedrooms to 228 CFU m(-3) in storage areas. Penicillium sp. was the most frequently isolated (38.1%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (16.3%) and Chrysonilia sp. (4.2%). With respect to Aspergillus genus, three different fungal species in indoor air were detected, with A. candidus (62.5%) the most prevalent. On surfaces, 40 different fungal species were isolated and the most frequent was Penicillium sp. (22.2%), followed by Aspergillus sp. (17.3%). Real-time polymerase chain reaction did not detect the presence of A. fumigatus complex. Species from Penicillium and Aspergillus genera were the most abundant in air and surfaces. The species A. fumigatus was present in 12.5% of all indoor microenvironments assessed. The living room was the indoor microenvironment with lowest fungal concentration and the storage area was highest.

  17. Predicting adult stature from metatarsal length in a Portuguese population.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Cristina; Muñoz-Barús, José I; Wasterlain, Sofia; Cunha, Eugénia; Vieira, Duarte N

    2009-12-15

    Stature can be considered one of the "big four" parameters to be ascertained within the biological profile in cases of forensic anthropology. However, the most reliable available methods for stature estimation require the preservation of the long bones, but since this is very often not the case, the development of alternative methods, based on distinct bones, is mandatory. Therefore, in the present work the reliability of the first two metatarsal bones in reconstructing stature is tested. The data consist of length measurements taken from the first two metatarsals removed from documented cadavers of known stature. The sample for this study consists of 220 metatarsals, namely 110 first metatarsals and 110 second metatarsals collected during the autopsies carried out in the National Institute of Legal Medicine in Portugal. The aim was to propose regression equations for the Portuguese population and test the formulae proposed by other authors to determine adult stature using metatarsal bones. We found that when estimating stature from measurement of the metatarsals, the best correlation was that obtained from the relationship with the maximum length of the 2nd metatarsal. The corresponding regression equation is as follows: S=790.041+11.689M2.

  18. Prevalence of Coxiella burnetii antibodies in Portuguese dairy cattle herds.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Luís; Alegria, Nuno; Anastácio, Sofia; Sidi-Boumedine, Karim; da Silva, Gabriela; Rabiço, Ângela; Simões, João

    2015-01-01

    Q fever is an important zoonotic disease which has been recently diagnosed, mainly in sheep and goats, in Portugal. The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of bovine Coxiella burnetii antibodies in dairy farms from the northwest of Portugal. Bulk tank milk samples were randomly obtained, on November 2013, from 90 dairy farms and assayed using an ELISA kit. The apparent prevalence was 61.1% (95% C.I. from 50.8 to 70.5%). The proportion of negative and intermediate (inconclusive) herds was 34.5% (25.5 to 44.7%) and 4.4% (1.7 to 10.9%), respectively. In conclusion, a high level of exposure to Coxiella burnetii was observed in Portuguese dairy cattle herds, highlighting the needs to better understand the epidemiology of Q fever in Portugal by the implementation of a monitoring program based on harmonized serologic and molecular methodologies and elucidation of the infection status of the herds. PMID:25339430

  19. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages.

  20. [Review of the utilization of a Portuguese public hospital].

    PubMed

    Almeida, Anabela; Serrasqueiro, Zélia; Rogerio, Ana

    2006-01-01

    This paper reports on some important findings of a study conducted in Covilhã/Portugal on appropriateness of hospital admission and in-hospital days in a Portuguese hospital using an adapted version of the Appropriateness Evaluation Protocol--a review tool for hospital utilization. This analysis showed a significant rate of inappropriateness in admission (24.6%) and days of stay (37.4%) and it also suggested a low rate of use of the override options. It was possible to identify the conservative attitude as the most common cause of inappropriate admissions and days of stay. This study demonstrates that a high proportion of admissions and days of stay are related to patients who could have been attended at other levels of the health care system such as outpatient consultations. The analysis made it possible to identify and to explore some variables correlated to the levels of inappropriateness and to the causes of inappropriateness or levels of health care required by the patients.

  1. Nondestructive analysis of Portuguese "dinheiros" using XRF: overcoming patina constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pessanha, Sofia; Costa, Mário; Oliveira, Maria Inês; Jorge, Maria Estrela M.; Carvalho, Maria Luísa

    2015-06-01

    "Dinheiros" are the first Portuguese coins, minted with a billon alloy (majority-based copper alloyed with silver). In this work, a set of "dinheiros" from D. Fernando of Portugal was analyzed and the composition of the alloy was compared with other "dinheiros" from previous reigns. Although the coins were in good state of conservation and no active corrosion was macroscopically observable, they still presented a corrosion layer of unknown thickness that would impair the XRF quantitative determinations. In order to overcome this hindrance, the silver K/L intensity ratios were determined and compared for the analyzed samples in order to choose "clean" spots for quantitative analysis. The results show a clear decrease in the Ag content: from 7-9 % in the previous reigns to 0.2-0.3 % in the coins attributed to D. Fernando. The silver content determined is very comparable to the silver content determined in other copper or bronze artifacts analyzed, leading us to believe that this low amount of silver was not intentionally introduced to create a billon alloy but relates to impurities present in the original mineral specimen.

  2. Perceived Parenting and Basic Need Satisfaction among Portuguese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Pedro; Paixão, Maria Paula; Lens, Willy

    2015-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the Parenting Questionnaire in a sample of Portuguese high school students. Two measurement models were specified. Model 1m,f specifies a bi-dimensional structure of parental need-support and behavioral control. Model 2m,f proposes a tripartite structure of parental need-support, psychological control and behavioral control. Model 2m,f. best-fitted the data, being also supported in terms of convergent, discriminant validity. Regression results found the unique effect of autonomy-support (M2mr, b = .25 p < .001; M2fr, b = .14 p < .01), responsiveness-warmth (Model 2mr, b = .19, p .05). Notably, psychological control predicted low need-satisfaction (M2mr: b = -.10) and moderated of the positive effect of parental need-support on need-satisfaction, M2mr: F(3, 367) = 11.62, p < .001. Psychological control and need-support also moderated the positive effect of behavior control on competence satisfaction, with parental need-support amplifying this effect and psychological control buffering it. Overall the findings support the substantive distinction between the parenting dimensions, suggesting that need-satisfaction is enhanced by need-supportive and behavioural control and undermined by psychological control. PMID:26255827

  3. Stop and Fricative Devoicing in European Portuguese, Italian and German.

    PubMed

    Pape, Daniel; Jesus, Luis M T

    2015-06-01

    This paper describes a cross-linguistic production study of devoicing for European Portuguese (EP), Italian, and German. We recorded all stops and fricatives in four vowel contexts and two word positions. We computed the devoicing of the time-varying patterns throughout the stop and fricative duration. Our results show that regarding devoicing behaviour, EP is more similar to German than Italian. While Italian shows almost no devoicing of all phonologically voiced consonants, both EP and German show strong and consistent devoicing through the entire consonant. Differences in consonant position showed no effect for EP and Italian, but were significantly different for German. The height of the vowel context had an effect for German and EP. For EP, we showed that a more posterior place of articulation and low vowel context lead to significantly more devoicing. However, in contrast to German, we could not find an influence of consonant position on devoicing. The high devoicing for all phonologically voiced stops and fricatives and the vowel context influence are a surprising new result. With respect to voicing maintenance, EP is more like German than other Romance languages. PMID:26677644

  4. Microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters.

    PubMed

    Frias, J P G L; Gago, J; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics are well-documented pollutants in the marine environment that result from fragmentation of larger plastic items. Due to their long chemical chains, they can remain in the environment for long periods of time. It is estimated that the vast majority (80%) of marine litter derives from land sources and that 70% will sink and remain at the bottom of the ocean. Microplastics that result from fragmentation of larger pieces of plastic are common to be found in beaches and in the water surface. The most common microplastics are pellets, fragments and fibres. This work provides original data of the presence of microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters, reporting on microplastic concentration and polymer types. Microplastic particles were found in nearly 56% of sediment samples, accounting a total of 31 particles in 27 samples. The vast majority were microfibers (25), identified as rayon fibres, and fragments (6) identified as polypropylene, through infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR). The concentration and polymer type data is consistent with other relevant studies and reports worldwide. PMID:26748246

  5. Microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters.

    PubMed

    Frias, J P G L; Gago, J; Otero, V; Sobral, P

    2016-03-01

    Microplastics are well-documented pollutants in the marine environment that result from fragmentation of larger plastic items. Due to their long chemical chains, they can remain in the environment for long periods of time. It is estimated that the vast majority (80%) of marine litter derives from land sources and that 70% will sink and remain at the bottom of the ocean. Microplastics that result from fragmentation of larger pieces of plastic are common to be found in beaches and in the water surface. The most common microplastics are pellets, fragments and fibres. This work provides original data of the presence of microplastics in coastal sediments from Southern Portuguese shelf waters, reporting on microplastic concentration and polymer types. Microplastic particles were found in nearly 56% of sediment samples, accounting a total of 31 particles in 27 samples. The vast majority were microfibers (25), identified as rayon fibres, and fragments (6) identified as polypropylene, through infrared spectroscopy (μ-FTIR). The concentration and polymer type data is consistent with other relevant studies and reports worldwide.

  6. Perceived Parenting and Basic Need Satisfaction among Portuguese Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Cordeiro, Pedro; Paixão, Maria Paula; Lens, Willy

    2015-01-01

    We examined the psychometric properties of the Parenting Questionnaire in a sample of Portuguese high school students. Two measurement models were specified. Model 1m,f specifies a bi-dimensional structure of parental need-support and behavioral control. Model 2m,f proposes a tripartite structure of parental need-support, psychological control and behavioral control. Model 2m,f. best-fitted the data, being also supported in terms of convergent, discriminant validity. Regression results found the unique effect of autonomy-support (M2mr, b = .25 p < .001; M2fr, b = .14 p < .01), responsiveness-warmth (Model 2mr, b = .19, p .05). Notably, psychological control predicted low need-satisfaction (M2mr: b = -.10) and moderated of the positive effect of parental need-support on need-satisfaction, M2mr: F(3, 367) = 11.62, p < .001. Psychological control and need-support also moderated the positive effect of behavior control on competence satisfaction, with parental need-support amplifying this effect and psychological control buffering it. Overall the findings support the substantive distinction between the parenting dimensions, suggesting that need-satisfaction is enhanced by need-supportive and behavioural control and undermined by psychological control.

  7. Lexical reorganization in Brazilian Portuguese: an articulatory study

    PubMed Central

    Meireles, A. R.; Barbosa, P. A.

    2008-01-01

    This work, which is couched in the theoretical framework of Articulatory Phonology, deals with the influence of speech rate on the change/variation from antepenultimate stress words into penultimate stress words in Brazilian Portuguese. Both acoustic and articulatory (EMMA) studies were conducted. On the acoustic side, results show different patterns of post-stressed vowel reduction according to the word type. Some words reduced their medial post-stressed vowels more than their final post-stressed vowels, and others reduced their final post-stressed vowels more than their medial post-stressed vowels. On the articulatory side, results show that the coarticulation degree of the post-stressed consonants increases with speech rate. Also, with the use of a measure called proportional consonantal interval (PCI), it was found in measurements of articulation that such measure is influenced by the word type. Three different groups of words were found according to their PCI. These results show how dynamical aspects influenced by speech rate increase are related to the lexical process of change/variation from antepenultimate stress words into penultimate ones. PMID:19885366

  8. Eco-efficiency in the Portuguese wine production sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, António J. D.; Andrade, Isabel; Franco, Justina; Bastos, Alexandra; Delgado, Fernando; Costa, Roberto; Pereira, Carlos D.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.

    2014-05-01

    The wine production sector is one of the more important and widely distributed agriculture sectors in Portugal, representing 555972600 liters in 2011 for the entire country (excluding the islands), in 146490 vineyards, representing a wide range of exploration dimension, that cover a total area of 175 773 ha. The wine sector accounts for 526820000€ of exports in 2005, and constitutes a high technology and highly competitive agricultural sector. The wine production systems vary from region to region, reflecting the property systems and the soil and climate conditions. Homogeneous wine production areas are often demarked and constitute a wine region with particular environmental and productive characteristics. Under the ECODEEP project, a set of energy and mass balances are being assessed for various Portuguese wine regions, namely Bairrada, Dão, Távora-Varosa and Alentejo. These wine regions vary in a number of characteristics, such as the use of irrigation, and the cultural practices. This work performs an analysis of yields and the use of energy and productive factors for different size vineyards and cellar processing methodologies for the above mentioned wine regions. The exhaustive survey is the basis for a LCA analysis that allows the comparison of different practices and highlights the more efficient and environmental friendly solutions, that will be presented. We give a particular attention to the comparison of more intensive vineyard conduction with the integrated protection ones.

  9. Early sport involvement in young Portuguese basketball players.

    PubMed

    Leite, Nuno; Sampaio, Jaime

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the quantity and type of sporting activities undertaken by young Portuguese basketball players in early stages of athletic development. 750 basketball players aged between 12 and 16 years served as participants, grouped by sex and competitive level. The Skilled group comprised players representing the 9 highly ranked regional teams (n=378) while the Less-skilled group comprised the players representing the remaining 9 regional teams (n=372). All the participants filled out a previously validated questionnaire based on retrospective information linked to the training activities experienced throughout their involvement in sport. Results suggest that the majority of the players started practicing sports preferentially between 6 and 10 years. However, a significant number of players reported a later start, between 11 and 14 years of age. The pattern of sport involvement confirmed important divergences in the path reported by the players by the team's competitive level. The major findings of this study confirmed that players representing the highly ranked teams demonstrated a tendency to extend their training activities during longer periods during the week and throughout each season.

  10. A REMF's View of Viet Nam War Literature Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willson, David A.

    An academic librarian who is a Vietnam War veteran was inspired by the exemplary collection of Vietnam War literature at the Colorado State University Library to begin his own personal collection of mass market paperbacks dealing with the Vietnam War. Although Vietnam War fiction was common on the mass market racks in the mid 1980s, it has been…

  11. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  12. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  13. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  14. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  15. Studying America's Struggle against War: An Historical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howlett, Charles F.

    2003-01-01

    American history surveys and monographs have been dominated by discourses on war. The vocabulary itself--the inter-war period, postwar planning, the prewar economy, the revolutionary war generation, the irrepressible conflict--strongly suggests that the United States has been in a virtual state of war throughout its history. Ironically, this…

  16. Middle School Students, Science Textbooks, Television and Nuclear War Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamm, Mary

    The extent to which the issue of nuclear war technology is treated in middle-school science texts, and how students learn about nuclear war and war technology were studied. Five raters compared the most widely used textbooks for grades 6 and 7 to determine the amount of content on: (1) population growth; (2) world hunger; (3) war technology; (4)…

  17. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...=en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  18. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  19. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  20. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  1. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  2. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  3. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  4. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  5. 48 CFR 225.7402-4 - Law of war training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Law of war training. 225... States 225.7402-4 Law of war training. (a) Basic training. Basic law of war training is required for all...= en-US. (b) Advanced law of war training. (1) The types of personnel that must obtain advanced law...

  6. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  7. 46 CFR 308.107 - War risk hull insurance policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false War risk hull insurance policy. 308.107 Section 308.107 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.107 War risk hull insurance policy. Standard Form...

  8. Insanity and war: the Gulf War and a psychiatric institution.

    PubMed

    Bendor, A; Gelkopf, M; Sigal, M

    1993-01-01

    The threat of a chemical war has profound impacts on all layers of society. Hospitalized mental patients, as we have observed them, react in more extreme ways than staff members. They may react overanxiously, totally apathetically, or in context-related flights to partial sanity. Denial and projection were heavily used defense mechanisms together with a tendency of the more acute patients to plunge into their bizarre idiosyncratic world, lending strange meanings to what was happening in the world. Many patients were found to have strong narcissistic traits and to invest most of their libidinal energies in their private world. In times of stress this results in even greater social isolation. Different types of patients in different phases of their illness react differently to such overpowering stress, and the way they react illustrates their cognitive, behavioral, and social deficiencies. WWII literature on the reactions of mentally ill patients to "fly-bombing" seem not to take into consideration the different possible reactions of patients. This may be due to a change in emphasis in the care of mentally disturbed individuals in the last two decades. We propose to use even such an extremely stressful situation as a challenge to the mental health profession to further the well-being of their patients.

  9. [War trauma and PTSD among German war survivors. A comparison of former soldiers and women of World War II].

    PubMed

    Nandi, C; Weierstall, R; Huth, S; Knecht, J; Elbert, T

    2014-03-01

    Stressful war experiences can cause posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in survivors. To what extent were the soldiers and young women of World War II affected by PTSD symptoms over the course of their lives? Do these men and women differ in the traumatic experiences and PTSD symptom severity? To investigate these questions 52 male and 20 female Germans aged 81-95 years were recruited through newspaper advertisements and notices and interviewed regarding war experiences and PTSD symptoms. Of the men 2% and 7% met the criteria for current and lifetime PTSD diagnoses, respectively, as compared to 10% and 30% of the women, respectively. Using multiple linear regression a dose-response relationship between the number of trauma types experienced and PTSD symptom severity could be demonstrated. The slope of the regression curve was steeper for women than for men. When controlling for the number of different traumatic experiences women reported a significantly higher severity of PTSD symptoms than men. It is presumed that this difference in severity of symptoms can be attributed to qualitative differences in the type of traumatic stress factors during the war. The present study provides evidence that even today people continue to be affected by PTSD symptoms due to events which occurred during World War II; therefore, during patient contact with this age group the war experiences specific to each individual need to be considered as potential moderators of symptoms.

  10. Percutaneous left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Ige, Mobolaji; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Attizzani, Guilherme; Costa, Marco; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2015-04-01

    The ventricular partitioning device known as Parachute is the first and only percutaneously implantable device aimed at restoration of normal left ventricular geometry in humans. Since its conception, this technology has undergone extensive animal and human testing, with proved feasibility and safety, and is currently being studied in a pivotal randomized clinical trial. This article discusses ventricular remodeling and therapies attempted in the past, details the components of the ventricular partitioning device, describes the implanting technique, and reviews the most current experience of this device in humans.

  11. Percutaneous left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Ige, Mobolaji; Al-Kindi, Sadeer G; Attizzani, Guilherme; Costa, Marco; Oliveira, Guilherme H

    2015-04-01

    The ventricular partitioning device known as Parachute is the first and only percutaneously implantable device aimed at restoration of normal left ventricular geometry in humans. Since its conception, this technology has undergone extensive animal and human testing, with proved feasibility and safety, and is currently being studied in a pivotal randomized clinical trial. This article discusses ventricular remodeling and therapies attempted in the past, details the components of the ventricular partitioning device, describes the implanting technique, and reviews the most current experience of this device in humans. PMID:25834974

  12. Robotic hair restoration.

    PubMed

    Rose, Paul T; Nusbaum, Bernard

    2014-01-01

    The latest innovation to hair restoration surgery has been the introduction of a robotic system for harvesting grafts. This system uses the follicular unit extraction/follicular isolation technique method for harvesting follicular units, which is particularly well suited to the abilities of a robotic technology. The ARTAS system analyzes images of the donor area and then a dual-chamber needle and blunt dissecting punch are used to harvest the follicular units. The robotic technology is now being used in various locations around the world. This article discusses the use of the robotic system, its capabilities, and the advantages and disadvantages of the system. PMID:24267426

  13. Analysis of 17 STR data on 5362 southern Portuguese individuals-an update on reference database.

    PubMed

    Cabezas Silva, Raquel; Ribeiro, Teresa; Lucas, Isabel; Porto, Maria João; Costa Santos, Jorge; Dario, Paulo

    2016-03-01

    The main objective of this work consisted of the updating of allele frequencies and other relevant forensic parameters for the 17 autosomal STR loci provided by the combination of the two types of kits used routinely in our laboratory casework: AmpF/STR Identifiler(®) and the Powerplex(®) 16 Systems. This aim was of significant importance, given that the last study on these kits within the southern Portuguese population dates back to 2006, and, as a consequence, it was necessary to correct the deviation caused by population evolution over the last ten years so that they might be better applied to our forensic casework. For this reason genetic data from 5362 unrelated Caucasian Portuguese individuals from the south of Portugal who were involved in paternity testing casework from 2005 to 2014 was used. Of all the markers, TPOX proved to be the least polymorphic, and Penta E the most. Secondly, this up-to-date southern Portuguese population was compared not only with the northern and central Portuguese populations, but also with that of southern Portugal in 2006, along with populations from Spain, Italy, Greece, Romania, Morocco, Angola and Korea in order to infer information about the relatedness of these respective populations, and the variation of the southern Portuguese population over time.

  14. Brand names of Portuguese medication: understanding the importance of their linguistic structure and regulatory issues.

    PubMed

    Pires, Carla; Vigário, Marina; Cavaco, Afonso

    2015-08-01

    Among other regulatory requirements, medicine brands should be composed of single names without abbreviations to prevent errors in prescription of medication. The purposes of the study were to investigate the compliance of a sam ple of Portuguese medicine brand names with Portuguese pharmaceutical regulations. This includes identifying their basic linguistic characteristics and comparing these features and their frequency of occurrence with benchmark values of the colloquial or informal language. A sample of 474 brand names was selected. Names were analyzed using manual (visual analyses) and computer methods (FreP - Frequency Patterns of Phonological Objects in Portuguese and MS word). A significant number of names (61.3%) failed to comply with the Portuguese phonologic system (related to the sound of words) and/or the spelling system (related to the written form of words) contained more than one word, comprised a high proportion of infrequent syllable types or stress patterns and included abbreviations. The results suggest that some of the brand names of Portuguese medication should be reevaluated, and that regulation on this issue should be enforced and updated, taking into consideration specific linguistic and spelling codes.

  15. Health and the war. Changing schemes and health conditions during the Spanish civil war.

    PubMed

    Barona, Josep L; Perdiguero-Gil, Enrique

    2008-01-01

    This paper focuses on the health reforms during the republican Spain (1931-1939) and the crisis derived from the three-year of civil war. It considers how the war affected the health system and the impairment of health conditions of the population during the late 1930s, considering the changing conditions caused by the conflict. Some of the specific topics analysed are the changing healthcare system, the adaptation of health organization after the outbreak of the war, the impact of the war on the health of the population and epidemiological changes, the problem of the refugees and the clinical studies by experts, mainly on undernourishment. PMID:19230336

  16. War stress and late-life mortality in World War II male civilian resistance veterans.

    PubMed

    Op Den Velde, Wybrand; Deeg, Dorly J H; Hovens, Johannes E; Van Duijn, Marijtje A J; Aarts, Petra G H

    2011-04-01

    The mental and physical health of 146 Dutch males exposed to severe war stress during their young adulthood were examined in 1986-1987 when they were at ages 61 to 66 years. The veterans' data were compared with a randomly selected population-based sample of same-aged males. In 2005, 70% of the war stress veterans had died, and only 35% of the comparison group. The baseline quality of life was significantly poorer in the war stress veterans than in the comparison group. Baseline variables explained 42% of the increased risk of mortality among war stress veterans. Smoking was the largest single contributor to mortality.

  17. The anthropology of war and peace

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, P.R.; Pitt, D.

    1989-01-01

    Drawing parallels between tribal behavior and international relations to demonstrate that societies are not inherently aggressive but are led into conflict when pride or in-group pressures push people to fight, this profound look at the chilling reality of cold war and its arsenal of nuclear destruction offers valuable new insights into how prejudices and stereotypes contribute to what may seem like an inexorable drift to war. Yet the authors conclude that war is not inevitable, as they offer suggestions for an end to the arms race in, the nuclear age. Based on original research, this is a long overdue contribution to the study of war and peace in our time and a text for newly emerging courses on the subject.

  18. The Portable War Room Research Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Govers, Francis X., III; Fry, Mark

    1997-01-01

    The Portable War Room is an internal TASC project to research and develop a visualization and simulation environment to provide for decision makers the power to review the past, understand the present, and peer into the future.

  19. The Cold War: A Yearbook Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Graebner, William

    1986-01-01

    Shows how the photographs, valedictorian addresses, nicknames, cartoons and other material contained in high school yearbook can yield information regarding the world views of Americans at the start of the Cold War. (JDH)

  20. Climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war

    SciTech Connect

    Grover, H.D.

    1984-05-01

    Projecting comprehensively the climatic and biological consequences of nuclear war brings into question the perceived security ascribed to policies of deterrence, as well as the efficacy of civil preparedness measures, particularly relocation plans. It is presumed the probability that nuclear war will occur is low, but the potential consequences are so great that the issue must be given full attention. Nuclear war is the greatest environmental threat we face. Yet the problem should be solvable. It is especially important that environmentally concerned citizens and scientists apply their knowledge and understanding to the problem because many of the changes in environmental quality that concerns us today, such as air and water pollution by a host of organic and inorganic agents, represent the principle mechanism whereby life could be threatened in the aftermath of nuclear war. 29 references.

  1. Cold-War Echoes in American Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winn, Ira Jay

    1984-01-01

    The author believes a cold war ideology permeates our culture and poisons the minds of youth. The challenge to education is to awaken people to a historical and global perspective and raise public consciousness of the necessity for peace. (MD)

  2. War, terrorism and the public's health.

    PubMed

    Sidel, Victor W

    2008-01-01

    War and terrorism, which are inseparable, cause death and disability, profound psychological damage, environmental destruction, disruption of the health infrastructure, refugee crises, and increased interpersonal, self-directed and collective violence. Weapons systems such as weapons of mass destruction and landmines have their own specific devastating effects. Preparation for war and preparedness for terrorism bring constraints on civil liberties and human rights, increase militarism, and divert resources from health care and from other needed services. War and terrorism may be best prevented through addressing their causes, which include limited resources, injustice, poverty and ethnic and religious enmity, and through strengthening the United Nations and the treaties controlling specific weapons systems, particularly weapons of mass destruction. In particular, the United States should cease its interference in the internal affairs of other nations and its advocacy of unilateral pre-emptive war.

  3. [Comparative characteristic of the formation of stereotype of aging in participants of current war conflicts and World War II].

    PubMed

    Iakymets', V M

    2006-01-01

    The study was carried out to examine participants of current war conflicts and World War II in order to compare the development of the formation of stereotype of old age. It was established that participants of World War II have higher level of the formation of pessimistic stereotype of old age than participants of current war conflicts have.

  4. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  5. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  6. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  7. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  8. 20 CFR 404.1342 - Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Limits on granting World War II and post-World War II wage credits. 404.1342 Section 404.1342 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION... II and post-World War II wage credits. (a) You get wage credits for World War II or post-World......

  9. War Peace Film Guide. Revised Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dowling, John

    This filmography is a selective listing of 287 films dealing with the topics of war and peace for use with K-12 and college students and with adults. The annotated guide will be of use to anyone planning a world affairs program and of special value to those interested in the problem of war. A wide variety of subject areas are treated in the films.…

  10. [Order of Malta during First World War].

    PubMed

    Peureux, Laure; Dubourg, Olivier; Rousseau, Fra Emmanuel; Lefort, Hugues

    2014-06-01

    The sovereign Military Order of Malta is one of the oldest humanitarian organizations still existing today The First World War gave it the opportunity to prove its large knowledge of emergency medicine, under exceptional circumstances, from the front to the hospitals at the back of the front. On all parts of the European conflict the Order took care of more than 800 000 victims of the war.

  11. [German nurses during the First World War].

    PubMed

    Wagner, Franz

    2014-06-01

    Nurses from several German organisations participated in the First World War. For the most part, they did not work on the frontline but at the rear, in hospital trains, hospitals or refugee camps. They cared forwounded soldiers and faced epidemics of infectious diseases. The journal of the national association of nurses, which continued to be published during the war, provides a snapshot of their concerns and their questioning regarding the profession and its evolution.

  12. Overlapping left ventricular restoration.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Yoshiro

    2009-06-01

    Cardiac transplantation, a final option of treatment for refractory heart failure, has not been a standard procedure in Japan especially, mainly because of the shortage of donors. However, surgical methods to restore native heart function, such as surgical ventricular restoration (SVR), are often effective for these cases. The Dor procedure has been used for ischemic cardiomyopathy cases presenting with broad akinetic segments. This is a fine method to exclude the scarred septum and to reduce the intraventricular cavity by encircling purse-string suture, but it may produce a postoperative spherical ventricular shape as a result of endoventricular patch repair. Also, partial left ventriculectomy is not recommended for non-ischemic dilated cardiomyopathy cases for now. A modification of these SVR and surgical approaches to functional mitral regurgitation has been named "overlapping ventriculoplasty" without endoventricular patch and resection of viable cardiac muscle, and "mitral complex reconstruction", which consists of mitral annuloplasty, papillary muscle approximation, and suspension. Although the long-term prognosis of these procedures is undetermined, they could be an important option, at least as an alternative bridge to transplantation. This review will describe the concepts and some technical aspects of these procedures for the end-stage heart. PMID:19474505

  13. Discourses of Inclusion and Exclusion in the Commemoration of the 40th Anniversary of the Portuguese Revolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Oliveira, Sandi Michele

    2014-01-01

    This article takes a discourse analytical approach to elements of the 40th commemoration of the Portuguese Revolution, focusing specifically on the absence of themes and participants by groups who were most directly involved in the Revolution, either as actors (the "Captains of Abril"), the "retornados" (Portuguese nationals…

  14. Facing the Challenge--Developing an Instructional Plan for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil Based on Multiliteracy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlindwein, Ana Flora

    2013-01-01

    Adopting the multiliteracy concept and embracing the challenge of developing meaningful and captivating classes for Portuguese as Foreign Language in Brazil, this paper proposes an approach which includes the use of different technologies to learn and teach Portuguese, the reading of graphic novel adaptations of Brazilian literature classics and…

  15. Exchange of Disfluency with Age from Function to Content Words in Brazilian Portuguese Speakers Who Do and Do Not Stutter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juste, Fabiola Staroble; Sassi, Fernanda Chiarion; de Andrade, Claudia Regina Furquim

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the exchange of disfluencies from function words to content words with age in Brazilian Portuguese speakers who do and do not stutter. Ninety stuttering individuals and 90 controls, native speakers of Brazilian Portuguese, were divided into three age groups (children, adolescents and adults). The study…

  16. Students' Motivations for Choosing (Or Not) to Study Portuguese: A Survey of Beginning-Level University Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bateman, Blair E.; de Almeida Oliveira, Desirée

    2014-01-01

    Although previous literature has discussed ways of promoting the study of Portuguese, to our knowledge no study has ever directly surveyed students to ascertain why they chose to learn the language. This study reports on a survey of the motivations of first- and second-year Portuguese students to study the language, and contrasts their motivations…

  17. Implementing Training in Portuguese for Speakers of Other Languages in Portugal: The Case of Adult Immigrants with Little or No Schooling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matias, Ana Raquel; Oliveira, Nuno; Ortiz, Alejandra

    2016-01-01

    Courses in Portuguese for Speakers of Other Languages, in particular for adult immigrants, have been steadily expanding in Portugal over the last 15 years. These programmes aim to promote educational and labour market integration, access to Portuguese nationality, and cognitive development. This paper argues that official Portuguese learning…

  18. The War (on Terror) on Alzheimer's.

    PubMed

    George, Daniel R; Whitehouse, Peter J

    2014-01-01

    In the decade following the tragedies of 9/11, a US-led "War on Terror" has coincided with a US-led "War on Alzheimer's disease". Not only has the rhetoric from these two wars overlapped and produced similar practical and conceptual problems, the campaigns have also become interwoven through the emerging public health issue of war-related head injuries, as well as a shared neglect for environmental contributions to human suffering. This article first explores similarities in the framing and prosecution of both wars, and then considers the long-term consequences of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) and traumatic environmental injuries (TEI) in the context of a society facing the increased prevalence of dementia. Ultimately, it is argued that addressing the challenges of cognitive aging and preventing violent social conflict both require a vernacular of higher ideals and values--as well as new language patterns rising out of the ecological movement--to trump the more expedient war rhetoric that has disproportionately marked public discourse around terrorism and Alzheimer's disease during the past decade.

  19. [Wars in the history of rheumatology].

    PubMed

    Pasero, G; Marson, P

    2007-01-01

    Some important discoveries in the history of rheumatology happened during war periods. It is well known that arthritis associated with conjunctivitis and urethritis, following dysenteric episodes, has been described during the First World War from the German Hans Reiter and, nearly contemporarily, from the French Nöel Fiessinger and Edgar Leroy. Less known is instead the fact that the first cases of sympathetic algoneurodystrophy have been reported by the American Silas Weir Mitchell in soldiers wounded by fire-arms, during the Civil War of Secession. Other war episodes have been crucial for the development of some drugs now abundantly applied to the care of rheumatic diseases. The discovery of therapeutic effects of immunosuppressive agents, in fact, happened as an indirect consequence of the use of poison gas, already during the First World War (mustard gas), but above all after an episode in the port of Bari in 1943, where an American cargo boat was sunk. It had been loaded with a quantity of cylinders containing a nitrogenous mustard, whose diffusion in the environment provoked more than 80 deaths owing to bone marrow aplasia.Moreover, the history of the cortisone shows a strict link to the Second World War, when Germany imported large quantities of bovine adrenal glands from Argentina, with the purpose of producing some gland extracts for the Luftwaffe aviators, in order to increase their performance ability.

  20. Children and war: risk, resilience, and recovery.

    PubMed

    Werner, Emmy E

    2012-05-01

    This article reviews and reflects on studies that have explored the effects of war on children around the world. Most are cross-sectional and based on self-reports. They describe a range of mental health problems, related to dose effects and to the negative impact of being a victim or witness of violent acts, threats to and loss of loved ones, prolonged parental absence, and forced displacement. The more recent the exposure to war, and the older the child, the higher was the likelihood of reported posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Especially vulnerable to long-term emotional distress were child soldiers, children who were raped, and children who had been forcibly displaced. In adulthood, war-traumatized children displayed significantly increased risks for a wide range of medical conditions, especially cardiovascular diseases. Among protective factors that moderated the impact of war-related adversities in children were a strong bond between the primary caregiver and the child, the social support of teachers and peers, and a shared sense of values. Among the few documented intervention studies for children of war, school-based interventions, implemented by teachers or locally trained paraprofessionals, proved to be a feasible and low-cost alternative to individual or group therapy. More longitudinal research with multiple informants is needed to document the trajectories of risk and resilience in war-affected children, to assess their long-term development and mental health, and to identify effective treatment approaches.

  1. Gulf War Illness: Challenges Persist

    PubMed Central

    Nettleman, Mary

    2015-01-01

    It has been more than 20 years since the United States and coalition forces entered Kuwait and Iraq. Actual combat was of remarkably short duration: less than 1 week of sustained ground activity and 6 weeks of air missions. Thus, it was surprising when approximately 200,000 returning US veterans were affected by a chronic multi-symptom illness that came to be known as Gulf War Illness (GWI). There were many challenges in investigating GWI, not least of which was that it took several years before the condition was officially taken seriously. There were multiple exposures to potentially causal agents on and off the battlefield, but these exposures were documented incompletely if at all, leaving epidemiologists to rely on self-report for information. In the past 2 years, significant controversy has arisen over the future directions of the field. Despite these challenges, several studies have implicated exposure to acetylcholinesterase inhibitors such as pyridostigmine bromide in the genesis of the condition. The story of GWI can inform research into other conditions and guide future work on veterans' health. PMID:26330683

  2. Reparative dentistry or restorative dentistry?

    PubMed

    Small, Bruce W

    2008-01-01

    The real definition of restorative dentistry is found in the heart and hands of each individual restorative dentist. His or her training, continuing dental education, mentors, needs (financial and emotional), and style of practice all help to develop a philosophy of dental practice that affects daily restorative decisions. Depending on the factors described above, the decision to repair a tooth or change the environment and restore the tooth to a different shape, size, or color also may change. In recent years, patients' esthetic desires have become more of a factor than they were in previous decades. There are no exact written-tn-stone definitions of restorative dentistry, since the answers are operator-dependent and can vary. This column is meant to be food for thought and perhaps inspire discussion when dentists assemble for meetings or study clubs with the goal of delivering longer-lasting dentistry through a restorative dental practice. PMID:18348367

  3. Long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members in Kosovar civilian war survivors.

    PubMed

    Morina, Nexhmedin; Reschke, Konrad; Hofmann, Stefan G

    2011-04-01

    Exposure to war-related experiences can comprise a broad variety of experiences and the very nature of certain war-related events has generally been neglected. To examine the long-term outcomes of war-related death of family members, the authors investigated the prevalence rates of major depressive episode (MDE), anxiety disorders, and quality of life among civilian war survivors with or without war-related death of first-degree family members 9 years after the war in Kosovo. Compared to participants without war-related death of family members, those who had experienced such loss had signficantly higher prevalence rates of MDE, posttraumatic stress disorder, and generalized anxiety disorder, and reported a lower quality of life 9 years after the war. These results indicate that bereaved civilian survivors of war experience significant mental health problems many years after the war.

  4. Restoration of rivers and streams

    SciTech Connect

    Gore, J.A.

    1985-01-01

    All of the major topics which must be addressed when considering reclamation of a river ecosystem are detailed. Specific chapters deal with hydrologic considerations, including the estimation of meander patterns as well as geomorphic considerations of runoff patterns. Also covered are the preservation and restoration of water quality, as well as biological techniques for restoration of riparian vegetation, habitat enhancement for benthic invertebrates and fisheries, and methods for determining successful biotic restoration.

  5. Portuguese Lexical Clusters and CVC Sequences in Speech Perception and Production.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Conceição

    2015-01-01

    This paper investigates similarities between lexical consonant clusters and CVC sequences differing in the presence or absence of a lexical vowel in speech perception and production in two Portuguese varieties. The frequent high vowel deletion in the European variety (EP) and the realization of intervening vocalic elements between lexical clusters in Brazilian Portuguese (BP) may minimize the contrast between lexical clusters and CVC sequences in the two Portuguese varieties. In order to test this hypothesis we present a perception experiment with 72 participants and a physiological analysis of 3-dimensional movement data from 5 EP and 4 BP speakers. The perceptual results confirmed a gradual confusion of lexical clusters and CVC sequences in EP, which corresponded roughly to the gradient consonantal overlap found in production. PMID:26683876

  6. Motor profile of Portuguese preschool children on the Peabody Developmental Motor Scales-2: a cross-cultural study.

    PubMed

    Saraiva, Linda; Rodrigues, Luís P; Cordovil, Rita; Barreiros, João

    2013-06-01

    This study was designed to examine the cultural sensitivity of the PDMS-2 for Portuguese preschool children aged 36-71 months. A total of 540 children (255 males and 285 females) from 15 public preschools of Viana do Castelo, Portugal, were assessed. Age and gender effects in motor performance were examined. Results indicated that PDMS-2 is valid instrument to differentiate Portuguese age groups. Girls presented higher scores than boys in the Grasping and Visuo-motor integration subtests and lower scores in the Object Manipulation subtest. Portuguese preschoolers performed above US norms on Grasping, Visual-motor integration, and Stationary subtests, and bellow on Locomotion and Object Manipulation subtests. Overall, Portuguese children showed better results on the Fine Motor Quotient comparing to the Gross Motor Quotient. These results underline different motor development profiles between Portuguese and American children. PMID:23584176

  7. Concomitant Vascular War Trauma Saturating a French Forward Surgical Team Deployed to Support the Victims of the Syrian War (2013). Interest of the Vascular Damage Control.

    PubMed

    Hornez, Emmanuel; Boddaert, Guillaume; Baudoin, Yoann; Daban, Jean Louis; Ollat, Didier; Ramiara, Patrice; Bonnet, Stéphane

    2015-11-01

    Vascular injuries from war require an emergency treatment whose objective is to quickly obtain hemostasis and the restoration of arterial flow. In this context of heavy trauma and limited means, damage control surgery is recommended and is based on the use of temporary vascular shunts (TVSs). We report the management of the simultaneous arrival of 2 vascular injuries of war in a field hospital. Patient 1 presented a ballistic trauma of the elbow with a section of the humeral artery (Gustillo IIIC). A TVS was set up during the external fixation of the elbow. Final revascularization was carried out and aponevrotomies of the forearm were performed. Patient 2 had a riddled knee with an open fracture of the femur, an avulsion of the popliteal artery, and a hemorrhagic shock. A strategy of damage control surgery was carried out with placing an arterial and venous shunt. Aponevrotomies of the leg were carried out before casting. For the traumatisms of the arteries of the members, the use of shunts is reserved for the lesions of the proximal vessels. Many vascular shunts available have the same performances to restore the arterial flow and prevent secondary thrombosis. The time before the final revascularization depends on the clinical condition of the patient. The value of anticoagulation in these cases was not shown.

  8. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations

    PubMed Central

    Opdam, N.J.M.; van de Sande, F.H.; Bronkhorst, E.; Cenci, M.S.; Bottenberg, P.; Pallesen, U.; Gaengler, P.; Lindberg, A.; Huysmans, M.C.D.N.J.M.; van Dijken, J.W.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this meta-analysis, based on individual participant data from several studies, was to investigate the influence of patient-, materials-, and tooth-related variables on the survival of posterior resin composite restorations. Following Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines, we conducted a search resulting in 12 longitudinal studies of direct posterior resin composite restorations with at least 5 years’ follow-up. Original datasets were still available, including placement/failure/censoring of restorations, restored surfaces, materials used, reasons for clinical failure, and caries-risk status. A database including all restorations was constructed, and a multivariate Cox regression method was used to analyze variables of interest [patient (age; gender; caries-risk status), jaw (upper; lower), number of restored surfaces, resin composite and adhesive materials, and use of glass-ionomer cement as base/liner (present or absent)]. The hazard ratios with respective 95% confidence intervals were determined, and annual failure rates were calculated for subgroups. Of all restorations, 2,816 (2,585 Class II and 231 Class I) were included in the analysis, of which 569 failed during the observation period. Main reasons for failure were caries and fracture. The regression analyses showed a significantly higher risk of failure for restorations in high-caries-risk individuals and those with a higher number of restored surfaces. PMID:25048250

  9. Aspergillus flavus contamination in two Portuguese wastewater treatment plants.

    PubMed

    Viegas, C; Dias, R; Gomes, A Quintal; Meneses, M; Sabino, R; Viegas, S

    2014-01-01

    Filamentous fungi from genus Aspergillus were previously detected in wastewater treatment plants (WWTP) as being Aspergillus flavus (A. flavus), an important toxigenic fungus producing aflatoxins. This study aimed to determine occupational exposure adverse effects due to fungal contamination produced by A. flavus complex in two Portuguese WWTP using conventional and molecular methodologies. Air samples from two WWTP were collected at 1 m height through impaction method. Surface samples were collected by swabbing surfaces of the same indoor sites. After counting A. flavus and identification, detection of aflatoxin production was ensured through inoculation of seven inoculates in coconut-milk agar. Plates were examined under long-wave ultraviolet (UV; 365 nm) illumination to search for the presence of fluorescence in the growing colonies. To apply molecular methods, air samples were also collected using the impinger method. Samples were collected and collection liquid was subsequently used for DNA extraction. Molecular identification of A. flavus was achieved by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) using the Rotor-Gene 6000 qPCR detection system (Corbett). Among the Aspergillus genus, the species that were more abundant in air samples from both WWTP were Aspergillus versicolor (38%), Aspergillus candidus (29.1%), and Aspergillus sydowii (12.7%). However, the most commonly species found on surfaces were A. flavus (47.3%), Aspergillus fumigatus (34.4%), and Aspergillus sydowii (10.8%). Aspergillus flavus isolates that were inoculated in coconut agar medium were not identified as toxigenic strains and were not detected by RT-PCR in any of the analyzed samples from both plants. Data in this study indicate the need for monitoring fungal contamination in this setting. Although toxigenic strains were not detected from A. flavus complex, one cannot disregard the eventual presence and potential toxicity of aflatoxins. PMID:25072712

  10. Juvenile fish condition in estuarine nurseries along the Portuguese coast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasconcelos, R. P.; Reis-Santos, P.; Fonseca, V.; Ruano, M.; Tanner, S.; Costa, M. J.; Cabral, H. N.

    2009-03-01

    Connectivity between estuarine fish nurseries and coastal adult habitats can be affected by variations in juvenile growth and survival. Condition indices are renowned proxies of juvenile nutritional status and growth rates and are valuable tools to assess habitat quality. Biochemical (RNA:DNA ratio) and morphometric (Fulton's condition factor K) condition indices were determined in juveniles of Solea solea, Solea senegalensis, Platichthys flesus, Diplodus vulgaris and Dicentrarchus labrax collected in putative nursery areas of nine estuaries along the Portuguese coast (Minho, Douro, Ria de Aveiro, Mondego, Tejo, Sado, Mira, Ria Formosa and Guadiana) in the Spring and Summer of two consecutive years (2005 and 2006) with distinct climatic characteristics. Individual condition showed significant variation amongst species. The combined use of both condition indices highlighted the low correlation between them and that RNA:DNA had a higher sensitivity. RNA:DNA varied between years but overall the site relative patterns in condition were maintained from one year to the other. Higher RNA:DNA values were found in Spring than in Summer in most species. Intra-estuarine variation also occurred in several cases. Species specific trends in the variability of condition amongst estuaries were highlighted. Some estuaries had higher juvenile condition for more than one species but results did not reveal an identical trend for all species and sites, hindering the hypotheses of one estuarine nursery promoting superior growth for all present species. Significant correlations were found between condition indices, juvenile densities and environmental variables (water temperature, salinity and depth) in the estuarine nurseries. These influenced juvenile nutritional condition and growth, contributing to the variability in estuarine nursery habitat quality. Management and conservation wise, interest in multi-species approaches is reinforced as assessments based on a single species may not

  11. Musical, language, and reading abilities in early Portuguese readers.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Jennifer; Andrade, Paulo E; Andrade, Olga V C A; Gardiner, Martin; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that preserves an ecologically valid musical experience. 43 Portuguese-speaking students from an elementary school in Brazil participated in this study. Children completed a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of assessments. The music task was presented live in the music classroom, and children were asked to code sequences of four sounds on the guitar. Results show a strong relationship between performance on the music task and a number of linguistic variables. A principle component analysis of the cognitive-linguistic battery revealed that the strongest component (Prin1) accounted for 33% of the variance and Prin1 was significantly related to the music task. Highest loadings on Prin1 were found for reading measures such as Reading Speed and Reading Accuracy. Interestingly, 22 children recorded responses for more than four sounds within a trial on the music task, which was classified as Superfluous Responses (SR). SR was negatively correlated with a variety of linguistic variables and showed a negative correlation with Prin1. When analyzing children with and without SR separately, only children with SR showed a significant correlation between Prin1 and the music task. Our results provide implications for the use of an ecologically valid music-based screening tool for the early identification of reading disabilities in a classroom setting. PMID:23785339

  12. Musical, language, and reading abilities in early Portuguese readers.

    PubMed

    Zuk, Jennifer; Andrade, Paulo E; Andrade, Olga V C A; Gardiner, Martin; Gaab, Nadine

    2013-01-01

    Early language and reading abilities have been shown to correlate with a variety of musical skills and elements of music perception in children. It has also been shown that reading impaired children can show difficulties with music perception. However, it is still unclear to what extent different aspects of music perception are associated with language and reading abilities. Here we investigated the relationship between cognitive-linguistic abilities and a music discrimination task that preserves an ecologically valid musical experience. 43 Portuguese-speaking students from an elementary school in Brazil participated in this study. Children completed a comprehensive cognitive-linguistic battery of assessments. The music task was presented live in the music classroom, and children were asked to code sequences of four sounds on the guitar. Results show a strong relationship between performance on the music task and a number of linguistic variables. A principle component analysis of the cognitive-linguistic battery revealed that the strongest component (Prin1) accounted for 33% of the variance and Prin1 was significantly related to the music task. Highest loadings on Prin1 were found for reading measures such as Reading Speed and Reading Accuracy. Interestingly, 22 children recorded responses for more than four sounds within a trial on the music task, which was classified as Superfluous Responses (SR). SR was negatively correlated with a variety of linguistic variables and showed a negative correlation with Prin1. When analyzing children with and without SR separately, only children with SR showed a significant correlation between Prin1 and the music task. Our results provide implications for the use of an ecologically valid music-based screening tool for the early identification of reading disabilities in a classroom setting.

  13. Wine fermentation microbiome: a landscape from different Portuguese wine appellations

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Cátia; Pinho, Diogo; Cardoso, Remy; Custódio, Valéria; Fernandes, Joana; Sousa, Susana; Pinheiro, Miguel; Egas, Conceição; Gomes, Ana C.

    2015-01-01

    Grapes and wine musts harbor a complex microbiome, which plays a crucial role in wine fermentation as it impacts on wine flavour and, consequently, on its final quality and value. Unveiling the microbiome and its dynamics, and understanding the ecological factors that explain such biodiversity, has been a challenge to oenology. In this work, we tackle this using a metagenomics approach to describe the natural microbial communities, both fungal and bacterial microorganisms, associated with spontaneous wine fermentations. For this, the wine microbiome, from six Portuguese wine appellations, was fully characterized as regards to three stages of fermentation – Initial Musts (IM), and Start and End of alcoholic fermentations (SF and EF, respectively). The wine fermentation process revealed a higher impact on fungal populations when compared with bacterial communities, and the fermentation evolution clearly caused a loss of the environmental microorganisms. Furthermore, significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in the fungal populations between IM, SF, and EF, and in the bacterial population between IM and SF. Fungal communities were characterized by either the presence of environmental microorganisms and phytopathogens in the IM, or yeasts associated with alcoholic fermentations in wine must samples as Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (as Lachancea, Metschnikowia, Hanseniaspora, Hyphopichia, Sporothrix, Candida, and Schizosaccharomyces). Among bacterial communities, the most abundant family was Enterobacteriaceae; though families of species associated with the production of lactic acid (Lactobacillaceae, Leuconostocaceae) and acetic acid (Acetobacteriaceae) were also detected. Interestingly, a biogeographical correlation for both fungal and bacterial communities was identified between wine appellations at IM suggesting that each wine region contains specific and embedded microbial communities which may contribute to the uniqueness of regional wines. PMID

  14. Brazilian Portuguese Validated Version of the Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Sardinha, Aline; Nardi, Antonio Egidio; de Araújo, Claudio Gil Soares; Ferreira, Maria Cristina; Eifert, Georg H.

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiac Anxiety (CA) is the fear of cardiac sensations, characterized by recurrent anxiety symptoms, in patients with or without cardiovascular disease. The Cardiac Anxiety Questionnaire (CAQ) is a tool to assess CA, already adapted but not validated to Portuguese. Objective This paper presents the three phases of the validation studies of the Brazilian CAQ. Methods To extract the factor structure and assess the reliability of the CAQ (phase 1), 98 patients with coronary artery disease were recruited. The aim of phase 2 was to explore the convergent and divergent validity. Fifty-six patients completed the CAQ, along with the Body Sensations Questionnaire (BSQ) and the Social Phobia Inventory (SPIN). To determine the discriminative validity (phase 3), we compared the CAQ scores of two subgroups formed with patients from phase 1 (n = 98), according to the diagnoses of panic disorder and agoraphobia, obtained with the MINI - Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview. Results A 2-factor solution was the most interpretable (46.4% of the variance). Subscales were named "Fear and Hypervigilance" (n = 9; alpha = 0.88), and "Avoidance", (n = 5; alpha = 0.82). Significant correlation was found between factor 1 and the BSQ total score (p < 0.01), but not with factor 2. SPIN factors showed significant correlations with CAQ subscales (p < 0.01). In phase 3, "Cardiac with panic" patients scored significantly higher in CAQ factor 1 (t = -3.42; p < 0.01, CI = -1.02 to -0.27), and higher, but not significantly different, in factor 2 (t = -1.98; p = 0.51, CI = -0.87 to 0.00). Conclusions These results provide a definite Brazilian validated version of the CAQ, adequate to clinical and research settings. PMID:24145391

  15. [Development of the Portuguese version of MOS SF-36. Part II --Validation tests].

    PubMed

    Ferreira, P L

    2000-01-01

    This paper describes the study aimed at validating the Portuguese version of the MOS SF-36 instrument of assessment. It starts by presenting the results of the implementation of this instrument in a sample of 930 pregnant women and the results of scaling tests, including the values of internal consistency and reliability. However, since a reliable instrument is not necessarily a valid one, the results of several validity tests are also presented. Finally, this paper ends by recommending the use of the Portuguese version of the SF-36 instrument of assessment.

  16. Psychological Consequences of the World War II Prisoner of War Experience: Implications for Treatment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Engdahl, Brian E.

    The Former Prisoners of War Act (1981) mandated complete health examinations for all interested prisoners of war (POWs). This paper reports on examinations of more than two-thirds of the POWs in the Minneapolis Veterans Administration Medical Center catchment area under the established POW protocol and special psychiatric examinations. The…

  17. Dialectical Disorientation in Vietnam War Films: Subversion of the Mythology of War.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Karen; Downey, Sharon D.

    1991-01-01

    Examines the dynamics of "dialectical disorientation," a rhetorical form that creates ambiguity through confrontation between competitive but complementary orientations. Applies the form to the Vietnam War movies "The Deer Hunter,""Apocalypse Now,""Platoon," and "Full Metal Jacket." Observes that the films portray the war as destructive and…

  18. American military dentists as prisoners-of-war in the Pacific theatre during World War II.

    PubMed

    Bober-Moken, I G

    1994-03-01

    Fifty-three American Military dentists were held by the Japanese as Prisoners-of-War during World War II. Throughout 40 months of captivity these men served their fellow prisoners providing dental treatment in an austere environment with "jury-rigged" equipment and supplies. A brief overview of their experiences is presented in this paper. PMID:8061507

  19. Cold War Paradigms and the Post-Cold War High School History Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAninch, Stuart A.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses how Cold War ideological models provide a way to examine the U.S. role in world affairs. Discusses and compares on the writings of Paul Gagnon and Noam Chomsky on this topic. Concludes that students should stand outside both models to develop a meaningful perspective on the U.S. role during the Cold War. (CFR)

  20. Teaching about the Period between World War I and World War II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Social Education, 1978

    1978-01-01

    Presents a teaching guide to accompany a forthcoming Mobil Showcase television series, "Between the Wars." The series chronicles events between the end of World War I and the Japanese bombing of Pearl Harbor. The guide contains background information, discussion questions, and activities for each of the 16 programs in the series. (Author/AV)

  1. Professors of War. The Naval War College and the Development of the Naval Profession.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spector, Ronald

    A study is presented of the role of the Naval War College in the professionalization of the U.S. Navy and the effects of that process upon the shaping of naval policy from the founding of the College in 1884 to its temporary discontinuance in 1917 during World War 1. A summary biography is given of Stephen Bleeker Luce, leading advocate and first…

  2. The War and Post-War Impact on the Educational System of Bosnia and Herzegovina

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kreso, Adila Pasalic

    2008-01-01

    Bosnia and Herzegovina (BiH), much like other eastern-European countries, has faced a brief period of transition from the socialist system to capitalism. However, this was interrupted in BiH by a brutal war lasting four years. Social systems and infrastructure were damaged or destroyed, including education, which was harnessed during the war to…

  3. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  4. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  5. 15 CFR 990.56 - Restoration selection-use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration project.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Restoration selection-use of a..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE OIL POLLUTION ACT REGULATIONS NATURAL RESOURCE DAMAGE ASSESSMENTS Restoration Planning Phase § 990.56 Restoration selection—use of a Regional Restoration Plan or existing restoration...

  6. How World War 1 changed global attitudes to war and infectious diseases.

    PubMed

    Shanks, G Dennis

    2014-11-01

    World War 1 was a key transition point towards scientific medicine. Medical officers incorporated Louis Pasteur's discoveries into their understanding of microorganisms as the cause of infectious diseases, which were therefore susceptible to rational control and treatment measures even in the pre-antibiotic era. Typhoid vaccination led to the successful evasion of the disastrous epidemics of previous wars. The incidence of tetanus was probably decreased by giving millions of doses of horse antitoxin to wounded soldiers. Quinine treated but could not control malaria; its use required mass compulsion. Tuberculosis was not a great military problem during World War 1, although mortality in civilian populations increased substantially. Treatment of sexually transmitted infections remained a matter of aversive conditioning, with invasive antiseptics used in the absence of antibiotics. Pandemic influenza in 1918-19 killed more people than died during the entire war, showing how much remained beyond the capability of the scientists and doctors who fought infectious diseases during World War 1.

  7. Restorative Nurse Assistant. Instructor Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Instructional Materials Lab.

    This curriculum material covers the basic orientation and necessary skills which would enable the practicing Certified Nurse Assistant to be trained as a Restorative Nurse Assistant. The shift in emphasis from maintenance care to restorative care in the long-term care setting has created a need for trained paraprofessionals who are competent in…

  8. Restorative Justice in School Communities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karp, David R.; Breslin, Beau

    2001-01-01

    Explores the recent implementation of restorative justice practices in Minnesota, Colorado, and Pennsylvania school communities, examining how their approaches can address substance abuse problems and offer alternatives to zero-tolerance policies. The three programs are committed to the idea that restoration is a more appropriate educational tool…

  9. Restorative biological processes and health

    PubMed Central

    Robles, Theodore F.; Carroll, Judith E.

    2011-01-01

    Research on psychological influences on physiology primarily focuses on biological responses during stressful challenges, and how those responses can become dysregulated with prolonged or repeated exposure to stressful circumstances. At the same time, humans spend considerable time recovering from those challenges, and a host of biological processes involved in restoration and repair take place during normal, non-stressed activities. We review restorative biological processes and evidence for links between psychosocial factors and several restorative processes including sleep, wound healing, antioxidant production, DNA repair, and telomerase function. Across these biological processes, a growing body of evidence suggests that experiencing negative emotional states, including acute and chronic stress, depressive symptoms, and individual differences in negative affectivity and hostility, can influence these restorative processes. This review calls attention to restorative processes as fruitful mechanisms and outcomes for future biobehavioral research. PMID:21927619

  10. Physics in WWI: Fighting the Acoustic War

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kevles, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    World War I was the first high-technology war, and when the United States began to prepare for it in 1915 the federal government turned to the storied inventor Thomas Edison. Edison formed a board that included industrial executives and engineers but only one physicist, its members holding that they wanted people who would do things and not just talk about them. However, in 1916, the nation's scientists managed to create a place for themselves in the preparedness effort by organizing the National Research Council under the National Academy of Sciences. Once the United States went to war, in April 1917, the NRC brought academic and industrial physicists together in efforts to detect incoming aircraft, submerged submarines, and the location of long-range artillery. The efforts employed devices that relied in the main on the detection and identification of sound waves from these weapons. The devices were passive responders, but they were marked by increasing sophistication and enabled the United States and its allies to prosecute an acoustic war. That branch of the war was militarily effective, overshadowed the work of Edison's group, and gained physicists high standing among leaders in both the military and industry.

  11. [Clinical implications of the "war against cancer"].

    PubMed

    Rojas Miranda, Daniela; Fernández González, Loreto

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the origin and implications of the "war on cancer" metaphor. Commonly present in mass media, the "war on cancer" notion circulates also among patients, their loved ones, their support networks, and oncological multidisciplinary teams. In our view when cancer is uprooted of its illness status, and conceptualized as an "enemy", myths about disease and those who suffer it (especially the idea of psychogenesis) are strengthened. Two topics in which the war metaphor is particularly problematic in the clinical context, are analyzed in depth. The first one is the relationship between the oncologic patient and his or her loved ones and support networks. When patients are insistently prompted to fight the disease and think positive, the expression of emotions associated to the adaptive process of receiving a diagnosis of cancer may be inhibited. Secondly, the war metaphor promotes an authoritarian view among the health teams and on the physician-patient relationship, undermining the patent's autonomy in the decision-making process, which may affect his global quality of life. Also, it encourages emotional isolation, concealment of psychiatric symptoms and conspiracies of silence. It is concluded that public policies to avoid the "war on" notion are required. Instead, education of the general population about wrong beliefs about cancer should be encouraged. PMID:26005822

  12. [Clinical implications of the "war against cancer"].

    PubMed

    Rojas Miranda, Daniela; Fernández González, Loreto

    2015-03-01

    This article discusses the origin and implications of the "war on cancer" metaphor. Commonly present in mass media, the "war on cancer" notion circulates also among patients, their loved ones, their support networks, and oncological multidisciplinary teams. In our view when cancer is uprooted of its illness status, and conceptualized as an "enemy", myths about disease and those who suffer it (especially the idea of psychogenesis) are strengthened. Two topics in which the war metaphor is particularly problematic in the clinical context, are analyzed in depth. The first one is the relationship between the oncologic patient and his or her loved ones and support networks. When patients are insistently prompted to fight the disease and think positive, the expression of emotions associated to the adaptive process of receiving a diagnosis of cancer may be inhibited. Secondly, the war metaphor promotes an authoritarian view among the health teams and on the physician-patient relationship, undermining the patent's autonomy in the decision-making process, which may affect his global quality of life. Also, it encourages emotional isolation, concealment of psychiatric symptoms and conspiracies of silence. It is concluded that public policies to avoid the "war on" notion are required. Instead, education of the general population about wrong beliefs about cancer should be encouraged.

  13. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933).

  14. French Neurologists during World War I.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier; Tatu, Laurent; Bogousslavsky, Julien

    2016-01-01

    The Great War accelerated the development of neurological knowledge. Many neurological signs and syndromes, as well as new nosological entities such as war psychoneuroses, were described during the conflict. The period between 1914 and 1918 was the first time in which many neurologists were concentrated in wartime neurology centres and confronted with a number of neurological patients never seen before. This concentration led to the publication of papers concerning all fields of neurological sciences, and these reports pervaded scientific journals during the conflict and the post-war years. The careers of French neurologists during the war were highly varied. Some were mobilised, whilst others enlisted voluntarily. They worked as regiment physicians at the front or in wartime neurology centres at the front or at the rear. Others were academics who were already authoritative names in the field of neurology. Whilst they were too old to be officially mobilised, they nevertheless worked in their militarised neurology departments of civil hospitals. We present here the careers of a few French neurologists during the Great War, including Charles Foix (1882-1927), René Cruchet (1875-1959), Georges Guillain (1876-1961), Jean Lhermitte (1877-1959), Clovis Vincent (1879-1947), Gustave Roussy (1874-1948), and Paul Sollier (1861-1933). PMID:27035726

  15. Wars and suicides in Israel, 1948-2006.

    PubMed

    Oron Ostre, Israel

    2012-05-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed.

  16. Wars and Suicides in Israel, 1948–2006

    PubMed Central

    Oron (Ostre), Israel

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the characteristics of suicides which occurred during the existential and the non-existential wars in Israel. It provides a first approximation of whether the suicide patterns in each war are consistent with the findings of Morselli and Durkheim, and whether their theoretical interpretations can serve as a preliminary guideline to explaining the Israeli case, which is characterized by short periods of war, social integration during some of the non-existential wars, and a sharp rise in post-war male suicide rates following all of the existential wars. Implications for further studies on the subject in Israel and elsewhere are discussed. PMID:22754482

  17. Reaction of Vietnam veterans to the Persian Gulf War.

    PubMed

    Kobrick, F R

    1993-08-01

    The notion that veterans' war experiences can be reawakened on exposure to subsequent wars has not received the attention it merits by mental health professionals. A current or recent war can significantly affect veterans; in particular, some Vietnam veterans have had intense reactions to the Persian Gulf War. This article reviews the evolution of the concept of combat-related posttraumatic stress disorder and analyzes reports of Vietnam veterans' reactions to the Persian Gulf War. A case study of a Vietnam veteran whose traumatic memories were reawakened with the onset of the Persian Gulf War is presented, and implications for social work practice are discussed.

  18. Thomas Willis, the Restoration and the First Works of Neurology.

    PubMed

    Caron, Louis

    2015-10-01

    This article provides a new consideration of how Thomas Willis (1621-75) came to write the first works of 'neurology', which was in its time a novel use of cerebral and neural anatomy to defend philosophical claims about the mind. Willis's neurology was shaped by the immediate political and religious contexts of the English Civil War and Restoration. Accordingly, the majority of this paper is devoted to uncovering the political necessities Willis faced during the Restoration of the English monarchy in 1660, with particular focus on the significance of Willis's dedication of his neurology and natural philosophy to the Archbishop of Canterbury, Gilbert Sheldon. Because the Restoration of Charles II brought only a semblance of order and peace, Willis and his allies understood the need for a coherent defense of the authority of the English church and its liturgy. Of particular importance to Sheldon and Willis (and to others in Sheldon's circle) were the specific ceremonies described in the Book of Common Prayer, a manual that directed the congregation to assume various postures during public worship. This article demonstrates that Willis's neurology should be read as an intervention in these debates, that his neurology would have been read at the time as an attempt to ground orthodox worship in the structure of the brain and nerves. The political necessities that helped to shape Willis's project also help us to better understand Willis's innovative insistence that philosophical statements about the mind should be formulated only after a comprehensive anatomical investigation of the brain and nerves.

  19. Physical and Mental Health Costs of Traumatic War Experiences Among Civil War Veterans

    PubMed Central

    Pizarro, Judith; Silver, Roxane Cohen; Prause, JoAnn

    2006-01-01

    Context Hundreds of thousands of soldiers face exposure to combat during wars across the globe. The health impact of traumatic war experiences has not been adequately assessed across the lifetime of these veterans. Objective Identify the role of traumatic war experiences in predicting post-war nervous and physical disease and mortality using archival data from military and medical records of veterans from the Civil War. Design An archival examination of military and medical records of Civil War veterans was conducted. Degree of trauma experienced (POW experience, percentage of company killed, being wounded, early age at enlistment), signs of lifetime physician-diagnosed disease, and age at death were recorded. Setting and Participants US Pension board surgeons conducted standardized medical examinations of Civil War veterans over their post-war lifetimes. Military records of 17,700 Civil War veterans were matched to post-war medical records. Main Outcome Measures Signs of physician-diagnosed disease including cardiac, gastrointestinal (GI), and nervous disease, and number of unique ailments within each disease; mortality. Results Military trauma was related to signs of disease and mortality. Greater percentage of company killed was associated with signs of post-war cardiac and GI disease (IRR=1.34, p<.02), co-morbid nervous and physical disease (IRR=1.51, p<.005), and greater number of unique ailments within each disease (IRR=1.14, p<.01). Younger soldiers (≤18 years old), compared to older enlistees (> 30 years old), showed higher mortality risk (HR=1.52, p<.005), signs of co-morbid nervous and physical disease (IRR=1.93, p<.005), and a greater number of unique ailments within each disease (IRR=1.32, p<.005), controlling for length of time lived and other covariates. Conclusions Greater exposure to death of military comrades and younger exposure to war trauma was related to signs of physician-diagnosed cardiac, GI and nervous disease, and a greater number of

  20. Cultural Adaptation of the Portuguese Version of the "Sniffin' Sticks" Smell Test: Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Simões, João; Silva, Filipe; Silva, Eduardo D; Hummel, Cornelia; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António

    2016-01-01

    The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sniffin`Sticks test for the Portuguese population is described. Over 270 people participated in four experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants rated the familiarity of presented odors and seven descriptors of the original test were adapted to a Portuguese context. In Experiment 2, the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test was administered to 203 healthy participants. Older age, male gender and active smoking status were confirmed as confounding factors. The third experiment showed the validity of the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test in discriminating healthy controls from patients with olfactory dysfunction. In Experiment 4, the test-retest reliability for both the composite score (r71 = 0.86) and the identification test (r71 = 0.62) was established (p<0.001). Normative data for the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test is provided, showing good validity and reliability and effectively distinguishing patients from healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test identification test is a clinically suitable screening tool in routine outpatient Portuguese settings. PMID:26863023

  1. Cultural Adaptation of the Portuguese Version of the "Sniffin' Sticks" Smell Test: Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Simões, João; Silva, Filipe; Silva, Eduardo D; Hummel, Cornelia; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António

    2016-01-01

    The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sniffin`Sticks test for the Portuguese population is described. Over 270 people participated in four experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants rated the familiarity of presented odors and seven descriptors of the original test were adapted to a Portuguese context. In Experiment 2, the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test was administered to 203 healthy participants. Older age, male gender and active smoking status were confirmed as confounding factors. The third experiment showed the validity of the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test in discriminating healthy controls from patients with olfactory dysfunction. In Experiment 4, the test-retest reliability for both the composite score (r71 = 0.86) and the identification test (r71 = 0.62) was established (p<0.001). Normative data for the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test is provided, showing good validity and reliability and effectively distinguishing patients from healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test identification test is a clinically suitable screening tool in routine outpatient Portuguese settings.

  2. Cultural Adaptation of the Portuguese Version of the “Sniffin’ Sticks” Smell Test: Reliability, Validity, and Normative Data

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, João Carlos; Simões, João; Silva, Filipe; Silva, Eduardo D.; Hummel, Cornelia; Hummel, Thomas; Paiva, António

    2016-01-01

    The cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Sniffin`Sticks test for the Portuguese population is described. Over 270 people participated in four experiments. In Experiment 1, 67 participants rated the familiarity of presented odors and seven descriptors of the original test were adapted to a Portuguese context. In Experiment 2, the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test was administered to 203 healthy participants. Older age, male gender and active smoking status were confirmed as confounding factors. The third experiment showed the validity of the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test in discriminating healthy controls from patients with olfactory dysfunction. In Experiment 4, the test-retest reliability for both the composite score (r71 = 0.86) and the identification test (r71 = 0.62) was established (p<0.001). Normative data for the Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test is provided, showing good validity and reliability and effectively distinguishing patients from healthy controls with high sensitivity and specificity. The Portuguese version of Sniffin`Sticks test identification test is a clinically suitable screening tool in routine outpatient Portuguese settings. PMID:26863023

  3. "I Was Dead Restorative Today": From Restorative Justice to Restorative Approaches in School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCluskey, G.; Lloyd, G.; Stead, J.; Kane, J.; Riddell, S.; Weedon, E.

    2008-01-01

    This paper explores definitions and understandings of restorative practices in education. It offers a critique of current theoretical models of restorative justice originally derived from the criminal justice system and now becoming popular in educational settings. It questions the appropriateness of these concepts as they are being introduced to…

  4. War and deforestation in Sierra Leone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burgess, Robin; Miguel, Edward; Stanton, Charlotte

    2015-09-01

    The impact of armed conflict on the environment is of major public policy importance. We use a geographically disaggregated dataset of civil war violence together with satellite imagery of land cover to test whether war facilitated or prevented forest loss in Sierra Leone. The conflict data set allows us to establish where rebel groups were stationed and where battles and attacks occurred. The satellite data enables to us to monitor the change in forest cover (total, primary, and secondary) in all of Sierra Leone’s 151 chiefdoms, between 1990 (prior to the war) and 2000 (just prior to its end). The results suggest that conflict in Sierra Leone acted as a brake on local deforestation: conflict-ridden areas experienced significantly less forest loss relative to their more conflict-free counterparts.

  5. Nuclear war: the facts on our survival

    SciTech Connect

    Goodwin, P.

    1981-01-01

    Unless we reject the premise that a nuclear war can be waged rationally and one side can emerge victorious, a nuclear war could happen. Goodwin describes what will happen during and after a nuclear exchange. He describes the effects of heat and blast, and the effects and treatment of radiation exposure, then outlines simple protective steps individuals can take to improve their margin of safety. He describes a variety of civil defense and individual shelters that can be built, but questions how many will go to the necessary trouble. Photographs of Hiroshima and nuclear test sites illustrate the text. Public policy should focus first on sustaining deterrence and preventing war, according to Goodwin. 36 references, 40 figures, 4 tables. (DCK)

  6. Adverse health consequences of the Iraq War.

    PubMed

    Levy, Barry S; Sidel, Victor W

    2013-03-16

    The adverse health consequences of the Iraq War (2003-11) were profound. We conclude that at least 116,903 Iraqi non-combatants and more than 4800 coalition military personnel died over the 8-year course. Many Iraqi civilians were injured or became ill because of damage to the health-supporting infrastructure of the country, and about 5 million were displaced. More than 31,000 US military personnel were injured and a substantial percentage of those deployed suffered post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, and other neuropsychological disorders and their concomitant psychosocial problems. Many family members of military personnel had psychological problems. Further review of the adverse health consequences of this war could help to minimise the adverse health consequences of, and help to prevent, future wars.

  7. The Public Health Implications of Resource Wars

    PubMed Central

    Klare, Michael T.; Sidel, Victor W.

    2011-01-01

    Competition for resources between or within nations is likely to become an increasingly common cause of armed conflict. Competition for petroleum is especially likely to trigger armed conflict because petroleum is a highly valuable resource whose supply is destined to contract. Wars fought over petroleum and other resources can create public health concerns by causing morbidity and mortality, damaging societal infrastructure, diverting resources, uprooting people, and violating human rights. Public health workers and the organizations with which they are affiliated can help prevent resource wars and minimize their consequences by (1) promoting renewable energy and conservation, (2) documenting the impact of past and potential future resource wars, (3) protecting the human rights of affected noncombatant civilian populations during armed conflict, and (4) developing and advocating for policies that promote peaceful dispute resolution. PMID:21778501

  8. Exploring Portuguese Heritage and Non-Heritage Learners' Perceptions of and Performance in Listening

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Denise; Silva, Gláucia

    2015-01-01

    This article discusses perceptions of and performance in listening by a group of heritage and non-heritage learners of Portuguese. Our data include a survey containing background information and perceptions about listening, two listening tasks and a post-task self-report on how learners arrived at their answers. Quantitative and qualitative…

  9. Academic Staff Quality in Higher Education: An Empirical Analysis of Portuguese Public Administration Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sarrico, Cláudia S.; Alves, André A.

    2016-01-01

    Higher education accreditation frameworks typically consider academic staff quality a key element. This article embarks on an empirical study of what academic staff quality means, how it is measured, and how different aspects of staff quality relate to each other. It draws on the relatively nascent Portuguese experience with study programme…

  10. Psychometric Properties of the Portuguese Version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOL-Q)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Albuquerque, Cristina P.

    2012-01-01

    Background: This study analyzes the psychometric properties of the Portuguese version of the Quality of Life Questionnaire (QOL-Q; Quality of Life Questionnaire Manual--1993 Manual and 2004 Revision. 2004, IDS Publishing Company, Worthington, OH; Schalock & Keith 2004). Method: The analysis of the factorial structure was carried out on a sample of…

  11. Science and Human Behavior translated into Portuguese: Ciência e Comportamento Humano.

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, João Claudio

    2003-01-01

    Science and Human Behavior was translated to Portuguese as part of the effort to begin a psychology course at the University of Brasília 40 years ago; one of the many results of the first visit of Fred S. Keller to Brazil. The book has been used continuously in undergraduate courses in Brazil since 1967. PMID:14964714

  12. Adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese.

    PubMed

    Soares, Ana Paula; Pinheiro, Ana P; Costa, Ana; Frade, Carla Sofia; Comesaña, Montserrat; Pureza, Rita

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the results of the adaptation of the International Affective Picture System (IAPS) for European Portuguese (EP). Following the original procedure of Lang et al., 2000 native speakers of EP rated the 1,182 pictures of the last version of the IAPS set on the three affective dimensions of valence, arousal, and dominance, using the Self-Assessment Manikin (SAM). Results showed that the normative values of the IAPS for EP are properly distributed in the affective space of valence and arousal, showing the typical boomerang-shaped distribution observed in previous studies. Results also point to important differences in the way Portuguese females and males react to affective pictures that should be taken into consideration when planning and conducting research with Portuguese samples. Furthermore, the results from the cross-cultural comparisons between the EP ratings and the ratings from the American, Spanish, Brazilian, Belgian, Chilean, Indian, and Bosnian-Herzegovinian standardizations, showed that in spite of the fact that IAPS stimuli elicited affective responses that are similar across countries and cultures (at least in Western cultures), there are differences in the way Portuguese individuals react to IAPS pictures that strongly recommend the use of the normative values presented in this work. They can be downloaded as a supplemental archive at http://brm.psychonomic-journals.org/content/supplemental or at http://p-pal.di.uminho.pt/about/databases. PMID:25381023

  13. Portuguese Public University Student Satisfaction: A Stakeholder Theory-Based Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainardes, Emerson; Alves, Helena; Raposo, Mario

    2013-01-01

    In accordance with the importance of the student stakeholder to universities, the objective of this research project was to evaluate student satisfaction at Portuguese public universities as regards their self-expressed core expectations. The research was based both on stakeholder theory itself and on previous studies of university stakeholders.…

  14. Lusitanization and Bakhtinian Perspectives on the Role of Portuguese in Angola and East Timor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Makoni, Sinfree Bullock; Severo, Cristine

    2015-01-01

    A vast amount of literature addresses issues surrounding English and French in colonial and post-colonial communities. However, relative to the spread of English and French language ideology, a limited amount of literature exists on Lusitanization (i.e. the spread of Portuguese colonial ideology by Portugal during colonialism and the role of…

  15. Psychometric Properties of a Portuguese Version of the Subjective Happiness Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spagnoli, Paola; Caetano, Antonio; Silva, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The Subjective Happiness Scale (SHS) constitutes an instrument for assessing subjective happiness. This study aims to present the validation of the SHS in a Portuguese adult population. A large representative sample (1,017 participants), from five different age groups was considered. Configurational invariance of the unidimensional structure of…

  16. Organizational Citizenship Behaviors in American and Portuguese Public Schools: Measuring the Construct across Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DiPaola, Michael F.; da Costa Neves, Paula Maria Mendes

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: Organizational citizenship behaviors (OCB) have been studied in both private and public sector organizations in countries around the globe. The purpose of this study is to compare the perceptions of the OCB construct between American and Portuguese public secondary school teachers and test an operational measure of the construct for…

  17. Neuromyths in Education: What Is Fact and What Is Fiction for Portuguese Teachers?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rato, Joana Rodrigues; Abreu, Ana Maria; Castro-Caldas, Alexandre

    2013-01-01

    Background: Educational neuroscience is a relatively new discipline. However, many obstacles persist in delaying the success of an interface between neuroscience and education. One such major obstacle has been the spread of neuromyths. Purpose: The main aim of this study was to verify whether Portuguese teachers are susceptible to misinterpreting…

  18. Characterization of the fast neutron irradiation facility of the Portuguese Research Reactor after core conversion.

    PubMed

    Marques, J G; Sousa, M; Santos, J P; Fernandes, A C

    2011-08-01

    The fast neutron irradiation facility of the Portuguese Research Reactor was characterized after the reduction in uranium enrichment and rearrangement of the core configuration. In this work we report on the determination of the hardness parameter and the 1MeV equivalent neutron flux along the facility, in the new irradiation conditions, following ASTM E722 standard.

  19. New Information and Communication Technologies in Portuguese Schools: Paving the Way for the Next Millennium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almeida d'Eca, Teresa

    This paper describes three government-funded technology programs in Portugal and the changes they brought about in Portuguese schools: (1) Project MINERVA (Computing Means in Education: Rationalization, Valorization, Actualization), launched in 1985 and ended in 1994, was an innovative program to introduce new technologies in schools; (2) Program…

  20. School Dropout, Problem Behaviour and Poor Academic Achievement: A Longitudinal View of Portuguese Male Offenders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beatriz Saraiva, A.; Pereira, Beatriz O.; Zamith-Cruz, Judite

    2011-01-01

    This study examines school dropouts from the perspective of male adults themselves through interviews with offenders currently serving sentences. Participants were 10 Portuguese male inmates, between the ages of 19 and 46 years of age, incarcerated in two prison facilities on the Azores. Qualitative and interpretative methods were carried out…