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Sample records for position determines audiovestibular

  1. Audiovestibular Function Deficits in Vestibular Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are benign tumours of the vestibular nerve and can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, facial palsy, and brainstem compression. Audiovestibular diagnostic tests are essential for detection and treatment planning. Methods. Medline was used to perform a systematic literature review with regard to how audiovestibular test parameters correlate with symptoms, tumour size, and tumour location. Results. The auditory brainstem response can be used to diagnose retrocochlear lesions caused by VS. Since hearing loss correlates poorly with tumour size, a retrocochlear lesion is probably not the only cause for hearing loss. Also cochlear mechanisms seem to play a role. This can be revealed by abnormal otoacoustic emissions, despite normal ABR and new MRI techniques which have demonstrated endolymphatic hydrops of the inner ear. Caloric and head impulse tests show frequency specific dynamics and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials may help to identify the location of the tumour regarding the involved nerve parts. Conclusion. In order to preserve audiovestibular function in VS, it is important to stop the growth of the tumour and to avoid degenerative changes in the inner ear. A detailed neurotological workup helps to diagnose VS of all sizes and can also provide useful prognostic information. PMID:27747231

  2. Recent Advances in Understanding Audiovestibular Loss of a Vascular Cause

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Acute audiovestibular loss is characterized by abrupt onset of prolonged (lasting days) vertigo and hearing loss. Acute ischemic stroke in the distribution of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is known to be the leading cause of acute audiovestibular loss. So far, eight subgroups of AICA territory infarction have been identified according to the patterns of audiovestibular dysfunctions, among which the most common pattern is the combined loss of auditory and vestibular functions. Unlike inner ear dysfunction of a viral cause, which can commonly present as an isolated vestibular (i.e., vestibular neuritis) or cochlear loss (i.e., sudden deafness), labyrinthine dysfunction of a vascular cause rarely results in isolated loss of vestibular or auditory function. As audiovestibular loss may precede the central symptoms or signs of an ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation, early diagnosis and proper management of audiovestiubular loss may provide a window to prevent the progression of infarction to larger areas of the posterior circulation. A clinician should consider the possibility that acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending AICA territory infarction, especially when patients have basilar artery occlusive disease close to the origin of the AICA on brain MRA. This review aims to highlight the recent advances in understanding audiovestibular loss of a vascular cause and to address its clinical significance. PMID:28030893

  3. Acute tinnitus and permanent audiovestibular damage after hepatitis B vaccination.

    PubMed

    DeJonckere, P H; de Surgères, G G

    2001-01-01

    Yeast-derived recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine usage has been widely accepted since the early 1990s, especially for high-risk patients. Severe adverse effects have been reported infrequently. Certain neurological complications raise concern for hepatitis B vaccine: central nervous system demyelination, acute myelitis, acute cerebellar ataxia, and various peripheral mononeuropathies. Case reports on tinnitus, hearing loss, and vestibular damage are extremely scarce. The case presented here concerns a professionally active nurse, born in 1953, with a medical history of progressive renal failure and hemodialysis. Eleven hours after a second injection of the hepatitis B vaccine Engerix B, an acute left-sided tinnitus occurred and, a few hours later, severe left hearing loss and intense vertigo. Tinnitus and the sensation of vertigo regressed fairly quickly, but the hearing loss and the vestibular paresis were permanent. Increased interpeak intervals on auditory brain responses and lack of recruitment suggested that the lesion probably is located at the level of cranial nerve VIII. From a medicolegal point of view, this audiovestibular damage had to be considered an accident at work and not as an occupational disease.

  4. Video image position determination

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  5. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ) conditions. The novel differential GPS algorithm for a network of users that has been developed in this research uses a...performance is achieved, even under high Geometric Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ) conditions. The second part of this research investigates a...respect to the receiver produces high Geometric Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ), which can adversely affect GPS position solutions [1]. Four

  6. Analysis of audio-vestibular assessment in acute low-tone hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Im, Gi Jung; Kim, Sung Kyun; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrated excellent hearing recovery following the combined treatment of diuretic and oral steroid, and electrocochleography (ECoG) was significantly higher than normal side. This study reports characteristics of acute low-tone hearing loss (ALHL) that show the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG, and excellent recovery, even-though low-tone hearing loss is worse, which can be different compared with sudden deafness. Objective To analyze ALHL without vertigo, this study compared the ALHL group with all patients exhibiting low-tone hearing loss and ear fullness. Hearing changes and vestibular functions were analyzed. Materials and methods ALHL was defined as a mean hearing loss of ≥ 30 dB at 125, 250, and 500 Hz, and ≤ 20 dB at 2, 4, and 8 kHz. From 156 cases of low-tone hearing loss of more than 10 dB without vertigo, 31 met the ALHL criteria and were subjected to audio-vestibular assessments including PTA, ECoG, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing, and caloric testing. Results In ALHL, low-tone hearing loss was 42.7 ± 9.5 dB, and 83.9% of ALHL significantly recovered by more than 10 dB. The ECoG in ALHL was 0.334 ± 0.11 (higher than 0.25 ± 0.08 on the normal side) and ECoG abnormality was 35.5% (the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG value).

  7. Method and apparatus for determining position using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John (Inventor); Ward, William S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i.e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudo-random code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor enters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite code sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  8. Surveying of a borehole for position determination

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

    1985-04-02

    A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

  9. Nutation determination using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Kunliang; Capitaine, Nicole; Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert

    2012-08-01

    VLBI observation of extragalactic radio sources is the only technique that allows high accuracy determination of nutation on a regular basis. However, this is limited to periods of nutation greater than about 30 days due to the current resolution of VL BI estimation. It is there fore important to use another technique to improve nutation at shorter periods. It has been shown by Rothacher et al. (1999) and Weber & Rothacher (2001) that GPS is a potential technique for the determination of the short period terms of nutation. The met hod, which is based on the estimation of nutation rates with respect to an a priori model, is limited to nutation terms in the higher frequency range (with periods up to about 21 days) due to deficiencies in the modeling of the satellite orbits. The high accuracy and high time resolution of the GPS observations that are now achieved give us the possibility to estimate the nutation variations with respect to the IAU2000A nutation, with an expected precision of 10 microarcseconds (μas ). The purpose of our study is to use recent GPS observations obtained by 140 IGS stations (IGS08 Core Reference Frame sites included) to estimate the short period nutations. Two methods are applied: one is to investigate the retrograde diurnal term of polar motion with nutation fixed to the IAU 2006/2000 precession - nutation, using CNES/GRGS software GINS/DYNAMO at Observatoire de Paris; another one is to investigate the nutation time derivative, with polar motion fixed, using Bernese GPS software at University of Technology in Vienna. In this poster, we report on our preliminary results with data set covering a period of 3 years (2009 - 2011), with appropriate time resolutions and on the comparison between the two approaches.

  10. Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    SciTech Connect

    Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu

    2009-02-28

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

  11. Determining Positions and Desired Applicant Characteristics in Sports Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atali, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the diversity of positions occurring in sports job ads and reveal the characteristics requested from applicants for each position. This study examined 103 sports-related job ads obtained from four human resources websites. Using content analysis, job ads were examined in terms of job titles, and the…

  12. Involvement of the audiovestibular system in multiple sclerosis. An otoneurologic and audiologic study.

    PubMed

    Grénman, R

    1985-01-01

    This study was performed on a material of 70 patients, who fulfilled the criteria of definitive MS. All the patients were examined by an otologist, a neurologist and a neuro-ophthalmologist. A wide range of audiologic and otoneurologic tests were used to obtain a good understanding of the respective disorders in MS, to gain a better knowledge of the role of otology in MS, to correlate the results with the clinical findings in order to find the most useful tests to detect MS lesions and to describe pathophysiologic aspects of central lesions using MS as a model. The material consisted of MS cases representing mild or moderate stages of disability (Hyllested classification 1.-4); 32 belonged to Hyllested group 1., 19 to group 2., 7 to group 3. and 12 to group 4. The age and sex distribution were similar with materials described earlier, as were most of the clinical neurologic findings. The material can thus be considered representative. The neuro-ophthalmologic examination served to rule out causes other than MS for abnormalities observed in the tests. Besides the clinical neurologic and otoneurologic evaluation a number of additional tests were performed. The ENG tests consisted of registration for spontaneous and positional nystagmus, of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus and caloric reactions. The audiologic evaluation was based on the following tests: pure tone audiograms, speech reception thresholds, discrimination scores, filtered speech test, stapedius reflex thresholds, stapedius reflex decay and auditory brainstem responses. The clinical otologic examination revealed little abnormalities, which is well in accordance with the pathophysiology of MS. In addition the clinical examination ruled out peripheral lesions as reasons for observed abnormalities. Numerous abnormalities were found during the otoneurologic examination of the cranial nerves. The amount of abnormal findings in the otoneurologic examination were surprisingly high

  13. Role of surgical stents in determining the position of implants

    PubMed Central

    Pal, U. S.; Chand, Pooran; Dhiman, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Vimlesh

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Demand from implant patients for quality and efficient treatment is increasing. Fortunately dental implant treatment is evolving with patients expectations. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 45 patients for whom 89 implants were placed at different sites. Efficacy of the stents is evaluated in determining the position and diameter of the implants. Conclusion: this study shows the extreme accuracy of this surgical stents in implant installation in terms of position and diameter. PMID:22442544

  14. Determining position inside building via laser rangefinder and handheld computer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Jr. James L.; Finley, Patrick; Melton, Brad

    2010-01-12

    An apparatus, computer software, and a method of determining position inside a building comprising selecting on a PDA at least two walls of a room in a digitized map of a building or a portion of a building, pointing and firing a laser rangefinder at corresponding physical walls, transmitting collected range information to the PDA, and computing on the PDA a position of the laser rangefinder within the room.

  15. [Cranioencephalic traumatism. Audiovestibular sequelae].

    PubMed

    Llano, J A; Figuerola, E; Rosell, R; Liern, M

    1989-01-01

    A group of 80 patients with blunt head injury were examined. Long-term clinical neurologic and otologic sequelae of traumatic head injury are well recognized. The authors studied the vestibular disorders using ENG, EEG and high resolution CT.

  16. Determination of the position angle of stellar spin axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, A.-L.; Wiedemann, G.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Measuring the stellar position angle provides valuable information on binary stellar formation or stellar spin axis evolution. Aims: We aim to develop a method for determining the absolute stellar position angle using spectro-astrometric analysis of high resolution long-slit spectra. The method has been designed in particular for slowly rotating stars. We investigate its applicability to existing dispersive long-slit spectrographs, identified here by their plate scale, and the size of the resulting stellar sample. Methods: The stellar rotation induces a tilt in the stellar lines whose angle depends on the stellar position angle and the orientation of the slit. We developed a rotation model to calculate and reproduce the effects of stellar rotation on unreduced high resolution stellar spectra. Then we retrieved the tilt amplitude using a spectro-astrometric extraction of the position of the photocentre of the spectrum. Finally we present two methods for analysing the position spectrum using either direct measurement of the tilt or a cross-correlation analysis. Results: For stars with large apparent diameter and using a spectrograph with a small plate scale, we show that it is possible to determine the stellar position angle directly within 10° with a signal-to-noise ratio of the order of 6. Under less favourable conditions, i.e. larger plate scale or smaller stellar diameter, the cross-correlation method yields comparable results. Conclusions: We show that with the currently existing instruments, it is possible to determine the stellar position angle of at least 50 stars precisely, mostly K-type giants with apparent diameter down to 5 milliarcseconds. If we consider errors of around 10° still acceptable, we may include stars with apparent diameter down to 2 mas in the sample that then comprises also some main sequence stars.

  17. Determination of eye position in fast jet flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveash, Jacqueline P.; Belyavin, A. J.; Bigmore, Dave J.; Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.; McCarthy, G. W.; Rumbold, D. A.; Stott, J. R.

    1994-06-01

    The way in which a pilot's attention is distributed between various operational tasks during tactical flight is of prime importance when designing new cockpit displays. The point of regard, and by inference, the pilot's focus of attention, can be determined by measuring head and eye position. The measurement of head position using an electromagnetic coil technique is well proven in flight. However, most techniques currently available for determining eye position are too bulky and complex, compromise ejection safety and cannot, as yet, be used in the fast jet cockpit. This paper reports a feasibility study into the use of the electro-oculogram (EOG) to determine eye position during flight in a fast jet aircraft. EOG amplifiers have been designed for airborne use and three flight trials have been conducted in a Jaguar combat aircraft. Laboratory calibration studies have shown good linearity of the horizontal EOG, but some nonlinearity of the vertical EOG which is better described using a second order polynomial. In addition, there is an interaction between the horizonal and vertical components. These studies indicated that for an individual subject, an adequate calibration in both the horizontal and vertical planes could be achieved with a minimum of nine calibration points, but that the accuracy of the measurement was limited by the drift of the EOG signal. Results of the flight trials to validate this method will be presented.

  18. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Vandam, T.M.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M.B. ||

    1994-12-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged.

  19. Dependence of Orbit Determination Accuracy on the Observer Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vananti, Alessandro; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    The Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) is conducting several search campaigns for space debris in Geostationary (GEO) and Medium Earth Orbits (MEO). Usually, to improve the quality of the determined orbits for newly discovered objects, follow-up observations are conducted. The latter take place at different times during the discovery night or in subsequent nights. The time interval between the observations plays an important role in the accuracy of the calculated orbits. Another essential parameter to consider is the position of the observer at the observation time. In this paper, the accuracy of the orbit determination with respect to the position of the observer is analyzed. The same observing site at varying epochs or multiple site locations involve different distances from the target object and a different observing angle with respect to its orbital plane and trajectory. The formal error in the orbit determination process is, among other dependencies, a function of the latter parameters. The analysis of this dependence is important to choose the appropriate observation strategy. One of the main questions that arises is e.g. whether observing the same object from different stations results in better determined orbits and, if yes, how big is the improvement. Another question is e.g. whether the observation from multiple sites needs to be simultaneous or not for a better orbit accuracy.

  20. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  1. Analysis of Current Position Determination Accuracy in Natural Resources Canada Precise Point Positioning Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzan, Grzegorz; Dawidowicz, Karol; Krzysztof, Świaţek

    2013-09-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique used to determine highprecision position with a single GNSS receiver. Unlike DGPS or RTK, satellite observations conducted by the PPP technique are not differentiated, therefore they require that parameter models should be used in data processing, such as satellite clock and orbit corrections. Apart from explaining the theory of the PPP technique, this paper describes the available web-based online services used in the post-processing of observation results. The results obtained in the post-processing of satellite observations at three points, with different characteristics of environment conditions, using the CSRS-PPP service, will be presented as the results of the experiment. This study examines the effect of the duration of the measurement session on the results and compares the results obtained by working out observations made by the GPS system and the combined observations from GPS and GLONASS. It also presents the analysis of the position determination accuracy using one and two measurement frequencies

  2. Determining Position Inside Non-industrial Buildings Using Ultrasound Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Francesc; Margalef, Jordi; Luengo, Sonia; Alsina, Maria; Ribes, Josep M.; Pérez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The position determination inside a building where no GPS signal is being received can be ascertained using laser transmitters in industrial situations where there are no people or using triangulation of the signal strength, normally electro-magnetic signals, if the required accuracy is more than a metre. Our solution is aimed at situations where people are present and where the required accuracy is less than 30 cm, such as in shopping precincts or supermarkets. To achieve this, a network of ultrasonic transmitters is fitted into the ceiling which receives a synchronised time signal. Each transmitter has a unique identifier code and emits its code with a delay with respect to the common time signal which is proportional to its code number with an ASK modulation over the ultrasonic band centred on 40 KHz. The receivers circulating beneath the transmitters receive the codes of those within their detection range, translate the time delays into distances and then obtain their position by triangulation since the receivers know the position of every transmitter. Since the receivers are not synchronised with the common time signal or the actual speed of the sound, whose value varies appreciably with temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a consecutive approximation algorithm has been introduced. This is based on the fact that the Z coordinator of the receiver is known and constant and thus it is possible, with only three different identifiers received, to deduce the phase of the common time signal and estimate the speed of the sound with a fourth identifier.

  3. Astrometric positioning and orbit determination of geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montojo, F. J.; López Moratalla, T.; Abad, C.

    2011-03-01

    In the project titled “Astrometric Positioning of Geostationary Satellite” (PASAGE), carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA), optical observation techniques were developed to allow satellites to be located in the geostationary ring with angular accuracies of up to a few tenths of an arcsec. These techniques do not necessarily require the use of large telescopes or especially dark areas, and furthermore, because optical observation is a passive method, they could be directly applicable to the detection and monitoring of passive objects such as space debris in the geostationary ring.By using single-station angular observations, geostationary satellite orbits with positional uncertainties below 350 m (2 sigma) were reconstructed using the Orbit Determination Tool Kit software, by Analytical Graphics, Inc. This software is used in collaboration with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial.Orbit determination can be improved by taking into consideration the data from other stations, such as angular observations alone or together with ranging measurements to the satellite. Tests were carried out combining angular observations with the ranging measurements obtained from the Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer technique that is used by ROA’s Time Section to carry out time transfer with other laboratories. Results show a reduction of the 2 sigma uncertainty to less than 100 m.

  4. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  5. Using Positive Deviance for Determining Successful Weight-Control Practices

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Heather L.; Boan, Jarol; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Lehman, Erik B.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Based on positive deviance (examining the practices of successful individuals), we identified five primary themes from 36 strategies that help to maintain long-term weight loss (weight control) in 61 people. We conducted in-depth interviews to determine what successful individuals did and/or thought about regularly to control their weight. The themes included weight-control practices related to (a) nutrition: increase water, fruit, and vegetable intake, and consistent meal timing and content; (b) physical activity: follow and track an exercise routine at least 3×/week; (c) restraint: practice restraint by limiting and/or avoiding unhealthy foods; (d) self-monitor: plan meals, and track calories/weight progress; and (e) motivation: participate in motivational programs and cognitive processes that affect weight-control behavior. Using the extensive data involving both the practices and practice implementation, we used positive deviance to create a comprehensive list of practices to develop interventions for individuals to control their weight. PMID:20956609

  6. Engineering and Design: Using Differential GPS Positioning for Elevation Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) surveying...Surveying Techniques Directorate of Civil Works NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Surveying. Survey (NGS) using several different GPS surveying 7701...NAVD88 Transformation NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Surveying, for Techniques assistance in setting up a network. a. The GPS relative positioning

  7. Interferometric Determination of GPS (Global Positioning System) Satellite Orbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-23

    Global Positioning System ,’ GPS interferometrv...INTRODUCTION If the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is to be useful for crustal motion monitoring, the orbits of the GPS satellites 7will need to be... Global Position . * ing System , April 15-19, 1985, Rockville, MD 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on rev’erse side if necessary and Identity by block

  8. Drought as a Determinant of Tropical Montane Forest Line Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, T. W.; Crausbay, S.; Hotchkiss, S.; Gotsch, S. G.; Frazier, A. G.; Longman, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, the upper elevation margins of montane forests follow a latitudinal pattern, ranging from below 1000 m at high latitudes to above 3000 m on continental tropical mountains. Forest lines on oceanic islands are distinctly lower, but are also latitude dependent. While proposed mechanisms to explain forest line position are generally related to effects of low temperature, including tissue damage from freezing and slow growth, aridity has been suggested as a possible cause of the lower oceanic island forest lines. A relatively undisturbed forest line is found on Haleakalā Volcano, on the Island of Maui at an elevation of around 2000 m. Forest on Haleakalā does not appear to be limited by low temperature; mean annual temperature at the forest line (8.8-10.5°C) is well above the suggested threshold growing season temperature. Instead, the position of this ecotone coincides with the mean elevation of the trade wind inversion (TWI), which separates the moist marine atmospheric layer from arid upper air. Abrupt changes in moisture-related climate variables are found at the TWI, including one of the steepest mean annual rainfall gradients in the world. In recent work, microclimate during drought was shown to play a critical role in structuring the Haleakalā forest line, the position of which was most strongly related to relative humidity during a strong El Niño-induced drought. The relationship between El Niño-driven drought and ecotone position was tested in long-term paleoecological data. Reconstructions of the cloud forest's upper limit and moisture balance over the past 3,300 years were strongly associated with paleorecords of El Niño event frequency. The forest ecotone may be particularly responsive to strong, short-duration drought events because taxa here, particularly the isohydric dominant canopy tree Metrosideros polymorpha, are near their physiological limits. Minimum leaf water potential in M. polymorpha near the forest line is close to the turgor

  9. Dendritic position is a major determinant of presynaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Arthur P.H.; Schmitz, Sabine K.; Toonen, Ruud F.G.

    2012-01-01

    Different regulatory principles influence synaptic coupling between neurons, including positional principles. In dendrites of pyramidal neurons, postsynaptic sensitivity depends on synapse location, with distal synapses having the highest gain. In this paper, we investigate whether similar rules exist for presynaptic terminals in mixed networks of pyramidal and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Unexpectedly, distal synapses had the lowest staining intensities for vesicular proteins vGlut, vGAT, Synaptotagmin, and VAMP and for many nonvesicular proteins, including Bassoon, Munc18, and Syntaxin. Concomitantly, distal synapses displayed less vesicle release upon stimulation. This dependence of presynaptic strength on dendritic position persisted after chronically blocking action potential firing and postsynaptic receptors but was markedly reduced on DG dendrites compared with pyramidal dendrites. These data reveal a novel rule, independent of neuronal activity, which regulates presynaptic strength according to dendritic position, with the strongest terminals closest to the soma. This gradient is opposite to postsynaptic gradients observed in pyramidal dendrites, and different cell types apply this rule to a different extent. PMID:22492722

  10. Dendritic position is a major determinant of presynaptic strength.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Arthur P H; Schmitz, Sabine K; Toonen, Ruud F G; Verhage, Matthijs

    2012-04-16

    Different regulatory principles influence synaptic coupling between neurons, including positional principles. In dendrites of pyramidal neurons, postsynaptic sensitivity depends on synapse location, with distal synapses having the highest gain. In this paper, we investigate whether similar rules exist for presynaptic terminals in mixed networks of pyramidal and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Unexpectedly, distal synapses had the lowest staining intensities for vesicular proteins vGlut, vGAT, Synaptotagmin, and VAMP and for many nonvesicular proteins, including Bassoon, Munc18, and Syntaxin. Concomitantly, distal synapses displayed less vesicle release upon stimulation. This dependence of presynaptic strength on dendritic position persisted after chronically blocking action potential firing and postsynaptic receptors but was markedly reduced on DG dendrites compared with pyramidal dendrites. These data reveal a novel rule, independent of neuronal activity, which regulates presynaptic strength according to dendritic position, with the strongest terminals closest to the soma. This gradient is opposite to postsynaptic gradients observed in pyramidal dendrites, and different cell types apply this rule to a different extent.

  11. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  12. Determining sunspot positions in the classroom using the Carrington method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaviz, Pedro; Sánchez-Bajo, Florentino; Vaquero, José M.

    2016-07-01

    The method developed by Richard Carrington nearly 150 years ago is still very useful in order to determine the sunspot heliographic coordinates, owing to its simplicity and low cost equipment required. In this paper, we present a very detailed explanation of the procedure, along with an example of an application. With regard to this, the method can be employed successfully for educational purposes, due to the noticeable accuracy that it provides using a simple instrumental setup.

  13. GPS aiding of ocean current determination. [Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The navigational accuracy of an oceangoing vessel using conventional GPS p-code data is examined. The GPS signal is transmitted over two carrier frequencies in the L-band at 1575.42 and 1227.6 MHz. Achievable navigational uncertainties of differenced positional estimates are presented as a function of the parameters of the problem, with particular attention given to the effect of sea-state, user equivalent range error, uncompensated antenna motion, varying delay intervals, and reduced data rate examined in the unaided mode. The unmodeled errors resulting from satellite ephemeris uncertainties are shown to be negligible for the GPS-NDS (Navigation Development) satellites. Requirements are met in relatively calm seas, but accuracy degradation by a factor of at least 2 must be anticipated in heavier sea states. The aided mode of operation is examined, and it is shown that requirements can be met by using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to aid the GPS receiver operation. Since the use of an IMU would mean higher costs, direct Doppler from the GPS satellites is presented as a viable alternative.

  14. Monitoring positive mental health and its determinants in Canada: the development of the Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

    PubMed Central

    Orpana, H.; Vachon, J.; Dykxhoorn, J.; McRae, L.; Jayaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course. PMID:26789022

  15. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  16. Optical techniques for determination of normal shock position in supersonic flows for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Eustace, John G.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for the quantitative determination of shock position in supersonic flows using direct and indirect methods is presented. A description of an experimental setup is also presented, different configurations of shock position sensing systems are explained, and some experimental results are given. All of the methods discussed are analyzed to determine the ease of technology transfer from the laboratory to in-flight operation.

  17. High-precision method for determining the position of laser beam focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Malashko, Ya I; Kleimenov, A N; Potemkin, I B; Khabibulin, V M

    2013-12-31

    The method of wavefront doubled-frequency spherical modulation for determining the laser beam waist position has been simulated and experimentally studied. The error in determining the focal plane position is less than 10{sup -5} D. The amplitude of the control doubled-frequency electric signal is experimentally found to correspond to 12% of the total radiation power. (laser beams)

  18. 20 CFR 1002.195 - What other factors can determine the reemployment position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What other factors can determine the....195 What other factors can determine the reemployment position? Once the employee's escalator position... qualifications; and, (c) Whether the employee has a disability incurred or aggravated during uniformed service....

  19. 20 CFR 1002.195 - What other factors can determine the reemployment position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What other factors can determine the....195 What other factors can determine the reemployment position? Once the employee's escalator position... qualifications; and, (c) Whether the employee has a disability incurred or aggravated during uniformed service....

  20. Computer-implemented method and apparatus for autonomous position determination using magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A computer-implemented method and apparatus for determining position of a vehicle within 100 km autonomously from magnetic field measurements and attitude data without a priori knowledge of position. An inverted dipole solution of two possible position solutions for each measurement of magnetic field data are deterministically calculated by a program controlled processor solving the inverted first order spherical harmonic representation of the geomagnetic field for two unit position vectors 180 degrees apart and a vehicle distance from the center of the earth. Correction schemes such as a successive substitutions and a Newton-Raphson method are applied to each dipole. The two position solutions for each measurement are saved separately. Velocity vectors for the position solutions are calculated so that a total energy difference for each of the two resultant position paths is computed. The position path with the smaller absolute total energy difference is chosen as the true position path of the vehicle.

  1. Position and mass determination of multiple particles using cantilever based mass sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Dohn, Soeren; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja; Amiot, Fabien

    2010-07-26

    Resonant microcantilevers are highly sensitive to added masses and have the potential to be used as mass-spectrometers. However, making the detection of individual added masses quantitative requires the position determination for each added mass. We derive expressions relating the position and mass of several added particles to the resonant frequencies of a cantilever, and an identification procedure valid for particles with different masses is proposed. The identification procedure is tested by calculating positions and mass of multiple microparticles with similar mass positioned on individual microcantilevers. Excellent agreement is observed between calculated and measured positions and calculated and theoretical masses.

  2. Upper limb asymmetries in the perception of proprioceptively determined dynamic position sense.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Brown, Susan H

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on instrumented manipulanda. In Part 1, subjects performed dynamic position matching of 3 target elbow amplitudes determined with the preferred or nonpreferred arm, and then matched during movement of the same or opposite elbow. In Part 2, a similar paradigm was used, but with varying target determination speeds to account for the so called "tau effect." Overall, it was found that errors were smaller when the matching phase involved the nonpreferred arm, especially for larger target amplitudes. This asymmetry was independent of the tau effect and likely reflects specialization of the right hemisphere/left arm for proprioceptive feedback processing that is either position- or dynamic position-related.

  3. Method for Determining the Radius Vector for a Planet from Two Observations of Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Michael Kizinski

    1977-01-01

    Presents a method for determining the approximate radius vector of a planet or asteroid from two closely separated observation positions, using mathematics suitable for lower division college students. (MLH)

  4. Security Clearances: Agencies Need Clearly Defined Policy for Determining Civilian Position Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    branch has established policies and procedures for agencies to use when (1) first determining if federal civilian positions require a security...has established (1) policies and procedures for agencies to use when first determining whether federal civilian positions require a security...support for several nonservice DOD agencies and activities. For our first objective, to examine the extent to which the executive branch has established

  5. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  6. The investigation of determination asteroids positions errors by observations of telescope SBG AO UFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizer, G. T.; Skripnichenko, P. V.

    2013-07-01

    The article is about investigation of influence astrometric CCD image processing conditions on the accuracy of determining the positions of asteroids. The main this research's problem is dependence of calculatedasteroids coordinates error from used in the processing mathematical model that approximated the image of the objects on the CCD image. In thearticle described of the effect of Lorentz and Moffatt profiles on the accuracy ofasteroids positions determining by the observation from SBG AO UFU.

  7. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  8. Upper Limb Asymmetries in the Perception of Proprioceptively Determined Dynamic Position Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Daniel J.; Brown, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on…

  9. Position Determination with Loran-C Triplets and the Texas Instruments TI-59 Programmable Calculator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    AND THE TEXAS INSTRUMENTS TI-59 PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR by R. H. Shudde May 1980 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Prepared for...and oMmie’ SW. ulk auheej Loran, Fixing, Programmable Calculator Loran-C, Hyperbolic Fixing, Navigation, Radio Positioning, Position Determination

  10. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  11. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  12. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  13. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  14. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  15. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  16. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  17. Interferometric attitude determination using the global positioning system - A new gyrotheodolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. K.; Thorvaldsen, T. P.; Bowles, W. M.

    A GPS receiver can measure absolute position to 5 meters. However, it is possible to measure relative position more accurately by using interferometry on the GPS carrier to measure heading. Simulation has shown that a dynamically aided, three antennae, short baselength GPS interferometer can measure heading to an accuracy of 50 microrad. Relative position can be determined from this heading measurement by sighting onto control stations with a theodolite mounted on the interferometer. If the control stations were 1 km distant it would be possible to measure relative position, using a GPS interferometer, to within 5 cm.

  18. Apparatus and method for determining the position of a radiant energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, G. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The position of a terrestrial RF source is determined from a geostationary, synchronous satellite by scanning the beam of a narrow beam width antenna in first and second orthogonal directions over a region including the source. The peak level of energy transduced by the antenna in each of the scanning directions is detected and correlated with the scanning position of the beam by feeding the output of a detector responsive to the transduced signal to an indicator of an X-Y recorder. The X and Y axes of the recorder are scanned in synchronism with the beam being respectively scanned in the first and second directions to form X and Y traces on which are indicated the detected peak position in each of the scanning directions. The source position is determined from an intersection of lines drawn parallel to the X and Y axes and including the detected peak position of each trace.

  19. Accuracy analysis of a mobile tracking system for angular position determination of flying targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Andreas; Buske, Ivo; Riede, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Lasers arouse an increasing interest in remote sensing applications. In order to deliver as much as possible of the available laser power onto a flying object the subsystems of a beam control system have to operate precisely together. One important subsystem is responsible for determination of the target's angular position. Here, we focus on an optical system for measuring precisely the angular position of flying objects. We designed this subunit of a beam control system exclusively from readily available commercial-off-the-shelf components. Two industrial cameras were used for angle measuring and for guiding the system to the position of the flying object. Both cameras are mounted on a modified astronomical mount with high-precision angle encoders. To achieve a high accuracy we temporally synchronize the acquisition of the angle from the pan tilt unit with the exposure of the camera. Therefore, a FPGA-based readout device for the rotary encoders was designed and implemented. Additionally, we determined and evaluated the influence of the distortion of the lenses to the measurement. We investigated various scenarios to determine the accuracy and the limitations of our system for angular position determination of flying targets. Performance tests were taken indoor and outdoor at our test sites. A target can be mounted on a fast moving linear stage. The position of this linear stage is continuously read out by a high resolution encoder so we know the target's position with a dynamic accuracy in the range of a few μm. With this setup we evaluated the spatial resolution of our tracking system. We showed that the presented system can determine the angular position of fast flying objects with an uncertainty of only 2 μrad RMS. With this mobile tracking system for angular position determination of flying targets we designed an accurate cost-efficient opportunity for further developments.

  20. Determination of vertical deflections using the global positioning system and geodetic leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, T.; Carlson, A.E. Jr.; Evans, A.G.

    1989-07-01

    The capabilities of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurately determining geodetic quantities are well established. Nevertheless, no comparison between deflections of the vertical as determined through GPS with leveling and values conventionally computer by astrogeodetic methods has yet been published. This investigation demonstrates that the accurate deflections of the vertical components ({eta}, {xi}) can be obtained independently of classical astronomic observations by combining geodetic leveling with satellite GOS positioning. The approach uses a radial configuration of baselines to determine the best (in a least square sense) values of ({eta}, {xi}) at the central station.

  1. Centroiding Experiment for Determining the Positions of Stars with High Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Araki, H.; Hanada, H.; Tazawa, S.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Niwa, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have experimented with the determination of the positions of star images on a detector with high precision such as 10 microarcseconds, required by a space astrometry satellite, JASMINE. In order to accomplish such a precision, we take the following two procedures. (1) We determine the positions of star images on the detector with the precision of about 0.01 pixel for one measurement, using an algorithm for estimating them from photon weighted means of the star images. (2) We determine the positions of star images with the precision of about 0.0001-0.00001 pixel, which corresponds to that of 10 microarcseconds, using a large amount of data over 10000 measurements, that is, the error of the positions decreases according to the amount of data. Here, we note that the procedure 2 is not accomplished when the systematic error in our data is not excluded adequately even if we use a large amount of data. We first show the method to determine the positions of star images on the detector using photon weighted means of star images. This algorithm, used in this experiment, is very useful because it is easy to calculate the photon weighted mean from the data. This is very important in treating a large amount of data. Furthermore, we need not assume the shape of the point spread function in deriving the centroid of star images. Second, we show the results in the laboratory experiment for precision of determining the positions of star images. We obtain that the precision of estimation of positions of star images on the detector is under a variance of 0.01 pixel for one measurement (procedure 1). We also obtain that the precision of the positions of star images becomes a variance of about 0.0001 pixel using about 10000 measurements (procedure 2).

  2. Bystander position taking in school bullying: the role of positive identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Sandra K M; Hui, Eadaoin K P; Law, Bella C M

    2011-01-01

    School bullying has become an explicit, burgeoning problem challenging the healthy development of children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Many bullying prevention and intervention programs focus on victims and bullies, with bystanders treated as either nonexistent or irrelevant. This paper asserts that bystanders actually play pivotal roles in deciding whether the bullying process and dynamics are benign or adversarial. Bystanders' own abilities and characteristics often influence how they respond to victims and bullies. "P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhancement Scheme" (P.A.T.H.S. = Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) is an evidence-based positive youth development program which shows that primary intervention programs have constructive impacts on junior secondary school students' beliefs and behavior. This paper asserts that intrapsychic qualities, namely identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination, greatly influence how bystanders react in school bullying situations. The paper also explains how classroom-based educational programs based on the P.A.T.H.S. model have been designed to help junior secondary school students strengthen these characteristics, so that they can be constructive bystanders when they encounter school bullying.

  3. Position determination and measurement error analysis for the spherical proof mass with optical shadow sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    To meet the very demanding requirements for space gravity detection, the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as the key payload needs to offer the relative position of the proof mass with extraordinarily high precision and low disturbance. The position determination and error analysis for the GRS with a spherical proof mass is addressed. Firstly the concept of measuring the freely falling proof mass with optical shadow sensors is presented. Then, based on the optical signal model, the general formula for position determination is derived. Two types of measurement system are proposed, for which the analytical solution to the three-dimensional position can be attained. Thirdly, with the assumption of Gaussian beams, the error propagation models for the variation of spot size and optical power, the effect of beam divergence, the chattering of beam center, and the deviation of beam direction are given respectively. Finally, the numerical simulations taken into account of the model uncertainty of beam divergence, spherical edge and beam diffraction are carried out to validate the performance of the error propagation models. The results show that these models can be used to estimate the effect of error source with an acceptable accuracy which is better than 20%. Moreover, the simulation for the three-dimensional position determination with one of the proposed measurement system shows that the position error is just comparable to the error of the output of each sensor.

  4. Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

  5. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  6. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  7. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  8. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  9. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  10. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-07-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  11. Optical position sensor for determining the interface between a clear and an opaque fluid

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2006-05-23

    An inexpensive, optical position sensor for measuring a position or length, x, along a one-dimensional curvilinear, coordinate system. The sensor can be used, for example, to determine the position of an interface between a clear and an opaque fluid (such as crude oil and water). In one embodiment, the sensor utilizes the principle of dual-fluorescence, where a primary fiber emits primary fluorescent light and a parallel secondary fiber collects a portion of the primary fluorescent light that is not blocked by the opaque fluid. This, in turn, excites secondary fluorescence in the secondary fiber at a longer wavelength. A light detector measures the intensity of secondary fluorescence emitted from an end of the secondary fiber, which is used to calculate the unknown position or length, x. Side-emitting fibers can be used in place of, or in addition to, fluorescent fibers. The all-optical sensor is attractive for applications involving flammable liquids.

  12. Determination of Azimuth Angle at Burnout for Placing a Satellite Over a Selected Earth Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skopinski, T. H.; Johnson, Katherine G.

    1960-01-01

    Expressions are presented for relating the satellite position in the orbital plane with the projected latitude and longitude on a rotating earth surface. An expression is also presented for determining the azimuth angle at a given burnout position on the basis of a selected passage position on the earth's surface. Examples are presented of a satellite launched eastward and one launched westward, each passing over a selected position sometime after having completed three orbits. Incremental changes from the desired latitude and longitude due to the earth's oblateness are included in the iteration for obtaining the azimuth angles of the two examples. The results for both cases are then compared with those obtained from a computing program using an oblate rotating earth. Changes from the selected latitude and longitude resulting from incremental changes from the burn-out azimuth angle and latitude are also analyzed.

  13. Interplay between hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule in determining membrane-protein topology

    PubMed Central

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan Jacob; Prilusky, Jaime; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The energetics of membrane-protein interactions determine protein topology and structure: hydrophobicity drives the insertion of helical segments into the membrane, and positive charges orient the protein with respect to the membrane plane according to the positive-inside rule. Until recently, however, quantifying these contributions met with difficulty, precluding systematic analysis of the energetic basis for membrane-protein topology. We recently developed the dsTβL method, which uses deep sequencing and in vitro selection of segments inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane to infer insertion-energy profiles for each amino acid residue across the membrane, and quantified the insertion contribution from hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule. Here, we present a topology-prediction algorithm called TopGraph, which is based on a sequence search for minimum dsTβL insertion energy. Whereas the average insertion energy assigned by previous experimental scales was positive (unfavorable), the average assigned by TopGraph in a nonredundant set is −6.9 kcal/mol. By quantifying contributions from both hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule we further find that in about half of large membrane proteins polar segments are inserted into the membrane to position more positive charges in the cytoplasm, suggesting an interplay between these two energy contributions. Because membrane-embedded polar residues are crucial for substrate binding and conformational change, the results implicate the positive-inside rule in determining the architectures of membrane-protein functional sites. This insight may aid structure prediction, engineering, and design of membrane proteins. TopGraph is available online (topgraph.weizmann.ac.il). PMID:27562165

  14. Interplay between hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule in determining membrane-protein topology.

    PubMed

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan Jacob; Prilusky, Jaime; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-09-13

    The energetics of membrane-protein interactions determine protein topology and structure: hydrophobicity drives the insertion of helical segments into the membrane, and positive charges orient the protein with respect to the membrane plane according to the positive-inside rule. Until recently, however, quantifying these contributions met with difficulty, precluding systematic analysis of the energetic basis for membrane-protein topology. We recently developed the dsTβL method, which uses deep sequencing and in vitro selection of segments inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane to infer insertion-energy profiles for each amino acid residue across the membrane, and quantified the insertion contribution from hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule. Here, we present a topology-prediction algorithm called TopGraph, which is based on a sequence search for minimum dsTβL insertion energy. Whereas the average insertion energy assigned by previous experimental scales was positive (unfavorable), the average assigned by TopGraph in a nonredundant set is -6.9 kcal/mol. By quantifying contributions from both hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule we further find that in about half of large membrane proteins polar segments are inserted into the membrane to position more positive charges in the cytoplasm, suggesting an interplay between these two energy contributions. Because membrane-embedded polar residues are crucial for substrate binding and conformational change, the results implicate the positive-inside rule in determining the architectures of membrane-protein functional sites. This insight may aid structure prediction, engineering, and design of membrane proteins. TopGraph is available online (topgraph.weizmann.ac.il).

  15. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  16. New techniques of determining focus position in gamma knife operation using 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yingen; Wang, Dezong; Zhou, Quan

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, new techniques of determining the focus of a disease position in a gamma knife operation are presented. In these techniques, the transparent 3D color image of the human body organ is reconstructed using a new three-dimensional reconstruction method, and then the position, the area, and the volume of focus of a disease such as cancer or a tumor are calculated. They are used in the gamma knife operation. The CT pictures are input into a digital image processing system. The useful information is extracted and the original data are obtained. Then the transparent 3D color image is reconstructed using these original data. By using this transparent 3D color image, the positions of the human body organ and the focus of a disease are determined in a coordinate system. While the 3D image is reconstructed, the area and the volume of human body organ and focus of a disease can be calculated at the same time. It is expressed through actual application that the positions of human body organ and focus of a disease can be determined exactly by using the transparent 3D color image. It is very useful in gamma knife operation or other surgical operation. The techniques presented in this paper have great application value.

  17. Accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS for the determination of position and speed over ground.

    PubMed

    Witte, T H; Wilson, A M

    2005-08-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers many advantages over conventional methods for the determination of subject speed during biomechanical studies. Recent advances in GPS technology, in particular the implementation of the Wide-Angle Augmentation System and European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (WAAS/EGNOS), mean that small, highly portable units are available offering the potential of superior accuracy in the determination of both position and speed. This study set out to examine the accuracy of a WAAS-enabled GPS unit for the determination of position and speed. Comparison with the new and published data showed significant enhancements in both position and speed accuracy over a non-WAAS system. Position data collected during straight line cycling showed significantly lower sample-to-sample variation (mean absolute deviation from straight line 0.11 vs. 0.78 m) and greater repeatability from trial to trial (mean absolute deviation from actual path 0.37 vs. 4.8 m) for the WAAS-enabled unit compared to the non-WAAS unit. The speed determined by the WAAS-enabled GPS receiver during cycling in a straight line was within 0.2 ms(-1) of the actual speed measured for 57% of the values with 82% lying within 0.4 ms(-1), however, the data tended towards underestimation of speed during circle cycling, with 65% of values within 0.2 ms(-1) and 87% within 0.4 ms(-1) of the actual value. Local dGPS and dual frequency techniques are more accurate still, however, traditional differential GPS (dGPS), employing FM radio transmission of correction data to a separate receiver, now offers no advantage over WAAS and appears redundant.

  18. Application of global positioning system to determination of tectonic plate movements and crustal deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderle, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that pseudo-range measurements to four GPS satellites based on correlation of the pseudo random code transmissions from the satellites can be used to determine the relative position of ground stations which are separated by several hundred kilometers to a precision at the centimeter level. Carrier signal measurements during the course of passage of satellites over a pair of stations also yield centimeter precision in the relative position, but oscillator instabilities limit the accuracy. The accuracy of solutions based on either type of data is limited by unmodeled tropospheric refraction effects which would reach 5 centimeters at low elevation angles for widely separated stations.

  19. Mass and position determination in MEMS mass sensors: a theoretical and an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam is modeled as a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam and a perturbation technique is used to develop a closed-form expression for the frequency shift due to an added mass at a specific location on the microbeam surface. The experimental investigation was conducted on a microbeam made of Polyimide with a special lower electrode to excite both of the first and second modes of vibration. Using an ink-jet printer, we deposited droplets of polymers with a defined mass and position on the surface of the microbeam and we measured the shifts in its resonance frequencies. The theoretical predictions of the mass and position of the deposited droplets match well with the experimental measurements.

  20. Pulse shape analysis and position determination in segmented HPGe detectors: The AGATA detector library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyneel, B.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.

    2016-03-01

    The AGATA Detector Library (ADL) was developed for the calculation of signals from highly segmented large volume high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. ADL basis sets comprise a huge amount of calculated position-dependent detector pulse shapes. A basis set is needed for Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). By means of PSA the interaction position of a γ-ray inside the active detector volume is determined. Theoretical concepts of the calculations are introduced and cover the relevant aspects of signal formation in HPGe. The approximations and the realization of the computer code with its input parameters are explained in detail. ADL is a versatile and modular computer code; new detectors can be implemented in this library. Measured position resolutions of the AGATA detectors based on ADL are discussed.

  1. Precise determination of earth's center of mass using measurements from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.

    1992-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a worldwide geodetic experiment were collected during a 3-week period early in 1991. Geocentric station coordinates were estimated using the GPS data, thus defining a dynamically determined reference frame origin which should coincide with the earth center of mass, or geocenter. The 3-week GPS average geocenter estimates agree to 7-13 cm with geocenter estimates determined from satellite laser ranging, a well-established technique. The RMS of daily GPS geocenter estimates were 4 cm for x and y, and 30 cm for z.

  2. Determination of three-dimensional atomic positions from tomographic reconstruction using ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Po-Nan; Wu, Zong-Han; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Chen, Chien-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Tomographic reconstruction from a tilt series of electron micrographs has raised great interest in materials, chemical, and condensed matters science because of its capability of revealing 3D local atomic structures within nanomaterials. Previous breakthroughs have demonstrated that the positions of individual atoms can not only be visualized but also determined by combining a scanning transmission electron microscope with a high-angle annular dark-field detector, equally sloped tomography, and the filtering/denoising method. However, the filtering/denoising approach—whether imposed on 2D projections or 3D reconstruction—raises concerns regarding the robustness of image processing, the accuracy of atomic positions, and the artificial atoms introduced during filtering. In this article, we report a general method that overcomes these limitations. By removing unphysical oscillations in 2D projections through ensemble empirical mode decomposition and applying a standard Wiener filter to the 3D reconstruction, we are able to determine atomic structures with higher accuracy.

  3. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  4. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction. PMID:26099070

  5. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  6. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims.

    PubMed

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin's location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin's location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  7. Physical fitness qualities of professional volleyball players: determination of positional differences.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mário C; van den Tillaar, Roland; Gabbett, Tim J; Reis, Victor M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and to determine if differences exist in these characteristics according to playing position. A group of 35 professional male team volleyball players (mean +/- SD age: 26.6 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study. Players were categorized according to playing position and role: middle blockers (n = 9), opposite hitters (n = 6), outside hitters (n = 10), setters (n = 6), and liberos (n = 4). Height, body mass, muscular strength (4 repetition maximum bench press and 4 repetition maximum parallel squat tests), and muscular power (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump) were assessed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found among the 5 positional categories. The results indicated that the middle blockers and opposite hitters were the tallest and heaviest players, whereas the libero players were the lightest. Differences were also found in bench press maximal strength, with the middle blockers and opposite players significantly stronger (p < 0.05) than the setters and liberos. The setter positional group had significantly poorer (p < 0.05) parallel squat performances than the outside hitter and opposite hitter groups. No other significant differences (p > 0.05) were found among groups for the strength and power parameters. These results demonstrate that significant anthropometric and strength differences exist among playing positions in elite male volleyball players. In addition, these findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific individual playing positions. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take the strength and anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized position-specific training programs.

  8. Time determination for spacecraft users of the Navstar Global Positioning System /GPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenchik, T. J.; Fang, B. T.

    1977-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation is performed by time measurements. A description is presented of a two body model of spacecraft motion. Orbit determination is the process of inferring the position, velocity, and clock offset of the user from measurements made of the user motion in the Newtonian coordinate system. To illustrate the effect of clock errors and the accuracy with which the user spacecraft time and orbit may be determined, a low-earth-orbit spacecraft (Seasat) as tracked by six Phase I GPS space vehicles is considered. The obtained results indicate that in the absence of unmodeled dynamic parameter errors clock biases may be determined to the nanosecond level. There is, however, a high correlation between the clock bias and the uncertainty in the gravitational parameter GM, i.e., the product of the universal gravitational constant and the total mass of the earth. It is, therefore, not possible to determine clock bias to better than 25 nanosecond accuracy in the presence of a gravitational error of one part per million.

  9. Orbit Determination of Chang'e-3 and Positioning of the Lander and the Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Chang, S.; Li, P.; Hu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Chang'E-3 (CE-3) lunar probe of China was launched on 2 December 2013. After about 112 h of flight, it was captured by the Moon on 6 December, and entered a polar, near circular lunar orbit with an altitude of approximately 100 km. The probe's flight on 100 km*100 km and 100 km*15 km orbit lasted about 4 days respectively, then the probe soft landed on the east of Sinus Iridum area at 13:11 UTC on 14 December successfully. Results on precision orbit determination and positioning of the lander and the rover are presented here. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge. In addition to the radiometric X-band range and Doppler tracking data, Delta Differential One-way Ranging (ΔDOR) data are also used in the calculation, which shows that they can improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction. Total position overlap differences are about 20 m and 30 m for the 100 km*100 km and 100 km*15 km lunar orbit respectively, increased by ~50 % with respect to CE-2. A kinematic statistical method is applied to determine the position of the lander and relative position of the rover with respect to the lander. The location of the lander is computed as: 44.1216º N, 19.5124º W and -2632.0 m in the lunar Mean Axes coordinate system. The position difference of the lander is better than 50 m compared to the result of the LRO photograph. From 15 to 21 December, the rover walked around the lander, and took photos of each other at the parking point A, B, C, D, E (max distance from the lander is about 25 m). The delta VLBI phase delay data are used to compute the relative position of the rover at the parking points, and the accuracy of the relative position can reach to 1-2 m comparing with the results of visual method.

  10. Determination of substitution positions in hyaluronic acid hydrogels using NMR and MS based methods.

    PubMed

    Wende, Frida J; Gohil, Suresh; Mojarradi, Hotan; Gerfaud, Thibaud; Nord, Lars I; Karlsson, Anders; Boiteau, Jean-Guy; Kenne, Anne Helander; Sandström, Corine

    2016-01-20

    In hydrogels of cross-linked polysaccharides, the total amount of cross-linker and the degree of cross-linking influence the properties of the hydrogel. The substitution position of the cross-linker on the polysaccharide is another parameter that can influence hydrogel properties; hence methods for detailed structural analysis of the substitution pattern are required. NMR and LC-MS methods were developed to determine the positions and amounts of substitution of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) on hyaluronic acid (HA), and for the first time it is shown that BDDE can react with any of the four available hydroxyl groups of the HA disaccharide repeating unit. This was achieved by studying di-, tetra-, and hexasaccharides obtained from degradation of BDDE cross-linked HA hydrogel by chondroitinase. Furthermore, amount of linker substitution at each position was shown to be dependent on the size of the oligosaccharides. For the disaccharide, substitutions were predominantly at ΔGlcA-OH2 and GlcNAc-OH6 while in the tetra- and hexasaccharides, it was mainly at the reducing end GlcNAc-OH4. In the disaccharide there was no substitution at this position. Since chondroitinase is able to completely hydrolyse non-substituted HA into unsaturated disaccharides, these results indicate that the enzyme is prevented to cleave on the non-reducing side of an oligosaccharide substituted at the reducing end GlcNAc-OH4. The procedure can be adopted for the determination of substitution positions in other types of polymers.

  11. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate

    PubMed Central

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Bartone, Paul T.; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  12. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  13. Researches on the Orbit Determination and Positioning of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation studies the precise orbit determination (POD) and positioning of the Chinese lunar exploration spacecraft, emphasizing the variety of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) technologies applied for the deep-space exploration, and their contributions to the methods and accuracies of the precise orbit determination and positioning. In summary, the main contents are as following: In this work, using the real-time data measured by the CE-2 (Chang'E-2) detector, the accuracy of orbit determination is analyzed for the domestic lunar probe under the present condition, and the role played by the VLBI tracking data is particularly reassessed through the precision orbit determination experiments for CE-2. The experiments of the short-arc orbit determination for the lunar probe show that the combination of the ranging and VLBI data with the arc of 15 minutes is able to improve the accuracy by 1-1.5 order of magnitude, compared to the cases for only using the ranging data with the arc of 3 hours. The orbital accuracy is assessed through the orbital overlapping analysis, and the results show that the VLBI data is able to contribute to the CE-2's long-arc POD especially in the along-track and orbital normal directions. For the CE-2's 100 km× 100 km lunar orbit, the position errors are better than 30 meters, and for the CE-2's 15 km× 100 km orbit, the position errors are better than 45 meters. The observational data with the delta differential one-way ranging (Δ DOR) from the CE-2's X-band monitoring and control system experimental are analyzed. It is concluded that the accuracy of Δ DOR delay is dramatically improved with the noise level better than 0.1 ns, and the systematic errors are well calibrated. Although it is unable to support the development of an independent lunar gravity model, the tracking data of CE-2 provided the evaluations of different lunar gravity models through POD, and the accuracies are examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron noise effects on beam position determination at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Leach, Richard R.; Datte, Philip; Manuel, Anastacia

    2013-09-01

    Images obtained through charged coupled device (CCD) cameras in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are crucial to precise alignment of the 192 laser beams to the NIF target-chamber center (TCC). Cameras in and around the target chamber are increasingly exposed to the effects of neutron radiation as the laser power is increased for high energy fusion experiments. NIF was carefully designed to operate under these conditions. The present work examines the degradation of the measured TCC camera position accuracy resulting from the effects of neutron radiation on the sensor and verifies operation within design specifications. Both synthetic and real beam images are used for measuring position degradation. Monte Carlo simulations based on camera performance models are used to create images with added neutron noise. These models predict neutron induced camera noise based on exposure estimates of the cumulative single-shot fluence in the NIF environment. The neutron induced noise images are used to measure beam positions on a target calculated from the alignment images with the added noise. The effects of this noise are also determined using noise artifacts from real camera images viewing TCC to estimate beam position uncertainty.

  15. Determination of drill paths for percutaneous cochlear access accounting for target positioning error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Jack H.; Warren, Frank M.; Labadie, Robert F.; Dawant, Benoit; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    2007-03-01

    In cochlear implant surgery an electrode array is permanently implanted to stimulate the auditory nerve and allow deaf people to hear. Current surgical techniques require wide excavation of the mastoid region of the temporal bone and one to three hours time to avoid damage to vital structures. Recently a far less invasive approach has been proposed-percutaneous cochlear access, in which a single hole is drilled from skull surface to the cochlea. The drill path is determined by attaching a fiducial system to the patient's skull and then choosing, on a pre-operative CT, an entry point and a target point. The drill is advanced to the target, the electrodes placed through the hole, and a stimulator implanted at the surface of the skull. The major challenge is the determination of a safe and effective drill path, which with high probability avoids specific vital structures-the facial nerve, the ossicles, and the external ear canal-and arrives at the basal turn of the cochlea. These four features lie within a few millimeters of each other, the drill is one millimeter in diameter, and errors in the determination of the target position are on the order of 0.5mm root-mean square. Thus, path selection is both difficult and critical to the success of the surgery. This paper presents a method for finding optimally safe and effective paths while accounting for target positioning error.

  16. [Determination of sensitivity of biofilm-positive forms of microorganisms to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Holá, Veronika; Růzicka, Filip; Tejkalová, Renata; Votava, Miroslav

    2004-10-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by biofilm-positive microorganisms are a serious therapeutic problem. In the biofilm, microorganisms are protected against adverse effects of the external environment, including the action of antibiotics. It is well known that the values of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined for planktonic forms do not correspond to the actual concentrations of antibiotics necessary for the eradication of bacteria in a biofilm. The purpose of the study was to propose a method of determining minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBEC) and to compare these values with MIC values. Biofilm-positive strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were cultured so as to form a biofilm layer on polystyrene pegs. The biofilm on the pegs was then exposed to the action of antibiotics and after 18 hours we determined the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). The evaluation of minimum biofilm eradication concentrations was done colorimetrically from the metabolic activity of surviving cells. MBIC and MBEC values were many times higher than MIC values. We selected such a duration of the biofilms cultivation on the pegs of the plate, which ensured that the number of bacterial cells corresponded to standard MIC assessment. The MBEC values established in our study indicate that the currently used concentrations of tested antibiotics cannot be used in monotherapy for an efficacious eradication of a biofilm. The MBEC determination is a far more laborious and time-consuming method than the determination of MIC, but the use of plates with pegs facilitates the handling of biofilms. The advantage of our method is the possibility of standardization of the size of the inoculum and thus of the whole MBEC assessment.

  17. Adherens junctions determine the apical position of the midbody during follicular epithelial cell division.

    PubMed

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Sunkel, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    Cytokinesis is asymmetric along the apical-basal axis of epithelial cells, positioning the midbody near the apical domain. However, little is known about the mechanism and purpose of this asymmetry. We use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cell division to show that asymmetric cytokinesis does not result from intrinsic polarization of the main contractile ring components. We show that adherens junctions (AJs) maintain close contact with the apical side of the contractile ring during cytokinesis. Asymmetric distribution of AJ components within follicle cells and in the otherwise unpolarized S2 cells is sufficient to recruit the midbody, revealing that asymmetric cytokinesis is determined by apical AJs in the epithelia. We further show that ectopic midbody localization induces epithelial invaginations, shifting the position of the apical interface between daughter cells relative to the AB axis of the tissue. Thus, apical midbody localization is essential to maintain epithelial tissue architecture during proliferation.

  18. A Novel Sensor for Attitude Determination Using Global Positioning System Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Quinn, David A.; Markley, F. Landis; McCullough, Jon D.

    1998-01-01

    An entirely new sensor approach for attitude determination using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals is developed. The concept involves the use of multiple GPS antenna elements arrayed on a single sensor head to provide maximum GPS space vehicle availability. A number of sensor element configurations are discussed. In addition to the navigation function, the array is used to find which GPS space vehicles are within the field-of-view of each antenna element. Attitude determination is performed by considering the sightline vectors of the found GPS space vehicles together with the fixed boresight vectors of the individual antenna elements. This approach has clear advantages over the standard differential carrier-phase approach. First, errors induced by multipath effects can be significantly reduced or eliminated altogether. Also, integer ambiguity resolution is not required, nor do line biases need to be determined through costly and cumbersome self-surveys. Furthermore, the new sensor does not require individual antennas to be physically separated to form interferometric baselines to determine attitude. Finally, development potential of the new sensor is limited only by antenna and receiver technology development unlike the physical limitations of the current interferometric attitude determination scheme. Simulation results indicate that accuracies of about 1 degree (3 omega) are possible.

  19. Effect of Receiver Choosing on Point Positions Determination in Network RTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Sercan; Inal, Cevat

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the developments in GNSS technique allow to determinate point positioning in real time. Initially, point positioning was determined by RTK (Real Time Kinematic) based on a reference station. But, to avoid systematic errors in this method, distance between the reference points and rover receiver must be shorter than10 km. To overcome this restriction in RTK method, the idea of setting more than one reference point had been suggested and, CORS (Continuously Operations Reference Systems) was put into practice. Today, countries like ABD, Germany, Japan etc. have set CORS network. CORS-TR network which has 146 reference points has also been established in 2009 in Turkey. In CORS-TR network, active CORS approach was adopted. In Turkey, CORS-TR reference stations covering whole country are interconnected and, the positions of these stations and atmospheric corrections are continuously calculated. In this study, in a selected point, RTK measurements based on CORS-TR, were made with different receivers (JAVAD TRIUMPH-1, TOPCON Hiper V, MAGELLAN PRoMark 500, PENTAX SMT888-3G, SATLAB SL-600) and with different correction techniques (VRS, FKP, MAC). In the measurements, epoch interval was taken as 5 seconds and measurement time as 1 hour. According to each receiver and each correction technique, means and differences between maximum and minimum values of measured coordinates, root mean squares in the directions of coordinate axis and 2D and 3D positioning precisions were calculated, the results were evaluated by statistical methods and the obtained graphics were interpreted. After evaluation of the measurements and calculations, for each receiver and each correction technique; the coordinate differences between maximum and minimum values were measured to be less than 8 cm, root mean squares in coordinate axis directions less than ±1.5 cm, 2D point positioning precisions less than ±1.5 cm and 3D point positioning precisions less than ±1.5 cm. In the measurement

  20. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  1. Efficient and Optimal Attitude Determination Using Recursive Global Positioning System Signal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Markley, F. Landis

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm is developed for attitude determination from Global Positioning System signals. The new algorithm is derived from a generalized nonlinear predictive filter for nonlinear systems. This uses a one time-step ahead approach to propagate a simple kinematics model for attitude determination. The advantages of the new algorithm over previously developed methods include: it provides optimal attitudes even for coplanar baseline configurations; it guarantees convergence even for poor initial conditions; it is a non-iterative algorithm; and it is computationally efficient. These advantages clearly make the new algorithm well suited to on-board applications. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator. Results indicate that the new algorithm accurately estimates the attitude of a moving vehicle, and provides robust attitude estimates even when other methods, such as a linearized least-squares approach, fail due to poor initial starting conditions.

  2. Detector positioning for the initial subcriticality level determination in accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uyttenhove, W.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. J. H. H.; Wols, F.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Thybault, H. E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the GUINEVERE project (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol, the continuous deuteron accelerator GENEPI-3C was coupled to the VENUS-F fast simulated lead-cooled reactor. Today the FREYA project (Fast Reactor Experiments for hYbrid Applications) is ongoing to study the neutronic behavior of this Accelerator Driven System (ADS) during different phases of operation. In particular the set-up of a monitoring system for the subcriticality of an ADS is envisaged to guarantee safe operation of the installation. The methodology for subcriticality monitoring in ADS takes into account the determination of the initial subcriticality level, the monitoring of reactivity variations, and interim cross-checking. At start-up, the Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) technique is envisaged to determine the initial subcriticality level. Thanks to its reference critical state, the PNS technique can be validated on the VENUS-F core. A detector positioning methodology for the PNS technique is set up in this paper for the subcritical VENUS-F core, based on the reduction of higher harmonics in a static evaluation of the Sjoestrand area method. A first case study is provided on the VENUS-F core. This method can be generalised in order to create general rules for detector positions and types for full-scale ADS. (authors)

  3. Sub-diffraction Position Determination with Four Laser Diodes for Tracking/Trapping a Single Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, James A.; Canfield, Brian K.; King, Jason K.; Davis, Lloyd M.

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged observation of single biological molecules by overcoming diffusion can reveal interesting new properties. Observation times may be increased by physically confining a particle, but this often leads to interactions that affect molecular properties. Another way of increasing observation time is to trap a single molecule in solution three-dimensionally. However, optimal trapping of single particles relies on rapid determination of particle position for feedback to counteract Brownian diffusion. In our experiment, a tetrahedral region with foci located at the vertices is created by combining four modulated 635 nm laser diodes with three beam splitters. Fluorescence is measured with a single-photon avalanche diode and separated into bins corresponding to each excitation focus. A maximum-likelihood estimation algorithm is used to determine particle position with sub-diffraction precision in real time. To test the tracking capability of the four-focus setup, fluorescently labeled latex beads were tracked in an aqueous glycerol solution. Two setups, a piezoelectric stage and a three-dimensional electrokinetic trap, are being implemented to maintain a single fluorescent latex bead in the middle of the tetrahedral region.

  4. Integrated GNSS attitude determination and positioning for direct geo-referencing.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J G

    2014-07-17

    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0:8, matching the theoretical gain of √ 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

  5. Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station. PMID:25036330

  6. Determining protein biomarkers for DLBCL using FFPE tissues from HIV negative and HIV positive patients.

    PubMed

    Magangane, Pumza; Sookhayi, Raveendra; Govender, Dhirendra; Naidoo, Richard

    2016-12-01

    DLBCL is the most common lymphoma subtype occurring in older populations as well as in younger HIV infected patients. The current treatment options for DLBCL are effective for most patients yet the relapse rate is high. While many biomarkers for DLBCL exist, they are not in clinical use due to low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, these biomarkers have not been studied in the HIV context. Therefore, the identification of new biomarkers for HIV negative and HIV positive DLBCL, may lead to a better understanding of the disease pathology and better therapeutic design. Protein biomarkers for DLBCL were determined using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and characterised using LC-MS. The expression of one of the biomarkers, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, was confirmed on a separate cohort of samples using immunohistochemistry. The biomarkers identified in the study consisted of four protein clusters including glycolytic enzymes, ribosomal proteins, histones and collagen. These proteins could differentiate between control and tumour tissue, and the DLBCL immunohistochemical subtypes in both cohorts. The majority (41/52) of samples in the confirmation cohort were negative for Hsp70 expression. The HIV positive DLBCL cases had a higher percentage of cases expressing Hsp70 than their HIV negative counterparts. The non-GC subtype also frequently overexpressed Hsp70, confirming MALDI IMS data. The expression of Hsp70 did not correlate with survival in both the HIV negative and HIV positive cohort. This study identified potential biomarkers for HIV negative and HIV positive DLBCL from FFPE tissue sections. These may be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers complementary to current clinical management programmes for DLBCL.

  7. Determination of Normal Anal Position Index Using a Modified Technique in Turkish Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ertürk, Nazile; Kandemir, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the normal position of the anus using the anal position index (API) in an attempt to develop a more sensitive method for measuring API. To investigate API in a wide range of neonates, both term and preterm infants were included in the present study. Materials and Methods: API was determined by measuring the anus-fourchette (FA) and anus-coccyx (AC) distance in female neonates and the anus-scrotum and AC distance in male neonates. API is defined as the ratio of the FA (scrotum) distance to the AC distance. A digital caliper was used for all measurements. The FA or scrotum and coccyx-fourchette or -scrotum distances were measured using digital calipers. Results: A total of 267 neonates (females, 143; males 124) were included in this study. Of these, 36 were borderline premature infants (birth at 35–37 weeks gestation) and 231 were term infants (birth at 38–42 weeks gestation). The mean API was 1.06 ± 0.04 in female and 0.90 ± 0.08 in male neonates. When premature infants were analyzed separately, the mean API was 1.12 ± 0.08 in female and 0.99 ± 0.09 in male neonates. No significant difference in API values was observed between term and preterm neonates (P < 0.05). Conclusions: API values that differ from the previous studies were identified in the present study. We believe our modified method allows for more accurate measurements of the API in newborns. According to our method, the anus should be considered as anteriorly located if API is <1 in female and < 0.9 in male neonates. In addition, the present study is the first to measure API using digital calipers. Digital calipers were found to be convenient and are useful in determining the API with high accuracy (to within 0.01 cm). PMID:28082773

  8. Improvement of determinating seafloor benchmark position with large-scale horizontal heterogeneity in the ocean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Matsuhiro, K.; Ikuta, R.

    2015-12-01

    The most critical issue in reducing the accuracy of seafloor positioning system, GPS/Acoustic technique, is large-scale thermal gradient of sound-speed structure [Muto et al., 2008] due to the ocean current. For example, Kuroshio Current, near our observation station, forms this structure. To improve the accuracy of seafloor benchmark position (SBP), we need to directly measure the structure frequently, or estimate it from travel time residual. The former, we repeatedly measure the sound-speed at Kuroshio axis using Underway CTD and try to apply analysis method of seafloor positioning [Yasuda et al., 2015 AGU meeting]. The latter, however, we cannot estimate the structure using travel time residual until now. Accordingly, in this study, we focus on azimuthal dependence of Estimated Mean Sound-Speed (EMSS). EMSS is defined as distance between vessel position and estimated SBP divided by travel time. If thermal gradient exists and SBP is true, EMSS should have azimuthal dependence with the assumption of horizontal layered sound-speed structure in our previous analysis method. We use the data at KMC located on the central part of Nankai Trough, Japan on Jan. 28, 2015, because on that day KMC was on the north edge of Kuroshio, where we expect that thermal gradient exists. In our analysis method, the hyper parameter (μ value) weights travel time residual and rate of change of sound speed structure. However, EMSS derived from μ value determined by Ikuta et al. [2008] does not have azimuthal dependence, that is, we cannot estimate thermal gradient. Thus, we expect SBP has a large bias. Therefore, in this study, we use another μ value and examine whether EMSS has azimuthal dependence or not. With the μ value of this study, which is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the previous value, EMSS has azimuthal dependence that is consistent with observation day's thermal gradient. This result shows that we can estimate the thermal gradient adequately. This SBP displaces 25

  9. Position Determination with LORAN-C Triplets and the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Programmable Calculator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California POSITION DETERMINATION WITH LORAN-C TRIPLETS AND THE HEWLETT-PACKARD HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR by...HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT O GRANT NUMBER(*) Rex H. Shudd? 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Hyperbolic Fixing Programmable Calculator Loran-C Radio Positioning HP-41C Navigation Geodetics HP-41CV Position Determination Geodetic Distances

  10. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  11. TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.

    1994-01-01

    Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.

  12. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, V. Abella, R.; Calvo, J. F.; Jurado-Bruggemann, D.; Sancho, I.; Carrasco, P.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. Methods: The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100 000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Results: Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Conclusions: Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  13. Diameter and position effect determination of diaphragm on hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-09-01

    This study is aimed to determine and better reveal the mixture enhancement and regression rate distribution of hybrid rocket motor with diaphragm by numerical approach. A numerical model based on the computational fluid dynamics software is built to simulate the flow and combustion inside the motor. Four firing tests of the motor, including one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm, are conducted on a standard experimental system and also used as a reference for numerical simulation, the consistency between the simulation and experiment demonstrates that the numerical approach is an effective method to study the diaphragm effect on the motor performance. The flow field characteristic and regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor are then calculated to analyze the effect of position and diameter of the diaphragm. The results indicate that the diaphragm almost have no effect on the regression rate before it. However, the regression rate after the diaphragm has a strong dependence on the position and diameter of the diaphragm. As the diameter decreases and the position moves backward, the regression rate increases larger and larger, this is mainly due to the augmentation of the eddy generated by the diaphragm, which enhances the heat feedback transferred to the grain surface. When the diameter of diaphragm located at middle of grain decreases from 50 mm to 20 mm, regression rate is increased from 0.30 mm/s to 0.57 mm/s. The use of the diaphragm does cause a combustion efficiency improvement; the maximum combustion efficiency is enhanced to 98.9% from lower than 90% of the motor with no diaphragm. The increasing amplitude displays a square relation with the diameter decrease, since the entrainment of the eddy make the reactants mix sufficiently to release more energy inside the motor.

  14. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range. PMID:26573017

  15. A demonstration of sub-meter GPS orbit determination and high precision user positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, Willy I.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Katsigris, Eugenia C.

    1988-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the submeter GPS (Global Positioning System) orbits can be determined using multiday arc solutions with the current GPS constellation subset visible for about 8 h each day from North America. Submeter orbit accuracy was shown through orbit repeatability and orbit prediction. North American baselines of 1000-2000 km length can be estimated simultaneously with the GPS orbits to an accuracy of better than 1.5 parts in 108 (3 cm over 2000 km distance) with a daily precision of two parts in 108 or better. The most reliable baseline solutions are obtained using the same type of receivers and antennas at each end of the baseline. Baselines greater than 1000 km distance from Florida to sites in the Caribbean region have also been determined with daily precision of 1-4 parts in 108. The Caribbean sites are located well outside the fiducial tracking network and the region of optimal GPS common visibility. Thus, these results further demonstrate the robustness of the multiday arc GPS orbit solutions.

  16. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information

  17. Functional analysis of 'a' determinant mutations associated with occult HBV in HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eleanor A; Boyce, Ceejay L; Gededzha, Maemu P; Selabe, Selokela G; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis B is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and virus transmission. Viral mutations contribute significantly to the occult HBV phenotype. Mutations in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg are of particular interest, as these mutations are associated with immune escape, vaccine escape and diagnostic failure. We examined the effects of selected occult HBV-associated mutations identified in a population of HIV-positive South Africans on HBsAg production in vitro. Mutations were inserted into two different chronic HBV backbones and transfected into a hepatocyte-derived cell line. HBsAg levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the detectability of mutant HBsAg was determined using an HA-tagged HBsAg expression system. Of the seven mutations analysed, four (S132P, C138Y, N146D and C147Y) resulted in decreased HBsAg expression in one viral background but not in the second viral background. One mutation (N146D) led to a decrease in HBsAg detected as compared to HA-tag, indicating that this mutation compromises the ability of the ELISA to detect HBsAg. The contribution of occult-associated mutations to the HBsAg-negative phenotype of occult HBV cannot be determined adequately by testing the effect of the mutation in a single viral background, and rigorous analysis of these mutations is required.

  18. Construction and testing of a computer-based intraoral laser scanner for determining tooth positions.

    PubMed

    Commer, P; Bourauel, C; Maier, K; Jäger, A

    2000-11-01

    An optical set-up for intraoral data acquisition based on the principle of laser triangulation was developed. The system consists of a pig-tailed laser with line generating optics, a stepping motor driven positioning stage, a commercial CCD (charge coupled device) camera system with frame grabber interface, a control personal computer and a mirror system compensating for the fact that there is no possibility of watching an object directly in the mouth under a certain angle except from a facial position during intraoral scanning. Due to the size of the prototype measurements were still restricted to plaster casts. In order to evaluate its accuracy, the measurements were compared with those taken with a commercial laser scanner and a coordinate measurement table. The accuracy of the prototype scanner was determined to be DeltaXYZ=0.04 mm using gauge blocks of given dimensions and proved to range between the commercial laser scanner and the coordinate measurement table (i.e., it was slightly better than that of the commercial scanner). Applications in orthodontics were demonstrated by scanning plaster casts and measuring distances on reconstructed surfaces. The measured distances showed a maximum deviation of about +/-0.2 mm compared with the data of the coordinate measurement table, which served as a reference. In addition, reconstruction of three-dimensional tooth movements was performed on the scan data. The translational and rotational parameters gained from the superimposition of scanned point clouds and describing tooth movement were also in good accordance with the reference. The achieved accuracy proved to be sufficient for further development which should include a reduction in size and the use of more precise device components.

  19. Rhizobial position as a main determinant in the problem of competition for nodulation in soybean.

    PubMed

    López-García, Silvina L; Vázquez, Tirso E E; Favelukes, Gabriel; Lodeiro, Aníbal R

    2002-04-01

    Selected Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains inoculated on soybean seeds often fail to occupy a significant proportion of nodules when a competitor rhizobial population is established in the soil. This competition problem could result from a genetic/ physiological advantage of the adapted soil population over the introduced inoculant or from a positional advantage, as the soil population already occupies the soil profile where the roots will penetrate, whereas the inoculant remains concentrated around the seeds. Here, we have assessed the contribution of these factors with a laboratory model in which a rhizobial population is established in sterile vermiculite. We observed that the wild-type strain B. japonicum LP 3004 was able to grow in pots with N-free plant nutrient solution-watered vermiculite for six or seven generations with a duplication rate of at least 0.7 day(-1). In addition, the rhizobial population persisted for 3 months with 10(6)-10(7) colony-forming units ml(-1) of the vermiculite-retained solution. N-starved, young rhizobial cultures are more efficient in performing several steps along their early association with soybean roots. However, N starvation during growth of rhizobia used for seed inoculation did not enhance their competitiveness against a 1 month vermiculite-established rhizobial population, which occupied more than 72% of the nodules. When a similarly established rhizobial population was recovered from the vermiculite and homogeneously suspended in plant nutrient solution, these cells were significantly less competitive (29% of nodules occupied) than rhizobia obtained from a fresh, logarithmic culture in a N-poor minimal medium, thus indicating that cell position rather than intrinsic competitiveness was the determinant for nodule occupation.

  20. Genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram positive bacteria from organic foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ortega Morente, Elena; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-02-17

    Bacterial biocide resistance is becoming a matter of concern. In the present study, a collection of biocide-resistant, Gram-positive bacteria from organic foods (including 11 isolates from genus Bacillus, 25 from Enterococcus and 10 from Staphylococcus) were analyzed for genes associated to biocide resistance efflux pumps and antibiotic resistance. The only qac-genes detected were qacA/B (one Bacillus cereus isolate) and smr (one B. cereus and two Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates). Efflux pump genes efrA and efrB genes were detected in Staphylococcus (60% of isolates), Bacillus (54.54%) and Enterococcus (24%); sugE was detected in Enterococcus (20%) and in one Bacillus licheniformis; mepA was detected in Staphylococcus (60%) and in one Enterococcus isolate (which also carried mdeA), and norE gene was detected only in one Enterococcus faecium and one S. saprophyticus isolate. An amplicon for acrB efflux pump was detected in all but one isolate. When minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined, it was found that the addition of reserpine reduced the MICs by eight fold for most of the biocides and isolates, corroborating the role of efflux pumps in biocide resistance. Erythromycin resistance gene ermB was detected in 90% of Bacillus isolates, and in one Staphylococcus, while ereA was detected only in one Bacillus and one Staphyloccus, and ereB only in one Staphylococcus. The ATP-dependent msrA gene (which confers resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramins) was detected in 60% of Bacillus isolates and in all staphylococci, which in addition carried msrB. The lincosamide and streptogramin A resistance gene lsa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%), Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%) isolates. The aminoglycoside resistance determinant aph (3_)-IIIa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%) and Bacillus (one isolate), aph(2_)-1d in Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%), aph(2_)-Ib in Bacillus (one isolate), and the bifunctional aac

  1. Focus on the positive: lessons learned from focus determination of infrared space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Jacob; Rigg, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Wide field of view optics paired with large starer infrared detector arrays can be notoriously difficult to place into focus. This paper will discuss the lessons learned in taking one such system from being more than 20x out of its focus specification to within focus in a single iteration. Traditionally the tight tolerances required for space borne applications forces the system designer to carefully consider many effects that may otherwise be negligible. These include changes in system tolerances between ambient to cryogenic temperature, lens boule property differences, test setup to properly mimic the flight thermal profile, lack of commercially available lasers with the proper wavelength, and several others. In this case, some key pieces of information were not provided when the system arrived at Northrop Grumman's Azusa facility for unit integration and through-focus testing. The presented approach involves taking extremely out-of-focus responses from point sources at various focus positions and combining them with optical modeling parameters to determine how to best reposition the detector array to the best plane of focus. A successful implementation of the approach will be presented using data from a wide field-of-view infrared sensor.

  2. Determination of object position, vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity using artificial lateral line canals

    PubMed Central

    Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Summary The lateral line system of fish consists of superficial neuromasts, and neuromasts embedded in lateral line canals. Lateral line neuromasts allow fish to sense both minute water motions and pressure gradients, thereby enabling them to detect predators and prey or to recognize and discriminate stationary objects while passing them. With the aid of the lateral line, fish can also sense vortices caused by an upstream object or by undulatory swimming movements of fish. We show here that artificial lateral line canals equipped with optical flow sensors can be used to detect the water motions generated by a stationary vibrating sphere, the vortices caused by an upstream cylinder or the water (air) movements caused by a passing object. The hydrodynamic information retrieved from optical flow sensors can be used to calculate bulk flow velocity and thus the size of the cylinder that shed the vortices. Even a bilateral sensor platform equipped with only one artificial lateral line canal on each side is sufficient to determine the position of an upstream cylinder. PMID:21977440

  3. Radio interferometric determination of source positions utilizing deep space network antennas - 1971 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanselow, J. L.; Sovers, O. J.; Thomas, J. B.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Cohen, E. J.; Rogstad, D. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 2400 observations of extragalactic radio sources were made between August 1971 and February 1980 during 48 separate sessions. These consisted of 259 delay rate observations at 2.3 GHz (S-band), 796 delay and delay rate observations at either S-band of 8.3 GHz (X-band) and 1325 delay and delay rate observations recorded simultaneously at both S- and X-band. A single multiparameter fit has been applied to the observed values of delay and delay rate to extract astrometric and geophysical parameters from this decade-long sequence. The fit produced estimates of 784 parameters, including station locations, radio source positions, polar motion, Universal Time, the precession constant, and solid earth tides. The a priori model included gravitational bending, the 1980 IAU nutation series, the 1976 IAU expressions for Greenwich mean sidereal time and precession, BIH estimates of Universal Time and polar motion, and monthly mean values for zenith troposphere delay. The rms residuals were 0.52 nsec for delay and 0.30 psec/sec for delay rate. Intercontinental baseline lengths were determined with formal uncertainties of 5 to 10 cm. Universal Time and polar motion were measured at 49 epochs, with formal uncertainties (for the more recent data) of 0.5 msec for UT1 and 6 and 2 mas, respectively, for the X and Y components of polar motion. Previously announced in STAR as N83-28038

  4. Combining global positioning system and accelerometer data to determine the locations of physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Blossom, Jeff; Field, Alison E; Chiang, Sylvia R; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Kleinman, Ronald E

    2012-05-01

    National trends indicate that children and adolescents are not achieving sufficient levels of physical activity. Combining global positioning system (GPS) technology with accelerometers has the potential to provide an objective determination in locations where youth engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal methods for collecting combined accelerometer and GPS data in youth, to best locate where children spend time and are physically active. A convenience sample of 24 mid-school children in Massachusetts was included. Accelerometers and GPS units were used to quantify and locate childhood physical activity over 5 weekdays and 2 weekend days. Accelerometer and GPS data were joined by time and mapped with a geographical information system (GIS) using ArcGIS software. Data were collected in winter, spring, summer in 2009-2010, collecting a total of 26,406 matched datapoints overall. Matched data yield was low (19.1% total), regardless of season (winter, 12.8%; spring, 30.1%; summer, 14.3%). Teacher-provided, pre-charged equipment yielded the most matched (30.1%; range: 10.1-52.3%) and greatest average days (6.1 days) of data. Across all seasons, children spent most of their time at home. Outdoor use patterns appeared to vary by season, with street use increasing in spring, and park and playground use increasing in summer. Children spent equal amounts of physical activity time at home and walking in the streets. Overall, the various methods for combining GPS and accelerometer data provided similarly low amounts of combined data. No combined GPS and accelerometer data collection method proved superior in every data return category, but use of GIS to map joined accelerometer and GPS data can demarcate childhood physical activity locations.

  5. Accurate determination of screw position in treating fifth metatarsal base fractures to shorten radiation exposure time

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chen; Huang, Jia Zhang; Ma, Xin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anatomical markers can help to guide lag screw placement during surgery for internal fixation of fifth metatarsal base fractures. This study aimed to identify the optimal anatomical markers and thus reduce radiation exposure. METHODS A total of 50 patients in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China, who underwent oblique foot radiography in the lateral position were randomly selected. The angles between the fifth metatarsal axis and cuboid articular surface were measured to determine the optimal lag screw placement relative to anatomical markers. RESULTS The line connecting the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal base with the second metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint intersected with the fifth metatarsal base fracture line at an angle of 86.85° ± 5.44°. The line connecting the fifth metatarsal base styloid with the third and fourth MTP joints intersected with the fracture line at angles of 93.28° ± 5.24° and 100.95° ± 5.00°, respectively. The proximal articular surface of the fifth metatarsal base intersected with the line connecting the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal base with the second, third and fourth MTP joints at angles of 24.02° ± 4.77°, 30.79° ± 4.53° and 38.08° ± 4.54°, respectively. CONCLUSION The fifth metatarsal base styloid and third MTP joint can be used as anatomical markers for lag screw placement in fractures involving the fifth tarsometatarsal joint. The connection line, which is normally perpendicular to the fracture line, provides sufficient mechanical stability to facilitate accurate screw placement. The use of these anatomical markers could help to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure for patients and medical staff. PMID:26767892

  6. Intrinsic histone-DNA interactions are not the major determinant of nucleosome positions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Rattner, Barbara P; Euskirchen, Ghia; Snyder, Michael; Kadonaga, James T; Liu, X Shirley; Struhl, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    We assess the role of intrinsic histone-DNA interactions by mapping nucleosomes assembled in vitro on genomic DNA. Nucleosomes strongly prefer yeast DNA over Escherichia coli DNA, indicating that the yeast genome evolved to favor nucleosome formation. Many yeast promoter and terminator regions intrinsically disfavor nucleosome formation, and nucleosomes assembled in vitro show strong rotational positioning. Nucleosome arrays generated by the ACF assembly factor have fewer nucleosome-free regions, reduced rotational positioning and less translational positioning than obtained by intrinsic histone-DNA interactions. Notably, nucleosomes assembled in vitro have only a limited preference for specific translational positions and do not show the pattern observed in vivo. Our results argue against a genomic code for nucleosome positioning, and they suggest that the nucleosomal pattern in coding regions arises primarily from statistical positioning from a barrier near the promoter that involves some aspect of transcriptional initiation by RNA polymerase II.

  7. Global Positioning System (GPS) Determination of Motions, Neotectonics, and Seismic Risk in Trinidad and Tobago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A. B.; Weber, J. C.; Schmalzle, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    The twin island nation of Trinidad and Tobago is located in the actively deforming Caribbean-South American (Ca-SA) plate boundary zone. Recent GPS (Global Positioning System) studies have accurately determined the relative plate motion between the Caribbean plate and South American plates: ~east-west, dextral motion at 20 mm/yr. Earthquakes do not clearly mark many of the active faults in Trinidad. A low-precision triangulation-to-GPS comparison at 23 sites and paleoseismology showed that significant strike-slip faulting is probably occurring on the Central Range Fault (CRF). The lack of recent seismic activity on the CRF may indicate that it is elastically locked and storing motion. We study Trinidad's neotectonics using new GPS data from 19 high-stability campaign sites that were built and measured in 2005, then measured again in 2007; for a few additional sites we have data that go back from 2007 to 1994. These new data will allow us to test and refine the previous lower-precision geodetic results to better quantify the rate of slip across the CRF and its mechanical behavior. We compiled, and then processed the data using GIPSY/OASIS II (Release 5.0) software at the University of Miami RSMAS Geodesy Lab. We find that, in a South American reference frame, sites north of the CRF move at about 20 (±1-5) mm/yr; sites south of the CRF are stationary (±1-8 mm/yr). Tobago site velocities are slightly oblique to overall Caribbean plate motion due to a major (Magnitude 6.7) earthquake that occurred off Tobago's south coast in 1997. Our new results support the hypotheses that the CRF is the principal active strike-slip fault in Trinidad (i.e., is the current Ca-SA plate boundary). We are fitting locked fault (elastic dislocation half-space) models to the data which will allow us to look more closely at the mechanical behavior of the CRF to further test whether it is locked or creeping to help evaluate its seismic risk.

  8. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men.

  9. Determination of the optimal positions for installing gamma ray detection systems at Tehran Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, A.; Rahmani, F.; Khalafi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Dosimetric instruments must constantly monitor radiation dose levels in different areas of nuclear reactor. Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has seven beam tubes for different research purposes. All the beam tubes extend from the reactor core to Beam Port Floor (BPF) of the reactor facility. During the reactor operation, the gamma rays exiting from each beam tube outlet produce a specific gamma dose rate field in the space of the BPF. To effectively monitor the gamma dose rates on the BPF, gamma ray detection systems must be installed in optimal positions. The selection of optimal positions is a compromise between two requirements. First, the installation positions must possess largest gamma dose rates and second, gamma ray detectors must not be saturated in these positions. In this study, calculations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the optimal positions of the gamma ray detection systems. Eight three dimensional models of the reactor core and related facilities corresponding to eight scenarios have been simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the gamma dose equivalent rate field in the space of the BPF. These facilities are beam tubes, thermal column, pool, BPF space filled with air, facilities such as neutron radiography facility, neutron powder diffraction facility embedded in the beam tubes as well as biological shields inserted into the unused beam tubes. According to the analysis results of the combined gamma dose rate field, three positions on the north side and two positions on the south side of the BPF have been recognized as optimal positions for installing the gamma ray detection systems. To ensure the consistency of the simulation data, experimental measurements were conducted using TLDs (600 and 700) pairs during the reactor operation at 4.5 MW.

  10. The role of positive selection in determining the molecular cause of species differences in disease

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Related species, such as humans and chimpanzees, often experience the same disease with varying degrees of pathology, as seen in the cases of Alzheimer's disease, or differing symptomatology as in AIDS. Furthermore, certain diseases such as schizophrenia, epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders are far more frequent in humans than in other species for reasons not associated with lifestyle. Genes that have undergone positive selection during species evolution are indicative of functional adaptations that drive species differences. Thus we investigate whether biomedical disease differences between species can be attributed to positively selected genes. Results We identified genes that putatively underwent positive selection during the evolution of humans and four mammals which are often used to model human diseases (mouse, rat, chimpanzee and dog). We show that genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection pressure during human evolution are implicated in diseases such as epithelial cancers, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases and Alzheimer's disease, all of which differ in prevalence and symptomatology between humans and their mammalian relatives. In agreement with previous studies, the chimpanzee lineage was found to have more genes under positive selection than any of the other lineages. In addition, we found new evidence to support the hypothesis that genes that have undergone positive selection tend to interact with each other. This is the first such evidence to be detected widely among mammalian genes and may be important in identifying molecular pathways causative of species differences. Conclusion Our dataset of genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection in five species serves as an informative resource that can be consulted prior to selecting appropriate animal models during drug target validation. We conclude that studying the evolution of functional and biomedical disease differences between species is an

  11. Determination of sounding rocket position and attitude from radar and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques are described that were used to determine the trajectories and orientations of three sounding rockets instrumented to study the aurora. The radar plot board data were fitted to a near earth expansion of the force of gravity to determine the trajectory. Only onboard magnetometer data were used to determine the attitude of the payload with respect to the earth's magnetic field. Computer programs in the FORTRAN language are available which generate the trajectory and attitude parameters.

  12. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  13. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. Aim To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Materials and Methods One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. Results All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar

  14. Determining the Separation and Position Angles of Orbiting Binary Stars: Comparison of Three Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Ryan; Boule, Cory; Andrews, Katelyn; Penfield, Andrew; Ross, Ian; Lucas, Gaylon; Braught, Trisha; Harfenist, Steven; Goodale, Keith

    2015-07-01

    To initiate a long term binary star research program, undergraduate students compared the accuracy and ease of measuring the separations and position angles of three long period binary pairs using three different measurement techniques. It was found that digital image capture using BackyardEOS software and subsequent analysis in Adobe Photoshop was the most accurate and easiest to use of our three methods. The systems WDS J17419+7209 (STF 2241AB), WDS 19418+5032 (STFA 46AB), and WDS 16362+5255 (STF 2087AB) were found to have separations and position angles of: 30", 16°; 39.7", 133°; and 3.1", 104°, respectively. This method produced separation values within 1.3" and position angle values within 1.3° of the most recently observed values found in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  15. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  16. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  17. MAAG Job Position (Iberian Spanish). Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; And Others

    The job position of military advisory and assistance group (MAAG) officer for the Air Force as performed in Iberian Spanish is described in terms of terminal skill objectives (TSOs) and enabling objectives (EOs). This analysis is part of the communication/language objectives-based system (C/LOBS), which supports the front-end analysis efforts of…

  18. Determination of positions of solar system bodies at Repsold meridian circle from 1992 till 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maigurova, N. V.; Pogoniy, A. D.; Pyshnenko, V. N.; Sibilev, V. P.

    2002-04-01

    Position of the Solar system bodies: Uran, Neptune, Galilean satellites of Jupiter, satellite of Saturn Titan, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, Hebe, Iris, and Melpomene were obtained from observations at Repsold Meridian Circle of Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory made in 1992-1999.

  19. An Artificial Neural Network Embedded Position and Orientation Determination Algorithm for Low Cost MEMS INS/GPS Integrated Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen; Li, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Yun-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Digital mobile mapping, which integrates digital imaging with direct geo-referencing, has developed rapidly over the past fifteen years. Direct geo-referencing is the determination of the time-variable position and orientation parameters for a mobile digital imager. The most common technologies used for this purpose today are satellite positioning using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). They are usually integrated in such a way that the GPS receiver is the main position sensor, while the IMU is the main orientation sensor. The Kalman Filter (KF) is considered as the optimal estimation tool for real-time INS/GPS integrated kinematic position and orientation determination. An intelligent hybrid scheme consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and KF has been proposed to overcome the limitations of KF and to improve the performance of the INS/GPS integrated system in previous studies. However, the accuracy requirements of general mobile mapping applications can’t be achieved easily, even by the use of the ANN-KF scheme. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligent position and orientation determination scheme that embeds ANN with conventional Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother to improve the overall accuracy of a MEMS INS/GPS integrated system in post-mission mode. By combining the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated system and the intelligent ANN-RTS smoother scheme proposed in this study, a cheaper but still reasonably accurate position and orientation determination scheme can be anticipated. PMID:22574034

  20. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and attitude determination: Applications and activities in the Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor; Garrick, Joe

    1995-01-01

    The application of GPS to spacecraft attitude determination is a new and growing field. Although the theoretical literature is extensive, space flight testing is currently sparse and inadequate. As an operations organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) has the responsibility to investigate this new technology, and determine how best to implement the innovation to provide adequate support for future missions. This paper presents some of the current efforts within FDD with regard to GPS attitude determination. This effort specifically addresses institutional capabilities to accommodate a new type of sensor, critically evaluating the literature for recent advancements, and in examining some available -albeit crude- flight data.

  1. TH-C-BRD-03: Determining the Optimal Collimator Position for Collimated Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D; Smith, B; Hill, P; Gelover, E; Flynn, R; Hyer, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: There has been a growing interest in applying collimation to pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy in order to sharpen the lateral dose falloff out of the target, especially at low energies. Currently, there is not a method to optimally determine the collimation position or margin around the target. A uniform margin would not be ideal due to the fact that an incoming symmetric pencil beam, after being intercepted by a collimator near the target boundary, will become asymmetric and experience a lateral shift away from its original spot location, leaving the target insufficiently covered. We demonstrate a method that optimally determines the collimator position on a per-spot basis, in order to maximize target dose while minimizing normal tissue dose. Methods: A library of collimated pencil beams were obtained through Monte Carlo simulation with a collimator placed at varying distances from the central axis of an incoming symmetrical pencil beam of 118 MeV and 5 mm sigma-in-air. Two-dimensional treatment plans were then created using this library of collimated pencil beams. For each spot position in a treatment plan, the collimator position was optimally determined in such a way that the resultant pencil beam maximized the ratio of in-target dose and out-of-target dose. For comparison, un-collimated treatment plans were also computed. Results: The spot-by-spot optimally determined collimator positions allowed the reduction of normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target coverage as un-collimated PBS. Quantitatively, the mean dose outside of the target was reduced by approximately 40% as compared to the plan without collimation. Conclusion: The proposed method determines the optimal collimator position for each spot in collimated PBS proton therapy. The use of a collimator will improve PBS dose distributions achievable today and will continue to be the subject of future investigations.

  2. DETERMINATION OF CENTRAL ENGINE POSITION AND ACCRETION DISK STRUCTURE IN NGC 4261 BY CORE SHIFT MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Takafumi; Doi, Akihiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Sudou, Hiroshi; Kameno, Seiji; Hada, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    We report multifrequency phase-referenced observations of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 4261, which has prominent two-sided jets, using the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4–43 GHz. We measured radio core positions showing observing frequency dependences (known as “core shift”) in both approaching jets and counterjets. The limit of the core position as the frequency approaches infinity, which suggests a jet base, is separated by 82 ± 16 μas upstream in projection, corresponding to (310 ± 60)R{sub s} (R{sub s}: Schwarzschild radius) as a deprojected distance, from the 43 GHz core in the approaching jet. In addition, the innermost component at the counterjet side appeared to approach the same position at infinity of the frequency, indicating that cores on both sides are approaching the same position, suggesting a spatial coincidence with the central engine. Applying a phase-referencing technique, we also obtained spectral index maps, which indicate that emission from the counterjet is affected by free–free absorption (FFA). The result of the core shift profile on the counterjet also requires FFA because the core positions at 5–15 GHz cannot be explained by a simple core shift model based on synchrotron self-absorption (SSA). Our result is apparently consistent with the SSA core shift with an additional disk-like absorber over the counterjet side. Core shift and opacity profiles at the counterjet side suggest a two-component accretion: a radiatively inefficient accretion flow at the inner region and a truncated thin disk in the outer region. We proposed a possible solution about density and temperature profiles in the outer disk on the basis of the radio observation.

  3. Determinants of nucleosome positioning and their influence on plant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jung; Seddon, Alexander E; Tsai, Zing Tsung-Yeh; Major, Ian T; Floer, Monique; Howe, Gregg A; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2015-08-01

    Nucleosome positioning influences the access of transcription factors (TFs) to their binding sites and gene expression. Studies in plant, animal, and fungal models demonstrate similar nucleosome positioning patterns along genes and correlations between occupancy and expression. However, the relationships among nucleosome positioning, cis-regulatory element accessibility, and gene expression in plants remain undefined. Here we showed that plant nucleosome depletion occurs on specific 6-mer motifs and this sequence-specific nucleosome depletion is predictive of expression levels. Nucleosome-depleted regions in Arabidopsis thaliana tend to have higher G/C content, unlike yeast, and are centered on specific G/C-rich 6-mers, suggesting that intrinsic sequence properties, such as G/C content, cannot fully explain plant nucleosome positioning. These 6-mer motif sites showed higher DNase I hypersensitivity and are flanked by strongly phased nucleosomes, consistent with known TF binding sites. Intriguingly, this 6-mer-specific nucleosome depletion pattern occurs not only in promoter but also in genic regions and is significantly correlated with higher gene expression level, a phenomenon also found in rice but not in yeast. Among the 6-mer motifs enriched in genes responsive to treatment with the defense hormone jasmonate, there are no significant changes in nucleosome occupancy, suggesting that these sites are potentially preconditioned to enable rapid response without changing chromatin state significantly. Our study provides a global assessment of the joint contribution of nucleosome occupancy and motif sequences that are likely cis-elements to the control of gene expression in plants. Our findings pave the way for further understanding the impact of chromatin state on plant transcriptional regulatory circuits.

  4. Diagnostic assays for identification of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance determinants directly from positive blood culture broth.

    PubMed

    Pence, Morgan A; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2013-09-01

    The detection of blood stream infections is one of the most important functions of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Sepsis is a clinical emergency, and mortality increases if commencement of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is delayed. Automated blood culture systems are the most sensitive approach for detection of the causative agent of sepsis. Several laboratory methods have been developed to expedite identification of organisms directly from positive blood culture broth. The principle and analytical performance characteristics of these methods are described in this review.

  5. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  6. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  7. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  8. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  9. An investigation of airborne GPS/INS for high accuracy position and velocity determination

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H.; Cannon, M.E.; Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    An airborne test using a differential GPS-INS system in a Twin Otter was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the feasibility of using the integrated system for cm-level position and cm/s velocity. The INS is a miniaturized ring-laser gyro IMU jointly developed by Sandia and Honeywell while the GPS system consists of the NovAtel GPSCard{trademark}. INS position, velocity and attitude data were computed using Sandia`s SANDAC flight computer system and logged at 4 Hz and GPS data was acquired at a 1 Hz rate. The mission was approximately 2.5 hours in duration and the aircraft reached separations of up to 19 km from the base station. The data was post-processed using a centralized Kalman filter approach in which the double differenced carrier phase measurements are used to update the INS data. The INS position is in turn used to detect and correct GPS carrier phase cycle slips and also to bridge GPS outages. Results are presented for the GPS-only case and also for integrated GPS/INS.

  10. Aerotriangulation Supported by Camera Station Position Determined via Physical Integration of LIDAR and SLR Digital Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Martins, M.; Centeno, J.; Hainosz, F.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays lidar and photogrammetric surveys have been used together in many mapping procedures due to their complementary characteristics. Lidar survey is capable to promptly acquire reliable elevation information that is sometimes difficult via photogrammetric procedure. On the other hand, photogrammetric survey is easily able to get semantic information of the objects. Accessibility, availability, the increasing sensor size and quick image acquisition and processing are properties that have raised the use of SLR digital cameras in photogrammetry. Orthoimage generation is a powerful photogrammetric mapping procedure, where the advantages of the integration of lidar and image datasets are very well characterized. However, to perform this application both datasets must be within a common reference frame. In this paper, a procedure to have digital images positioned and oriented in the same lidar frame via a combination of direct and indirect georeferencing is studied. The SLR digital camera was physically connected with the lidar system to calculate the camera station's position in lidar frame. After that, the aerotriangulation supported by camera station's position is performed to get image's exterior orientation parameters (EOP).

  11. Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]).

  12. A Procedure to Determine the Optimal Sensor Positions for Locating AE Sources in Rock Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duca, S.; Occhiena, C.; Sambuelli, L.

    2015-03-01

    Within a research work aimed to better understand frost weathering mechanisms of rocks, laboratory tests have been designed to specifically assess a theoretical model of crack propagation due to ice segregation process in water-saturated and thermally microcracked cubic samples of Arolla gneiss. As the formation and growth of microcracks during freezing tests on rock material is accompanied by a sudden release of stored elastic energy, the propagation of elastic waves can be detected, at the laboratory scale, by acoustic emission (AE) sensors. The AE receiver array geometry is a sensitive factor influencing source location errors, for it can greatly amplify the effect of small measurement errors. Despite the large literature on the AE source location, little attention, to our knowledge, has been paid to the description of the experimental design phase. As a consequence, the criteria for sensor positioning are often not declared and not related to location accuracy. In the present paper, a tool for the identification of the optimal sensor position on a cubic shape rock specimen is presented. The optimal receiver configuration is chosen by studying the condition numbers of each of the kernel matrices, used for inverting the arrival time and finding the source location, and obtained for properly selected combinations between sensors and sources positions.

  13. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  14. Positional Scanning Identifies the Molecular Determinants of a High Affinity Multi-Leucine Inhibitor for Furin and PACE4.

    PubMed

    Małuch, Izabela; Levesque, Christine; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Ly, Kévin; Desjardins, Roxane; Neugebauer, Witold A; Prahl, Adam; Day, Robert

    2017-03-24

    The proprotein convertase family of enzymes includes seven endoproteases with significant redundancy in their cleavage activity. We previously described the peptide Ac-LLLLRVK-Amba that displays potent inhibitory effects on both PACE4 and prostate cancer cell lines proliferation. Herein, the molecular determinants for PACE4 and furin inhibition were investigated by positional scanning using peptide libraries that substituted its leucine core with each natural amino acid. We determined that the incorporation of basic amino acids led to analogues with improved inhibitory potency toward both enzymes, whereas negatively charged residues significantly reduced it. All the remaining amino acids were in general well tolerated, with the exemption of the P6 position. However, not all of the potent PACE4 inhibitors displayed antiproliferative activity. The best analogues were obtained by the incorporation of the Ile residue at the P5 and P6 positions. These substitutions led to inhibitors with increased PACE4 selectivity and potent antiproliferative effects.

  15. CORRESPONDENCE OF STABLE ISOTOPE AND GUT CONTENTS ANALYSES IN DETERMINING TROPHIC POSITION OF STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that both stable isotope analysis (SIA) and gut contents analysis (GCA) be used in food web studies; however, few researchers have analyzed these data in concert. We utilized SIA and GCA to determine if longitudinal and seasonal variation in diet affects...

  16. Experimental Determination of Unknown Masses and Their Positions in a Mechanical Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura

    2013-01-01

    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  17. Determining a Relationship between Higher Education Financial Position and Tuition Discount Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Julianna

    2013-01-01

    Institutions have increased the practice of tuition discounting, that is, the strategic use of price discrimination. During the past 30 years, both the average percent discount given to students and the proportion of students receiving tuition breaks have increased. As this practice has increased, there are financial determinants and implications…

  18. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  19. Device for determining relative angular position between a spacecraft and a radiation emitting celestial body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farthing, W. H.; Frisbie, H. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Signals indicative of the relative angular position between a spin stabilized spacecraft, probe, or sounding rocket and a radiation emitting celestial body are derived with a detector including four electrodes for deriving indications of the centroid of the radiation image on the detector. During each spin of the satellite each electrode derives a signal having a first non-zero level while the detector is not illuminated by the radiation, and a sound non-zero level while it is illuminated by the radiation.

  20. The direct determination of double bond positions in lipid mixtures by liquid chromatography/in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chenxing; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2013-01-31

    The direct determination of double bond positions in unsaturated lipids using in-line ozonolysis-mass spectrometry (O(3)-MS) is described. In this experiment, ozone penetrates through the semi-permeable Teflon AF-2400 tubing containing a flow of a solution of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Unsaturated FAME are thus oxidized by the ozone and cleaved at the double bond positions. The ozonolysis products then flow directly into the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source of a mass spectrometer for analysis. Aldehyde products retaining the methyl ester group are indicative of the double bond positions in unsaturated FAME. For the first time, O(3)-MS is able to couple directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), making the double bond localization in lipid mixtures possible. The application of LC/O(3)-MS has been demonstrated for a fat sample from bovine adipose tissue. A total of 9 unsaturated FAME including 6 positional isomers were identified unambiguously, without comparison to standards. The in-line ozonolysis reaction apparatus is applicable to most mass spectrometers without instrumental modification; it is also directly compatible with various LC columns. The LC/O(3)-MS method described here is thus a practical, versatile and easy to use new approach to the direct determination of double bond positions in lipids, even in complex mixtures.

  1. mRNA Profiling Reveals Determinants of Trastuzumab Efficiency in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    von der Heyde, Silvia; Wagner, Steve; Czerny, Alexander; Nietert, Manuel; Ludewig, Fabian; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Arlt, Dorit; Beißbarth, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we called and analyzed

  2. Using Ultrasonography to Determine Optimal Head-down Tilt Position Angle in Patients before Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Kasatkin, Anton A.; Urakov, Aleksandr L.; Nigmatullina, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Context: It is believed that 15°–25° head-down tilt position increases the internal jugular vein cross-sectional area (IJV CSA). The increase in IJV CSA before puncture reduces the risk of its perforation. This pattern was not observed in all patients. We assumed that the absence of respiratory-based IJV excursion is one of the criteria of head-down tilt position effectiveness. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the head-down tilt angle, which ensures the absence of the respiratory-based IJV excursion. Subjects and Methods: Prospective study included twenty adult patients. The IJVs scanning was carried out in 1 min after placing the patients in a horizontal position on their back and in 1 min after placing them in the head-down tilt position at 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° tilt angles. Results: We found that collapsibility index of <9% indicating the absence of respiratory-based IJV excursion was recorded in 25% of patients in the horizontal supine position. In this case, placing the patients in the Trendelenburg position for IJV catheterization may not be indicated. In 65% of the patients, the respiratory-based excursion was not observed at 10° head-down tilt position. Only 35% of the patients required 15° head-down tilt position. Conclusions: In clinical settings, the disappearance of respiratory-based vein excursion on the ultrasound scanner screen can be considered as criteria of the head-down tilt position effectiveness.

  3. Position and radius of the Sun determined by solar eclipses in combination with lunar occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Yoshio

    1993-12-01

    The observation data of four total solar eclipses in 1970, 1973, 1980, and 1991 were analyzed by putting all the data together to obtain accurate coordinates and semidiameter of the Sun relative to those of the Moon. With the position and figure of the Moon rectified by lunar occultation data, a constant correction to the coordinates of the Sun tabulated in the current ephemeris is found as follows: delta lambda (Sun) = -0 sec .04 +/- 0 sec .005, delta beta (Sun) = +0 sec .01 +/- 0 sec .008. Also, the following values for the semidiameter of the Sun were obtained: sigma(Sun) 70 = 959 sec .74 +/- 0 sec .008, sigma(Sun) 73 = 959 sec .84 +/- 0 sec .015, sigma(Sun) 80 959 sec .84 +/- 0 sec .012, sigma(Sun) 91 = 959 sec .88 +/- 0 sec .008 (4615 A) respectively for the 1970, 1973, 1980, and 1991 eclipses, giving an obvious evidence for the change in the solar radius.

  4. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark; Talarek, Ted R.; Zollinger, W. Thor; Heckendorn, II, Frank M.; Park, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360.degree. about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms.

  5. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.; Zollinger, W.T.; Heckendorn, F.M. II; Park, L.R.

    1994-02-15

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360[degree] about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms. 8 figures.

  6. Computational fluid dynamics vs. inverse dynamics methods to determine passive drag in two breaststroke glide positions.

    PubMed

    Costa, L; Mantha, V R; Silva, A J; Fernandes, R J; Marinho, D A; Vilas-Boas, J P; Machado, L; Rouboa, A

    2015-07-16

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays an important role to quantify, understand and "observe" the water movements around the human body and its effects on drag (D). We aimed to investigate the flow effects around the swimmer and to compare the drag and drag coefficient (CD) values obtained from experiments (using cable velocimetry in a swimming pool) with those of CFD simulations for the two ventral gliding positions assumed during the breaststroke underwater cycle (with shoulders flexed and upper limbs extended above the head-GP1; with shoulders in neutral position and upper limbs extended along the trunk-GP2). Six well-trained breaststroke male swimmers (with reasonable homogeneity of body characteristics) participated in the experimental tests; afterwards a 3D swimmer model was created to fit within the limits of the sample body size profile. The standard k-ε turbulent model was used to simulate the fluid flow around the swimmer model. Velocity ranged from 1.30 to 1.70 m/s for GP1 and 1.10 to 1.50 m/s for GP2. Values found for GP1 and GP2 were lower for CFD than experimental ones. Nevertheless, both CFD and experimental drag/drag coefficient values displayed a tendency to jointly increase/decrease with velocity, except for GP2 CD where CFD and experimental values display opposite tendencies. Results suggest that CFD values obtained by single model approaches should be considered with caution due to small body shape and dimension differences to real swimmers. For better accuracy of CFD studies, realistic individual 3D models of swimmers are required, and specific kinematics respected.

  7. Determining the Position of Storks on the Phylogenetic Tree of Waterbirds by Retroposon Insertion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuramoto, Tae; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Maiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on avian phylogenetics in recent decades that used morphology, mitochondrial genomes, and/or nuclear genes, the phylogenetic positions of several birds (e.g., storks) remain unsettled. In addition to the aforementioned approaches, analysis of retroposon insertions, which are nearly homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, has also been used in avian phylogenetics. However, the first step in the analysis of retroposon insertions, that is, isolation of retroposons from genomic libraries, is a costly and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and cost-effective protocol to collect retroposon insertion information based on next-generation sequencing technology, which we call here the STRONG (Screening of Transposons Obtained by Next Generation Sequencing) method, and applied it to 3 waterbird species, for which we identified 35,470 loci containing chicken repeat 1 retroposons (CR1). Our analysis of the presence/absence of 30 CR1 insertions demonstrated the intra- and interordinal phylogenetic relationships in the waterbird assemblage, namely 1) Loons diverged first among the waterbirds, 2) penguins (Sphenisciformes) and petrels (Procellariiformes) diverged next, and 3) among the remaining families of waterbirds traditionally classified in Ciconiiformes/Pelecaniformes, storks (Ciconiidae) diverged first. Furthermore, our genome-scale, in silico retroposon analysis based on published genome data uncovered a complex divergence history among pelican, heron, and ibis lineages, presumably involving ancient interspecies hybridization between the heron and ibis lineages. Thus, our retroposon-based waterbird phylogeny and the established phylogenetic position of storks will help to understand the evolutionary processes of aquatic adaptation and related morphological convergent evolution. PMID:26527652

  8. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  9. Recruitment of parvalbumin-positive interneurons determines hippocampal function and associated behavior.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Elke C; Zivkovic, Aleksandar R; Cunningham, Mark O; Middleton, Steven; Lebeau, Fiona E N; Bannerman, David M; Rozov, Andrei; Whittington, Miles A; Traub, Roger D; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Monyer, Hannah

    2007-02-15

    Perisomatic inhibition provided by a subgroup of GABAergic interneurons plays a critical role in timing the output of pyramidal cells. To test their contribution at the network and the behavioral level, we generated genetically modified mice in which the excitatory drive was selectively reduced either by the knockout of the GluR-D or by conditional ablation of the GluR-A subunit in parvalbumin-positive cells. Comparable cell type-specific reductions of AMPA-mediated currents were obtained. Kainate-induced gamma oscillations exhibited reduced power in hippocampal slices from GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice. Experimental and modeling data indicated that this alteration could be accounted for by imprecise spike timing of fast-spiking cells (FS) caused by smaller interneuronal EPSPs. GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice exhibited similar impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks. These findings directly show the effects of insufficient recruitment of fast-spiking cells at the network and behavioral level and demonstrate the role of this subpopulation for working and episodic-like memory.

  10. Phloem-associated auxin response maxima determine radial positioning of lateral roots in maize

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Leentje; Roberts, Ianto; De Rycke, Riet; Beeckman, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral-root-forming competence of pericycle cells is associated with their position at the xylem poles and depends on the establishment of protoxylem-localized auxin response maxima. In maize, our histological analyses revealed an interruption of the pericycle at the xylem poles, and confirmed the earlier reported proto-phloem-specific lateral root initiation. Phloem-pole pericycle cells were larger and had thinner cell walls compared with the other pericycle cells, highlighting the heterogeneous character of the maize root pericycle. A maize DR5::RFP marker line demonstrated the presence of auxin response maxima in differentiating xylem cells at the root tip and in cells surrounding the proto-phloem vessels. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport indicated that the establishment of the phloem-localized auxin response maxima is crucial for lateral root formation in maize, because in their absence, random divisions of pericycle and endodermis cells occurred, not resulting in organogenesis. These data hint at an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which the establishment of vascular auxin response maxima is required to trigger cells in the flanking outer tissue layer for lateral root initiation. It further indicates that lateral root initiation is not dependent on cellular specification or differentiation of the type of vascular tissue. PMID:22527395

  11. Phloem-associated auxin response maxima determine radial positioning of lateral roots in maize.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Leentje; Roberts, Ianto; De Rycke, Riet; Beeckman, Tom

    2012-06-05

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral-root-forming competence of pericycle cells is associated with their position at the xylem poles and depends on the establishment of protoxylem-localized auxin response maxima. In maize, our histological analyses revealed an interruption of the pericycle at the xylem poles, and confirmed the earlier reported proto-phloem-specific lateral root initiation. Phloem-pole pericycle cells were larger and had thinner cell walls compared with the other pericycle cells, highlighting the heterogeneous character of the maize root pericycle. A maize DR5::RFP marker line demonstrated the presence of auxin response maxima in differentiating xylem cells at the root tip and in cells surrounding the proto-phloem vessels. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport indicated that the establishment of the phloem-localized auxin response maxima is crucial for lateral root formation in maize, because in their absence, random divisions of pericycle and endodermis cells occurred, not resulting in organogenesis. These data hint at an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which the establishment of vascular auxin response maxima is required to trigger cells in the flanking outer tissue layer for lateral root initiation. It further indicates that lateral root initiation is not dependent on cellular specification or differentiation of the type of vascular tissue.

  12. On the determination of the effect of horizontal ionospheric gradients on ranging errors in GNSS positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilogorskaya, Ekaterina A.; Zernov, Nikolay N.; Gherm, Vadim E.; Strangeways, Hal J.

    2016-12-01

    An alternative approach to the traditionally employed method is proposed for treating the ionospheric range errors in transionospheric propagation such as for GNSS positioning or satellite-borne SAR. It enables the effects due to horizontal gradients of electron density (as well as vertical gradients) in the ionosphere to be explicitly accounted for. By contrast with many previous treatments, where the expansion of the solution for the phase advance is represented as the series in the inverse frequency powers and the main term of the expansion corresponds to the true line-of-sight distance from the transmitter to the receiver, in the alternative technique the zero-order term is the rigorous solution for a spherically layered ionosphere with any given vertical electron density profile. The first-order term represents the effects due to the horizontal gradients of the electron density of the ionosphere, and the second-order correction appears to be negligibly small for any reasonable parameters of the path of propagation and its geometry for VHF/UHF frequencies. Additionally, an "effective" spherically symmetric model of the ionosphere has been introduced, which accounts for the major contribution of the horizontal gradients of the ionosphere and provides very high accuracy in calculations of the phase advance.

  13. Use of global positioning system measurements to determine geocentric coordinates and variations in Earth orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geocentric tracking station coordinates and short-period Earth-orientation variations can be measured with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Unless calibrated, geocentric coordinate errors and changes in Earth orientation can lead to significant deep-space tracking errors. Ground-based GPS estimates of daily and subdaily changes in Earth orientation presently show centimeter-level precision. Comparison between GPS-estimated Earth-rotation variations, which are the differences between Universal Time 1 and Universal Coordinated Time (UT1-UTC), and those calculated from ocean tide models suggests that observed subdaily variations in Earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Preliminary GPS estimates for the geocenter location (from a 3-week experiment) agree with independent satellite laser-ranging estimates to better than 10 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for Earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low Earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low Earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales of less than 1 day.

  14. Resilient appliance-therapy treatment outcome in patients with TMD pain correlated to MRI-determined changes in condyle position.

    PubMed

    Limchaichana, Napat; Nilsson, Håkan; Petersson, Arne; Ekberg, EwaCarin

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study if changes in condyle position in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients could be a factor that is affected by resilient appliance therapy and if it influences the treatment outcome. The study investigated 48 patients randomly assigned to a treatment group (T group = 21 patients, using resilient appliance) or a control group (C group = 27 patients, using nonoccluding appliance). Changes in the condyle-fossa relationship (with and without the appliance) were determined in an MRI examination. Ten weeks after treatment, the treatment outcome was measured. The results showed that with the appliance, change in condyle position occurred in 76% of the T group and 22% of the C group (p < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent (67%) of the T group and 44% of the C group experienced a successful treatment outcome. Treatment outcome was not related to changes in condyle position in patients with TMD pain.

  15. A new sensor system for accurate and precise determination of sediment dynamics and position.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Sventek, Joseph; Hodge, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    ), with sampling frequency 4 to 10Hz, for two different initial positions over a range of slopes (from 0.026 to 0.57). The results reveal forces during the pre-entrainment phase and show the effect of slope on the temporal characteristics of the process. Finally we present results from the simulations using a mathematical framework developed to integrate the inertial-dynamics data (corresponding to the above experimental procedure and sensing conceptualization) [Abeywardana et al. 2012] with the mathematical techniques used in contemporary localization applications [Zanella et al. 2012]. We specifically assess different signal filtering techniques in terms of: a) how informative they are regarding the complexity of sediment movement; and, b) how possible it is to reduce rapidly accumulating errors that occur during sensing and increase positional accuracy. References Maniatis, G.; Hoey, T.; Sventek, J. Sensor Enclosures: Example Application and Implications for Data Coherence. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2, 761-779. Abeywardana, D. K., A. P. Hu, and N. Kularatna. "IPT charged wireless sensor module for river sedimentation detection." Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2012 IEEE. IEEE, 2012. Zannella, Fillipo, and Angelo Cenedese. "Multi-agent tracking in wireless sensor networks: implementation." WSEAS Int. Conf. on Information Technology and Computer Networks (ITCN). 2012.

  16. High-Accuracy Self-Calibration for Smart, Optical Orbiting Payloads Integrated with Attitude and Position Determination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Chu, Daping; Liu, Zilong

    2016-01-01

    A high-accuracy space smart payload integrated with attitude and position (SSPIAP) is a new type of optical remote sensor that can autonomously complete image positioning. Inner orientation parameters (IOPs) are a prerequisite for image position determination of an SSPIAP. The calibration of IOPs significantly influences the precision of image position determination of SSPIAPs. IOPs can be precisely measured and calibrated in a laboratory. However, they may drift to a significant degree because of vibrations during complicated launches and on-orbit functioning. Therefore, laboratory calibration methods are not suitable for on-orbit functioning. We propose an on-orbit self-calibration method for SSPIAPs. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) point-source focal plane. A MEMS procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point light sources and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter and the MEMS point light sources focal plane are integrated into an SSPIAP so it can perform integrated self-calibration. Experiments show that our method can achieve micrometer-level precision, which is good enough to complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations. PMID:27472339

  17. Experimental validation for the determination of particle positions by the correlation coefficient method in digital particle holography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Kang, Bo-seon

    2008-11-10

    The feasibility and the accuracy of the correlation coefficient (CC) method for the determination of particle positions along the optical axis in digital particle holography were verified by validation experiments. A translation system capable of high precision was used to move the particle objects by exact known distances between several different positions. The particle positions along the optical axis were calculated by the CC method and compared with their exact values to obtain the errors of the focus plane determination. The tested particles were two-dimensional (2D) dots in a calibration target along with different-sized glass beads and droplets that reflected and caused a three-dimensional (3D) effect. The results show that the CC method can work well for both the 2D dots and the 3D particles. The effect of other particles on the focus plane determination was also investigated. The CC method can locate the focus plane of particles with high precision, regardless of the existence of other particles.

  18. Optimal integer resolution for attitude determination using global positioning system signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new motion-based algorithm for GPS integer ambiguity resolution is derived. The first step of this algorithm converts the reference sightline vectors into body frame vectors. This is accomplished by an optimal vectorized transformation of the phase difference measurements. The result of this transformation leads to the conversion of the integer ambiguities to vectorized biases. This essentially converts the problem to the familiar magnetometer-bias determination problem, for which an optimal and efficient solution exists. Also, the formulation in this paper is re-derived to provide a sequential estimate, so that a suitable stopping condition can be found during the vehicle motion. The advantages of the new algorithm include: it does not require an a-priori estimate of the vehicle's attitude; it provides an inherent integrity check using a covariance-type expression; and it can sequentially estimate the ambiguities during the vehicle motion. The only disadvantage of the new algorithm is that it requires at least three non-coplanar baselines. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator.

  19. False-Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2 % and <0.8 % are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false-positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  20. False-positive rate determination of protein target discovery using a covalent modification- and mass spectrometry-based proteomics platform.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Erin C; Geer, M Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2% and <0.8% are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false-positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  1. False Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. The Stability of Proteins from Rates of Oxidation (SPROX) technique is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False positive rates of 1.2–2.2% and <0.8% are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed. PMID:24114261

  2. 5' sequences are important positive and negative determinants of the longevity of Chlamydomonas chloroplast gene transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, M L; Klein, U; Bogorad, L

    1993-01-01

    We have found that sequences in the 5' leader of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast rbcL gene, when fused 5' to foreign genes, destabilize transcripts of these chimeric genes in the chloroplast of transgenic Chlamydomonas but that 5' sequences of the rbcL structural gene prevent this destabilization. Transcripts of the chloroplast rbcL gene are about equally abundant at all times in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growing on an alternating 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. However, Chlamydomonas chloroplast transformants, harboring chimeric genes containing the same rbcL promoter with 63 or 92 bp of the rbcL 5' leader sequence fused upstream of the Escherichia coli uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) gene, accumulated GUS transcripts only in the dark. Transcripts disappeared rapidly upon illumination of the cells. The same phenomenon was exhibited by transcripts of chimeric genes in which the GUS gene coding sequence was replaced by other unrelated genes. The precipitous light-induced drop in GUS transcript abundance was found to be due to an approximately 16-fold increase in the rate of degradation of GUS transcripts in light rather than to a decrease in the rate of transcription of the GUS gene. Transcripts of a chimeric rbcL-GUS construct in which the leader sequence of the rbcL gene was replaced by 103 bp of the leader sequence of the atpB gene were stable in illuminated cells. The destabilizing effect of the rbcL 5' leader sequence was reversed by adding 257 bp of the 5' coding region of the rbcL gene. The results show that chloroplast transcript levels in illuminated Chlamydomonas cells--and perhaps in other cases--can be determined, at least to some extent, by sequences and interactions of sequences transcribed from the 5' ends of genes. Images PMID:8434017

  3. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p < 0.001) or indirect calorimetry (2.64 vs. 2.92 kcal/kg/h, p = 0.017). Conclusion Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry gave similar estimates of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was 10% lower in the prone position than in the supine position.

  4. Determination of the reference position in the near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2016-10-01

    Position-based reference measurement method is taken as one of the most promising method in non-invasive measurement of blood glucose based on spectroscopic methodology. Selecting an appropriate source-detector separation as the reference position is important for deducting the influence of background change and reducing the loss of useful signals. Our group proposed a special source-detector separation named floating-reference position where the signal contains only background change, that is to say, the signal at this source-detector separation is uncorrelated with glucose concentration. The existence of floating-reference position has been verified in a three layer skin by Monte Carlo simulation and in the in vitro experiment. But it is difficult to verify the existence of floating-reference position on the human body because the interference is more complex during in vivo experiment. Aiming at this situation, this paper studies the determination of the best reference position on human body by collecting signals at several source-detector separations on the palm and measuring the true blood glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) experiments of 3 volunteers. Partial least square (PLS) calibration model is established between the signals at every source-detector separation and its corresponding blood glucose levels. The results shows that the correlation coefficient (R) between 1.32 mm to 1.88 mm is lowest and they can be used as reference for background correction. The signal of this special position is important for improving the accuracy of near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  5. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  6. Wrist skin temperature, motor activity, and body position as determinants of the circadian pattern of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, A; Martinez-Nicolas, A; Salazar, F J; Rol, M A; Madrid, J A

    2012-07-01

    Although the circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern has been extensively studied, the determinants of this rhythm are not fully understood. Peripheral vasodilatation is a regulatory mechanism for BP maintenance. However, it remains to be established whether the increase of nocturnal distal skin temperature associated with heat loss could also reflect the dipping status. For the first time, this paper investigates the relationship between BP and skin wrist temperature (WT), to evaluate whether the WT circadian rhythm can serve as screening procedure to detect dipping/non-dipping BP patterns. In addition, the authors compare the relationship between WT and other variables previously described as determinants of the BP pattern, such as physical activity and body position. Measurements of WT, motor activity, and body position for 5 d, plus ambulatory BP for 24-h during that span, were obtained from 28 diurnally active normotensive volunteers. WT was negatively correlated, whereas activity and body position were positively correlated, with systolic and diastolic BPs. However, these relationships were stronger during the rest than activity phase. In addition, a 78.6% concordance was detected between the observed dips in BP and the predicted BP pattern calculated based on the WT rhythm. Thus, these results suggest that the increase in WT produced by heat loss during the rest phase through peripheral skin blood vessels is the result of blood vessel vasodilatation reflexes in response to a shift from a standing to a supine position, together with shift in the circadian sympathetic/parasympathetic balance (nocturnal parasympathetic activation). In conclusion, WT could be considered as a potential new screening procedure to implement the diagnosis of non-dipping BP pattern.

  7. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  8. Modified Occlusal Rim Design and Use of Phonetics to Determine Anterior Tooth Position and Vertical Dimension: A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Romero, Mario F; DeRosa, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients can sometimes pose many clinical challenges for the clinician. The importance of correct vertical and horizontal positioning of the anterior teeth so that the completed denture is esthetically pleasing while being functionally correct has been well documented in the literature. Different techniques have been proposed whereby a conventional occlusal rim is used. The wax-rim thickness of this design can interfere with the neutral zone, making normal phonetics difficult. In this report, a completely edentulous patient received treatment using a modified occlusal rim so that phonetics could be used to determine the anterior tooth position and vertical dimension, following a strict adherence to a clinical protocol. The methodology involved the use of heat-processed resin record bases and a thin segment of baseplate wax that mimics anterior teeth. This approach resulted in a more natural feeling for the patient and provided the clinician the necessary information for the laboratory, which was easily communicated.

  9. Determination of the anode wire position by visible light in a new type straw for NA62 experiment tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glonti, L.; Misheva, M.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Samsonov, V.; Movchan, S.; Enik, T.; Kolesnikov, A.

    2016-07-01

    Microscope investigations of new-type thin-wall tubes (straws) produced for NA62 drift chambers revealed that they are semitransparent and allow anode wires to be observed under illumination by visible light. In this work it is shown that positions of wires in straws and thus the anode spacing in the drift chambers can be directly determined with a high accuracy ( 5-10 μm) using a microscope mounted on a high-precision optical bench. These data are important for decreasing errors during reconstruction of charged particle track coordinates in the drift chambers. The proposed technique is much simpler than the X-ray or radioactive source methods.

  10. Dynamic Method of Neutral Axis Position Determination and Damage Identification with Distributed Long-Gauge FBG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yongsheng; Ren, Zhongdao

    2017-01-01

    The neutral axis position (NAP) is a key parameter of a flexural member for structure design and safety evaluation. The accuracy of NAP measurement based on traditional methods does not satisfy the demands of structural performance assessment especially under live traffic loads. In this paper, a new method to determine NAP is developed by using modal macro-strain (MMS). In the proposed method, macro-strain is first measured with long-gauge Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; then the MMS is generated from the measured macro-strain with Fourier transform; and finally the neutral axis position coefficient (NAPC) is determined from the MMS and the neutral axis depth is calculated with NAPC. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, some experiments on FE models, steel beam and reinforced concrete (RC) beam were conducted. From the results, the plane section was first verified with MMS of the first bending mode. Then the results confirmed the high accuracy and stability for assessing NAP. The results also proved that the NAPC was a good indicator of local damage. In summary, with the proposed method, accurate assessment of flexural structures can be facilitated. PMID:28230747

  11. Dynamic Method of Neutral Axis Position Determination and Damage Identification with Distributed Long-Gauge FBG Sensors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongsheng; Ren, Zhongdao

    2017-02-20

    The neutral axis position (NAP) is a key parameter of a flexural member for structure design and safety evaluation. The accuracy of NAP measurement based on traditional methods does not satisfy the demands of structural performance assessment especially under live traffic loads. In this paper, a new method to determine NAP is developed by using modal macro-strain (MMS). In the proposed method, macro-strain is first measured with long-gauge Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; then the MMS is generated from the measured macro-strain with Fourier transform; and finally the neutral axis position coefficient (NAPC) is determined from the MMS and the neutral axis depth is calculated with NAPC. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, some experiments on FE models, steel beam and reinforced concrete (RC) beam were conducted. From the results, the plane section was first verified with MMS of the first bending mode. Then the results confirmed the high accuracy and stability for assessing NAP. The results also proved that the NAPC was a good indicator of local damage. In summary, with the proposed method, accurate assessment of flexural structures can be facilitated.

  12. Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Antti P; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Harrod, Chris; Jones, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic high-latitude lakes. We analyzed food-web structure and resource use by a generalist top predator, the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in 17 oligotrophic subarctic lakes covering a marked gradient in size (0.5-1084 km(2)) and fish species richness (2-13 species). We expected top predators to shift from littoral to pelagic energy sources with increasing lake size, as the availability of pelagic prey resources and the competition for littoral prey are both likely to be higher in large lakes with multispecies fish communities. We also expected top predators to occupy a higher trophic position in lakes with greater fish species richness due to potential substitution of intermediate consumers (prey fish) and increased piscivory by top predators. Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, the mean reliance of Arctic charr on littoral energy sources showed a significant negative relationship with lake surface area, whereas the mean trophic position of Arctic charr, reflecting the lake food-chain length, increased with fish species richness. These results were supported by stomach contents data demonstrating a shift of Arctic charr from an invertebrate-dominated diet to piscivory on pelagic fish. Our study highlights that, because they determine the main energy source (littoral vs. pelagic) and the trophic position of generalist top predators, ecosystem size and fish diversity are particularly important factors influencing function and

  13. [Determining the car driver's position at the moment of the frontal crash with a moving KAMAZ truck].

    PubMed

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical and autotechnical expertise for determining the positions of the driver and the first seat passenger of the GAS-3110 car at the moment of the frontal crash with a KAMAZ-5312 truck. The comparative analysis of the injuries in two subjects one of whom died as a result of the given accident made it possible to conclude that he had occupied the driver's seat in the car. The differential diagnosis was based on the peculiarities of the injuries to the upper extremities with the predominance of the most severe wounds at the right side of the body. Also taken into consideration were the specific conditions of the given frontal collision, design of the GAS-3110 passenger compartment, winter season, night time, and possible neglect of the passive safety means, etc.

  14. Cell type-specific expression of JC virus early promoter is determined by positive and negative regulation.

    PubMed

    Tada, H; Lashgari, M; Rappaport, J; Khalili, K

    1989-01-01

    We analyzed control sequences of the human papovavirus JC virus (JCV) to define the cis-acting elements that regulate specific expression of the viral early region genes in glial cells. Nuclear run-on transcription, S1 analysis, and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme activity in a transient transfection assay established that the cell type-specific expression of JCV early genes is determined at the transcriptional level. Using DNase footprinting analysis of nuclear proteins prepared from glial and nonglial cells, we located four regions within the JCV control sequences that specifically interacted with the proteins. In glial cells, all four domains contributed to the specific expression of a heterologous promoter, whereas in nonglial cells, two protein-binding regions showed no effect on basal transcriptional activity and the other two domains significantly downregulated transcription of the promoter. We conclude that cell type-specific transcription of the JCV early promoter is under both positive and negative regulation in eucaryotic cells.

  15. Do release-site biases reflect response to the Earth's magnetic field during position determination by homing pigeons?

    PubMed

    Mora, Cordula V; Walker, Michael M

    2009-09-22

    How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within +/-29 degrees of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft.

  16. Determination of mean surface position and sea state from the radar return of a short-pulse satellite altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrick, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Using the specular point theory of scatter from a very rough surface, the average backscatter cross section per unit area per radar cell width is derived for a cell located at a given height above the mean sea surface. This result is then applied to predict the average radar cross section observed by a short-pulse altimeter as a function of time for two modes of operation: pulse-limited and beam-limited configurations. For a pulse-limited satellite altimeter, a family of curves is calculated showing the distortion of the leading edge of the receiver output signal as a function of sea state (i.e., wind speed). A signal processing scheme is discussed that permits an accurate determination of the mean surface position--even in high seas--and, as a by-product, the estimation of the significant seawave height (or wind speed above the surface). Comparison of these analytical results with experimental data for both pulse-limited and beam-limited operation lends credence to the model. Such a model should aid in the design of short-pulse altimeters for accurate determination of the geoid over the oceans, as well as for the use of such altimeters for orbital sea-state monitoring.

  17. Isotopic Methods for Determining the Relative Importance of Bioavailability Versus Trophic Position in Controlling Mercury Concentrations in Everglades Mosquitofish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, B. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    activity, methylmercury production, and mosquitofish mercury concentrations. The d15N, d13C, and d34S values of mosquitofish and periphyton are significantly correlated, indicating that a component of the bulk periphyton analyzed in this study is part of the mosquitofish food web. Mosquitofish mercury does not correlate significantly with tissue d15N or the d15N difference between mosquitofish and periphyton. Thus, differences in trophic level (and bioaccumulation) among the fish do not contribute a detectable influence on mercury variations in the samples studied. In contrast with the d15N results, mosquitofish mercury levels show significant, positive correlations with mosquitofish d34S and the d34S difference between mosquitofish and periphyton. This suggests that during the period studied, mosquitofish mercury concentrations in the Everglades were primarily influenced by the bioavailability of mercury, rather than by differences in trophic position. This study demonstrates that isotopic measurements, especially d34S, can be useful tools for determining causes of high mercury concentrations in fish populations.

  18. Accuracy of determination of position and width of molecular groups in biological and lipid membranes via neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Gordeliy, V I; Chernov, N I

    1997-07-01

    Neutron diffraction combined with the deuterium-labelled molecular groups of biological and model membrane components allows one to detect with high accuracy the structure of these objects. Experiments of this kind are only possible at unique high-flux neutron sources, and the planning of neutron-diffraction experiments must take into account some special requirements primarily related to the duration of the experiment and the accuracy of estimation of membrane structure parameters as a result of finite time of the measurements. This paper deals with the question of statistical accuracy of the position x(0) and width v of the distribution of deuterium labels in membranes along the normal of their plane, which are determined in a neutron diffraction experiment. It is shown that the accuracy of x(0) and v estimation does not depend on membrane constitution. It is dependent only on the scattering amplitude of the deuterium label, the label position x(0) and the distribution width v. Analytic calculations show that the statistical errors Deltax(0) and Deltav are inversely proportional to the scattering amplitude of the label and, as usual, to the square root of measurement time. The question of Deltax0 and Deltav dependence on the number of structure factors used in the calculations of x(0) and v is also studied. It is shown that, the accuracy of x(0) estimation is approximately constant with down to four structure factors used, and, with the number of the factors below four, it deteriorates drastically. Analogous is the behaviour of Deltav(h(max)) relation with one exception: abrupt deterioration of the accuracy occurs beginning with five structure factors used. One does not have to measure the highest diffraction reflections which takes a much longer time compared with the first ones. It is an important result. All the problems mentioned above have also been considered for the case of two different deuterium labels in membranes.

  19. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; Sitha

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  20. Positional identity of murine mesenchymal stem cells resident in different organs is determined in the postsegmentation mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Sági, Bernadett; Maraghechi, Pouneh; Urbán, Veronika S; Hegyi, Beáta; Szigeti, Anna; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Kudlik, Gyöngyi; Német, Katalin; Monostori, Eva; Gócza, Elen; Uher, Ferenc

    2012-03-20

    Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of distinct tissue origin have a large number of similarities and differences, it has not been determined so far whether tissue-resident MSCs are the progenies of one ancestor cell lineage or the results of parallel cell developmental events. Here we compared the expression levels of 177 genes in murine MSCs derived from adult and juvenile bone marrow and adult adipose tissue, as well as juvenile spleen, thymus, and aorta wall by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and the results were partially validated at protein level. All MSC lines uniformly expressed a large set of genes including well-known mesenchymal markers, such as α-smooth muscle actin, collagen type I α-chain, GATA6, Mohawk, and vimentin. In contrast, pluripotency genes and the early mesodermal marker T-gene were not expressed. On the other hand, different MSC lines consistently expressed distinct patterns of Hox genes determining the positional identity of a given cell population. Moreover, MSCs of different origin expressed a few other transcription factors also reflecting their topological identity and so the body segment or organ to which they normally contributed in vivo: (1) thymus-derived cells specifically expressed Tbx5 and Pitx2; (2) spleen-derived MSCs were characterized with Tlx1 and Nkx2.5; (3) Pitx1 designated femoral bone marrow cells and (4) En2 appeared in aorta wall-derived MSCs. Thus, MSCs exhibited topographic identity and memory even after long-term cultivation in vitro. On the basis of these results, we suggest that postnatal MSCs isolated from different anatomical sites descend from precursor cells developing in the postsegmentation mesoderm.

  1. Measurement of the positive muon lifetime and determination of the Fermi constant to part-per-million precision.

    PubMed

    Webber, D M; Tishchenko, V; Peng, Q; Battu, S; Carey, R M; Chitwood, D B; Crnkovic, J; Debevec, P T; Dhamija, S; Earle, W; Gafarov, A; Giovanetti, K; Gorringe, T P; Gray, F E; Hartwig, Z; Hertzog, D W; Johnson, B; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Kizilgul, S; Kunkle, J; Lauss, B; Logashenko, I; Lynch, K R; McNabb, R; Miller, J P; Mulhauser, F; Onderwater, C J G; Phillips, J; Rath, S; Roberts, B L; Winter, P; Wolfe, B

    2011-01-28

    We report a measurement of the positive muon lifetime to a precision of 1.0 ppm; it is the most precise particle lifetime ever measured. The experiment used a time-structured, low-energy muon beam and a segmented plastic scintillator array to record more than 2×10(12) decays. Two different stopping target configurations were employed in independent data-taking periods. The combined results give τ(μ(+)) (MuLan)=2 196 980.3(2.2)  ps, more than 15 times as precise as any previous experiment. The muon lifetime gives the most precise value for the Fermi constant: G(F) (MuLan)=1.166 378 8(7)×10(-5)  GeV(-2) (0.6 ppm). It is also used to extract the μ(-)p singlet capture rate, which determines the proton's weak induced pseudoscalar coupling g(P).

  2. Radio Interferometric Determination of Source Positions, Intercontinental Baselines, and Earth Orientation with Deep Space Network Antennas: 1971 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.; Sovers, O. J.; Fanselow, J. L.; Cohen, E. J.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Rogstad, D. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 2400 observations of extragalactic radio sources were made between August 1971 and February 1980 during 48 separate sessions. These consisted of 259 delay rate observations at 2.3 GHz (S-band), 796 delay and delay rate observations at either S-band of 8.3 GHz (X-band) and 1325 delay and delay rate observations recorded simultaneously at both S- and X-band. A single multiparameter fit has been applied to the observed values of delay and delay rate to extract astrometric and geophysical parameters from this decade-long sequence. The fit produced estimates of 784 parameters, including station locations, radio source positions, polar motion, Universal Time, the precession constant, and solid earth tides. The a priori model included gravitational bending, the 1980 IAU nutation series, the 1976 IAU expressions for Greenwich mean sidereal time and precession, BIH estimates of Universal Time and polar motion, and monthly mean values for zenith troposphere delay. The rms residuals were 0.52 nsec for delay and 0.30 psec/sec for delay rate. Intercontinental baseline lengths were determined with formal uncertainties of 5 to 10 cm. Universal Time and polar motion were measured at 49 epochs, with formal uncertainties (for the more recent data) of 0.5 msec for UT1 and 6 and 2 mas, respectively, for the X and Y components of polar motion.

  3. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... placement or retention of individuals in positions involving regular contact with Indian children? 136.414... positions involving regular contact with Indian children? (a) Adjudication is the process IHS uses...

  4. Healthy Daughters, Healthy Futures: A Focus Group Analysis to Determine Factors for Enhancing Positive Youth Development for Latina Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Errickson, Sadye Paez; Berry, Diane C

    2015-01-01

    Positive youth development is designed to promote healthy physical, intellectual, psychosocial, and emotional development in the transition from adolescence to adulthood through a primary focus on youth's inherent capacity for positive growth. We conducted 2 focus groups, 1 with Latina mothers (n = 4) and 1 with Latina daughters (n = 4) in central North Carolina, to explore their views on positive youth development. Latina mothers and daughters discussed problems they faced with future aspirations, definitions of health, and cultural differences. These findings can provide a foundation for developing an intervention to empower Latina youth to make a healthy transition to adulthood.

  5. Repulsive cues combined with physical barriers and cell–cell adhesion determine progenitor cell positioning during organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paksa, Azadeh; Bandemer, Jan; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Razin, Nitzan; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Minina, Sofia; Meyen, Dana; Biundo, Antonio; Leidel, Sebastian A.; Peyrieras, Nadine; Gov, Nir S.; Keller, Philipp J.; Raz, Erez

    2016-01-01

    The precise positioning of organ progenitor cells constitutes an essential, yet poorly understood step during organogenesis. Using primordial germ cells that participate in gonad formation, we present the developmental mechanisms maintaining a motile progenitor cell population at the site where the organ develops. Employing high-resolution live-cell microscopy, we find that repulsive cues coupled with physical barriers confine the cells to the correct bilateral positions. This analysis revealed that cell polarity changes on interaction with the physical barrier and that the establishment of compact clusters involves increased cell–cell interaction time. Using particle-based simulations, we demonstrate the role of reflecting barriers, from which cells turn away on contact, and the importance of proper cell–cell adhesion level for maintaining the tight cell clusters and their correct positioning at the target region. The combination of these developmental and cellular mechanisms prevents organ fusion, controls organ positioning and is thus critical for its proper function. PMID:27088892

  6. Evaluation of routine postoperative chest roentgenogram for determination of the correct position of permanent central venous catheters tip

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Fereshteh; Hekmatnia, Ali; Shahabi, Javad; Keshavarzian, Amir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proper placement of central venous catheter (CVC) tip could reduce early and late catheter-related complications. Although the live fluoroscopy is standard of care for placement of the catheter, it is not available in many centers. Therefore, the present study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of bedside chest X-ray (CXR) for proper positioning of the catheter tip. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled CVC were enrolled in this study during 2010-2012. The catheter tip position was evaluated by postoperative bedside chest radiographs as well as trans-thoracic echocardiogram as definite diagnostic tool. The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium both in CXR or echocardiography. Finally, CXRs interpreted by expert radiologist. Thus findings were compared by echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The patients were 57.37 ± 18.91 years of age, weighed 65.79 ± 15.58 kg and were 166.36 ± 9.91 cm tall. Sensitivity and specificity of CXR for proper catheter tip position were 74.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.2% and 28%. In addition accuracy, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 71.9%, 1.78, and 2.27 respectively. Conclusion: Bedside CXR alone does not reliably predict malpositioning after CVC placement. PMID:25767527

  7. Determinants of better health: a cross-sectional assessment of positive deviants among women in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural women in West Bengal have been found to have low rates of formal education, poor health knowledge, high rates of malnutrition and anemia, and low levels of empowerment. Despite these difficult circumstances, some women have positive health outcomes compared to women with similarly disadvantaged backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with positive health outcomes among women with primary education or less. Methods Multivariable regression models were built for outcomes of positive deviance to better characterize the factors in a woman’s life that most impact her ability to deviate from the status quo. Results Positive deviants in this context are shown to be women who are able to earn an income, who have access to information through media sources, and who, despite little schooling, have marginally higher levels of formal education that lead to improved health outcomes. Conclusions Study findings indicate that positive deviant women in disadvantaged circumstances can achieve positive outcomes amidst a host of contextual barriers that would predict poor health outcomes. Focusing on areas such as enhancing access to media sources, facilitating self-help groups for married women, and promoting prolonged education and delayed marriage for girls may improve health knowledge and behavior among married women with low levels of education. PMID:23601509

  8. Social determinants of syphilis in South China: the effect of sibling position on syphilis and sexual risk behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Young, Darwin; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Adimora, Adaora A

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the relationship between sibling position and sexual risk based on behavioural and syphilis infection data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in South China. Design A cross-sectional study examining sexual behaviours and syphilis infection. Setting 4 STI clinics in the Pearl River Delta of South China. Participants 1792 Chinese men and women attending STI clinics. Primary outcome measures STI history, syphilis infection defined as positive non-treponemal and treponemal tests. Results Among all clinic patients, 824 (46.3%) were first-born, 354 (19.9%) were middle-born and 602 (33.8%) were final-born. Middle-born individuals had a higher percentage of reported STI history (44.7% compared to 34.7%, p<0.001) and syphilis infection (9.7% compared to 4.9%, p=0.01) among men (n=1163) compared to other sibling positions in bivariate analyses, but not in the final multivariate model. The relationship between sibling position and syphilis was independent of income and education level. There was no trend observed between middle-born position and female sexual risk behaviours (n=626). Higher education was significantly associated with syphilis among women and men in respective multivariate models. Conclusions This study suggests that middle-born men in China may have an increased sexual risk compared to other sibling positions. As Chinese family and social structures change, a more thorough understanding of how demographic factors influence sexual risk behaviours is needed. PMID:23793689

  9. Regional neural response differences in the determination of faces or houses positioned in a wide visual field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Tianyi; Wu, Jinglong; Chen, Kewei; Imajyo, Satoshi; Ohno, Seiichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    In human visual cortex, the primary visual cortex (V1) is considered to be essential for visual information processing; the fusiform face area (FFA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA) are considered as face-selective region and places-selective region, respectively. Recently, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study showed that the neural activity ratios between V1 and FFA were constant as eccentricities increasing in central visual field. However, in wide visual field, the neural activity relationships between V1 and FFA or V1 and PPA are still unclear. In this work, using fMRI and wide-view present system, we tried to address this issue by measuring neural activities in V1, FFA and PPA for the images of faces and houses aligning in 4 eccentricities and 4 meridians. Then, we further calculated ratio relative to V1 (RRV1) as comparing the neural responses amplitudes in FFA or PPA with those in V1. We found V1, FFA, and PPA showed significant different neural activities to faces and houses in 3 dimensions of eccentricity, meridian, and region. Most importantly, the RRV1s in FFA and PPA also exhibited significant differences in 3 dimensions. In the dimension of eccentricity, both FFA and PPA showed smaller RRV1s at central position than those at peripheral positions. In meridian dimension, both FFA and PPA showed larger RRV1s at upper vertical positions than those at lower vertical positions. In the dimension of region, FFA had larger RRV1s than PPA. We proposed that these differential RRV1s indicated FFA and PPA might have different processing strategies for encoding the wide field visual information from V1. These different processing strategies might depend on the retinal position at which faces or houses are typically observed in daily life. We posited a role of experience in shaping the information processing strategies in the ventral visual cortex.

  10. Optimal Positioning for Volar Plate Fixation of a Distal Radius Fracture: Determining the Distal Dorsal Cortical Distance.

    PubMed

    Vosbikian, Michael M; Ketonis, Constantinos; Huang, Ronald; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are currently among the most common fractures of the musculoskeletal system. With a population that is living longer, being more active, and the increasing incidence of osteoporosis, these injuries will continue to become increasingly prevalent. When operative fixation is indicated, the volar locking plate has recently become the treatment of choice. However, despite its success, suboptimal position of the volar locking plate can still result in radiographic loss of reduction. The distal dorsal cortical distance is being introduced as an intraoperative radiographic tool to help optimize plate position and minimize late loss of fracture reduction.

  11. Mass and position determination of an accreted particle from the vibration of a beam-based nanomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shujun; Xiu, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    We present a generalized theoretical analysis of the vibration of a micro/nano bridge resonator with a particle at an arbitrary location by considering the combined effect of the beam stiffness and string tension in the resonator. By combining resonant frequencies of at most three consecutive symmetric vibration modes, the developed model can unambiguously resolve the particle mass and position. The methodology is verified using published results. The finding is further validated numerically by finite element modeling using a microbridge with and without an added particle, which proves that the method resolves the particle mass and position with high accuracy.

  12. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  13. 42 CFR 136.409 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of eligibility for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.409... retention? (a) All positions that allow an individual regular contact with or control over Indian children... regular contact with or control over Indian children. The list will be periodically updated and...

  14. 42 CFR 136.409 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of eligibility for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.409... retention? (a) All positions that allow an individual regular contact with or control over Indian children... regular contact with or control over Indian children. The list will be periodically updated and...

  15. MAAG Job Position: Rolebooks and Technical Vocabulary (Iberian Spanish). Methods for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria, Volume VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; And Others

    Rolebooks and technical Iberian Spanish vocabulary for the job position of military advisory and assistance group (MAAG) officer of the Air Force are presented. The materials are part of the communication/language objectives-based system (C/LOBS), which supports the front-end analysis efforts of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language…

  16. Markers of Fibroblast Growth Factor Family-Mediated Growth Signal Transduction as Determinants of Successful Hormonal Therapy for Patients with Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    To determine whether FGFR -3 expression correlated with antiestrogen resistance, two high titer polyclonal rabbit antibodies were generated against...two peptides present in the FGFR -3 protein. Pathological specimens from 181 patients with estrogen receptor positive breast tumors that received...patients. To determine the suitability of the FGFR -3 antibodies for use in immunohistochemical as says with sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin

  17. Analysis and comparison of monoenergetic fast neutron fluence determination using 238U samples at different positions with respect to the neutron source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohui; Liu, Xiang; Gao, Zhiqi; Wu, Hao; Liu, Jiaming

    2012-05-01

    Using two (238)U samples placed in a gridded ionization chamber and a parallel-plate fission chamber, fluence of monoenergetic fast neutrons was determined. Four runs of measurements were performed. Analysis showed that although the neutron fluences for the two (238)U samples differ by 20-33 times in the present work, the fluences at the position of the sample in the gridded ionization chamber determined by the two ways are in agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  18. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid identification of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rödel, J; Bohnert, J A; Stoll, S; Wassill, L; Edel, B; Karrasch, M; Löffler, B; Pfister, W

    2017-01-06

    The use of molecular assays to rapidly identify pathogens and resistance genes directly from positive blood cultures (BCs) contribute to shortening the time required for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. In this work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been examined for their potential use in BC diagnosis. Three different assays were applied. The commercially available eazyplex® MRSA test detects Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, mecA, and mecC. Two in-house assays [Gram-positive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN)] have been developed for the detection of streptococci, enterococci, vanA, vanB, Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and the bla CTX-M family. A total of 370 positive BCs were analyzed. LAMP test results were obtained within 30 min, including sample preparation. Amplification was measured by real-time fluorescence detection. The threshold time for fluorescence intensity values ranged from 6.25 to 13.75 min. The specificity and sensitivity of the assays varied depending on the target. Overall, from 87.7% of BCs, true-positive results were obtained, compared to routine standard diagnosis. Twenty-one tests were true-negative because of the lack of an appropriate target (5.7%). The concordance of positive test results for resistance genes with subsequent antibiotic susceptibility testing was 100%. From 15 BC bottles with mixed cultures, eazyplex® assays produced correct results in 73% of the cases. This study shows that LAMP assays are fast and cost-saving tools for rapid BC testing in order to expedite the diagnostic report and improve the antibiotic stewardship for sepsis patients.

  19. An improved colorimetric method for the determination of proline in the presence of other ninhydrin-positive compounds

    PubMed Central

    Wren, J. J.; Wiggall, P. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The conditions required for sensitive and specific colorimetric determination of proline with acidified ninhydrin were investigated. 2. A method applicable to protein samples was developed. 3. The only compound found to interfere appreciably was a hydroxyproline. PMID:14342233

  20. Resonance lamp absorption technique for simultaneous determination of the OH concentration and temperature at 10 spatial positions in combustion environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Gregory, Ray W.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, easy to implement, line-of-sight absorption instrument which utilizes a low pressure water vapor microwave discharge cell as the light source, has been developed to make simultaneous measurements of the OH concentration and temperature at 10 spatial positions. The design, theory, and capability of the instrument are discussed. Results of the measurements obtained on a methane/air flat flame burner are compared with those obtained using a single-frequency, tunable dye laser system.

  1. Enhancing real-time precise point positioning with zenith troposphere delay products and the determination of corresponding tropospheric stochastic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yibin; Peng, Wenjie; Xu, Chaoqian; Cheng, Shuyang

    2017-02-01

    By introducing two types of zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) products in precise point positioning (PPP), we developed the ZTD-corrected PPP and the ZTD-constrained PPP, both of them reduced the PPP convergence time. Both enhanced PPP methods are examined by global empirical ZTD models and regional ZTD corrections. For global ZTD models, we verified that ZTD-corrected PPP will deviate the positioning results, while ZTD-constrained PPP could produce unbiased estimations. Therefore, the latter is utilized to study the performance of global ZTD models (ITG, GPT2w, GZTD and UNB3m). After numerous experiments, we found that the performance of ZTD models was positively related to the real ZTD accuracy, and we proposed a universal tropospheric stochastic model 2SQR(9rms) which denotes double the square of nine times ZTD rms, to constrain ZTD in PPP. The proposed model subsequently was validated by real-time static and kinematic ZTD-constrained PPP on the premise that the ZTD rms on every station was known. Compared with traditional PPP, in static PPP, the number of improved stations is increased by 15.5 per cent (ITG), 14.4 per cent (GPT2w), 11.1 per cent (GZTD) and 8.3 per cent (UNB3m). For kinematic PPP, PPP constrained by ITG model still had the best performance, the number of improved stations is increased by 14.4 per cent, after 30 min of initialization time, 13.4 cm east, 13.4 cm north and 11.7 cm up positioning accuracy was obtained, compared with 15.3 cm east, 15.3 cm north and 14.3 cm up accuracy by traditional PPP. In addition, experiments using regional ZTD corrections to enhance real-time PPP showed that both ZTD-corrected PPP and ZTD-constrained PPP can notably reduce the convergence time on the vertical component (within 15 cm).

  2. Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A W; Nichols, James D; Gude, Justin A; Rich, Lindsey N; Podruzny, Kevin M; Hines, James E; Mitchell, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007-2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state's annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations.

  3. Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David A. W.; Nichols, James D.; Gude, Justin A.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Hines, James E.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007–2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state’s annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations. PMID:23840372

  4. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  5. The size and internal structure of a heterochromatic block determine its ability to induce position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Tolchkov, E V; Rasheva, V I; Bonaccorsi, S; Westphal, T; Gvozdev, V A

    2000-01-01

    In the In(1LR)pn2a rearrangement, the 1A-2E euchromatic segment is transposed to the vicinity of X heterochromatin (Xh), resulting in position effect variegation (PEV) of the genes in the 2BE region. Practically the whole X-linked heterochromatin is situated adjacent to variegated euchromatic genes. Secondary rearrangements showing weakening or reversion of PEV were obtained by irradiation of the In(1LR)pn2a. These rearrangements demonstrate a positive correlation between the strength of PEV of the wapl locus and the sizes of the adjacent heterochromatic blocks carrying the centromere. The smallest PEV-inducing fragment consists of a block corresponding to approximately 10% of Xh and containing the entire XR, the centromere, and a very proximal portion of XL heterochromatin. Heterochromatic blocks retaining the entire XR near the 2E region, but lacking the centromere, show no PEV. Reversion of PEV was also observed as a result of an internal rearrangement of the Xh blocks where the centromere is moved away from the eu-heterochromatin boundary but the amount of X heterochromatin remaining adjacent to 2E is unchanged. We propose a primary role of the X pericentromeric region in PEV induction and an enhancing effect of the other blocks, positively correlated with their size. PMID:10747057

  6. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  7. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  8. Performance Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture Test for Direct Identification of Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Cultures in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Gilman K. H.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ng, T. K.; Lee, Rodney A.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; To, Sabrina W. C.; Wong, Barry K. C.; Cheung, Sherman; Wong, Ivan W. F.; Tam, Marble M. P.; Lee, Swing S. W.; Yam, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance and the time to identifcation of the Verigene Blood Culture Test, the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, to identify both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their drug resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures collected in Hong Kong. Methods and Results A total of 364 blood cultures were prospectively collected from four public hospitals, in which 114 and 250 cultures yielded Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and were tested with the BC-GP and BC-GN assay respectively. The overall identification agreement for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 89.6% and 90.5% in monomicrobial cultures and 62.5% and 53.6% in polymicrobial cultures, respectively. The sensitivities for most genus/species achieved at least 80% except Enterococcus spp. (60%), K.oxytoca (0%), K.pneumoniae (69.2%), whereas the specificities for all targets ranged from 98.9% to 100%. Of note, 50% (7/14) cultures containing K.pneumoniae that were missed by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as K.variicola. Approximately 5.5% (20/364) cultures contained non-target organisms, of which Aeromonas spp. accounted for 25% and are of particular concern. For drug resistance determination, the Verigene test showed 100% sensitivity for identification of MRSA, VRE and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter, and 84.4% for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae based on the positive detection of mecA, vanA, blaOXA and blaCTXM respectively. Conclusion Overall, the Verigene test provided acceptable accuracy for identification of bacteria and resistance markers with a range of turnaround time 40.5 to 99.2 h faster than conventional methods in our region. PMID:26431434

  9. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion.

  10. Early molecular response to posttransplantation imatinib determines outcome in MRD+ Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL).

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Barbara; Pfeifer, Heike; Stadler, Michael; Bornhaüser, Martin; Bug, Gesine; Scheuring, Urban J; Brück, Patrick; Stelljes, Matthias; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Basara, Nadezda; Perz, Jolanta; Bunjes, Donald; Ledderose, Georg; Mahlberg, Rolf; Binckebanck, Anja; Gschaidmeier, Harald; Hoelzer, Dieter; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2005-07-15

    In adult Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL), minimal residual disease (MRD) after stem cell transplantation (SCT) is associated with a relapse probability exceeding 90%. Starting imatinib in the setting of MRD may decrease this high relapse rate. In this prospective multicenter study, 27 Ph+ ALL patients received imatinib upon detection of MRD after SCT. Bcr-abl transcripts became undetectable in 14 (52%) of 27 patients, after a median of 1.5 months (0.9-3.7 months) ((early)CR(mol)). All patients who achieved an (early)CR(mol) remained in remission for the duration of imatinib treatment; 3 patients relapsed after imatinib was discontinued. Failure to achieve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity shortly after starting imatinib predicted relapse, which occurred in 12 (92%) of 13 patients after a median of 3 months. Disease-free survival (DFS) in (early)CR(mol) patients is 91% +/- 9% and 54% +/- 21% after 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared with 8% +/- 7% after 12 months in patients remaining MRD+ (P < .001). In conclusion, approximately half of patients with Ph+ ALL receiving imatinib for MRD positivity after SCT experience prolonged DFS, which can be anticipated by the rapid achievement of a molecular complete remission (CR). Continued detection of bcr-abl transcripts after 2 to 3 months on imatinib identifies patients who will ultimately experience relapse and in whom additional or alternative antileukemic treatment should be initiated.

  11. The position of deuterium in HOD—NNO as determined by structural and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants

    SciTech Connect

    Obenchain, Daniel A.; Frank, Derek S.; Novick, Stewart E.; Klemperer, William

    2015-08-28

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound H{sub 2}O—N{sub 2}O complex and its HOD—N{sub 2}O isotopologue in a supersonic jet are reported. Rotational constants of the singly substituted deuterium in water and each singly substituted nitrogen-15 are presented. Combinations of isotopic data and high level ab initio calculations place the water in a similar position to those of the isoelectronic H{sub 2}O—CO{sub 2} complex, with a slight tilt of the OH towards the NNO axis. The deuterium nuclear quadrupole coupling constant places the deuterium on the O—H axis quasi-parallel to the NNO axis.

  12. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions

    PubMed Central

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study. PMID:26327256

  13. Method for determining the position, angle and other injection parameters of a short pulsed beam in the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.; Ahrens, L.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the effort to improve the monitoring of the injection process at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), we have developed a beam diagnostics package which processes the signals from the plates of a pick-up electrode (PUE) located near the injection region of the AGS and provides measurements of the position and angle (with respect to the equilibrium orbit) of the injected beam at the stripping foil where the incident H/sup -/ beam is converted into protons. In addition the package provides measurements of the tune and chromaticity of the AGS at injection, and a measurement of the momentum spread of the injected beam. Since these parameters are obtained for a short-pulsed beam at injection we shall refer to the diagnostics package as PIP which stands for Pulsed Injection Parameters.

  14. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study.

  15. Relative spatial positions of tryptophan and cationic residues in helical membrane-active peptides determine their cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Rekdal, Øystein; Haug, Bengt Erik; Kalaaji, Manar; Hunter, Howard N; Lindin, Inger; Israelsson, Ingrid; Solstad, Terese; Yang, Nannan; Brandl, Martin; Mantzilas, Dimitrios; Vogel, Hans J

    2012-01-02

    The cytotoxic activity of 10 analogs of the idealized amphipathic helical 21-mer peptide (KAAKKAA)3, where three of the Ala residues at different positions have been replaced with Trp residues, has been investigated. The peptide's cytotoxic activity was found to be markedly dependent upon the position of the Trp residues within the hydrophobic sector of an idealized α-helix. The peptides with Trp residues located opposite the cationic sector displayed no antitumor activity, whereas those peptides with two or three Trp residues located adjacent to the cationic sector exhibited high cytotoxic activity when tested against three different cancer cell lines. Dye release experiments revealed that in contrast to the peptides with Trp residues located opposite the cationic sector, the peptides with Trp residues located adjacent to the cationic sector induced a strong permeabilizing activity from liposomes composed of a mixture of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine and negatively charged phosphatidylserine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (POPS)) (2:1) but not from liposomes composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine, POPC. Fluorescence blue shift and quenching experiments revealed that Trp residues inserted deeper into the hydrophobic environment of POPC/POPS liposomes for peptides with high cytotoxic activity. Through circular dichroism studies, a correlation between the cytotoxic activity and the α-helical propensity was established. Structural studies of one inactive and two active peptides in the presence of micelles using NMR spectroscopy showed that only the active peptides adopted highly coiled to helical structures when bound to a membrane surface.

  16. Molecular test to determine toxigenic capabilities in GDH-positive, toxin-negative samples: evaluation of the Portrait toxigenic C. difficile assay.

    PubMed

    Finch, L S; Duncan, C M

    2013-01-01

    New recommendations for testing and reporting of Clostridium difficile were introduced in the NHS in 2012. These guidelines have improved identification of potential C. difficile infection (CDI) cases, but questions remain around the management of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-positive, toxin-negative patients. This study aims to assess the introduction of the Portrait C. difficile assay as the third step to identify the presence of the toxigenic C. difficile B (tcdB) gene and thus determine toxigenic capability. Stool samples with a GDH-positive, toxin-negative result were tested using the Portrait analyser to detect the presence of tcdB. A retrospective evaluation was performed, assessing the clinical course of patients who were isolated as a result of the current algorithm using GDH enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and toxin EIA. Of the stool samples tested, 40% carried the tcdB gene. Four tcdB-positive stool samples initially toxin A/B-negative subsequently became positive. Thirteen patients were isolated, four of which did not have the tcdB gene. The total time to 'process' a positive CDI case was 102 hours and cost pounds 592. The additional time and cost of incorporating the Portrait toxigenic C. difficile assay was 105-115 minutes and pounds 46.48 to pounds 51.88. This study confirms that toxigenic capabilities in GDH-positive, toxin-negative specimens can facilitate effective treatment and infection prevention, and results show there is potential value in repeat toxin testing.

  17. Determination of the position and orientation of a flat piezoelectric micro-stage by moving the optical axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Guo-Yuan; Lee, Hau-Wei; Liu, Chien-Hung

    2014-10-01

    A moving optical axis measurement system with six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) is proposed in this study. The system is very simple and can be placed inside a flat piezoelectric micro-stage. The system comprises three two-DOF optical measurement modules, each having a quadrant photo diode (QPD), a lens, and a laser diode. These three modules and the geometric configuration of their installation allow displacement measurements with up to six-DOF to be made. A mathematical model of this system is also presented. By analyzing the sensitivity and relationship between the displacement of the stage and each of the QPD light spots, movement can be observed. Signal feedback enables multi-axis nano-scale positioning control. We also present a new six-DOF nano stage, which uses piezoelectric actuators for displacement. This stage was used to verify the proposed six-DOF measurement system. Linear and angular resolution of the system can be down to 10 nm and 0.1 arcsec. Linear and angular displacement measurement errors of this six-DOF measurement system are in the range of ±70 nm and ±0.65 arcsec.

  18. The utility of the prism on the correcting plate of the Tautenburg Schmidt telescope in the case of position determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirte, S.; Schilbach, E.

    In 1970, investigations were initiated regarding the feasibility of an employment of the Tautenburg Schmidt telescope in astronometric studies. In view of the good results obtained in these investigations, a pilot program concerning the determination of proper motions was started in 1974. Attention is given to approaches which were utilized to suppress errors which can occur in the case of measurements of objects with pronounced differences in brightness, taking into account the employment of two different times of exposure and the use of a weakly refracting prism attached to the correcting plate. Attention is given to the measurement procedure, the mathematical basis, the evaluation of regression analysis, and the results of a test regarding the parallelism of regression areas.

  19. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  20. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. PMID:26742857

  1. CCD Positions Determined in the International Celestial Reference Frame for the Outer Planets and Many of Their Satellites in 1995-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Ronald C.; Harris, Frederick H.

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents 1155 accurate equatorial positions for the outer planets Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto and 17 satellites of Jupiter-Neptune. Additional positions for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune can be determined from the planetocentric motions of their satellites given in this paper. All the positions were determined in the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), the IAU standard for all future astrometric reductions, from CCD observations taken with the Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope (FASTT) and reduced differentially using the ACT reference stars. The methods used to determine these positions are fully described. Accuracies of +/-0.08" to +/-0.25" were obtained in each coordinate, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio observed for each object. In many cases, planets and satellites were imaged in the same CCD field of view, thereby giving excellent relative astrometry (+/-0.04") for well-exposed images. Moreover, 424 older FASTT positions determined in 1995-1997 for Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto were converted to the ICRF and are given also in this paper. When FASTT positions are compared with modern Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ephemerides for the planets and satellites considered herein, there is generally good agreement (less than 0.05") between observation and theory. For the planets, FASTT observations and DE405 ephemerides all agree to better than 0.05" and, in most cases, less than 0.03" when mean differences are formed. There are some exceptions for the satellites. Namely, the ephemerides for the outer satellites of Jupiter and Saturn considered in this paper (Himalia, Elara, Pasiphae, and Phoebe) and the Uranian satellites Titania and Oberon probably need improvement as indicated from the FASTT observational data. The former show systematic trends when (FASTT-JPL ephemeris) coordinate differences are plotted against either coordinate position or orbital phase, and the latter show a possible offset between the right

  2. Study of accuracy in the position determination with SALSA, a γ-scanning system for the characterization of segmented HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Prieto, A.; Quintana, B.; Martìn, S.; Domingo-Pardo, C.

    2016-07-01

    Accurate characterization of the electric response of segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors as a function of the interaction position is one of the current goals of the Nuclear Physics community seeking to perform γ-ray tracking or even imaging with these detectors. For this purpose, scanning devices must be developed to achieve the signal-position association with the highest precision. With a view to studying the accuracy achieved with SALSA, the SAlamanca Lyso-based Scanning Array, here we report a detailed study on the uncertainty sources and their effect in the position determination inside the HPGe detector to be scanned. The optimization performed on the design of SALSA, aimed at minimizing the effect of the uncertainty sources, afforded an intrinsic uncertainty of ∼2 mm for large coaxial detectors and ∼1 mm for planar ones.

  3. A radio optical reference frame. I - Precise radio source positions determined by Mark III VLBI - Observations from 1979 to 1988 and a tie to the FK5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.; De Vegt, C.; Johnston, K. J.; Russell, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from 600 Mark III VLBI experiments from 1979 to 1988, resulting in 237,681 acceptable pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations, have been used to derive positions of 182 extragalactic radio sources with typical formal standard errors less than 1 mas. The sources are distributed fairly evenly above delta = -30 deg, and 70 sources have delta greater than 0 deg. Analysis with different troposphere models, as well as internal and external comparisons, indicates that a coordinate frame defined by this set of radio sources should be reliable at the 1 mas level. The right ascension zero point of this reference frame has been aligned with the FK5 by using the optical positions of 28 extragalactic radio sources whose positions are on the FK5 system. Because of known defects in the knowledge of astronomical constants, daily nutation offsets in longitude and obliquity were determined relative to an arbitrary reference day in the set of experiments.

  4. Condylar axis position, as determined by the occlusion and measured by the CPI instrument, and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S D

    1999-04-01

    The importance of occlusion as an etiologic factor in signs and symptoms of TMD has been a source of controversy. Very few studies have examined occlusion-dictated condylar position using instrumentation, and none has compared an ideal sample against an untreated control. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between condylar axis position as determined by the occlusion and signs and symptoms of TMD, using the condylar position indicator (CPI). A sample of subjects with ideal occlusions, defined as centric relation approximating centric occlusion, was compared with a control sample of untreated subjects. The comparison was based on written patient histories, clinical exams, and CPI measurements. The ideal sample of 30 subjects was selected from a population that had undergone full-mouth reconstruction using gnathologic principles that included centric relation (CR) being coincident with centric occlusion (CO). The control group consisted of 30 untreated subjects from the general population and was matched with the ideal sample with regard to sex. A duplicate written exam was given to the subjects in the ideal sample to assess symptoms prior to treatment. The CR bite registration technique developed by Roth was used. When the pre- and posttreatment examination scores of the ideal sample were compared, an 84% reduction in symptoms was found after treatment. A high correlation (p<.001) between signs and symptoms of TMD and CPI values was documented. Since condylar axis position is dictated upon closure of the dentition into maximum intercuspation and since condylar axis position was shown in this study to be strongly correlated with TMD symptomatology, it can be concluded that a statistically significant relationship exists between occlusion-dictated condylar position and symptoms of TMD.

  5. A curve of growth determination of the f-values for the fourth positive system of CO and the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield system of N2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilling, M. J.; Bass, A. M.; Braun, W.

    1971-01-01

    The curve of growth method has been employed to determine f-values for the fourth positive system of CO and the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole components of the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield system of N2. No significant dependence on r-centroid was found. The mean value of the ratio of the electric quadrupole to magnetic dipole f-values was 0.076.

  6. SU-E-J-189: Determination of Markerless Lung Tumor Position in Real Time: A Feasibility Study Using a Novel Tomo-Cinegraphy Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, B; Hu, E; Yu, C; Lee, M; Lasio, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A Tomo-Cinegraphy (TC) is a method to generate a series of temporal tomographic images from projection images of the on-board imager (OBI) while gantry is moving. It is to test if this technique is useful to determine a lung tumor position during treatments. Methods: Tomographic image via background subtraction, TIBS uses a priori anatomical information from a previous CT scan to isolate a SOI from a planar kV image by factoring out the attenuations by tissues outside the SOI (background). This idea was extended to a TC, which enables to generate tomographic images of same geometry from the projection of different gantry angles and different breathing phases. Projection images of a lung patient for CBCT acquisition are used to generate TC images. A region of interest (ROI) is selected around a tumor adding 2cm margins. Center of mass (COM) of the ROI is traced to determine tumor position for every projection images. Results: Tumor is visible in the TC images while the OBI projections are not. The coordinates of the COMs represent the temporal tumor positions. While, it is not possible to trace the tumor motion using the projection images. A source of time delay is the time to acquire projection images, which is always less than a second. Conclusion: TC allows tracking the tumor positions without fiducial markers in real time for some lung patients, if the projection images are acquired during treatments. Partially supported by NIH R01CA133539.

  7. The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex – Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

    2013-01-01

    The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. PMID:23998093

  8. Determination of the relative positions of amino acids by partial specific cleavages of end-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Jue, R A; Doolittle, R F

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a new method for obtaining information about protein sequences that uses an approach analogous to that used to determine DNA sequences. In essence, three steps are involved. First, a detectable label is attached exclusively to the amino terminus of a polypeptide. Next, the labeled chain is subjected to partial specific cleavage in a way that produces roughly equimolar amounts of fragments of different sizes. Cleavages for methionine, tryptophan, arginine, aspartyl-proline bonds, and asparaginyl-glycine bonds have been employed. Lastly, the labeled fragments are separated according to size by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The distribution of target amino acids along the polypeptide chain can be deduced from the specific pattern of labeled bands by reading the "ladder" in the same way that DNA sequencing gels are read. Although the method can be conducted with a radioactive label, we have chosen to use a fluorescent label. We have applied the method successfully to the three subunit chains of two different fibrinogens.

  9. Seasonal movement of the Slumgullion landslide determined from global positioning system surveys and field instrumentation, July 1998-March 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Ellis, W.L.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Savage, J.E.; Michael, J.A.; Kibler, J.D.; Powers, P.S.; Lidke, D.J.; Debray, S.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of landslide movement made by global positioning system surveys and extensometers over a 3.5-year period show that the Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwest Colorado moved throughout the monitoring period, but that daily velocities varied on a seasonal basis. Landslide velocities peaked in the early spring and summer in response to snowmelt and summer thunderstorms, respectively. Velocities were slowest in mid-winter when air and soil temperatures were coldest and precipitation was generally low and/or in the form of snow with a low water content. We hypothesize that the seasonal variability in velocities is due to ground-water levels and corresponding pore pressures that decrease when surface water is unavailable or cannot infiltrate frozen landslide material, and increase when surface water from melting snow or rainfall infiltrates unfrozen landslide material. We also suggest that patches of bouldery debris and fractures (created by continuous movement of the landslide) are conduits through which surface water can infiltrate, regardless of the frozen or unfrozen state of the landslide matrix material. Therefore, the availability of surface water is more important than landslide temperature in controlling the rate of landslide movement. This hypothesis is supported by field instrumentation data that show (1) landslide velocities coinciding with precipitation amounts regardless of the depth of freezing of landslide material, (2) spring and annual landslide velocities that were greatest when the depth of freezing was also the greatest, and (3) a rapid (several weeks or less) velocity and pore pressure response to rainfall. The persistent, but seasonally variable movement of the landslide, fits the bathtub model for landslide movement described by Baum and Reid [Baum, R.L., Reid, M.E., 2000. Ground water isolation by low-permeability clays in landslide shear zones. In: Bromhead, E.N., Dixon, N., Ibsen, M.-L. (Eds.), Landslides in

  10. Determination of the 1,3- and 2-positional distribution of fatty acids in olive oil triacylglycerols by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    Linear models were selected from a large data set acquired for Italian olive oil samples by quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT). The models were used to determine the composition of the 2 fatty acid pools esterifying the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols. The linear models selected proved that the 1,3- and 2-distribution of saturated, oleate, and linoleate chains in olive oil triacylglycerols deviated from the random distribution pattern to an extent that depended on the concentration of the fatty acid in the whole triacylglycerol. To calculate the fatty acid composition of the 1,3- and 2-positions of olive oil triacylglycerols, the equations of the selected linear models were applied to the fatty acid percentages determined by gas chromatography. These data were compared with the values predicted by the computer method (used to determine the theoretical amounts of triacylglycerols), which is based on the 1,3-random-2-random theory of the fatty acid distribution in triacylglycerols. The biggest differences were found in the linoleate chain, which is the chain that deviated the most from a random distribution pattern. The results confirmed that the 1,3-random-2-random distribution theory provides an approximate method for determining the structure of triacylglycerols; however, the linear models calculated by the direct method that applies 13C NMR spectroscopy represent a more precise measurement of the composition of the 2 fatty acid pools esterifying the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols.

  11. Determination of ANA specificity using multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients with ANA positivity at high titres after infliximab treatment: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Ruzzenente, Orazio; Pieropan, Sara; Volpe, Alessandro; Carletto, Antonio; Bambara, Lisa Maria; Biasi, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate ANA specificity using the fully automated multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients affected either by rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis who developed strong positivity for ANA as assessed by indirect immunofluorescent method on HEp-2 cells during infliximab treatment. Three men affected by ankylosing spondylitis and 12 women affected by rheumatoid arthritis who developed ANA positivity at high titres during infliximab treatment underwent the identification of ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay; moreover anti-DNA and anti-ENA antibodies were tested by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA method, respectively. In 4 out of 15 cases, the determination of ANA reactivity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay was also performed on the serum collected before infliximab administration. One patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed multiple ANA reactivities against SS-A, SS-B, RNP, Sm, Jo-1 and histones; one patient affected by ankylosing spondylitis resulted positive for the same autoantibodies, except for anti-Sm antibody. Moreover, two patients, one with rheumatoid arthritis and one with ankylosing spondylitis, showed single antibody specificity to SS-B and RNP, respectively. The remaining 11 cases did not show any positivity. Instead, all the patients resulted negative for anti-ENA antibodies by the ELISA method. In the four cases tested for ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay before and after infliximab administration no difference was found. The search for anti-DNA antibody always resulted negative by both the traditional immunofluorescent assay and the novel technique. The use of multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients treated with infliximab with ANA positivity at high titres allowed to find some ANA specificities which were not revealed by ELISA method. Nevertheless, the majority of patients resulted negative in spite of

  12. β-Lactamases Encoded by blaCTX-M Group I Genes as Determinants of Resistance of Esbl-Positive Enterobacteriaceae in European Soldiers in Tropical Mali

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    ESBL (extended-spectrum-β-lactamase)-positive Enterobacteriaceae, which colonized European soldiers in tropical Western African Mali, were subjected to a molecular assessment of their resistance determinants. By doing so, a better insight into the locally endemic pattern of ESBL-associated β-lactamase genes was aspired. From a previous study on diarrhea in European soldiers on deployment in tropical Mali, 15 ESBL-positive Escherichia coli with demonstrated high clonal diversity and one positive Klebsiella pneumoniae were assessed. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for blaTEM and blaSHV β-lactamase genes with subsequent sequencing for the discrimination of ESBL- and non-ESBL variants were performed, followed by four group-specific PCRs for blaCTX-M genes. Non-ESBL-associated blaTEM-1 was identified in six out of 15 (40%) E. coli strains, while 100% of the assessed strains were positive for group I blaCTX-M. Considering the known clonal diversity of the assessed strains, the striking restriction to one group of blaCTX-M genes accounting for the ESBL phenotypes of the isolates suggests little genetic exchange in the local setting. Under such circumstances of restricted numbers of locally endemic target genes, PCR-based screening approaches for ESBL colonization might be promising. PMID:26716016

  13. β-Lactamases Encoded by blaCTX-M Group I Genes as Determinants of Resistance of Esbl-Positive Enterobacteriaceae in European Soldiers in Tropical Mali.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-12-01

    ESBL (extended-spectrum-β-lactamase)-positive Enterobacteriaceae, which colonized European soldiers in tropical Western African Mali, were subjected to a molecular assessment of their resistance determinants. By doing so, a better insight into the locally endemic pattern of ESBL-associated β-lactamase genes was aspired. From a previous study on diarrhea in European soldiers on deployment in tropical Mali, 15 ESBL-positive Escherichia coli with demonstrated high clonal diversity and one positive Klebsiella pneumoniae were assessed. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for blaTEM and blaSHV β-lactamase genes with subsequent sequencing for the discrimination of ESBL- and non-ESBL variants were performed, followed by four group-specific PCRs for blaCTX-M genes. Non-ESBL-associated blaTEM-1 was identified in six out of 15 (40%) E. coli strains, while 100% of the assessed strains were positive for group I blaCTX-M . Considering the known clonal diversity of the assessed strains, the striking restriction to one group of blaCTX-M genes accounting for the ESBL phenotypes of the isolates suggests little genetic exchange in the local setting. Under such circumstances of restricted numbers of locally endemic target genes, PCR-based screening approaches for ESBL colonization might be promising.

  14. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  15. A clinical approach to determine false positive findings of clinical endometritis by vaginoscopy by the use of uterine bacteriology and cytology in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Westermann, S; Drillich, M; Kaufmann, T B; Madoz, L V; Heuwieser, W

    2010-10-15

    Clinical endometritis in dairy cows is defined as mucopurulent or purulent vulvar discharge 21 days or more after parturition. The diagnosis of clinical endometritis is commonly based on vaginal examination. Techniques to reduce the proportions of false negative findings have been described. This paper discusses a clinical approach to determine the proportion of false positive findings that might occur by vaginal inspection. The consequences of false positive findings in dairy practice are unnecessary or inadequate treatments. In research, incorrect diagnoses have an impact on the interpretation of studies on the diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis. The objective of the present study was to compare intrauterine bacteriology and endometrial cytology in cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis with findings obtained by vaginoscopy. Clinical endometritis was defined as mucopurulent or purulent vulvar discharge. On two commercial dairy farms, cows were examined 21 to 28 d postpartum. Uterine samples (n = 230) were collected from cows with clinical endometritis with the cytobrush technique to determine the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and to culture smears for aerobic bacteria. Two threshold values for the proportion of PMN (5 and 18%) were chosen as possible indicators for an inflamed endometrium. Common uterine pathogens A. pyogenes and E. coli were found in 33.5 and 10.4% of the samples, respectively. With increasing vaginal discharge score, proportion of samples positive for A. pyogenes increased significantly. The proportion of cows exceeding the thresholds for PMN increased with vaginal discharge score and the presence of A. pyogenes. Considering only the presence of aerobic uterine pathogens and a proportion of PMN above the threshold values of 5 and 18% as indicative for endometritis, a proportion of 17.3 and 28.5%, respectively, of diagnoses by vaginoscopy were false positive.

  16. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrificial pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational axis of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  17. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrifical pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational aixs of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  18. Determination of (235)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, and (241)Am in a nuclear bomb particle using a position-sensitive α-γ coincidence technique.

    PubMed

    Peräjärvi, Kari A; Ihantola, Sakari; Pöllänen, Roy C; Toivonen, Harri I; Turunen, Jani A

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear bomb particle containing 1.6 ng of Pu was investigated nondestructively with a position-sensitive α detector and a broad-energy HPGe γ-ray detector. An event-mode data acquisition system was used to record the data. α-γ coincidence counting was shown to be well suited to nondestructive isotope ratio determination. Because of the very small background, the 51.6 keV γ rays of (239)Pu and the 45.2 keV γ rays of (240)Pu were identified, which enabled isotopic ratio calculations. In the present work, the (239)Pu/((239)Pu+(240)Pu) atom ratio was determined to be 0.950 ± 0.010. The uncertainties were much smaller than in the previous more conventional nondestructive studies on this particle. Obtained results are also in good agreement with the data from the destructive mass spectrometric studies obtained previously by other investigators.

  19. Absolute Positioning Using the Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has becom a useful tool In providing relativ survey...Includes the development of a low cost navigator for wheeled vehicles. ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has become a useful tool In providing...technique of absolute or point positioning involves the use of a single Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver to determine the three-dimenslonal

  20. Determination of the variation of the fluorescence line positions of ruby, strontium tetraborate, alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Selva Vennila; Zaug, Joseph M.; Chen, Bin; Yan, Jinyuan; Knight, Jason W.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Clark, Simon M.

    2011-07-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent fluorescence line-shift of strontium tetraborate has been measured concurrently with x-ray diffraction from the pressure standards sodium chloride or gold. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift under pressure. We found a maximum pressure uncertainty of ±1.8 GPa at 25 GPa (7.2%) and 857 K when making no temperature correction. The fluorescence line-shifts for ruby, Alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet were also determined, using our strontium tetraborate calibration to determine pressure and a thermocouple to measure temperature. Fluorescence measurements were extended up to 800 K for ruby and Alexandrite. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift of samarium-doped yittrium aluminum garnet. We found a maximum uncertainty of ±2.7 GPa at 25 GPa (11.1%) and 857 K when no temperature correction was applied. We determined equations relating to the fluorescence line position from these data, which include a cross derivative term to account for the combined effect of pressure and temperature. We present a method to independently determine pressure and/or temperature from combined fluorescence line-shift measurements of a pair of optical sensors.

  1. Coreceptor signal strength regulates positive selection but does not determine CD4/CD8 lineage choice in a physiologic in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Erman, Batu; Alag, Amala S; Dahle, Oyvind; van Laethem, François; Sarafova, Sophia D; Guinter, Terry I; Sharrow, Susan O; Grinberg, Alexander; Love, Paul E; Singer, Alfred

    2006-11-15

    TCR signals drive thymocyte development, but it remains controversial what impact, if any, the intensity of those signals have on T cell differentiation in the thymus. In this study, we assess the impact of CD8 coreceptor signal strength on positive selection and CD4/CD8 lineage choice using novel gene knockin mice in which the endogenous CD8alpha gene has been re-engineered to encode the stronger signaling cytoplasmic tail of CD4, with the re-engineered CD8alpha gene referred to as CD8.4. We found that stronger signaling CD8.4 coreceptors specifically improved the efficiency of CD8-dependent positive selection and quantitatively increased the number of MHC class I (MHC-I)-specific thymocytes signaled to differentiate into CD8+ T cells, even for thymocytes expressing a single, transgenic TCR. Importantly, however, stronger signaling CD8.4 coreceptors did not alter the CD8 lineage choice of any MHC-I-specific thymocytes, even MHC-I-specific thymocytes expressing the high-affinity F5 transgenic TCR. This study documents in a physiologic in vivo model that coreceptor signal strength alters TCR-signaling thresholds for positive selection and so is a major determinant of the CD4:CD8 ratio, but it does not influence CD4/CD8 lineage choice.

  2. Staph ID/R: a rapid method for determining staphylococcus species identity and detecting the mecA gene directly from positive blood culture.

    PubMed

    Pasko, Chris; Hicke, Brian; Dunn, John; Jaeckel, Heidi; Nieuwlandt, Dan; Weed, Diane; Woodruff, Evelyn; Zheng, Xiaotian; Jenison, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Rapid diagnosis of staphylococcal bacteremia directs appropriate antimicrobial therapy, leading to improved patient outcome. We describe herein a rapid test (<75 min) that can identify the major pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus to the species level as well as the presence or absence of the methicillin resistance determinant gene, mecA. The test, Staph ID/R, combines a rapid isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), with a chip-based array that produces unambiguous visible results. The analytic sensitivity was 1 CFU per reaction for the mecA gene and was 1 to 250 CFU per reaction depending on the staphylococcal species present in the positive blood culture. Staph ID/R has excellent specificity as well, with no cross-reactivity observed. We validated the performance of Staph ID/R by testing 104 frozen clinical positive blood cultures and comparing the results with rpoB gene or 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species identity determinations and mecA gene PCR to confirm mecA gene results. Staph ID/R agreed with mecA gene PCR for all samples and agreed with rpoB/16S rRNA gene sequencing in all cases except for one sample that contained a mixture of two staphylococcal species, one of which Staph ID/R correctly identified, for an overall agreement of 99.0% (P < 0.01). Staph ID/R could potentially be used to positively affect patient management for Staphylococcus-mediated bacteremia.

  3. Simulation for position determination of distal and proximal edges for SOBP irradiation in hadron therapy by using the maximum likelihood estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Tomitani, Takehiro

    2005-12-01

    In radiation therapy with hadron beams, conformal irradiation to a tumour can be achieved by using the properties of incident ions such as the high dose concentration around the Bragg peak. For the effective utilization of such properties, it is necessary to evaluate the volume irradiated with hadron beams and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Several methods have been proposed for this purpose, one of which uses the positron emitters generated through fragmentation reactions between incident ions and target nuclei. In the previous paper, we showed that the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method could be applicable to the estimation of beam end-point from the measured positron emitting activity distribution for mono-energetic beam irradiations. In a practical treatment, a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) beam is used to achieve a uniform biological dose distribution in the whole target volume. Therefore, in the present paper, we proposed to extend the MLE method to estimations of the position of the distal and proximal edges of the SOBP from the detected annihilation gamma ray distribution. We confirmed the effectiveness of the method by means of simulations. Although polyethylene was adopted as a substitute for a soft tissue target in validating the method, the proposed method is equally applicable to general cases, provided that the reaction cross sections between the incident ions and the target nuclei are known. The relative advantage of incident beam species to determine the position of the distal and the proximal edges was compared. Furthermore, we ascertained the validity of applying the MLE method to determinations of the position of the distal and the proximal edges of an SOBP by simulations and we gave a physical explanation of the distal and the proximal information.

  4. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ferlazzo, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Kirubi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Wanjala, Stephen; Sitienei, Joseph; Bonnet, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Background Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB). Methods Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or with Body Mass Index<17Kg/m2) and hospitalized symptomatic HIV-positive adults in Kenya. Incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture) diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation. Results Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4<200cells/μl, 59.9% had initiated ART, 23.2% could not produce sputum. LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474), 21.6% (76/352), 29.1% (102/350) and 39.7% (92/232) of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4–55.6) to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3–89.4%), when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1–69.8) to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1–87.7), when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8–81.0) to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6–92.5), when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5–4.9). Conclusion LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl) or hospitalized. LAM

  5. Determination of the positions of aluminum atoms introduced into SSZ-35 and the catalytic properties of the generated Brønsted acid sites.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Shiga, Akinobu; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Nishitoba, Toshiki; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2017-03-01

    The positions of aluminum (Al) atoms in SSZ-35 together with the characteristics of the generated protons were investigated by (27)Al multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ-MAS), (29)Si MAS, and (1)H MAS NMR data analyses accompanied by a variable temperature (1)H MAS NMR analysis. The origin of the acidic -OH groups (Brønsted acid sites) generated by introducing Al atoms into the T sites was investigated and the T sites introduced into the Al atoms were revealed. To further determine the catalytic properties of the acidic protons generated in SSZ-35, the influence of the concentration of the Al atoms on the catalytic activity and selectivity during the transformation of toluene was examined.

  6. New Method for Determining Isotopic Values of Glutamic Acid and Phenylalanine for Estimation of Precise Trophic Position in Food Web Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, T.; Broek, T.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Compound Specific Isotope Analysis of Amino Acids (CSI-AA) has emerged as a highly precise new method of determining trophic levels of both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Multiple studies have now shown that δ15N values for glutamic acid (Glu) and phenylalanine (Phe) can be coupled to provide extremely precise estimates of trophic position in diverse food web studies. The standard gas chromatography—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) approach is presently limited to a select number of labs since necessary equipment is both expensive and not widely accessible. Furthermore, typical GC-IRMS δ15N precision (±1‰) is significantly lower than usual bulk δ15N values (±0.1‰), thus presenting a considerable setback for precise trophic level calculations. In this study, we develop a new dual-column method to purify Glu and Phe using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phe is purified using an analytical scale reverse phase column embedded with anionic ion-pairing reagents and collected using automated fraction collection. Glu is separated from the non-polar amino acids using the same column and further purified using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) cation and anion-exchange column and collected via automated fraction collection. Isotopic analysis of the purified AAs is then conducted on an elemental analyzer—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). As a test of this method, we present and compare the trophic position of five marine organisms—cyanobacteria, deep-sea bamboo coral, juvenile and adult white sea bass, and harbor seal, calculated using Glu and Phe δ15N values produced by both GC-IRMS and our HPLC-EA-IRMS approach. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the HPLC-EA-IRMS method is a viable alternative to GC-IRMS, which should allow accurate trophic position estimates to be made by more researchers using more readily available instrumentation.

  7. Selective determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke by GC coupled to positive chemical ionization triple quadrupole MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Da; Lu, Yifeng; Lin, Huaqing; Zhou, Wanhong; Gu, Wenbo

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method for the selective determination of four kinds of tobacco-specific nitrosamines, N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanatabine, N-nitrosoanabasine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, in mainstream cigarette smoke was developed by GC coupled to positive chemical ionization triple-quadrupole MS. After mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a cambridge filter pad, the particulate matter was extracted with 0.1 M HCL aqueous solution, cleaned by positive cation-exchange solid extraction, and finally injected into GC-MS/MS using isotopically labeled analogues as internal standards. Excellent linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.5-200.0 ng mL(-1) for all tobacco-specific nitrosamines with values for correlation coefficient between 0.9996-0.9999. Limits of detection of each tobacco specific nitrosamine varied from 0.023-0.028 ng cig(-1), and lower limits of quantification varied from 0.077-0.093 ng cig(-1). The recovery of each tobacco specific nitrosamine was from 90.0-109.0%. The relative standard deviations of the intra-day and inter-day precisions were 3.1-5.8 and 3.9-6.6, respectively. This method was applied to reference and domestic cigarettes. The result showed that the method was consistent with traditional methods and can be used as an effective approach for the routine analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamines.

  8. Positively charged amino acids at the SNAP-25 C terminus determine fusion rates, fusion pore properties, and energetics of tight SNARE complex zippering.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qinghua; Zhao, Ying; Herbst, Adam Drew; Kim, Brian N; Lindau, Manfred

    2015-02-18

    SNAP-25 is a Q-SNARE protein mediating exocytosis of neurosecretory vesicles including chromaffin granules. Previous results with a SNAP-25 construct lacking the nine C terminal residues (SNAP-25Δ9) showed changed fusion pore properties (Fang et al., 2008), suggesting a model for fusion pore mechanics that couple C terminal zipping of the SNARE complex to the opening of the fusion pore. The deleted fragment contains the positively charged residues R198 and K201, adjacent to layers 7 and 8 of the SNARE complex. To determine how fusion pore conductance and dynamics depend on these residues, single exocytotic events in bovine chromaffin cells expressing R198Q, R198E, K201Q, or K201E mutants were investigated by carbon fiber amperometry and cell-attached patch capacitance measurements. Coarse grain molecular dynamics simulations revealed spontaneous transitions between a loose and tightly zippered state at the SNARE complex C terminus. The SNAP-25 K201Q mutant showed no changes compared with SNAP-25 wild-type. However, K201E, R198Q, and R198E displayed reduced release frequencies, slower release kinetics, and prolonged fusion pore duration that were correlated with reduced probability to engage in the tightly zippered state. The results show that the positively charged amino acids at the SNAP-25 C terminus promote tight SNARE complex zippering and are required for high release frequency and rapid release in individual fusion events.

  9. Determination of vibrational and rotational temperatures in highly constricted nitrogen plasmas by fitting the second positive system of N{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q. Y. Shi, D. Q.; Xu, W.; Miao, C. Y.; Ma, C. Y.; Ren, C. S.; Zhang, C.; Yi, Z.

    2015-05-15

    Highly constricted plasmas are an active research area because of their ability to generate high activity of plasma beams, which exhibit potential in applications of material processing and film deposition. In this study, optical emission spectroscopy was used to study the highly constricted nitrogen plasma created at low pressure. The vibrational and rotational temperatures of molecules were determined by fitting the second positive system of nitrogen molecule. Under the conditions of the power densities as high as 7 ∼ 85 W/cm{sup 3} and the pressures of 2 ∼ 200 Pa, the determined rotational temperature was found to be relatively low, increasing from 350 to 700 K and the vibrational temperature keeping at ∼ 5000 K. The analysis of dissipated power revealed that ∼ 80 % of input power is dissipated for the nitrogen molecule dissociation and the creation/loss of ions at the tube wall, producing an as high as 10{sup 12} ∼ 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} plasma with the nitrogen dissociation degrees of 2%∼15%. With the increase in the discharge pressure, more input power was found to be dissipated in the dissociation of nitrogen molecules instead of creation of ions, resulting in a higher density of radicals.

  10. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the ‘one-hormone hypothesis’, which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified ‘one-hormone hypothesis’ for sex determination in cucumber is proposed. PMID:22577183

  11. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-07-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the 'one-hormone hypothesis', which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified 'one-hormone hypothesis' for sex determination in cucumber is proposed.

  12. Determination of rare earth elements (REES) in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected in Tokyo, Japan, and a positive anomaly of europium and terbium.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Suzuki, Tatsunosuke; Furuta, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    The determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in airborne particulate matter (APM) was conducted, and the distribution pattern of atmospheric REEs was evaluated in this study. The APM was collected in the center of Tokyo, Japan, where serious air pollution is always of concern. A cellulose acetate membrane filter was used to collect the APM because Ba and REEs contamination is lower than that in a quartz glass fiber filter. The REEs measurement was conducted by ICP-MS after the digestion of the APM by a microwave acid digestion procedure. The standard reference material (SRM) of NIST 1648 urban particulate matter was used to validate the accuracy of the analytical method. The analytical results for SRM well agreed with those of the reference and reported values. Consequently, the analytical method established in this study was applied to the determination of REEs in APM collected in Tokyo, Japan. The obtained REEs distribution pattern in the APM showed a positive anomaly of Tb and Eu. The La/Sm ratio, which is considered to be as a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect, in size-classified APM showed a high degree of the anthropogenic effect in fine APM with a diameter of <1.1 µm. Emission sources of Tb, Eu and other REEs are discussed.

  13. Atazanavir and other determinants of hyperbilirubinemia in a cohort of 1150 HIV-positive patients: results from 9 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Baril, Jean-Guy; Dufresne, Serge; Trottier, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is common among patients exposed to atazanavir (ATV), but its long-term significance is not well documented. The objective was to analyze hyperbilirubinemia (incidence, regression, determinants, and outcome) among 1150 HIV-positive patients followed-up in a prospective cohort between 2003 and 2012. Cumulative incidence of hyperbilirubinemia grades 3-4 and its probability of regression were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the determinants. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used to evaluate the association between hyperbilirubinemia grades 3-4 and adverse health outcome. Eight years cumulative incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was 83.6% (95% CI:79.0-87.7) and 6.6% (95% CI:4.7-9.2) among ATV users and non-users, respectively. This clinical outcome fluctuated considerably, as most patients exposed to ATV (91%) regressed, transiently, to lower grade at some point during follow-up. Determinants were atazanavir (HR=147.90, 95% CI: 33.64-604.18), ritonavir (HR=5.18, 95% CI:2.33-11.48), zidovudine (HR=2.62, 95% CI:1.07-6.46), and age (HR=1.04 95% CI:1.01-1.08). Alcohol consumption and others non-antiretroviral medications including hepatotoxic and recreational drugs were not available for analyses. Incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was very high among ATV users and, although regression to lower grade was frequent in the clinical follow-up of these patients, this was usually transient as the mean level of bilirubin stayed at a relatively high level. Importantly, long-term hyperbilirubinemia was not associated with adverse health outcome.

  14. The curli biosynthesis regulator CsgD co-ordinates the expression of both positive and negative determinants for biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Brombacher, Eva; Dorel, Corinne; Zehnder, Alexander J B; Landini, Paolo

    2003-10-01

    Production of curli, extracellular structures important for biofilm formation, is positively regulated by OmpR, which constitutes with the EnvZ protein an osmolarity-sensing two-component regulatory system. The expression of curli is cryptic in most Escherichia coli laboratory strains such as MG1655, due to the lack of csgD expression. The csgD gene encodes a transcription activator of the curli-subunit-encoding csgBA operon. The ompR234 up-mutation can restore csgD expression, resulting in curli production and increased biofilm formation. In this report, it is shown that ompR234-dependent csgD expression, in addition to csgBA activation during stationary phase of growth, stimulates expression of the yaiC gene and negatively regulates at least two other genes, pepD and yagS. The promoter regions of these four genes share a conserved 11 bp sequence (CGGGKGAKNKA), necessary for csgBA and yaiC regulation by CsgD. While at both the csgBA and yaiC promoters the sequence is located upstream of the promoter elements, in both yagS and pepD it overlaps either the putative -10 sequence or the transcription start point, suggesting that CsgD can function as both an activator and a repressor. Adhesion experiments show that csgD-independent expression of both yagS and pepD from a multicopy plasmid negatively affects biofilm formation, which, in contrast, is stimulated by yaiC expression. Thus it is proposed that CsgD stimulates biofilm formation in E. coli by contemporary activation of adhesion positive determinants (the curli-encoding csg operons and the product of the yaiC gene) and repression of negative effectors such as yagS and pepD.

  15. Determination of positions and velocity of Riyadh SLR station using satellite laser ranging observations to Lageos1 and Lageos2 satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A.; Schillak, S.

    2012-04-01

    Riyadh Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station (7832) has been established since 1995 and situated in the Arabian plate which is countering a north east motion. Laser ranging observations of about 20 global SLR stations to the LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 for 13-year (1996-2010) have been used to determine station positions and velocity of Riyadh SLR station. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The computations were performed based on 114 monthly arcs of observations with total number of normal points of 33708 and 40168 for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 respectively. The geocentric coordinates were computed and then transformed to the topocentric North-South, East-West, and Vertical components in the ITRF2008 reference frame. Effects of normal points for each arc and the empirical acceleration coefficients on estimated station coordinates have been investigated. In order to achieve a lower standard deviation (less than 1 cm) of estimated coordinates, the number of the normal points per SLR station had to be greater than 50. The range biases were 7.5mm and 7.2 mm with long term biases stability 2.5 mm and 2.0 mm for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites, respectively. RMS of fit was calculated for all stations and found to be 17.2 mm for the whole period. Time series of positions and velocities have been computed for Riyadh SLR station with stability of ±10.1 mm, ±9.3 mm, and ±9.0 mm for X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively. The estimated velocity is 29.1 mm/year, 31.6 mm/year, and 1.9 mm/year in North-South, East-West and vertical directions, respectively, with a 3D velocity 42.9 mm/year. 3D deviation from the ITRF2008 was equal 4.5 mm. To recover tectonic motion affecting the station, further analysis of velocity estimates has shown general agreement of Riyadh SLR station in comparison with recent GPS estimates for the Arabian plate motion.

  16. Differential innate immune response programs in neuronal subtypes determine susceptibility to infection in the brain by positive-stranded RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyelim; Proll, Sean C; Szretter, Kristy J; Katze, Michael G; Gale, Michael; Diamond, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Although susceptibility of neurons in the brain to microbial infection is a major determinant of clinical outcome, little is known about the molecular factors governing this vulnerability. Here we show that two types of neurons from distinct brain regions showed differential permissivity to replication of several positive-stranded RNA viruses. Granule cell neurons of the cerebellum and cortical neurons from the cerebral cortex have unique innate immune programs that confer differential susceptibility to viral infection ex vivo and in vivo. By transducing cortical neurons with genes that were expressed more highly in granule cell neurons, we identified three interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs; Ifi27, Irg1 and Rsad2 (also known as Viperin)) that mediated the antiviral effects against different neurotropic viruses. Moreover, we found that the epigenetic state and microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of ISGs correlates with enhanced antiviral response in granule cell neurons. Thus, neurons from evolutionarily distinct brain regions have unique innate immune signatures, which probably contribute to their relative permissiveness to infection.

  17. Hepatitis B virus replication and sex-determining region Y box 4 production are tightly controlled by a novel positive feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jian; Zheng, Yuan; Guo, Xiaohong; Mo, Jiayin; Xie, Xueping; Xiong, Ying; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying HBV infection and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. The sex-determining region Y box 4 (Sox4) is a transcriptional factor, which preferentially regulates the development of various organs, tissues, and cancers. But, the role of Sox4 in viral infection and pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that Sox4 is up-regulated by HBV, and revealed the mechanism by which HBV regulates Sox4 expression. First, HBV stimulates Sox4 expression through transcriptional factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), which binds to Sox4 promoter to activate Sox4 transcriptional activity. Second, miR-335, miR-129-2 and miR-203 inhibit Sox4 expression by targeting its mRNA 3’UTR, while HBV suppresses the microRNAs expression, resulting in up-regulating Sox4 post-transcriptionally. Third, Sox4 protein is degraded by proteasome, while HBV surface protein (HBsAg) prevents Sox4 from degradation by directly interacting with the protein, thereby enhancing Sox4 production post-translationlly. More interestingly, HBV-activated Sox4 in turn facilitates HBV replication by direct binding to the viral genome via its HMG box. Thus, this study revealed a novel positive feedback mechanism by which Sox4 production and HBV replication are tightly correlated. PMID:25970172

  18. Determination of forming limit diagrams of AA6013-T6 aluminum alloy sheet using a time and position dependent localized necking criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicecco, S.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Boettcher, E.; Chu, E.; Shi, C.

    2016-11-01

    The forming limit behaviour of AA6013-T6 aluminium alloy sheet was characterized under isothermal conditions at room temperature (RT) and 250°C using limiting dome height (LDH) tests. Full field strain measurements were acquired throughout testing using in situ stereoscopic digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. Limit strain data was generated from the resulting full field strain measurements using two localized necking criteria: ISO12004- 2:2008 and a time and position dependent criterion, termed the “Necking Zone” (NZ) approach in this paper, introduced by Martinez-Donaire et al. (2014). The limit strains resulting from the two localization detection schemes were compared. It was found that the ISO and NZ limit strains at RT are similar on the draw-side of the FLD, while the NZ approach yields a biaxial major limit strain 14.8% greater than the ISO generated major limit strain. At 250°C, the NZ generated major limit strains are 31-34% greater than the ISO generated major limit strains for near uniaxial, plane strain and biaxial loading conditions, respectively. The significant variance in limit strains between the two methodologies at 250°C highlights the need for a validation study regarding warm FLC determination.

  19. [The possibilities for determining the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment based on the injuries to the extremities estimated with the use of the sequential mathematical analysis].

    PubMed

    Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    above morphological signs for the objective determination of the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment during traffic accidents and thereby to improve the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical examination of the injuries inflicted in car crashes.

  20. Better position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) will soon become more accurate for civilian users, improving the quality of navigation and of some types of scientific research. The Clinton Administration announced March 29 that within a decade, the federal government will stop degrading the civilian GPS signal and will allow nonmilitary users access to the same clear signals that U.S. troops rely upon.Designed as dual-use system with primary use by the American military, the GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that allows soldiers to determine their exact positions (in latitude and longitude) anywhere in the world. While the GPS is operated by the Department of Defense (DoD), scientists and adventurous civilians have been able to purchase small, portable GPS devices. However, the U.S. military has kept to itself a capability known as “selective availability” that provides a much more precise signal than is available to the public. According to the White House, that selected signal will be available to all users within 4-10 years.

  1. An improved model to determine the inception of positive upward leader-streamer system considering the leader propagation during dark period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shijun; He, Junjia; Chen, Weijiang

    2013-04-01

    Stem-leader transition and front-streamer inception are two essential conditions for the inception of positive upward leader-streamer system (LSS). Previous models have not considered the initial-leader propagation during dark period and have not been verified systematically. In this paper, a series of positive upward discharge simulation experiments was designed and carried out. Characteristic parameters of the discharge process related to the inception of positive upward LSS, namely, the first-corona inception voltage, the first-corona charge, the dark period, and the LSS inception voltage, were obtained. By comparing these experiment results with simulation results calculated using previous models, it was found that it is improper to assume that the length of the initial leader is a fixed value. Finally, an improved inception model of positive upward LSS considering the leader propagation during dark period was developed and verified with experiment results.

  2. Membrane position of a basic aromatic peptide that sequesters phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate determined by site-directed spin labeling and high-resolution NMR.

    PubMed

    Ellena, Jeffrey F; Moulthrop, Jason; Wu, Jing; Rauch, Michelle; Jaysinghne, Sajith; Castle, J David; Cafiso, David S

    2004-11-01

    The membrane interactions and position of a positively charged and highly aromatic peptide derived from a secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP) are examined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and several biochemical methods. This peptide (SCAMP-E) is shown to bind to membranes containing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PI(4,5)P2, and sequester PI(4,5)P2 within the plane of the membrane. Site-directed spin labeling of the SCAMP-E peptide indicates that the position and structure of membrane bound SCAMP-E are not altered by the presence of PI(4,5)P2, and that the peptide backbone is positioned within the lipid interface below the level of the lipid phosphates. A second approach using high-resolution NMR was used to generate a model for SCAMP-E bound to bicelles. This approach combined oxygen enhancements of nuclear relaxation with a computational method to dock the SCAMP-E peptide at the lipid interface. The model for SCAMP generated by NMR is consistent with the results of site-directed spin labeling and places the peptide backbone in the bilayer interfacial region and the aromatic side chains within the lipid hydrocarbon region. The charged side chains of SCAMP-E lie well within the interface with two arginine residues lying deeper than a plane defined by the position of the lipid phosphates. These data suggest that SCAMP-E interacts with PI(4,5)P2 through an electrostatic mechanism that does not involve specific lipid-peptide contacts. This interaction may be facilitated by the position of the positively charged side chains on SCAMP-E within a low-dielectric region of the bilayer interface.

  3. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  4. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... breast with your other hand. The Clutch or Football Hold This is also a good position for ... same time may also choose this position. The football hold allows babies to take milk more easily — ...

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of the Research-Use-Only (RUO) iCubate iC-GPC Assay for Identification of Select Gram-Positive Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants in Blood Culture Broths.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Blake W; Reymann, Garrett C; Granato, Paul A; Alkins, Brenda R; Jim, Patricia; Young, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The iC-GPC assay (iCubate, Huntsville, AL) provides a molecular option for the rapid, on-demand analysis of positive blood cultures. A preliminary evaluation of the iC-GPC assay using 203 clinical or seeded specimens demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8% to 100% and a specificity of 98.0% to 100% for the identification of five Gram-positive bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium) and three associated genetic resistance determinants (mecA, vanA, and vanB) in positive blood culture broths.

  6. Antibiotic treatment algorithm development based on a microarray nucleic acid assay for rapid bacterial identification and resistance determination from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Jürgen; Karrasch, Matthias; Edel, Birgit; Stoll, Sylvia; Bohnert, Jürgen; Löffler, Bettina; Saupe, Angela; Pfister, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections remains a challenge for the early targeting of an antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients. In recent studies, the reliability of the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-positive and Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GP and BC-GN) assays for the rapid identification of bacteria and resistance genes directly from positive BCs has been demonstrated. In this work, we have developed a model to define treatment recommendations by combining Verigene test results with knowledge on local antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens. The data of 275 positive BCs were analyzed. Two hundred sixty-three isolates (95.6%) were included in the Verigene assay panels, and 257 isolates (93.5%) were correctly identified. The agreement of the detection of resistance genes with subsequent phenotypic susceptibility testing was 100%. The hospital antibiogram was used to develop a treatment algorithm on the basis of Verigene results that may contribute to a faster patient management.

  7. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  8. Primers determine the sensitivity of PCR-mediated hepatitis B virus DNA detection and pretreatment of PCR mixture with 8-methoxypsoralen eliminates false-positive results.

    PubMed

    Keum, W K; Park, C E; Lee, J H; Khil, L Y; Kang, I; Kim, S S; Jung, J C; Oh, S M; Woo, H J; Lee, J H; Kim, Y C; Yoon, Y; Choi, J W; Ha, J

    1997-04-30

    Most methods for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection largely depend on viral DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or radioimmunological assay of viral antigens or antibodies. The quality assurance program recently established in Europe reported that PCR-mediated HBV DNA detection methods used in many laboratories produced a high rate of false-positive and false-negative results. Thus, we attempted to improve the conditions of current PCR methods for detection of HBV DNA. In the present study, we applied a recently developed method of releasing HBV DNA from virion by NaOH treatment of patient serum. Using four different primer sets specific to the HBV core region, we found that the sensitivity of first-round PCR can be improved by more than two orders of magnitude depending on the primers. The second round of PCR using nested primers was sensitive enough to detect up to 10(-6) pg of the HBV DNA, which is equivalent to approximately 3 copies of the HBV genome. Among the approximately 800 HBV-infected patient sera investigated in our laboratory, more than 60% of the tested samples gave positive results in the first-round PCR. The rate of positive results obtained using our experimental conditions is very high in comparison with other reports. The reamplification of the first-round PCR reaction mixture with the nested primers produced practically 100% positive results. For diagnosis of HBV infection, we routinely used 1 microliter of patient serum, which was found to be optimum in our laboratory. Surprisingly, from 20% of our positive results, even serum diluted to 1/100 (0.01 microliter) produced a stronger signal than 1 microliter. This observation suggests that direct PCR amplification of HBV DNA released from serum by NaOH treatment has to be compensated by other DNA detection methods for correct quantitation. In order to eliminate the false positive signal resulting from the carry-over due to massive screening of a large number of

  9. Effect of the position of the visible sky in determining the sky view factor on micrometeorological and human thermal comfort conditions in urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaid, Adeb; Lamit, Hasanuddin Bin; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Rasidi, Mohd Hisyam

    2017-01-01

    Poor daytime and night-time micrometeorological conditions are issues that influence the quality of environmental conditions and can undermine a comfortable human lifestyle. The sky view factor (SVF) is one of the essential physical parameters used to assess the micrometeorological conditions and thermal comfort levels within city streets. The position of the visible sky relative to the path of the sun, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, has not been widely discerned as a parameter that could have an impact on the micrometeorological conditions of urban streets. To investigate this parameter, different urban streets that have a similar SVF value but diverse positions of visible sky were proposed in different street directions intersecting with the path of the sun, namely N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The effects of daytime and night-time micrometeorological variables and human thermal comfort variables on the street were investigated by applying ENVI-met V3.1 Beta software. The results show that the position of the visible sky has a greater influence on the street's meteorological and human thermal comfort conditions than the SVF value. It has the ability to maximise or minimise the mean radiation temperature (Tmrt, °C) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET, °C) at street level. However, the visible sky positioned to the zenith in a NE-SW or N-S street direction and to the SW of a NW-SE street direction achieves the best daytime micrometeorological and thermal comfort conditions. Alternatively, the visible sky positioned to the NE for a NW-SE street direction, to the NW and the zenith for a NE-SW street direction and to the zenith for a N-S street direction reduces the night-time air temperature (Ta, °C). Therefore, SVF and the position of the visible sky relative to the sun's trajectory, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, must be considered during urban street planning to better understand the resultant micrometeorological and human thermal

  10. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  11. Beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2000-09-21

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  12. [Identification, during development, of a methodology targeted at determining the positioning of new drugs for therapeutic strategies: examples of rheumatoid arthritis and cardiac insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C; Plétan, Y; Boissel, J P

    2002-01-01

    The Marketing Authorization (MA) granted to a new molecular entity does not allow for proper anticipation of its future positioning within the therapeutic strategy. A specific methodology should be devised as early as during the pre-MA development phase that could result in an initial positioning that should be subjected to further reappraisal with regard to scientific advances, the arrival of new treatments and further developments with this molecule. A methodology is thus proposed, based on early optimisation of the development plan, the granting of subsequent MAs, and reappraisal of the positioning within the strategy, based on analysis of all available data. It should be possible to take into account the economic context, within an agreed system with pre-defined medico-economic criteria. This may in turn raise the issue of the role of the various parties involved in this assessment, as well as how to understand the respective opinions of stakeholders: authorities, sponsors, prescribers and patients, each of whom has a specific view of the definition of the strategic objective that should apply to the disease concerned.

  13. Trypsin- and low pH-mediated fusogenicity of avian metapneumovirus fusion proteins is determined by residues at positions 100, 101 and 294.

    PubMed

    Yun, Bingling; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Gao, Yanni; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-10-26

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are members of the genus Metapneumovirus in the subfamily Pneumovirinae. Metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein mediates the fusion of host cells with the virus membrane for infection. Trypsin- and/or low pH-induced membrane fusion is a strain-dependent phenomenon for hMPV. Here, we demonstrated that three subtypes of aMPV (aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C) F proteins promoted cell-cell fusion in the absence of trypsin. Indeed, in the presence of trypsin, only aMPV/C F protein fusogenicity was enhanced. Mutagenesis of the amino acids at position 100 and/or 101, located at a putative cleavage region in aMPV F proteins, revealed that the trypsin-mediated fusogenicity of aMPV F proteins is regulated by the residues at positions 100 and 101. Moreover, we demonstrated that aMPV/A and aMPV/B F proteins mediated cell-cell fusion independent of low pH, whereas the aMPV/C F protein did not. Mutagenesis of the residue at position 294 in the aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C F proteins showed that 294G played a critical role in F protein-mediated fusion under low pH conditions. These findings on aMPV F protein-induced cell-cell fusion provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion and pathogenesis of aMPV.

  14. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  15. Positively charged polymer brush-functionalized filter paper for DNA sequence determination following Dot blot hybridization employing a pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Laopa, Praethong S; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Hoven, Voravee P

    2013-01-07

    As inspired by the Dot blot analysis, a well known technique in molecular biology and genetics for detecting biomolecules, a new paper-based platform for colorimetric detection of specific DNA sequences employing peptide nucleic acid (PNA) as a probe has been developed. In this particular study, a pyrrolidinyl PNA bearing a conformationally rigid d-prolyl-2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid backbone (acpcPNA) was used as a probe. The filter paper was modified to be positively charged with grafted polymer brushes of quaternized poly(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (QPDMAEMA) prepared by surface-initiated polymerization of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate from the filter paper via ARGET ATRP followed by quaternization with methyl iodide. Following the Dot blot format, a DNA target was first immobilized via electrostatic interactions between the positive charges of the QPDMAEMA brushes and negative charges of the phosphate backbone of DNA. Upon hybridization with the biotinylated pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (b-PNA) probe, the immobilized DNA can be detected by naked eye observation of the yellow product generated by the enzymatic reaction employing HRP-labeled streptavidin. It has been demonstrated that this newly developed assay was capable of discriminating between complementary and single base mismatch targets at a detection limit of at least 10 fmol. In addition, the QPDMAEMA-grafted filter paper exhibited a superior performance to the commercial membranes, namely Nylon 66 and nitrocellulose.

  16. EMS provider determinations of necessity for transport and reimbursement for EMS response, medical care, and transport: combined resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statements.

    PubMed

    Millin, Michael G; Brown, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demands for emergency medical services (EMS), many EMS jurisdictions are utilizing EMS provider-initiated nontransport policies as a method to offload potentially nonemergent patients from the EMS system. EMS provider determination of medical necessity, resulting in nontransport of patients, has the potential to avert unnecessary emergency department visits. However, EMS systems that utilize these policies must have additional education for the providers, a quality improvement process, and active physician oversight. In addition, EMS provider determination of nontransport for a specific situation should be supported by evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that the practice is safe. Further, EMS systems that do not utilize these programs should not be financially penalized. Payment for EMS services should be based on the prudent layperson standard. EMS systems that do utilize nontransport policies should be appropriately reimbursed, as this represents potential cost savings to the health care system.

  17. Highly sensitive derivatization reagents possessing positively charged structures for the determination of oligosaccharides in glycoproteins by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun Zhe; Nagai, Keisuke; Shi, Qing; Zhou, Wenjun; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Lee, Yong-Ill; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-09-23

    We have developed three kinds of novel derivatization reagents (4-CEBTPP, 4-CBBTPP, 5-COTPP) with triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a basic structure carrying a permanent positive charge for resolution of the oligosaccharides in glycoprotein using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The synthesized reagents reacted with the sialylglycosylamine of the sialylglycopeptide after treatment by PNGase F. The final derivatives were analyzed by ESI-MS and sensitively detected in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Furthermore, the limits of detection (S/N=3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the fmol level (30fmol). Therefore, we used the limit of detection of the reagent products detected by the SRM and evaluated the utility of each reagent. Among the reagents, the positively charged 4-CEBTPP derivative's peak area was the highest; 4-CEBTPP with a positively charged structure showed about a 20 times greater sensitivity for the glycosylamine of the SGP product compared to the conventional fluorescence reagent, Fmoc-Cl. In addition, various fragment ions based on the carbohydrate units also appeared in the MS/MS spectra. Among the fragment ions, m/z 627.37 (CE=40eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP-GlcNAc and m/z 120.09 (CE=100eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP are the most important ones for identifying the oligosaccharide. 4-CEBTPP-SGA was easily identified by the selected-ion chromatogram in the product ion scan (m/z 120.09) and in the precursor ion scan (m/z 627.37) by MS/MS detection. The derivatized analytes have a high ionization efficiency and they are detected with a high sensitivity in the electrospray ionization. The novel derivatization reagent with a multi-function provided a higher sensitivity for the oligosaccharide analysis, as well as a better specificity and feasibility. Furthermore, several oligosaccharides in fetuin and ribonuclease B were successfully identified by the proposed procedure.

  18. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) to Determine Supernumerary and Impacted Teeth Position in Pediatric Patients: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nematolahi, Hossein; Abadi, Hamed; Mohammadzade, Zahra; Soofiani Ghadim, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    A case of a compound odontoma which caused delayed eruption of right maxillary central incisor in a ten year old girl is presented with clinical and radiographic findings. The patient presented with complaint of a hard painless swelling in the right anterior region of the maxilla and absence of right maxillary central incisor. After clinical examination, periapical and occlusal radiographs of the mentioned region were taken. Impacted maxillary right central incisor was seen malformed shape on the intraoral radiographs. After taking a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) a compound odontoma associated with the labial aspect of impacted maxillary right central incisor was diagnosed and then removed by simple local excision under local anesthesia. The removal of the odontoma was followed by forced eruption of the impacted central incisor. After three months the tooth returned to its original position. PMID:23487351

  19. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ... a mother. As you become more used to breastfeeding your baby, you can try different positions or ...

  20. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  1. Determination of the optimal position of adjacent proton-donor centers for the activation or inhibition of peptide bond formation--a computational model study.

    PubMed

    Rangelov, Miroslav A; Petrova, Galina P; Yomtova, Vihra M; Vayssilov, Georgi N

    2011-09-01

    The study reports a computational analysis of the influence of proton donor group adjacent to the reaction center during ester ammonolysis of an acylated diol as a model reaction for peptide bond formation. This analysis was performed using catalytic maps constructed after a detailed scanning of the available space around the reaction centers in different transition states, a water molecule acting as a typical proton donor. The calculations suggest that an adjacent proton donor center can reduce the activation barrier of the rate determining transition states by up to 7.2 kcal/mol, while no inhibition of the reaction can be achieved by such a group.

  2. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  3. Amelogenin gene splice products A+4 and A-4 implanted in soft tissue determine the reorientation of CD45-positive cells to an osteo-chondrogenic lineage.

    PubMed

    Lacerda-Pinheiro, S; Septier, D; Tompkins, K; Veis, A; Goldberg, M; Chardin, H

    2006-12-15

    Several molecules such as bone morphogenetic protein-7, bone sialoprotein (BSP), or amelogenin gene splice products (A+4 or A-4) have been shown to induce reparative dentin formation in a rat model. However, at the moment, the origin and the mechanism of differentiation of the pulp cells stimulated by the bioactive molecules remain poorly understood. The present investigation was undertaken to validate an ectopic oral mucosal mouse model to evaluate the effects of amelogenin gene splice product implantation in a non-mineralizing tissue. Agarose beads, alone or coated with amelogenin gene splice products, were implanted in the mucosa of the cheeks in mouse. An immunohistochemical characterization of the recruited cells was undertaken for 3 days, 8 days, and 30 days after the implantation. The results showed that the implantation of agarose beads in mucosa induced the recruitment of inflammatory CD45 positive cells. When the beads were coated with amelogenin gene splice products (A+4 or A-4), the expression of osteo-chondrogenic markers (RP59, Sox9, or BSP) was also observed. However, no mineralization nodule was observed, even after 30 days of implantation. The present investigation suggests that amelognin gene splice products have the capacity of recruiting among inflammatory cell mesenchymal progenitors that eventually differentiate into osteo-chondrogenic cells. Altogether, the results obtained in the pulp model and the present data suggest the existence of different pathways of cell recruitment and differentiation in different cellular environments.

  4. A positive chemical ionization GC/MS method for the determination of airborne ethylene glycol and propylene glycols in non-occupational environments.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai; Aikawa, Bio

    2004-11-01

    An analytical method for ethylene glycol and propylene glycols has been developed for measuring airborne levels of these chemicals in non-occupational environments such as residences and office buildings. The analytes were collected on charcoal tubes, solvent extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a positive chemical ionization technique. The method had a method detection limit of 0.07 microg m(-3) for ethylene glycol and 0.03 microg m(-3) for 1,2- and 1,3-propylene glycols, respectively, based on a 1.44 m3 sampling volume. Indoor air samples of several residential homes and other indoor environments have been analyzed. The median concentrations of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propylene glycol in nine residential indoor air samples were 53 microg m(-3) and 13 microg m(-3) respectively with maximum values of 223 microg m(-3) and 25 microg m(-3) detected for ethylene glycol and 1,2-propylene glycol respectively. The concentrations of these two chemicals in one office and two laboratories were at low microg m(-3) levels. The maximum concentration of 1,3-propylene glycol detected in indoor air was 0.1 microg m(-3).

  5. Quantitative determination of saroglitazar, a predominantly PPAR alpha agonist, in human plasma by a LC-MS/MS method utilizing electrospray ionization in a positive mode.

    PubMed

    Ghoghari, Ashok; Dash, Ranjeet; Bhatt, Chandrakant; Singh, Kanchan; Jha, Anil; Patel, Harilal; Gupta, Rahul; Kansagra, Kevinkumar; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-12-01

    A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitation of saroglitazar using turboion spray interface with positive ion mode. A liquid-liquid extraction, with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether, was employed for the extraction of saroglitazar and glimepiride (IS) from human plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an ACE-5, C18 (4.6 × 100 mm) column with a gradient mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer with trifluoracetic acid in purified water. Both analytes were separated within 10 min with retention times of 4.52 and 2.57 min for saroglitazar and IS, respectively. Saroglitazar quantitation was achieved by the summation of two MRM transition pairs (m/z 440.2 to m/z 366.0 and m/z 440.2 to m/z 183.1), while that of IS was achieved using transition pair m/z 491.3 to m/z 352.0. The calibration standards of saroglitazar showed linearity from 0.2 to 500 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.2 ng/mL. The biases for inter- and intra-batch assays were -7.51-1.15% and -11.21 to -3.25%, respectively, while the corresponding precisions were 5.04-8.06% and 1.53-7.68%, respectively. The developed method was used to monitor the plasma concentrations of saroglitazar in clinical samples.

  6. Use of the parallax-quench method to determine the position of the active-site loop of cholesterol oxidase in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wolfgang, D E; Sampson, N S

    2000-11-07

    To elucidate the cholesterol oxidase-membrane bilayer interaction, a cysteine was introduced into the active site lid at position-81 using the Brevibacterium enzyme. To eliminate the possibility of labeling native cysteine, the single cysteine in the wild-type enzyme was mutated to a serine without any change in activity. The loop-cysteine mutant was then labeled with acrylodan, an environment-sensitive fluorescence probe. The fluorescence increased and blue-shifted upon binding to lipid vesicles, consistent with a change into a more hydrophobic, i.e., lipid, environment. This acrylodan-labeled cholesterol oxidase was used to explore the pH, ionic strength, and headgroup dependence of binding. Between pH 6 and 10, there was no significant change in binding affinity. Incorporation of anionic lipids (phosphatidylserine) into the vesicles did not increase the binding affinity nor did altering the ionic strength. These experiments suggested that the interactions are primarily driven by hydrophobic effects not ionic effects. Using vesicles doped with either 5-doxyl phosphatidylcholine, 10-doxyl phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidyl-tempocholine, quenching of acrylodan fluorescence was observed upon binding. Using the parallax method of London [Chattopadhyay, A., and London, E. (1987) Biochemistry 26, 39-45], the acrylodan ring is calculated to be 8.1 +/- 2.5 A from the center of the lipid bilayer. Modeling the acrylodan-cysteine residue as an extended chain suggests that the backbone of the loop does not penetrate into the lipid bilayer but interacts with the headgroups, i.e., the choline. These results demonstrate that cholesterol oxidase interacts directly with the lipid bilayer and sits on the surface of the membrane.

  7. GDNF-RET signaling in ER-positive breast cancers is a key determinant of response and resistance to aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Andrea; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Gao, Qiong; Pancholi, Sunil; Mackay, Alan; Robertson, David; Zvelebil, Marketa; Dowsett, Mitch; Plaza-Menacho, Ivan; Isacke, Clare M

    2013-06-15

    Most breast cancers at diagnosis are estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) and depend on estrogen for growth and survival. Blocking estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase inhibitors has therefore become a first-line endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with ER(+) breast cancers. Despite providing substantial improvements in patient outcome, aromatase inhibitor resistance remains a major clinical challenge. The receptor tyrosine kinase, RET, and its coreceptor, GFRα1, are upregulated in a subset of ER(+) breast cancers, and the RET ligand, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is upregulated by inflammatory cytokines. Here, we report the findings of a multidisciplinary strategy to address the impact of GDNF-RET signaling in the response to aromatase inhibitor treatment. In breast cancer cells in two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture, GDNF-mediated RET signaling is enhanced in a model of aromatase inhibitor resistance. Furthermore, GDNF-RET signaling promoted the survival of aromatase inhibitor-resistant cells and elicited resistance in aromatase inhibitor-sensitive cells. Both these effects were selectively reverted by the RET kinase inhibitor, NVP-BBT594. Gene expression profiling in ER(+) cancers defined a proliferation-independent GDNF response signature that prognosed poor patient outcome and, more importantly, predicted poor response to aromatase inhibitor treatment with the development of resistance. We validated these findings by showing increased RET protein expression levels in an independent cohort of aromatase inhibitor-resistant patient specimens. Together, our results establish GDNF-RET signaling as a rational therapeutic target to combat or delay the onset of aromatase inhibitor resistance in breast cancer.

  8. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    PubMed

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource.

  9. Performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber for event wise, high rate thermal neutron detection with accurate 2D position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Alimov, S.; Fiutowski, T.; Schulz, C.; Wilpert, T.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) position sensitive detector for neutron scattering applications based on low-pressure gas amplification and micro-strip technology was built and tested with an innovative readout electronics and data acquisition system. This detector contains a thin solid neutron converter and was developed for time- and thus wavelength-resolved neutron detection in single-event counting mode, which improves the image contrast in comparison with integrating detectors. The prototype detector of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) was built with a solid natGd/CsI thermal neutron converter for spatial resolutions of about 100 μm and counting rates up to 107 neutrons/s. For attaining very high spatial resolutions and counting rates via micro-strip readout with centre-of-gravity evaluation of the signal amplitude distributions, a fast, channel-wise, self-triggering ASIC was developed. The front-end chips (MSGCROCs), which are very first signal processing components, are read out into powerful ADC-FPGA boards for on-line data processing and thereafter via Gigabit Ethernet link into the data receiving PC. The workstation PC is controlled by a modular, high performance dedicated software suite. Such a fast and accurate system is crucial for efficient radiography/tomography, diffraction or imaging applications based on high flux thermal neutron beam. In this paper a brief description of the detector concept with its operation principles, readout electronics requirements and design together with the signals processing stages performed in hardware and software are presented. In more detail the neutron test beam conditions and measurement results are reported. The focus of this paper is on the system integration, two dimensional spatial resolution, the time resolution of the readout system and the imaging capabilities of the overall setup. The detection efficiency of the detector prototype is estimated as well.

  10. Deciphering the genetic determinism of bud phenology in apple progenies: a new insight into chilling and heat requirement effects on flowering dates and positional candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Celton, J-M; Martinez, S; Jammes, M-J; Bechti, A; Salvi, S; Legave, J-M; Costes, E

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of bud phenological traits using two segregating F(1) apple (Malus × domestica) progenies. Phenological trait variability was dissected into genetic and climatic components using mixed linear modeling, and estimated best linear unbiased predictors were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection. For flowering dates, year effects were decomposed into chilling and heat requirements based on a previously developed model. QTL analysis permitted the identification of two major and population-specific genomic regions on LG08 and LG09. Both 'chilling requirement' and 'heat requirement' periods influenced flowering dates, although their relative impact was dependent on the genetic background. Using the apple genome sequence data, putative candidate genes underlying one major QTL were investigated. Numerous key genes involved in cell cycle control were identified in clusters within the confidence interval of the major QTL on LG09. Our results contribute towards a better understanding of the interaction between QTLs and climatic conditions, and provide a basis for the identification of genes involved in bud growth resumption.

  11. Base of moderately saline ground water in the Uinta Basin, Utah, with an introductory section describing the methods used in determining its position

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howells, Lewis; Longson, M.S.; Hunt, Gilbert L.

    1987-01-01

    The base of the moderately saline water (water that contains from 3,000 to 10,000 milligrams per liter of dissolved solids) was mapped by using available water-quality data and by determining formation-water resistivities from geophysical well logs based on the resistivity-porosity, spontaneous potential, and resistivity-ratio methods. The contour map developed from these data showed a mound of very saline and briny water, mostly of sodium chloride and sodium bicarbonate type, in most of that part of the Uinta Basin that is underlain by either the Green River or Wasatch Formations. Along its northern edge, the mound rises steeply from below sea level to within 2,000 feet of the land surface and, locally, to land surface. Along its southern edge, the mound rises less steeply and is more complex in outline. This body of very saline to briny water may be a lens; many wells or test holes drilled within the area underlain by the mound re-entered fresh to moderately saline water at depths of 8,000 to 15,000 feet below lam surface.

  12. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Social determinants of health associated with hepatitis C co-infection among people living with HIV: results from the Positive Spaces, Healthy Places study

    PubMed Central

    Rourke, Sean B; Sobota, Michael; Tucker, Ruthann; Bekele, Tsegaye; Gibson, Katherine; Greene, Saara; Price, Colleen; Koornstra, J J (Jay); Monette, LaVerne; Byers, Steve; Watson, James; Hwang, Stephen W; Guenter, Dale; Dunn, James; Ahluwalia, Amrita; Wilson, Michael G; Bacon, Jean

    2011-01-01

    Background Social determinants of health (SDOH) may influence the probability of people living with HIV also being infected with hepatitis C virus (HCV). We compared the SDOH of adults co-infected with HCV/HIV with that of HIV mono-infected adults to identify factors independently associated with HCV infection. Methods In this cross-sectional study, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 509 HIV-infected adults affiliated with or receiving services from community-based AIDS service organizations (CBAOs). The primary outcome measure was self-reported HCV infection status. Chi-square, Student’s t tests, and Wilcoxon rank-sum tests were performed to compare SDOH of HCV/HIV co-infected participants with that of HIV mono-infected participants. Multivariable hierarchical logistic regression was used to identify factors independently associated with HCV co-infection. Results Data on 482 (95 HCV/HIV co-infected and 387 HIV mono-infected) adults were analyzed. Compared with participants infected with HIV only, those who were co-infected with HIV and HCV were more likely to be heterosexual, Aboriginal, less educated and unemployed. They were more likely to have a low income, to not be receiving antiretroviral treatment, to live outside the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to use/abuse substances, experience significant depression, and utilize addiction counselling and needle-exchange services. They also were more likely to report a history of homelessness and perceived housing-related discrimination and to have moved twice or more in the previous 12 months. Factors independently associated with HCV/HIV co-infection were history of incarceration (odds ratio [OR] 8.81, 95% CI 4.43–17.54), history of homelessness (OR 3.15, 95% CI 1.59–6.26), living outside of the GTA (OR 3.13, 95% CI 1.59–6.15), and using/abusing substances in the past 12 months (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.07–3.91). Conclusion Differences in SDOH exist between HIV/HCV co-infected and HIV mono-infected adults

  14. Quantitative PCR for determining the infectivity of bacteriophage MS2 upon inactivation by heat, UV-B radiation, and singlet oxygen: advantages and limitations of an enzymatic treatment to reduce false-positive results.

    PubMed

    Pecson, Brian M; Martin, Luisa Valério; Kohn, Tamar

    2009-09-01

    Health risks posed by waterborne viruses are difficult to assess because it is tedious or impossible to determine the infectivity of many viruses. Recent studies hypothesized that quantitative PCR (qPCR) could selectively quantify infective viruses if preceded by an enzymatic treatment (ET) to reduce confounding false-positive signals. The goal of this study was to determine if ET with qPCR (ET-qPCR) can be used to accurately quantify the infectivity of the human viral surrogate bacteriophage MS2 upon partial inactivation by three treatments (heating at 72 degrees C, singlet oxygen, and UV radiation). Viruses were inactivated in buffered solutions and a lake water sample and assayed with culturing, qPCR, and ET-qPCR. To ensure that inactivating genome damage was fully captured, primer sets that covered the entire coding region were used. The susceptibility of different genome regions and the maximum genomic damage after each inactivating treatment were compared. We found that (i) qPCR alone caused false-positive results for all treatments, (ii) ET-qPCR significantly reduced (up to >5.2 log units) but did not eliminate the false-positive signals, and (iii) the elimination of false-positive signals differed between inactivating treatments. By assaying the whole coding region, we demonstrated that genome damage only partially accounts for virus inactivation. The possibility of achieving complete accordance between culture- and PCR-based assays is therefore called into doubt. Despite these differences, we postulate that ET-qPCR can track infectivity, given that decreases in infectivity were always accompanied by dose-dependent decreases in ET-qPCR signal. By decreasing false-positive signals, ET-qPCR improved the detection of infectivity loss relative to qPCR.

  15. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  16. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  17. Gene Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Ferrai, Carmelo; de Castro, Inês Jesus; Lavitas, Liron; Chotalia, Mita; Pombo, Ana

    2010-01-01

    Eukaryotic gene expression is an intricate multistep process, regulated within the cell nucleus through the activation or repression of RNA synthesis, processing, cytoplasmic export, and translation into protein. The major regulators of gene expression are chromatin remodeling and transcription machineries that are locally recruited to genes. However, enzymatic activities that act on genes are not ubiquitously distributed throughout the nucleoplasm, but limited to specific and spatially defined foci that promote preferred higher-order chromatin arrangements. The positioning of genes within the nuclear landscape relative to specific functional landmarks plays an important role in gene regulation and disease. PMID:20484389

  18. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  19. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  20. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  1. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  2. New data analysis technique developed for the determination of the solar limb position in measurements of the solar diameter and oblateness, and application to observations obtained with the balloon-borne Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djafer, D.; Sofia, S.; Irbah, A.; Thuillier, G.; Egidi, A.; Caccin, B.

    Solar diameter measurements performed from ground by several instruments during these last decades show variations which are not in agreement. In relation with solar activity, these measurements do not reveal consistent results. These results can be either attributed to Earth atmosphere effects or to instrumental ones especially in presence of noise. Noise affects directly the determination of the solar diameter defined as the zero crossing of the second derivative of the solar limb. Furthermore, presence of noise in data causes additional problems requiring appropriate data filtering without changing the solar limb slope. Several methods have been developed and used for a correct inflexion point position determination, among them, is the Fast Fourier Transform Definition (FFTD). We first present a complete description of the FFTD tool and in particular a new method to choose the filtering parameter (a) to be determined for applying FFDT. An alternative method by filtering using the wavelet analysis is also shown. The Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) is an instrument which has been flown on stratospheric balloons from 1992 to 1998 at 37 km altitude preventing all atmospheric effects. SDS uses a prism as angular reference. We present and discuss results obtained from SDS data analysis and compare them using others methods of inflexion point position detection. Finally, we discuss all other SDS experimental parameters able to cause solar diameter measurement variations.We show the relationship between the diameter variation and solar variability.

  3. Direct Identification of Staphylococcus aureus and Determination of Methicillin Susceptibility From Positive Blood-Culture Bottles in a Bact/ALERT System Using Binax Now S. aureus and PBP2a Tests.

    PubMed

    Heraud, Sandrine; Freydiere, Anne-Marie; Doleans-Jordheim, Anne; Bes, Michèle; Tristan, Anne; Vandenesch, François; Laurent, Frederic; Dauwalder, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia is associated with high mortality and morbidity, requiring prompt and appropriate antimicrobial treatment. Therefore, it is important to detect methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) rapidly from blood cultures. Two immunochromatographic tests, BinaxNow S. aureus and BinaxNow PBP2a, were directly applied to 79 Bact/Alert bottles that were positive for Gram positive cocci in cluster aggregations. Sensitivity and specificity for the identification of S. aureus and determination of methicillin resistance were 94% and 87%, and 100% and 100%, respectively, with less than 30 min of performance time. These tests are efficient and rapid; these tests are valuable alternatives to more sophisticated and expensive methods used in the diagnosis of MRSA bacteremia.

  4. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  5. Recent Development in Astronomic Position Determinations.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-10-25

    Division, incorporates a charge injection device (CID) detector having a 256 x 256 pixel array. The system is integrated with a Wild T-4 astronomic... sigma ). This system is being built for the Defense Mapping Agency under an on-going technical development program to improve the accuracy of astronomic...charge injection device (CID) 08 of electro-optical system theodolite star sensor 19. ABSTRACT (Continue on reverse if necessary and identlify by blocks

  6. Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Genetic Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Culture Broths by Use of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Multiplex Microarray-Based Molecular Assay.

    PubMed

    Ledeboer, Nathan A; Lopansri, Bert K; Dhiman, Neelam; Cavagnolo, Robert; Carroll, Karen C; Granato, Paul; Thomson, Richard; Butler-Wu, Susan M; Berger, Heather; Samuel, Linoj; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Hansen, Glen T; Tran, Nam K; Polage, Christopher R; Thomson, Kenneth S; Hanson, Nancy D; Winegar, Richard; Buchan, Blake W

    2015-08-01

    Bloodstream infection is a serious condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The outcome of these infections can be positively affected by the early implementation of effective antibiotic therapy based on the identification of the infecting organism and genetic markers associated with antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated the microarray-based Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay in the identification of 8 genus or species targets and 6 genetic resistance determinants in positive blood culture broths. A total of 1,847 blood cultures containing Gram-negative organisms were tested using the BC-GN assay. This comprised 729 prospective fresh, 781 prospective or retrospective frozen, and 337 simulated cultures representing 7 types of aerobic culture media. The results were compared to those with standard bacterial culture and biochemical identification with nucleic acid sequence confirmation of the resistance determinants. Among monomicrobial cultures, the positive percent agreement (PPA) of the BC-GN assay with the reference method was as follows; Escherichia coli, 100%; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 92.9%; Klebsiella oxytoca, 95.5%; Enterobacter spp., 99.3%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 98.9%; Proteus spp., 100%; Acinetobacter spp., 98.4%; and Citrobacter spp., 100%. All organism identification targets demonstrated >99.5% negative percent agreement (NPA) with the reference method. Of note, 25/26 cultures containing K. pneumoniae that were reported as not detected by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as Klebsiella variicola. The PPA for identification of resistance determinants was as follows; blaCTX-M, 98.9%; blaKPC, 100%; blaNDM, 96.2%; blaOXA, 94.3%; blaVIM, 100%; and blaIMP, 100%. All resistance determinant targets demonstrated >99.9% NPA. Among polymicrobial specimens, the BC-GN assay correctly identified at least one organism in 95.4% of the broths and correctly identified all organisms present in 54.5% of the broths

  7. Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Genetic Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Culture Broths by Use of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Multiplex Microarray-Based Molecular Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Lopansri, Bert K.; Dhiman, Neelam; Cavagnolo, Robert; Carroll, Karen C.; Granato, Paul; Thomson, Richard; Butler-Wu, Susan M.; Berger, Heather; Samuel, Linoj; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Hansen, Glen T.; Tran, Nam K.; Polage, Christopher R.; Thomson, Kenneth S.; Hanson, Nancy D.; Winegar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infection is a serious condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The outcome of these infections can be positively affected by the early implementation of effective antibiotic therapy based on the identification of the infecting organism and genetic markers associated with antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated the microarray-based Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay in the identification of 8 genus or species targets and 6 genetic resistance determinants in positive blood culture broths. A total of 1,847 blood cultures containing Gram-negative organisms were tested using the BC-GN assay. This comprised 729 prospective fresh, 781 prospective or retrospective frozen, and 337 simulated cultures representing 7 types of aerobic culture media. The results were compared to those with standard bacterial culture and biochemical identification with nucleic acid sequence confirmation of the resistance determinants. Among monomicrobial cultures, the positive percent agreement (PPA) of the BC-GN assay with the reference method was as follows; Escherichia coli, 100%; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 92.9%; Klebsiella oxytoca, 95.5%; Enterobacter spp., 99.3%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 98.9%; Proteus spp., 100%; Acinetobacter spp., 98.4%; and Citrobacter spp., 100%. All organism identification targets demonstrated >99.5% negative percent agreement (NPA) with the reference method. Of note, 25/26 cultures containing K. pneumoniae that were reported as not detected by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as Klebsiella variicola. The PPA for identification of resistance determinants was as follows; blaCTX-M, 98.9%; blaKPC, 100%; blaNDM, 96.2%; blaOXA, 94.3%; blaVIM, 100%; and blaIMP, 100%. All resistance determinant targets demonstrated >99.9% NPA. Among polymicrobial specimens, the BC-GN assay correctly identified at least one organism in 95.4% of the broths and correctly identified all organisms present in 54.5% of the broths

  8. Determination of full-energy peak efficiency at the center position of a through-hole-type clover detector between 0.05 MeV and 3.2 MeV by source measurements and Monte Carlo simulations.

    PubMed

    Shima, Yosuke; Hayashi, Hiroaki; Kojima, Yasuaki; Shibata, Michihiro

    2014-09-01

    Full-energy peak efficiency at the center position of a through-hole-type clover detector was determined by the measurement of standard sources and by Monte Carlo simulation. The coincidence summing under the large-solid-angle condition was corrected using Monte Carlo calculation based on the specific decay scheme for (133)Ba, (152,154)Eu, and (56)Co. This allowed the peak efficiency to be extended from 0.05 MeV to 3.2 MeV with an approximate uncertainty of 3%.

  9. Positioning With GPS: 1985

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Remondi, Benjamin W.; Hothem, Larry D.

    The First International Symposium on Precise Positioning With the Global Positioning System (GPS) was held in Rockville, Maryland from April 15 to April 19, 1985; 600 participants from 31 countries attended. Sponsors included the International Union of Geodesy and Geophysics, the International Association of Geodesy, the Defense Mapping Agency (DMA), and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) in cooperation with the American Society of Civil Engineers. GPS uses the NAVSTAR (an acronym for Navigation and Satellite Timing and Ranging) satellite system developed by the Department of Defense (DOD).Although this symposium was limited to precise positioning with GPS, the scope of precise positioning was left open. Without a doubt, precise relative positioning with L band carrier phase measurements was the most important topic. Also included were certain high-accuracy applications of pseudorange measurements, such as orbit determination, time transfer, and navigation. Administration, policy, hardware, software, processing, and applications in these areas were also covered. Intentionally left out were areas in which high positional accuracy was not important (e.g., commercial aviation). Attendees presented 89 papers, which were organized into 15 sessions covering nine subject areas: overview, status, and policy; GPS time and orbits; user equipment; user equipment testing; modeling and processing; applications; survey positioning results; practical aspects of geodesy; and dynamic positioning.

  10. An alternative method to determine the 5' extremities of non-segmented, negative sense RNA viral genomes using positive replication intermediate 3' tailing: application to two members of the Paramyxoviridae family.

    PubMed

    Brown, Paul A; Briand, Francois-Xavier; Guionie, Olivier; Lemaitre, Evelyne; Courtillon, Celine; Henry, Aurelie; Jestin, Véronique; Eterradossi, Nicolas

    2013-10-01

    Determining the sequence of non-segmented, negative sense RNA viral genomes is far from routine and often requires the application of several techniques. In this study, an existing method used currently just for determination of the genomic 3' extremity was used to determine both the 3' and 5' sequence extremities of a Newcastle disease virus and an avian metapneumovirus. This was achieved with a single 3' nucleotide tailing reaction of both the genomic RNA and the full length, positive sense, antigenomic RNA, followed by a single reverse transcription reaction targeted to the common polynucleotide tails, and then individual PCRs specific for each extremity using PCR primers derived from the sequence of the RT primer or from neighbouring virus sequences known previously. For each virus the method was employed separately. Sequences from both viruses were in agreement with those reported previously for other paramyxoviruses, yet one extra base at the 3' and one extra base at the 5' were identified for the avian metapneumovirus. In this study, importantly, the newly determined extremities maintained the complementarity known to exist between the extremities of these viruses. The method was equally successful with both viruses and can be tailored easily to function with other non-segmented, negative sense viruses through minor modification of only the primer sequences.

  11. Geodetic positioning using a global positioning system of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Geodetic positioning using range, integrated Doppler, and interferometric observations from a constellation of twenty-four Global Positioning System satellites is analyzed. A summary of the proposals for geodetic positioning and baseline determination is given which includes a description of measurement techniques and comments on rank deficiency and error sources. An analysis of variance comparison of range, Doppler, and interferometric time delay to determine their relative geometric strength for baseline determination is included. An analytic examination to the effect of a priori constraints on positioning using simultaneous observations from two stations is presented. Dynamic point positioning and baseline determination using range and Doppler is examined in detail. Models for the error sources influencing dynamic positioning are developed. Included is a discussion of atomic clock stability, and range and Doppler observation error statistics based on random correlated atomic clock error are derived.

  12. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  13. Prevalence and determinants of HSV-2/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection among HIV-positive men who have sex with men: a cross-sectional study in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qing-Hai; Xu, Jun-Jie; Chu, Zhen-Xing; Zhang, Jing; Yu, Yan-Qiu; Yu, Huan; Ding, Hai-Bo; Jiang, Yong-Jun; Geng, Wen-Qing; Wang, Ning; Shang, Hong

    2016-10-31

    We aimed to assess the prevalence and determinants of herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) mono-infection and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive men who have sex with men (MSM) in China. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 545 HIV-positive MSM in Shenyang between February 2009 and October 2014. Participants received physical examinations and serological tests for HSV-2 and syphilis. A multinomial logistic regression was used to identify risk factors associated with HSV-2/syphilis co-infection and HSV-2 mono-infection. The HSV-2 mono-infection, syphilis mono-infection, and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection prevalence (95% confidence interval) was 48.6% (44.4-52.8%), 34.3% (30.3-38.3%), and 22.9% (19.4-26.5%), respectively. In regression analysis, after controlling within HSV-2/syphilis-seronegative cases, related factors for HSV-2/syphilis co-infection were age (25-50 years vs. ≤24 years, aOR: 4.55; >50 years vs. ≤24 years, aOR: 43.02), having regular female sexual partner(s) in the past 6 months (aOR: 0.43) and age at first MSM experience (>18 years vs ⩽18 years, aOR: 2.59) (all P < 0.05).The high prevalence of HSV-2 infection and HSV-2/syphilis co-infection in HIV-positive MSM indicates high HIV secondary transmission risk. A campaign for detection and treatment of HSV-2 and syphilis is urgently required for HIV-positive MSM in China.

  14. Simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Mingzhen; He, Xiaomeng; Li, Huqun; Haseeb, Satter; Chen, Hui; Li, Weiyong

    2015-03-25

    A new method for simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching modes was developed and validated. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was selected for sample preparation. Analyses were performed on a liquid chromatography system employing a Kromasil 60-5CN column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 5 μm) and an isocratic elution with mixed solution of acetonitrile-20mM ammonium formate containing 0.3% formic acid (40:60, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Doxazosin mesylate and pioglitazone were used as the internal standard (IS) respectively for quantification. The determination was carried out on an API 4000 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the following transitions monitored simultaneously: positive m/z 150.0/91.0 for phentermine, m/z 452.1/344.3 for doxazosin, and negative m/z 338.3/77.9 for topiramate, m/z 355.0/41.9 for pioglitazone. The method was validated to be linear over the concentration range of 1-800 ng mL(-1) for phentermine, 1-1000 ng mL(-1) for topiramate. Within- and between-day accuracy and precision of the validated method at three different concentration levels were within the acceptable limits of <15% at all concentrations. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and after administration. The simple and robust LC/MS/MS method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate in a pharmacokinetic study in healthy male Chinese volunteers.

  15. Quickness of trunk movements in a seated position, regardless of the direction, is more important to determine the mobility in the elderly than the range of the trunk movement.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Sano, Yuki; Ogaya, Shinya; Kataoka, Masataka; Okuda, Kuniharu; Iwata, Hiroshi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although trunk function is known to be critical for maintaining balance during gait, a detailed evaluation regarding the relationship between trunk function and mobility has not been performed. We previously reported that the ability of quick lateral trunk movements in a seated position reflects mobility in elderly people. In this study, we further examined whether trunk movement in the anterior-posterior direction is also a determinant of mobility. In addition, the correlation between range of lateral trunk movement and mobility was also examined. One hundred and forty community-dwelling elderly participants (73.3±6.2 years) were enrolled in this study. We performed various trunk movement tests in a seated position, such as the seated side tapping test (SST), the seated anterior-posterior tapping test (APT), and the lateral sitting functional reach test (sitting reach test). Maximum gait speed and the timed up and go test (TUG) were performed to determine mobility. Parameters of trunk movement were compared. SST and APT showed moderate significant correlations with both maximum gate speed and TUG, while the sitting reach test weakly correlated (SST r=-0.58, p<0.01, APT r=-0.63, p<0.01, sitting reach test r=0.30, p<0.01). Moreover, multiple regression analysis revealed that SST and APT were independent indicators of both maximum gate speed and TUG, while the sitting reach test was not. These findings indicate that quickness, regardless of the direction of the movement, is more important than range in determining mobility in the elderly.

  16. Simultaneous Determination of Celecoxib, Erlotinib, and its Metabolite Desmethyl-Erlotinib (OSI-420) in Rat Plasma by Liquid chromatography/Tandem Mass Spectrometry with Positive/Negative Ion-Switching Electrospray Ionisation.

    PubMed

    Thappali, Satheeshmanikandan R S; Varanasi, Kanthikiran; Veeraraghavan, Sridhar; Arla, Rambabu; Chennupati, Sandhya; Rajamanickam, Madheswaran; Vakkalanka, Swaroop; Khagga, Mukkanti

    2012-01-01

    A new method for the simultaneous determination of celecoxib, erlotinib, and its active metabolite desmethyl-erlotinib (OSI-420) in rat plasma, by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization mode, was developed and validated. Protein precipitation with methanol was selected as the method for preparing the samples. The analytes were separated on a reverse-phase C(18) column (50mm×4.6mm i.d., 3μ) using methanol: 2 mM ammonium acetate buffer, and pH 4.0 as the mobile phase at a flow rate 0.8 mL/min. Sitagliptin and Efervirenz were used as the internal standards for quantification. The determination was carried out on a Theremo Finnigan Quantam ultra triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer, operated in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode using the following transitions monitored simultaneously: positive m/z 394.5→278.1 for erlotinib, m/z 380.3→278.1 for desmethyl erlotinib (OSI-420), and negative m/z -380.1→ -316.3 for celecoxib. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were 1.5 ng/mL for Celecoxib, erlotinib, and OSI-420. Within- and between-day accuracy and precision of the validated method were within the acceptable limits of < 15% at all concentrations. The quantitation method was successfully applied for the simultaneous estimation of celecoxib, erlotinib, and desmethyl erlotinib in a pharmacokinetic study in Wistar rats.

  17. Deep Space Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  18. Multi-residue method for the determination of basic/neutral pharmaceuticals and illicit drugs in surface water by solid-phase extraction and ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Kasprzyk-Hordern, B; Dinsdale, R M; Guwy, A J

    2007-08-17

    The paper presents the development and validation of a new multi-residue method for the determination of 28 basic/neutral pharmaceuticals (antiepileptics, antibacterial drugs, beta-blockers, analgesics, lipid-regulating agents, bronchodilators, histamine-2-blockers, anti-inflammatory agents, calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-II antagonists and antidepressants) and illicit drugs in surface water with the usage of a new technique: ultra performance liquid chromatography-positive electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). The usage of the novel UPLC system with 1.7 microm particle size and 1mm internal diameter column allowed for low mobile phase flow rates (0.07 mL min(-1)) and short retention times (from 1.3 to 15.5 min) for all compounds analysed. As a result, a fast and cost-effective method was developed. SPE with the usage of Oasis MCX strong cation-exchange mixed-mode polymeric sorbent was chosen for pharmaceuticals extraction from environmental samples. The influence of matrix-assisted ion suppression and low SPE recovery on the sensitivity of the method was studied. The instrumental limits of quantification varied from 0.2 to 10 microg L(-1). The method limits of quantification were at low nanogram per litre levels and ranged from 0.3 to 50 ng L(-1). The instrumental and method intra- and inter-day repeatabilities were on average less than 10%. The method was applied for the determination of pharmaceuticals in Rivers Taff (UK) and Warta (Poland). Fifteen compounds were determined in river water at levels ranging from single nanograms to single micrograms per litre.

  19. Studies Of Positive-Position-Feedback Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James L.; Caughey, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical and experimental studies of positive-position-feedback control for suppressing vibrations in large flexible structures. Positive-position-feedback control involves placement of actuators and sensors on structure; control voltages applied to actuators in response to outputs of sensors processed via compensator algorithm. Experiments demonstrate feasibility of suppressing vibrations by positive position feedback, and spillover of vibrational energy into uncontrolled modes has stabilizing effect if control gain sufficiently small.

  20. Determination of the position of the 5d excited levels of Ce3+ ions with respect to the conduction band in the epitaxial films of the multicomponent (Lu,Gd)3(Ga,Al)5O12:Ce garnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babin, V.; Hanus, M.; Krasnikov, A.; Kučera, M.; Nikl, M.; Zazubovich, S.

    2016-12-01

    Temperature dependences of the intensity and decay kinetics of the Ce3+ - related photoluminescence and characteristics of thermally stimulated luminescence are investigated in the 77-500 K temperature range for the epitaxial films of the multicomponent garnets of the type of Lu3-xGdxGayAl5-yO12:Ce with Ce content of 0.3-0.7 at. %, where x varies from 0.14 to 3 and y varies from 0 to 3.54. Different methods are used for the determination of energy distances between the excited 5d1 and 5d2 levels of Ce3+ ions and the conduction band (CB) and their applicability is compared. The dependences of the 5d1,2 - CB energy distances on the multicomponent garnet composition are clarified. The 5d1 - CB energy distance is found to decrease by about an order of magnitude with the increasing Ga3+ content. The most drastic decrease, observed at the Ga3+ content around y ≈ 1.7, is suggested to arise from the change in the Ga3+ position from the smaller tetrahedral to larger octahedral Al3+ sites. This effect is explained by the lattice distortion due to the substitution of smaller Lu3+ and Al3+ ions by larger Gd3+ and Ga3+ ions. Application potential of these epitaxial films for fast 2D-imaging is discussed.

  1. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  2. Precise determination of the absolute isotopic abundance ratio and the atomic weight of chlorine in three international reference materials by the positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer-Cs2Cl+-graphite method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Wu, Bin; Wu, He-Pin; Li, Qing; Luo, Chong-Guang

    2012-12-04

    Because the variation in chlorine isotopic abundances of naturally occurring chlorine bearing substances is significant, the IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW-IUPAC) decided that the uncertainty of atomic weight of chlorine (A(r)(Cl)) should be increased so that the implied range was related to terrestrial variability in 1999 (Coplen, T. B. Atomic weights of the elements 1999 (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem.2001, 73(4), 667-683; and then, it emphasized that the standard atomic weights of ten elements including chlorine were not constants of nature but depend upon the physical, chemical, and nuclear history of the materials in 2009 (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396). According to the agreement by CIAAW that an atomic weight could be defined for one specified sample of terrestrial origin (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396), the absolute isotope ratios and atomic weight of chlorine in standard reference materials (NIST 975, NIST 975a, ISL 354) were accurately determined using the high-precision positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer (PTIMS)-Cs(2)Cl(+)-graphite method. After eliminating the weighing error caused from evaporation by designing a special weighing container and accurately determining the chlorine contents in two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts by the current constant coulometric titration, one series of gravimetric synthetic mixtures prepared from two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts was used to calibrate two thermal ionization mass spectrometers in two individual laboratories. The correction factors (i.e., K(37/35) = R(37/35meas)/R(37/35calc)) were obtained from five cycles of iterative calculations on the basis of calculated and determined R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) values in gravimetric synthetic mixtures. The absolute R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) ratios for NIST SRM 975, NIST 975a, and ISL 354 by the precise

  3. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  4. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  5. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    PubMed

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  6. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Questionnaire Home Diseases and Conditions Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) Condition Family HealthMenWomen Share Benign Paroxysmal Positional ...

  7. The Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  8. Positive position control of robotic manipulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Gumusel, L.

    1989-01-01

    The present, simple and accurate position-control algorithm, which is applicable to fast-moving and lightly damped robot arms, is based on the positive position feedback (PPF) strategy and relies solely on position sensors to monitor joint angles of robotic arms to furnish stable position control. The optimized tuned filters, in the form of a set of difference equations, manipulate position signals for robotic system performance. Attention is given to comparisons between this PPF-algorithm controller's experimentally ascertained performance characteristics and those of a conventional proportional controller.

  9. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  10. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  11. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research.

  12. Positive clinical neuroscience: explorations in positive neurology.

    PubMed

    Kapur, Narinder; Cole, Jonathan; Manly, Tom; Viskontas, Indre; Ninteman, Aafke; Hasher, Lynn; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-08-01

    Disorders of the brain and its sensory organs have traditionally been associated with deficits in movement, perception, cognition, emotion, and behavior. It is increasingly evident, however, that positive phenomena may also occur in such conditions, with implications for the individual, science, medicine, and for society. This article provides a selective review of such positive phenomena--enhanced function after brain lesions, better-than-normal performance in people with sensory loss, creativity associated with neurological disease, and enhanced performance associated with aging. We propose that, akin to the well-established field of positive psychology and the emerging field of positive clinical psychology, the nascent fields of positive neurology and positive neuropsychology offer new avenues to understand brain-behavior relationships, with both theoretical and therapeutic implications.

  13. Recovery position - series (image)

    MedlinePlus

    ... CPR, the victim should be placed in the recovery position. The recovery position helps keep the victim's airway open. To put the victim in the recovery position grab the victim's leg and shoulder and ...

  14. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  15. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  16. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  17. Evaluation of on-line pyrolysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the determination of position-specific (13)C isotope composition of short chain n-alkanes (C6-C12).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-06-01

    We measured (13)C intramolecular isotopic composition of commercially available short-chain hydrocarbons (n-C6-n-C12) using (13)C-NMR. Results show that the main variation is between the terminal and the sub-terminal C-atom positions. Site-preference (difference in δ(13)C values between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions) among all the samples varies between -12.2‰ and +8.4‰. Comparison of these results with those obtained using on-line pyrolysis coupled with GC-C-IRMS show that the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons occurs with a good isotopic fidelity between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions of the starting material and the related pyrolysis products (methane and ethylene). On-line pyrolysis coupled with GC-C-IRMS can thus be used for tracing hydrocarbons biogeochemical processes.

  18. Double triplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus and determination of their methicillin resistance directly from positive blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Abdullah; Basustaoglu, A Celal

    2011-12-01

    We developed and validated here a double triplex real-time PCR assay to simultaneously detect and identify Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and their methicillin resistance in a single reaction directly from Gram-positive cocci-in-clusters (GPCs)-positive blood culture bottles. From August 15, 2009 through February 15, 2010, 238 GPC-positive samples were collected and identified by conventional methods as 11 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 28 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 176 MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), 21 MSCoNS and two Enterococcus faecalis. The double triplex real-time PCR assay was targeted and detected tuf, nuc and mecA genes in the first tube and atlE, gap and mvaA genes in the second tube which could be run simultaneously. The detection limit of the assay was found at 10(3) CFU/ml for the atleE gene, 10(4) CFU/ml for the mva gene and 10(5) CFU/ml for gap, nuc, mecA and tuf genes based on seeding experiments. All Staphylococcus species except two S. epidermidis were correctly identified by the assay. The double triplex real-time PCR assay quickly and accurately detects S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. haemolyticus and their methicillin resistance in a single reaction directly from positive blood culture bottles within 83 min.

  19. Comparison of multiplex real-time PCR and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for the direct and rapid detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Seoyong; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon Deok; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR assay and a PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (PCR-REBA) for the rapid detection of bacteria and identification of antibiotic resistance genes directly from blood culture bottles and to compare the results of these molecular assays with conventional culture methods. The molecular diagnostic methods were used to evaluate 593 blood culture bottles from patients with bloodstream infections. The detection positivity of multiplex real-time PCR assay for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida spp. was equivalent to PCR-REBA as 99.6 %, 99.1 % and 100 %, respectively. Using conventional bacterial cultures as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of these two molecular methods were 99.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.980-1.000; P<0.001), 100 % (95 % CI, 0.983-1.000; P<0.001), 100 % and 99 %, respectively. However, positivity of the Real-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the mecA gene to detect methicillin resistance was lower than that of the PCR-REBA method, detecting an overall positivity of 98.4 % (n=182; 95 % CI, 0.964-1.000; P<0.009) and 99.5 % (n=184; 95 % CI, 0.985-1.000; P<0.0001), respectively. The entire two methods take about 3 h, while results from culture can take up to 48-72 h. Therefore, the use of these two molecular methods was rapid and reliable for the characterization of causative pathogens in bloodstream infections.

  20. The measurement of comet positions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tatum, J. B.

    1982-04-01

    A procedure for measuring the position of comets from photographs is described that requires only a photographic telescope, a measuring microscope, a star atlas and catalog, and a programmable calculator or computer. Instructions are given on how to choose the comparison stars, make the measurement, and gather the data. Also discussed are proper motion corrections, determinations of the focal length, and standard coordinates.

  1. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  2. Sequence-dependent nucleosome positioning.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho-Ryun; Vingron, Martin

    2009-03-13

    Eukaryotic DNA is organized into a macromolecular structure called chromatin. The basic repeating unit of chromatin is the nucleosome, which consists of two copies of each of the four core histones and DNA. The nucleosomal organization and the positions of nucleosomes have profound effects on all DNA-dependent processes. Understanding the factors that influence nucleosome positioning is therefore of general interest. Among the many determinants of nucleosome positioning, the DNA sequence has been proposed to have a major role. Here, we analyzed more than 860,000 nucleosomal DNA sequences to identify sequence features that guide the formation of nucleosomes in vivo. We found that both a periodic enrichment of AT base pairs and an out-of-phase oscillating enrichment of GC base pairs as well as the overall preference for GC base pairs are determinants of nucleosome positioning. The preference for GC pairs can be related to a lower energetic cost required for deformation of the DNA to wrap around the histones. In line with this idea, we found that only incorporation of both signal components into a sequence model for nucleosome formation results in maximal predictive performance on a genome-wide scale. In this manner, one achieves greater predictive power than published approaches. Our results confirm the hypothesis that the DNA sequence has a major role in nucleosome positioning in vivo.

  3. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  4. Positive Deviance: Learning from Positive Anomalies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeMahieu, Paul G.; Nordstrum, Lee E.; Gale, Dick

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: This paper is one of seven in this volume, each elaborating different approaches to quality improvement in education. The purpose of this paper is to delineate a methodology called positive deviance. Design/methodology/approach: The paper presents the origins, theoretical foundations, core principles and a case study demonstrating an…

  5. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of…

  6. The Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-05-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) and current program status are provided. The importance of...the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System (NAVSTAR GPS or GPS ) will have on future weapons employment. The study will: examine why we need a high...Washington, D.C., 24 January, 1984. Malone, Daniel K. GPS /NAVSTAR. Military Review, March 1986. Nepean, Phillip The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System

  7. Position des lignes temporales sur le cranium de «Mrs » Ples (A.africanus) : une attribution sexuelle est-elle possible ?Possible position of the temporal lines on the cranium of 'Mrs' Ples (A. africanus): is sexual determination possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Sandrine; Thackeray, John Francis

    2001-03-01

    The cranium and associated matrix of Sts 5, a cranium of Australopithecus africanus is re-examined in the context of an unfused sagittal suture and the position of the temporal lines. These lines are not developed as a sagittal crest although they are close to the mid-sagittal line. A comparative study of the presence of sagittal crests in male, female, juvenile and adult specimens of extant great apes ( Gorilla, Pan, Pongo) suggests that the existence of a sagittal crest is influenced to a greater extent by anatomical age rather than by the sex of the individuals.

  8. Activities of Tedizolid and Linezolid Determined by the Reference Broth Microdilution Method against 3,032 Gram-Positive Bacterial Isolates Collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern Europe, and Latin American Countries in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Pfaller, Michael A.; Flamm, Robert K.; Jones, Ronald N.; Farrell, David J.

    2016-01-01

    Tedizolid and linezolid in vitro activities against 3,032 Gram-positive pathogens collected in Asia-Pacific, Eastern European, and Latin American medical centers during 2014 were assessed. The isolates were tested for susceptibility by the current reference broth microdilution methods. Due to concern over the effect of MIC endpoint criteria on the results of testing the oxazolidinones tedizolid and linezolid, MIC endpoint values were read by two methods: (i) reading the MIC at the first well where the trailing began without regard for pinpoint trailing, according to CLSI M07-A10 and M100-S26 document instructions for reading linezolid (i.e., 80% inhibition of growth; these reads were designated tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80), and (ii) at 100% inhibition of growth (designated tedizolid 100 and linezolid 100). All Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus agalactiae, Streptococcus anginosus group, and Enterococcus faecalis isolates were inhibited at tedizolid 80 and 100 MIC values of 0.25 and 0.5, 0.25 and 0.25, 0.25 and 0.5, 0.12 and 0.25, and 0.5 and 1 μg/ml, respectively. Generally, MIC50 and MIC90 results for tedizolid 80 and linezolid 80 were one doubling dilution lower than those read at 100% inhibition. Tedizolid was 4- to 8-fold more potent than linezolid against all the isolates tested regardless of the MIC endpoint criterion used. Despite the differences in potency, >99.9% of isolates tested in this survey were susceptible to both linezolid and tedizolid using CLSI and EUCAST interpretive criteria. In conclusion, tedizolid demonstrated greater in vitro potency than linezolid against Gram-positive pathogens isolated from patients in medical centers across the Asia-Pacific region, Eastern Europe, and Latin America. PMID:27353270

  9. A gas chromatographic-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometric method for the determination of I-alpha-acetylmethadol (LAAM), norLAAM, and dinorLAAM in plasma, urine, and tissue.

    PubMed

    Moody, D E; Crouch, D J; Sakashita, C O; Alburges, M E; Minear, K; Schulthies, J E; Foltz, R L

    1995-10-01

    l-alpha-Acetylmethadol (LAAM) is approved as a substitute for methadone for the treatment of opiate addiction. Analytical methods are needed to quantitate LAAM and its two psychoactive metabolites, norLAAM and dinorLAAM, to support pharmacokinetic and other studies. We developed a gas chromatographic-positive ion chemical ionization-mass spectrometric method for these analyses. The method uses 0.5 mL urine or 1.0 mL plasma or tissue homogenate, deuterated (d3) isotopomers as internal standards, methanolic denaturation of protein (for plasma and tissue), and extraction of the buffered sample with n-butyl chloride. For tissue homogenates, an acidic back extraction is included. norLAAM and dinorLAAM were derivatized with trifluoroacetic anhydride. Chromatographic separation of LAAM and derivatized norLAAM and dinorLAAM is achieved with a 5% phenyl methylsilicone capillary column. Positive ion chemical ionization detection using methane-ammonia as the reagent gas produces abundant protonated ions (MH+) for LAAM (m/z 354) and LAAM-d3 (m/z 357) and ammonia adduct ions (MNH4+) for the derivatized norLAAM (m/z 453), norLAAM-d3 (m/z 45 6), dinorLAAM (m/z 439), and dinorLAAM-d3 (m/z 442). The linear range of the calibration curves were matrix dependent: 5-300 ng/mL for plasma, 10-1000 ng/mL for urine, and 10-600 ng/g for tissue homogenates. The low calibrator was the validated limit of quantitation for that matrix. The method is precise and accurate with percent coefficients of variation and percent of targets within 13%. The method was applied to the analysis of human urine and plasma samples; rat plasma, liver, and brain samples; and human liver microsomes following incubation with LAAM.

  10. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  11. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Capillary Electrophoresis Method for the Determination of Zolpidem Tartrate in Tablet Dosage Form with Positive Confirmation using 2D- and 3D-DAD Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M.; Yit, Lee Kam; Saad, Bahruddin; Shaibah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop a simple, precise, and accurate capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of zolpidem tartrate in tablet dosage form. Separation was conducted in normal polarity mode at 25°C, 22 kV, using hydrodynamic injection for 10 s. Separation was achieved using a background electrolyte of 20 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate adjusted with phosphoric acid (85%), pH at 5.50, and detection at 254 nm. Using the above optimized conditions, complete determination took place in less than 3 min using amiloride HCl as the internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 3–1000 μg mL−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. Forced degradation studies were conducted by introducing a sample of zolpidem tartrate standard and pharmaceutical sample solutions to different forced degradation conditions, being neutral (water), basic (0.1 M NaOH), acidic (0.1 M HCl), oxidative (10% H2O2), temperature (60°C in oven for 3 days), and photolytic (exposure to UV light at 254 nm for 2 h). Degradation products resulting from the stress studies did not interfere with the detection of zolpidem tartrate and the assay can be considered stability-indicating. PMID:24959406

  12. Nucleosome Positioning in Saccharomyces cerevisiae

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, An; Verstrepen, Kevin J.

    2011-01-01

    Summary: The DNA of eukaryotic cells is spooled around large histone protein complexes, forming nucleosomes that make up the basis for a high-order packaging structure called chromatin. Compared to naked DNA, nucleosomal DNA is less accessible to regulatory proteins and regulatory processes. The exact positions of nucleosomes therefore influence several cellular processes, including gene expression, chromosome segregation, recombination, replication, and DNA repair. Here, we review recent technological advances enabling the genome-wide mapping of nucleosome positions in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We discuss the various parameters that determine nucleosome positioning in vivo, including cis factors like AT content, variable tandem repeats, and poly(dA:dT) tracts that function as chromatin barriers and trans factors such as chromatin remodeling complexes, transcription factors, histone-modifying enzymes, and RNA polymerases. In the last section, we review the biological role of chromatin in gene transcription, the evolution of gene regulation, and epigenetic phenomena. PMID:21646431

  13. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours. The HPLC conditions used: Zorbax SB-ODS-(150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution (39:61 v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate was 0.5 mL min−1 at 210 nm and 230 nm detection. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the separation was carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. Results: The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable. Moreover, the content of escins in seeds decreased by more than 30% in endosperm and by more than 40% in skin upon storage for two years. Conclusion: This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for horse chestnut and other related medicinal plants. PMID:26819933

  14. Positive criminology in practice.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice.

  15. Supplementary Investigation to Determine the Effects of Center-of-Gravity Position on the Spin, Longitudinal-Trim, and Tumbling Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 Airplane (Flying Mock-up of XF-92)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, Walter J.; Jones, Ira P., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    A supplementary wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of rearward positions of the center of gravity on the spin, longitudinal-trim, and tumbling characteristics of the 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 airplane equipped with the single vertical tail. A few tests were also made with dual vertical tails added to the model. The model was ballasted to represent, the airplane in its approximate design gross weight for two center-of-gravity positions, 3O and 35 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The original tests previously reported were for a center-of-gravity position of 24 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  16. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-04-01

    number) The NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, Jam-resistant, continuous-operations space-based, passive radio navigation and...with an understanding of the capabilities and limitations of the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ). II. Problem: To fight the next battle...navigation equipment and was not able to navigate on instruments or across a distant 9000-foot mountain. Had a NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS

  17. Revised positions for CIG galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, S.; Verdes-Montenegro, L.

    2003-12-01

    We present revised positions for the 1051 galaxies belonging to the Karachentseva Catalog of Isolated Galaxies (CIG). New positions were calculated by applying SExtractor to the Digitized Sky Survey CIG fields with a spatial resolution of 1 arcsper 2. We visually checked the results and for 118 galaxies had to recompute the assigned positions due to complex morphologies (e.g. distorted isophotes, undefined nuclei, knotty galaxies) or the presence of bright stars. We found differences between older and newer positions of up to 38 arcsec with a mean value of 2 arcsper 96 relative to SIMBAD and up to 38 arcsec and 2 arcsper 42 respectively relative to UZC. Based on star positions from the APM catalog we determined that the DSS astrometry of five CIG fields has a mean offset in (alpha , delta ) of (-0 arcsper 90, 0 arcsper 93) with a dispersion of 0 arcsper 4. These results have been confirmed using the 2MASS All-Sky Catalog of Point Sources. The intrinsic errors of our method combined with the astrometric ones are of the order of 0 arcsper 5. Full Table 1 is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/411/391

  18. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  19. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L.; Harper, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  20. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  1. C5-substituents of uridines and 2-thiouridines present at the wobble position of tRNA determine the formation of their keto-enol or zwitterionic forms - a factor important for accuracy of reading of guanosine at the 3'-end of the mRNA codons.

    PubMed

    Sochacka, Elzbieta; Lodyga-Chruscinska, Elzbieta; Pawlak, Justyna; Cypryk, Marek; Bartos, Paulina; Ebenryter-Olbinska, Katarzyna; Leszczynska, Grazyna; Nawrot, Barbara

    2017-01-13

    Modified nucleosides present in the wobble position of the tRNA anticodons regulate protein translation through tuning the reading of mRNA codons. Among 40 of such nucleosides, there are modified uridines containing either a sulfur atom at the C2 position and/or a substituent at the C5 position of the nucleobase ring. It is already evidenced that tRNAs with 2-thiouridines at the wobble position preferentially read NNA codons, while the reading mode of the NNG codons by R5U/R5S2U-containing anticodons is still elusive. For a series of 18 modified uridines and 2-thiouridines, we determined the pKa values and demonstrated that both modifying elements alter the electron density of the uracil ring and modulate the acidity of their N3H proton. In aqueous solutions at physiological pH the 2-thiouridines containing aminoalkyl C5-substituents are ionized in ca. 50%. The results, confirmed also by theoretical calculations, indicate that the preferential binding of the modified units bearing non-ionizable 5-substituents to guanosine in the NNG codons may obey the alternative C-G-like (Watson-Crick) mode, while binding of those bearing aminoalkyl C5-substituents (protonated under physiological conditions) and especially those with a sulfur atom at the C2 position, adopt a zwitterionic form and interact with guanosine via a 'new wobble' pattern.

  2. Body composition and appetite: fat-free mass (but not fat mass or BMI) is positively associated with self-determined meal size and daily energy intake in humans.

    PubMed

    Blundell, John E; Caudwell, Phillipa; Gibbons, Catherine; Hopkins, Mark; Näslund, Erik; King, Neil A; Finlayson, Graham

    2012-02-01

    The idea of body weight regulation implies that a biological mechanism exerts control over energy expenditure and food intake. This is a central tenet of energy homeostasis. However, the source and identity of the controlling mechanism have not been identified, although it is often presumed to be some long-acting signal related to body fat, such as leptin. Using a comprehensive experimental platform, we have investigated the relationship between biological and behavioural variables in two separate studies over a 12-week intervention period in obese adults (total n 92). All variables have been measured objectively and with a similar degree of scientific control and precision, including anthropometric factors, body composition, RMR and accumulative energy consumed at individual meals across the whole day. Results showed that meal size and daily energy intake (EI) were significantly correlated with fat-free mass (FFM, P values < 0·02-0·05) but not with fat mass (FM) or BMI (P values 0·11-0·45) (study 1, n 58). In study 2 (n 34), FFM (but not FM or BMI) predicted meal size and daily EI under two distinct dietary conditions (high-fat and low-fat). These data appear to indicate that, under these circumstances, some signal associated with lean mass (but not FM) exerts a determining effect over self-selected food consumption. This signal may be postulated to interact with a separate class of signals generated by FM. This finding may have implications for investigations of the molecular control of food intake and body weight and for the management of obesity.

  3. The relevance of positivity in spin physics

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, J.; Artru, X.; Richard, J. M.

    2009-12-17

    Positivity reduces substantially the allowed domain for spin observables. We briefly recall some methods used to determine these domains and give some typical examples for exclusive and inclusive spin-dependent reactions.

  4. POSITION ERROR IN STATION-KEEPING SATELLITE

    DTIC Science & Technology

    of an error in satellite orientation and the sun being in a plane other than the equatorial plane may result in errors in position determination. The nature of the errors involved is described and their magnitudes estimated.

  5. Decimeter Positioning For Dredging and Hydrographic Surveying

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    Torrence, CA. Leick, Alfred and Liu, Quanjiang, 1991: Investigation of the Use of the Global Positioning System ( GPS ) to Determine Tides and Water Level...ABSTRACT (Maximum 200 words) The U. S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated development of a prototype decimeter defferential GPS positioning system for...ABSTRACT The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers initiated development of a prototype decimeter differential GPS positioning system for dredging and

  6. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  7. Stress Management: Positive Thinking

    MedlinePlus

    ... and can even improve your health. Practice overcoming negative self-talk with examples provided. By Mayo Clinic ... head. These automatic thoughts can be positive or negative. Some of your self-talk comes from logic ...

  8. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  9. What controls nucleosome positions?

    PubMed

    Segal, Eran; Widom, Jonathan

    2009-08-01

    The DNA of eukaryotic genomes is wrapped in nucleosomes, which strongly distort and occlude the DNA from access to most DNA-binding proteins. An understanding of the mechanisms that control nucleosome positioning along the DNA is thus essential to understanding the binding and action of proteins that carry out essential genetic functions. New genome-wide data on in vivo and in vitro nucleosome positioning greatly advance our understanding of several factors that can influence nucleosome positioning, including DNA sequence preferences, DNA methylation, histone variants and post-translational modifications, higher order chromatin structure, and the actions of transcription factors, chromatin remodelers and other DNA-binding proteins. We discuss how these factors function and ways in which they might be integrated into a unified framework that accounts for both the preservation of nucleosome positioning and the dynamic nucleosome repositioning that occur across biological conditions, cell types, developmental processes and disease.

  10. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  11. Global Positioning System Status

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-27

    GPS : FREE – DEPENDABLE – RELIABLE - ACCURATE 1 GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM STATUS Benjamin Barbour Major, United States Air Force Schriever AFB... Global Positioning System Service Interface Committee (CGSIC) held in Groton, CT, April 2011 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16. SECURITY...Continuing work with international GNSS community  Maintains Backward Compatibility  Managing GPS systems and supporting stakeholders Committed to responsible stewardship of GPS

  12. Developmental letter position dyslexia.

    PubMed

    Friedmann, Naama; Rahamim, Einav

    2007-09-01

    Letter position dyslexia (LPD) is a peripheral dyslexia that causes errors of letter order within words. So far, only cases of acquired LPD have been reported. This study presents selective LPD in its developmental form, via the testing of II Hebrew-speaking individuals with developmental dyslexia. The study explores the types of errors and effects on reading in this dyslexia, using a variety of tests: reading aloud, lexical decision, same-different decision, definition and letter naming. The findings indicate that individuals with developmental LPD have a deficit in the letter position encoding function of the orthographic visual analyser, which leads to underspecification of letter position within words. Letter position errors occur mainly in adjacent middle letters, when the error creates another existing word. The participants did not show an output deficit or phonemic awareness deficit. The selectivity of the deficit, causing letter position errors but no letter identity errors and no migrations between words, supports the existence of letter position encoding function as separate from letter identification and letter-to-word binding.

  13. Solar Position Model for use in DIORAMA

    SciTech Connect

    Werley, Kenneth Alan

    2016-03-01

    The DIORAMA code requires the solar position relative to earth in order to compute GPS satellite orientation. The present document describes two functions that compute the unit vector from either the center of the Earth to the Sun or from any observer’s position to the Sun at some specified time. Another function determines if a satellite lies within the Earth’s shadow umbra. Similarly, functions determine the position of the moon and whether a satellite lies within the Moon’s shadow umbra.

  14. Position sense asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Adamo, Diane E; Martin, Bernard J

    2009-01-01

    Asymmetries in upper limb position sense have been explained in the context of a left limb advantage derived from differences in hemispheric specialization in the processing of kinesthetic information. However, it is not clearly understood how the comparison of perceptual information associated with passive limb displacement and the corresponding matching movement resulting from the execution of a motor command contributes to these differences. In the present study, upper limb position sense was investigated in 12 right-hand-dominant young adults performing wrist position matching tasks which varied in terms of interhemispheric transfer, memory retrieval and whether the reference position was provided by the same or opposite limb. Right and left hand absolute matching errors were similar when the reference and matching positions were produced by the same hand but were 36% greater when matching the reference position with the opposite hand. When examining the constant errors generated from matching movements made with the same hand that provided the reference, the right and left hand matching errors (approximately 3 degrees) were similar. However, when matching with the opposite limb, a large overshoot (P < 0.05) characterized the error when the right hand matched the left hand reference while a large undershoot (P < 0.05) characterized the error when the left hand matched the right hand reference. The overshoot and undershoot were of similar magnitude (approximately 4 degrees). Although asymmetries in the central processing of proprioceptive information such as interhemispheric transfer may exist, the present study suggests that asymmetries in position sense predominantly result from a difference in the "gain of the respective proprioceptive sensory-motor loops". This new hypothesis is strongly supported by a dual-linear model representing the right and left hand sensory-motor systems as well as morphological and physiological data.

  15. Flight Investigations at High-Subsonic, Transonic, and Supersonic Speeds to Determine Zero-Lift Drag of Fin-Stabilized Bodies of Revolution having Fineness Ratios of 12.5, 8.91, and 6.04 and Varying Positions of Maximum Diameter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hart, Roger G.; Katz, Ellis R.

    1949-01-01

    Rocket-powered models were flown at high-subsonic, transonic, and supersonic speeds to determine the zero-lift drag of fin-stabilized parabolic bodies of revolution differing in fineness ratio and in position of maximum diameter. The present paper presents the results for fineness ratio 12.5, 8.91 and 6.04 bodies having maximum diameters located at stations of 20, 40, 60, and 80 percent of body length. All configurations had cut-off sterns and all had equal base, frontal, and exposed fin areas. For most of the supersonic-speed range models having their maximum diameters at the 60-percent station gave the lowest values of drag coefficient. At supersonic speeds, increasing the fineness ratio generally reduced the drag coefficient for a given position of maximum diameter.

  16. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  17. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  18. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  19. Measuring Global Position Using the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Evan; Hughes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The determination of latitude and longitude on Earth has always been of interest to explorers and cartographers alike. Accurate positional information is often needed for rescue purposes in locations where satellite navigational systems are inoperable. The activity described in this paper demonstrates a simple procedure to determine latitude and…

  20. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  1. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  2. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  3. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  4. Positive quadrature formulas III

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peherstorfer, Franz

    2008-12-01

    First we discuss briefly our former characterization theorem for positive interpolation quadrature formulas (abbreviated qf), provide an equivalent characterization in terms of Jacobi matrices, and give links and applications to other qf, in particular to Gauss-Kronrod quadratures and recent rediscoveries. Then for any polynomial t_n which generates a positive qf, a weight function (depending on n ) is given with respect to which t_n is orthogonal to mathbb{P}_{n-1} . With the help of this result an asymptotic representation of the quadrature weights is derived. In general the asymptotic behaviour is different from that of the Gaussian weights. Only under additional conditions do the quadrature weights satisfy the so-called circle law. Corresponding results are obtained for positive qf of Radau and Lobatto type.

  5. Spirit Wiggles into Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Spirit completed a difficult, rocky ascent en route to reaching a captivating rock outcrop nicknamed 'Hillary' at the summit of 'Husband Hill.' At the end of the climb the robotic geologist was tilted almost 30 degrees. To get the rover on more solid footing for deploying the instrument arm, rover drivers told Spirit to wiggle its wheels one at a time. This animation shows Spirit's position before and after completing the wheel wiggle, during which the rover slid approximately 1 centimeter (0.4 inch) downhill. Rover drivers decided this position was too hazardous for deploying the instrument arm and subsequently directed Spirit to a more stable position before conducting analyses with instruments on the rover's arm.

    Spirit took these images with its front hazard-avoidance camera on martian day, or sol, 625 (Oct. 6, 2005).

  6. Full Mouth Rehabilitation Determined by Anterior Tooth Position.

    PubMed

    Giannuzzi, Nicholas J; Motlagh, Shawn Davaie

    2015-07-01

    When patients seek cosmetic dentistry, their main concern is how their new smile is going to appear. In trying to achieve a patient's desire for a more beautiful smile, a careful and comprehensive analysis must be completed to insure the desired outcome is achievable and will function for many years to come. The clinician's primary goal is to restore the patient's dentition to ideal form and function. Full mouth rehabilitations need to be done in a systematic way to ensure all the parameters of an esthetic and functional outcome are achieved.

  7. High angular resolution and position determinations by infrared interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Interferometer systems are described in the form of publications and reports. 'Distance Meter Helps Track the Stars', 'Berkeley Heterodyne Interferometer', 'Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy of CO2 on Mars', and 'A 10 micron Heterodyne Stellar Interferometer' are papers reported.

  8. Robust spacecraft attitude determination using global positioning system receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Jared Dale

    This dissertation presents the development of a new algorithm for processing GPS signals to compute attitude solutions. This new algorithm utilizes an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a quaternion state to combine signal to noise ratio (SNR) and differential carrier phase measurements. Attitude solutions can be obtained from these two measurement sources if multiple antennas are utilized which have non-aligned boresight vectors. The algorithm achieves improved integer resolution and accuracy for the carrier phase approach, and is able to perform on on-orbit antenna gain pattern calibration to aid the SNR approach. The developed algorithm is tested using both hardware in the loop space simulations and actual rooftop data. These tests are used to adjust the filter parameters and algorithm logic to achieve good performance. Testing is undertaken that demonstrates the accuracy and speed of the integer resolution process. Comparisons between rooftop and simulation results demonstrate that simulations accurately represent anticipated orbit conditions. These comparisons further show that the non-aligned antenna boresight vectors introduce little or no errors to the double difference carrier phase measurements. A trade study is conducted to assess the impact of the SNR measurements on the overall solution accuracy once the more accurate carrier phase measurements become available. The final version of the algorithm demonstrates solution accuracies of less than 0.5 degrees RMS in all three angles of rotation during rooftop tests, and accuracies on the order of 0.1 RMS in multipath-free orbit simulations. The developed and tested algorithm is then ported from its original code into a flight ready version available in NASA GEONS software. The versatility of the basic algorithm design is explored by creating a new system that incorporates magnetometer data with SNR and carrier phase measurements. The addition of the magnetometer measurements is shown to improve the integer ambiguity estimation accuracy. Single antenna experiments demonstrate how magnetometer measurements and single antenna boresight estimates provide attitude solutions that are accurate enough to resolve integer ambiguities on systems with aligned antennas. In conclusion, some possible future tests are described that may provide better results by utilizing hardware more appropriate to the developed algorithm.

  9. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo.

    PubMed

    von Brevern, Michael

    2013-07-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is the most common and the most effectively treated vestibular disorder. The prevailing pathomechanism is canalolithiasis, which is otoconia falling in one of the semicircular canals where they move in response to changes of the head position, triggering excitation of the vestibular receptors of the affected canal. In the majority of patients with BPPV, the posterior canal is affected by canalolithiasis and there are two highly effective therapeutic maneuvers for treatment. About 20% of patients present with lithiasis of the horizontal or anterior canal. The author focuses on recent advances in diagnosis and treatment of the more rare variants of BPPV.

  10. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  11. Position paper update.

    PubMed

    2007-08-01

    In May 2007, the Board of Trustees of the American Academy of Periodontology rescinded the following position papers: "Periodontal Considerations in the HIV Positive Patient" (1994). "Periodontal Considerations in the Management of the Cancer Patient" (1997). "Periodontal Management of Patients With Cardiovascular Diseases" (2002). "The Potential Role of Growth and Differentiation Factors in Periodontal Regeneration" (1996). "Sonic and Ultrasonic Scalers in Periodontics" (2000). These papers have been removed from the AAP Web and online Journal sites. Readers are encouraged to consult the literature for the most current information on these topics.

  12. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  13. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  14. Review of HRP Positions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  15. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  16. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  17. Positive Disciplinary Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, David D.

    Maryland's Perryville High School Positive Disciplinary Project involves both actively disruptive students referred by the administration and students who have demonstrated the potential to be disruptive who are referred by teachers, guidance counselors, or parents. In either instance, the student becomes a part of the program for the entire…

  18. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  19. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  20. Positive Discipline. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Elementary and Early Childhood Education, Urbana, IL.

    This ERIC Digest suggests methods and language that can be used in handling difficult, but common, situations involving young children. Discussion focuses on: (1) 12 methods of discipline that promote self-worth; (2) the process of creating a positive climate that promotes self-discipline; (3) harmful and negative disciplinary methods; and (4)…

  1. Otology versus Otosociology

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Cherta, Georgina; Nieto, Jose A.; Esteban, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Otology concerns the biological study of ear alterations and diseases, solely. So, the diagnosis of audiovestibular diseases tends to be idiopathic or is based on theoretical concepts such as idiopathic sudden deafness, Ménière disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, tinnitus, hyperacusis, or idiopathic facial paralysis. The treatment for these pathologies is symptomatic. Otosociology takes the aetiology and pathogenesis of the ear and situates them within the social and cultural environment of the patient. Then, audiovestibular disease is based on evidence, and the treatment options seek to solve the causes and consequences produced. Otosociology should be considered as a new discipline. Otosociology came into being since otology does not provide definitive solutions for the audiovestibular alterations produced from the point of view of the ear, whereas otosociology finds these solutions within the social/cultural environment of the patient. Where otology emphasises the diseases of the ear, otosociology deals with social manifestations. Where otology deals with idiopathic diseases, otosociology deals with causes and pathogeny produced by interactions in the social and cultural surroundings of the patient. Where otology offers symptomatic treatment, otosociology offers treatment of causes and consequences. Otosociology can fill significant voids in audiovestibular processes from the perspective of the patient's social environment. PMID:23762611

  2. An integrated strategy for rapid and accurate determination of free and cell-bound microcystins and related peptides in natural blooms by liquid chromatography-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry using both positive and negative ionization modes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cintia; Caixach, Josep

    2015-08-14

    An integrated high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) strategy has been developed for rapid and accurate determination of free and cell-bound microcystins (MCs) and related peptides in water blooms. The natural samples (water and algae) were filtered for independent analysis of aqueous and sestonic fractions. These fractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and ESI-Orbitrap-HCD-MS. MALDI, ESI and the study of fragmentation sequences have been provided crucial structural information. The potential of combined positive and negative ionization modes, full scan and fragmentation acquisition modes (TOF/TOF and HCD) by HRMS and high resolution and accurate mass was investigated in order to allow unequivocal determination of MCs. Besides, a reliable quantitation has been possible by HRMS. This composition helped to decrease the probability of false positives and negatives, as alternative to commonly used LC-ESI-MS/MS methods. The analysis was non-target, therefore covered the possibility to analyze all MC analogs concurrently without any pre-selection of target MC. Furthermore, archived data was subjected to retrospective "post-targeted" analysis and a screening of other potential toxins and related peptides as anabaenopeptins in the samples was done. Finally, the MS protocol and identification tools suggested were applied to the analysis of characteristic water blooms from Spanish reservoirs.

  3. Electrophoresis of Positioned Nucleosomes

    PubMed Central

    Castelnovo, Martin; Grauwin, Sébastian

    2007-01-01

    We present in this article an original approach to compute the electrophoretic mobility of rigid nucleo-protein complexes like nucleosomes. This model allows us to address theoretically the influence of complex position along DNA, as well as wrapped length of DNA on the electrophoretic mobility of the complex. The predictions of the model are in qualitative agreement with experimental results on mononucleosomes assembled on short DNA fragments (<400 bp). Influences of additional experimental parameters like gel concentration, ionic strength, and effective charges are also discussed in the framework of the model, and are found to be qualitatively consistent with experiments when available. Based on the present model, we propose a simple semi-empirical formula describing positioning of nucleosomes as seen through electrophoresis. PMID:17277181

  4. Membrane position control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A membrane structure includes at least one electroactive bending actuator fixed to a supporting base. Each electroactive bending actuator is operatively connected to the membrane for controlling membrane position. Any displacement of each electroactive bending actuator effects displacement of the membrane. More specifically, the operative connection is provided by a guiding wheel assembly and a track, wherein displacement of the bending actuator effects translation of the wheel assembly along the track, thereby imparting movement to the membrane.

  5. SPA: Solar Position Algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reda, Ibrahim; Andreas, Afshin

    2015-04-01

    The Solar Position Algorithm (SPA) calculates the solar zenith and azimuth angles in the period from the year -2000 to 6000, with uncertainties of +/- 0.0003 degrees based on the date, time, and location on Earth. SPA is implemented in C; in addition to being available for download, an online calculator using this code is available at http://www.nrel.gov/midc/solpos/spa.html.

  6. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  7. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population.

  8. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  9. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  10. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  11. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1994-11-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  12. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L.; Gutow, David A.

    1993-08-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  13. Global Positioning Satellite Recorder

    SciTech Connect

    Reeves, George

    1997-11-10

    The GPS Tracker is a device (automotive unit) that records position (latitude and longitude), date, and time autonomously with time. The data from the GPS Tracker can be used offline with a personal computer and map data base to plot the track of where a vehicle or other mobile battery powered object has been. The invention simplifies field operations for recording location autonomously by obviating the need to execute a set of detailed instructions prior to operation. The vehicle combines GPS technology and a cpu with custom software to accomplish the task.

  14. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  15. Positive lubrication system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dennis W.; Hooper, Fred L.

    1990-01-01

    As part of the development of an autonomous lubrication system for spin bearings, a system was developed to deliver oil to grease-lubricated bearings upon demand. This positive oil delivery system (PLUS) consists of a pressurized reservoir with a built-in solenoid valve that delivers a predictable quantity of oil to the spin bearing through a system of stainless steel tubes. Considerable testing was performed on the PLUS to characterize its performance and verify its effectiveness, along with qualifying it for flight. Additional development is underway that will lead to the fully autonomous active lubrication system.

  16. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  17. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  18. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  19. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of emotion, positive or negative, we experience. How Negative Emotions Help Us Negative emotions warn us of ... to our advantage: 1. Let Positive Emotions Outnumber Negative Ones When we feel more positive emotions than ...

  20. Beyond complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a general and consistent formulation for linear subsystem quantum dynamical maps, developed from a minimal set of postulates, primary among which is a relaxation of the usual, restrictive assumption of uncorrelated initial system-bath states. We describe the space of possibilities admitted by this formulation, namely that, far from being limited to only completely positive (CP) maps, essentially any C-linear, Hermiticity-preserving, trace-preserving map can arise as a legitimate subsystem dynamical map from a joint unitary evolution of a system coupled to a bath. The price paid for this added generality is a trade-off between the set of admissible initial states and the allowed set of joint system-bath unitary evolutions. As an application, we present a simple example of a non-CP map constructed as a subsystem dynamical map that violates some fundamental inequalities in quantum information theory, such as the quantum data processing inequality.

  1. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three independent inductors inductively coupled by a common medium such as air. First and second inductors are separated by a fixed distance with the first inductor's axial core and second inductor's axial core maintained parallel to one another. A third inductor is disposed between the first and second inductors with the third inductor's axial core being maintained parallel to those of the first and second inductors. The combination of the first and second inductors are configured for relative movement with the third inductor's axial core remaining parallel to those of the first and second inductors as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first inductor and second inductor. An oscillating current can be supplied to at least one of the three inductors, while voltage induced in at least one of the three inductors not supplied with the oscillating current is measured.

  2. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  3. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  4. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  5. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  6. Satellite positioning systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keydel, W.

    The basic physical principles, technology, and capabilities of satellite position-finding systems (SPFSs) are examined in a general overview. Topics discussed include the properties of EM waves as a basis for measurement; two-way (radar) SPFSs with active satellites (to locate passive targets); one-way SPFSs with active satellites (for self-location using a passive receiver); one-way SPFSs with passive satellites and active objects (for emergency search-and-rescue use); radar altimeters, radar scatterometers, and SARs; Doppler methods; and range-difference and pseudorange time-of-flight methods. Consideration is given to problems of precision in time measurements and orbit measurement and prediction, improved precision using differential methods, the predicted accuracy of Navstar GPS, propagation-related limitations, user demands, and political and economic factors influencing future SPFS development.

  7. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three parallel inductors, each of which has an axial core that is an independent magnetic structure. A first support couples first and second inductors and separate them by a fixed distance. A second support coupled to a third inductor disposed between the first and second inductors. The first support and second support are configured for relative movement as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first and second inductors. An oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors. A device measures a phase component of a source voltage generating the oscillating current and a phase component of voltage induced in the third inductor when the oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors such that the phase component of the voltage induced overlaps the phase component of the source voltage.

  8. JASMINE position reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Yano, T.; Jasmine Working Group

    We introduce a Japanese plan of infrared space astrometry JASMINE-project operating at z-band whose central wavelength is 0 9 micron JASMINE is the satellite Japan Astrometry Satellite Mission for INfrared Exploration which will measure the distances and apparent motions of stars in the Milky Way with yet unprecedented precision It will measure parallaxes positions with the accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec and proper motions with the accuracy of 10 micro-arcsec year for stars brighter than z 14mag JASMINE can observe about ten million stars belonging to the bulge components of our Galaxy which are hidden by the interstellar dust extinction in optical bands Number of stars with sigma pi 0 1 in the direction of the Galactic central bulge is about 1000 times larger than those observed in optical bands where pi is a parallax and sigma is an error of the parallax With the completely new map of the Milky Way it is expected that many new exciting scientific results will be obtained in various fields of astronomy Presently JASMINE is in a development phase with a target launch date around 2015 We adopt the following instrument design of JASMINE in order to get the accurate positions of many stars We adopt a 3-mirrors optical system modified Korsch system with a primary mirror of 1m On the astro-focal plane we put dozens of new type of CCDs for z-band to get a wide field of view The accurate measurements of the astrometric parameters requires the instrument line-of-sight highly stability and the opto-mechanical highly stability of the payload in the JASMINE

  9. Relative Positioning of Ocean Bottom Benchmarks.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-12-01

    determination of the transponder array is discussed and recommendations are made for further improvement. The advantage of these methods is their...squares adjustment was used to analyze the data. Relative position determination of the transponder array is discussed and recommendations are made for...20 A. INTRODUCTION ..... ................. 20 B. THE VELOZITY OF SOUND IN IiE OCEAN ...... 20 C. HARdONIC MEAN SOUND VELOCITY ......... 22 D. ACOUSTIC

  10. Positional Information, Positional Error, and Readout Precision in Morphogenesis: A Mathematical Framework

    PubMed Central

    Tkačik, Gašper; Dubuis, Julien O.; Petkova, Mariela D.; Gregor, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The concept of positional information is central to our understanding of how cells determine their location in a multicellular structure and thereby their developmental fates. Nevertheless, positional information has neither been defined mathematically nor quantified in a principled way. Here we provide an information-theoretic definition in the context of developmental gene expression patterns and examine the features of expression patterns that affect positional information quantitatively. We connect positional information with the concept of positional error and develop tools to directly measure information and error from experimental data. We illustrate our framework for the case of gap gene expression patterns in the early Drosophila embryo and show how information that is distributed among only four genes is sufficient to determine developmental fates with nearly single-cell resolution. Our approach can be generalized to a variety of different model systems; procedures and examples are discussed in detail. PMID:25361898

  11. Micro-position sensor using faraday effect

    SciTech Connect

    McElfresh, Michael; Lucas, Matthew; Silveira, Joseph P.; Groves, Scott E.

    2007-02-27

    A micro-position sensor and sensing system using the Faraday Effect. The sensor uses a permanent magnet to provide a magnetic field, and a magneto-optic material positioned in the magnetic field for rotating the plane of polarization of polarized light transmitted through the magneto-optic material. The magnet is independently movable relative to the magneto-optic material so as to rotate the plane of polarization of the polarized light as a function of the relative position of the magnet. In this manner, the position of the magnet relative to the magneto-optic material may be determined from the rotated polarized light. The sensing system also includes a light source, such as a laser or LED, for producing polarized light, and an optical fiber which is connected to the light source and to the magneto-optic material at a sensing end of the optical fiber. Processing electronics, such as a polarimeter, are also provided for determining the Faraday rotation of the plane of polarization of the back-reflected polarized light to determine the position of the magnet relative to the sensing end of the optical fiber.

  12. Side-emitting fiber optic position sensor

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2008-02-12

    A side-emitting fiber optic position sensor and method of determining an unknown position of an object by using the sensor. In one embodiment, a concentrated beam of light source illuminates the side of a side-emitting fiber optic at an unknown axial position along the fiber's length. Some of this side-illuminated light is in-scattered into the fiber and captured. As the captured light is guided down the fiber, its intensity decreases due to loss from side-emission away from the fiber and from bulk absorption within the fiber. By measuring the intensity of light emitted from one (or both) ends of the fiber with a photodetector(s), the axial position of the light source is determined by comparing the photodetector's signal to a calibrated response curve, look-up table, or by using a mathematical model. Alternatively, the side-emitting fiber is illuminated at one end, while a photodetector measures the intensity of light emitted from the side of the fiber, at an unknown position. As the photodetector moves further away from the illuminated end, the detector's signal strength decreases due to loss from side-emission and/or bulk absorption. As before, the detector's signal is correlated to a unique position along the fiber.

  13. 22 CFR 506.2 - Review of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Review of positions. 506.2 Section 506.2 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PART-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM § 506.2 Review of positions. Positions becoming vacant unless excepted as provided by § 506.7, will be reviewed to determine...

  14. 22 CFR 506.2 - Review of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Review of positions. 506.2 Section 506.2 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PART-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM § 506.2 Review of positions. Positions becoming vacant unless excepted as provided by § 506.7, will be reviewed to determine...

  15. 22 CFR 506.2 - Review of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Review of positions. 506.2 Section 506.2 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PART-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM § 506.2 Review of positions. Positions becoming vacant unless excepted as provided by § 506.7, will be reviewed to determine...

  16. 22 CFR 506.2 - Review of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Review of positions. 506.2 Section 506.2 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS PART-TIME CAREER EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM § 506.2 Review of positions. Positions becoming vacant unless excepted as provided by § 506.7, will be reviewed to determine...

  17. Exploring the Positional Identities of High School Science Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Edith Lavonne

    2012-01-01

    The identity of the teacher has been determined to influence classroom practices. Positional identity is defined as one's perception of self relative to others. This qualitative research study investigates the positional identity of five high school science teachers of different ethnicities and how their positional identities influence their…

  18. Position estimator for underground mine equipment

    SciTech Connect

    Shaffer, G.K.; Stentz, A.; Whittaker, W.L.; Fitzpatrick, K.W. )

    1992-10-01

    This paper describes a 2-D perception system that exploits the accuracy and resolution of a laser range sensor to determine the position and orientation of a mobile robot in a mine environment. The perception system detects features from range sensor data and matches the features to a map of the mine to compute the sensor position. The features used are line segments and corners, which represent the typical geometry of the mine walls and intersections found in room-0and-pillar type mining. The position estimate is refined by minimizing the error between the map and sensed features. This position information can be used for autonomous navigation when a map of the mine is available or to survey the mine to build such a map. The technique is applied to robot navigation in a mine mockup. A refinement of this system could guide machines to yield productive, safe mining operations.

  19. Vertical positioning surveillance by magnetostrictive transducer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, A. S.; Lopes, C.; Pinto, O. O.; Nunes, C. D.; Borges, M. F.; Strohaecker, T. R.

    2015-10-01

    This work purpose is to create a positioning automated system of a tailstock to perform impact resistance tests on silicone mammary implants. This system is capable to measure and oversight the positioning through interrelation between three main components: programmable logic controller, human-machine interface and magnetostrictive transducer. Together, these components form an operational closed loop that ensures an appropriate positioning for the impact device. The paper describes how the closed loop works and also the algorithm implemented in the programmable logic controller which surveys the positioning. As a last topic, the paper presents the operator work on the machine's operation in conjunction with human-machine interface. The results were satisfactory and in accordance with the limits determined on ABNT NBR ISO 14607 for this method of tests.

  20. Position detectors, methods of detecting position, and methods of providing positional detectors

    DOEpatents

    Weinberg, David M.; Harding, L. Dean; Larsen, Eric D.

    2002-01-01

    Position detectors, welding system position detectors, methods of detecting various positions, and methods of providing position detectors are described. In one embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a base that is configured to engage and be moved along a curved surface of a welding work piece. At least one position detection apparatus is provided and is connected with the base and configured to measure angular position of the detector relative to a reference vector. In another embodiment, a welding system positional detector includes a weld head and at least one inclinometer mounted on the weld head. The one inclinometer is configured to develop positional data relative to a reference vector and the position of the weld head on a non-planar weldable work piece.

  1. Positive Psychology and Positive Education: Old Wine in New Bottles?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kristjansson, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    The recently fashionable theories of positive psychology have educational ramifications at virtually every level of engagement, culminating in the model of positive education. In this critical review, I scrutinize positive education as a potential theory in educational psychology. Special attention is given to conceptual controversies and…

  2. False Position, Double False Position and Cramer's Rule

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boman, Eugene

    2009-01-01

    We state and prove the methods of False Position (Regula Falsa) and Double False Position (Regula Duorum Falsorum). The history of both is traced from ancient Egypt and China through the work of Fibonacci, ending with a connection between Double False Position and Cramer's Rule.

  3. Texas Instruments 4100 GPS (Global Positioning System) Positioning Software

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-09-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ). To meet...solutions as correct before accepting them. 9 II, BACKGROUND A. GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM GPS is a universal satellite poitioning system that is...ABBREVIATIONS AND ACRONYMS GPS = Global Positioning System NPS = Naval Postgraduate School Montcrey CA DMA Defense Mapping Agency NOAA = National Oceanic

  4. Videofluoroscopic Investigation of Body Position on Articulatory Positioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bae, Youkyung; Perry, Jamie L.; Kuehn, David P.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To quantitatively examine the effects of body position on the positioning of the epiglottis, tongue, and velum at rest and during speech. Method: Videofluoroscopic data were obtained from 12 healthy adults in the supine and upright positions at rest and during speech while the participants produced 12 VCV sequences. The effects of body…

  5. Simultaneous determination of histamine and prostaglandin D2 using an LC-ESI-MS/MS method with positive/negative ion-switching ionization modes: application to the study of anti-allergic flavonoids on the degranulation of KU812 cells.

    PubMed

    Koyama, Junko; Taga, Shiori; Shimizu, Kae; Shimizu, Maki; Morita, Izumi; Takeuchi, Atsuko

    2011-09-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of histamine and prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2)) by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry operated in positive and negative ionization switching modes was developed and validated without a previous derivatization step. This method was used to measure histamine and PGD(2) release following degranulation of KU812 human basophilic cells, using pyrazol and d(4)-PGD(2) as internal standards. Analyses were performed on a liquid chromatography system employing a Cosmosil 5C(18) PAQ column and an isocratic elution with mixed solution of methanol-water (7:3, v/v) with 0.0015% trifluoroacetic acid at a flow rate of 0.2 mL/min. A triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operating in selected reaction monitoring mode simultaneously monitored using the following transitions: positive m/z 112/95 for histamine and negative m/z 351/271 for PGD(2). The retention times of histamine and pyrazol were 4.2 and 5.0 min, respectively. PGD(2) and d(4)-PGD(2) had retention times of 8.5 min. The limits of detection were 0.3 and 0.5 ng/mL for histamine and PGD(2), respectively. The relative standard deviations of the retention time and peak area for histamine were between 1.6% and 7.7%, and were 1.2% and 7.8% for PGD(2). This method was used to evaluate the anti-allergic effects of 26 flavonoids and sodium cromoglicate which are first-line anti-allergic drugs. Of these compounds, baicalein and morin were the most potent inhibitors.

  6. Cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, R; Ribeiro, F; Oliveira, J

    2010-03-01

    The effects of cryotherapy on joint position sense are not clearly established; however it is paramount to understand its impact on peripheral feedback to ascertain the safety of using ice therapy before resuming exercise on sports or rehabilitation settings. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine the effects of cryotherapy, when applied over the quadriceps and over the knee joint, on knee position sense. This within-subjects repeated-measures study encompassed fifteen subjects. Knee position sense was measured by open kinetic chain technique and active positioning at baseline and after cryotherapy application. Knee angles were determined by computer analysis of the videotape images. Twenty-minute ice bag application was applied randomly, in two sessions 48 h apart, over the quadriceps and the knee joint. The main effect for cryotherapy application was significant (F (1.14)=7.7, p=0.015) indicating an increase in both absolute and relative angular errors after the application. There was no significant main effect for the location of cryotherapy application, indicating no differences between the application over the quadriceps and the knee joint. In conclusion, cryotherapy impairs knee joint position sense in normal knees. This deleterious effect is similar when cryotherapy is applied over the quadriceps or the knee joint.

  7. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2006-07-04

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  8. Translation and rotation positioning motor

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Andreas; Schaff, Oliver

    2005-02-01

    A positioning device provides the capability of moving an object in both a linear and a rotational direction. The positioning device includes a first piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device further includes a second piezo stack with plural piezo plates that are capable of movement in orthogonal directions with respect to each other. The positioning device also includes a first bearing that is disposed against the first piezo stack. The positioning device further includes a second bearing that is disposed against the second piezo stack. The positioning device also includes a spring element and a fifth bearing that is disposed against the spring element. The first through fifth bearings are disposed around and against the object to be positioned, to provide for positioning of the object in at least one of a linear direction and a rotational direction.

  9. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Rated Nonprofit! Volunteer. Donate. Review. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) BPPV is the most common vestibular disorder. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (or BPPV) is the most common cause of ...

  10. The Power of Positive Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    ... of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness The Power of Positive Emotions KidsHealth > For Teens > The Power of Positive Emotions ... español El poder de las emociones positivas All Emotions Are Natural Let's say you start to brainstorm ...

  11. Stochastic determination of matrix determinants.

    PubMed

    Dorn, Sebastian; Ensslin, Torsten A

    2015-07-01

    Matrix determinants play an important role in data analysis, in particular when Gaussian processes are involved. Due to currently exploding data volumes, linear operations-matrices-acting on the data are often not accessible directly but are only represented indirectly in form of a computer routine. Such a routine implements the transformation a data vector undergoes under matrix multiplication. While efficient probing routines to estimate a matrix's diagonal or trace, based solely on such computationally affordable matrix-vector multiplications, are well known and frequently used in signal inference, there is no stochastic estimate for its determinant. We introduce a probing method for the logarithm of a determinant of a linear operator. Our method rests upon a reformulation of the log-determinant by an integral representation and the transformation of the involved terms into stochastic expressions. This stochastic determinant determination enables large-size applications in Bayesian inference, in particular evidence calculations, model comparison, and posterior determination.

  12. Analysis of tissue factor positive microparticles.

    PubMed

    Key, Nigel S

    2010-04-01

    There has recently been intense interest in the clinical measurement of tissue factor (TF)-positive microparticles (MPs) in clinical disease states. This interest has been driven by the demonstration of an putative role for circulating TF-positive MPs in animal models of thrombus propagation. Both immunological and functional assays for MP-TF have been described. While each approach has its own advantages and drawbacks, neither has yet been truly established as the 'gold standard'. Heterogeneity of TF-bearing MPs, such as the variable co-expression of surface phosphatidylserine, may determine not only their procoagulant potential, but also additional properties including rate of clearance from the circulation.

  13. Positive Psychology and Outdoor Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Dene S.; Davis-Berman, Jennifer

    2005-01-01

    A relatively new movement in psychology, positive psychology, has many implications for the field of outdoor education. Positive psychology has the goal of fostering excellence through the understanding and enhancement of factors that lead to growth. It embraces the view that growth occurs when positive factors are present, as opposed to the…

  14. Enhancing Interaction through Positive Touch

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pardew, E. Michelle; Bunse, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Positive touch is an application of the ancient practice of infant massage. Positive touch provides families and caregivers with simple and positive ways to touch their child that contribute to the overall goal of providing a nurturing environment that supports the child's growth and development. This article describes infant massage techniques in…

  15. Land Navigation and Positioning Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Global Position System ( GPS ). This TOP incorporates procedures that require automated data collection instrumentation and a reference system that... Global Position System ( GPS ) 44 Survey Control Point (SCP) 16. PRICE CODE 17. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 18. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION 19. SECURITY...including those aided by the Global Positioning System ( GPS ). The MAPSH comprises the Dynamic Reference Unit Hybrid (DRUH), a Precision Lightweight

  16. Global Positioning Systems in Combat

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-26

    Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat. Fratricide has been reduced because of the effective use of...gained by the use of Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat. Fratricide has been reduced because of the effective use of GPS in common equipment...The advantages of using Global Positioning Systems ( GPS ) in combat have proven to reduce fratricide, collateral damage, and the number of

  17. Reading Gate Positions with a Smartphone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Overloop, Peter-Jules; Hut, Rolf

    2015-04-01

    Worldwide many flow gates are built in water networks in order to direct water to appropriate locations. Most of these gates are adjusted manually by field operators of water management organizations and it is often centrally not known what the new position of the gate is. This makes centralized management of the entire water network difficult. One of the reasons why the measurement of the gate position is usually not executed, is that for certain gates it is not easy to do such a reading. Tilting weirs or radial gates are examples where operators need special equipment (measuring rod and long level) to determine the position and it could even be a risky procedure. Another issue is that once the measurement is done, the value is jotted down in a notebook and later, at the office, entered in a computer system. So the entire monitoring procedure is not real-time and prone to human errors. A new way of monitoring gate positions is introduced. It consists of a level that is attached to the gate and an app with which a picture can be taken from the level. Using dedicated pattern recognition algorithms, the gate position can be read by using the angle of the level versus reference points on the gate, the radius of that gate and the absolute level of the joint around which the gate turn. The method uses gps-localization of the smartphone to store the gate position in the right location in the central database.

  18. What Good Are Positive Emotions?

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    This article opens by noting that positive emotions do not fit existing models of emotions. Consequently, a new model is advanced to describe the form and function of a subset of positive emotions, including joy, interest, contentment, and love. This new model posits that these positive emotions serve to broaden an individual’s momentary thought–action repertoire, which in turn has the effect of building that individual’s physical, intellectual, and social resources. Empirical evidence to support this broaden-and-build model of positive emotions is reviewed, and implications for emotion regulation and health promotion are discussed. PMID:21850154

  19. The effect of micrococcal nuclease digestion on nucleosome positioning data.

    PubMed

    Chung, Ho-Ryun; Dunkel, Ilona; Heise, Franziska; Linke, Christian; Krobitsch, Sylvia; Ehrenhofer-Murray, Ann E; Sperling, Silke R; Vingron, Martin

    2010-12-29

    Eukaryotic genomes are packed into chromatin, whose basic repeating unit is the nucleosome. Nucleosome positioning is a widely researched area. A common experimental procedure to determine nucleosome positions involves the use of micrococcal nuclease (MNase). Here, we show that the cutting preference of MNase in combination with size selection generates a sequence-dependent bias in the resulting fragments. This strongly affects nucleosome positioning data and especially sequence-dependent models for nucleosome positioning. As a consequence we see a need to re-evaluate whether the DNA sequence is a major determinant of nucleosome positioning in vivo. More generally, our results show that data generated after MNase digestion of chromatin requires a matched control experiment in order to determine nucleosome positions.

  20. Positive affect and psychobiological processes.

    PubMed

    Dockray, Samantha; Steptoe, Andrew

    2010-09-01

    Positive affect has been associated with favourable health outcomes, and it is likely that several biological processes mediate the effects of positive mood on physical health. There is converging evidence that positive affect activates the neuroendocrine, autonomic and immune systems in distinct and functionally meaningful ways. Cortisol, both total output and the awakening response, has consistently been shown to be lower among individuals with higher levels of positive affect. The beneficial effects of positive mood on cardiovascular function, including heart rate and blood pressure, and the immune system have also been described. The influence of positive affect on these psychobiological processes is independent of negative affect, suggesting that positive affect may have characteristic biological correlates. The duration and conceptualisation of positive affect may be important considerations in understanding how different biological systems are activated in association with positive affect. The association of positive affect and psychobiological processes has been established, and these biological correlates may be partly responsible for the protective effects of positive affect on health outcomes.

  1. Are positive emotions just as "positive" across cultures?

    PubMed

    Leu, Janxin; Wang, Jennifer; Koo, Kelly

    2011-08-01

    Whereas positive emotions and feeling unequivocally good may be at the heart of well-being among Westerners, positive emotions often carry negative associations within many Asian cultures. Based on a review of East-West cultural differences in dialectical emotions, or co-occurring positive and negative feelings, we predicted culture to influence the association between positive emotions and depression, but not the association between negative emotions and depression. As predicted, in a survey of over 600 European-, immigrant Asian-, and Asian American college students, positive emotions were associated with depression symptoms among European Americans and Asian Americans, but not immigrant Asians. Negative emotions were associated with depression symptoms among all three groups. We also found initial evidence that acculturation (i.e., nativity) may influence the role of positive emotions in depression: Asian Americans fell "in between" the two other groups. These findings suggest the importance of studying the role of culture in positive emotions and in positive psychology. The use of interventions based on promoting positive emotions in clinical psychology among Asian clients is briefly discussed.

  2. Two-dimensional Inductive Position Sensing System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Starr, Stanley O. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A two-dimensional inductive position sensing system uses four drive inductors arranged at the vertices of a parallelogram and a sensing inductor positioned within the parallelogram. The sensing inductor is movable within the parallelogram and relative to the drive inductors. A first oscillating current at a first frequency is supplied to a first pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a first diagonal of the parallelogram. A second oscillating current at a second frequency is supplied to a second pair of the drive inductors located at ends of a second diagonal of the parallelogram. As a result, the sensing inductor generates a first output voltage at the first frequency and a second output voltage at the second frequency. A processor determines a position of the sensing inductor relative to the drive inductors using the first output voltage and the second output voltage.

  3. GPS Software Packages Deliver Positioning Solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2010-01-01

    "To determine a spacecraft s position, the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) developed an innovative software program called the GPS (global positioning system)-Inferred Positioning System and Orbit Analysis Simulation Software, abbreviated as GIPSY-OASIS, and also developed Real-Time GIPSY (RTG) for certain time-critical applications. First featured in Spinoff 1999, JPL has released hundreds of licenses for GIPSY and RTG, including to Longmont, Colorado-based DigitalGlobe. Using the technology, DigitalGlobe produces satellite imagery with highly precise latitude and longitude coordinates and then supplies it for uses within defense and intelligence, civil agencies, mapping and analysis, environmental monitoring, oil and gas exploration, infrastructure management, Internet portals, and navigation technology."

  4. Mitotic Spindle Positioning in Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-10-01

    5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) Tirnauer, Jennifer S. M.D. 5d. PROJECT NUMBER Email: tirnauer@uchc.edu 5e. TASK...SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT The purpose of this project was to determine whether mitotic spindle position differs in benign versus malignant...postdoc working on the project has left, I want to re-visit the experiments with MCF-10A cells using serum free media. 15. SUBJECT TERMS breast

  5. Influence of Occlusal Interference on the Mandibular Condylar Position

    PubMed Central

    Žaja, Matea; Kraljević, Sonja; Šimunković, Marijan; Kopić, Amir; Ćatić

    2016-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to determine the effect of occlusal interferences on the position of condyles. Materials and Methods The study included 10 participants. All recordings of the condylar position were done using ultrasound jaw tracking device with six degrees of freedom. Paraocclusal tray was fixed in the lower jaw, and the artificial occlusal interference was made on the lower left second premolar with a composite resin, thickness of 1 mm. Condylar shift at the position of the occlusion with the artificial occlusal interference was measured using a jaw tracking device. Condylar positions were determined based on the Cartesian coordinate system. All deviations were measured according to a reference position which was the position of maximum intercuspation. Linear values of deviations between the reference position and the position of the occlusion with the occlusal interference were determined from the values of the Cartesian coordinate system. Results Average superior condylar shift was 0.17 mm, SD 0.39. Average linear deviation between the position of maximum intercuspation and the position of the occlusion with the occlusal interference was 0.48 mm (SD 0.29, min 0.17 mm, max 1.19 mm). Conclusions Occlusal interference leads to immediate change of the condylar position within the temporomandibular joint. Average values of determined superior condylar position confirm occurrence of lever within dental arches. The obtained results must be interpreted within the limitations of this study (immediate measurement of the condylar position). Further research is needed for the analysis of progression of the condylar position with occlusal interferences. PMID:27789908

  6. Virulence Determination

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This chapter reviews the in vitro and in vivo assays that are available for determination of pathogenic potential of Listeria monocytogenes bacteria, highlighting the value of using multiplex PCR for rapid and accurate assessment of listerial virulence....

  7. Positive Loadings and Factor Correlations from Positive Covariance Matrices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krijnen, Wim P.

    2004-01-01

    In many instances it is reasonable to assume that the population covariance matrix has positive elements. This assumption implies for the single factor analysis model that the loadings and regression weights for best linear factor prediction are positive. For the multiple factor analysis model where each variable loads on a single factor and a…

  8. Enhanced Position Location Reporting System (EPLRS) Positioning Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    source of position data depending on the environment and system requirements. This option could allow navigation of the UAV in a GPS - denied environment...the source of position data depending on the environment and system requirements. This option could allow the UAV to be navigated in a GPS denied environment

  9. Positive Behavior Interventions: The Issue of Sustainability of Positive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeung, Alexander Seeshing; Craven, Rhonda G.; Mooney, Mary; Tracey, Danielle; Barker, Katrina; Power, Anne; Dobia, Brenda; Chen, Zhu; Schofield, Jill; Whitefield, Phillip; Lewis, Timothy J.

    2016-01-01

    During the last decade, positive behavior interventions have resulted in improvement of school behavior and academic gains in a range of school settings worldwide. Recent studies identify sustainability of current positive behavior intervention programs as a major concern. The purpose of this article is to identify future direction for effective…

  10. Thinking Back about a Positive Event: The Impact of Processing Style on Positive Affect.

    PubMed

    Nelis, Sabine; Holmes, Emily A; Palmieri, Rosa; Bellelli, Guglielmo; Raes, Filip

    2015-01-01

    The manner in which individuals recall an autobiographical positive life event has affective consequences. Two studies addressed the processing styles during positive memory recall in a non-clinical sample. Participants retrieved a positive memory, which was self-generated (Study 1, n = 70) or experimenter-chosen (i.e., academic achievement, Study 2, n = 159), followed by the induction of one of three processing styles (between-subjects): in Study 1, a "concrete/imagery" vs. "abstract/verbal" processing style was compared. In Study 2, a "concrete/imagery," "abstract/verbal," and "comparative/verbal" processing style were compared. The processing of a personal memory in a concrete/imagery-based way led to a larger increase in positive affect compared to abstract/verbal processing in Study 1, as well as compared to comparative/verbal thinking in Study 2. Results of Study 2 further suggest that it is making unfavorable verbal comparisons that may hinder affective benefits to positive memories (rather than general abstract/verbal processing per se). The comparative/verbal thinking style failed to lead to improvements in positive affect, and with increasing levels of depressive symptoms it had a more negative impact on change in positive affect. We found no evidence that participant's tendency to have dampening thoughts in response to positive affect in daily life contributed to the affective impact of positive memory recall. The results support the potential for current trainings in boosting positive memories and mental imagery, and underline the search for parameters that determine at times deleterious outcomes of abstract/verbal memory processing in the face of positive information.

  11. Global Positioning System (GPS) Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2001-01-01

    GLOBAL POSITIONING SYSTEM ( GPS ) MODERNIZATION Lt. Col. C. McGinn, Capt. S...CA 90501, USA Abstract The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) signal is now the primary means of obtaining precise time to an internationally accepted...number. 1. REPORT DATE NOV 2000 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2000 to 00-00-2000 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Global Positioning System ( GPS

  12. NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-04-10

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, space-based navigation system under development by the Department of Defense (DoD...Happing Agency Los Angeles, California 90009 ABSTRACT The Navstar Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is an all-weather, space-based navigation system ...TITLE llnclud* Security Clauiti.ati-n) NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Overview N/A PROJECT NO. N/A TASK NO. N/A WORK UNIT NO.

  13. The Role of Positive Emotions in Positive Psychology

    PubMed Central

    Fredrickson, Barbara L.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, the author describes a new theoretical perspective on positive emotions and situates this new perspective within the emerging field of positive psychology. The broaden-and-build theory posits that experiences of positive emotions broaden people's momentary thought-action repertoires, which in turn serves to build their enduring personal resources, ranging from physical and intellectual resources to social and psychological resources. Preliminary empirical evidence supporting the broaden-and-build theory is reviewed, and open empirical questions that remain to be tested are identified. The theory and findings suggest that the capacity to experience positive emotions may be a fundamental human strength central to the study of human flourishing. PMID:11315248

  14. Audiological manifestations in HIV-positive adults

    PubMed Central

    Matas, Carla Gentile; Angrisani, Rosanna Giaffredo; Magliaro, Fernanda Cristina Leite; Segurado, Aluisio Augusto Cotrim

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To characterize the findings of behavioral hearing assessment in HIV-positive individuals who received and did not receive antiretroviral treatment. METHODS: This research was a cross-sectional study. The participants were 45 HIV-positive individuals (18 not exposed and 27 exposed to antiretroviral treatment) and 30 control-group individuals. All subjects completed an audiological evaluation through pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, and high-frequency audiometry. RESULTS: The hearing thresholds obtained by pure-tone audiometry were different between groups. The group that had received antiretroviral treatment had higher thresholds for the frequencies ranging from 250 to 3000 Hz compared with the control group and the group not exposed to treatment. In the range of frequencies from 4000 through 8000 Hz, the HIV-positive groups presented with higher thresholds than did the control group. The hearing thresholds determined by high-frequency audiometry were different between groups, with higher thresholds in the HIV-positive groups. CONCLUSION: HIV-positive individuals presented poorer results in pure-tone and high-frequency audiometry, suggesting impairment of the peripheral auditory pathway. Individuals who received antiretroviral treatment presented poorer results on both tests compared with individuals not exposed to antiretroviral treatment. PMID:25029578

  15. Positions of Uranus and Its Main Satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veiga, Carlos H.; Vieira Martins, Roberto; Andrei, Alexandre H.

    2003-05-01

    We present astrometric positions of Uranus and its satellites Miranda, Ariel, Umbriel, Titania, and Oberon, determined in the International Celestial Reference System, from 1758 frames observed over 105 nights between 1982 and 1998. All the positions of the satellites were reduced using secondary frames referred to the Tycho-2 Catalogue from photographic plates and CCD frames obtained with the 1.6 m reflector at the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica in Brazil. The images of Uranus were overexposed and thus not were measured in the frames. Its positions were instead calculated from the satellites, with the exception of Miranda, using their differential positions as given by the ephemeris GUST86. The positions of the planet were compared with the planetary ephemeris DE403, and the residuals have a mean and standard deviation, respectively, of -0.09" and 0.14" for (O-C)α and -0.01" and 0.15" for (O-C)δ. The results are similar for the satellites. Based on observations made at the Laboratório Nacional de Astrofísica, MCT, Itajubá, Brazil.

  16. Predicting transition to the supine sleep position in preterm infants.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sherri L; Carey, Mary G

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to determine what factors predict the transition of preterm infants to the supine sleep position prior to hospital discharge (N = 286). The supine position reduces the risk of sudden infant death syndrome. Factors found to predict a greater than 1-week transition to the supine sleep position were hospital policy (P < .001), gestational age (P < .001), and birth weight (P < .01). Transition to the supine position during hospitalization potentially reduces the risk of preterm infants being placed in nonsupine positions after hospitalization and, ultimately, the risk of untimely death by sudden infant death syndrome.

  17. Representation of Letter Position in Spelling: Evidence from Acquired Dysgraphia

    PubMed Central

    Fischer-Baum, Simon; McCloskey, Michael; Rapp, Brenda

    2010-01-01

    The graphemic representations that underlie spelling performance must encode not only the identities of the letters in a word, but also the positions of the letters. This study investigates how letter position information is represented. We present evidence from two dysgraphic individuals, CM and LSS, who perseverate letters when spelling: that is, letters from previous spelling responses intrude into subsequent responses. The perseverated letters appear more often than expected by chance in the same position in the previous and subsequent responses. We used these errors to address the question of how letter position is represented in spelling. In a series of analyses we determined how often the perseveration errors produced maintain position as defined by a number of alternative theories of letter position encoding proposed in the literature. The analyses provide strong evidence that the grapheme representations used in spelling encode letter position such that position is represented in a graded manner based on distance from both edges of the word. PMID:20378104

  18. Positive technology: using interactive technologies to promote positive functioning.

    PubMed

    Riva, Giuseppe; Baños, Rosa M; Botella, Cristina; Wiederhold, Brenda K; Gaggioli, Andrea

    2012-02-01

    It is generally assumed that technology assists individuals in improving the quality of their lives. However, the impact of new technologies and media on well-being and positive functioning is still somewhat controversial. In this paper, we contend that the quality of experience should become the guiding principle in the design and development of new technologies, as well as a primary metric for the evaluation of their applications. The emerging discipline of Positive Psychology provides a useful framework to address this challenge. Positive Psychology is the scientific study of optimal human functioning and flourishing. Instead of drawing on a "disease model" of human behavior, it focuses on factors that enable individuals and communities to thrive and build the best in life. In this paper, we propose the "Positive Technology" approach--the scientific and applied approach to the use of technology for improving the quality of our personal experience through its structuring, augmentation, and/or replacement--as a way of framing a suitable object of study in the field of cyberpsychology and human-computer interaction. Specifically, we suggest that it is possible to use technology to influence three specific features of our experience--affective quality, engagement/actualization, and connectedness--that serve to promote adaptive behaviors and positive functioning. In this framework, positive technologies are classified according to their effects on a specific feature of personal experience. Moreover, for each level, we have identified critical variables that can be manipulated to guide the design and development of positive technologies.

  19. Radio determination satellite service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briskman, Robert D.

    1990-07-01

    The capabilities and measured performance of a geosynchronous satellite-based service called the radio determination satellite service (RDSS), which operates at radio frequencies allocated by the International Telecommunications Union (ITU) and is licensed in the United States by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC), are discussed. Plans for both improvement in capability and expansion to nearly global coverage are described. Since RDSS can also provide radio navigation, some comparisons of this service with the Global Positioning System (GPS) are made.

  20. Positive Parenting and Challenging Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoll, Melissa

    2007-01-01

    Positive parenting focuses on developing proactive ways to teach and reinforce desirable behaviors, as opposed to focusing on reacting to and attempting to decrease negative behaviors. Dr. Sheldon Braaten, Executive Director of Behavioral Institute for Children and Adolescents, offers some keys for setting up and using a positive reinforcement…