Science.gov

Sample records for position determines audiovestibular

  1. Audio-vestibular function in human immunodeficiency virus infected patients in India.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Suma Susan; Albert, Rita Ruby; Job, Anand

    2012-07-01

    As the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) epidemic shows no signs of abating, the impact of AIDS is felt more in the developing countries due to socioeconomic reasons. The possibility of drug-induced ototoxicity also adds to the risk of audio vestibular dysfunction. We sought to determine if there was a difference between the audio-vestibular function in the asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infected patients and patients with AIDS. A prospective, cross-sectional study A tertiary care center in South India The audio-vestibular system of 30 asymptomatic HIV positive subjects (group 1) and 30 subjects with AIDS (group 2), and age-matched 30 healthy controls (group 3) were assessed using pure tone audiometry and cold caloric test. Sixteen patients each, in group 1 and group 2 and four subjects in the control group were detected to have a hearing loss indicating significantly more HIV infected individuals (group 1 and 2) were having hearing loss (P=0.001). Kobrak's (modified) test showed 27% of patients in group 1 and 33% of patients in group 2 and none in the group 3 had a hypofunctioning labyrinth (P=0.001). It seems that the human immunodeficiency virus does affect the audio-vestibular pathway. There was a significant incidence of audio-vestibular dysfunction among the HIV infected patients, as compared to the control population (P=0.001) and no significant difference between the asymptomatic HIV seropositive patients and AIDS patients. Majority of the patients had no otological symptoms.

  2. Audiovestibular Function Deficits in Vestibular Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are benign tumours of the vestibular nerve and can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, facial palsy, and brainstem compression. Audiovestibular diagnostic tests are essential for detection and treatment planning. Methods. Medline was used to perform a systematic literature review with regard to how audiovestibular test parameters correlate with symptoms, tumour size, and tumour location. Results. The auditory brainstem response can be used to diagnose retrocochlear lesions caused by VS. Since hearing loss correlates poorly with tumour size, a retrocochlear lesion is probably not the only cause for hearing loss. Also cochlear mechanisms seem to play a role. This can be revealed by abnormal otoacoustic emissions, despite normal ABR and new MRI techniques which have demonstrated endolymphatic hydrops of the inner ear. Caloric and head impulse tests show frequency specific dynamics and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials may help to identify the location of the tumour regarding the involved nerve parts. Conclusion. In order to preserve audiovestibular function in VS, it is important to stop the growth of the tumour and to avoid degenerative changes in the inner ear. A detailed neurotological workup helps to diagnose VS of all sizes and can also provide useful prognostic information. PMID:27747231

  3. Cogan's syndrome: an oculo-audiovestibular disease

    PubMed Central

    Berrocal, J; Vargas, J; Vaquero, M; y, C; Ramirez-Camacho, R

    1999-01-01

    Typical Cogan's syndrome is a rare disease of young adults consisting of flares of interstitial keratitis and sudden onset of Ménière-like attacks (nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss). Life-threatening aortic insufficiency develops in 10% of reported cases. Atypical Cogan's syndrome (audiovestibular dysfunction with other types of inflammatory eye disease) is associated with vasculitis in 20% of cases and has a less favourable prognosis than typical Cogan's syndrome.


Keywords: Cogan's syndrome; hearing loss; autoimmune disease PMID:10533627

  4. Recent Advances in Understanding Audiovestibular Loss of a Vascular Cause

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyun-Ah; Lee, Hyung

    2017-01-01

    Acute audiovestibular loss is characterized by abrupt onset of prolonged (lasting days) vertigo and hearing loss. Acute ischemic stroke in the distribution of the anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) is known to be the leading cause of acute audiovestibular loss. So far, eight subgroups of AICA territory infarction have been identified according to the patterns of audiovestibular dysfunctions, among which the most common pattern is the combined loss of auditory and vestibular functions. Unlike inner ear dysfunction of a viral cause, which can commonly present as an isolated vestibular (i.e., vestibular neuritis) or cochlear loss (i.e., sudden deafness), labyrinthine dysfunction of a vascular cause rarely results in isolated loss of vestibular or auditory function. As audiovestibular loss may precede the central symptoms or signs of an ischemic stroke in the posterior circulation, early diagnosis and proper management of audiovestiubular loss may provide a window to prevent the progression of infarction to larger areas of the posterior circulation. A clinician should consider the possibility that acute audiovestibular loss may herald impending AICA territory infarction, especially when patients have basilar artery occlusive disease close to the origin of the AICA on brain MRA. This review aims to highlight the recent advances in understanding audiovestibular loss of a vascular cause and to address its clinical significance. PMID:28030893

  5. Temporal bone MRI with 3D-FIESTA in the evaluation of facial and audiovestibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Cavusoglu, M; Cılız, D S; Duran, S; Ozsoy, A; Elverici, E; Karaoglanoglu, R; Sakman, B

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical usefulness of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the temporal bone using three-dimensional fast imaging employing steady-state acquisition (3D-FIESTA) sequences in patients with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction. We retrospectively reviewed the MR images of 1263 patients who presented with hearing loss (n=429), peripheral facial palsy (n=96), tinnitus (n=341) or vertigo (n=397). There were 605 men and 658 women, with a mean age of 46.97±16.95 (SD) years (range: 2-83 years). Positive MRI findings that were responsible for clinical manifestations in individual patients were categorized according to the anatomic sites and etiologies of the lesions. Positive MRI findings possibly responsible for clinical manifestations were found in 232/1263 (18.37%) patients, including 86/429 (20.05%) patients with hearing loss, 21/96 (21.88%) patients with facial palsy, 62/341 (18.18%) patients with tinnitus, and 63/397 (15.87%) patients with vertigo. Although the use of MRI of the temporal bone using 3D-FIESTA shows positive findings in only 18.37% of patients, it provides important information in those with facial and audiovestibular dysfunction. However, for patients with normal MRI of the temporal bone, other etiological factors should be investigated in order to clarify or elucidate the cause of clinical manifestations. Copyright © 2015 Éditions françaises de radiologie. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  6. Incidental findings on magnetic resonance imaging of the internal auditory meatus performed to investigate audiovestibular symptoms.

    PubMed

    Htun, H M; Mui, S L; Williams, C; Hans, P S

    2017-01-01

    To determine the frequency of incidental findings found on magnetic resonance imaging scans of the internal auditory meatus performed to investigate audiovestibular symptoms, and to determine how to best manage these when found. A retrospective review was conducted of internal auditory meatus magnetic resonance imaging scans during a three-month period in the radiology department at a UK district general hospital. A total of 109 scans were reviewed. Of these, 92.7 per cent showed no retrocochlear pathology, 0.9 per cent showed vestibular schwannoma, 6.4 per cent revealed vascular loops, and 2.8 per cent showed incidental findings that warranted further action and investigation. Of the scans, 40.4 per cent showed other incidental pathologies such as age-related ischaemic changes, and sinus disease that required no further intervention. Of the magnetic resonance imaging scans reviewed, 49.5 per cent were entirely normal. Almost half of the scans investigating audiovestibular symptoms showed incidental findings. Otolaryngologists should have an understanding of the significance of the most commonly encountered incidental findings, and should counsel patients appropriately and refer them onward when necessary.

  7. Attitudes towards and personal use of complementary and alternative medicine amongst clinicians working in audiovestibular disciplines.

    PubMed

    Crundwell, G; Baguley, D M

    2016-08-01

    Literature indicates that complementary and alternative medicine is used by patients with auditory and vestibular symptoms. This study sought to determine the prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine uptake, and examine attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine in clinicians working with audiovestibular disorder patients. The Holistic Complementary and Alternative Medicine Questionnaire and a devised questionnaire about recent and lifetime use of complementary and alternative medicine were used. Fifty-four individuals, including audiologists, ENT surgeons, nurses and rehabilitationists, completed the questionnaires (67 per cent response rate). Lifetime prevalence of complementary and alternative medicine uptake was 44 per cent, and 12-month prevalence was 22 per cent. Uptake was more common in females, but there was no significant difference in use when comparing age, seniority or profession. Attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine were mildly adverse, but sizeable standard deviation indicates wide-ranging attitudes. Clinicians working with patients with audiovestibular disorders have a range of attitudes towards complementary and alternative medicine. Personal uptake of complementary and alternative medicine was lower than that of the general UK population, but remains sizeable.

  8. [Analysis of the joint and a posteriori probability between primary empty sella, its comorbidities and audiovestibular pathology].

    PubMed

    Delgado-Hernández, Alhelí; Verduzco-Mendoza, Antonio; Luna-Reyes, Francisco Alfredo; Márquez-Palacios, Salvador; Arch-Tirado, Emilio

    2015-01-01

    Primary empty sella is a herniation of the sellar diaphragm into the pituitary space. It is an incidental finding and patients may manifest neurological, ophthalmological and/or endocrine disorders. Episodes of vertigo, dizziness, and hearing loss, have been reported. To determine the conditional probability, as well as the statistical dependency, through the Bayesian analysis in patients with primary empty sella and audiovestibular disorders. Individuals who attended the National Rehabilitation Institute from January 2010 to December 2011, diagnosed with primary empty sella and audiovestibular disorders. An analysis was performed on a sample of 18 patients with a diagnosis of primary empty sella confirmed with magnetic resonance studies and who had signs of vertigo, hearing loss and dizziness. Of the 18 patients studied, 3 (16.66%) had primary empty sella as the only clinical evidence. In 9 patients (50%) empty sella was associated with vertigo, and 16 patients (88.88%) were diagnosed with hearing loss, with sensorineural hearing loss being the most frequent (77.77%). The intersection between the proportions of primary empty sella with the presence and type of hearing loss was calculated. Thus for sensorineural hearing loss, the calculated ratio was P(AB)=0.6912, and for conductive and mixed hearing loss the value of P(AB)=0.0493 in both cases. Bayesian analysis and conditional probability enables the dependence between two or more variables to be calculated. In this study both mathematical models were used to analyse comorbidities and audiovestibular disorders in patients diagnosed with primary empty sella. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  9. Video image position determination

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  10. Vertigo with sudden hearing loss: audio-vestibular characteristics.

    PubMed

    Pogson, Jacob M; Taylor, Rachael L; Young, Allison S; McGarvie, Leigh A; Flanagan, Sean; Halmagyi, G Michael; Welgampola, Miriam S

    2016-10-01

    Acute vertigo with sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL) is a rare clinical emergency. Here, we report the audio-vestibular test profiles of 27 subjects who presented with these symptoms. The vestibular test battery consisted of a three-dimensional video head impulse test (vHIT) of semicircular canal function and recording ocular and cervical vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (oVEMP, cVEMP) to test otolith dysfunction. Unlike vestibular neuritis, where the horizontal and anterior canals with utricular function are more frequently impaired, 74 % of subjects with vertigo and SSNHL demonstrated impairment of the posterior canal gain (0.45 ± 0.20). Only 41 % showed impairment of the horizontal canal gains (0.78 ± 0.27) and 30 % of the anterior canal gains (0.79 ± 0.26), while 38 % of oVEMPs [asymmetry ratio (AR) = 41.0 ± 41.3 %] and 33 % of cVEMPs (AR = 47.3 ± 41.2 %) were significantly asymmetrical. Twenty-three subjects were diagnosed with labyrinthitis/labyrinthine infarction in the absence of evidence for an underlying pathology. Four subjects had a definitive diagnosis [Ramsay Hunt Syndrome, vestibular schwannoma, anterior inferior cerebellar artery (AICA) infarction, and traction injury]. Ischemia involving the common-cochlear or vestibulo-cochlear branches of the labyrinthine artery could be the simplest explanation for vertigo with SSNHL. Audio-vestibular tests did not provide easy separation between ischaemic and non-ischaemic causes of vertigo with SSNHL.

  11. Acute tinnitus and permanent audiovestibular damage after hepatitis B vaccination.

    PubMed

    DeJonckere, P H; de Surgères, G G

    2001-01-01

    Yeast-derived recombinant DNA hepatitis B vaccine usage has been widely accepted since the early 1990s, especially for high-risk patients. Severe adverse effects have been reported infrequently. Certain neurological complications raise concern for hepatitis B vaccine: central nervous system demyelination, acute myelitis, acute cerebellar ataxia, and various peripheral mononeuropathies. Case reports on tinnitus, hearing loss, and vestibular damage are extremely scarce. The case presented here concerns a professionally active nurse, born in 1953, with a medical history of progressive renal failure and hemodialysis. Eleven hours after a second injection of the hepatitis B vaccine Engerix B, an acute left-sided tinnitus occurred and, a few hours later, severe left hearing loss and intense vertigo. Tinnitus and the sensation of vertigo regressed fairly quickly, but the hearing loss and the vestibular paresis were permanent. Increased interpeak intervals on auditory brain responses and lack of recruitment suggested that the lesion probably is located at the level of cranial nerve VIII. From a medicolegal point of view, this audiovestibular damage had to be considered an accident at work and not as an occupational disease.

  12. Audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in Chiari malformation type i. Case series and literature review.

    PubMed

    Guerra Jiménez, Gloria; Mazón Gutiérrez, Ángel; Marco de Lucas, Enrique; Valle San Román, Natalia; Martín Laez, Rubén; Morales Angulo, Carmelo

    2015-01-01

    Chiari malformation is an alteration of the base of the skull with herniation through the foramen magnum of the brain stem and cerebellum. Although the most common presentation is occipital headache, the association of audio-vestibular symptoms is not rare. The aim of our study was to describe audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in Chiari malformation type i (CM-I). We performed a retrospective observational study of patients referred to our unit during the last 5 years. We also carried out a literature review of audio-vestibular signs and symptoms in this disease. There were 9 patients (2 males and 7 females), with an average age of 42.8 years. Five patients presented a Ménière-like syndrome; 2 cases, a recurrent vertigo with peripheral features; one patient showed a sudden hearing loss; and one case suffered a sensorineural hearing loss with early childhood onset. The most common audio-vestibular symptom indicated in the literature in patients with CM-I is unsteadiness (49%), followed by dizziness (18%), nystagmus (15%) and hearing loss (15%). Nystagmus is frequently horizontal (74%) or down-beating (18%). Other audio-vestibular signs and symptoms are tinnitus (11%), aural fullness (10%) and hyperacusis (1%). Occipital headache that increases with Valsalva manoeuvres and hand paresthesias are very suggestive symptoms. The appearance of audio-vestibular manifestations in CM-I makes it common to refer these patients to neurotologists. Unsteadiness, vertiginous syndromes and sensorineural hearing loss are frequent. Nystagmus, especially horizontal and down-beating, is not rare. It is important for neurotologists to familiarise themselves with CM-I symptoms to be able to consider it in differential diagnosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Otorrinolaringología y Patología Cérvico-Facial. All rights reserved.

  13. Contribution of audiovestibular tests to the topographic diagnosis of sudden deafness.

    PubMed

    Oiticica, Jeanne; Bittar, Roseli Saraiva Moreira; Castro, Claudio Campi de; Grasel, Signe; Pereira, Larissa Vilela; Bastos, Sandra Lira; Ramos, Alice Carolina Mataruco; Beck, Roberto

    2013-07-01

     Sudden hearing loss (SHL) is an ENT emergency defined as sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) ≥ 30 dB HL affecting at least 3 consecutive tonal frequencies, showing a sudden onset, and occurring within 3 days. In cases of SHL, a detailed investigation should be performed in order to determine the etiology and provide the best treatment. Otoacoustic emission (OAE) analysis, electronystagmography (ENG), bithermal caloric test (BCT), and vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) assessments may be used in addition to a number of auxiliary methods to determine the topographic diagnosis. Objective To evaluate the contribution of OAE analysis, BCT, VEMP assessment, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to the topographic diagnosis of SHL. Method Cross-sectional and retrospective studies of 21 patients with SHL, as defined above, were performed. The patients underwent the following exams: audiometry, tympanometry, OAE analysis, BCT, VEMP assessment, and MRI. Sex, affected side, degree of hearing loss, and cochleovestibular test results were described and correlated with MRI findings. Student's t-test was used for analysis of qualitative variables (p < 0.05). Results The mean age of the 21 patients assessed was 52.5 ± 15.3 years; 13 (61.9%) were women and 8 (38.1%) were men. Most (55%) had severe hearing loss. MRI changes were found in 20% of the cases. When the audiovestibular test results were added to the MRI findings, the topographic SHL diagnosis rate increased from 20% to 45%. Conclusion Only combined analysis via several examinations provides a precise topographic diagnosis. Isolated data do not provide sufficient evidence to establish the extent of involvement and, hence, a possible etiology.

  14. Audio-vestibular disturbance in patients with Behçet's disease.

    PubMed

    Choung, Yun-Hoon; Cho, Min Jung; Park, Keehyun; Choi, Seong Jun; Shin, You Ree; Lee, Eun-So

    2006-11-01

    The present study prospectively investigated the frequencies and characteristics of audio-vestibular disturbance and the results of audiologic and vestibular function tests in patients with Behçet's disease. A prospective study. Seventeen patients with Behçet's disease (mean age 41.2 [30-56] years, 5 males and 12 females), as well as age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were included in this study. All subjects satisfied the diagnostic criteria of the International Study Group for Behçet's Disease. Information on the subjects was obtained through questionnaires. Tests, including those for hearing impairment, tinnitus, ear fullness, and dizziness, pure-tone audiometry, and vestibular function, were performed. Auditory symptoms were reported by 7 (41.2%) and dizziness by 14 (82.4%) of the subjects. Sensorineural hearing loss was present in four (23.5%) subjects. One was treated with a cochlear implantation because of bilateral sudden deafness. Spontaneous nystagmus was detected in two (11.8%) subjects. Abnormal findings were noted in 1 (5.9%) in saccadic movement, 5 (29.4%) in the bithermal caloric tests, and 10 (58.9%) in the rotation chair tests. In total, audiologic or vestibular disturbance were noted in 16 (94.1%) of the subjects. However, audio-vestibular abnormalities were not noted in the healthy controls. Audio-vestibular disturbance is not rare in Behçet's disease patients compared with healthy controls. We believe that audio-vestibular assessment and management may be helpful for the diagnosis and treatment of patients with Behçet's disease.

  15. Efficient GPS Position Determination Algorithms

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-06-01

    Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ) conditions. The novel differential GPS algorithm for a network of users that has been developed in this research uses a...performance is achieved, even under high Geometric Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ) conditions. The second part of this research investigates a...respect to the receiver produces high Geometric Dilution of Precision ( GDOP ), which can adversely affect GPS position solutions [1]. Four

  16. Digital position determination system for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F; Sharp, William P; Roberson, Robert W; Blankenship, Robert E

    2005-06-01

    The precise determination of object positions within a specimen grid is important for many applications in electron microscopy. For example, real-time position determination is necessary for current statistical approaches and the efficient mapping and relocation of objects. Unfortunately, precise real-time position determination is not available on many older electron microscopes with manual stage controls. This report demonstrates the cost-effective and flexible implementation of a digital position determination system that can be adapted to many hand-operated electron microscopes. A customized solution that includes the hardware and software to accomplish position determination is presented. Lists of required parts, instructions for building the hardware, and descriptions of the developed programs are included. Two LED-photodiode assemblies detect x and y movements via an optical wheel that is in physical contact with the mechanical x and y stage control elements. These detector assemblies are interfaced with an integrated circuit that converts movement information into serial port-compatible signals, which are interpreted by a computer with specialized software. Two electron microscopes, a Philips CM12 (S)TEM and a Philips 201 TEM, were equipped with the described digital position determination system. The position fidelity and position fidelity after reloading of grids were determined for both microscopes. The determined position deviation was 1.06 microm in the x axis and 0.565 microm in the y axis for the Philips CM12 (S)TEM, and 0.303 microm in the x axis and 0.545 microm in the y axis for the Philips 201 TEM. After reloading and computational realigning, the determined average position variation was 2.66 microm in the x axis and 2.61 microm in the y axis for the Philips CM12 (S)TEM, and 1.13 microm in the x axis and 1.27 microm in the y axis for the Philips 201 TEM.

  17. Doppler sonography of vertebral arteries and audiovestibular system investigation in leprosy.

    PubMed

    Koyuncu, M; Celik, O; Inan, E; Ozturk, A

    1995-03-01

    Thirty-six patients with leprosy and 12 sex- and age-matched controls were investigated for disorders of the audiovestibular system, and vertebral artery measurements were calculated using a color Doppler ultrasound technique. Sensorineural hearing loss found to be of cochlear origin was detected in 8 of the leprosy patients. Maximal flow velocity and mean flow velocity were measured, and the total vertebral artery flow was calculated by adding flows from the right and left sides. There was a significant reduction in the total maximal peak flow velocity of the vertebral artery of the lepromatous patients compared to the controls. Doppler sonography of the vertebral artery gave useful information about some pathology seen in lepromatous patients.

  18. Position and orientation determination system and method

    DOEpatents

    Harpring, Lawrence J.; Farfan, Eduardo B.; Gordon, John R.; Jannik, Gerald T.; Foley, Trevor Q.

    2017-06-14

    A position determination system and method is provided that may be used for obtaining position and orientation information of a detector in a contaminated room. The system includes a detector, a sensor operably coupled to the detector, and a motor coupled to the sensor to move the sensor around the detector. A CPU controls the operation of the motor to move the sensor around the detector and determines distance and angle data from the sensor to an object. The method includes moving a sensor around the detector and measuring distance and angle data from the sensor to an object at incremental positions around the detector.

  19. Method and apparatus for determining position using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John (Inventor); Ward, William S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i.e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudo-random code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor enters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite code sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  20. Method and Apparatus for Determining Position Using Global Positioning Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite is presented. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i,e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudorandom code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor caters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite cede sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  1. Navicular bone position determined by positional MRI: a reproducibility study.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Philip; Johannsen, Finn E; Hangaard, Stine; Stallknecht, Sandra E; Hansen, Bjarke B; Nybing, Janus D; Boesen, Mikael

    2016-02-01

    To examine intraobserver, interobserver and between-day reproducibility of positional MRI for evaluation of navicular bone height (NVH) and medial navicular position (MNP). Positional MRI (pMRI) of the foot was performed on ten healthy participants (0.25 T G-scanner). Scanning was performed in supine and standing position, respectively. Two radiologists evaluated the images in a blinded manner. Reliability and agreement were assessed by calculation of intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) and 95 % limits of agreement as a percentage of the mean (LOA%). Intraobserver and interobserver reliability was "substantial" in both supine and standing position (ICC 0.86-0.98) and showed good agreement (LOA% 4.9-14.7 %). Between-day reliability of navicular height and medial navicular position in standing position remained substantial (ICC 0.85-0.92) with adequate agreement (LOA% 8.3-19.8 %). In supine position between-day reliability was "moderate" for NVH (ICC 0.72) and "slight" for MNP (ICC 0.39). Agreement remained adequate between-days for MNP in supine position (LOA% 17.7 %), but it was less than adequate for NVH in supine position (LOA% 24.2 %). Navicular height and medial navicular position can be measured by pMRI in a very reproducible manner within and between observers. Increased measurement variation is observed between-days in supine position, which may be due to small positional differences or other unknown biomechanical factors.

  2. Analysis of audio-vestibular assessment in acute low-tone hearing loss.

    PubMed

    Im, Gi Jung; Kim, Sung Kyun; Choi, June; Song, Jae Jun; Chae, Sung Won; Jung, Hak Hyun

    2016-07-01

    Conclusion This study demonstrated excellent hearing recovery following the combined treatment of diuretic and oral steroid, and electrocochleography (ECoG) was significantly higher than normal side. This study reports characteristics of acute low-tone hearing loss (ALHL) that show the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG, and excellent recovery, even-though low-tone hearing loss is worse, which can be different compared with sudden deafness. Objective To analyze ALHL without vertigo, this study compared the ALHL group with all patients exhibiting low-tone hearing loss and ear fullness. Hearing changes and vestibular functions were analyzed. Materials and methods ALHL was defined as a mean hearing loss of ≥ 30 dB at 125, 250, and 500 Hz, and ≤ 20 dB at 2, 4, and 8 kHz. From 156 cases of low-tone hearing loss of more than 10 dB without vertigo, 31 met the ALHL criteria and were subjected to audio-vestibular assessments including PTA, ECoG, vestibular evoked myogenic potential (VEMP) testing, and caloric testing. Results In ALHL, low-tone hearing loss was 42.7 ± 9.5 dB, and 83.9% of ALHL significantly recovered by more than 10 dB. The ECoG in ALHL was 0.334 ± 0.11 (higher than 0.25 ± 0.08 on the normal side) and ECoG abnormality was 35.5% (the greater low-tone hearing loss, the higher ECoG value).

  3. Audiovestibular Handicap and Quality of Life in Patients With Vestibular Schwannoma and "Excellent" Hearing.

    PubMed

    Tveiten, Oystein Vesterli; Carlson, Matthew L; Link, Michael J; Lund-Johansen, Morten

    2017-03-01

    Studies examining patient-reported outcomes in subjects with vestibular schwannoma (VS) and "excellent" hearing are lacking. To assess patient-reported audiovestibular handicap and overall quality of life (QoL) in VS patients with class A hearing in both ears. Among 539 VS patients treated during 1998 to 2008, we identified 296 patients with either bilateral class A (AA) hearing or 1 good ear and 1 deaf ear (AD) according to the American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery classification. Patients responded to validated hearing, tinnitus, and dizziness handicap inventories and 2 QoL questionnaires, and the 2 groups were compared. A reference group of 103 adults filled out the same questionnaires. Forty-nine patients (16.6%) had class AA and 247 patients (83.4%) had class AD hearing. AA patients scored poorer than control subjects without tumor on all handicap questionnaires ( P < .001) and a VS-specific QoL instrument ( P = .006). Con-versely, AA patients scored significantly better than patients with AD on the hearing inventory and the disease-specific QoL instrument ( P < .001), but no difference was found between these groups with regard to tinnitus and dizziness. The hearing disability score was approximately 3 times poorer for AA patients compared with control subjects without tumor; a third of AA patients reported a hearing handicap. Patients with VS and bilateral class A hearing report significantly poorer hearing handicap than control subjects without tumor but better hearing than those with unilateral deafness. When patients with bilateral class A hearing are counseled, it should be noted that one-third of patients experience self-perceived hearing handicap.

  4. Surveying of a borehole for position determination

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

    1985-04-02

    A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

  5. LANDSAT D position determination and correction study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1976-01-01

    An assessment of accuracy of the knowledge of LANDSAT D spacecraft ephemeris data, an evaluation of the impact of expected attitude and alignment accuracies and analysis of the various options for the combining of precision ephemeris and attitude data with scene image data are provided. The potential geometric correction system in order to determine overall system costs and impact on other system elements is characterized.

  6. Nutation determination using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Kunliang; Capitaine, Nicole; Umnig, Elke; Weber, Robert

    2012-08-01

    VLBI observation of extragalactic radio sources is the only technique that allows high accuracy determination of nutation on a regular basis. However, this is limited to periods of nutation greater than about 30 days due to the current resolution of VL BI estimation. It is there fore important to use another technique to improve nutation at shorter periods. It has been shown by Rothacher et al. (1999) and Weber & Rothacher (2001) that GPS is a potential technique for the determination of the short period terms of nutation. The met hod, which is based on the estimation of nutation rates with respect to an a priori model, is limited to nutation terms in the higher frequency range (with periods up to about 21 days) due to deficiencies in the modeling of the satellite orbits. The high accuracy and high time resolution of the GPS observations that are now achieved give us the possibility to estimate the nutation variations with respect to the IAU2000A nutation, with an expected precision of 10 microarcseconds (μas ). The purpose of our study is to use recent GPS observations obtained by 140 IGS stations (IGS08 Core Reference Frame sites included) to estimate the short period nutations. Two methods are applied: one is to investigate the retrograde diurnal term of polar motion with nutation fixed to the IAU 2006/2000 precession - nutation, using CNES/GRGS software GINS/DYNAMO at Observatoire de Paris; another one is to investigate the nutation time derivative, with polar motion fixed, using Bernese GPS software at University of Technology in Vienna. In this poster, we report on our preliminary results with data set covering a period of 3 years (2009 - 2011), with appropriate time resolutions and on the comparison between the two approaches.

  7. Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    SciTech Connect

    Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu

    2009-02-28

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

  8. Determining Positions and Desired Applicant Characteristics in Sports Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atali, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the diversity of positions occurring in sports job ads and reveal the characteristics requested from applicants for each position. This study examined 103 sports-related job ads obtained from four human resources websites. Using content analysis, job ads were examined in terms of job titles, and the…

  9. Determining Positions and Desired Applicant Characteristics in Sports Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atali, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the diversity of positions occurring in sports job ads and reveal the characteristics requested from applicants for each position. This study examined 103 sports-related job ads obtained from four human resources websites. Using content analysis, job ads were examined in terms of job titles, and the…

  10. Determining position inside building via laser rangefinder and handheld computer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Jr. James L.; Finley, Patrick; Melton, Brad

    2010-01-12

    An apparatus, computer software, and a method of determining position inside a building comprising selecting on a PDA at least two walls of a room in a digitized map of a building or a portion of a building, pointing and firing a laser rangefinder at corresponding physical walls, transmitting collected range information to the PDA, and computing on the PDA a position of the laser rangefinder within the room.

  11. Role of surgical stents in determining the position of implants

    PubMed Central

    Pal, U. S.; Chand, Pooran; Dhiman, Neeraj Kumar; Singh, R. K.; Kumar, Vimlesh

    2010-01-01

    Aim: Demand from implant patients for quality and efficient treatment is increasing. Fortunately dental implant treatment is evolving with patients expectations. Materials and Methods: The study comprised of 45 patients for whom 89 implants were placed at different sites. Efficacy of the stents is evaluated in determining the position and diameter of the implants. Conclusion: this study shows the extreme accuracy of this surgical stents in implant installation in terms of position and diameter. PMID:22442544

  12. Position determination accuracy from the microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cicolani, L. S.

    1973-01-01

    Analysis and results are given for the position determination accuracy obtainable from the microwave landing guidance system. Siting arrangements, coverage volumes, and accuracy standards for the azimuth, elevation, and range functions of the microwave system are discussed. Results are given for the complete coverage of the systems and are related to flight operational requirements for position estimation during flare, glide slope, and general terminal area approaches. Range rate estimation from range data is also analyzed. The distance measuring equipment accuracy required to meet the range rate estimation standards is determined, and a method of optimizing the range rate estimate is also given.

  13. Determination of the position angle of stellar spin axes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lesage, A.-L.; Wiedemann, G.

    2014-03-01

    Context. Measuring the stellar position angle provides valuable information on binary stellar formation or stellar spin axis evolution. Aims: We aim to develop a method for determining the absolute stellar position angle using spectro-astrometric analysis of high resolution long-slit spectra. The method has been designed in particular for slowly rotating stars. We investigate its applicability to existing dispersive long-slit spectrographs, identified here by their plate scale, and the size of the resulting stellar sample. Methods: The stellar rotation induces a tilt in the stellar lines whose angle depends on the stellar position angle and the orientation of the slit. We developed a rotation model to calculate and reproduce the effects of stellar rotation on unreduced high resolution stellar spectra. Then we retrieved the tilt amplitude using a spectro-astrometric extraction of the position of the photocentre of the spectrum. Finally we present two methods for analysing the position spectrum using either direct measurement of the tilt or a cross-correlation analysis. Results: For stars with large apparent diameter and using a spectrograph with a small plate scale, we show that it is possible to determine the stellar position angle directly within 10° with a signal-to-noise ratio of the order of 6. Under less favourable conditions, i.e. larger plate scale or smaller stellar diameter, the cross-correlation method yields comparable results. Conclusions: We show that with the currently existing instruments, it is possible to determine the stellar position angle of at least 50 stars precisely, mostly K-type giants with apparent diameter down to 5 milliarcseconds. If we consider errors of around 10° still acceptable, we may include stars with apparent diameter down to 2 mas in the sample that then comprises also some main sequence stars.

  14. Mirror position determination for the alignment of Cherenkov Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, J.; Ahnen, M. L.; Baack, D.; Balbo, M.; Bergmann, M.; Biland, A.; Blank, M.; Bretz, T.; Bruegge, K. A.; Buss, J.; Dmytriiev, A.; Domke, M.; Dorner, D.; Einecke, S.; Hempfling, C.; Hildebrand, D.; Hughes, G.; Linhoff, L.; Mannheim, K.; Mueller, S. A.; Neise, D.; Neronov, A.; Noethe, M.; Paravac, A.; Pauss, F.; Rhode, W.; Shukla, A.; Temme, F.; Thaele, J.; Walter, R.

    2017-07-01

    Imaging Atmospheric Cherenkov Telescopes (IACTs) need imaging optics with large apertures to map the faint Cherenkov light emitted in extensive air showers onto their image sensors. Segmented reflectors fulfill these needs using mass produced and light weight mirror facets. However, as the overall image is the sum of the individual mirror facet images, alignment is important. Here we present a method to determine the mirror facet positions on a segmented reflector in a very direct way. Our method reconstructs the mirror facet positions from photographs and a laser distance meter measurement which goes from the center of the image sensor plane to the center of each mirror facet. We use our method to both align the mirror facet positions and to feed the measured positions into our IACT simulation. We demonstrate our implementation on the 4 m First Geiger-mode Avalanche Cherenkov Telescope (FACT).

  15. Positively Charged Residues Are the Major Determinants of Ribosomal Velocity

    PubMed Central

    Charneski, Catherine A.; Hurst, Laurence D.

    2013-01-01

    Both for understanding mechanisms of disease and for the design of transgenes, it is important to understand the determinants of ribosome velocity, as changes in the rate of translation are important for protein folding, error attenuation, and localization. While there is great variation in ribosomal occupancy along even a single transcript, what determines a ribosome's occupancy is unclear. We examine this issue using data from a ribosomal footprinting assay in yeast. While codon usage is classically considered a major determinant, we find no evidence for this. By contrast, we find that positively charged amino acids greatly retard ribosomes downstream from where they are encoded, consistent with the suggestion that positively charged residues interact with the negatively charged ribosomal exit tunnel. Such slowing is independent of and greater than the average effect owing to mRNA folding. The effect of charged amino acids is additive, with ribosomal occupancy well-predicted by a linear fit to the density of positively charged residues. We thus expect that a translated poly-A tail, encoding for positively charged lysines regardless of the reading frame, would act as a sandtrap for the ribosome, consistent with experimental data. PMID:23554576

  16. Determination of eye position in fast jet flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveash, Jacqueline P.; Belyavin, A. J.; Bigmore, Dave J.; Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.; McCarthy, G. W.; Rumbold, D. A.; Stott, J. R.

    1994-06-01

    The way in which a pilot's attention is distributed between various operational tasks during tactical flight is of prime importance when designing new cockpit displays. The point of regard, and by inference, the pilot's focus of attention, can be determined by measuring head and eye position. The measurement of head position using an electromagnetic coil technique is well proven in flight. However, most techniques currently available for determining eye position are too bulky and complex, compromise ejection safety and cannot, as yet, be used in the fast jet cockpit. This paper reports a feasibility study into the use of the electro-oculogram (EOG) to determine eye position during flight in a fast jet aircraft. EOG amplifiers have been designed for airborne use and three flight trials have been conducted in a Jaguar combat aircraft. Laboratory calibration studies have shown good linearity of the horizontal EOG, but some nonlinearity of the vertical EOG which is better described using a second order polynomial. In addition, there is an interaction between the horizonal and vertical components. These studies indicated that for an individual subject, an adequate calibration in both the horizontal and vertical planes could be achieved with a minimum of nine calibration points, but that the accuracy of the measurement was limited by the drift of the EOG signal. Results of the flight trials to validate this method will be presented.

  17. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    SciTech Connect

    Vandam, T.M.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M.B. ||

    1994-12-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged.

  18. Dependence of Orbit Determination Accuracy on the Observer Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vananti, Alessandro; Schildknecht, Thomas

    2013-08-01

    The Astronomical Institute of the University of Bern (AIUB) is conducting several search campaigns for space debris in Geostationary (GEO) and Medium Earth Orbits (MEO). Usually, to improve the quality of the determined orbits for newly discovered objects, follow-up observations are conducted. The latter take place at different times during the discovery night or in subsequent nights. The time interval between the observations plays an important role in the accuracy of the calculated orbits. Another essential parameter to consider is the position of the observer at the observation time. In this paper, the accuracy of the orbit determination with respect to the position of the observer is analyzed. The same observing site at varying epochs or multiple site locations involve different distances from the target object and a different observing angle with respect to its orbital plane and trajectory. The formal error in the orbit determination process is, among other dependencies, a function of the latter parameters. The analysis of this dependence is important to choose the appropriate observation strategy. One of the main questions that arises is e.g. whether observing the same object from different stations results in better determined orbits and, if yes, how big is the improvement. Another question is e.g. whether the observation from multiple sites needs to be simultaneous or not for a better orbit accuracy.

  19. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  20. Involvement of the audiovestibular system in multiple sclerosis. An otoneurologic and audiologic study.

    PubMed

    Grénman, R

    1985-01-01

    This study was performed on a material of 70 patients, who fulfilled the criteria of definitive MS. All the patients were examined by an otologist, a neurologist and a neuro-ophthalmologist. A wide range of audiologic and otoneurologic tests were used to obtain a good understanding of the respective disorders in MS, to gain a better knowledge of the role of otology in MS, to correlate the results with the clinical findings in order to find the most useful tests to detect MS lesions and to describe pathophysiologic aspects of central lesions using MS as a model. The material consisted of MS cases representing mild or moderate stages of disability (Hyllested classification 1.-4); 32 belonged to Hyllested group 1., 19 to group 2., 7 to group 3. and 12 to group 4. The age and sex distribution were similar with materials described earlier, as were most of the clinical neurologic findings. The material can thus be considered representative. The neuro-ophthalmologic examination served to rule out causes other than MS for abnormalities observed in the tests. Besides the clinical neurologic and otoneurologic evaluation a number of additional tests were performed. The ENG tests consisted of registration for spontaneous and positional nystagmus, of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements, optokinetic nystagmus and caloric reactions. The audiologic evaluation was based on the following tests: pure tone audiograms, speech reception thresholds, discrimination scores, filtered speech test, stapedius reflex thresholds, stapedius reflex decay and auditory brainstem responses. The clinical otologic examination revealed little abnormalities, which is well in accordance with the pathophysiology of MS. In addition the clinical examination ruled out peripheral lesions as reasons for observed abnormalities. Numerous abnormalities were found during the otoneurologic examination of the cranial nerves. The amount of abnormal findings in the otoneurologic examination were surprisingly high

  1. Analysis of Current Position Determination Accuracy in Natural Resources Canada Precise Point Positioning Service

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krzan, Grzegorz; Dawidowicz, Karol; Krzysztof, Świaţek

    2013-09-01

    Precise Point Positioning (PPP) is a technique used to determine highprecision position with a single GNSS receiver. Unlike DGPS or RTK, satellite observations conducted by the PPP technique are not differentiated, therefore they require that parameter models should be used in data processing, such as satellite clock and orbit corrections. Apart from explaining the theory of the PPP technique, this paper describes the available web-based online services used in the post-processing of observation results. The results obtained in the post-processing of satellite observations at three points, with different characteristics of environment conditions, using the CSRS-PPP service, will be presented as the results of the experiment. This study examines the effect of the duration of the measurement session on the results and compares the results obtained by working out observations made by the GPS system and the combined observations from GPS and GLONASS. It also presents the analysis of the position determination accuracy using one and two measurement frequencies

  2. Determining Position Inside Non-industrial Buildings Using Ultrasound Transducers.

    PubMed

    Escudero, Francesc; Margalef, Jordi; Luengo, Sonia; Alsina, Maria; Ribes, Josep M; Pérez, Juan

    2007-11-02

    The position determination inside a building where no GPS signal is beingreceived can be ascertained using laser transmitters in industrial situations where there areno people or using triangulation of the signal strength, normally electro-magnetic signals,if the required accuracy is more than a metre. Our solution is aimed at situations wherepeople are present and where the required accuracy is less than 30 cm, such as in shoppingprecincts or supermarkets. To achieve this, a network of ultrasonic transmitters is fittedinto the ceiling which receives a synchronised time signal. Each transmitter has a uniqueidentifier code and emits its code with a delay with respect to the common time signalwhich is proportional to its code number with an ASK modulation over the ultrasonic bandcentred on 40 KHz. The receivers circulating beneath the transmitters receive the codes ofthose within their detection range, translate the time delays into distances and then obtaintheir position by triangulation since the receivers know the position of every transmitter.Since the receivers are not synchronised with the common time signal or the actual speedof the sound, whose value varies appreciably with temperature, relative humidity andatmospheric pressure, a consecutive approximation algorithm has been introduced. This isbased on the fact that the Z coordinator of the receiver is known and constant and thus it is possible, with only three different identifiers received, to deduce the phase of the common time signal and estimate the speed of the sound with a fourth identifier.

  3. Astrometric positioning and orbit determination of geostationary satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montojo, F. J.; López Moratalla, T.; Abad, C.

    2011-03-01

    In the project titled “Astrometric Positioning of Geostationary Satellite” (PASAGE), carried out by the Real Instituto y Observatorio de la Armada (ROA), optical observation techniques were developed to allow satellites to be located in the geostationary ring with angular accuracies of up to a few tenths of an arcsec. These techniques do not necessarily require the use of large telescopes or especially dark areas, and furthermore, because optical observation is a passive method, they could be directly applicable to the detection and monitoring of passive objects such as space debris in the geostationary ring.By using single-station angular observations, geostationary satellite orbits with positional uncertainties below 350 m (2 sigma) were reconstructed using the Orbit Determination Tool Kit software, by Analytical Graphics, Inc. This software is used in collaboration with the Spanish Instituto Nacional de Técnica Aeroespacial.Orbit determination can be improved by taking into consideration the data from other stations, such as angular observations alone or together with ranging measurements to the satellite. Tests were carried out combining angular observations with the ranging measurements obtained from the Two-Way Satellite Time and Frequency Transfer technique that is used by ROA’s Time Section to carry out time transfer with other laboratories. Results show a reduction of the 2 sigma uncertainty to less than 100 m.

  4. [Cranioencephalic traumatism. Audiovestibular sequelae].

    PubMed

    Llano, J A; Figuerola, E; Rosell, R; Liern, M

    1989-01-01

    A group of 80 patients with blunt head injury were examined. Long-term clinical neurologic and otologic sequelae of traumatic head injury are well recognized. The authors studied the vestibular disorders using ENG, EEG and high resolution CT.

  5. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  6. Determining Position Inside Non-industrial Buildings Using Ultrasound Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Francesc; Margalef, Jordi; Luengo, Sonia; Alsina, Maria; Ribes, Josep M.; Pérez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The position determination inside a building where no GPS signal is being received can be ascertained using laser transmitters in industrial situations where there are no people or using triangulation of the signal strength, normally electro-magnetic signals, if the required accuracy is more than a metre. Our solution is aimed at situations where people are present and where the required accuracy is less than 30 cm, such as in shopping precincts or supermarkets. To achieve this, a network of ultrasonic transmitters is fitted into the ceiling which receives a synchronised time signal. Each transmitter has a unique identifier code and emits its code with a delay with respect to the common time signal which is proportional to its code number with an ASK modulation over the ultrasonic band centred on 40 KHz. The receivers circulating beneath the transmitters receive the codes of those within their detection range, translate the time delays into distances and then obtain their position by triangulation since the receivers know the position of every transmitter. Since the receivers are not synchronised with the common time signal or the actual speed of the sound, whose value varies appreciably with temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a consecutive approximation algorithm has been introduced. This is based on the fact that the Z coordinator of the receiver is known and constant and thus it is possible, with only three different identifiers received, to deduce the phase of the common time signal and estimate the speed of the sound with a fourth identifier. PMID:28903247

  7. Using Positive Deviance for Determining Successful Weight-Control Practices

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Heather L.; Boan, Jarol; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Lehman, Erik B.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Based on positive deviance (examining the practices of successful individuals), we identified five primary themes from 36 strategies that help to maintain long-term weight loss (weight control) in 61 people. We conducted in-depth interviews to determine what successful individuals did and/or thought about regularly to control their weight. The themes included weight-control practices related to (a) nutrition: increase water, fruit, and vegetable intake, and consistent meal timing and content; (b) physical activity: follow and track an exercise routine at least 3×/week; (c) restraint: practice restraint by limiting and/or avoiding unhealthy foods; (d) self-monitor: plan meals, and track calories/weight progress; and (e) motivation: participate in motivational programs and cognitive processes that affect weight-control behavior. Using the extensive data involving both the practices and practice implementation, we used positive deviance to create a comprehensive list of practices to develop interventions for individuals to control their weight. PMID:20956609

  8. Determinants of infant sleep position in an urban population.

    PubMed

    Moon, Rachel Y; Omron, Rodney

    2002-10-01

    The incidence of SIDS has decreased by 40% since the Back to Sleep campaign was initiated. However, the rate of SIDS in the District of Columbia continues to be approximately double the national rate. The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and determinants of prone sleeping among infants in the District of Columbia and to ascertain what information is being provided to parents by health care professionals by a cross-sectional survey of parents of infants 0-6 months of age presenting for well child care at Children's Health Center, Children's National Medical Center, in Washington, DC. We recruited a consecutive sample of 126 parent-infant pairs, of which 92.9% were African-American. The average infant was 73 days old, was 3,003 grams at birth, and was full term. When asked how the infants were placed for sleep the night before the interview, 34.1 % of parents had placed the infant supine, 50.8% side, and 15.1% prone. Nearly half (48%) of infants slept in an adult bed with the mother. More than one third of the infants had been placed prone for sleep at least once since hospital discharge. Most common reasons for sleeping supine included SIDS risk reduction or health care professional advice. Side sleepers did so primarily because of concern about vomiting, health care provider advice, or SIDS. Infants were placed prone primarily because the infant slept better. When asked about information received from a health care provider, 70.6% of parents stated that they had received information about sleep position and 64.3% about the hazards of passive smoking. Eight parents observed nursery personnel placing their infants prone. Only 16.7% of the total study population had received a Back to Sleep brochure, read it, and recalled that it recommended back sleeping. Infants were more likely to sleep prone if there was a grandparent in the home (OR 2.9, p<0.05) or if they were the firstborn (OR 2.17, p<0.05). Infants were more likely to sleep supine if

  9. Engineering and Design: Using Differential GPS Positioning for Elevation Determination

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) surveying...Surveying Techniques Directorate of Civil Works NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Surveying. Survey (NGS) using several different GPS surveying 7701...NAVD88 Transformation NAVSTAR Global Positioning System Surveying, for Techniques assistance in setting up a network. a. The GPS relative positioning

  10. Projectile attitude and position determination using magnetometer sensor only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changey, Sebastien; Fleck, Volker; Beauvois, Dominique

    2005-03-01

    A priori information given by the complete modelling of the ballistic behavior (trajectory, attitude) of the projectile is simplified to give a pertinent reduced evolution model. An algorithm based on extended Kalman filters is designed to determinate: " position: x,y,z references in earth frame. " value and direction of the velocity vector; its direction is given by 2 angles (η and θ). " attitude around velocity vector given by 3 angles: roll angle in the range [0, 2π], angle of attack α and side-slip angle β in the range of few milliradians. The estimation is based on the measures of the magnetic field of the earth given by a three-axis magnetometer sensor embedded on the projectile. The algorithm also needs the knowledge of the direction of the earth magnetic fields in the earth frame and aerodynamics coefficients of the projectile. The algorithm has been tested on simulation, using real evolution of attitude data for a shot with a 155 mm rotating projectile over a distance of 16 km, with wind and measurement noise. The results show that we can estimate milliradians with non-linear equations and approximations, with good precision.

  11. Interferometric Determination of GPS (Global Positioning System) Satellite Orbits.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-04-23

    Global Positioning System ,’ GPS interferometrv...INTRODUCTION If the NAVSTAR Global Positioning System ( GPS ) is to be useful for crustal motion monitoring, the orbits of the GPS satellites 7will need to be... Global Position . * ing System , April 15-19, 1985, Rockville, MD 19. KEY WORDS (Continue on rev’erse side if necessary and Identity by block

  12. Drought as a Determinant of Tropical Montane Forest Line Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giambelluca, T. W.; Crausbay, S.; Hotchkiss, S.; Gotsch, S. G.; Frazier, A. G.; Longman, R. J.

    2014-12-01

    Globally, the upper elevation margins of montane forests follow a latitudinal pattern, ranging from below 1000 m at high latitudes to above 3000 m on continental tropical mountains. Forest lines on oceanic islands are distinctly lower, but are also latitude dependent. While proposed mechanisms to explain forest line position are generally related to effects of low temperature, including tissue damage from freezing and slow growth, aridity has been suggested as a possible cause of the lower oceanic island forest lines. A relatively undisturbed forest line is found on Haleakalā Volcano, on the Island of Maui at an elevation of around 2000 m. Forest on Haleakalā does not appear to be limited by low temperature; mean annual temperature at the forest line (8.8-10.5°C) is well above the suggested threshold growing season temperature. Instead, the position of this ecotone coincides with the mean elevation of the trade wind inversion (TWI), which separates the moist marine atmospheric layer from arid upper air. Abrupt changes in moisture-related climate variables are found at the TWI, including one of the steepest mean annual rainfall gradients in the world. In recent work, microclimate during drought was shown to play a critical role in structuring the Haleakalā forest line, the position of which was most strongly related to relative humidity during a strong El Niño-induced drought. The relationship between El Niño-driven drought and ecotone position was tested in long-term paleoecological data. Reconstructions of the cloud forest's upper limit and moisture balance over the past 3,300 years were strongly associated with paleorecords of El Niño event frequency. The forest ecotone may be particularly responsive to strong, short-duration drought events because taxa here, particularly the isohydric dominant canopy tree Metrosideros polymorpha, are near their physiological limits. Minimum leaf water potential in M. polymorpha near the forest line is close to the turgor

  13. Dendritic position is a major determinant of presynaptic strength

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Arthur P.H.; Schmitz, Sabine K.; Toonen, Ruud F.G.

    2012-01-01

    Different regulatory principles influence synaptic coupling between neurons, including positional principles. In dendrites of pyramidal neurons, postsynaptic sensitivity depends on synapse location, with distal synapses having the highest gain. In this paper, we investigate whether similar rules exist for presynaptic terminals in mixed networks of pyramidal and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Unexpectedly, distal synapses had the lowest staining intensities for vesicular proteins vGlut, vGAT, Synaptotagmin, and VAMP and for many nonvesicular proteins, including Bassoon, Munc18, and Syntaxin. Concomitantly, distal synapses displayed less vesicle release upon stimulation. This dependence of presynaptic strength on dendritic position persisted after chronically blocking action potential firing and postsynaptic receptors but was markedly reduced on DG dendrites compared with pyramidal dendrites. These data reveal a novel rule, independent of neuronal activity, which regulates presynaptic strength according to dendritic position, with the strongest terminals closest to the soma. This gradient is opposite to postsynaptic gradients observed in pyramidal dendrites, and different cell types apply this rule to a different extent. PMID:22492722

  14. Dendritic position is a major determinant of presynaptic strength.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Arthur P H; Schmitz, Sabine K; Toonen, Ruud F G; Verhage, Matthijs

    2012-04-16

    Different regulatory principles influence synaptic coupling between neurons, including positional principles. In dendrites of pyramidal neurons, postsynaptic sensitivity depends on synapse location, with distal synapses having the highest gain. In this paper, we investigate whether similar rules exist for presynaptic terminals in mixed networks of pyramidal and dentate gyrus (DG) neurons. Unexpectedly, distal synapses had the lowest staining intensities for vesicular proteins vGlut, vGAT, Synaptotagmin, and VAMP and for many nonvesicular proteins, including Bassoon, Munc18, and Syntaxin. Concomitantly, distal synapses displayed less vesicle release upon stimulation. This dependence of presynaptic strength on dendritic position persisted after chronically blocking action potential firing and postsynaptic receptors but was markedly reduced on DG dendrites compared with pyramidal dendrites. These data reveal a novel rule, independent of neuronal activity, which regulates presynaptic strength according to dendritic position, with the strongest terminals closest to the soma. This gradient is opposite to postsynaptic gradients observed in pyramidal dendrites, and different cell types apply this rule to a different extent.

  15. Position determination systems. [using orbital antenna scan of celestial bodies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shores, P. W. (Inventor)

    1976-01-01

    A system for an orbital antenna, operated at a synchronous altitude, to scan an area of a celestial body is disclosed. The antenna means comprises modules which are operated by a steering signal in a repetitive function for providing a scanning beam over the area. The scanning covers the entire area in a pattern and the azimuth of the scanning beam is transmitted to a control station on the celestial body simultaneous with signals from an activated ground beacon on the celestial body. The azimuth of the control station relative to the antenna is known and the location of the ground beacon is readily determined from the azimuth determinations.

  16. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  17. Determining sunspot positions in the classroom using the Carrington method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaviz, Pedro; Sánchez-Bajo, Florentino; Vaquero, José M.

    2016-07-01

    The method developed by Richard Carrington nearly 150 years ago is still very useful in order to determine the sunspot heliographic coordinates, owing to its simplicity and low cost equipment required. In this paper, we present a very detailed explanation of the procedure, along with an example of an application. With regard to this, the method can be employed successfully for educational purposes, due to the noticeable accuracy that it provides using a simple instrumental setup.

  18. System for determining position of normal shock in supersonic flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, Jr., Donald G. (Inventor); Daiber, Troy D. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Light from a plurality of light emitting diodes is transmitted through optical cables (12) to a lens system. The lenses (56, 58) expand and collimate the light and project it in a sheet (16) across the supersonic inlet of an aircraft power plant perpendicular to incoming airflow. A normal shock bends a portion of the sheet of light (16). A linear array of a multiplicity of optical fiber ends collects discrete samples of light. The samples are processed and compared to a predetermined profile to determine the shock location.

  19. GPS aiding of ocean current determination. [Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The navigational accuracy of an oceangoing vessel using conventional GPS p-code data is examined. The GPS signal is transmitted over two carrier frequencies in the L-band at 1575.42 and 1227.6 MHz. Achievable navigational uncertainties of differenced positional estimates are presented as a function of the parameters of the problem, with particular attention given to the effect of sea-state, user equivalent range error, uncompensated antenna motion, varying delay intervals, and reduced data rate examined in the unaided mode. The unmodeled errors resulting from satellite ephemeris uncertainties are shown to be negligible for the GPS-NDS (Navigation Development) satellites. Requirements are met in relatively calm seas, but accuracy degradation by a factor of at least 2 must be anticipated in heavier sea states. The aided mode of operation is examined, and it is shown that requirements can be met by using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to aid the GPS receiver operation. Since the use of an IMU would mean higher costs, direct Doppler from the GPS satellites is presented as a viable alternative.

  20. Monitoring positive mental health and its determinants in Canada: the development of the Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

    PubMed Central

    Orpana, H.; Vachon, J.; Dykxhoorn, J.; McRae, L.; Jayaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course. PMID:26789022

  1. Monitoring positive mental health and its determinants in Canada: the development of the Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework.

    PubMed

    Orpana, H; Vachon, J; Dykxhoorn, J; McRae, L; Jayaraman, G

    2016-01-01

    The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada's definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada's strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course.

  2. Optical techniques for determination of normal shock position in supersonic flows for aerospace applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adamovsky, Grigory; Eustace, John G.

    1990-01-01

    Techniques for the quantitative determination of shock position in supersonic flows using direct and indirect methods is presented. A description of an experimental setup is also presented, different configurations of shock position sensing systems are explained, and some experimental results are given. All of the methods discussed are analyzed to determine the ease of technology transfer from the laboratory to in-flight operation.

  3. High-precision method for determining the position of laser beam focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Malashko, Ya I; Kleimenov, A N; Potemkin, I B; Khabibulin, V M

    2013-12-31

    The method of wavefront doubled-frequency spherical modulation for determining the laser beam waist position has been simulated and experimentally studied. The error in determining the focal plane position is less than 10{sup -5} D. The amplitude of the control doubled-frequency electric signal is experimentally found to correspond to 12% of the total radiation power. (laser beams)

  4. 20 CFR 1002.195 - What other factors can determine the reemployment position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What other factors can determine the....195 What other factors can determine the reemployment position? Once the employee's escalator position... qualifications; and, (c) Whether the employee has a disability incurred or aggravated during uniformed service....

  5. 20 CFR 1002.195 - What other factors can determine the reemployment position?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What other factors can determine the....195 What other factors can determine the reemployment position? Once the employee's escalator position... qualifications; and, (c) Whether the employee has a disability incurred or aggravated during uniformed service....

  6. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  7. HUMAN EYE OPTICS: Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu

    2009-02-01

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm.

  8. Computer-implemented method and apparatus for autonomous position determination using magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A computer-implemented method and apparatus for determining position of a vehicle within 100 km autonomously from magnetic field measurements and attitude data without a priori knowledge of position. An inverted dipole solution of two possible position solutions for each measurement of magnetic field data are deterministically calculated by a program controlled processor solving the inverted first order spherical harmonic representation of the geomagnetic field for two unit position vectors 180 degrees apart and a vehicle distance from the center of the earth. Correction schemes such as a successive substitutions and a Newton-Raphson method are applied to each dipole. The two position solutions for each measurement are saved separately. Velocity vectors for the position solutions are calculated so that a total energy difference for each of the two resultant position paths is computed. The position path with the smaller absolute total energy difference is chosen as the true position path of the vehicle.

  9. Self-determination as a psychological and positive youth development construct.

    PubMed

    Hui, Eadaoin K P; Tsang, Sandra K M

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of self-determination as a positive youth development construct. The definition and conceptualization of the concept are examined from the perspective of self-determination theory and the functional theory of self-determination. Theories of self-determination from the perspective of motivation and skills enhancement are examined. Factors contributing to self-determination, such as autonomy-supportive teaching and parenting style, culture, efficacy of intervention programmes, and the educational benefits of self-determination for students, are discussed. Strategies to promote self-determination in an educational context and implications for further research and practice are discussed.

  10. Self-Determination as a Psychological and Positive Youth Development Construct

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of self-determination as a positive youth development construct. The definition and conceptualization of the concept are examined from the perspective of self-determination theory and the functional theory of self-determination. Theories of self-determination from the perspective of motivation and skills enhancement are examined. Factors contributing to self-determination, such as autonomy-supportive teaching and parenting style, culture, efficacy of intervention programmes, and the educational benefits of self-determination for students, are discussed. Strategies to promote self-determination in an educational context and implications for further research and practice are discussed. PMID:22649322

  11. Position and mass determination of multiple particles using cantilever based mass sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Dohn, Soeren; Schmid, Silvan; Boisen, Anja; Amiot, Fabien

    2010-07-26

    Resonant microcantilevers are highly sensitive to added masses and have the potential to be used as mass-spectrometers. However, making the detection of individual added masses quantitative requires the position determination for each added mass. We derive expressions relating the position and mass of several added particles to the resonant frequencies of a cantilever, and an identification procedure valid for particles with different masses is proposed. The identification procedure is tested by calculating positions and mass of multiple microparticles with similar mass positioned on individual microcantilevers. Excellent agreement is observed between calculated and measured positions and calculated and theoretical masses.

  12. Upper limb asymmetries in the perception of proprioceptively determined dynamic position sense.

    PubMed

    Goble, Daniel J; Brown, Susan H

    2010-06-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on instrumented manipulanda. In Part 1, subjects performed dynamic position matching of 3 target elbow amplitudes determined with the preferred or nonpreferred arm, and then matched during movement of the same or opposite elbow. In Part 2, a similar paradigm was used, but with varying target determination speeds to account for the so called "tau effect." Overall, it was found that errors were smaller when the matching phase involved the nonpreferred arm, especially for larger target amplitudes. This asymmetry was independent of the tau effect and likely reflects specialization of the right hemisphere/left arm for proprioceptive feedback processing that is either position- or dynamic position-related.

  13. Method for Determining the Radius Vector for a Planet from Two Observations of Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Michael Kizinski

    1977-01-01

    Presents a method for determining the approximate radius vector of a planet or asteroid from two closely separated observation positions, using mathematics suitable for lower division college students. (MLH)

  14. Method for Determining the Radius Vector for a Planet from Two Observations of Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Michael Kizinski

    1977-01-01

    Presents a method for determining the approximate radius vector of a planet or asteroid from two closely separated observation positions, using mathematics suitable for lower division college students. (MLH)

  15. Position determination of a lander and rover at Mars with Earth-based differential tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R. D.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.; Vijayaraghavan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of two or more landed or orbiting spacecraft at a planet provides the opportunity to perform extremely accurate Earth-based navigation by simultaneously acquiring Doppler data and either Same-Beam Interferometry (SBI) or ranging data. Covariance analyses were performed to investigate the accuracy with which lander and rover positions on the surface of Mars can be determined. Simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and ranging data from a lander and rover over two or more days enables determination of all components of their relative position to under 20 m. Acquiring one hour of Doppler and SBI enables three dimensional lander-rover relative position determination to better than 5 m. Twelve hours of Doppler and either SBI or ranging from a lander and a low circular or half synchronous circular Mars orbiter makes possible lander absolute position determination to tens of meters.

  16. Security Clearances: Agencies Need Clearly Defined Policy for Determining Civilian Position Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-07-01

    branch has established policies and procedures for agencies to use when (1) first determining if federal civilian positions require a security...has established (1) policies and procedures for agencies to use when first determining whether federal civilian positions require a security...support for several nonservice DOD agencies and activities. For our first objective, to examine the extent to which the executive branch has established

  17. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  18. The investigation of determination asteroids positions errors by observations of telescope SBG AO UFU

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaizer, G. T.; Skripnichenko, P. V.

    2013-07-01

    The article is about investigation of influence astrometric CCD image processing conditions on the accuracy of determining the positions of asteroids. The main this research's problem is dependence of calculatedasteroids coordinates error from used in the processing mathematical model that approximated the image of the objects on the CCD image. In thearticle described of the effect of Lorentz and Moffatt profiles on the accuracy ofasteroids positions determining by the observation from SBG AO UFU.

  19. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  20. Upper Limb Asymmetries in the Perception of Proprioceptively Determined Dynamic Position Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Daniel J.; Brown, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on…

  1. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  2. Upper Limb Asymmetries in the Perception of Proprioceptively Determined Dynamic Position Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Daniel J.; Brown, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on…

  3. Position Determination with Loran-C Triplets and the Texas Instruments TI-59 Programmable Calculator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-05-01

    AND THE TEXAS INSTRUMENTS TI-59 PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR by R. H. Shudde May 1980 Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Prepared for...and oMmie’ SW. ulk auheej Loran, Fixing, Programmable Calculator Loran-C, Hyperbolic Fixing, Navigation, Radio Positioning, Position Determination

  4. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make appointments...

  5. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make appointments...

  6. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make appointments...

  7. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make appointments...

  8. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make appointments...

  9. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  10. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  11. Interferometric attitude determination using the global positioning system - A new gyrotheodolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, A. K.; Thorvaldsen, T. P.; Bowles, W. M.

    A GPS receiver can measure absolute position to 5 meters. However, it is possible to measure relative position more accurately by using interferometry on the GPS carrier to measure heading. Simulation has shown that a dynamically aided, three antennae, short baselength GPS interferometer can measure heading to an accuracy of 50 microrad. Relative position can be determined from this heading measurement by sighting onto control stations with a theodolite mounted on the interferometer. If the control stations were 1 km distant it would be possible to measure relative position, using a GPS interferometer, to within 5 cm.

  12. Apparatus and method for determining the position of a radiant energy source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaefer, G. J. (Inventor)

    1981-01-01

    The position of a terrestrial RF source is determined from a geostationary, synchronous satellite by scanning the beam of a narrow beam width antenna in first and second orthogonal directions over a region including the source. The peak level of energy transduced by the antenna in each of the scanning directions is detected and correlated with the scanning position of the beam by feeding the output of a detector responsive to the transduced signal to an indicator of an X-Y recorder. The X and Y axes of the recorder are scanned in synchronism with the beam being respectively scanned in the first and second directions to form X and Y traces on which are indicated the detected peak position in each of the scanning directions. The source position is determined from an intersection of lines drawn parallel to the X and Y axes and including the detected peak position of each trace.

  13. Determining the Clinical Utility of an Absolute Procalcitonin Value for Predicting a Positive Culture Result.

    PubMed

    Caffarini, Erica M; DeMott, Joshua; Patel, Gourang; Lat, Ishaq

    2017-05-01

    Various procalcitonin ranges have been established to guide antimicrobial therapy; however, there are no data that establish whether the initial procalcitonin value can determine the likelihood of a positive culture result. This study aimed to establish if the initial procalcitonin value, on clinical presentation, has a positive predictive value for any positive culture result. This was a retrospective study of 813 medical intensive care unit patients. Data collected included patient demographics, procalcitonin assay results, sources of infection, culture results, and lengths of stay. Patients were excluded if they were immunocompromised. The primary outcome of this study was to determine a procalcitonin value that would predict any positive culture. Secondary outcomes included the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value for procalcitonin. After exclusions, a total of 519 patient charts were reviewed to determine the impact of the initial procalcitonin value on culture positivity. In our analyses, the receiver operating characteristic values were 0.62 for all cultures, 0.49 for pulmonary infections, 0.43 for urinary tract infections, and 0.78 for bacteremia. A procalcitonin value of 3.61 ng/ml was determined to be the threshold value for a positive blood culture result (prevalence, 4%). For bacteremia, the sensitivity of procalcitonin was 75%, the specificity was 72%, the positive predictive value was 20%, and the negative predictive value was 97%. Procalcitonin was a poor predictor of culture positivity. An initial procalcitonin value of less than 3.61 ng/ml may be useful in predicting whether bacteremia is absent. Procalcitonin should not be used as the only predictor for determining initiation of antibiotic therapy. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  14. Accuracy analysis of a mobile tracking system for angular position determination of flying targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walther, Andreas; Buske, Ivo; Riede, Wolfgang

    2016-10-01

    Lasers arouse an increasing interest in remote sensing applications. In order to deliver as much as possible of the available laser power onto a flying object the subsystems of a beam control system have to operate precisely together. One important subsystem is responsible for determination of the target's angular position. Here, we focus on an optical system for measuring precisely the angular position of flying objects. We designed this subunit of a beam control system exclusively from readily available commercial-off-the-shelf components. Two industrial cameras were used for angle measuring and for guiding the system to the position of the flying object. Both cameras are mounted on a modified astronomical mount with high-precision angle encoders. To achieve a high accuracy we temporally synchronize the acquisition of the angle from the pan tilt unit with the exposure of the camera. Therefore, a FPGA-based readout device for the rotary encoders was designed and implemented. Additionally, we determined and evaluated the influence of the distortion of the lenses to the measurement. We investigated various scenarios to determine the accuracy and the limitations of our system for angular position determination of flying targets. Performance tests were taken indoor and outdoor at our test sites. A target can be mounted on a fast moving linear stage. The position of this linear stage is continuously read out by a high resolution encoder so we know the target's position with a dynamic accuracy in the range of a few μm. With this setup we evaluated the spatial resolution of our tracking system. We showed that the presented system can determine the angular position of fast flying objects with an uncertainty of only 2 μrad RMS. With this mobile tracking system for angular position determination of flying targets we designed an accurate cost-efficient opportunity for further developments.

  15. Determination of vertical deflections using the global positioning system and geodetic leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, T.; Carlson, A.E. Jr.; Evans, A.G.

    1989-07-01

    The capabilities of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurately determining geodetic quantities are well established. Nevertheless, no comparison between deflections of the vertical as determined through GPS with leveling and values conventionally computer by astrogeodetic methods has yet been published. This investigation demonstrates that the accurate deflections of the vertical components ({eta}, {xi}) can be obtained independently of classical astronomic observations by combining geodetic leveling with satellite GOS positioning. The approach uses a radial configuration of baselines to determine the best (in a least square sense) values of ({eta}, {xi}) at the central station.

  16. Determination of Position of Jupiter From Very-Long Baseline Interferometry Observations of Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; McElrath, T. P.; Mannucci, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the Ulysses spacecraft near its encounter with Jupiter on 1992 February 8 were made to determine the angular position of Jupiter with respect to well known extragalactic radio sources. Spacecraft range and Doppler data were used to determine the position of the spacecraft with respect to Jupiter. Thirty-one VLBI observations of the spacecraft were made within 30 days of Ulysses closest approach to Jupiter, using the California-Spain and California-Australia baselines of NASA's Deep Space Network. When combined, these data determine the position of Jupiter at the time of encounter with an accuracy of 0.003 min in right ascension and 0.005 sec in declination. In addition, the Earth-Jupiter distance was determined with 20 m accuracy.

  17. Centroiding Experiment for Determining the Positions of Stars with High Precision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yano, T.; Araki, H.; Hanada, H.; Tazawa, S.; Gouda, N.; Kobayashi, Y.; Yamada, Y.; Niwa, Y.

    2010-12-01

    We have experimented with the determination of the positions of star images on a detector with high precision such as 10 microarcseconds, required by a space astrometry satellite, JASMINE. In order to accomplish such a precision, we take the following two procedures. (1) We determine the positions of star images on the detector with the precision of about 0.01 pixel for one measurement, using an algorithm for estimating them from photon weighted means of the star images. (2) We determine the positions of star images with the precision of about 0.0001-0.00001 pixel, which corresponds to that of 10 microarcseconds, using a large amount of data over 10000 measurements, that is, the error of the positions decreases according to the amount of data. Here, we note that the procedure 2 is not accomplished when the systematic error in our data is not excluded adequately even if we use a large amount of data. We first show the method to determine the positions of star images on the detector using photon weighted means of star images. This algorithm, used in this experiment, is very useful because it is easy to calculate the photon weighted mean from the data. This is very important in treating a large amount of data. Furthermore, we need not assume the shape of the point spread function in deriving the centroid of star images. Second, we show the results in the laboratory experiment for precision of determining the positions of star images. We obtain that the precision of estimation of positions of star images on the detector is under a variance of 0.01 pixel for one measurement (procedure 1). We also obtain that the precision of the positions of star images becomes a variance of about 0.0001 pixel using about 10000 measurements (procedure 2).

  18. [Determination of femoral head position with transinguinal ultrasound in DDH treatment].

    PubMed

    Eberhardt, O; Zieger, M; Wirth, T; Fernandez, F F

    2009-01-01

    Determination of the femoral head position after closed or open reduction and application of a spica cast is possible by X-ray, MRI, CT or transinguinal ultrasound. In this study we compared the efficacy of transinguinal ultrasound and radiography. Further options with transinguinal ultrasound such as the determination of soft tissue and intraoperative possibilities are also described. In a first cohort of 25 patients with 33 affected hips ultrasound and radiography were compared. In a second cohort of 8 patients with 11 affected hips ultrasound and arthrography were compared. 32 radiographs proved to be not useful for the precise determination of the femoral head position. In all ultrasound images the criteria described by van Douveren et al. could be identified. All ultrasound images in the study were useful and gave reliable information with regard to the femoral head position. Consequently, standard radiographic documentation is no longer used as a standard in our clinic. MRI and CT are reserved for special cases. We recommend transinguinal ultrasound as a standard diagnostic method for determination of the femoral head position in hip spica casts. With a portable ultasound system, determination of the hip position using transinguinal ultrasound is immediately possible in the operating theatre. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart, New York.

  19. Bystander position taking in school bullying: the role of positive identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Sandra K M; Hui, Eadaoin K P; Law, Bella C M

    2011-01-01

    School bullying has become an explicit, burgeoning problem challenging the healthy development of children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Many bullying prevention and intervention programs focus on victims and bullies, with bystanders treated as either nonexistent or irrelevant. This paper asserts that bystanders actually play pivotal roles in deciding whether the bullying process and dynamics are benign or adversarial. Bystanders' own abilities and characteristics often influence how they respond to victims and bullies. "P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhancement Scheme" (P.A.T.H.S. = Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) is an evidence-based positive youth development program which shows that primary intervention programs have constructive impacts on junior secondary school students' beliefs and behavior. This paper asserts that intrapsychic qualities, namely identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination, greatly influence how bystanders react in school bullying situations. The paper also explains how classroom-based educational programs based on the P.A.T.H.S. model have been designed to help junior secondary school students strengthen these characteristics, so that they can be constructive bystanders when they encounter school bullying.

  20. Bystander Position Taking in School Bullying: The Role of Positive Identity, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Determination

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Law, Bella C. M.

    2011-01-01

    School bullying has become an explicit, burgeoning problem challenging the healthy development of children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Many bullying prevention and intervention programs focus on victims and bullies, with bystanders treated as either nonexistent or irrelevant. This paper asserts that bystanders actually play pivotal roles in deciding whether the bullying process and dynamics are benign or adversarial. Bystanders' own abilities and characteristics often influence how they respond to victims and bullies. “P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhancement Scheme” (P.A.T.H.S. = Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) is an evidence-based positive youth development program which shows that primary intervention programs have constructive impacts on junior secondary school students' beliefs and behavior. This paper asserts that intrapsychic qualities, namely identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination, greatly influence how bystanders react in school bullying situations. The paper also explains how classroom-based educational programs based on the P.A.T.H.S. model have been designed to help junior secondary school students strengthen these characteristics, so that they can be constructive bystanders when they encounter school bullying. PMID:22194663

  1. Position determination and measurement error analysis for the spherical proof mass with optical shadow sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    To meet the very demanding requirements for space gravity detection, the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as the key payload needs to offer the relative position of the proof mass with extraordinarily high precision and low disturbance. The position determination and error analysis for the GRS with a spherical proof mass is addressed. Firstly the concept of measuring the freely falling proof mass with optical shadow sensors is presented. Then, based on the optical signal model, the general formula for position determination is derived. Two types of measurement system are proposed, for which the analytical solution to the three-dimensional position can be attained. Thirdly, with the assumption of Gaussian beams, the error propagation models for the variation of spot size and optical power, the effect of beam divergence, the chattering of beam center, and the deviation of beam direction are given respectively. Finally, the numerical simulations taken into account of the model uncertainty of beam divergence, spherical edge and beam diffraction are carried out to validate the performance of the error propagation models. The results show that these models can be used to estimate the effect of error source with an acceptable accuracy which is better than 20%. Moreover, the simulation for the three-dimensional position determination with one of the proposed measurement system shows that the position error is just comparable to the error of the output of each sensor.

  2. Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

  3. A method for lunar roving vehicle position determination from three landmark observations with a sun compass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blucker, T. J.; Stimmel, G. L.

    1971-01-01

    A simplified method is described for determining the position of the lunar roving vehicle on the lunar surface during Apollo 15. The method is based upon sun compass azimuth measurements of three lunar landmarks. The difference between the landmark azimuth and the sun azimuth is measured and the resulting data are voice relayed to the Mission Control Center for processing.

  4. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties. ...

  5. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties. ...

  6. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties. ...

  7. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties. ...

  8. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties. ...

  9. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-07-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  10. Determination of the linear equations of position-sensing detectors for small motion measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Psang Dain

    2010-11-01

    Small motion measurement systems are widely used in industry measurement fields to measure small positional/angular motions. These systems usually consist of two parts: a measuring assembly and a reference assembly. The position-sensing detectors (PSDs) are embedded in either measuring assembly or reference assembly to sense the variations of laser light incidence points when there are any small positional/angular motions. To use these systems, it is necessary to determine the linear equations of PSD readings, which relate the six-degrees-of-freedom small positional/angular motions and PSD readings. The purpose of this paper is to derive these equations based on the paraxial raytracing method. Two measurement systems are used as illustrative examples to validate the proposed methodology. The methodology of this study will be useful for system design of PSD-based measurement systems and their applications.

  11. Optical position sensor for determining the interface between a clear and an opaque fluid

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2006-05-23

    An inexpensive, optical position sensor for measuring a position or length, x, along a one-dimensional curvilinear, coordinate system. The sensor can be used, for example, to determine the position of an interface between a clear and an opaque fluid (such as crude oil and water). In one embodiment, the sensor utilizes the principle of dual-fluorescence, where a primary fiber emits primary fluorescent light and a parallel secondary fiber collects a portion of the primary fluorescent light that is not blocked by the opaque fluid. This, in turn, excites secondary fluorescence in the secondary fiber at a longer wavelength. A light detector measures the intensity of secondary fluorescence emitted from an end of the secondary fiber, which is used to calculate the unknown position or length, x. Side-emitting fibers can be used in place of, or in addition to, fluorescent fibers. The all-optical sensor is attractive for applications involving flammable liquids.

  12. Determination of Azimuth Angle at Burnout for Placing a Satellite Over a Selected Earth Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skopinski, T. H.; Johnson, Katherine G.

    1960-01-01

    Expressions are presented for relating the satellite position in the orbital plane with the projected latitude and longitude on a rotating earth surface. An expression is also presented for determining the azimuth angle at a given burnout position on the basis of a selected passage position on the earth's surface. Examples are presented of a satellite launched eastward and one launched westward, each passing over a selected position sometime after having completed three orbits. Incremental changes from the desired latitude and longitude due to the earth's oblateness are included in the iteration for obtaining the azimuth angles of the two examples. The results for both cases are then compared with those obtained from a computing program using an oblate rotating earth. Changes from the selected latitude and longitude resulting from incremental changes from the burn-out azimuth angle and latitude are also analyzed.

  13. Interplay between hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule in determining membrane-protein topology

    PubMed Central

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan Jacob; Prilusky, Jaime; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-01-01

    The energetics of membrane-protein interactions determine protein topology and structure: hydrophobicity drives the insertion of helical segments into the membrane, and positive charges orient the protein with respect to the membrane plane according to the positive-inside rule. Until recently, however, quantifying these contributions met with difficulty, precluding systematic analysis of the energetic basis for membrane-protein topology. We recently developed the dsTβL method, which uses deep sequencing and in vitro selection of segments inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane to infer insertion-energy profiles for each amino acid residue across the membrane, and quantified the insertion contribution from hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule. Here, we present a topology-prediction algorithm called TopGraph, which is based on a sequence search for minimum dsTβL insertion energy. Whereas the average insertion energy assigned by previous experimental scales was positive (unfavorable), the average assigned by TopGraph in a nonredundant set is −6.9 kcal/mol. By quantifying contributions from both hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule we further find that in about half of large membrane proteins polar segments are inserted into the membrane to position more positive charges in the cytoplasm, suggesting an interplay between these two energy contributions. Because membrane-embedded polar residues are crucial for substrate binding and conformational change, the results implicate the positive-inside rule in determining the architectures of membrane-protein functional sites. This insight may aid structure prediction, engineering, and design of membrane proteins. TopGraph is available online (topgraph.weizmann.ac.il). PMID:27562165

  14. Interplay between hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule in determining membrane-protein topology.

    PubMed

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan Jacob; Prilusky, Jaime; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-09-13

    The energetics of membrane-protein interactions determine protein topology and structure: hydrophobicity drives the insertion of helical segments into the membrane, and positive charges orient the protein with respect to the membrane plane according to the positive-inside rule. Until recently, however, quantifying these contributions met with difficulty, precluding systematic analysis of the energetic basis for membrane-protein topology. We recently developed the dsTβL method, which uses deep sequencing and in vitro selection of segments inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane to infer insertion-energy profiles for each amino acid residue across the membrane, and quantified the insertion contribution from hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule. Here, we present a topology-prediction algorithm called TopGraph, which is based on a sequence search for minimum dsTβL insertion energy. Whereas the average insertion energy assigned by previous experimental scales was positive (unfavorable), the average assigned by TopGraph in a nonredundant set is -6.9 kcal/mol. By quantifying contributions from both hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule we further find that in about half of large membrane proteins polar segments are inserted into the membrane to position more positive charges in the cytoplasm, suggesting an interplay between these two energy contributions. Because membrane-embedded polar residues are crucial for substrate binding and conformational change, the results implicate the positive-inside rule in determining the architectures of membrane-protein functional sites. This insight may aid structure prediction, engineering, and design of membrane proteins. TopGraph is available online (topgraph.weizmann.ac.il).

  15. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  16. New techniques of determining focus position in gamma knife operation using 3D image reconstruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Yingen; Wang, Dezong; Zhou, Quan

    1994-09-01

    In this paper, new techniques of determining the focus of a disease position in a gamma knife operation are presented. In these techniques, the transparent 3D color image of the human body organ is reconstructed using a new three-dimensional reconstruction method, and then the position, the area, and the volume of focus of a disease such as cancer or a tumor are calculated. They are used in the gamma knife operation. The CT pictures are input into a digital image processing system. The useful information is extracted and the original data are obtained. Then the transparent 3D color image is reconstructed using these original data. By using this transparent 3D color image, the positions of the human body organ and the focus of a disease are determined in a coordinate system. While the 3D image is reconstructed, the area and the volume of human body organ and focus of a disease can be calculated at the same time. It is expressed through actual application that the positions of human body organ and focus of a disease can be determined exactly by using the transparent 3D color image. It is very useful in gamma knife operation or other surgical operation. The techniques presented in this paper have great application value.

  17. Use of the physically based modeling to choose an adequate method for determining the plasmapause position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotova, G. A.; Verigin, M. I.; Bezrukikh, V. V.

    2017-07-01

    From the data on the cold plasma measurements onboard the INTERBALL-1 spacecraft (1995-2000), the plasmapause positions determined from the most frequently used formal criterion—a fivefold or higher decrease in plasma density with an increase in the L-shell by 0.5—and visually from the measured energy spectra of thermal protons have been analyzed and compared. The difference in the results of the both empiric techniques makes it possible to estimate the thickness of the boundary layer of the plasmasphere. The model of the Earth's plasmasphere developed earlier by the authors (Verigin et al., 2012; Kotova et al., 2015) based on the theoretical expressions makes it possible to reconstruct the plasma distribution throughout the plasmasphere from the measurements along a single pass of the orbiter and to find the plasmapause position defined as the last closed stream line. Comparison of the plasmapause position obtained with empirical techniques to the position of this boundary calculated with physically based models of the plasma distribution in the plasmasphere has shown that the modeled position of the plasmapause approximately coincides with that determined from the formal criterion described above.

  18. Accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS for the determination of position and speed over ground.

    PubMed

    Witte, T H; Wilson, A M

    2005-08-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers many advantages over conventional methods for the determination of subject speed during biomechanical studies. Recent advances in GPS technology, in particular the implementation of the Wide-Angle Augmentation System and European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (WAAS/EGNOS), mean that small, highly portable units are available offering the potential of superior accuracy in the determination of both position and speed. This study set out to examine the accuracy of a WAAS-enabled GPS unit for the determination of position and speed. Comparison with the new and published data showed significant enhancements in both position and speed accuracy over a non-WAAS system. Position data collected during straight line cycling showed significantly lower sample-to-sample variation (mean absolute deviation from straight line 0.11 vs. 0.78 m) and greater repeatability from trial to trial (mean absolute deviation from actual path 0.37 vs. 4.8 m) for the WAAS-enabled unit compared to the non-WAAS unit. The speed determined by the WAAS-enabled GPS receiver during cycling in a straight line was within 0.2 ms(-1) of the actual speed measured for 57% of the values with 82% lying within 0.4 ms(-1), however, the data tended towards underestimation of speed during circle cycling, with 65% of values within 0.2 ms(-1) and 87% within 0.4 ms(-1) of the actual value. Local dGPS and dual frequency techniques are more accurate still, however, traditional differential GPS (dGPS), employing FM radio transmission of correction data to a separate receiver, now offers no advantage over WAAS and appears redundant.

  19. Application of global positioning system to determination of tectonic plate movements and crustal deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderle, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that pseudo-range measurements to four GPS satellites based on correlation of the pseudo random code transmissions from the satellites can be used to determine the relative position of ground stations which are separated by several hundred kilometers to a precision at the centimeter level. Carrier signal measurements during the course of passage of satellites over a pair of stations also yield centimeter precision in the relative position, but oscillator instabilities limit the accuracy. The accuracy of solutions based on either type of data is limited by unmodeled tropospheric refraction effects which would reach 5 centimeters at low elevation angles for widely separated stations.

  20. Precise determination of earth's center of mass using measurements from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.

    1992-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a worldwide geodetic experiment were collected during a 3-week period early in 1991. Geocentric station coordinates were estimated using the GPS data, thus defining a dynamically determined reference frame origin which should coincide with the earth center of mass, or geocenter. The 3-week GPS average geocenter estimates agree to 7-13 cm with geocenter estimates determined from satellite laser ranging, a well-established technique. The RMS of daily GPS geocenter estimates were 4 cm for x and y, and 30 cm for z.

  1. Determination of the Optimal Position of Pendulums of an Active Self-balancing Device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziyakaev, G. R.; Kazakova, O. A.; Yankov, V. V.; Ivkina, O. P.

    2017-04-01

    The demand of the modern manufacturing industry for machines with high motion speed leads to increased load and vibration activity of the main elements of rotor systems. Vibration reduces operating life of bearings, has adversary effects on human organism, and can cause accidents. One way to compensate for a rotating rotor's imbalance is the use of active self-balancing devices. The aim of this work is to determine the position of their pendulums, in which the imbalance is minimized. As a result of the study, a formula for determining the angle of the pendulums was obtained.

  2. Mass and position determination in MEMS mass sensors: a theoretical and an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam is modeled as a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam and a perturbation technique is used to develop a closed-form expression for the frequency shift due to an added mass at a specific location on the microbeam surface. The experimental investigation was conducted on a microbeam made of Polyimide with a special lower electrode to excite both of the first and second modes of vibration. Using an ink-jet printer, we deposited droplets of polymers with a defined mass and position on the surface of the microbeam and we measured the shifts in its resonance frequencies. The theoretical predictions of the mass and position of the deposited droplets match well with the experimental measurements.

  3. Pulse shape analysis and position determination in segmented HPGe detectors: The AGATA detector library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyneel, B.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.

    2016-03-01

    The AGATA Detector Library (ADL) was developed for the calculation of signals from highly segmented large volume high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. ADL basis sets comprise a huge amount of calculated position-dependent detector pulse shapes. A basis set is needed for Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). By means of PSA the interaction position of a γ-ray inside the active detector volume is determined. Theoretical concepts of the calculations are introduced and cover the relevant aspects of signal formation in HPGe. The approximations and the realization of the computer code with its input parameters are explained in detail. ADL is a versatile and modular computer code; new detectors can be implemented in this library. Measured position resolutions of the AGATA detectors based on ADL are discussed.

  4. Determination of three-dimensional atomic positions from tomographic reconstruction using ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Po-Nan; Wu, Zong-Han; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Chen, Chien-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Tomographic reconstruction from a tilt series of electron micrographs has raised great interest in materials, chemical, and condensed matters science because of its capability of revealing 3D local atomic structures within nanomaterials. Previous breakthroughs have demonstrated that the positions of individual atoms can not only be visualized but also determined by combining a scanning transmission electron microscope with a high-angle annular dark-field detector, equally sloped tomography, and the filtering/denoising method. However, the filtering/denoising approach—whether imposed on 2D projections or 3D reconstruction—raises concerns regarding the robustness of image processing, the accuracy of atomic positions, and the artificial atoms introduced during filtering. In this article, we report a general method that overcomes these limitations. By removing unphysical oscillations in 2D projections through ensemble empirical mode decomposition and applying a standard Wiener filter to the 3D reconstruction, we are able to determine atomic structures with higher accuracy.

  5. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  6. On Two Color and CCD Methods for the Determination of Astronomic Position.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-03-14

    u .tr ppow p.., w -1 " PRr~ PRO’w- r- VI . CURRENT PROBLEMS AND PROJECTED EQUIPMENT MODIFICATIONS This section will address the major problems which...RD-A174 088 ON TWO COLOR AND CCD METHODS FOR THE DETERMINATION Ot 1/2 ASTRONOMIC POSITION( U ) MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK DEPT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY...INTRODUCTION .................................... 2 A. Astroposition Objectives As Related to Two-Color Refractometry .................. 2 B. Results

  7. Positional therapy in sleep apnoea - one fits all? What determines success in positional therapy in sleep apnoea syndrome.

    PubMed

    Troester, Natascha; Palfner, Michael; Dominco, Markus; Wohlkoenig, Christoph; Schmidberger, Erich; Trinker, Martin; Avian, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Positional therapy is a simple means of therapy in sleep apnoea syndrome, but due to controversial or lacking evidence, it is not widely accepted as appropriate treatment. In this study, we analysed data to positional therapy with regard to successful reduction of AHI and predictors of success. All consecutive patients undergoing polysomnography between 2007 and 2011 were analysed. We used a strict definition of positional sleep apnoea syndrome (supine-exclusive sleep apnoea syndrome) and of therapy used. Patients underwent polysomnography initially and during follow-up. 1275 patients were evaluated, 112 of which had supine-exclusive sleep apnoea syndrome (AHI 5-66/h, median 13/h), 105 received positional therapy. With this treatment alone 75% (70/105) reached an AHI <5/h, in the follow-up 1 year later 37% (37/105) of these still had AHI<5/h, 46% (43/105) yielded an AHI between 5 and 10/h. Nine patient switched to APAP due to deterioration, 3 wanted to try APAP due to comfort reasons. At the last follow-up, 32% patients (34/105) were still on positional therapy with AHI <5/h. BMI was a predictor for successful reduction of AHI, but success was independent of sex, the presence of obstructive versus central sleep apnoea, severity of sleep apnoea syndrome or co-morbidities. Positional therapy may be a promising therapy option for patients with positional sleep apnoea. With appropriate adherence it yields a reasonable success rate in the clinical routine.

  8. Performance Analysis of the Direct Position Determination Method in the Presence of Array Model Errors

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Hongyi; Wu, Zhidong; Wang, Cheng

    2017-01-01

    The direct position determination approach was recently presented as a promising technique for the localization of a transmitting source with accuracy higher than that of the conventional two-step localization method. In this paper, the theoretical performance of a direct position determination estimator proposed by Weiss is examined for situations in which the array model errors are present. Our study starts from a matrix eigen-perturbation result, which expresses the perturbation of eigenvalues as a function of the disturbance added to the Hermitian matrix. The first-order asymptotic expression of the positioning errors is presented, from which an analytical expression for the mean square error of the direct localization is available. Additionally, explicit formulas for computing the probabilities of a successful localization are deduced. Finally, Cramér–Rao bound expressions for the position estimation are derived for two cases: (1) array model errors are absent and (2) array model errors are present. The obtained Cramér-Rao bounds provide insights into the effects of the array model errors on the localization accuracy. Simulation results support and corroborate the theoretical developments made in this paper. PMID:28671596

  9. Performance Analysis of the Direct Position Determination Method in the Presence of Array Model Errors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ding; Yu, Hongyi; Wu, Zhidong; Wang, Cheng

    2017-07-02

    The direct position determination approach was recently presented as a promising technique for the localization of a transmitting source with accuracy higher than that of the conventional two-step localization method. In this paper, the theoretical performance of a direct position determination estimator proposed by Weiss is examined for situations in which the array model errors are present. Our study starts from a matrix eigen-perturbation result, which expresses the perturbation of eigenvalues as a function of the disturbance added to the Hermitian matrix. The first-order asymptotic expression of the positioning errors is presented, from which an analytical expression for the mean square error of the direct localization is available. Additionally, explicit formulas for computing the probabilities of a successful localization are deduced. Finally, Cramér-Rao bound expressions for the position estimation are derived for two cases: (1) array model errors are absent and (2) array model errors are present. The obtained Cramér-Rao bounds provide insights into the effects of the array model errors on the localization accuracy. Simulation results support and corroborate the theoretical developments made in this paper.

  10. Simplified strategies to determine the mean respiratory position for liver radiation therapy planning.

    PubMed

    Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L; Brock, Kristy K

    2014-01-01

    Establishing the time-weighted mean respiratory position in the liver is challenging due to poor tumor contrast on 4-dimensional (4D) imaging. The purpose of this study is to validate simplified strategies in determining the mean position of liver tumors for radiation therapy planning, and quantify the potential for planning target volume (PTV) reduction. Full, 10-phase 4D computed tomography (CT) data sets from 10 liver radiation therapy patients were analyzed to compare 2 techniques. First, a mid-ventilation CT was chosen from the initial reconstruction of the 4DCT. This was based on the minimum displacement of the diaphragm at each phase relative to its mean respiratory position, calculated using rigid registration over all 4DCT phases. Second, the exhale 4DCT was deformed to the inhale 4DCT using biomechanical-based deformable registration. The diaphragm's mean cranio-caudal position in the respiratory cycle (normalized as a percentage relative to exhale) was applied to the exhale-to-inhale deformation map assuming a linear trajectory to reconstruct a mid-position CT. These strategies were compared with the time-weighted mean respiratory position, calculated with deformable registration over all 10 4DCT phases. PTVs incorporating respiratory motion were then compared for 2 planning strategies: exhale 4DCT using the internal target volume (ITV), or mid-position CT using dose-probability margins. Compared with the mean respiratory tumor position, the mid-ventilation CT and mid-position CT had mean (maximum) tumor vector errors of 1.0 ± 0.5 (2.1) mm and 0.6 ± 0.3 (1.4) mm, respectively, within the image resolution. Compared with ITV-based PTV, dose-probability PTV reduced the irradiated volume by 34% ± 7% on average, up to 43%. Simplified strategies to select a mid-ventilation CT or reconstruct a mid-position CT for the liver were validated with respect to the mean respiratory position. These data sets require significantly smaller PTVs, potentially allowing

  11. Simplified Strategies to Determine the Mean Respiratory Position for Liver Radiotherapy Planning

    PubMed Central

    Velec, Michael; Moseley, Joanne L.; Brock, Kristy K.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Establishing the time-weighted mean respiratory position in the liver is challenging due to poor tumor contrast on 4D imaging. The purpose of this study is to validate simplified strategies in determining the mean position of liver tumors for radiotherapy planning, and quantify the potential for planning target volume (PTV) reduction. Methods Full, ten-phase 4D CT datasets from ten liver radiotherapy patients were analyzed to compare two techniques. First, a mid-ventilation CT was chosen from the initial reconstruction of the 4D CT. This was based on the minimum displacement of the diaphragm at each phase relative to its mean respiratory position, calculated using rigid registration over all 4D CT phases. Second, the exhale 4D CT was deformed to the inhale 4D CT using biomechanical-based deformable registration. The diaphragm’s mean cranio-caudal position in the respiratory cycle (normalized as a percentage relative to exhale) was applied to the exhale-to-inhale deformation map assuming a linear trajectory to reconstruct a mid-position CT. These strategies were compared to the time-weighted mean respiratory position, calculated with deformable registration over all ten 4D CT phases. PTVs incorporating respiratory motion were then compared for two planning strategies: exhale 4D CT using the internal target volume (ITV), or mid-position CT using dose-probability margins. Results Compared to the mean respiratory tumor position, the mid-ventilation CT and mid-position CT had mean (maximum) tumor vector errors of 1.0±0.5 (2.1) mm and 0.6±0.3 (1.4) mm respectively, within the image resolution. Compared to ITV-based PTV, dose-probability PTV reduced the irradiated volume by 34±7% on average, up to 43%. Conclusion Simplified strategies to select a mid-ventilation CT or reconstruct a mid-position CT for the liver were validated with respect to the mean respiratory position. These datasets require significantly smaller PTVs, potentially allowing for dose

  12. Determination of the position of Jupiter from radio metric tracking of Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Haw, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft flew by Jupiter on March 5, 1979. Spacecraft navigation was performed with radio tracking data from NASA's Deep Space Network. In the years since then, there has been a great deal of progress in the definition of celestial reference frames and in determining the orbit and orientation of the Earth. Using these improvements, the radio metric range and Doppler data acquired from the Voyager 1 spacecraft near its encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed to determine the plane-of-sky position of Jupiter with much greater accuracy than was possible at the time of the encounter. The position of Jupiter at the time of encounter has been determined with an accuracy of 40 nrad in right ascension and 140 nrad in declination with respect to the celestial reference frame defined by the International Earth Rotation Service. This position estimate has been done to improve the ephemeris of Jupiter prior to the upcoming encounter of the Galileo spacecraft with Jupiter.

  13. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims.

    PubMed

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin's location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin's location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  14. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction. PMID:26099070

  15. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  16. Physical fitness qualities of professional volleyball players: determination of positional differences.

    PubMed

    Marques, Mário C; van den Tillaar, Roland; Gabbett, Tim J; Reis, Victor M; González-Badillo, Juan J

    2009-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the anthropometric and strength characteristics of elite male volleyball athletes and to determine if differences exist in these characteristics according to playing position. A group of 35 professional male team volleyball players (mean +/- SD age: 26.6 +/- 3.1 years) participated in the study. Players were categorized according to playing position and role: middle blockers (n = 9), opposite hitters (n = 6), outside hitters (n = 10), setters (n = 6), and liberos (n = 4). Height, body mass, muscular strength (4 repetition maximum bench press and 4 repetition maximum parallel squat tests), and muscular power (overhead medicine ball throw, countermovement jump) were assessed. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found among the 5 positional categories. The results indicated that the middle blockers and opposite hitters were the tallest and heaviest players, whereas the libero players were the lightest. Differences were also found in bench press maximal strength, with the middle blockers and opposite players significantly stronger (p < 0.05) than the setters and liberos. The setter positional group had significantly poorer (p < 0.05) parallel squat performances than the outside hitter and opposite hitter groups. No other significant differences (p > 0.05) were found among groups for the strength and power parameters. These results demonstrate that significant anthropometric and strength differences exist among playing positions in elite male volleyball players. In addition, these findings provide normative data for elite male volleyball players competing in specific individual playing positions. From a practical perspective, sport scientists and conditioning professionals should take the strength and anthropometric characteristics of volleyball players into account when designing individualized position-specific training programs.

  17. Time determination for spacecraft users of the Navstar Global Positioning System /GPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenchik, T. J.; Fang, B. T.

    1977-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation is performed by time measurements. A description is presented of a two body model of spacecraft motion. Orbit determination is the process of inferring the position, velocity, and clock offset of the user from measurements made of the user motion in the Newtonian coordinate system. To illustrate the effect of clock errors and the accuracy with which the user spacecraft time and orbit may be determined, a low-earth-orbit spacecraft (Seasat) as tracked by six Phase I GPS space vehicles is considered. The obtained results indicate that in the absence of unmodeled dynamic parameter errors clock biases may be determined to the nanosecond level. There is, however, a high correlation between the clock bias and the uncertainty in the gravitational parameter GM, i.e., the product of the universal gravitational constant and the total mass of the earth. It is, therefore, not possible to determine clock bias to better than 25 nanosecond accuracy in the presence of a gravitational error of one part per million.

  18. Orbit Determination of Chang'e-3 and Positioning of the Lander and the Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Y.; Chang, S.; Li, P.; Hu, X.

    2014-12-01

    The Chang'E-3 (CE-3) lunar probe of China was launched on 2 December 2013. After about 112 h of flight, it was captured by the Moon on 6 December, and entered a polar, near circular lunar orbit with an altitude of approximately 100 km. The probe's flight on 100 km*100 km and 100 km*15 km orbit lasted about 4 days respectively, then the probe soft landed on the east of Sinus Iridum area at 13:11 UTC on 14 December successfully. Results on precision orbit determination and positioning of the lander and the rover are presented here. We describe the data, modeling and methods used to achieve position knowledge. In addition to the radiometric X-band range and Doppler tracking data, Delta Differential One-way Ranging (ΔDOR) data are also used in the calculation, which shows that they can improve the accuracy of the orbit reconstruction. Total position overlap differences are about 20 m and 30 m for the 100 km*100 km and 100 km*15 km lunar orbit respectively, increased by ~50 % with respect to CE-2. A kinematic statistical method is applied to determine the position of the lander and relative position of the rover with respect to the lander. The location of the lander is computed as: 44.1216º N, 19.5124º W and -2632.0 m in the lunar Mean Axes coordinate system. The position difference of the lander is better than 50 m compared to the result of the LRO photograph. From 15 to 21 December, the rover walked around the lander, and took photos of each other at the parking point A, B, C, D, E (max distance from the lander is about 25 m). The delta VLBI phase delay data are used to compute the relative position of the rover at the parking points, and the accuracy of the relative position can reach to 1-2 m comparing with the results of visual method.

  19. Determination of substitution positions in hyaluronic acid hydrogels using NMR and MS based methods.

    PubMed

    Wende, Frida J; Gohil, Suresh; Mojarradi, Hotan; Gerfaud, Thibaud; Nord, Lars I; Karlsson, Anders; Boiteau, Jean-Guy; Kenne, Anne Helander; Sandström, Corine

    2016-01-20

    In hydrogels of cross-linked polysaccharides, the total amount of cross-linker and the degree of cross-linking influence the properties of the hydrogel. The substitution position of the cross-linker on the polysaccharide is another parameter that can influence hydrogel properties; hence methods for detailed structural analysis of the substitution pattern are required. NMR and LC-MS methods were developed to determine the positions and amounts of substitution of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) on hyaluronic acid (HA), and for the first time it is shown that BDDE can react with any of the four available hydroxyl groups of the HA disaccharide repeating unit. This was achieved by studying di-, tetra-, and hexasaccharides obtained from degradation of BDDE cross-linked HA hydrogel by chondroitinase. Furthermore, amount of linker substitution at each position was shown to be dependent on the size of the oligosaccharides. For the disaccharide, substitutions were predominantly at ΔGlcA-OH2 and GlcNAc-OH6 while in the tetra- and hexasaccharides, it was mainly at the reducing end GlcNAc-OH4. In the disaccharide there was no substitution at this position. Since chondroitinase is able to completely hydrolyse non-substituted HA into unsaturated disaccharides, these results indicate that the enzyme is prevented to cleave on the non-reducing side of an oligosaccharide substituted at the reducing end GlcNAc-OH4. The procedure can be adopted for the determination of substitution positions in other types of polymers.

  20. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate

    PubMed Central

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Bartone, Paul T.; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  1. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  2. Researches on the Orbit Determination and Positioning of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation studies the precise orbit determination (POD) and positioning of the Chinese lunar exploration spacecraft, emphasizing the variety of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) technologies applied for the deep-space exploration, and their contributions to the methods and accuracies of the precise orbit determination and positioning. In summary, the main contents are as following: In this work, using the real-time data measured by the CE-2 (Chang'E-2) detector, the accuracy of orbit determination is analyzed for the domestic lunar probe under the present condition, and the role played by the VLBI tracking data is particularly reassessed through the precision orbit determination experiments for CE-2. The experiments of the short-arc orbit determination for the lunar probe show that the combination of the ranging and VLBI data with the arc of 15 minutes is able to improve the accuracy by 1-1.5 order of magnitude, compared to the cases for only using the ranging data with the arc of 3 hours. The orbital accuracy is assessed through the orbital overlapping analysis, and the results show that the VLBI data is able to contribute to the CE-2's long-arc POD especially in the along-track and orbital normal directions. For the CE-2's 100 km× 100 km lunar orbit, the position errors are better than 30 meters, and for the CE-2's 15 km× 100 km orbit, the position errors are better than 45 meters. The observational data with the delta differential one-way ranging (Δ DOR) from the CE-2's X-band monitoring and control system experimental are analyzed. It is concluded that the accuracy of Δ DOR delay is dramatically improved with the noise level better than 0.1 ns, and the systematic errors are well calibrated. Although it is unable to support the development of an independent lunar gravity model, the tracking data of CE-2 provided the evaluations of different lunar gravity models through POD, and the accuracies are examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron noise effects on beam position determination at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Leach, Richard R.; Datte, Philip; Manuel, Anastacia

    2013-09-01

    Images obtained through charged coupled device (CCD) cameras in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are crucial to precise alignment of the 192 laser beams to the NIF target-chamber center (TCC). Cameras in and around the target chamber are increasingly exposed to the effects of neutron radiation as the laser power is increased for high energy fusion experiments. NIF was carefully designed to operate under these conditions. The present work examines the degradation of the measured TCC camera position accuracy resulting from the effects of neutron radiation on the sensor and verifies operation within design specifications. Both synthetic and real beam images are used for measuring position degradation. Monte Carlo simulations based on camera performance models are used to create images with added neutron noise. These models predict neutron induced camera noise based on exposure estimates of the cumulative single-shot fluence in the NIF environment. The neutron induced noise images are used to measure beam positions on a target calculated from the alignment images with the added noise. The effects of this noise are also determined using noise artifacts from real camera images viewing TCC to estimate beam position uncertainty.

  4. Molecular recognition of aromatic rings by flavin: electrostatics and dispersion determine ring positioning above isoalloxazine.

    PubMed

    Koziol, Lucas; Kumar, Neeraj; Wong, Sergio E; Lightstone, Felice C

    2013-12-05

    Aromatic stacking interactions between isoalloxazine (ISA) of flavin and three prototypical aromatics (benzene, pyridine, chlorobenzene) were investigated using electronic structure calculations with Monte Carlo simulated annealing. The Effective Fragment Potential (EFP) method was used to locate the low-energy equilibrium configurations for the three dimer systems. These structures were further characterized through DFT (M06-2X) and MP2 calculations. One equilibrium configuration exists for ISA-benzene; characterizing the stacked dimer surface revealed a steep, single-welled potential that funnels benzene directly between rings II and III, positioning a substituent hydrogen adjacent to the redox-active N5. ISA-pyridine and ISA-chlorobenzene minimum-energy structures contain the aromatic ring in very similar position to that in ISA-benzene. However, the added rotational degree of freedom leads to two distinct binding motifs, having approximately antiparallel or parallel dipole moment alignment with ISA. The existence of the latter binding configuration was unexpected but is explained by the shape of the ISA electrostatic potential. Dispersion is the primary noncovalent interaction driving the positioning of aromatic rings above ISA, while electrostatics determine the orientation in dipole-containing substituted benzenes. The interplay of these interactions can be used to tune molecular recognition properties of synthetic redox cofactors, including positioning desired functional groups adjacent to the redox-active N5.

  5. Determination of drill paths for percutaneous cochlear access accounting for target positioning error

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noble, Jack H.; Warren, Frank M.; Labadie, Robert F.; Dawant, Benoit; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    2007-03-01

    In cochlear implant surgery an electrode array is permanently implanted to stimulate the auditory nerve and allow deaf people to hear. Current surgical techniques require wide excavation of the mastoid region of the temporal bone and one to three hours time to avoid damage to vital structures. Recently a far less invasive approach has been proposed-percutaneous cochlear access, in which a single hole is drilled from skull surface to the cochlea. The drill path is determined by attaching a fiducial system to the patient's skull and then choosing, on a pre-operative CT, an entry point and a target point. The drill is advanced to the target, the electrodes placed through the hole, and a stimulator implanted at the surface of the skull. The major challenge is the determination of a safe and effective drill path, which with high probability avoids specific vital structures-the facial nerve, the ossicles, and the external ear canal-and arrives at the basal turn of the cochlea. These four features lie within a few millimeters of each other, the drill is one millimeter in diameter, and errors in the determination of the target position are on the order of 0.5mm root-mean square. Thus, path selection is both difficult and critical to the success of the surgery. This paper presents a method for finding optimally safe and effective paths while accounting for target positioning error.

  6. [Determination of sensitivity of biofilm-positive forms of microorganisms to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Holá, Veronika; Růzicka, Filip; Tejkalová, Renata; Votava, Miroslav

    2004-10-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by biofilm-positive microorganisms are a serious therapeutic problem. In the biofilm, microorganisms are protected against adverse effects of the external environment, including the action of antibiotics. It is well known that the values of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined for planktonic forms do not correspond to the actual concentrations of antibiotics necessary for the eradication of bacteria in a biofilm. The purpose of the study was to propose a method of determining minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBEC) and to compare these values with MIC values. Biofilm-positive strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were cultured so as to form a biofilm layer on polystyrene pegs. The biofilm on the pegs was then exposed to the action of antibiotics and after 18 hours we determined the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). The evaluation of minimum biofilm eradication concentrations was done colorimetrically from the metabolic activity of surviving cells. MBIC and MBEC values were many times higher than MIC values. We selected such a duration of the biofilms cultivation on the pegs of the plate, which ensured that the number of bacterial cells corresponded to standard MIC assessment. The MBEC values established in our study indicate that the currently used concentrations of tested antibiotics cannot be used in monotherapy for an efficacious eradication of a biofilm. The MBEC determination is a far more laborious and time-consuming method than the determination of MIC, but the use of plates with pegs facilitates the handling of biofilms. The advantage of our method is the possibility of standardization of the size of the inoculum and thus of the whole MBEC assessment.

  7. Adherens junctions determine the apical position of the midbody during follicular epithelial cell division.

    PubMed

    Morais-de-Sá, Eurico; Sunkel, Claudio

    2013-08-01

    Cytokinesis is asymmetric along the apical-basal axis of epithelial cells, positioning the midbody near the apical domain. However, little is known about the mechanism and purpose of this asymmetry. We use live imaging of Drosophila follicle cell division to show that asymmetric cytokinesis does not result from intrinsic polarization of the main contractile ring components. We show that adherens junctions (AJs) maintain close contact with the apical side of the contractile ring during cytokinesis. Asymmetric distribution of AJ components within follicle cells and in the otherwise unpolarized S2 cells is sufficient to recruit the midbody, revealing that asymmetric cytokinesis is determined by apical AJs in the epithelia. We further show that ectopic midbody localization induces epithelial invaginations, shifting the position of the apical interface between daughter cells relative to the AB axis of the tissue. Thus, apical midbody localization is essential to maintain epithelial tissue architecture during proliferation.

  8. A Novel Sensor for Attitude Determination Using Global Positioning System Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Quinn, David A.; Markley, F. Landis; McCullough, Jon D.

    1998-01-01

    An entirely new sensor approach for attitude determination using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals is developed. The concept involves the use of multiple GPS antenna elements arrayed on a single sensor head to provide maximum GPS space vehicle availability. A number of sensor element configurations are discussed. In addition to the navigation function, the array is used to find which GPS space vehicles are within the field-of-view of each antenna element. Attitude determination is performed by considering the sightline vectors of the found GPS space vehicles together with the fixed boresight vectors of the individual antenna elements. This approach has clear advantages over the standard differential carrier-phase approach. First, errors induced by multipath effects can be significantly reduced or eliminated altogether. Also, integer ambiguity resolution is not required, nor do line biases need to be determined through costly and cumbersome self-surveys. Furthermore, the new sensor does not require individual antennas to be physically separated to form interferometric baselines to determine attitude. Finally, development potential of the new sensor is limited only by antenna and receiver technology development unlike the physical limitations of the current interferometric attitude determination scheme. Simulation results indicate that accuracies of about 1 degree (3 omega) are possible.

  9. Comparison of digital radiography, ultrasonography, and positive contrast vaginourethrography for determining reproductive status of female cats.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Meghan; Pack, LeeAnn; Rist, Paul; Crane, Bronwyn

    2014-01-01

    It is not always possible to identify female cats that have undergone previous ovariohysterectomy based on physical examination alone. An easy, cost-effective method for screening female cats for reproductive status would be helpful for avoiding unnecessary exploratory laparotomies. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare diagnostic sensitivities of digital radiography, ultrasonography, and positive contrast vaginourethrography for determining reproductive status in female cats. Sixty-seven recently euthanized female cats of unknown medical history and reproductive status were randomly selected and included in the study. Digital abdominal radiography, digital abdominal radiography with compression, abdominal ultrasonography, and positive contrast vaginourethrography were performed in sequence by a board-certified veterinary radiologist and a second-year radiology resident. Immediately following diagnostic imaging procedures, necropsy was performed. Ultrasonography of the uterus had the highest sensitivity (86%) for determining reproductive status of all the imaging modalities tested. The specificity was 88%, and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 96% and 68%, respectively. The calculated sensitivities and specificities of other modalities were as follows: digital radiographs (28%, 100%), digital compression radiographs (58%, 100%), and vaginourethrography (32%, 100%). Based on McNemar's test statistic, there was a significant difference in the sensitivity of ultrasound compared to digital radiographs (P ≤ 0.05), compression radiographs (P ≤ 0.05), and vaginourethrogram (P ≤ 0.05). Findings from the current study indicated that ultrasonography is a sensitive diagnostic test for determining reproductive status in female cats. Although more readily available in private practice and shelters, digital radiography and vaginourethrography are not reliable predictors of reproductive status. © 2013 American College of

  10. Effect of Receiver Choosing on Point Positions Determination in Network RTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Sercan; Inal, Cevat

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the developments in GNSS technique allow to determinate point positioning in real time. Initially, point positioning was determined by RTK (Real Time Kinematic) based on a reference station. But, to avoid systematic errors in this method, distance between the reference points and rover receiver must be shorter than10 km. To overcome this restriction in RTK method, the idea of setting more than one reference point had been suggested and, CORS (Continuously Operations Reference Systems) was put into practice. Today, countries like ABD, Germany, Japan etc. have set CORS network. CORS-TR network which has 146 reference points has also been established in 2009 in Turkey. In CORS-TR network, active CORS approach was adopted. In Turkey, CORS-TR reference stations covering whole country are interconnected and, the positions of these stations and atmospheric corrections are continuously calculated. In this study, in a selected point, RTK measurements based on CORS-TR, were made with different receivers (JAVAD TRIUMPH-1, TOPCON Hiper V, MAGELLAN PRoMark 500, PENTAX SMT888-3G, SATLAB SL-600) and with different correction techniques (VRS, FKP, MAC). In the measurements, epoch interval was taken as 5 seconds and measurement time as 1 hour. According to each receiver and each correction technique, means and differences between maximum and minimum values of measured coordinates, root mean squares in the directions of coordinate axis and 2D and 3D positioning precisions were calculated, the results were evaluated by statistical methods and the obtained graphics were interpreted. After evaluation of the measurements and calculations, for each receiver and each correction technique; the coordinate differences between maximum and minimum values were measured to be less than 8 cm, root mean squares in coordinate axis directions less than ±1.5 cm, 2D point positioning precisions less than ±1.5 cm and 3D point positioning precisions less than ±1.5 cm. In the measurement

  11. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  12. Determination of the position of the station Borowiec Nr 7811 by satellite laser observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobaczewska, W.; Drozyner, A.; Rutkowska, M.; Schillak, S.; Zielinski, J. B.

    Laser observations during 1977-1979 of the GEOS-1 and GEOS-3 satellites, used to determine the geocentric position of the Astronomical Latitude Observatory in Borowiec (station No. 7811) are examined. The data are processed by means of the ORBITA program and the GRIPE program elaborated at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory. The coordinates of the station are calculated by a dynamical orbital method. Results of the ORBITA and GRIPE solutions are presented in tables. A comparison of these two solutions with the Wettzel-Borowiec translocation solution is considered.

  13. Efficient and Optimal Attitude Determination Using Recursive Global Positioning System Signal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Markley, F. Landis

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm is developed for attitude determination from Global Positioning System signals. The new algorithm is derived from a generalized nonlinear predictive filter for nonlinear systems. This uses a one time-step ahead approach to propagate a simple kinematics model for attitude determination. The advantages of the new algorithm over previously developed methods include: it provides optimal attitudes even for coplanar baseline configurations; it guarantees convergence even for poor initial conditions; it is a non-iterative algorithm; and it is computationally efficient. These advantages clearly make the new algorithm well suited to on-board applications. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator. Results indicate that the new algorithm accurately estimates the attitude of a moving vehicle, and provides robust attitude estimates even when other methods, such as a linearized least-squares approach, fail due to poor initial starting conditions.

  14. High-precision orbit determination for high-earth elliptical orbiters using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, S. M.; Estefan, J. A.

    1990-01-01

    Orbit covariance analyses pertaining to the Japanese VLBI Space Observatory Program (VSOP) MUSES-B satellite and to the International VLBI Satellite are presented. It is determined that a combination of Doppler and GPS measurements can provide the orbit accuracy required to support advanced radio interferometric experiments. For the VSOP, the required orbit accuracy of 130 m is easily met with two-way Doppler as the primary type of data; the 0.4 cm/s VSOP velocity requirement is also feasible provided that precise ground calibrations of tropospheric delays and station coordinates are available. It is concluded that combining the data from a VSOP GPS flight instrument with the ground GPS and two-way Doppler data will significantly enhance orbit determination accuracy in position and velocity.

  15. 3D position determination in monolithic crystals coupled to SiPMs for PET.

    PubMed

    Etxebeste, Ane; Barrio, John; Muñoz, Enrique; Oliver, Josep F; Solaz, Carles; Llosá, Gabriela

    2016-05-21

    The interest in using continuous monolithic crystals in positron emission tomography (PET) has grown in the last years. Coupled to silicon photomultipliers (SiPMs), the detector can combine high sensitivity and high resolution, the two main factors to be maximized in a positron emission tomograph. In this work, the position determination capability of a detector comprised of a [Formula: see text] mm(3) LYSO crystal coupled to an [Formula: see text]-pixel array of SiPMs is evaluated. The 3D interaction position of γ-rays is estimated using an analytical model of the light distribution including reflections on the facets of the crystal. Monte Carlo simulations have been performed to evaluate different crystal reflectors and geometries. The method has been characterized and applied to different cases. Intrinsic resolution obtained with the position estimation method used in this work, applied to experimental data, achieves sub-millimetre resolution values. Average resolution over the detector surface for 5 mm thick crystal is  ∼0.9 mm FWHM and  ∼1.2 mm FWHM for 10 mm thick crystal. Depth of interaction resolution is close to 2 mm FWHM in both cases, while the FWTM is  ∼5.3 mm for 5 mm thick crystal and  ∼9.6 mm for 10 mm thick crystal.

  16. Geostationary satellite position determination for common-view two-way time transfer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Qixiang; Douglas, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    In common-view two-way time transfer, each earth station receives an unwanted return signal from its own transmission as well as the desired signal from the other earth station. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Research Council (NRC), and the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) have been cooperating in a three-corner common-view two-way time transfer experiment. Some systematic effects are known to depend on the position of the satellite (Sagnac effect and the cross-correlation pulling of the pseudo-random codes). A method is presented for deriving accurate satellite ranges from each of three stations doing common-view two-way satellite time transfer measurements, when one (and only one) station also takes ranging measurements on its 'unwanted return signal' for a brief period. The method is applied to determine the variations in position of the satellite used over the course of the NIST/NRC/USNO SBS-3 experiment, with ranging data taken at NRC, where no additional hardware was required to automate the process. The fit and extrapolation which are employed in this method have an estimated precision of 2 m. If the delays of SBS-3 satellite KU band transponder and earth station equipment were measured accurately as well as the tropospheric refractions were well modeled and corrected, we would expect a ranging accuracy of 2.5 m and satellite positioning accuracy would be 200 m (latitude) 50 m (longitude) and 20 m (height above ellipsoid).

  17. Determinants of using (non-)fluoroscopy-guided positioning for radiographs: a case study research.

    PubMed

    Germonpré, Sofie; Gemmel, Paul; Beeckman, Dimitri; Trybou, Jeroen

    2016-09-01

    This study examines the determinants of using (non-)fluoroscopy-guided positioning (FGP) for radiographs, in order to improve the use of non-FGP imaging techniques. We focused on knowledge and attitudes of radiographers and radiologists with respect to applying non-FGP in radiography and organizational factors. We analyzed data from an in-depth multiple case study that includes observations and field notes, interviews, documents and images collected from the radiology departments of four hospitals. The unified theory of acceptance and use of technology (UTAUT) was used to frame the findings. We found that inadequate skills and insufficient knowledge of positioning techniques and negative attitudes towards non-FGP were present. More precisely, staff expressed concerns with respect to the impact on the workload and workflow. Besides facilitating organizational conditions, the social influence of peers and the clinical leadership of RLs were found to be important. Adequate supervision, regular feedback and coaching were identified as important enabling factors for increasing the quality of the applied imaging techniques. In the conclusion we state that determinants of using non-FGP are quite complex. Therefore we argue that a holistic approach considering all these aspects is needed to improve imaging practices.

  18. Sub-diffraction Position Determination with Four Laser Diodes for Tracking/Trapping a Single Molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Germann, James A.; Canfield, Brian K.; King, Jason K.; Davis, Lloyd M.

    2013-03-01

    Prolonged observation of single biological molecules by overcoming diffusion can reveal interesting new properties. Observation times may be increased by physically confining a particle, but this often leads to interactions that affect molecular properties. Another way of increasing observation time is to trap a single molecule in solution three-dimensionally. However, optimal trapping of single particles relies on rapid determination of particle position for feedback to counteract Brownian diffusion. In our experiment, a tetrahedral region with foci located at the vertices is created by combining four modulated 635 nm laser diodes with three beam splitters. Fluorescence is measured with a single-photon avalanche diode and separated into bins corresponding to each excitation focus. A maximum-likelihood estimation algorithm is used to determine particle position with sub-diffraction precision in real time. To test the tracking capability of the four-focus setup, fluorescently labeled latex beads were tracked in an aqueous glycerol solution. Two setups, a piezoelectric stage and a three-dimensional electrokinetic trap, are being implemented to maintain a single fluorescent latex bead in the middle of the tetrahedral region.

  19. Detector positioning for the initial subcriticality level determination in accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uyttenhove, W.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. J. H. H.; Wols, F.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Thybault, H. E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the GUINEVERE project (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol, the continuous deuteron accelerator GENEPI-3C was coupled to the VENUS-F fast simulated lead-cooled reactor. Today the FREYA project (Fast Reactor Experiments for hYbrid Applications) is ongoing to study the neutronic behavior of this Accelerator Driven System (ADS) during different phases of operation. In particular the set-up of a monitoring system for the subcriticality of an ADS is envisaged to guarantee safe operation of the installation. The methodology for subcriticality monitoring in ADS takes into account the determination of the initial subcriticality level, the monitoring of reactivity variations, and interim cross-checking. At start-up, the Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) technique is envisaged to determine the initial subcriticality level. Thanks to its reference critical state, the PNS technique can be validated on the VENUS-F core. A detector positioning methodology for the PNS technique is set up in this paper for the subcritical VENUS-F core, based on the reduction of higher harmonics in a static evaluation of the Sjoestrand area method. A first case study is provided on the VENUS-F core. This method can be generalised in order to create general rules for detector positions and types for full-scale ADS. (authors)

  20. Determinants of bioactivity of oxidized phospholipids. Specific oxidized fatty acyl groups at the sn-2 position.

    PubMed

    Subbanagounder, G; Leitinger, N; Schwenke, D C; Wong, J W; Lee, H; Rizza, C; Watson, A D; Faull, K F; Fogelman, A M; Berliner, J A

    2000-10-01

    We previously described 3 bioactive oxidation products of 1-palmitoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine (PAPC) containing oxovaleroyl (POVPC), glutaroyl (PGPC), and epoxyisoprostane (PEIPC) groups at the sn-2 position that were increased in minimally modified/oxidized low density lipoprotein (MM-LDL) and rabbit atherosclerotic lesions. We demonstrated specific and contrasting effects of POVPC and PGPC on leukocyte-endothelial interactions and described an effect of PEIPC on monocyte binding. The major purpose of the present study was to determine the effects of structural changes on the bioactivities of these 3 lipids. We demonstrate herein that the group at the sn-2 position determines the specific bioactivity and that the substitution of stearoyl for palmitoyl at the sn-1 position or ethanolamine for choline at the sn-3 position of the phospholipid did not alter bioactivity. Oxidized PAPC, oxidized 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylcholine, and oxidized 1-stearoyl-2-arachidonoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphorylethanolamine stimulated monocyte binding and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced expression of the neutrophil-binding molecule E-selectin. Furthermore, all oxovaleroyl phospholipids but not the glutaroyl phospholipids induced monocyte binding without an increase in vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1) expression and inhibited lipopolysaccharide-induced E-selectin expression. In contrast, glutaroyl phospholipids but not oxovaleroyl phospholipids stimulated E-selectin and VCAM-1 expression. We further demonstrate that all parts of the phospholipid molecules are required for these bioactivities. Hydrolysis with phospholipase (PL) A(1), PLA(2), and PLC strongly reduced the bioactivities of POVPC, PGPC, and mixed isomers of PEIPC. PLD had a smaller but still significant effect. The effects of POVPC and PEIPC could be abolished by sodium borohydride treatment, indicating the importance of the reducible groups (carbonyl and epoxide) in

  1. Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station. PMID:25036330

  2. Integrated GNSS attitude determination and positioning for direct geo-referencing.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J G

    2014-07-17

    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0:8, matching the theoretical gain of √ 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

  3. Determining protein biomarkers for DLBCL using FFPE tissues from HIV negative and HIV positive patients.

    PubMed

    Magangane, Pumza; Sookhayi, Raveendra; Govender, Dhirendra; Naidoo, Richard

    2016-12-01

    DLBCL is the most common lymphoma subtype occurring in older populations as well as in younger HIV infected patients. The current treatment options for DLBCL are effective for most patients yet the relapse rate is high. While many biomarkers for DLBCL exist, they are not in clinical use due to low sensitivity and specificity. In addition, these biomarkers have not been studied in the HIV context. Therefore, the identification of new biomarkers for HIV negative and HIV positive DLBCL, may lead to a better understanding of the disease pathology and better therapeutic design. Protein biomarkers for DLBCL were determined using MALDI imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) and characterised using LC-MS. The expression of one of the biomarkers, heat shock protein (Hsp) 70, was confirmed on a separate cohort of samples using immunohistochemistry. The biomarkers identified in the study consisted of four protein clusters including glycolytic enzymes, ribosomal proteins, histones and collagen. These proteins could differentiate between control and tumour tissue, and the DLBCL immunohistochemical subtypes in both cohorts. The majority (41/52) of samples in the confirmation cohort were negative for Hsp70 expression. The HIV positive DLBCL cases had a higher percentage of cases expressing Hsp70 than their HIV negative counterparts. The non-GC subtype also frequently overexpressed Hsp70, confirming MALDI IMS data. The expression of Hsp70 did not correlate with survival in both the HIV negative and HIV positive cohort. This study identified potential biomarkers for HIV negative and HIV positive DLBCL from FFPE tissue sections. These may be used as diagnostic and prognostic markers complementary to current clinical management programmes for DLBCL.

  4. Determination of Normal Anal Position Index Using a Modified Technique in Turkish Neonates

    PubMed Central

    Ertürk, Nazile; Kandemir, Ömer

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study was aimed to determine the normal position of the anus using the anal position index (API) in an attempt to develop a more sensitive method for measuring API. To investigate API in a wide range of neonates, both term and preterm infants were included in the present study. Materials and Methods: API was determined by measuring the anus-fourchette (FA) and anus-coccyx (AC) distance in female neonates and the anus-scrotum and AC distance in male neonates. API is defined as the ratio of the FA (scrotum) distance to the AC distance. A digital caliper was used for all measurements. The FA or scrotum and coccyx-fourchette or -scrotum distances were measured using digital calipers. Results: A total of 267 neonates (females, 143; males 124) were included in this study. Of these, 36 were borderline premature infants (birth at 35–37 weeks gestation) and 231 were term infants (birth at 38–42 weeks gestation). The mean API was 1.06 ± 0.04 in female and 0.90 ± 0.08 in male neonates. When premature infants were analyzed separately, the mean API was 1.12 ± 0.08 in female and 0.99 ± 0.09 in male neonates. No significant difference in API values was observed between term and preterm neonates (P < 0.05). Conclusions: API values that differ from the previous studies were identified in the present study. We believe our modified method allows for more accurate measurements of the API in newborns. According to our method, the anus should be considered as anteriorly located if API is <1 in female and < 0.9 in male neonates. In addition, the present study is the first to measure API using digital calipers. Digital calipers were found to be convenient and are useful in determining the API with high accuracy (to within 0.01 cm). PMID:28082773

  5. Improvement of determinating seafloor benchmark position with large-scale horizontal heterogeneity in the ocean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uemura, Y.; Tadokoro, K.; Matsuhiro, K.; Ikuta, R.

    2015-12-01

    The most critical issue in reducing the accuracy of seafloor positioning system, GPS/Acoustic technique, is large-scale thermal gradient of sound-speed structure [Muto et al., 2008] due to the ocean current. For example, Kuroshio Current, near our observation station, forms this structure. To improve the accuracy of seafloor benchmark position (SBP), we need to directly measure the structure frequently, or estimate it from travel time residual. The former, we repeatedly measure the sound-speed at Kuroshio axis using Underway CTD and try to apply analysis method of seafloor positioning [Yasuda et al., 2015 AGU meeting]. The latter, however, we cannot estimate the structure using travel time residual until now. Accordingly, in this study, we focus on azimuthal dependence of Estimated Mean Sound-Speed (EMSS). EMSS is defined as distance between vessel position and estimated SBP divided by travel time. If thermal gradient exists and SBP is true, EMSS should have azimuthal dependence with the assumption of horizontal layered sound-speed structure in our previous analysis method. We use the data at KMC located on the central part of Nankai Trough, Japan on Jan. 28, 2015, because on that day KMC was on the north edge of Kuroshio, where we expect that thermal gradient exists. In our analysis method, the hyper parameter (μ value) weights travel time residual and rate of change of sound speed structure. However, EMSS derived from μ value determined by Ikuta et al. [2008] does not have azimuthal dependence, that is, we cannot estimate thermal gradient. Thus, we expect SBP has a large bias. Therefore, in this study, we use another μ value and examine whether EMSS has azimuthal dependence or not. With the μ value of this study, which is 1 order of magnitude smaller than the previous value, EMSS has azimuthal dependence that is consistent with observation day's thermal gradient. This result shows that we can estimate the thermal gradient adequately. This SBP displaces 25

  6. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  7. Position of social determinants of health in urban man-made lakes plans.

    PubMed

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimloo, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Malek Afzali, Hossein; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-09-04

    A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Participants' points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community's health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration.

  8. Compliance versus dead space for optimum positive end expiratory pressure determination in acute respiratory distress syndrome

    PubMed Central

    El-Baradey, Ghada Fouad; El-Shamaa, Nagat Sayed

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To Compare compliance versus dead space (Vd) targeted positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) as regard its effect on lung mechanics and oxygenation. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out on 30 adult acute respiratory distress syndrome patients. The ventilator was initially set on volume controlled with tidal volume (Vt) 7 mL/kg predicted body weight (PBW), inspiratory plateau pressure (Ppl) <30 cm H2 O. If the Ppl was >30 cm H2 O with a TV of 6 mL/kg PBW, a step-wise Vt reduction of 1 mL/kg PBW to as low as 4 mL/kg/PBW was allowed. Respiratory rate adjusted to maintain pH 7.30-7.45. FiO2 start at 100%. Best PEEP determined at 2 points, one by titrating PEEP until reaching the highest static compliance (Cst) (PEEP Cst) and the other one is at the lowest Vd/Vt (PEEP Vd/Vt). The following data measured before and 30 min after setting PEEP Cst and PEEP Vd/Vt. Cst, PaCO2 - PetCO2, Vd/Vt, PaO2 /FiO2, Ppl, heart rate, mean arterial pressure and oxygen saturation. Results: optimum PEEP determined by Vd/Vt was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than the optimum PEEP determined by Cst. Best PEEP Vd/Vt showed a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in Cst, PaCO2 - PetCO2, Vd/Vt and Ppl in comparison with best PEEP Cst. The PaO2 /FiO2 showed a significant increase (P < 0.05) with best PEEP Vd/Vt in comparison with best PEEP Cst. Conclusion: Vd guided PEEP improved compliance and oxygenation with less Ppl. Hence, its use as a guide for best PEEP determination may be useful. PMID:25136189

  9. Determination of the geometrical position of vortices in flow fields visualized by laser light sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, S.

    A method to map out the location of vortex cores as a function of body station and angle of attack by means of a digital image processing is presented. The laser light sheet technique with smoke as tracer particles was employed to visualize the vortex cores. Later on the visualization-pictures of different planes of the light sheet, stored on video-film, were digitized and fed into an image processing system. After determination of the location of the vortex cores in picture units these vortex positions were transformed into units of the model configuration by means of an appropriate algorithm. Thus, the vortex trajectories could be defined for the horizontal and vertical planes in model coordinates.

  10. SURFING: A Program for Precise Determination of Sample Position in Stress Measurements Via Neutron Diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D.-Q.

    2000-08-08

    Precise determination of the specimen position relative to the sampling volume for texture and stress measurements by neutron diffraction is difficult or sometimes impossible using only optical devices due to large or irregular sample dimensions and/or complicated shape of the sampling volume. The knowledge of the shape and size of the sampling volume allows development of a general mathematical model for the intensity variation with a parallelogram-shape sampling volume moving from outside to inside the specimen for both transmission and reflection geometric set-ups. Both fixed slits and radial collimators are options in defining the geometrical setup. The attenuation by the sample also has been taken into account in this model. Experimental results agree well with the model calculations. The program SURFING is based on the model calculation and was written in Labwindows/CVI{copyright}.

  11. TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.

    1994-01-01

    Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.

  12. Position Determination with LORAN-C Triplets and the Hewlett-Packard HP-41CV Programmable Calculator.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL Monterey, California POSITION DETERMINATION WITH LORAN-C TRIPLETS AND THE HEWLETT-PACKARD HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR by...HP-41CV PROGRAMMABLE CALCULATOR 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER 7. AUTHOR(e) 6. CONTRACT O GRANT NUMBER(*) Rex H. Shudd? 9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...Hyperbolic Fixing Programmable Calculator Loran-C Radio Positioning HP-41C Navigation Geodetics HP-41CV Position Determination Geodetic Distances

  13. Diameter and position effect determination of diaphragm on hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-09-01

    This study is aimed to determine and better reveal the mixture enhancement and regression rate distribution of hybrid rocket motor with diaphragm by numerical approach. A numerical model based on the computational fluid dynamics software is built to simulate the flow and combustion inside the motor. Four firing tests of the motor, including one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm, are conducted on a standard experimental system and also used as a reference for numerical simulation, the consistency between the simulation and experiment demonstrates that the numerical approach is an effective method to study the diaphragm effect on the motor performance. The flow field characteristic and regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor are then calculated to analyze the effect of position and diameter of the diaphragm. The results indicate that the diaphragm almost have no effect on the regression rate before it. However, the regression rate after the diaphragm has a strong dependence on the position and diameter of the diaphragm. As the diameter decreases and the position moves backward, the regression rate increases larger and larger, this is mainly due to the augmentation of the eddy generated by the diaphragm, which enhances the heat feedback transferred to the grain surface. When the diameter of diaphragm located at middle of grain decreases from 50 mm to 20 mm, regression rate is increased from 0.30 mm/s to 0.57 mm/s. The use of the diaphragm does cause a combustion efficiency improvement; the maximum combustion efficiency is enhanced to 98.9% from lower than 90% of the motor with no diaphragm. The increasing amplitude displays a square relation with the diameter decrease, since the entrainment of the eddy make the reactants mix sufficiently to release more energy inside the motor.

  14. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, V. Abella, R.; Calvo, J. F.; Jurado-Bruggemann, D.; Sancho, I.; Carrasco, P.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. Methods: The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100 000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Results: Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Conclusions: Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  15. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range. PMID:26573017

  16. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  17. Experimental determination of position-estimate accuracy using back-azimuth signals from a microwave landing system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knox, C. E.

    1979-01-01

    Flight tests using the Boeing 737 airplane to obtain position estimates with back azimuth signals from a microwave landing system (MLS) are discussed. The equations and logic used to generate a navigation position estimate in the MLS back azimuth signal environment are described. The error in the navigation position estimate is determined. A summary of the Boeing 737 position estimate update process is described. The navigation position estimate error calculated flight data and radar tracking information is analyzed. The position estimate error data using the MLS inputs are compared with error data obtained during dual distance measuring equipment updates.

  18. A demonstration of sub-meter GPS orbit determination and high precision user positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bertiger, Willy I.; Lichten, Stephen M.; Katsigris, Eugenia C.

    1988-01-01

    It was demonstrated that the submeter GPS (Global Positioning System) orbits can be determined using multiday arc solutions with the current GPS constellation subset visible for about 8 h each day from North America. Submeter orbit accuracy was shown through orbit repeatability and orbit prediction. North American baselines of 1000-2000 km length can be estimated simultaneously with the GPS orbits to an accuracy of better than 1.5 parts in 108 (3 cm over 2000 km distance) with a daily precision of two parts in 108 or better. The most reliable baseline solutions are obtained using the same type of receivers and antennas at each end of the baseline. Baselines greater than 1000 km distance from Florida to sites in the Caribbean region have also been determined with daily precision of 1-4 parts in 108. The Caribbean sites are located well outside the fiducial tracking network and the region of optimal GPS common visibility. Thus, these results further demonstrate the robustness of the multiday arc GPS orbit solutions.

  19. Functional analysis of 'a' determinant mutations associated with occult HBV in HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eleanor A; Boyce, Ceejay L; Gededzha, Maemu P; Selabe, Selokela G; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis B is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and virus transmission. Viral mutations contribute significantly to the occult HBV phenotype. Mutations in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg are of particular interest, as these mutations are associated with immune escape, vaccine escape and diagnostic failure. We examined the effects of selected occult HBV-associated mutations identified in a population of HIV-positive South Africans on HBsAg production in vitro. Mutations were inserted into two different chronic HBV backbones and transfected into a hepatocyte-derived cell line. HBsAg levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the detectability of mutant HBsAg was determined using an HA-tagged HBsAg expression system. Of the seven mutations analysed, four (S132P, C138Y, N146D and C147Y) resulted in decreased HBsAg expression in one viral background but not in the second viral background. One mutation (N146D) led to a decrease in HBsAg detected as compared to HA-tag, indicating that this mutation compromises the ability of the ELISA to detect HBsAg. The contribution of occult-associated mutations to the HBsAg-negative phenotype of occult HBV cannot be determined adequately by testing the effect of the mutation in a single viral background, and rigorous analysis of these mutations is required.

  20. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information

  1. Rhizobial position as a main determinant in the problem of competition for nodulation in soybean.

    PubMed

    López-García, Silvina L; Vázquez, Tirso E E; Favelukes, Gabriel; Lodeiro, Aníbal R

    2002-04-01

    Selected Bradyrhizobium japonicum strains inoculated on soybean seeds often fail to occupy a significant proportion of nodules when a competitor rhizobial population is established in the soil. This competition problem could result from a genetic/ physiological advantage of the adapted soil population over the introduced inoculant or from a positional advantage, as the soil population already occupies the soil profile where the roots will penetrate, whereas the inoculant remains concentrated around the seeds. Here, we have assessed the contribution of these factors with a laboratory model in which a rhizobial population is established in sterile vermiculite. We observed that the wild-type strain B. japonicum LP 3004 was able to grow in pots with N-free plant nutrient solution-watered vermiculite for six or seven generations with a duplication rate of at least 0.7 day(-1). In addition, the rhizobial population persisted for 3 months with 10(6)-10(7) colony-forming units ml(-1) of the vermiculite-retained solution. N-starved, young rhizobial cultures are more efficient in performing several steps along their early association with soybean roots. However, N starvation during growth of rhizobia used for seed inoculation did not enhance their competitiveness against a 1 month vermiculite-established rhizobial population, which occupied more than 72% of the nodules. When a similarly established rhizobial population was recovered from the vermiculite and homogeneously suspended in plant nutrient solution, these cells were significantly less competitive (29% of nodules occupied) than rhizobia obtained from a fresh, logarithmic culture in a N-poor minimal medium, thus indicating that cell position rather than intrinsic competitiveness was the determinant for nodule occupation.

  2. Construction and testing of a computer-based intraoral laser scanner for determining tooth positions.

    PubMed

    Commer, P; Bourauel, C; Maier, K; Jäger, A

    2000-11-01

    An optical set-up for intraoral data acquisition based on the principle of laser triangulation was developed. The system consists of a pig-tailed laser with line generating optics, a stepping motor driven positioning stage, a commercial CCD (charge coupled device) camera system with frame grabber interface, a control personal computer and a mirror system compensating for the fact that there is no possibility of watching an object directly in the mouth under a certain angle except from a facial position during intraoral scanning. Due to the size of the prototype measurements were still restricted to plaster casts. In order to evaluate its accuracy, the measurements were compared with those taken with a commercial laser scanner and a coordinate measurement table. The accuracy of the prototype scanner was determined to be DeltaXYZ=0.04 mm using gauge blocks of given dimensions and proved to range between the commercial laser scanner and the coordinate measurement table (i.e., it was slightly better than that of the commercial scanner). Applications in orthodontics were demonstrated by scanning plaster casts and measuring distances on reconstructed surfaces. The measured distances showed a maximum deviation of about +/-0.2 mm compared with the data of the coordinate measurement table, which served as a reference. In addition, reconstruction of three-dimensional tooth movements was performed on the scan data. The translational and rotational parameters gained from the superimposition of scanned point clouds and describing tooth movement were also in good accordance with the reference. The achieved accuracy proved to be sufficient for further development which should include a reduction in size and the use of more precise device components.

  3. Genetic determinants of antimicrobial resistance in Gram positive bacteria from organic foods.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Fuentes, Miguel Angel; Abriouel, Hikmate; Ortega Morente, Elena; Pérez Pulido, Rubén; Gálvez, Antonio

    2014-02-17

    Bacterial biocide resistance is becoming a matter of concern. In the present study, a collection of biocide-resistant, Gram-positive bacteria from organic foods (including 11 isolates from genus Bacillus, 25 from Enterococcus and 10 from Staphylococcus) were analyzed for genes associated to biocide resistance efflux pumps and antibiotic resistance. The only qac-genes detected were qacA/B (one Bacillus cereus isolate) and smr (one B. cereus and two Staphylococcus saprophyticus isolates). Efflux pump genes efrA and efrB genes were detected in Staphylococcus (60% of isolates), Bacillus (54.54%) and Enterococcus (24%); sugE was detected in Enterococcus (20%) and in one Bacillus licheniformis; mepA was detected in Staphylococcus (60%) and in one Enterococcus isolate (which also carried mdeA), and norE gene was detected only in one Enterococcus faecium and one S. saprophyticus isolate. An amplicon for acrB efflux pump was detected in all but one isolate. When minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined, it was found that the addition of reserpine reduced the MICs by eight fold for most of the biocides and isolates, corroborating the role of efflux pumps in biocide resistance. Erythromycin resistance gene ermB was detected in 90% of Bacillus isolates, and in one Staphylococcus, while ereA was detected only in one Bacillus and one Staphyloccus, and ereB only in one Staphylococcus. The ATP-dependent msrA gene (which confers resistance to macrolides, lincosamides and type B streptogramins) was detected in 60% of Bacillus isolates and in all staphylococci, which in addition carried msrB. The lincosamide and streptogramin A resistance gene lsa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%), Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%) isolates. The aminoglycoside resistance determinant aph (3_)-IIIa was detected in Staphylococcus (40%) and Bacillus (one isolate), aph(2_)-1d in Bacillus (27.27%) and Enterococcus (8%), aph(2_)-Ib in Bacillus (one isolate), and the bifunctional aac

  4. Radio interferometric determination of source positions utilizing deep space network antennas - 1971 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanselow, J. L.; Sovers, O. J.; Thomas, J. B.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Cohen, E. J.; Rogstad, D. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.

    1984-01-01

    Approximately 2400 observations of extragalactic radio sources were made between August 1971 and February 1980 during 48 separate sessions. These consisted of 259 delay rate observations at 2.3 GHz (S-band), 796 delay and delay rate observations at either S-band of 8.3 GHz (X-band) and 1325 delay and delay rate observations recorded simultaneously at both S- and X-band. A single multiparameter fit has been applied to the observed values of delay and delay rate to extract astrometric and geophysical parameters from this decade-long sequence. The fit produced estimates of 784 parameters, including station locations, radio source positions, polar motion, Universal Time, the precession constant, and solid earth tides. The a priori model included gravitational bending, the 1980 IAU nutation series, the 1976 IAU expressions for Greenwich mean sidereal time and precession, BIH estimates of Universal Time and polar motion, and monthly mean values for zenith troposphere delay. The rms residuals were 0.52 nsec for delay and 0.30 psec/sec for delay rate. Intercontinental baseline lengths were determined with formal uncertainties of 5 to 10 cm. Universal Time and polar motion were measured at 49 epochs, with formal uncertainties (for the more recent data) of 0.5 msec for UT1 and 6 and 2 mas, respectively, for the X and Y components of polar motion. Previously announced in STAR as N83-28038

  5. Determination of object position, vortex shedding frequency and flow velocity using artificial lateral line canals

    PubMed Central

    Bleckmann, Horst

    2011-01-01

    Summary The lateral line system of fish consists of superficial neuromasts, and neuromasts embedded in lateral line canals. Lateral line neuromasts allow fish to sense both minute water motions and pressure gradients, thereby enabling them to detect predators and prey or to recognize and discriminate stationary objects while passing them. With the aid of the lateral line, fish can also sense vortices caused by an upstream object or by undulatory swimming movements of fish. We show here that artificial lateral line canals equipped with optical flow sensors can be used to detect the water motions generated by a stationary vibrating sphere, the vortices caused by an upstream cylinder or the water (air) movements caused by a passing object. The hydrodynamic information retrieved from optical flow sensors can be used to calculate bulk flow velocity and thus the size of the cylinder that shed the vortices. Even a bilateral sensor platform equipped with only one artificial lateral line canal on each side is sufficient to determine the position of an upstream cylinder. PMID:21977440

  6. Focus on the positive: lessons learned from focus determination of infrared space optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Egan, Jacob; Rigg, Kevin

    2016-09-01

    Wide field of view optics paired with large starer infrared detector arrays can be notoriously difficult to place into focus. This paper will discuss the lessons learned in taking one such system from being more than 20x out of its focus specification to within focus in a single iteration. Traditionally the tight tolerances required for space borne applications forces the system designer to carefully consider many effects that may otherwise be negligible. These include changes in system tolerances between ambient to cryogenic temperature, lens boule property differences, test setup to properly mimic the flight thermal profile, lack of commercially available lasers with the proper wavelength, and several others. In this case, some key pieces of information were not provided when the system arrived at Northrop Grumman's Azusa facility for unit integration and through-focus testing. The presented approach involves taking extremely out-of-focus responses from point sources at various focus positions and combining them with optical modeling parameters to determine how to best reposition the detector array to the best plane of focus. A successful implementation of the approach will be presented using data from a wide field-of-view infrared sensor.

  7. Socioeconomic position as a determinant of maternal healthcare utilization: a population-based study in Namibia.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Mamunur; Antai, Diddy

    2014-01-01

    Improving maternal health is one of the eight Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) aimed at improving maternal healthcare and reducing maternal mortality. The utilization of maternal health services is influenced by several factors that need to be better understood. The objective of this study was to estimate the role of socio-economic position as a determinant of the utilization of maternal health care in Namibia. Data were collected from the Namibia Demographic and Health Survey in 2006-2007, based on survey responses from 9,804 female respondents aged 15-49 years. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed accounting for socio-economic factors associated with the use of maternal health care services. The results from both bivariate and multivariate analyses confirmed the importance of education, wealth index, place of residence and marital status in explaining the utilization of maternal health care services. Wealth index was the only consistently significant predictor of all indicators of maternal health services; with other factors being significantly associated with one or more of the indicators. Women's age and occupation showed inconclusive results in relation to access to maternal health care services. Several socio-economic factors significantly influence the three indicators of maternal health services utilization. Effective interventions need to take these factors into consideration and to explore means that increase maternal health service utilization especially among lowly educated and poor women in rural areas.

  8. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population.

    PubMed

    Kontos, Emily Z; Emmons, Karen M; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K

    2011-07-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n = 325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health

  9. Accurate determination of screw position in treating fifth metatarsal base fractures to shorten radiation exposure time

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xu; Zhang, Chao; Wang, Chen; Huang, Jia Zhang; Ma, Xin

    2016-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Anatomical markers can help to guide lag screw placement during surgery for internal fixation of fifth metatarsal base fractures. This study aimed to identify the optimal anatomical markers and thus reduce radiation exposure. METHODS A total of 50 patients in Huashan Hospital, Shanghai, China, who underwent oblique foot radiography in the lateral position were randomly selected. The angles between the fifth metatarsal axis and cuboid articular surface were measured to determine the optimal lag screw placement relative to anatomical markers. RESULTS The line connecting the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal base with the second metatarsophalangeal (MTP) joint intersected with the fifth metatarsal base fracture line at an angle of 86.85° ± 5.44°. The line connecting the fifth metatarsal base styloid with the third and fourth MTP joints intersected with the fracture line at angles of 93.28° ± 5.24° and 100.95° ± 5.00°, respectively. The proximal articular surface of the fifth metatarsal base intersected with the line connecting the styloid process of the fifth metatarsal base with the second, third and fourth MTP joints at angles of 24.02° ± 4.77°, 30.79° ± 4.53° and 38.08° ± 4.54°, respectively. CONCLUSION The fifth metatarsal base styloid and third MTP joint can be used as anatomical markers for lag screw placement in fractures involving the fifth tarsometatarsal joint. The connection line, which is normally perpendicular to the fracture line, provides sufficient mechanical stability to facilitate accurate screw placement. The use of these anatomical markers could help to reduce unnecessary radiation exposure for patients and medical staff. PMID:26767892

  10. Combining global positioning system and accelerometer data to determine the locations of physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Blossom, Jeff; Field, Alison E; Chiang, Sylvia R; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Kleinman, Ronald E

    2012-05-01

    National trends indicate that children and adolescents are not achieving sufficient levels of physical activity. Combining global positioning system (GPS) technology with accelerometers has the potential to provide an objective determination in locations where youth engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal methods for collecting combined accelerometer and GPS data in youth, to best locate where children spend time and are physically active. A convenience sample of 24 mid-school children in Massachusetts was included. Accelerometers and GPS units were used to quantify and locate childhood physical activity over 5 weekdays and 2 weekend days. Accelerometer and GPS data were joined by time and mapped with a geographical information system (GIS) using ArcGIS software. Data were collected in winter, spring, summer in 2009-2010, collecting a total of 26,406 matched datapoints overall. Matched data yield was low (19.1% total), regardless of season (winter, 12.8%; spring, 30.1%; summer, 14.3%). Teacher-provided, pre-charged equipment yielded the most matched (30.1%; range: 10.1-52.3%) and greatest average days (6.1 days) of data. Across all seasons, children spent most of their time at home. Outdoor use patterns appeared to vary by season, with street use increasing in spring, and park and playground use increasing in summer. Children spent equal amounts of physical activity time at home and walking in the streets. Overall, the various methods for combining GPS and accelerometer data provided similarly low amounts of combined data. No combined GPS and accelerometer data collection method proved superior in every data return category, but use of GIS to map joined accelerometer and GPS data can demarcate childhood physical activity locations.

  11. Intrinsic histone-DNA interactions are not the major determinant of nucleosome positions in vivo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Moqtaderi, Zarmik; Rattner, Barbara P; Euskirchen, Ghia; Snyder, Michael; Kadonaga, James T; Liu, X Shirley; Struhl, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    We assess the role of intrinsic histone-DNA interactions by mapping nucleosomes assembled in vitro on genomic DNA. Nucleosomes strongly prefer yeast DNA over Escherichia coli DNA, indicating that the yeast genome evolved to favor nucleosome formation. Many yeast promoter and terminator regions intrinsically disfavor nucleosome formation, and nucleosomes assembled in vitro show strong rotational positioning. Nucleosome arrays generated by the ACF assembly factor have fewer nucleosome-free regions, reduced rotational positioning and less translational positioning than obtained by intrinsic histone-DNA interactions. Notably, nucleosomes assembled in vitro have only a limited preference for specific translational positions and do not show the pattern observed in vivo. Our results argue against a genomic code for nucleosome positioning, and they suggest that the nucleosomal pattern in coding regions arises primarily from statistical positioning from a barrier near the promoter that involves some aspect of transcriptional initiation by RNA polymerase II.

  12. Performance Evaluation as a Determinant of Willingness to Defend a Counterattitudinal Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Druckman, Daniel; Rozelle, Richard M.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of several factors on willingness to take a counterattitudinal position in a forthcoming debate were investigated. Subjects were presented with the dilemma of either compromising their own position and thereby not forfeiting a competitive advantage in the debate or forfeiting a competitive advantage by not compromising their own…

  13. [Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase (eSOD) determination in positive moments of psychosis].

    PubMed

    Vaiva, G; Thomas, P; Leroux, J M; Cottencin, O; Dutoit, D; Erb, F; Goudemand, M

    1994-01-01

    Dysregulation of free radical metabolism has been supposed to be involved in schizophrenia etiopathogeny. Recently, Wang et al. showed a red blood cell super oxide dismutase increase in positive schizophrenia (Crow's type I), but neither in negative schizophrenia (Crow's type II) nor in controls. The study included 28 in-patients suffering from acute positive psychosis who were compared with 15 controls. We confirmed the results of Wang. We found a significantly red blood cell Super oxide dismutase increase in positive psychosis, in comparison to negative psychosis and controls (p = 0.0001). This SOD increase was in relationship with the degree of clinical psychomotor excitement. After 21 days of neuroleptic treatment, SOD activity decreased and reached standard values. These results support the hypothesis of striking relationships between catecholaminergic hyper-metabolism and SOD increase, in positive psychosis. These could account for psychotic positive symptoms improvement with neuroleptic treatment, which blocks dopamine pathways.

  14. Determining optimal follow-up in the management of human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal cancer.

    PubMed

    Frakes, Jessica M; Naghavi, Arash O; Demetriou, Stephanie K; Strom, Tobin J; Russell, Jeffery S; Kish, Julie A; McCaffrey, Judith C; Otto, Kristen J; Padhya, Tapan A; Harrison, Louis B; Trotti, Andy M; Caudell, Jimmy J

    2016-02-15

    Determining the optimal follow-up for patients can help maximize the use of health care resources. This is particularly true in a growing epidemic such as human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (HPV+OPSCC). The objective of the current study was to evaluate time to disease recurrence or late toxicity in this cohort of patients to optimize patient management. An institutional database identified 232 patients with biopsy-proven, nonmetastatic HPV+OPSCC who were treated with radiotherapy. A retrospective review was conducted in patients who were followed every 3 months for the first year, every 4 months in year 2, and every 6 months in years 3 to 5. Late toxicity (grade ≥ 3; toxicity was scored based on National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4]), locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival were assessed. The median follow-up was 33 months. Based on Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) 0129 study risk groupings, patients were either considered to be at low (162 patients; 70%) or intermediate (70 patients; 30%) risk. Concurrent systemic therapy was used in 85% of patients (196 patients). The 3-year locoregional control, distant control, and overall survival rates were 94%, 91%, and 91%, respectively. Late toxicity occurred in 9% of patients (21 patients). Overall, 64% of toxicity and failure events occurred within the first 6 months of follow-up, with a < 2% event incidence noted at each subsequent follow-up. Only 4 patients experienced their first event after 2 years. HPV+OPSCC has a low risk of disease recurrence and late toxicity after treatment; approximately two-thirds of events occur within the first 6 months of follow-up. These data suggest that it may be reasonable to reduce follow-up in patients with HPV+OPSCC to every 3 months for the first 6 months, every 6 months for the first 2 years, and annually thereafter. © 2015 American Cancer Society.

  15. Global Positioning System (GPS) Determination of Motions, Neotectonics, and Seismic Risk in Trinidad and Tobago

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodriguez, A. B.; Weber, J. C.; Schmalzle, G. M.

    2008-12-01

    The twin island nation of Trinidad and Tobago is located in the actively deforming Caribbean-South American (Ca-SA) plate boundary zone. Recent GPS (Global Positioning System) studies have accurately determined the relative plate motion between the Caribbean plate and South American plates: ~east-west, dextral motion at 20 mm/yr. Earthquakes do not clearly mark many of the active faults in Trinidad. A low-precision triangulation-to-GPS comparison at 23 sites and paleoseismology showed that significant strike-slip faulting is probably occurring on the Central Range Fault (CRF). The lack of recent seismic activity on the CRF may indicate that it is elastically locked and storing motion. We study Trinidad's neotectonics using new GPS data from 19 high-stability campaign sites that were built and measured in 2005, then measured again in 2007; for a few additional sites we have data that go back from 2007 to 1994. These new data will allow us to test and refine the previous lower-precision geodetic results to better quantify the rate of slip across the CRF and its mechanical behavior. We compiled, and then processed the data using GIPSY/OASIS II (Release 5.0) software at the University of Miami RSMAS Geodesy Lab. We find that, in a South American reference frame, sites north of the CRF move at about 20 (±1-5) mm/yr; sites south of the CRF are stationary (±1-8 mm/yr). Tobago site velocities are slightly oblique to overall Caribbean plate motion due to a major (Magnitude 6.7) earthquake that occurred off Tobago's south coast in 1997. Our new results support the hypotheses that the CRF is the principal active strike-slip fault in Trinidad (i.e., is the current Ca-SA plate boundary). We are fitting locked fault (elastic dislocation half-space) models to the data which will allow us to look more closely at the mechanical behavior of the CRF to further test whether it is locked or creeping to help evaluate its seismic risk.

  16. Determination of the optimal positions for installing gamma ray detection systems at Tehran Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, A.; Rahmani, F.; Khalafi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Dosimetric instruments must constantly monitor radiation dose levels in different areas of nuclear reactor. Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has seven beam tubes for different research purposes. All the beam tubes extend from the reactor core to Beam Port Floor (BPF) of the reactor facility. During the reactor operation, the gamma rays exiting from each beam tube outlet produce a specific gamma dose rate field in the space of the BPF. To effectively monitor the gamma dose rates on the BPF, gamma ray detection systems must be installed in optimal positions. The selection of optimal positions is a compromise between two requirements. First, the installation positions must possess largest gamma dose rates and second, gamma ray detectors must not be saturated in these positions. In this study, calculations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the optimal positions of the gamma ray detection systems. Eight three dimensional models of the reactor core and related facilities corresponding to eight scenarios have been simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the gamma dose equivalent rate field in the space of the BPF. These facilities are beam tubes, thermal column, pool, BPF space filled with air, facilities such as neutron radiography facility, neutron powder diffraction facility embedded in the beam tubes as well as biological shields inserted into the unused beam tubes. According to the analysis results of the combined gamma dose rate field, three positions on the north side and two positions on the south side of the BPF have been recognized as optimal positions for installing the gamma ray detection systems. To ensure the consistency of the simulation data, experimental measurements were conducted using TLDs (600 and 700) pairs during the reactor operation at 4.5 MW.

  17. Multiplex Identification of Gram-Positive Bacteria and Resistance Determinants Directly from Positive Blood Culture Broths: Evaluation of an Automated Microarray-Based Nucleic Acid Test

    PubMed Central

    Buchan, Blake W.; Ginocchio, Christine C.; Manii, Ryhana; Cavagnolo, Robert; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Thomson, Richard B.; Anderson, Christopher; Kaul, Karen; Ledeboer, Nathan A.

    2013-01-01

    Background A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy (sensitivity and specificity) of the Verigene Gram-Positive Blood Culture Test (BC-GP) test to identify 12 Gram-positive bacterial gene targets and three genetic resistance determinants directly from positive blood culture broths containing Gram-positive bacteria. Methods and Findings 1,252 blood cultures containing Gram-positive bacteria were prospectively collected and tested at five clinical centers between April, 2011 and January, 2012. An additional 387 contrived blood cultures containing uncommon targets (e.g., Listeria spp., S. lugdunensis, vanB-positive Enterococci) were included to fully evaluate the performance of the BC-GP test. Sensitivity and specificity for the 12 specific genus or species targets identified by the BC-GP test ranged from 92.6%–100% and 95.4%–100%, respectively. Identification of the mecA gene in 599 cultures containing S. aureus or S. epidermidis was 98.6% sensitive and 94.3% specific compared to cefoxitin disk method. Identification of the vanA gene in 81 cultures containing Enterococcus faecium or E. faecalis was 100% sensitive and specific. Approximately 7.5% (87/1,157) of single-organism cultures contained Gram-positive bacteria not present on the BC-GP test panel. In 95 cultures containing multiple organisms the BC-GP test was in 71.6% (68/95) agreement with culture results. Retrospective analysis of 107 separate blood cultures demonstrated that identification of methicillin resistant S. aureus and vancomycin resistant Enterococcus spp. was completed an average of 41.8 to 42.4 h earlier using the BC-GP test compared to routine culture methods. The BC-GP test was unable to assign mecA to a specific organism in cultures containing more than one Staphylococcus isolate and does not identify common blood culture contaminants such as Micrococcus, Corynebacterium, and Bacillus. Conclusions The BC-GP test is a multiplex test capable of detecting most

  18. Commercial radioimmunoassay for beta subunit of human chorionic gonadotropin: falsely positive determinations due to elevated serum luteinizing hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Fowler, J.E. Jr.; Platoff, G.E.; Kubrock, C.A.; Stuzman, R.E.

    1982-01-01

    Among 17 men who had received seemingly curative treatment for unilateral non-seminomatous germ cell tumors for the testis and who had consistently normal serum human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) levels at a reference laboratory, 7 (41%) had at least one falsely positive commercial serum HCG determination. To investigate the cause of these falsely positive determinations the authors measured the cross reactivity of luteinizing hormone (LH) and follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) standards in the commercial HCG assay, and studied the relationships between commercial HCG levels and serum LH levels, serum FSH levels and gonadal status in men with and without normal gonadal function. The falsely positive HCG determinations appeared to be due to elevated serum LH levels and cross reactivity of LH in the commercial HCG assay because: 1) there was substantial cross reactivity of the LH standards in the commercial assay, 2) the serum LH was elevated in four of six men with solitary testes, 3) there was a striking correlation between elevated serum LH levels and falsely elevated commercial HCG levels in ten men with solitary or absent testes, and 4) there were no falsely positive HCG determinations in 13 normal men but there were falsely positive HCG determinations in seven of ten anorchid men.

  19. The role of positive selection in determining the molecular cause of species differences in disease

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Background Related species, such as humans and chimpanzees, often experience the same disease with varying degrees of pathology, as seen in the cases of Alzheimer's disease, or differing symptomatology as in AIDS. Furthermore, certain diseases such as schizophrenia, epithelial cancers and autoimmune disorders are far more frequent in humans than in other species for reasons not associated with lifestyle. Genes that have undergone positive selection during species evolution are indicative of functional adaptations that drive species differences. Thus we investigate whether biomedical disease differences between species can be attributed to positively selected genes. Results We identified genes that putatively underwent positive selection during the evolution of humans and four mammals which are often used to model human diseases (mouse, rat, chimpanzee and dog). We show that genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection pressure during human evolution are implicated in diseases such as epithelial cancers, schizophrenia, autoimmune diseases and Alzheimer's disease, all of which differ in prevalence and symptomatology between humans and their mammalian relatives. In agreement with previous studies, the chimpanzee lineage was found to have more genes under positive selection than any of the other lineages. In addition, we found new evidence to support the hypothesis that genes that have undergone positive selection tend to interact with each other. This is the first such evidence to be detected widely among mammalian genes and may be important in identifying molecular pathways causative of species differences. Conclusion Our dataset of genes predicted to have been subject to positive selection in five species serves as an informative resource that can be consulted prior to selecting appropriate animal models during drug target validation. We conclude that studying the evolution of functional and biomedical disease differences between species is an

  20. Determination of sounding rocket position and attitude from radar and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques are described that were used to determine the trajectories and orientations of three sounding rockets instrumented to study the aurora. The radar plot board data were fitted to a near earth expansion of the force of gravity to determine the trajectory. Only onboard magnetometer data were used to determine the attitude of the payload with respect to the earth's magnetic field. Computer programs in the FORTRAN language are available which generate the trajectory and attitude parameters.

  1. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  2. Determining the Separation and Position Angles of Orbiting Binary Stars: Comparison of Three Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Ryan; Boule, Cory; Andrews, Katelyn; Penfield, Andrew; Ross, Ian; Lucas, Gaylon; Braught, Trisha; Harfenist, Steven; Goodale, Keith

    2015-07-01

    To initiate a long term binary star research program, undergraduate students compared the accuracy and ease of measuring the separations and position angles of three long period binary pairs using three different measurement techniques. It was found that digital image capture using BackyardEOS software and subsequent analysis in Adobe Photoshop was the most accurate and easiest to use of our three methods. The systems WDS J17419+7209 (STF 2241AB), WDS 19418+5032 (STFA 46AB), and WDS 16362+5255 (STF 2087AB) were found to have separations and position angles of: 30", 16°; 39.7", 133°; and 3.1", 104°, respectively. This method produced separation values within 1.3" and position angle values within 1.3° of the most recently observed values found in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  3. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. Aim To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Materials and Methods One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. Results All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar

  4. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  5. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  6. Looking for adolescents' well-being: self-efficacy beliefs as determinants of positive thinking and happiness.

    PubMed

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Steca, Patrizia; Gerbino, Maria; Pacielloi, Marinella; Vecchio, Giovanni Maria

    2006-01-01

    The present study is part of a longitudinal project aimed at identifying the personal characteristics and the developmental pathways conducive to successful adaptation from childhood to adulthood. The study examined the concurrent and longitudinal impact of self-efficacy beliefs on subjective well-being in adolescence, namely positive thinking and happiness. Positive thinking has been operationalized as the latent dimension underlying life satisfaction, self-esteem and optimism. Happiness has been operationalized as the difference between positive and negative affects, as they are experienced in a variety of daily situations. In a group of 664 Italian adolescents, a structural model positing adolescents' emotional and interpersonal self-efficacy beliefs as proximal and distal determinants of positive thinking and happiness has been tested. Findings attest to the impact of affective and interpersonal-social self-efficacy beliefs on positive thinking and happiness both concurrently and longitudinally. Adolescents' self-efficacy beliefs to manage positive and negative emotions and interpersonal relationships contribute to promote positive expectations about the future, to mantain a high self-concept, to perceive a sense of satisfaction for the life and to experience more positive emotions.

  7. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population.

  8. MAAG Job Position (Iberian Spanish). Method for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria, Volume V.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; And Others

    The job position of military advisory and assistance group (MAAG) officer for the Air Force as performed in Iberian Spanish is described in terms of terminal skill objectives (TSOs) and enabling objectives (EOs). This analysis is part of the communication/language objectives-based system (C/LOBS), which supports the front-end analysis efforts of…

  9. Determination of positions of solar system bodies at Repsold meridian circle from 1992 till 1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maigurova, N. V.; Pogoniy, A. D.; Pyshnenko, V. N.; Sibilev, V. P.

    2002-04-01

    Position of the Solar system bodies: Uran, Neptune, Galilean satellites of Jupiter, satellite of Saturn Titan, Ceres, Pallas, Juno, Vesta, Hebe, Iris, and Melpomene were obtained from observations at Repsold Meridian Circle of Nikolaev Astronomical Observatory made in 1992-1999.

  10. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and attitude determination: Applications and activities in the Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor; Garrick, Joe

    1995-01-01

    The application of GPS to spacecraft attitude determination is a new and growing field. Although the theoretical literature is extensive, space flight testing is currently sparse and inadequate. As an operations organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) has the responsibility to investigate this new technology, and determine how best to implement the innovation to provide adequate support for future missions. This paper presents some of the current efforts within FDD with regard to GPS attitude determination. This effort specifically addresses institutional capabilities to accommodate a new type of sensor, critically evaluating the literature for recent advancements, and in examining some available -albeit crude- flight data.

  11. DETERMINATION OF CENTRAL ENGINE POSITION AND ACCRETION DISK STRUCTURE IN NGC 4261 BY CORE SHIFT MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Takafumi; Doi, Akihiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Sudou, Hiroshi; Kameno, Seiji; Hada, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    We report multifrequency phase-referenced observations of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 4261, which has prominent two-sided jets, using the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4–43 GHz. We measured radio core positions showing observing frequency dependences (known as “core shift”) in both approaching jets and counterjets. The limit of the core position as the frequency approaches infinity, which suggests a jet base, is separated by 82 ± 16 μas upstream in projection, corresponding to (310 ± 60)R{sub s} (R{sub s}: Schwarzschild radius) as a deprojected distance, from the 43 GHz core in the approaching jet. In addition, the innermost component at the counterjet side appeared to approach the same position at infinity of the frequency, indicating that cores on both sides are approaching the same position, suggesting a spatial coincidence with the central engine. Applying a phase-referencing technique, we also obtained spectral index maps, which indicate that emission from the counterjet is affected by free–free absorption (FFA). The result of the core shift profile on the counterjet also requires FFA because the core positions at 5–15 GHz cannot be explained by a simple core shift model based on synchrotron self-absorption (SSA). Our result is apparently consistent with the SSA core shift with an additional disk-like absorber over the counterjet side. Core shift and opacity profiles at the counterjet side suggest a two-component accretion: a radiatively inefficient accretion flow at the inner region and a truncated thin disk in the outer region. We proposed a possible solution about density and temperature profiles in the outer disk on the basis of the radio observation.

  12. An Artificial Neural Network Embedded Position and Orientation Determination Algorithm for Low Cost MEMS INS/GPS Integrated Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen; Li, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Yun-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Digital mobile mapping, which integrates digital imaging with direct geo-referencing, has developed rapidly over the past fifteen years. Direct geo-referencing is the determination of the time-variable position and orientation parameters for a mobile digital imager. The most common technologies used for this purpose today are satellite positioning using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). They are usually integrated in such a way that the GPS receiver is the main position sensor, while the IMU is the main orientation sensor. The Kalman Filter (KF) is considered as the optimal estimation tool for real-time INS/GPS integrated kinematic position and orientation determination. An intelligent hybrid scheme consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and KF has been proposed to overcome the limitations of KF and to improve the performance of the INS/GPS integrated system in previous studies. However, the accuracy requirements of general mobile mapping applications can’t be achieved easily, even by the use of the ANN-KF scheme. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligent position and orientation determination scheme that embeds ANN with conventional Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother to improve the overall accuracy of a MEMS INS/GPS integrated system in post-mission mode. By combining the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated system and the intelligent ANN-RTS smoother scheme proposed in this study, a cheaper but still reasonably accurate position and orientation determination scheme can be anticipated. PMID:22574034

  13. TH-C-BRD-03: Determining the Optimal Collimator Position for Collimated Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D; Smith, B; Hill, P; Gelover, E; Flynn, R; Hyer, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: There has been a growing interest in applying collimation to pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy in order to sharpen the lateral dose falloff out of the target, especially at low energies. Currently, there is not a method to optimally determine the collimation position or margin around the target. A uniform margin would not be ideal due to the fact that an incoming symmetric pencil beam, after being intercepted by a collimator near the target boundary, will become asymmetric and experience a lateral shift away from its original spot location, leaving the target insufficiently covered. We demonstrate a method that optimally determines the collimator position on a per-spot basis, in order to maximize target dose while minimizing normal tissue dose. Methods: A library of collimated pencil beams were obtained through Monte Carlo simulation with a collimator placed at varying distances from the central axis of an incoming symmetrical pencil beam of 118 MeV and 5 mm sigma-in-air. Two-dimensional treatment plans were then created using this library of collimated pencil beams. For each spot position in a treatment plan, the collimator position was optimally determined in such a way that the resultant pencil beam maximized the ratio of in-target dose and out-of-target dose. For comparison, un-collimated treatment plans were also computed. Results: The spot-by-spot optimally determined collimator positions allowed the reduction of normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target coverage as un-collimated PBS. Quantitatively, the mean dose outside of the target was reduced by approximately 40% as compared to the plan without collimation. Conclusion: The proposed method determines the optimal collimator position for each spot in collimated PBS proton therapy. The use of a collimator will improve PBS dose distributions achievable today and will continue to be the subject of future investigations.

  14. Specificity-Determining DNA Triplet Code for Positioning of Human Preinitiation Complex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldshtein, Matan; Lukatsky, David B.

    2017-05-01

    The notion that transcription factors bind DNA only through specific, consensus binding sites has been recently questioned. In a pioneering study by Pugh and Venters no specific consensus motif for the positioning of the human pre-initiation complex (PIC) has been identified. Here, we reveal that nonconsensus, statistical, DNA triplet code provides specificity for the positioning of the human PIC. In particular, we reveal a highly non-random, statistical pattern of repetitive nucleotide triplets that correlates with the genome-wide binding preferences of PIC measured by Chip-exo. We analyze the triplet enrichment and depletion near the transcription start site (TSS) and identify triplets that have the strongest effect on PIC-DNA nonconsensus binding. Our results constitute a proof-of-concept for a new design principle for protein-DNA recognition in the human genome, which can lead to a better mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation.

  15. Determination of shower central position in laterally segmented lead-fluoride electromagnetic calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, M.; Ghedira, L.; Voutier, E.

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of laterally segmented electromagnetic calorimeters, built of lead fluoride material, is studied on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations. Parametrization of the relative resolution on the shower position is proposed and optimized in terms of the energy of incoming particles and the elementary size of the calorimeter blocks. A new fit algorithm method is proposed that improves spatial resolution at high energies (> 5 GeV), and provides guidance for the design optimization of electromagnetic calorimeters.

  16. Diagnostic assays for identification of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance determinants directly from positive blood culture broth.

    PubMed

    Pence, Morgan A; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2013-09-01

    The detection of blood stream infections is one of the most important functions of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Sepsis is a clinical emergency, and mortality increases if commencement of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is delayed. Automated blood culture systems are the most sensitive approach for detection of the causative agent of sepsis. Several laboratory methods have been developed to expedite identification of organisms directly from positive blood culture broth. The principle and analytical performance characteristics of these methods are described in this review.

  17. Determinants of nucleosome positioning and their influence on plant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jung; Seddon, Alexander E; Tsai, Zing Tsung-Yeh; Major, Ian T; Floer, Monique; Howe, Gregg A; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2015-08-01

    Nucleosome positioning influences the access of transcription factors (TFs) to their binding sites and gene expression. Studies in plant, animal, and fungal models demonstrate similar nucleosome positioning patterns along genes and correlations between occupancy and expression. However, the relationships among nucleosome positioning, cis-regulatory element accessibility, and gene expression in plants remain undefined. Here we showed that plant nucleosome depletion occurs on specific 6-mer motifs and this sequence-specific nucleosome depletion is predictive of expression levels. Nucleosome-depleted regions in Arabidopsis thaliana tend to have higher G/C content, unlike yeast, and are centered on specific G/C-rich 6-mers, suggesting that intrinsic sequence properties, such as G/C content, cannot fully explain plant nucleosome positioning. These 6-mer motif sites showed higher DNase I hypersensitivity and are flanked by strongly phased nucleosomes, consistent with known TF binding sites. Intriguingly, this 6-mer-specific nucleosome depletion pattern occurs not only in promoter but also in genic regions and is significantly correlated with higher gene expression level, a phenomenon also found in rice but not in yeast. Among the 6-mer motifs enriched in genes responsive to treatment with the defense hormone jasmonate, there are no significant changes in nucleosome occupancy, suggesting that these sites are potentially preconditioned to enable rapid response without changing chromatin state significantly. Our study provides a global assessment of the joint contribution of nucleosome occupancy and motif sequences that are likely cis-elements to the control of gene expression in plants. Our findings pave the way for further understanding the impact of chromatin state on plant transcriptional regulatory circuits.

  18. Skew rays analysis to determine radial position of defects within optical fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, George Y.; Monro, Tanya M.; Lancaster, David G.

    2017-04-01

    Defects in optical fibers can cause severe damage, and thus must be found and repaired/replaced early. Such defects in fibers and their coatings can be detected using an angle-resolved interrogator that exploits the contribution of different ray groups. This approach can also estimate the radial position of defects within the fiber. A demonstration is performed with a femtosecond-laser-induced internal defect inside the cladding.

  19. A Procedure to Determine the Optimal Sensor Positions for Locating AE Sources in Rock Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duca, S.; Occhiena, C.; Sambuelli, L.

    2015-03-01

    Within a research work aimed to better understand frost weathering mechanisms of rocks, laboratory tests have been designed to specifically assess a theoretical model of crack propagation due to ice segregation process in water-saturated and thermally microcracked cubic samples of Arolla gneiss. As the formation and growth of microcracks during freezing tests on rock material is accompanied by a sudden release of stored elastic energy, the propagation of elastic waves can be detected, at the laboratory scale, by acoustic emission (AE) sensors. The AE receiver array geometry is a sensitive factor influencing source location errors, for it can greatly amplify the effect of small measurement errors. Despite the large literature on the AE source location, little attention, to our knowledge, has been paid to the description of the experimental design phase. As a consequence, the criteria for sensor positioning are often not declared and not related to location accuracy. In the present paper, a tool for the identification of the optimal sensor position on a cubic shape rock specimen is presented. The optimal receiver configuration is chosen by studying the condition numbers of each of the kernel matrices, used for inverting the arrival time and finding the source location, and obtained for properly selected combinations between sensors and sources positions.

  20. Aerotriangulation Supported by Camera Station Position Determined via Physical Integration of LIDAR and SLR Digital Camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitishita, E.; Martins, M.; Centeno, J.; Hainosz, F.

    2011-09-01

    Nowadays lidar and photogrammetric surveys have been used together in many mapping procedures due to their complementary characteristics. Lidar survey is capable to promptly acquire reliable elevation information that is sometimes difficult via photogrammetric procedure. On the other hand, photogrammetric survey is easily able to get semantic information of the objects. Accessibility, availability, the increasing sensor size and quick image acquisition and processing are properties that have raised the use of SLR digital cameras in photogrammetry. Orthoimage generation is a powerful photogrammetric mapping procedure, where the advantages of the integration of lidar and image datasets are very well characterized. However, to perform this application both datasets must be within a common reference frame. In this paper, a procedure to have digital images positioned and oriented in the same lidar frame via a combination of direct and indirect georeferencing is studied. The SLR digital camera was physically connected with the lidar system to calculate the camera station's position in lidar frame. After that, the aerotriangulation supported by camera station's position is performed to get image's exterior orientation parameters (EOP).

  1. Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]).

  2. Positioning of Chromosomes in Human Spermatozoa Is Determined by Ordered Centromere Arrangement

    PubMed Central

    Mudrak, Olga S.; B. Nazarov, Igor; Jones, Estella L.; Zalensky, Andrei O.

    2012-01-01

    The intranuclear positioning of chromosomes (CHRs) is a well-documented fact; however, mechanisms directing such ordering remain unclear. Unlike somatic cells, human spermatozoa contain distinct spatial markers and have asymmetric nuclei which make them a unique model for localizing CHR territories and matching peri-centromere domains. In this study, we established statistically preferential longitudinal and lateral positioning for eight CHRs. Both parameters demonstrated a correlation with the CHR gene densities but not with their sizes. Intranuclear non-random positioning of the CHRs was found to be driven by a specific linear order of centromeres physically interconnected in continuous arrays. In diploid spermatozoa, linear order of peri-centromeres was identical in two genome sets and essentially matched the arrangement established for haploid cells. We propose that the non-random longitudinal order of CHRs in human spermatozoa is generated during meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. The specific arrangement of sperm CHRs may serve as an epigenetic basis for differential transcription/replication and direct spatial CHR organization during early embryogenesis. PMID:23300830

  3. Positioning of chromosomes in human spermatozoa is determined by ordered centromere arrangement.

    PubMed

    Mudrak, Olga S; Nazarov, Igor B; Jones, Estella L; Zalensky, Andrei O

    2012-01-01

    The intranuclear positioning of chromosomes (CHRs) is a well-documented fact; however, mechanisms directing such ordering remain unclear. Unlike somatic cells, human spermatozoa contain distinct spatial markers and have asymmetric nuclei which make them a unique model for localizing CHR territories and matching peri-centromere domains. In this study, we established statistically preferential longitudinal and lateral positioning for eight CHRs. Both parameters demonstrated a correlation with the CHR gene densities but not with their sizes. Intranuclear non-random positioning of the CHRs was found to be driven by a specific linear order of centromeres physically interconnected in continuous arrays. In diploid spermatozoa, linear order of peri-centromeres was identical in two genome sets and essentially matched the arrangement established for haploid cells. We propose that the non-random longitudinal order of CHRs in human spermatozoa is generated during meiotic stages of spermatogenesis. The specific arrangement of sperm CHRs may serve as an epigenetic basis for differential transcription/replication and direct spatial CHR organization during early embryogenesis.

  4. An investigation of airborne GPS/INS for high accuracy position and velocity determination

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H.; Cannon, M.E.; Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    An airborne test using a differential GPS-INS system in a Twin Otter was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the feasibility of using the integrated system for cm-level position and cm/s velocity. The INS is a miniaturized ring-laser gyro IMU jointly developed by Sandia and Honeywell while the GPS system consists of the NovAtel GPSCard{trademark}. INS position, velocity and attitude data were computed using Sandia`s SANDAC flight computer system and logged at 4 Hz and GPS data was acquired at a 1 Hz rate. The mission was approximately 2.5 hours in duration and the aircraft reached separations of up to 19 km from the base station. The data was post-processed using a centralized Kalman filter approach in which the double differenced carrier phase measurements are used to update the INS data. The INS position is in turn used to detect and correct GPS carrier phase cycle slips and also to bridge GPS outages. Results are presented for the GPS-only case and also for integrated GPS/INS.

  5. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum...

  6. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum...

  7. 5 CFR 550.153 - Bases for determining positions for which premium pay under § 550.151 is authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., for example, a type of work occurs primarily at certain times of the day); or granting compensatory... overtime work will continue over an appropriate period with a duration and frequency sufficient to meet the... Uncontrollable Work § 550.153 Bases for determining positions for which premium pay under § 550.151 is authorized...

  8. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum...

  9. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION Minimum...

  10. An Intervention to Promote Positive Teacher-Student Relationships and Self-Determination among Adolescents with Emotional Disturbance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lind, John; Poppen, Marcus; Murray, Christopher

    2017-01-01

    Positive teacher-student relationships provide adolescents with disabilities the confidence to explore new challenges in and out of the classroom. Goal-setting and self-determination skills have been consistently shown to promote healthy transition adjustment among students with disabilities. Despite the growing awareness of the importance of…

  11. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  12. Positional Scanning Identifies the Molecular Determinants of a High Affinity Multi-Leucine Inhibitor for Furin and PACE4.

    PubMed

    Małuch, Izabela; Levesque, Christine; Kwiatkowska, Anna; Couture, Frédéric; Ly, Kévin; Desjardins, Roxane; Neugebauer, Witold A; Prahl, Adam; Day, Robert

    2017-03-24

    The proprotein convertase family of enzymes includes seven endoproteases with significant redundancy in their cleavage activity. We previously described the peptide Ac-LLLLRVK-Amba that displays potent inhibitory effects on both PACE4 and prostate cancer cell lines proliferation. Herein, the molecular determinants for PACE4 and furin inhibition were investigated by positional scanning using peptide libraries that substituted its leucine core with each natural amino acid. We determined that the incorporation of basic amino acids led to analogues with improved inhibitory potency toward both enzymes, whereas negatively charged residues significantly reduced it. All the remaining amino acids were in general well tolerated, with the exemption of the P6 position. However, not all of the potent PACE4 inhibitors displayed antiproliferative activity. The best analogues were obtained by the incorporation of the Ile residue at the P5 and P6 positions. These substitutions led to inhibitors with increased PACE4 selectivity and potent antiproliferative effects.

  13. CORRESPONDENCE OF STABLE ISOTOPE AND GUT CONTENTS ANALYSES IN DETERMINING TROPHIC POSITION OF STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that both stable isotope analysis (SIA) and gut contents analysis (GCA) be used in food web studies; however, few researchers have analyzed these data in concert. We utilized SIA and GCA to determine if longitudinal and seasonal variation in diet affects...

  14. Experimental Determination of Unknown Masses and Their Positions in a Mechanical Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura

    2013-01-01

    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  15. Determining a Relationship between Higher Education Financial Position and Tuition Discount Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Julianna

    2013-01-01

    Institutions have increased the practice of tuition discounting, that is, the strategic use of price discrimination. During the past 30 years, both the average percent discount given to students and the proportion of students receiving tuition breaks have increased. As this practice has increased, there are financial determinants and implications…

  16. CORRESPONDENCE OF STABLE ISOTOPE AND GUT CONTENTS ANALYSES IN DETERMINING TROPHIC POSITION OF STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that both stable isotope analysis (SIA) and gut contents analysis (GCA) be used in food web studies; however, few researchers have analyzed these data in concert. We utilized SIA and GCA to determine if longitudinal and seasonal variation in diet affects...

  17. Experimental Determination of Unknown Masses and Their Positions in a Mechanical Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura

    2013-01-01

    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  18. Blood-aqueous barrier permeability determination in HLA B27-positive acute anterior uveitis patients.

    PubMed

    Benitez del Castillo, J M; Toledano, N; Bañares, A; Hernandez, C; Arjona, M; Díaz Valle, D; Garcia Sanchez, J

    The blood-aqueous barrier (BAB) permeability was studied by fluorophotometry in 17 healthy control subjects and in 27 eyes from 27 patients with HLA-B27-positive acute anterior uveitis (HLA-B27 AAU). Twenty of these patients had an associated spondyloarthropathy. BAB permeability was studied during the ocular inflammatory crisis and in the disease-free periods in the same patients. Anterior chamber fluorophotometric scans were performed before and 30 minutes after the intravenous injection of 14 mg/kg of sodium fluorescein. The diffusion coefficient (Kd) was obtained from the ratio between the fluorescein concentration in the anterior chamber and the NPBF. Data were analyzed using the Student's t test and analysis of variance. A statistically significant difference (P < 0.001) was found between the Kd of active HLA-B27 AAU (61.4 +/- 16.8 x 10(-4) min-1) and the Kd of inactive HLA-B27 AAU (4.8 +/- 1.6 x 10(-4) min-1). No statistically significant differences were found between the Kd of inactive HLA-B27 AAU and the Kd of the control subjects (4.3 +/- 1.0 x 10(-4) min-1). We also failed to detect significant differences between patients with and without spondyloarthropathy either during the acute attack or during the disease-free period. On the basis of these results we conclude that the permeability of the BAB remains intact in inactive HLA-B27-positive AAU. The parallel fluorophotometric behaviour of HLA-B27-positive AAU with spondyloarthropathy and without spondyloarthropathy suggests that both share a common pathogenetic mechanism.

  19. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  20. Photon position determination using microchannel plates. [HEAO-B high resolution imaging instrumentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrison, D.; Kubierschky, K.

    1979-01-01

    The reasons for developing an X-ray photon position detector and a description of the system and its laboratory performance have been presented by Kubierschky et al. (1977) and by Kellogg et al. (1976). The reported investigation is concerned with an expansion of the design criteria for the analog function and their implementation in available hardware. A charge event is received by the preamplifier of each axis, grouped and processed by the summing amplifiers, verified by the pulse height analyzer, sorted by the charge center detector, stored by sample/holds, and converted by the multiplying analog to digital converter. The various components are discussed.

  1. The dynamics of global positioning system orbits and the determination of precise ephemerides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1989-01-01

    The suggestion made on the basis of the analytical orbit perturbation theory that the errors in the ephemerides of the GPS satellites are due mostly to resonant effects that can be corrected by adjusting a few parameters in a empirical acceleration formula is tested using simulations and actual data analysis. Data from the Spring 1985 Experiment were used to calculate improved ephemerides, and these ephemerides were used in the estimation of the coordinates of GPS stations within the continental United States, previously positioned with VLBI. The results of this test support the idea that the errors are mostly of a resonant nature and can be corrected.

  2. Device for determining relative angular position between a spacecraft and a radiation emitting celestial body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farthing, W. H.; Frisbie, H. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Signals indicative of the relative angular position between a spin stabilized spacecraft, probe, or sounding rocket and a radiation emitting celestial body are derived with a detector including four electrodes for deriving indications of the centroid of the radiation image on the detector. During each spin of the satellite each electrode derives a signal having a first non-zero level while the detector is not illuminated by the radiation, and a sound non-zero level while it is illuminated by the radiation.

  3. Specificity-Determining DNA Triplet Code for Positioning of Human Preinitiation Complex.

    PubMed

    Goldshtein, Matan; Lukatsky, David B

    2017-05-23

    The notion that transcription factors bind DNA only through specific, consensus binding sites has been recently questioned. No specific consensus motif for the positioning of the human preinitiation complex (PIC) has been identified. Here, we reveal that nonconsensus, statistical, DNA triplet code provides specificity for the positioning of the human PIC. In particular, we reveal a highly nonrandom, statistical pattern of repetitive nucleotide triplets that correlates with the genomewide binding preferences of PIC measured by Chip-exo. We analyze the triplet enrichment and depletion near the transcription start site and identify triplets that have the strongest effect on PIC-DNA nonconsensus binding. Using statistical mechanics, a random-binder model without fitting parameters, with genomic DNA sequence being the only input, we further validate that the nonconsensus nucleotide triplet code constitutes a key signature providing PIC binding specificity in the human genome. Our results constitute a proof-of-concept for, to our knowledge, a new design principle for protein-DNA recognition in the human genome, which can lead to a better mechanistic understanding of transcriptional regulation. Copyright © 2017 Biophysical Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Material, psychosocial and sociodemographic determinants are associated with positive mental health in Europe: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Dreger, Stefanie; Buck, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele

    2014-05-28

    To investigate the association between psychosocial, sociodemographic and material determinants of positive mental health in Europe. Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. 34 European countries. Representative Europe-wide sample consisting of 21 066 men and 22 569 women aged 18 years and over, from 34 European countries participating in the third wave of the European Quality of Life Survey (2011-2012). Positive mental health as measured by the WHO-5-Mental Well-being Index, while the lowest 25% centile indicated poor positive mental health. The prevalence of poor positive mental health was 30% in women and 24% in men. Material, as well as psychosocial, and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with poor positive mental health in a Europe-wide sample from 34 European countries. When studying all factors together, the highest OR for poor positive mental health was reported for social exclusion (men: OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.90; women: OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.81) among the psychosocial factors. Among the material factors, material deprivation had the highest impact (men: OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.78 to 2.15; women: OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.08). This study gives the first overview on determinants of positive mental health at a European level and could be used as the basis for preventive policies in the field of positive mental health in Europe. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  5. Automatic Determination of Optimal Linear Drilling Trajectories for Cochlear Access Accounting for Drill Positioning Error

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Jack H.; Majdani, Omid; Labadie, Robert F.; Dawant, Benoit; Fitzpatrick, J. Michael

    2010-01-01

    Background Cochlear implantation is a surgical procedure in which an electrode array is permanently implanted in the cochlea to stimulate the auditory nerve and allow deaf people to hear. Percutaneous cochlear access, a new minimally invasive implantation approach, requires drilling a single linear channel from skull surface to the cochlea. The focus of this paper addresses a major challenge with this approach, which is the ability to determine, in a pre-operative CT, a safe and effective drilling trajectory. Methods A measure of the safety and effectiveness of a given trajectory relative to sensitive structures is derived using a Monte Carlo approach. The drilling trajectory that maximizes this measure is found using an optimization algorithm. Results In tests on thirteen ears, the technique is shown to find approximately twice as many acceptable trajectories as those found manually by an experienced surgeon. Conclusions Using this method, safe trajectories can be automatically determined quickly and consistently. PMID:20812268

  6. The role of time-frequency in satellite position determination systems.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ehrlich, E.

    1972-01-01

    Tests were conducted by NASA on radio navigation satellite systems that employ the use of time-frequency determination. The satellites used for this purpose were the ATS 1 and 3, and the Nimbus 3 and 4. Several systems were tested in order to examine the feasibility of three satellite navigation concepts: (1) multiple satellite range measurements, (2) satellite range rate, or range and range rate measurements and (3) satellite angle measurements. Test results indicate that locations of ships and aircraft can be determined to within 3-5 km, one sigma, by these satellite methods, and that location accuracy is both a function of the RF employed and of the extent of knowledge of the satellite orbit.

  7. mRNA Profiling Reveals Determinants of Trastuzumab Efficiency in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    von der Heyde, Silvia; Wagner, Steve; Czerny, Alexander; Nietert, Manuel; Ludewig, Fabian; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Arlt, Dorit; Beißbarth, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we called and analyzed

  8. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.; Zollinger, W.T.; Heckendorn, F.M. II; Park, L.R.

    1994-02-15

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360[degree] about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms. 8 figures.

  9. Position and radius of the Sun determined by solar eclipses in combination with lunar occultations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Yoshio

    1993-12-01

    The observation data of four total solar eclipses in 1970, 1973, 1980, and 1991 were analyzed by putting all the data together to obtain accurate coordinates and semidiameter of the Sun relative to those of the Moon. With the position and figure of the Moon rectified by lunar occultation data, a constant correction to the coordinates of the Sun tabulated in the current ephemeris is found as follows: delta lambda (Sun) = -0 sec .04 +/- 0 sec .005, delta beta (Sun) = +0 sec .01 +/- 0 sec .008. Also, the following values for the semidiameter of the Sun were obtained: sigma(Sun) 70 = 959 sec .74 +/- 0 sec .008, sigma(Sun) 73 = 959 sec .84 +/- 0 sec .015, sigma(Sun) 80 959 sec .84 +/- 0 sec .012, sigma(Sun) 91 = 959 sec .88 +/- 0 sec .008 (4615 A) respectively for the 1970, 1973, 1980, and 1991 eclipses, giving an obvious evidence for the change in the solar radius.

  10. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark; Talarek, Ted R.; Zollinger, W. Thor; Heckendorn, II, Frank M.; Park, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360.degree. about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms.

  11. Determining the Position of Storks on the Phylogenetic Tree of Waterbirds by Retroposon Insertion Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kuramoto, Tae; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Maiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-11-01

    Despite many studies on avian phylogenetics in recent decades that used morphology, mitochondrial genomes, and/or nuclear genes, the phylogenetic positions of several birds (e.g., storks) remain unsettled. In addition to the aforementioned approaches, analysis of retroposon insertions, which are nearly homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, has also been used in avian phylogenetics. However, the first step in the analysis of retroposon insertions, that is, isolation of retroposons from genomic libraries, is a costly and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and cost-effective protocol to collect retroposon insertion information based on next-generation sequencing technology, which we call here the STRONG (Screening of Transposons Obtained by Next Generation Sequencing) method, and applied it to 3 waterbird species, for which we identified 35,470 loci containing chicken repeat 1 retroposons (CR1). Our analysis of the presence/absence of 30 CR1 insertions demonstrated the intra- and interordinal phylogenetic relationships in the waterbird assemblage, namely 1) Loons diverged first among the waterbirds, 2) penguins (Sphenisciformes) and petrels (Procellariiformes) diverged next, and 3) among the remaining families of waterbirds traditionally classified in Ciconiiformes/Pelecaniformes, storks (Ciconiidae) diverged first. Furthermore, our genome-scale, in silico retroposon analysis based on published genome data uncovered a complex divergence history among pelican, heron, and ibis lineages, presumably involving ancient interspecies hybridization between the heron and ibis lineages. Thus, our retroposon-based waterbird phylogeny and the established phylogenetic position of storks will help to understand the evolutionary processes of aquatic adaptation and related morphological convergent evolution. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Molecular Biology and Evolution.

  12. Determining the Position of Storks on the Phylogenetic Tree of Waterbirds by Retroposon Insertion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuramoto, Tae; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Maiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on avian phylogenetics in recent decades that used morphology, mitochondrial genomes, and/or nuclear genes, the phylogenetic positions of several birds (e.g., storks) remain unsettled. In addition to the aforementioned approaches, analysis of retroposon insertions, which are nearly homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, has also been used in avian phylogenetics. However, the first step in the analysis of retroposon insertions, that is, isolation of retroposons from genomic libraries, is a costly and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and cost-effective protocol to collect retroposon insertion information based on next-generation sequencing technology, which we call here the STRONG (Screening of Transposons Obtained by Next Generation Sequencing) method, and applied it to 3 waterbird species, for which we identified 35,470 loci containing chicken repeat 1 retroposons (CR1). Our analysis of the presence/absence of 30 CR1 insertions demonstrated the intra- and interordinal phylogenetic relationships in the waterbird assemblage, namely 1) Loons diverged first among the waterbirds, 2) penguins (Sphenisciformes) and petrels (Procellariiformes) diverged next, and 3) among the remaining families of waterbirds traditionally classified in Ciconiiformes/Pelecaniformes, storks (Ciconiidae) diverged first. Furthermore, our genome-scale, in silico retroposon analysis based on published genome data uncovered a complex divergence history among pelican, heron, and ibis lineages, presumably involving ancient interspecies hybridization between the heron and ibis lineages. Thus, our retroposon-based waterbird phylogeny and the established phylogenetic position of storks will help to understand the evolutionary processes of aquatic adaptation and related morphological convergent evolution. PMID:26527652

  13. Computational fluid dynamics vs. inverse dynamics methods to determine passive drag in two breaststroke glide positions.

    PubMed

    Costa, L; Mantha, V R; Silva, A J; Fernandes, R J; Marinho, D A; Vilas-Boas, J P; Machado, L; Rouboa, A

    2015-07-16

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays an important role to quantify, understand and "observe" the water movements around the human body and its effects on drag (D). We aimed to investigate the flow effects around the swimmer and to compare the drag and drag coefficient (CD) values obtained from experiments (using cable velocimetry in a swimming pool) with those of CFD simulations for the two ventral gliding positions assumed during the breaststroke underwater cycle (with shoulders flexed and upper limbs extended above the head-GP1; with shoulders in neutral position and upper limbs extended along the trunk-GP2). Six well-trained breaststroke male swimmers (with reasonable homogeneity of body characteristics) participated in the experimental tests; afterwards a 3D swimmer model was created to fit within the limits of the sample body size profile. The standard k-ε turbulent model was used to simulate the fluid flow around the swimmer model. Velocity ranged from 1.30 to 1.70 m/s for GP1 and 1.10 to 1.50 m/s for GP2. Values found for GP1 and GP2 were lower for CFD than experimental ones. Nevertheless, both CFD and experimental drag/drag coefficient values displayed a tendency to jointly increase/decrease with velocity, except for GP2 CD where CFD and experimental values display opposite tendencies. Results suggest that CFD values obtained by single model approaches should be considered with caution due to small body shape and dimension differences to real swimmers. For better accuracy of CFD studies, realistic individual 3D models of swimmers are required, and specific kinematics respected.

  14. The direct determination of double bond positions in lipid mixtures by liquid chromatography/in-line ozonolysis/mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chenxing; Zhao, Yuan-Yuan; Curtis, Jonathan M

    2013-01-31

    The direct determination of double bond positions in unsaturated lipids using in-line ozonolysis-mass spectrometry (O(3)-MS) is described. In this experiment, ozone penetrates through the semi-permeable Teflon AF-2400 tubing containing a flow of a solution of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME). Unsaturated FAME are thus oxidized by the ozone and cleaved at the double bond positions. The ozonolysis products then flow directly into the atmospheric pressure photoionization (APPI) source of a mass spectrometer for analysis. Aldehyde products retaining the methyl ester group are indicative of the double bond positions in unsaturated FAME. For the first time, O(3)-MS is able to couple directly to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), making the double bond localization in lipid mixtures possible. The application of LC/O(3)-MS has been demonstrated for a fat sample from bovine adipose tissue. A total of 9 unsaturated FAME including 6 positional isomers were identified unambiguously, without comparison to standards. The in-line ozonolysis reaction apparatus is applicable to most mass spectrometers without instrumental modification; it is also directly compatible with various LC columns. The LC/O(3)-MS method described here is thus a practical, versatile and easy to use new approach to the direct determination of double bond positions in lipids, even in complex mixtures.

  15. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  16. An amino acid at position 512 in β-glucosidase from Clavibacter michiganensis determines the regioselectivity for hydrolyzing gypenoside XVII.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Hong, Seung-Hye; Seo, Min-Ju; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-10-01

    A recombinant β-glucosidase from Clavibacter michiganensis specifically hydrolyzed the outer and inner glucose linked to the C-3 position in protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides and the C-6 position in protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides except for the hydrolysis of gypenoside LXXV (GypLXXV). The enzyme converted gypenoside XVII (GypXVII) to GypLXXV by hydrolyzing the inner glucose linked to the C-3 position. The substrate-binding residues obtained from the GypXVII-docked homology models of β-glucosidase from C. michiganensis were replaced with alanine, and the amino acid residue at position 512 was selected because of the changed regioselectivity of W512A. Site-directed mutagenesis for the amino acid residue at position 512 was performed. W512A and W512K hydrolyzed the inner glucose linked to the C-3 position and the outer glucose linked to the C-20 position of GypXVII to produce GypLXXV and F2. W512R hydrolyzed only the outer glucose linked to the C-20 position of GypXVII to produce F2. However, W512E and W512D exhibited no activity for GypXVII. Thus, the amino acid at position 512 is a critical residue to determine the regioselectivity for the hydrolysis of GypXVII. These wild-type and variant enzymes produced diverse ginsenosides, including GypXVII, GypLXXV, F2, and compound K, from ginsenoside Rb1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the alteration of regioselectivity on ginsenoside hydrolysis by protein engineering.

  17. Using Ultrasonography to Determine Optimal Head-down Tilt Position Angle in Patients before Catheterization of the Internal Jugular Vein

    PubMed Central

    Kasatkin, Anton A.; Urakov, Aleksandr L.; Nigmatullina, Anna R.

    2017-01-01

    Context: It is believed that 15°–25° head-down tilt position increases the internal jugular vein cross-sectional area (IJV CSA). The increase in IJV CSA before puncture reduces the risk of its perforation. This pattern was not observed in all patients. We assumed that the absence of respiratory-based IJV excursion is one of the criteria of head-down tilt position effectiveness. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the head-down tilt angle, which ensures the absence of the respiratory-based IJV excursion. Subjects and Methods: Prospective study included twenty adult patients. The IJVs scanning was carried out in 1 min after placing the patients in a horizontal position on their back and in 1 min after placing them in the head-down tilt position at 5°, 10°, 15°, and 20° tilt angles. Results: We found that collapsibility index of <9% indicating the absence of respiratory-based IJV excursion was recorded in 25% of patients in the horizontal supine position. In this case, placing the patients in the Trendelenburg position for IJV catheterization may not be indicated. In 65% of the patients, the respiratory-based excursion was not observed at 10° head-down tilt position. Only 35% of the patients required 15° head-down tilt position. Conclusions: In clinical settings, the disappearance of respiratory-based vein excursion on the ultrasound scanner screen can be considered as criteria of the head-down tilt position effectiveness. PMID:28400687

  18. Use of global positioning system measurements to determine geocentric coordinates and variations in Earth orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geocentric tracking station coordinates and short-period Earth-orientation variations can be measured with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Unless calibrated, geocentric coordinate errors and changes in Earth orientation can lead to significant deep-space tracking errors. Ground-based GPS estimates of daily and subdaily changes in Earth orientation presently show centimeter-level precision. Comparison between GPS-estimated Earth-rotation variations, which are the differences between Universal Time 1 and Universal Coordinated Time (UT1-UTC), and those calculated from ocean tide models suggests that observed subdaily variations in Earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Preliminary GPS estimates for the geocenter location (from a 3-week experiment) agree with independent satellite laser-ranging estimates to better than 10 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for Earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low Earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low Earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales of less than 1 day.

  19. Recruitment of parvalbumin-positive interneurons determines hippocampal function and associated behavior.

    PubMed

    Fuchs, Elke C; Zivkovic, Aleksandar R; Cunningham, Mark O; Middleton, Steven; Lebeau, Fiona E N; Bannerman, David M; Rozov, Andrei; Whittington, Miles A; Traub, Roger D; Rawlins, J Nicholas P; Monyer, Hannah

    2007-02-15

    Perisomatic inhibition provided by a subgroup of GABAergic interneurons plays a critical role in timing the output of pyramidal cells. To test their contribution at the network and the behavioral level, we generated genetically modified mice in which the excitatory drive was selectively reduced either by the knockout of the GluR-D or by conditional ablation of the GluR-A subunit in parvalbumin-positive cells. Comparable cell type-specific reductions of AMPA-mediated currents were obtained. Kainate-induced gamma oscillations exhibited reduced power in hippocampal slices from GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice. Experimental and modeling data indicated that this alteration could be accounted for by imprecise spike timing of fast-spiking cells (FS) caused by smaller interneuronal EPSPs. GluR-D-/- and GluR-A(PVCre-/-) mice exhibited similar impairments in hippocampus-dependent tasks. These findings directly show the effects of insufficient recruitment of fast-spiking cells at the network and behavioral level and demonstrate the role of this subpopulation for working and episodic-like memory.

  20. On the determination of the effect of horizontal ionospheric gradients on ranging errors in GNSS positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danilogorskaya, Ekaterina A.; Zernov, Nikolay N.; Gherm, Vadim E.; Strangeways, Hal J.

    2016-12-01

    An alternative approach to the traditionally employed method is proposed for treating the ionospheric range errors in transionospheric propagation such as for GNSS positioning or satellite-borne SAR. It enables the effects due to horizontal gradients of electron density (as well as vertical gradients) in the ionosphere to be explicitly accounted for. By contrast with many previous treatments, where the expansion of the solution for the phase advance is represented as the series in the inverse frequency powers and the main term of the expansion corresponds to the true line-of-sight distance from the transmitter to the receiver, in the alternative technique the zero-order term is the rigorous solution for a spherically layered ionosphere with any given vertical electron density profile. The first-order term represents the effects due to the horizontal gradients of the electron density of the ionosphere, and the second-order correction appears to be negligibly small for any reasonable parameters of the path of propagation and its geometry for VHF/UHF frequencies. Additionally, an "effective" spherically symmetric model of the ionosphere has been introduced, which accounts for the major contribution of the horizontal gradients of the ionosphere and provides very high accuracy in calculations of the phase advance.

  1. Phloem-associated auxin response maxima determine radial positioning of lateral roots in maize

    PubMed Central

    Jansen, Leentje; Roberts, Ianto; De Rycke, Riet; Beeckman, Tom

    2012-01-01

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral-root-forming competence of pericycle cells is associated with their position at the xylem poles and depends on the establishment of protoxylem-localized auxin response maxima. In maize, our histological analyses revealed an interruption of the pericycle at the xylem poles, and confirmed the earlier reported proto-phloem-specific lateral root initiation. Phloem-pole pericycle cells were larger and had thinner cell walls compared with the other pericycle cells, highlighting the heterogeneous character of the maize root pericycle. A maize DR5::RFP marker line demonstrated the presence of auxin response maxima in differentiating xylem cells at the root tip and in cells surrounding the proto-phloem vessels. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport indicated that the establishment of the phloem-localized auxin response maxima is crucial for lateral root formation in maize, because in their absence, random divisions of pericycle and endodermis cells occurred, not resulting in organogenesis. These data hint at an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which the establishment of vascular auxin response maxima is required to trigger cells in the flanking outer tissue layer for lateral root initiation. It further indicates that lateral root initiation is not dependent on cellular specification or differentiation of the type of vascular tissue. PMID:22527395

  2. Phloem-associated auxin response maxima determine radial positioning of lateral roots in maize.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Leentje; Roberts, Ianto; De Rycke, Riet; Beeckman, Tom

    2012-06-05

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, lateral-root-forming competence of pericycle cells is associated with their position at the xylem poles and depends on the establishment of protoxylem-localized auxin response maxima. In maize, our histological analyses revealed an interruption of the pericycle at the xylem poles, and confirmed the earlier reported proto-phloem-specific lateral root initiation. Phloem-pole pericycle cells were larger and had thinner cell walls compared with the other pericycle cells, highlighting the heterogeneous character of the maize root pericycle. A maize DR5::RFP marker line demonstrated the presence of auxin response maxima in differentiating xylem cells at the root tip and in cells surrounding the proto-phloem vessels. Chemical inhibition of auxin transport indicated that the establishment of the phloem-localized auxin response maxima is crucial for lateral root formation in maize, because in their absence, random divisions of pericycle and endodermis cells occurred, not resulting in organogenesis. These data hint at an evolutionarily conserved mechanism, in which the establishment of vascular auxin response maxima is required to trigger cells in the flanking outer tissue layer for lateral root initiation. It further indicates that lateral root initiation is not dependent on cellular specification or differentiation of the type of vascular tissue.

  3. Plasminogen Is a Joint-Specific Positive or Negative Determinant of Arthritis Pathogenesis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Raghu, Harini; Jone, Alice; Cruz, Carolina; Rewerts, Cheryl L.; Frederick, Malinda D.; Thornton, Sherry; Degen, Jay L.; Flick, Matthew J.

    2014-01-01

    Objective A fundamental metric in the diagnosis of arthropathies is the pattern of joint involvement, including differences in proximal versus distal joints and patterns of symmetric or asymmetric disease. The basis for joint selectivity among arthritides and/or within a defined disease such as rheumatoid arthritis remains enigmatic. Coagulation and fibrinolytic activity are observed in both experimental animals with inflammatory joint disease and patients with inflammatory arthritis. However, the contribution of specific hemostatic factors to joint disease is not fully defined. We sought to determine the contribution of the fibrinolytic protease, plasminogen, to tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα)–driven arthritis in distinct joints in mice. Methods The impact of plasminogen and/or fibrinogen genetic deficiencies on arthritis progression was evaluated in Tg197 mice genetically predisposed to spontaneous, nonabating, and erosive polyarthritis due to exuberant human TNFα expression. Results Elimination of plasminogen in Tg197 mice significantly exacerbated the incidence and severity of arthritis within the paw joints, but simultaneously and dramatically diminished the entire spectrum of pathologies within the knee joints of the same animals. These opposing outcomes were both mechanistically linked to fibrin(ogen), in that superimposing fibrinogen deficiency reversed both the proarthritic phenotype in the paws and arthritis resistance in the knees of plasminogen-deficient mice. Intriguingly, the change in disease severity in the knees, but not the paws, was associated with a plasminogen-dependent reduction in matrix metalloproteinase 9 activity. Conclusion Plasminogen is a key molecular determinant of inflammatory joint disease capable of simultaneously driving or ameliorating arthritis pathogenesis in distinct anatomic locations in the same subject. PMID:24574269

  4. A new sensor system for accurate and precise determination of sediment dynamics and position.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Sventek, Joseph; Hodge, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    ), with sampling frequency 4 to 10Hz, for two different initial positions over a range of slopes (from 0.026 to 0.57). The results reveal forces during the pre-entrainment phase and show the effect of slope on the temporal characteristics of the process. Finally we present results from the simulations using a mathematical framework developed to integrate the inertial-dynamics data (corresponding to the above experimental procedure and sensing conceptualization) [Abeywardana et al. 2012] with the mathematical techniques used in contemporary localization applications [Zanella et al. 2012]. We specifically assess different signal filtering techniques in terms of: a) how informative they are regarding the complexity of sediment movement; and, b) how possible it is to reduce rapidly accumulating errors that occur during sensing and increase positional accuracy. References Maniatis, G.; Hoey, T.; Sventek, J. Sensor Enclosures: Example Application and Implications for Data Coherence. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2, 761-779. Abeywardana, D. K., A. P. Hu, and N. Kularatna. "IPT charged wireless sensor module for river sedimentation detection." Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2012 IEEE. IEEE, 2012. Zannella, Fillipo, and Angelo Cenedese. "Multi-agent tracking in wireless sensor networks: implementation." WSEAS Int. Conf. on Information Technology and Computer Networks (ITCN). 2012.

  5. Resilient appliance-therapy treatment outcome in patients with TMD pain correlated to MRI-determined changes in condyle position.

    PubMed

    Limchaichana, Napat; Nilsson, Håkan; Petersson, Arne; Ekberg, EwaCarin

    2009-07-01

    The aim of this research was to study if changes in condyle position in temporomandibular disorders (TMD) patients could be a factor that is affected by resilient appliance therapy and if it influences the treatment outcome. The study investigated 48 patients randomly assigned to a treatment group (T group = 21 patients, using resilient appliance) or a control group (C group = 27 patients, using nonoccluding appliance). Changes in the condyle-fossa relationship (with and without the appliance) were determined in an MRI examination. Ten weeks after treatment, the treatment outcome was measured. The results showed that with the appliance, change in condyle position occurred in 76% of the T group and 22% of the C group (p < 0.001). Sixty-seven percent (67%) of the T group and 44% of the C group experienced a successful treatment outcome. Treatment outcome was not related to changes in condyle position in patients with TMD pain.

  6. Optimal integer resolution for attitude determination using global positioning system signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new motion-based algorithm for GPS integer ambiguity resolution is derived. The first step of this algorithm converts the reference sightline vectors into body frame vectors. This is accomplished by an optimal vectorized transformation of the phase difference measurements. The result of this transformation leads to the conversion of the integer ambiguities to vectorized biases. This essentially converts the problem to the familiar magnetometer-bias determination problem, for which an optimal and efficient solution exists. Also, the formulation in this paper is re-derived to provide a sequential estimate, so that a suitable stopping condition can be found during the vehicle motion. The advantages of the new algorithm include: it does not require an a-priori estimate of the vehicle's attitude; it provides an inherent integrity check using a covariance-type expression; and it can sequentially estimate the ambiguities during the vehicle motion. The only disadvantage of the new algorithm is that it requires at least three non-coplanar baselines. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator.

  7. High-Accuracy Self-Calibration for Smart, Optical Orbiting Payloads Integrated with Attitude and Position Determination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Chu, Daping; Liu, Zilong

    2016-01-01

    A high-accuracy space smart payload integrated with attitude and position (SSPIAP) is a new type of optical remote sensor that can autonomously complete image positioning. Inner orientation parameters (IOPs) are a prerequisite for image position determination of an SSPIAP. The calibration of IOPs significantly influences the precision of image position determination of SSPIAPs. IOPs can be precisely measured and calibrated in a laboratory. However, they may drift to a significant degree because of vibrations during complicated launches and on-orbit functioning. Therefore, laboratory calibration methods are not suitable for on-orbit functioning. We propose an on-orbit self-calibration method for SSPIAPs. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) point-source focal plane. A MEMS procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point light sources and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter and the MEMS point light sources focal plane are integrated into an SSPIAP so it can perform integrated self-calibration. Experiments show that our method can achieve micrometer-level precision, which is good enough to complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations. PMID:27472339

  8. Experimental validation for the determination of particle positions by the correlation coefficient method in digital particle holography.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Kang, Bo-seon

    2008-11-10

    The feasibility and the accuracy of the correlation coefficient (CC) method for the determination of particle positions along the optical axis in digital particle holography were verified by validation experiments. A translation system capable of high precision was used to move the particle objects by exact known distances between several different positions. The particle positions along the optical axis were calculated by the CC method and compared with their exact values to obtain the errors of the focus plane determination. The tested particles were two-dimensional (2D) dots in a calibration target along with different-sized glass beads and droplets that reflected and caused a three-dimensional (3D) effect. The results show that the CC method can work well for both the 2D dots and the 3D particles. The effect of other particles on the focus plane determination was also investigated. The CC method can locate the focus plane of particles with high precision, regardless of the existence of other particles.

  9. 5' sequences are important positive and negative determinants of the longevity of Chlamydomonas chloroplast gene transcripts.

    PubMed Central

    Salvador, M L; Klein, U; Bogorad, L

    1993-01-01

    We have found that sequences in the 5' leader of the Chlamydomonas chloroplast rbcL gene, when fused 5' to foreign genes, destabilize transcripts of these chimeric genes in the chloroplast of transgenic Chlamydomonas but that 5' sequences of the rbcL structural gene prevent this destabilization. Transcripts of the chloroplast rbcL gene are about equally abundant at all times in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii growing on an alternating 12-h light/12-h dark cycle. However, Chlamydomonas chloroplast transformants, harboring chimeric genes containing the same rbcL promoter with 63 or 92 bp of the rbcL 5' leader sequence fused upstream of the Escherichia coli uidA (beta-glucuronidase, GUS) gene, accumulated GUS transcripts only in the dark. Transcripts disappeared rapidly upon illumination of the cells. The same phenomenon was exhibited by transcripts of chimeric genes in which the GUS gene coding sequence was replaced by other unrelated genes. The precipitous light-induced drop in GUS transcript abundance was found to be due to an approximately 16-fold increase in the rate of degradation of GUS transcripts in light rather than to a decrease in the rate of transcription of the GUS gene. Transcripts of a chimeric rbcL-GUS construct in which the leader sequence of the rbcL gene was replaced by 103 bp of the leader sequence of the atpB gene were stable in illuminated cells. The destabilizing effect of the rbcL 5' leader sequence was reversed by adding 257 bp of the 5' coding region of the rbcL gene. The results show that chloroplast transcript levels in illuminated Chlamydomonas cells--and perhaps in other cases--can be determined, at least to some extent, by sequences and interactions of sequences transcribed from the 5' ends of genes. Images PMID:8434017

  10. Intramitochondrial positions of ubiquinone and iron-sulphur centres determined by dipolar interactions with paramagnetic ions.

    PubMed Central

    Case, G D; Ohnishi, T; Leigh, J S

    1976-01-01

    E.p.r. (electron-paramagnetic-resonance) spectra of ubisemiquinone (QH) organic radicals and all of the known iron-sulphur centres were studied in normal and 'nickle-plated' pigeon heart mitochondria, submitochondrial particles and submitochondrial particles from which succinate dehydrogenase had been removed. Incubation of pigeon heart mitochondria, submitochondrial particles or succinate dehydrogenase-depleted submitochondrial particles with substrate in the presence of pure O2 results in the accumulation of Q-H. In mitochondria, the e.p.r. spectrum of Q-H is characterized by in-homogeneous line broadening. A heterogeneous population of semiquinones appears to be partly responsible for these effects in mitochondria. Additon of Ni(II) to mitochondria renders saturation of the Q-H resonance more difficult. On the other hand, the resonance in either submitochondrial particles or succinate dehydrogenase-depleted particles is narrower than the same spectrum in mitochondria, and saturates like a homogeneous line. The presence of Ni(II) in either of these preparations, further, has no effect on either the A-H spectrum or the saturation curve. Therefore QH appears to be situated on the exterior surface of the mitochondrion. Likewise, the e.p.r. spectra and saturation curves of iron-sulphur centre N-2 exhibit characteristics of inhomogeneous line broadening, not only in intact mitochondria but also in both submitochondrial particles and succinate dehydrogenase-depleted particles. Because of the small pool size of centre N-2, this effect is likely to arise from a spin interaction with some other component in the membrane. Ni(II) has no effect on the saturation in centre N-2 in mitochondria or submitochondrial particles, and only a marginal effect in the succinate dehydrogenase-depleted preparation. These results are indeterminate with respect to the position of centre N-2 in the membrane; but suggest that its distance from the succinate dehydrogenase binding site is on the

  11. A functional evolutionary approach to identify determinants of nucleosome positioning: a unifying model for establishing the genome-wide pattern.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Amanda L; Jin, Yi; Rando, Oliver J; Struhl, Kevin

    2012-10-12

    Although the genomic pattern of nucleosome positioning is broadly conserved, quantitative aspects vary over evolutionary timescales. We identify the cis and trans determinants of nucleosome positioning using a functional evolutionary approach involving S. cerevisiae strains containing large genomic regions from other yeast species. In a foreign species, nucleosome depletion at promoters is maintained over poly(dA:dT) tracts, whereas internucleosome spacing and all other aspects of nucleosome positioning tested are not. Interestingly, the locations of the +1 nucleosome and RNA start sites shift in concert. Strikingly, in a foreign species, nucleosome-depleted regions occur fortuitously in coding regions, and they often act as promoters that are associated with a positioned nucleosome array linked to the length of the transcription unit. We suggest a three-step model in which nucleosome remodelers, general transcription factors, and the transcriptional elongation machinery are primarily involved in generating the nucleosome positioning pattern in vivo. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Childhood and adult socio-economic position and social mobility as determinants of low back pain outcomes.

    PubMed

    Lallukka, T; Viikari-Juntura, E; Raitakari, O T; Kähönen, M; Lehtimäki, T; Viikari, J; Solovieva, S

    2014-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) is a prevalent problem and tends to be socio-economically patterned. Relatively little is known about life-course socio-economic circumstances as determinants of different types of LBP. Our aim was to examine whether childhood and adult socio-economic position and social mobility are associated with radiating and non-specific LBP and sciatica. Data were derived from the Young Finns Study (n = 2231). Childhood socio-economic position was based on parental education, occupational class and family income at baseline in 1980. Data on own education and LBP outcomes were collected at the end of follow-up in 2007. Social mobility was based on parental and own education. Covariates were composed of age, parental body mass index and smoking. Both childhood and own socio-economic position remained associated with radiating LBP and sciatica after adjustments. However, the associations varied by socio-economic indicator and gender. Stable lower socio-economic position and downward mobility were associated with radiating LBP. Childhood socio-economic circumstances affect the risk of radiating LBP and sciatica in adulthood. To prevent low back disorders, early socio-economic circumstances need to be considered alongside own socio-economic position. © 2013 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  13. Function and position determine relative proportions of different fiber types in limb muscles of the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Anieli G; Abdala, Virginia; Kohlsdorf, Tiana

    2015-02-01

    Skeletal muscles can be classified as flexors or extensors according to their function, and as dorsal or ventral according to their position. The latter classification evokes their embryological origin from muscle masses initially divided during limb development, and muscles sharing a given position do not necessarily perform the same function. Here, we compare the relative proportions of different fiber types among six limb muscles in the lizard Tropidurus psammonastes. Individual fibers were classified as slow oxidative (SO), fast glycolytic (FG) or fast oxidative-glycolytic (FOG) based on mitochondrial content; muscles were classified according to position and function. Mixed linear models considering one or both effects were compared using likelihood ratio tests. Variation in the proportion of FG and FOG fibers is mainly explained by function (flexor muscles have on average lower proportions of FG and higher proportions of FOG fibers), while variation in SO fibers is better explained by position (they are less abundant in ventral muscles than in those developed from a dorsal muscle mass). Our results clarify the roles of position and function in determining the relative proportions of the various muscle fibers and provide evidence that these factors may differentially affect distinct fiber types. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  14. False-Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2 % and <0.8 % are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false-positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  15. False-positive rate determination of protein target discovery using a covalent modification- and mass spectrometry-based proteomics platform.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Erin C; Geer, M Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2% and <0.8% are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false-positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  16. False Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. The Stability of Proteins from Rates of Oxidation (SPROX) technique is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False positive rates of 1.2–2.2% and <0.8% are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed. PMID:24114261

  17. Effect of Body Position on Energy Expenditure of Preterm Infants as Determined by Simultaneous Direct and Indirect Calorimetry.

    PubMed

    Bell, Edward F; Johnson, Karen J; Dove, Edwin L

    2017-04-01

    Background Indirect calorimetry is the standard method for estimating energy expenditure in clinical research. Few studies have evaluated indirect calorimetry in infants by comparing it with simultaneous direct calorimetry. Our purpose was (1) to compare the energy expenditure of preterm infants determined by these two methods, direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry; and (2) to examine the effect of body position, supine or prone, on energy expenditure. Study Design We measured energy expenditure by simultaneous direct (heat loss by gradient-layer calorimeter corrected for heat storage) and indirect calorimetry (whole-body oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production) in 15 growing preterm infants during two consecutive interfeeding intervals, once in the supine position and once in the prone position. Results The mean energy expenditure for all measurements in both positions did not differ significantly by the method used: 2.82 (standard deviation [SD] 0.42) kcal/kg/h by direct calorimetry and 2.78 (SD 0.48) kcal/kg/h by indirect calorimetry. The energy expenditure was significantly lower, by 10%, in the prone than in the supine position, whether examined by direct calorimetry (2.67 vs. 2.97 kcal/kg/h, p < 0.001) or indirect calorimetry (2.64 vs. 2.92 kcal/kg/h, p = 0.017). Conclusion Direct calorimetry and indirect calorimetry gave similar estimates of energy expenditure. Energy expenditure was 10% lower in the prone position than in the supine position.

  18. Determination of the reference position in the near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Guang; Liu, Jin; Liu, Rong; Xu, Kexin

    2016-10-01

    Position-based reference measurement method is taken as one of the most promising method in non-invasive measurement of blood glucose based on spectroscopic methodology. Selecting an appropriate source-detector separation as the reference position is important for deducting the influence of background change and reducing the loss of useful signals. Our group proposed a special source-detector separation named floating-reference position where the signal contains only background change, that is to say, the signal at this source-detector separation is uncorrelated with glucose concentration. The existence of floating-reference position has been verified in a three layer skin by Monte Carlo simulation and in the in vitro experiment. But it is difficult to verify the existence of floating-reference position on the human body because the interference is more complex during in vivo experiment. Aiming at this situation, this paper studies the determination of the best reference position on human body by collecting signals at several source-detector separations on the palm and measuring the true blood glucose levels during oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) experiments of 3 volunteers. Partial least square (PLS) calibration model is established between the signals at every source-detector separation and its corresponding blood glucose levels. The results shows that the correlation coefficient (R) between 1.32 mm to 1.88 mm is lowest and they can be used as reference for background correction. The signal of this special position is important for improving the accuracy of near-infrared non-invasive blood glucose measurement.

  19. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  20. Wrist skin temperature, motor activity, and body position as determinants of the circadian pattern of blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Blazquez, A; Martinez-Nicolas, A; Salazar, F J; Rol, M A; Madrid, J A

    2012-07-01

    Although the circadian blood pressure (BP) pattern has been extensively studied, the determinants of this rhythm are not fully understood. Peripheral vasodilatation is a regulatory mechanism for BP maintenance. However, it remains to be established whether the increase of nocturnal distal skin temperature associated with heat loss could also reflect the dipping status. For the first time, this paper investigates the relationship between BP and skin wrist temperature (WT), to evaluate whether the WT circadian rhythm can serve as screening procedure to detect dipping/non-dipping BP patterns. In addition, the authors compare the relationship between WT and other variables previously described as determinants of the BP pattern, such as physical activity and body position. Measurements of WT, motor activity, and body position for 5 d, plus ambulatory BP for 24-h during that span, were obtained from 28 diurnally active normotensive volunteers. WT was negatively correlated, whereas activity and body position were positively correlated, with systolic and diastolic BPs. However, these relationships were stronger during the rest than activity phase. In addition, a 78.6% concordance was detected between the observed dips in BP and the predicted BP pattern calculated based on the WT rhythm. Thus, these results suggest that the increase in WT produced by heat loss during the rest phase through peripheral skin blood vessels is the result of blood vessel vasodilatation reflexes in response to a shift from a standing to a supine position, together with shift in the circadian sympathetic/parasympathetic balance (nocturnal parasympathetic activation). In conclusion, WT could be considered as a potential new screening procedure to implement the diagnosis of non-dipping BP pattern.

  1. Trends and Determinants of Human Papillomavirus Concordance Among Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Positive and -Negative Heterosexual Couples in Rakai, Uganda.

    PubMed

    Grabowski, Mary K; Gravitt, Patti E; Gray, Ronald H; Serwadda, David; Redd, Andrew D; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kong, Xiangrong; Nalugoda, Fred; Wawer, Maria J; Quinn, Thomas C; Tobian, Aaron A R

    2017-03-01

    Limited data are available on human papillomavirus (HPV) infection among human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-negative or HIV-positive couples followed longitudinally. Genital HPV was assessed in 725 concordant HIV-negative couples and 209 HIV-positive couples enrolled in a male circumcision trial in Rakai, Uganda, using the Roche Linear Array assay, which detects 37 HPV genotypes. Human papillomavirus prevalence and determinants of genotype-specific concordance were assessed at annual visits. Cumulative detection of HPV genotypes over 2 years was also assessed. At enrollment, HPV infection was detected in 54% of HIV-negative women, 56% of HIV-negative men, and 93% of HIV-positive men and women. For HIV-negative couples, genotypic concordance was 30% at baseline (n = 219/725) and declined significantly with age (adjusted prevelance risk ratio [adjPRR] = 0.53; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.28-0.93 comparing women aged >40 years to those aged 15-19 years) and male circumcision (adjPRR = 0.60; 95% CI = 0.47-0.77) and increased among couples with recent intercourse (adjPRR = 1.26; 95% CI = 1.04-1.53). These associations were not seen in HIV-positive couples. Among couples with HPV results at all visits, ≥1 of the same genotypes were detected in both partners in 60% of HIV-negative couples and 96% of HIV-positive couples over 2 years. Human papillomavirus genotype-specific concordance is more common in HIV-positive couples, and irrespective of HIV status, the majority of couples exhibit HPV concordance over 2 years.

  2. Determination of Lateral Diffusivity in Single Pixel X-ray Absorbers with Implications for Position Dependent Excess Broadening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saab, T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J.

    2005-01-01

    An ideal microcalorimeter is characterized by a constant energy resolution across the sensor's dynamic range. Any dependence of pulse shape on the position within the absorber where an event occurs leads to a degradation in resolution that is linear with event s energy (excess broadening). In this paper we present a numerical simulation that was developed to model the variation in pulse shape with position based on the thermal conductivity within the absorber and between the absorber, sensor, and heat bath, for arbitrarily shaped absorbers and sensors. All the parameters required for the simulation can be measured from actual devices. We describe how the thermal conductivity of the absorber material is determined by comparing the results of this model with data taken from a position sensitive detector in which any position dependent effect is purposely emphasized by making a long, narrow absorber that is read out by sensors on both end. Finally, we present the implications for excess broadening given the measured parameters of our X-ray microcalorimeters.

  3. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  4. Modified Occlusal Rim Design and Use of Phonetics to Determine Anterior Tooth Position and Vertical Dimension: A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Romero, Mario F; DeRosa, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients can sometimes pose many clinical challenges for the clinician. The importance of correct vertical and horizontal positioning of the anterior teeth so that the completed denture is esthetically pleasing while being functionally correct has been well documented in the literature. Different techniques have been proposed whereby a conventional occlusal rim is used. The wax-rim thickness of this design can interfere with the neutral zone, making normal phonetics difficult. In this report, a completely edentulous patient received treatment using a modified occlusal rim so that phonetics could be used to determine the anterior tooth position and vertical dimension, following a strict adherence to a clinical protocol. The methodology involved the use of heat-processed resin record bases and a thin segment of baseplate wax that mimics anterior teeth. This approach resulted in a more natural feeling for the patient and provided the clinician the necessary information for the laboratory, which was easily communicated.

  5. Comparison of patient-specific instruments with standard surgical instruments in determining glenoid component position: a randomized prospective clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hendel, Michael D; Bryan, Jason A; Barsoum, Wael K; Rodriguez, Eric J; Brems, John J; Evans, Peter J; Iannotti, Joseph P

    2012-12-05

    Glenoid component malposition for anatomic shoulder replacement may result in complications. The purpose of this study was to define the efficacy of a new surgical method to place the glenoid component. Thirty-one patients were randomized for glenoid component placement with use of either novel three-dimensional computed tomographic scan planning software combined with patient-specific instrumentation (the glenoid positioning system group), or conventional computed tomographic scan, preoperative planning, and surgical technique, utilizing instruments provided by the implant manufacturer (the standard surgical group). The desired position of the component was determined preoperatively. Postoperatively, a computed tomographic scan was used to define and compare the actual implant location with the preoperative plan. In the standard surgical group, the average preoperative glenoid retroversion was -11.3° (range, -39° to 17°). In the glenoid positioning system group, the average glenoid retroversion was -14.8° (range, -27° to 7°). When the standard surgical group was compared with the glenoid positioning system group, patient-specific instrumentation technology significantly decreased (p < 0.05) the average deviation of implant position for inclination and medial-lateral offset. Overall, the average deviation in version was 6.9° in the standard surgical group and 4.3° in the glenoid positioning system group. The average deviation in inclination was 11.6° in the standard surgical group and 2.9° in the glenoid positioning system group. The greatest benefit of patient-specific instrumentation was observed in patients with retroversion in excess of 16°; the average deviation was 10° in the standard surgical group and 1.2° in the glenoid positioning system group (p < 0.001). Preoperative planning and patient-specific instrumentation use resulted in a significant improvement in the selection and use of the optimal type of implant and a significant reduction in

  6. Patella position is not a determinant for anterior knee pain 10 years after balanced gap total knee arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    van Houten, Albert H; Heesterbeek, Petra J C; Wymenga, Ate B

    2016-08-01

    Incidence of anterior knee pain after total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is reported to be between 4 and 49 %. The incidence of AKP at long-term follow-up and possible determinants after cruciate cruciate-retaining TKA were investigated. A 10-year follow-up of a cohort of 55 patients (63 TKAs), who received the balanSys™ cruciate-retaining total knee system (Mathys Ltd, Bettlach, Switzerland) between 1999 and 2002, was performed. Patients had undergone the balanced gap technique, with either a fixed bearing or an AP-glide bearing. Standardised diagnostic questions regarding AKP were collected and categorised into two groups: those with and without AKP. The lateral patellar tilt, patellar displacement measurement and modified Insall-Salvati ratio were used for patella position evaluation on skyline radiographs. The Knee Society Score (KSS), the Knee Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) and Numerical Rating Scales (NRS) for pain and satisfaction were obtained at follow-up. Sixteen patients in the study population experienced AKP. Incidence of AKP (fixed bearing 13/44; AP-glide bearing baring 3/17) was not dependent on type of insert (n.s.). There were no statistical differences in patella position and tibiofemoral contact point between the AKP group and the no AKP group (n.s.). KSS, KOOS, NRS-pain and NRS-satisfaction were significantly lower for the patients with AKP (all p < 0.05). Twenty-six percentage of the patients experienced AKP 10 years after balanced gap TKA. Postoperative patella positioning was not found to be a determinant for anterior knee pain after TKA. However, patellar displacement does not seem completely favourable. Moreover, type of bearing was not found a determinant for AKP at long-term follow-up. Lower quality prospective cohort study (<80 % follow-up, patients enrolled at different time points in disease), Level II.

  7. Determination of the viscous acoustic field for liquid drop positioning/forcing in an acoustic levitation chamber in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyell, Margaret J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of acoustic levitation systems has provided a technology with which to undertake droplet studies as well as do containerless processing experiments in a microgravity environment. Acoustic levitation chambers utilize radiation pressure forces to position/manipulate the drop. Oscillations can be induced via frequency modulation of the acoustic wave, with the modulated acoustic radiation vector acting as the driving force. To account for tangential as well as radial forcing, it is necessary that the viscous effects be included in the acoustic field. The method of composite expansions is employed in the determination of the acoustic field with viscous effects.

  8. On the determination of the position of laminar-turbulent transition in boundary layer by optical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bountin, D. A.; Gromyko, Yu. V.; Maslov, A. A.; Polivanov, P. A.; Sidorenko, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    As a rule, aerodynamic studies at hypersonic flow velocities are carried out in short-duration wind-tunnel facilities. For such facilities, optical diagnostic methods are most preferable. In the present study, we give for the first time a comparison of two methods for determining the end of laminar-turbulent transition: from the distribution of heat fluxes and from schlieren visualization data for the boundary-layer flow. Parametric data on the position of the transition are obtained. These data can be used in the future as reference ones while calibrating semi-empirical calculation models for the transition.

  9. Determination of the anode wire position by visible light in a new type straw for NA62 experiment tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glonti, L.; Misheva, M.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Samsonov, V.; Movchan, S.; Enik, T.; Kolesnikov, A.

    2016-07-01

    Microscope investigations of new-type thin-wall tubes (straws) produced for NA62 drift chambers revealed that they are semitransparent and allow anode wires to be observed under illumination by visible light. In this work it is shown that positions of wires in straws and thus the anode spacing in the drift chambers can be directly determined with a high accuracy ( 5-10 μm) using a microscope mounted on a high-precision optical bench. These data are important for decreasing errors during reconstruction of charged particle track coordinates in the drift chambers. The proposed technique is much simpler than the X-ray or radioactive source methods.

  10. Determinants of adherence to antiretroviral therapy among HIV-positive adults in sub-Saharan Africa: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Heestermans, Tessa; Browne, Joyce L; Aitken, Susan C; Vervoort, Sigrid C; Klipstein-Grobusch, Kerstin

    2016-01-01

    Objective The rapid scale up of antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) has resulted in an increased focus on patient adherence. Non-adherence can lead to drug-resistant HIV caused by failure to achieve maximal viral suppression. Optimal treatment requires the identification of patients at high risk of suboptimal adherence and targeted interventions. The aim of this review was to identify and summarise determinants of adherence to ART among HIV-positive adults. Design Systematic review of adherence to ART in SSA from January 2002 to October 2014. Methods A systematic search was performed in 6 databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, EMBASE, Web of Science, Popline, Global Health Library) for qualitative and quantitative articles. Risk of bias was assessed. A meta-analysis was conducted for pooled estimates of effect size on adherence determinants. Results Of the 4052 articles screened, 146 were included for final analysis, reporting on determinants of 161 922 HIV patients with an average adherence score of 72.9%. Main determinants of non-adherence were use of alcohol, male gender, use of traditional/herbal medicine, dissatisfaction with healthcare facility and healthcare workers, depression, discrimination and stigmatisation, and poor social support. Promoters of adherence included counselling and education interventions, memory aids, and active disclosure among people living with HIV. Determinants of health status had conflicting influence on adherence. Conclusions The sociodemographic, psychosocial, health status, treatment-related and intervention-related determinants are interlinked and contribute to optimal adherence. Clinics providing ART in SSA should therefore design targeted interventions addressing these determinants to optimise health outcomes. PMID:28588979

  11. Determination of ramipril in human plasma and its fragmentation by UPLC-Q-TOF-MS with positive electrospray ionization.

    PubMed

    Szpot, Paweł; Buszewicz, Grzegorz

    2015-06-01

    This report presents the application of ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry with positive electrospray ionization, to determine ramipril in human plasma. First, the proteins in human plasma were precipitated using acetonitrile, then the supernatant was extracted by ethyl acetate at pH 3 and finally, the extract was analyzed using a UPLC-QTOF- MS system. The method was validated and the coefficient of determination (R2) was >0.999, the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ) was 0.5 ng mL(-1). Precision, recovery and stability were determined for three different concentrations of ramipril. RSD for this method ranged from 3.3 to 8.6%. The intra-day mean recovery was from 65.3 to 97.3%. In addition, the fragmentation of ramipril was studied. Due to high resolution of the spectrometer, it was possible to measure fragment masses accurately and determine their molecular and chemical formulas with high accuracy.

  12. Determination of Double Bond Positions and Geometry of Methyl Linoleate Isomers with Dimethyl Disulfide Adducts by GC/MS.

    PubMed

    Shibamoto, Shigeaki; Murata, Tasuku; Yamamoto, Kouhei

    2016-09-01

    The dimethyl disulfide (DMDS) adduct method is one of the convenient and effective methods for determining double bond positions of unsaturated fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) except conjugated FAME. When analyzed using gas chromatography/electron ionization-mass spectrometry (GC/EI-MS), unsaturated FAME with DMDS added to the double bonds yields high intensity MS spectra of characteristic ions. The MS spectra of characteristic ions can then be used to easily confirm double bond positions. Here we explore the GC/EI-MS analysis of the DMDS adducts of methyl linoleate geometrical isomers isolated by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a silver nitrate column. For C18:2-c9, c12 and C18:2-t9, t12, DMDS randomly formed adducts with double bonds at either carbon 9-10 or carbon 12-13, but not both at the same time due to steric hindrance. For C18:2-c9, t12 and C18:2-t9, c12, however, DMDS only formed adducts with the double bond in the cis configuration. Consequently, when analyzing fatty acids with methylene interrupted double bonds, with one double bond in the cis and one in the trans configuration, double bond positions cannot be completely confirmed.

  13. Dynamic Method of Neutral Axis Position Determination and Damage Identification with Distributed Long-Gauge FBG Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Yongsheng; Ren, Zhongdao

    2017-01-01

    The neutral axis position (NAP) is a key parameter of a flexural member for structure design and safety evaluation. The accuracy of NAP measurement based on traditional methods does not satisfy the demands of structural performance assessment especially under live traffic loads. In this paper, a new method to determine NAP is developed by using modal macro-strain (MMS). In the proposed method, macro-strain is first measured with long-gauge Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; then the MMS is generated from the measured macro-strain with Fourier transform; and finally the neutral axis position coefficient (NAPC) is determined from the MMS and the neutral axis depth is calculated with NAPC. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, some experiments on FE models, steel beam and reinforced concrete (RC) beam were conducted. From the results, the plane section was first verified with MMS of the first bending mode. Then the results confirmed the high accuracy and stability for assessing NAP. The results also proved that the NAPC was a good indicator of local damage. In summary, with the proposed method, accurate assessment of flexural structures can be facilitated. PMID:28230747

  14. Dynamic Method of Neutral Axis Position Determination and Damage Identification with Distributed Long-Gauge FBG Sensors.

    PubMed

    Tang, Yongsheng; Ren, Zhongdao

    2017-02-20

    The neutral axis position (NAP) is a key parameter of a flexural member for structure design and safety evaluation. The accuracy of NAP measurement based on traditional methods does not satisfy the demands of structural performance assessment especially under live traffic loads. In this paper, a new method to determine NAP is developed by using modal macro-strain (MMS). In the proposed method, macro-strain is first measured with long-gauge Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensors; then the MMS is generated from the measured macro-strain with Fourier transform; and finally the neutral axis position coefficient (NAPC) is determined from the MMS and the neutral axis depth is calculated with NAPC. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, some experiments on FE models, steel beam and reinforced concrete (RC) beam were conducted. From the results, the plane section was first verified with MMS of the first bending mode. Then the results confirmed the high accuracy and stability for assessing NAP. The results also proved that the NAPC was a good indicator of local damage. In summary, with the proposed method, accurate assessment of flexural structures can be facilitated.

  15. Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes

    PubMed Central

    Eloranta, Antti P; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Harrod, Chris; Jones, Roger I

    2015-01-01

    Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic high-latitude lakes. We analyzed food-web structure and resource use by a generalist top predator, the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in 17 oligotrophic subarctic lakes covering a marked gradient in size (0.5–1084 km2) and fish species richness (2–13 species). We expected top predators to shift from littoral to pelagic energy sources with increasing lake size, as the availability of pelagic prey resources and the competition for littoral prey are both likely to be higher in large lakes with multispecies fish communities. We also expected top predators to occupy a higher trophic position in lakes with greater fish species richness due to potential substitution of intermediate consumers (prey fish) and increased piscivory by top predators. Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, the mean reliance of Arctic charr on littoral energy sources showed a significant negative relationship with lake surface area, whereas the mean trophic position of Arctic charr, reflecting the lake food-chain length, increased with fish species richness. These results were supported by stomach contents data demonstrating a shift of Arctic charr from an invertebrate-dominated diet to piscivory on pelagic fish. Our study highlights that, because they determine the main energy source (littoral vs. pelagic) and the trophic position of generalist top predators, ecosystem size and fish diversity are particularly important factors influencing function and

  16. Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Antti P; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Harrod, Chris; Jones, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic high-latitude lakes. We analyzed food-web structure and resource use by a generalist top predator, the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in 17 oligotrophic subarctic lakes covering a marked gradient in size (0.5-1084 km(2)) and fish species richness (2-13 species). We expected top predators to shift from littoral to pelagic energy sources with increasing lake size, as the availability of pelagic prey resources and the competition for littoral prey are both likely to be higher in large lakes with multispecies fish communities. We also expected top predators to occupy a higher trophic position in lakes with greater fish species richness due to potential substitution of intermediate consumers (prey fish) and increased piscivory by top predators. Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, the mean reliance of Arctic charr on littoral energy sources showed a significant negative relationship with lake surface area, whereas the mean trophic position of Arctic charr, reflecting the lake food-chain length, increased with fish species richness. These results were supported by stomach contents data demonstrating a shift of Arctic charr from an invertebrate-dominated diet to piscivory on pelagic fish. Our study highlights that, because they determine the main energy source (littoral vs. pelagic) and the trophic position of generalist top predators, ecosystem size and fish diversity are particularly important factors influencing function and

  17. Development of method for experimental determination of wheel-rail contact forces and contact point position by using instrumented wheelset

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bižić, Milan B.; Petrović, Dragan Z.; Tomić, Miloš C.; Djinović, Zoran V.

    2017-07-01

    This paper presents the development of a unique method for experimental determination of wheel-rail contact forces and contact point position by using the instrumented wheelset (IWS). Solutions of key problems in the development of IWS are proposed, such as the determination of optimal locations, layout, number and way of connecting strain gauges as well as the development of an inverse identification algorithm (IIA). The base for the solution of these problems is the wheel model and results of FEM calculations, while IIA is based on the method of blind source separation using independent component analysis. In the first phase, the developed method was tested on a wheel model and a high accuracy was obtained (deviations of parameters obtained with IIA and really applied parameters in the model are less than 2%). In the second phase, experimental tests on the real object or IWS were carried out. The signal-to-noise ratio was identified as the main influential parameter on the measurement accuracy. Тhе obtained results have shown that the developed method enables measurement of vertical and lateral wheel-rail contact forces Q and Y and their ratio Y/Q with estimated errors of less than 10%, while the estimated measurement error of contact point position is less than 15%. At flange contact and higher values of ratio Y/Q or Y force, the measurement errors are reduced, which is extremely important for the reliability and quality of experimental tests of safety against derailment of railway vehicles according to the standards UIC 518 and EN 14363. The obtained results have shown that the proposed method can be successfully applied in solving the problem of high accuracy measurement of wheel-rail contact forces and contact point position using IWS.

  18. Genetic determinant of Bacillus pumilus lipase lethality and its application as positive selection cloning vector in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Mabizela-Mokoena, Nobalanda Betty; Limani, Shonisani Wendy; Ncube, Ignatious; Piater, Lizelle Ann; Litthauer, Derek; Nthangeni, Mulalo Bethuel

    2017-09-01

    Positive selection vectors carry genes that upon expression produce proteins that cause host cell deaths. Insertion of foreign DNA fragments within the ORF of the gene disrupts the lethal effect of the expressed protein. This study described the cloning of Family I.4 Bacillus pumilus lipase gene whose expressed protein is toxic and lethal to Escherichia coli JM109 (DE3) cells. The determinant of toxicity was identified through Error-prone PCR to be the nature of amino acid residue resident at position 28 of the mature lipase protein. The presence of Thr/Ser28 within the mature lipases of B. pumilus and B. licheniformis resulted in lethality to E. coli cells. However, the Thr28Ala or Thr28Gly mutations relieved the lethal phenotype of mature Family I.4 Bacillus lipases. The toxic effect of the expressed mature B. pumilus lipase protein was exploited in the development of a positive selection cloning vector. The B. pumilus lipase gene was synthesised to contain 13 unique silent restriction sites within the ORF, and placed under the regulation of T7 promoter of the pET expression system. Insertional inactivation of the gene's toxic protein was achieved by cloning DNA fragments of different sizes within the designed multiple cloning sites. The toxic effect of the lipase protein was disrupted indicating the potential of the gene for application in suicidal positive selection cloning vectors. The results revealed that protein expression and engineering studies aimed at optimal production of mature Family I.4 Bacillus lipases in E. coli should take into consideration the nature of amino acid 28 resident. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Are Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Useful for Determining the Optimal Field Position for Young Soccer Players?

    PubMed Central

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Mitrotasios, Michalis; Pistone, Eugenio M.; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2017-01-01

    Change Of Direction Speed (CODS) and Reactive Agility (RA) are two determining factors in the ability of young soccer players. We aimed to verify if CODS and RA could be useful in order to establish the best young soccer player field position. Ninety-two elite soccer players (15.18 ± 1.21 years, weight 59.18 ± 9.93, height 1.72 ± 0.08, BMI 19.76 ± 2.22), belonging to two youth categories from the Italian First and Second Divisions, volunteered in this study. The participants included 32 defenders (15.06 ± 0.80 years), 37 midfielders (15.11 ± 0.84 years) and 23 forwards (15.48 ± 1.16 years), and they underwent two tests, each one performed in two different ways: the Y-Agility Test, carried out in a planned and reactive mode (Y-PLAN and Y-REAC), and the Illinois for Change of Direction Test (ICODT) performed with and without the ball. REAC-INDEX, which represents the index of reactivity, was calculated as Y-REAC minus Y-PLAN. The difference between the two scores of ICODT (ICODT with the ball minus ICODT without the ball) represents the TECHN-INDEX. Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was used to evaluate significant differences among all position groups, for all the test scores. MANOVA showed no significant differences in test scores or in TECHN-INDEX among the groups, except for the forwards, who were significantly more reactive than the defenders (p < 0.05). The strong and significant Pearson’s Correlation between ICODT with and without the ball (p < 0.01) demonstrated that physical and technical preparations have the same relevance in all positions. No significant differences were found among players in different field positions for CODS and RA performances, both with and without the ball. This study does not recommend to use RA and CODS as indicators to assign the players roles in youth soccer. Key points Agility is a key skill required for soccer success, and it is based on greater levels of motor control, when compared to pre-planned CODS. No

  20. Determination of buildup and dilution of wastewater effluent in shellfish growing waters through a modified application of super-position.

    PubMed

    Goblick, Gregory N; Ao, Yaping; Anbarchian, Julie M; Calci, Kevin R

    2017-02-15

    Since 1925, dilution analysis has been used to minimize pathogenic impacts to bivalve molluscan shellfish growing areas from treated wastewater effluent in the National Shellfish Sanitation Program (NSSP). For over twenty five years, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recommended a minimum of 1000:1 dilution of effluent within prohibited closure zones established around wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) discharges. During May 2010, using recent technologies, a hydrographic dye study was conducted in conjunction with a pathogen bioaccumulation study in shellfish adjacent to a WWTP discharge in Yarmouth, ME. For the first time an improved method of the super-position principle was used to determine the buildup of dye tagged sewage effluent and steady state dilution in tidal waters. Results of the improved method of dilution analysis illustrate an economical, reliable and more accurate and manageable approach for estimating the buildup and steady state pollutant conditions in coastal and estuarine waters. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. [Determining the car driver's position at the moment of the frontal crash with a moving KAMAZ truck].

    PubMed

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical and autotechnical expertise for determining the positions of the driver and the first seat passenger of the GAS-3110 car at the moment of the frontal crash with a KAMAZ-5312 truck. The comparative analysis of the injuries in two subjects one of whom died as a result of the given accident made it possible to conclude that he had occupied the driver's seat in the car. The differential diagnosis was based on the peculiarities of the injuries to the upper extremities with the predominance of the most severe wounds at the right side of the body. Also taken into consideration were the specific conditions of the given frontal collision, design of the GAS-3110 passenger compartment, winter season, night time, and possible neglect of the passive safety means, etc.

  2. Cell type-specific expression of JC virus early promoter is determined by positive and negative regulation.

    PubMed

    Tada, H; Lashgari, M; Rappaport, J; Khalili, K

    1989-01-01

    We analyzed control sequences of the human papovavirus JC virus (JCV) to define the cis-acting elements that regulate specific expression of the viral early region genes in glial cells. Nuclear run-on transcription, S1 analysis, and chloramphenicol acetyltransferase enzyme activity in a transient transfection assay established that the cell type-specific expression of JCV early genes is determined at the transcriptional level. Using DNase footprinting analysis of nuclear proteins prepared from glial and nonglial cells, we located four regions within the JCV control sequences that specifically interacted with the proteins. In glial cells, all four domains contributed to the specific expression of a heterologous promoter, whereas in nonglial cells, two protein-binding regions showed no effect on basal transcriptional activity and the other two domains significantly downregulated transcription of the promoter. We conclude that cell type-specific transcription of the JCV early promoter is under both positive and negative regulation in eucaryotic cells.

  3. Effect of Sleeping Position on Upper Airway Patency in Obstructive Sleep Apnea Is Determined by the Pharyngeal Structure Causing Collapse.

    PubMed

    Marques, Melania; Genta, Pedro R; Sands, Scott A; Azarbazin, Ali; de Melo, Camila; Taranto-Montemurro, Luigi; White, David P; Wellman, Andrew

    2017-03-01

    In some patients, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) can be resolved with improvement in pharyngeal patency by sleeping lateral rather than supine, possibly as gravitational effects on the tongue are relieved. Here we tested the hypothesis that the improvement in pharyngeal patency depends on the anatomical structure causing collapse, with patients with tongue-related obstruction and epiglottic collapse exhibiting preferential improvements. Twenty-four OSA patients underwent upper airway endoscopy during natural sleep to determine the pharyngeal structure associated with obstruction, with simultaneous recordings of airflow and pharyngeal pressure. Patients were grouped into three categories based on supine endoscopy: Tongue-related obstruction (posteriorly located tongue, N = 10), non-tongue related obstruction (collapse due to the palate or lateral walls, N = 8), and epiglottic collapse (N = 6). Improvement in pharyngeal obstruction was quantified using the change in peak inspiratory airflow and minute ventilation lateral versus supine. Contrary to our hypothesis, patients with tongue-related obstruction showed no improvement in airflow, and the tongue remained posteriorly located while lateral. Patients without tongue involvement showed modest improvement in airflow (peak flow increased 0.07 L/s and ventilation increased 1.5 L/min). Epiglottic collapse was virtually abolished with lateral positioning and ventilation increased by 45% compared to supine position. Improvement in pharyngeal patency with sleeping position is structure specific, with profound improvements seen in patients with epiglottic collapse, modest effects in those without tongue involvement and-unexpectedly-no effect in those with tongue-related obstruction. Our data refute the notion that the tongue falls back into the airway during sleep via gravitational influences.

  4. Do release-site biases reflect response to the Earth's magnetic field during position determination by homing pigeons?

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Cordula V.; Walker, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within ±29° of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft. PMID:19556255

  5. Do release-site biases reflect response to the Earth's magnetic field during position determination by homing pigeons?

    PubMed

    Mora, Cordula V; Walker, Michael M

    2009-09-22

    How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within +/-29 degrees of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft.

  6. Determination of mean surface position and sea state from the radar return of a short-pulse satellite altimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrick, D. E.

    1972-01-01

    Using the specular point theory of scatter from a very rough surface, the average backscatter cross section per unit area per radar cell width is derived for a cell located at a given height above the mean sea surface. This result is then applied to predict the average radar cross section observed by a short-pulse altimeter as a function of time for two modes of operation: pulse-limited and beam-limited configurations. For a pulse-limited satellite altimeter, a family of curves is calculated showing the distortion of the leading edge of the receiver output signal as a function of sea state (i.e., wind speed). A signal processing scheme is discussed that permits an accurate determination of the mean surface position--even in high seas--and, as a by-product, the estimation of the significant seawave height (or wind speed above the surface). Comparison of these analytical results with experimental data for both pulse-limited and beam-limited operation lends credence to the model. Such a model should aid in the design of short-pulse altimeters for accurate determination of the geoid over the oceans, as well as for the use of such altimeters for orbital sea-state monitoring.

  7. Are Change of Direction Speed and Reactive Agility Useful for Determining the Optimal Field Position for Young Soccer Players?

    PubMed

    Fiorilli, Giovanni; Iuliano, Enzo; Mitrotasios, Michalis; Pistone, Eugenio M; Aquino, Giovanna; Calcagno, Giuseppe; di Cagno, Alessandra

    2017-06-01

    Change Of Direction Speed (CODS) and Reactive Agility (RA) are two determining factors in the ability of young soccer players. We aimed to verify if CODS and RA could be useful in order to establish the best young soccer player field position. Ninety-two elite soccer players (15.18 ± 1.21 years, weight 59.18 ± 9.93, height 1.72 ± 0.08, BMI 19.76 ± 2.22), belonging to two youth categories from the Italian First and Second Divisions, volunteered in this study. The participants included 32 defenders (15.06 ± 0.80 years), 37 midfielders (15.11 ± 0.84 years) and 23 forwards (15.48 ± 1.16 years), and they underwent two tests, each one performed in two different ways: the Y-Agility Test, carried out in a planned and reactive mode (Y-PLAN and Y-REAC), and the Illinois for Change of Direction Test (ICODT) performed with and without the ball. REAC-INDEX, which represents the index of reactivity, was calculated as Y-REAC minus Y-PLAN. The difference between the two scores of ICODT (ICODT with the ball minus ICODT without the ball) represents the TECHN-INDEX. Multivariate Analysis of Variances (MANOVA) was used to evaluate significant differences among all position groups, for all the test scores. MANOVA showed no significant differences in test scores or in TECHN-INDEX among the groups, except for the forwards, who were significantly more reactive than the defenders (p < 0.05). The strong and significant Pearson's Correlation between ICODT with and without the ball (p < 0.01) demonstrated that physical and technical preparations have the same relevance in all positions. No significant differences were found among players in different field positions for CODS and RA performances, both with and without the ball. This study does not recommend to use RA and CODS as indicators to assign the players roles in youth soccer.

  8. Isotopic Methods for Determining the Relative Importance of Bioavailability Versus Trophic Position in Controlling Mercury Concentrations in Everglades Mosquitofish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, B. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    activity, methylmercury production, and mosquitofish mercury concentrations. The d15N, d13C, and d34S values of mosquitofish and periphyton are significantly correlated, indicating that a component of the bulk periphyton analyzed in this study is part of the mosquitofish food web. Mosquitofish mercury does not correlate significantly with tissue d15N or the d15N difference between mosquitofish and periphyton. Thus, differences in trophic level (and bioaccumulation) among the fish do not contribute a detectable influence on mercury variations in the samples studied. In contrast with the d15N results, mosquitofish mercury levels show significant, positive correlations with mosquitofish d34S and the d34S difference between mosquitofish and periphyton. This suggests that during the period studied, mosquitofish mercury concentrations in the Everglades were primarily influenced by the bioavailability of mercury, rather than by differences in trophic position. This study demonstrates that isotopic measurements, especially d34S, can be useful tools for determining causes of high mercury concentrations in fish populations.

  9. Positioning of a nucleosome on mouse satellite DNA inserted into a yeast plasmid is determined by its DNA sequence and an adjacent nucleosome.

    PubMed

    Kiryanov, G I; Kintsurashvili, L N; Isaeva, L V; Zakharova, M G

    2004-09-01

    It has earlier been shown that multiple positioning of nucleosomes on mouse satellite DNA is determined by its nucleotide sequence. To clarify whether other factors, such as boundary ones, can affect the positionings, we modified the environment of satellite DNA monomer by inserting it into a yeast plasmid between inducible GalCyc promoter and a structural region of the yeast FLP gene. We have revealed that the positions of nucleosomes on satellite DNA are identical to those detected upon reconstruction in vitro. The positioning signal (GAAAAA sequence) of satellite DNA governs nucleosome location at the adjacent nucleotide sequence as well. Upon promoter induction the nucleosome, translationally positioned on the GalCyc promoter, transfers to the satellite DNA and its location follows the positioning signal of the latter. Thus, the alternatives of positioning of a nucleosome on satellite DNA are controlled by its nucleotide sequence, though the choice of one of them is determined by the adjacent nucleosome.

  10. Accuracy of determination of position and width of molecular groups in biological and lipid membranes via neutron diffraction.

    PubMed

    Gordeliy, V I; Chernov, N I

    1997-07-01

    Neutron diffraction combined with the deuterium-labelled molecular groups of biological and model membrane components allows one to detect with high accuracy the structure of these objects. Experiments of this kind are only possible at unique high-flux neutron sources, and the planning of neutron-diffraction experiments must take into account some special requirements primarily related to the duration of the experiment and the accuracy of estimation of membrane structure parameters as a result of finite time of the measurements. This paper deals with the question of statistical accuracy of the position x(0) and width v of the distribution of deuterium labels in membranes along the normal of their plane, which are determined in a neutron diffraction experiment. It is shown that the accuracy of x(0) and v estimation does not depend on membrane constitution. It is dependent only on the scattering amplitude of the deuterium label, the label position x(0) and the distribution width v. Analytic calculations show that the statistical errors Deltax(0) and Deltav are inversely proportional to the scattering amplitude of the label and, as usual, to the square root of measurement time. The question of Deltax0 and Deltav dependence on the number of structure factors used in the calculations of x(0) and v is also studied. It is shown that, the accuracy of x(0) estimation is approximately constant with down to four structure factors used, and, with the number of the factors below four, it deteriorates drastically. Analogous is the behaviour of Deltav(h(max)) relation with one exception: abrupt deterioration of the accuracy occurs beginning with five structure factors used. One does not have to measure the highest diffraction reflections which takes a much longer time compared with the first ones. It is an important result. All the problems mentioned above have also been considered for the case of two different deuterium labels in membranes.

  11. SU-E-T-758: To Determine the Source Dwell Positions of HDR Brachytherapy Using 2D 729 Ion Chamber Array

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Syam; Sitha

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: Determination of source dwell positions of HDR brachytherapy using 2D 729 ion chamber array Methods: Nucletron microselectron HDR and PTW 2D array were used for the study. Different dwell positions were assigned in the HDR machine. Rigid interstitial needles and vaginal applicator were positioned on the 2D array. The 2D array was exposed for this programmed dwell positions. The positional accuracy of the source was analyzed after the irradiation of the 2D array. This was repeated for different dwell positions. Different test plans were transferred from the Oncentra planning system and irradiated with the same applicator position on the 2D array. The results were analyzed using the in house developed excel program. Results: Assigned dwell positions versus corresponding detector response were analyzed. The results show very good agreement with the film measurements. No significant variation found between the planned and measured dwell positions. Average dose response with 2D array between the planned and nearby dwell positions was found to be 0.0804 Gy for vaginal cylinder applicator and 0.1234 Gy for interstitial rigid needles. Standard deviation between the doses for all the measured dwell positions for interstitial rigid needle for 1 cm spaced positions were found to be 0.33 and 0.37 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. For intracavitory vaginal applicator this was found to be 0.21 for 1 cm spaced dwell positions and 0.06 for 2cm spaced dwell positions. Intracavitory test plans reproduced on the 2D array with the same applicator positions shows the ideal dose distribution with the TPS planned. Conclusion: 2D array is a good tool for determining the dwell position of HDR brachytherapy. With the in-house developed program in excel it is easy and accurate. The traditional way with film analysis can be replaced by this method, as the films will be more costly.

  12. Positional identity of murine mesenchymal stem cells resident in different organs is determined in the postsegmentation mesoderm.

    PubMed

    Sági, Bernadett; Maraghechi, Pouneh; Urbán, Veronika S; Hegyi, Beáta; Szigeti, Anna; Fajka-Boja, Roberta; Kudlik, Gyöngyi; Német, Katalin; Monostori, Eva; Gócza, Elen; Uher, Ferenc

    2012-03-20

    Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) of distinct tissue origin have a large number of similarities and differences, it has not been determined so far whether tissue-resident MSCs are the progenies of one ancestor cell lineage or the results of parallel cell developmental events. Here we compared the expression levels of 177 genes in murine MSCs derived from adult and juvenile bone marrow and adult adipose tissue, as well as juvenile spleen, thymus, and aorta wall by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and the results were partially validated at protein level. All MSC lines uniformly expressed a large set of genes including well-known mesenchymal markers, such as α-smooth muscle actin, collagen type I α-chain, GATA6, Mohawk, and vimentin. In contrast, pluripotency genes and the early mesodermal marker T-gene were not expressed. On the other hand, different MSC lines consistently expressed distinct patterns of Hox genes determining the positional identity of a given cell population. Moreover, MSCs of different origin expressed a few other transcription factors also reflecting their topological identity and so the body segment or organ to which they normally contributed in vivo: (1) thymus-derived cells specifically expressed Tbx5 and Pitx2; (2) spleen-derived MSCs were characterized with Tlx1 and Nkx2.5; (3) Pitx1 designated femoral bone marrow cells and (4) En2 appeared in aorta wall-derived MSCs. Thus, MSCs exhibited topographic identity and memory even after long-term cultivation in vitro. On the basis of these results, we suggest that postnatal MSCs isolated from different anatomical sites descend from precursor cells developing in the postsegmentation mesoderm.

  13. Radio Interferometric Determination of Source Positions, Intercontinental Baselines, and Earth Orientation with Deep Space Network Antennas: 1971 to 1980

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, J. B.; Sovers, O. J.; Fanselow, J. L.; Cohen, E. J.; Purcell, G. H., Jr.; Rogstad, D. H.; Skjerve, L. J.; Spitzmesser, D. J.

    1983-01-01

    Approximately 2400 observations of extragalactic radio sources were made between August 1971 and February 1980 during 48 separate sessions. These consisted of 259 delay rate observations at 2.3 GHz (S-band), 796 delay and delay rate observations at either S-band of 8.3 GHz (X-band) and 1325 delay and delay rate observations recorded simultaneously at both S- and X-band. A single multiparameter fit has been applied to the observed values of delay and delay rate to extract astrometric and geophysical parameters from this decade-long sequence. The fit produced estimates of 784 parameters, including station locations, radio source positions, polar motion, Universal Time, the precession constant, and solid earth tides. The a priori model included gravitational bending, the 1980 IAU nutation series, the 1976 IAU expressions for Greenwich mean sidereal time and precession, BIH estimates of Universal Time and polar motion, and monthly mean values for zenith troposphere delay. The rms residuals were 0.52 nsec for delay and 0.30 psec/sec for delay rate. Intercontinental baseline lengths were determined with formal uncertainties of 5 to 10 cm. Universal Time and polar motion were measured at 49 epochs, with formal uncertainties (for the more recent data) of 0.5 msec for UT1 and 6 and 2 mas, respectively, for the X and Y components of polar motion.

  14. The physiological position of the liver in the circulation is not a major determinant of its functional capacity.

    PubMed

    Wagenaar, G T; Chamuleau, R A; Maas, M A; de Bruin, K; Korfage, H A; Lamers, W H

    1994-12-01

    The zonal patterns of gene expression in the liver of the rat are not affected by alteration of the afferent hepatic blood source. We investigated whether afferent hepatic blood source or flow rate affects the metabolic capacity of the liver. Using microsurgical techniques, we changed the afferent hepatic blood source to solely arterial blood, solely portal blood or solely caval blood. The transhepatic flow rate was four times higher in arterialized than in cavalized livers. Liver function was tested 2 wk after surgery. Three liver functions were tested (elimination of hepatic iminodiacetic acid from the liver and elimination of galactose and ammoniumbicarbonate from the circulation). Our results show that the afferent hepatic blood flow rate rather than the source of the afferent hepatic blood affects the elimination of the substrates tested. We found that at the physiological flow rate of approximately 15 ml/min and beyond, metabolic function does not depend on the flow of the afferent hepatic blood but that at lower flow rates the flow becomes a major determinant of the metabolic function of the liver. We conclude that the position of the liver within the circulation (i.e. between the gastrointestinal tract and the systemic circulation) is apparently not a prerequisite for adequate metabolic activity, at least for the substrates tested, provided that the liver is sufficiently perfused with blood.

  15. Measurement of the positive muon lifetime and determination of the Fermi constant to part-per-million precision.

    PubMed

    Webber, D M; Tishchenko, V; Peng, Q; Battu, S; Carey, R M; Chitwood, D B; Crnkovic, J; Debevec, P T; Dhamija, S; Earle, W; Gafarov, A; Giovanetti, K; Gorringe, T P; Gray, F E; Hartwig, Z; Hertzog, D W; Johnson, B; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Kizilgul, S; Kunkle, J; Lauss, B; Logashenko, I; Lynch, K R; McNabb, R; Miller, J P; Mulhauser, F; Onderwater, C J G; Phillips, J; Rath, S; Roberts, B L; Winter, P; Wolfe, B

    2011-01-28

    We report a measurement of the positive muon lifetime to a precision of 1.0 ppm; it is the most precise particle lifetime ever measured. The experiment used a time-structured, low-energy muon beam and a segmented plastic scintillator array to record more than 2×10(12) decays. Two different stopping target configurations were employed in independent data-taking periods. The combined results give τ(μ(+)) (MuLan)=2 196 980.3(2.2)  ps, more than 15 times as precise as any previous experiment. The muon lifetime gives the most precise value for the Fermi constant: G(F) (MuLan)=1.166 378 8(7)×10(-5)  GeV(-2) (0.6 ppm). It is also used to extract the μ(-)p singlet capture rate, which determines the proton's weak induced pseudoscalar coupling g(P).

  16. High-Pressure Balloon-Assisted Stretching of the Coracohumeral Ligament to Determine the Optimal Stretching Positions: A Cadaveric Study.

    PubMed

    Baek, Sora; Lee, Kyu Jin; Kim, Keewon; Han, Seung-Ho; Lee, U-Young; Lee, Kun-Jai; Chung, Sun Gun

    2016-10-01

    The coracohumeral ligament (CHL) is a thick capsular structure and markedly thickened when affected by adhesive capsulitis. Therapeutic stretching is the most commonly applied treatment for adhesive capsulitis, but optimal stretching postures for maximal therapeutic effects on the CHL have not been fully investigated. To investigate the most effective stretching direction for the CHL by measuring the stretching intensity in 5 different directions and to determine whether the stretching intervention resulted in loosening of the ligament by comparing the changes of CHL tightness before and after stretching. Biomechanical cadaver study. Academic institution cadaver laboratory. Nine fresh frozen cadaveric shoulders. A high-pressure balloon catheter inserted under the CHL and intraballoon pressure was measured, to evaluate CHL tightness without ligament damage as well as to augment and monitor stretching intensity. To find the optimal stretching direction, the glenohumeral joint was stretched from the neutral position into 5 directions sequentially under pressure-monitoring: flexion, extension [EX], external rotation [ER], EX+ER, and EX+ER+adduction [AD] directions. CHL tightness was determined by a surrogate parameter, the additional pressure created by the overlying CHL. The pressure increase (ΔPstr) by a specific directional stretch was considered as the stretching intensity. ΔPstr by the 5 directions were mean (standard deviation) values of 0.03 ± 0.07 atm, 0.87 ± 1.31 atm, 1.13 ± 1.36 atm, 1.49 ± 1.32 atm, and 2.10 ± 1.70 atm, respectively, revealing the highest ΔPstr by the EX+ER+AD stretch (P < .05). The balloon pressure by the overlying CHL was decreased from 0.45 ± 0.35 atm to 0.18 ± 0.14 atm (P = .012) before and after the stretching manipulation. EX+ER+AD of the glenohumeral joint resulted in the greatest increase in balloon pressure, implying that it could be the most effective stretching direction. A series of stretching manipulations assisted

  17. Healthy Daughters, Healthy Futures: A Focus Group Analysis to Determine Factors for Enhancing Positive Youth Development for Latina Adolescents.

    PubMed

    Errickson, Sadye Paez; Berry, Diane C

    2015-01-01

    Positive youth development is designed to promote healthy physical, intellectual, psychosocial, and emotional development in the transition from adolescence to adulthood through a primary focus on youth's inherent capacity for positive growth. We conducted 2 focus groups, 1 with Latina mothers (n = 4) and 1 with Latina daughters (n = 4) in central North Carolina, to explore their views on positive youth development. Latina mothers and daughters discussed problems they faced with future aspirations, definitions of health, and cultural differences. These findings can provide a foundation for developing an intervention to empower Latina youth to make a healthy transition to adulthood.

  18. 41 CFR 102-5.85 - What information should our determination for field work include if positions are identified...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... audit, if necessary. This information should include the job title, number, and operational level where the work is to be performed (e.g., five recruiter personnel or, positions at the Detroit Army...

  19. Repulsive cues combined with physical barriers and cell–cell adhesion determine progenitor cell positioning during organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paksa, Azadeh; Bandemer, Jan; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Razin, Nitzan; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Minina, Sofia; Meyen, Dana; Biundo, Antonio; Leidel, Sebastian A.; Peyrieras, Nadine; Gov, Nir S.; Keller, Philipp J.; Raz, Erez

    2016-01-01

    The precise positioning of organ progenitor cells constitutes an essential, yet poorly understood step during organogenesis. Using primordial germ cells that participate in gonad formation, we present the developmental mechanisms maintaining a motile progenitor cell population at the site where the organ develops. Employing high-resolution live-cell microscopy, we find that repulsive cues coupled with physical barriers confine the cells to the correct bilateral positions. This analysis revealed that cell polarity changes on interaction with the physical barrier and that the establishment of compact clusters involves increased cell–cell interaction time. Using particle-based simulations, we demonstrate the role of reflecting barriers, from which cells turn away on contact, and the importance of proper cell–cell adhesion level for maintaining the tight cell clusters and their correct positioning at the target region. The combination of these developmental and cellular mechanisms prevents organ fusion, controls organ positioning and is thus critical for its proper function. PMID:27088892

  20. Evaluation of routine postoperative chest roentgenogram for determination of the correct position of permanent central venous catheters tip

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Fereshteh; Hekmatnia, Ali; Shahabi, Javad; Keshavarzian, Amir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proper placement of central venous catheter (CVC) tip could reduce early and late catheter-related complications. Although the live fluoroscopy is standard of care for placement of the catheter, it is not available in many centers. Therefore, the present study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of bedside chest X-ray (CXR) for proper positioning of the catheter tip. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled CVC were enrolled in this study during 2010-2012. The catheter tip position was evaluated by postoperative bedside chest radiographs as well as trans-thoracic echocardiogram as definite diagnostic tool. The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium both in CXR or echocardiography. Finally, CXRs interpreted by expert radiologist. Thus findings were compared by echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The patients were 57.37 ± 18.91 years of age, weighed 65.79 ± 15.58 kg and were 166.36 ± 9.91 cm tall. Sensitivity and specificity of CXR for proper catheter tip position were 74.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.2% and 28%. In addition accuracy, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 71.9%, 1.78, and 2.27 respectively. Conclusion: Bedside CXR alone does not reliably predict malpositioning after CVC placement. PMID:25767527

  1. Social determinants of syphilis in South China: the effect of sibling position on syphilis and sexual risk behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Young, Darwin; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Adimora, Adaora A

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the relationship between sibling position and sexual risk based on behavioural and syphilis infection data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in South China. Design A cross-sectional study examining sexual behaviours and syphilis infection. Setting 4 STI clinics in the Pearl River Delta of South China. Participants 1792 Chinese men and women attending STI clinics. Primary outcome measures STI history, syphilis infection defined as positive non-treponemal and treponemal tests. Results Among all clinic patients, 824 (46.3%) were first-born, 354 (19.9%) were middle-born and 602 (33.8%) were final-born. Middle-born individuals had a higher percentage of reported STI history (44.7% compared to 34.7%, p<0.001) and syphilis infection (9.7% compared to 4.9%, p=0.01) among men (n=1163) compared to other sibling positions in bivariate analyses, but not in the final multivariate model. The relationship between sibling position and syphilis was independent of income and education level. There was no trend observed between middle-born position and female sexual risk behaviours (n=626). Higher education was significantly associated with syphilis among women and men in respective multivariate models. Conclusions This study suggests that middle-born men in China may have an increased sexual risk compared to other sibling positions. As Chinese family and social structures change, a more thorough understanding of how demographic factors influence sexual risk behaviours is needed. PMID:23793689

  2. Determinants of better health: a cross-sectional assessment of positive deviants among women in West Bengal

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Rural women in West Bengal have been found to have low rates of formal education, poor health knowledge, high rates of malnutrition and anemia, and low levels of empowerment. Despite these difficult circumstances, some women have positive health outcomes compared to women with similarly disadvantaged backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with positive health outcomes among women with primary education or less. Methods Multivariable regression models were built for outcomes of positive deviance to better characterize the factors in a woman’s life that most impact her ability to deviate from the status quo. Results Positive deviants in this context are shown to be women who are able to earn an income, who have access to information through media sources, and who, despite little schooling, have marginally higher levels of formal education that lead to improved health outcomes. Conclusions Study findings indicate that positive deviant women in disadvantaged circumstances can achieve positive outcomes amidst a host of contextual barriers that would predict poor health outcomes. Focusing on areas such as enhancing access to media sources, facilitating self-help groups for married women, and promoting prolonged education and delayed marriage for girls may improve health knowledge and behavior among married women with low levels of education. PMID:23601509

  3. Determinants of better health: a cross-sectional assessment of positive deviants among women in West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Long, Katelyn Ng; Gren, Lisa H; Rees, Chris A; West, Joshua H; Hall, Parley Cougar; Gray, Bobbi; Crookston, Benjamin T

    2013-04-20

    Rural women in West Bengal have been found to have low rates of formal education, poor health knowledge, high rates of malnutrition and anemia, and low levels of empowerment. Despite these difficult circumstances, some women have positive health outcomes compared to women with similarly disadvantaged backgrounds. The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with positive health outcomes among women with primary education or less. Multivariable regression models were built for outcomes of positive deviance to better characterize the factors in a woman's life that most impact her ability to deviate from the status quo. Positive deviants in this context are shown to be women who are able to earn an income, who have access to information through media sources, and who, despite little schooling, have marginally higher levels of formal education that lead to improved health outcomes. Study findings indicate that positive deviant women in disadvantaged circumstances can achieve positive outcomes amidst a host of contextual barriers that would predict poor health outcomes. Focusing on areas such as enhancing access to media sources, facilitating self-help groups for married women, and promoting prolonged education and delayed marriage for girls may improve health knowledge and behavior among married women with low levels of education.

  4. Determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of the geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E.; Kaiser, G.

    2003-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites at the Kourovka Astronomical Observatory. The calculated corrections Delta C_{22} and Delta S_{22} for the geopotential model JGM-3 are equal to Delta C_{22}=(-2.6 ± 1.4) * 10(-10) , Delta S_{22}=(-3.1 ± 0.9) * 10(-10) . From ads Wed Jan 12 06:25:03 2005 Return-Path: Received: (from ads@localhost) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) id j0CBP3DC007102; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:25:03 -0500 (EST) Received: from cfa.harvard.edu (cfa.harvard.edu [131.142.10.1]) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) with ESMTP id j0CBOeKD007030 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:41 -0500 (EST) Received: from uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (mao.gluk.org [194.183.183.193]) by cfa.harvard.edu (8.12.9-20030924/8.12.9/cfunix Mast-Sol 1.0) with ESMTP id j0CBOXgu026863 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:35 -0500 (EST) Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (root@maoling.mao.kiev.ua [194.44.216.101]) by uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (8.11.6/8.11.6) with ESMTP id j0CBOVv08377 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:31 +0200 Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (gallaz@localhost [127.0.0.1]) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) with ESMTP id j0CBOTPb014668 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Received: (from gallaz@localhost) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) id j0CBOTgq014666 for ads@cfa.harvard.edu; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Date: Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 From: "Galina A. Lazorenko" Message-Id: <200501121124.j0CBOTgq014666@maoling.mao.kiev.ua> To: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Virus-Scanned: ClamAV 0.80/650/Mon Jan 3 05:00:02 2005 clamav-milter version 0.80j on maoling.mao.kiev.ua X-Virus-Status: Clean X-Loop: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Loop: ads@head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Checker-Version: SpamAssassin 2.64 (2004-01-11) on head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Level: * X

  5. Orbit determination of LAGEOS and STARLETTE and the position estimation of the European laser tracking stations at Kootwijk, Wettzell, Grasse and Metsahovi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.

    1983-01-01

    The positions of the European laser tracking stations were determined by separately processing LAGEOS and STARLETTE five-day and two-revolution data arcs. Range residual rms's and the recovered apparent range and timing biases of the five-day arc solutions are reported. Mutual differences between LAGEOS and STARLETTE solutions for station positions are given. Discrepancies between European, NASA, and Texas University baselines and solutions are discussed.

  6. Regional neural response differences in the determination of faces or houses positioned in a wide visual field.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bin; Yan, Tianyi; Wu, Jinglong; Chen, Kewei; Imajyo, Satoshi; Ohno, Seiichiro; Kanazawa, Susumu

    2013-01-01

    In human visual cortex, the primary visual cortex (V1) is considered to be essential for visual information processing; the fusiform face area (FFA) and parahippocampal place area (PPA) are considered as face-selective region and places-selective region, respectively. Recently, a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study showed that the neural activity ratios between V1 and FFA were constant as eccentricities increasing in central visual field. However, in wide visual field, the neural activity relationships between V1 and FFA or V1 and PPA are still unclear. In this work, using fMRI and wide-view present system, we tried to address this issue by measuring neural activities in V1, FFA and PPA for the images of faces and houses aligning in 4 eccentricities and 4 meridians. Then, we further calculated ratio relative to V1 (RRV1) as comparing the neural responses amplitudes in FFA or PPA with those in V1. We found V1, FFA, and PPA showed significant different neural activities to faces and houses in 3 dimensions of eccentricity, meridian, and region. Most importantly, the RRV1s in FFA and PPA also exhibited significant differences in 3 dimensions. In the dimension of eccentricity, both FFA and PPA showed smaller RRV1s at central position than those at peripheral positions. In meridian dimension, both FFA and PPA showed larger RRV1s at upper vertical positions than those at lower vertical positions. In the dimension of region, FFA had larger RRV1s than PPA. We proposed that these differential RRV1s indicated FFA and PPA might have different processing strategies for encoding the wide field visual information from V1. These different processing strategies might depend on the retinal position at which faces or houses are typically observed in daily life. We posited a role of experience in shaping the information processing strategies in the ventral visual cortex.

  7. Mass and position determination of an accreted particle from the vibration of a beam-based nanomechanical resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shujun; Xiu, Qiang

    2017-02-01

    We present a generalized theoretical analysis of the vibration of a micro/nano bridge resonator with a particle at an arbitrary location by considering the combined effect of the beam stiffness and string tension in the resonator. By combining resonant frequencies of at most three consecutive symmetric vibration modes, the developed model can unambiguously resolve the particle mass and position. The methodology is verified using published results. The finding is further validated numerically by finite element modeling using a microbridge with and without an added particle, which proves that the method resolves the particle mass and position with high accuracy.

  8. Optimal Positioning for Volar Plate Fixation of a Distal Radius Fracture: Determining the Distal Dorsal Cortical Distance.

    PubMed

    Vosbikian, Michael M; Ketonis, Constantinos; Huang, Ronald; Ilyas, Asif M

    2016-01-01

    Distal radius fractures are currently among the most common fractures of the musculoskeletal system. With a population that is living longer, being more active, and the increasing incidence of osteoporosis, these injuries will continue to become increasingly prevalent. When operative fixation is indicated, the volar locking plate has recently become the treatment of choice. However, despite its success, suboptimal position of the volar locking plate can still result in radiographic loss of reduction. The distal dorsal cortical distance is being introduced as an intraoperative radiographic tool to help optimize plate position and minimize late loss of fracture reduction.

  9. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children. (f) After an opportunity has been... placement or retention of individuals in positions involving regular contact with Indian children? 136.414... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence...

  10. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children. (f) After an opportunity has been... placement or retention of individuals in positions involving regular contact with Indian children? 136.414... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence...

  11. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children. (f) After an opportunity has been... placement or retention of individuals in positions involving regular contact with Indian children? 136.414... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence...

  12. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children. (f) After an opportunity has been... placement or retention of individuals in positions involving regular contact with Indian children? 136.414... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence...

  13. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... prostitution; crimes against persons; or offenses committed against children. (f) After an opportunity has been... placement or retention of individuals in positions involving regular contact with Indian children? 136.414... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence...

  14. 42 CFR 136.409 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of eligibility for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.409... retention? (a) All positions that allow an individual regular contact with or control over Indian children... regular contact with or control over Indian children. The list will be periodically updated and...

  15. 42 CFR 136.409 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of eligibility for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence Prevention § 136.409... retention? (a) All positions that allow an individual regular contact with or control over Indian children... regular contact with or control over Indian children. The list will be periodically updated and...

  16. MAAG Job Position: Rolebooks and Technical Vocabulary (Iberian Spanish). Methods for Determining Language Objectives and Criteria, Volume VII.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Setzler, Hubert H., Jr.; And Others

    Rolebooks and technical Iberian Spanish vocabulary for the job position of military advisory and assistance group (MAAG) officer of the Air Force are presented. The materials are part of the communication/language objectives-based system (C/LOBS), which supports the front-end analysis efforts of the Defense Language Institute Foreign Language…

  17. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  18. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  19. Rocuronium and cisatracurium-positive skin tests in non-allergic volunteers: determination of drug concentration thresholds using a dilution titration technique.

    PubMed

    Berg, C M; Heier, T; Wilhelmsen, V; Florvaag, E

    2003-05-01

    Muscle relaxants are believed to be responsible for 2/3 of the cases of anaphylactic reactions during anesthesia. This assumption is based mainly on positive skin tests obtained in individuals that have experienced anesthesia-related anaphylaxis. A positive skin test is supposed to be associated with mast cell degranulation of vasoactive amines. In the present study we tested the frequency of positive skin tests with two commonly used muscle relaxants, rocuronium and cisatracurium, in a selected group of volunteers with low potential for allergic reactions. Thirty healthy volunteers without known allergy or previous exposure to muscle relaxants were studied. Low potential for allergic reactions was determined prior to inclusion in the study, using various allergy tests. Each individual was tested with intradermal and skin prick tests, and molar drug concentration thresholds for positive skin reactions were determined using a dilution titration technique. The presence or absence of mast cell degranulation was tested by electron microscopic investigation of skin biopsies obtained from positive and negative skin reactions. None of the volunteers had a positive skin prick test. More than 90% of the volunteers had a positive intradermal test with both rocuronium and cisatracurium. The highest molar drug concentration that was not associated with a positive intradermal test was 10(-6) M (rocuronium) and 10(-7) M (cisatracurium), equivalent to vial dilution 1 : 1000 for both drugs. In none of the volunteers was mast cell degranulation detected. Non-mast-cell-mediated positive intradermal skin reactions are frequently occurring with rocuronium and cisatracurium, even at vial dilution 1 : 1000. A clinically applicable test technique is needed that is able to separate positive skin tests associated with mast cell degranulation from non-mast-cell-mediated reactions.

  20. Evaluation of loop-mediated isothermal amplification for the rapid identification of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rödel, J; Bohnert, J A; Stoll, S; Wassill, L; Edel, B; Karrasch, M; Löffler, B; Pfister, W

    2017-06-01

    The use of molecular assays to rapidly identify pathogens and resistance genes directly from positive blood cultures (BCs) contribute to shortening the time required for the diagnosis of bloodstream infections. In this work, loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assays have been examined for their potential use in BC diagnosis. Three different assays were applied. The commercially available eazyplex® MRSA test detects Staphylococcus aureus, S. epidermidis, mecA, and mecC. Two in-house assays [Gram-positive (GP) and Gram-negative (GN)] have been developed for the detection of streptococci, enterococci, vanA, vanB, Pseudomonas spp., Enterobacteriaceae, and the bla CTX-M family. A total of 370 positive BCs were analyzed. LAMP test results were obtained within 30 min, including sample preparation. Amplification was measured by real-time fluorescence detection. The threshold time for fluorescence intensity values ranged from 6.25 to 13.75 min. The specificity and sensitivity of the assays varied depending on the target. Overall, from 87.7% of BCs, true-positive results were obtained, compared to routine standard diagnosis. Twenty-one tests were true-negative because of the lack of an appropriate target (5.7%). The concordance of positive test results for resistance genes with subsequent antibiotic susceptibility testing was 100%. From 15 BC bottles with mixed cultures, eazyplex® assays produced correct results in 73% of the cases. This study shows that LAMP assays are fast and cost-saving tools for rapid BC testing in order to expedite the diagnostic report and improve the antibiotic stewardship for sepsis patients.

  1. An improved colorimetric method for the determination of proline in the presence of other ninhydrin-positive compounds

    PubMed Central

    Wren, J. J.; Wiggall, P. H.

    1965-01-01

    1. The conditions required for sensitive and specific colorimetric determination of proline with acidified ninhydrin were investigated. 2. A method applicable to protein samples was developed. 3. The only compound found to interfere appreciably was a hydroxyproline. PMID:14342233

  2. Markers of Fibroblast Growth Factor Family-Mediated Growth Signal Transduction as Determinants of Successful Hormonal Therapy for Patients with Estrogen Receptor Positive Breast Cancer.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    To determine whether FGFR -3 expression correlated with antiestrogen resistance, two high titer polyclonal rabbit antibodies were generated against...two peptides present in the FGFR -3 protein. Pathological specimens from 181 patients with estrogen receptor positive breast tumors that received...patients. To determine the suitability of the FGFR -3 antibodies for use in immunohistochemical as says with sections from formalin-fixed and paraffin

  3. Analysis and comparison of monoenergetic fast neutron fluence determination using 238U samples at different positions with respect to the neutron source.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guohui; Liu, Xiang; Gao, Zhiqi; Wu, Hao; Liu, Jiaming

    2012-05-01

    Using two (238)U samples placed in a gridded ionization chamber and a parallel-plate fission chamber, fluence of monoenergetic fast neutrons was determined. Four runs of measurements were performed. Analysis showed that although the neutron fluences for the two (238)U samples differ by 20-33 times in the present work, the fluences at the position of the sample in the gridded ionization chamber determined by the two ways are in agreement within experimental uncertainties.

  4. One-Step Fast Synthesis of Nanoparticles for MRI: Coating Chemistry as the Key Variable Determining Positive or Negative Contrast.

    PubMed

    Pellico, Juan; Ruiz-Cabello, Jesús; Fernández-Barahona, Irene; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Lechuga-Vieco, Ana V; Enríquez, Jose A; Morales, M Puerto; Herranz, Fernando

    2017-10-03

    Iron oxide nanomaterial is a typical example of a magnetic resonance imaging probe for negative contrast. It has also been shown how this nanomaterial can be synthesized for positive contrast by modification of the composition and size of the core. However, the role of the organic coating in the relaxometric properties is largely unexplored. Here, maghemite nanoparticles with either excellent positive or very good negative contrast performance are obtained by modifying coating thickness while the core is kept unchanged. Different nanoparticles with tailored features as contrast agent according to the coating layer thickness have been obtained in a single-step microwave-driven synthesis by heating at different temperatures. A comprehensive analysis is conducted of how the composition and structure of the coating affects the final magnetic, relaxometric, and imaging performance. These results show how the organic coating plays a fundamental role in the intrinsic relaxometric parameters of iron oxide-based contrast media.

  5. Resonance lamp absorption technique for simultaneous determination of the OH concentration and temperature at 10 spatial positions in combustion environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shirinzadeh, B.; Gregory, Ray W.

    1994-01-01

    A rugged, easy to implement, line-of-sight absorption instrument which utilizes a low pressure water vapor microwave discharge cell as the light source, has been developed to make simultaneous measurements of the OH concentration and temperature at 10 spatial positions. The design, theory, and capability of the instrument are discussed. Results of the measurements obtained on a methane/air flat flame burner are compared with those obtained using a single-frequency, tunable dye laser system.

  6. Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data

    PubMed Central

    Miller, David A. W.; Nichols, James D.; Gude, Justin A.; Rich, Lindsey N.; Podruzny, Kevin M.; Hines, James E.; Mitchell, Michael S.

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007–2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state’s annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations. PMID:23840372

  7. Enhancing real-time precise point positioning with zenith troposphere delay products and the determination of corresponding tropospheric stochastic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yao, Yibin; Peng, Wenjie; Xu, Chaoqian; Cheng, Shuyang

    2017-02-01

    By introducing two types of zenith troposphere delay (ZTD) products in precise point positioning (PPP), we developed the ZTD-corrected PPP and the ZTD-constrained PPP, both of them reduced the PPP convergence time. Both enhanced PPP methods are examined by global empirical ZTD models and regional ZTD corrections. For global ZTD models, we verified that ZTD-corrected PPP will deviate the positioning results, while ZTD-constrained PPP could produce unbiased estimations. Therefore, the latter is utilized to study the performance of global ZTD models (ITG, GPT2w, GZTD and UNB3m). After numerous experiments, we found that the performance of ZTD models was positively related to the real ZTD accuracy, and we proposed a universal tropospheric stochastic model 2SQR(9rms) which denotes double the square of nine times ZTD rms, to constrain ZTD in PPP. The proposed model subsequently was validated by real-time static and kinematic ZTD-constrained PPP on the premise that the ZTD rms on every station was known. Compared with traditional PPP, in static PPP, the number of improved stations is increased by 15.5 per cent (ITG), 14.4 per cent (GPT2w), 11.1 per cent (GZTD) and 8.3 per cent (UNB3m). For kinematic PPP, PPP constrained by ITG model still had the best performance, the number of improved stations is increased by 14.4 per cent, after 30 min of initialization time, 13.4 cm east, 13.4 cm north and 11.7 cm up positioning accuracy was obtained, compared with 15.3 cm east, 15.3 cm north and 14.3 cm up accuracy by traditional PPP. In addition, experiments using regional ZTD corrections to enhance real-time PPP showed that both ZTD-corrected PPP and ZTD-constrained PPP can notably reduce the convergence time on the vertical component (within 15 cm).

  8. Determining Occurrence Dynamics when False Positives Occur: Estimating the Range Dynamics of Wolves from Public Survey Data.

    PubMed

    Miller, David A W; Nichols, James D; Gude, Justin A; Rich, Lindsey N; Podruzny, Kevin M; Hines, James E; Mitchell, Michael S

    2013-01-01

    Large-scale presence-absence monitoring programs have great promise for many conservation applications. Their value can be limited by potential incorrect inferences owing to observational errors, especially when data are collected by the public. To combat this, previous analytical methods have focused on addressing non-detection from public survey data. Misclassification errors have received less attention but are also likely to be a common component of public surveys, as well as many other data types. We derive estimators for dynamic occupancy parameters (extinction and colonization), focusing on the case where certainty can be assumed for a subset of detections. We demonstrate how to simultaneously account for non-detection (false negatives) and misclassification (false positives) when estimating occurrence parameters for gray wolves in northern Montana from 2007-2010. Our primary data source for the analysis was observations by deer and elk hunters, reported as part of the state's annual hunter survey. This data was supplemented with data from known locations of radio-collared wolves. We found that occupancy was relatively stable during the years of the study and wolves were largely restricted to the highest quality habitats in the study area. Transitions in the occupancy status of sites were rare, as occupied sites almost always remained occupied and unoccupied sites remained unoccupied. Failing to account for false positives led to over estimation of both the area inhabited by wolves and the frequency of turnover. The ability to properly account for both false negatives and false positives is an important step to improve inferences for conservation from large-scale public surveys. The approach we propose will improve our understanding of the status of wolf populations and is relevant to many other data types where false positives are a component of observations.

  9. Determinants of Desire for Children among HIV-Positive Women in the Afar Region, Ethiopia: Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Fatimetu; Assefa, Nega

    2016-01-01

    The desire for a child in Ethiopian society is normal. Among HIV positive women, due to the risk of MTCT, it is imperative to understand factors influencing women's desire for children. This study aimed at assessing factors associated with desire for children among HIV-positive women in two selected hospitals of Afar Regional State, Ethiopia. A facility based case-control study was conducted among 157 cases (with a desire) and 157 controls of HIV positive individuals registered in the selected health facilities. The participants were selected by random sampling technique. Data were collected using face-to-face interview and was analyzed using logistic regression. Factors found to be independently associated with desire for children were age categories of 20-24 years (OR = 6.22, 1.29-10.87) and 25-29 years (OR = 14.6, 3.05-21.60), being married (OR = 5.51, 2.19-13.54), Afar ethnicity (OR 6.93, 1.19-12.14), having HIV-positive children (OR 0.23, 0.09-0.63), duration on ART more than one year (3.51, 1.68-9.05), CD4 count greater than 350 (OR 4.83, 1.51-7.27) and discussion of reproductive health issues with health providers (OR 0.31, 0.12-0.51). Women who were young, married, Afar, those who received ART more than one year, and had CD4 count >350 were more likely to have a desire for children. Health care workers at ART clinic should openly discuss about the reproductive options for the women living with HIV/AIDS.

  10. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  11. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  12. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components.

    PubMed

    Gehron, M J; Davis, J D; Smith, G A; White, D C

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  13. The size and internal structure of a heterochromatic block determine its ability to induce position effect variegation in Drosophila melanogaster.

    PubMed Central

    Tolchkov, E V; Rasheva, V I; Bonaccorsi, S; Westphal, T; Gvozdev, V A

    2000-01-01

    In the In(1LR)pn2a rearrangement, the 1A-2E euchromatic segment is transposed to the vicinity of X heterochromatin (Xh), resulting in position effect variegation (PEV) of the genes in the 2BE region. Practically the whole X-linked heterochromatin is situated adjacent to variegated euchromatic genes. Secondary rearrangements showing weakening or reversion of PEV were obtained by irradiation of the In(1LR)pn2a. These rearrangements demonstrate a positive correlation between the strength of PEV of the wapl locus and the sizes of the adjacent heterochromatic blocks carrying the centromere. The smallest PEV-inducing fragment consists of a block corresponding to approximately 10% of Xh and containing the entire XR, the centromere, and a very proximal portion of XL heterochromatin. Heterochromatic blocks retaining the entire XR near the 2E region, but lacking the centromere, show no PEV. Reversion of PEV was also observed as a result of an internal rearrangement of the Xh blocks where the centromere is moved away from the eu-heterochromatin boundary but the amount of X heterochromatin remaining adjacent to 2E is unchanged. We propose a primary role of the X pericentromeric region in PEV induction and an enhancing effect of the other blocks, positively correlated with their size. PMID:10747057

  14. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  15. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  16. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  17. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  18. An adaptive optics aided differential optical positioning for passive orbit determination of the space debris at the geostationary orbit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piatrou, Piotr; Rigaut, Francois

    2017-10-01

    Proliferation of space debris presents an imminent threat to all space assets. The problem is especially severe for the geostationary band of orbits (GEO) because the GEO objects never leave their orbit and, at the same time, are difficult to observe and operate due to large distance from the Earth. Under the influence of tidal forces, even passive GEO objects achieve high local velocities without vacating GEO positions, which may potentially lead to devastating collisions. Our ability to predict collisions in GEO is limited by the scarcity of the accurate orbital data, especially about the small and passive objects. The efforts to address this omission strongly rely on the ground-based optical sensors and, consequently, on the efficient space object detection and tracking techniques. In this paper we propose a passive differential optical debris tracking technique combining adaptive optics and a high accuracy astrometric references resulting in a significant improvement in the GEO object positioning accuracy. The achievable accuracy is estimated via detailed numerical simulations of two telescopes in different locations.

  19. Early molecular response to posttransplantation imatinib determines outcome in MRD+ Philadelphia-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL).

    PubMed

    Wassmann, Barbara; Pfeifer, Heike; Stadler, Michael; Bornhaüser, Martin; Bug, Gesine; Scheuring, Urban J; Brück, Patrick; Stelljes, Matthias; Schwerdtfeger, Rainer; Basara, Nadezda; Perz, Jolanta; Bunjes, Donald; Ledderose, Georg; Mahlberg, Rolf; Binckebanck, Anja; Gschaidmeier, Harald; Hoelzer, Dieter; Ottmann, Oliver G

    2005-07-15

    In adult Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukemia (Ph+ ALL), minimal residual disease (MRD) after stem cell transplantation (SCT) is associated with a relapse probability exceeding 90%. Starting imatinib in the setting of MRD may decrease this high relapse rate. In this prospective multicenter study, 27 Ph+ ALL patients received imatinib upon detection of MRD after SCT. Bcr-abl transcripts became undetectable in 14 (52%) of 27 patients, after a median of 1.5 months (0.9-3.7 months) ((early)CR(mol)). All patients who achieved an (early)CR(mol) remained in remission for the duration of imatinib treatment; 3 patients relapsed after imatinib was discontinued. Failure to achieve polymerase chain reaction (PCR) negativity shortly after starting imatinib predicted relapse, which occurred in 12 (92%) of 13 patients after a median of 3 months. Disease-free survival (DFS) in (early)CR(mol) patients is 91% +/- 9% and 54% +/- 21% after 12 and 24 months, respectively, compared with 8% +/- 7% after 12 months in patients remaining MRD+ (P < .001). In conclusion, approximately half of patients with Ph+ ALL receiving imatinib for MRD positivity after SCT experience prolonged DFS, which can be anticipated by the rapid achievement of a molecular complete remission (CR). Continued detection of bcr-abl transcripts after 2 to 3 months on imatinib identifies patients who will ultimately experience relapse and in whom additional or alternative antileukemic treatment should be initiated.

  20. CpG dinucleotide positioning patterns determine the binding affinity of methyl-binding domain to nucleosomes.

    PubMed

    Mendonca, Agnes; Sanchez, Oscar F; Liu, Wenjie; Li, Zhe; Yuan, Chongli

    2017-06-01

    The methyl-binding domain of MBD1 is a common methyl CpG binding motif and has been linked to transcriptional repression. Understanding the dynamics of MBD1 binding to nucleosomal DNA is crucial, but the molecular interactions between MBD1 and chromatin remain elusive. In this study, we found the binding of MBD1 to nucleosomes demonstrates sequence preferences depending on the position of the methyl groups on the nucleosome. Specifically, binding was favored at (me)CpG sites in the dyad proximal region and facing towards the histone octamers. At locations where the (me)CpG sites face away from the histone octamer, the binding affinity was significantly lower. Interestingly, the binding of ΔMBD1 at methylated CpG sites facing away from histone octamers induces conformational changes of nucleosomes, resulting in a more "open" conformation. The biological implication of DNA methylation is thus likely to be synergistically regulated via DNA sequences contents and their nucleosome-positioning patterns based on our in vitro findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Complex interactions among several nucleotide positions determine phenotypes defective for long-distance transport in the satellite RNA of cucumber mosaic virus.

    PubMed

    Bernal, J J; Garcia-Arenal, F

    1994-04-01

    Ix-satRNA is a CMV-satRNA necrogenic on tomato that is defective for long-distance systemic movement when coinoculated in tobacco with V-TAV. To analyze the determinants for this defective phenotype, full-length cDNA clones of Ix-satRNA and of the closely related, nondefective I17N-satRNA were obtained. Infectious transcripts from these clones (Ix5-satRNA and I17N1-satRNA) had the same phenotypes as the original satRNAs and differed only in four positions: positions 20 (Ix5, C; I17N1, U), 102 (Ix5, C; I17N1, U), 224 (Ix5, deleted; I17N1, A), 327 (Ix5, G; I17N1, A). By site-directed mutagenesis at positions 224 and 327 and by recombination using two common restriction sites, satRNAs in which the bases at these four positions were changed from the composition at Ix5-satRNA to the composition at I17N1-satRNA were obtained. A comparison of the phenotypes of the 13 single, double, and triple mutants (respective to Ix5-satRNA) showed that the defective phenotype of Ix5-satRNA is determined by the nature of the four positions analyzed; mutants at any of the positions 102, 224, and 327 accumulated as efficiently as I17N1-satRNA in systemically infected tobacco leaves when coinoculated with V-TAV. The change C20-->U also restored systemic movement, albeit imperfectly, giving rise to a phenotype that moved systemically less efficiently than I17N1-satRNA. This phenotype determined by U20 is expressed irrespective of the base at position 102, indicating an epistatic interaction between determinants 20 and 102; this interaction does not occur with position 224 or 327. That differences in the analyzed satRNAs are due to their being able, or not, to move systemically is shown by the fact that all of them (including Ix5-satRNA) accumulated to the same high level in directly inoculated leaves. The similarity in the sequences of the analyzed satRNAs and the complexity of the interactions among the effects of base changes at four positions scattered over the satRNA molecule suggest

  2. Performance Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture Test for Direct Identification of Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Cultures in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Gilman K. H.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ng, T. K.; Lee, Rodney A.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; To, Sabrina W. C.; Wong, Barry K. C.; Cheung, Sherman; Wong, Ivan W. F.; Tam, Marble M. P.; Lee, Swing S. W.; Yam, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance and the time to identifcation of the Verigene Blood Culture Test, the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, to identify both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their drug resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures collected in Hong Kong. Methods and Results A total of 364 blood cultures were prospectively collected from four public hospitals, in which 114 and 250 cultures yielded Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and were tested with the BC-GP and BC-GN assay respectively. The overall identification agreement for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 89.6% and 90.5% in monomicrobial cultures and 62.5% and 53.6% in polymicrobial cultures, respectively. The sensitivities for most genus/species achieved at least 80% except Enterococcus spp. (60%), K.oxytoca (0%), K.pneumoniae (69.2%), whereas the specificities for all targets ranged from 98.9% to 100%. Of note, 50% (7/14) cultures containing K.pneumoniae that were missed by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as K.variicola. Approximately 5.5% (20/364) cultures contained non-target organisms, of which Aeromonas spp. accounted for 25% and are of particular concern. For drug resistance determination, the Verigene test showed 100% sensitivity for identification of MRSA, VRE and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter, and 84.4% for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae based on the positive detection of mecA, vanA, blaOXA and blaCTXM respectively. Conclusion Overall, the Verigene test provided acceptable accuracy for identification of bacteria and resistance markers with a range of turnaround time 40.5 to 99.2 h faster than conventional methods in our region. PMID:26431434

  3. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions

    PubMed Central

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study. PMID:26327256

  4. Method for determining the position, angle and other injection parameters of a short pulsed beam in the Brookhaven AGS

    SciTech Connect

    Gardner, C.; Ahrens, L.

    1985-01-01

    As part of the effort to improve the monitoring of the injection process at the Brookhaven Alternating Gradient Synchrotron (AGS), we have developed a beam diagnostics package which processes the signals from the plates of a pick-up electrode (PUE) located near the injection region of the AGS and provides measurements of the position and angle (with respect to the equilibrium orbit) of the injected beam at the stripping foil where the incident H/sup -/ beam is converted into protons. In addition the package provides measurements of the tune and chromaticity of the AGS at injection, and a measurement of the momentum spread of the injected beam. Since these parameters are obtained for a short-pulsed beam at injection we shall refer to the diagnostics package as PIP which stands for Pulsed Injection Parameters.

  5. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study.

  6. The position of deuterium in HOD—NNO as determined by structural and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants

    SciTech Connect

    Obenchain, Daniel A.; Frank, Derek S.; Novick, Stewart E.; Klemperer, William

    2015-08-28

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound H{sub 2}O—N{sub 2}O complex and its HOD—N{sub 2}O isotopologue in a supersonic jet are reported. Rotational constants of the singly substituted deuterium in water and each singly substituted nitrogen-15 are presented. Combinations of isotopic data and high level ab initio calculations place the water in a similar position to those of the isoelectronic H{sub 2}O—CO{sub 2} complex, with a slight tilt of the OH towards the NNO axis. The deuterium nuclear quadrupole coupling constant places the deuterium on the O—H axis quasi-parallel to the NNO axis.

  7. Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform system for direct detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Wang, H Y; Uh, Y; Kim, S; Lee, H

    2017-05-01

    Rapid and accurate identification of the causative pathogens of bloodstream infections (BSIs) is crucial for initiating appropriate antimicrobial therapy, which decreases the related morbidity and mortality rates. The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of a newly developed multiplexed, bead-based bioassay system, the Quantamatrix Multiplexed Assay Platform (QMAP) system, obtained directly from blood culture bottles, to simultaneously detect the presence of bacteria and identify the genes for antibiotic resistance. The QMAP system was used to evaluate 619 blood culture bottles from patients with BSIs and to compare the results of conventional culture methods. Using conventional bacterial cultures as the reference standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, and negative predictive value of the QMAP system for detection of bacterial pathogens in positive blood culture (PBC) samples were 99.8% (n=592, 95% CI 0.9852-1.000, p <0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.983-1.000, p <0.001), 100% (95% CI 0.9922-1.000, p <0.001), and 99.5% (95% CI 0.9695-1.000, p <0.001), respectively. In addition, sensitivity and specificity of the QMAP system for identification of the genes for antibiotic resistance were 99.4% (n=158, 95% CI 0.9617-0.9999, p <0.009) and 99.6% (95% CI 0.9763-0.9999, p <0.0001), respectively. Obtaining results using the QMAP system takes about 3 hr, while culture methods can take 48-72 hr. Therefore, analysis using the QMAP system is rapid and reliable for characterizing causative pathogens in BSIs. Copyright © 2016 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Relative Spatial Positions of Tryptophan and Cationic Residues in Helical Membrane-active Peptides Determine Their Cytotoxicity*

    PubMed Central

    Rekdal, Øystein; Haug, Bengt Erik; Kalaaji, Manar; Hunter, Howard N.; Lindin, Inger; Israelsson, Ingrid; Solstad, Terese; Yang, Nannan; Brandl, Martin; Mantzilas, Dimitrios; Vogel, Hans J.

    2012-01-01

    The cytotoxic activity of 10 analogs of the idealized amphipathic helical 21-mer peptide (KAAKKAA)3, where three of the Ala residues at different positions have been replaced with Trp residues, has been investigated. The peptide's cytotoxic activity was found to be markedly dependent upon the position of the Trp residues within the hydrophobic sector of an idealized α-helix. The peptides with Trp residues located opposite the cationic sector displayed no antitumor activity, whereas those peptides with two or three Trp residues located adjacent to the cationic sector exhibited high cytotoxic activity when tested against three different cancer cell lines. Dye release experiments revealed that in contrast to the peptides with Trp residues located opposite the cationic sector, the peptides with Trp residues located adjacent to the cationic sector induced a strong permeabilizing activity from liposomes composed of a mixture of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine and negatively charged phosphatidylserine (1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (POPC)/1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phospho-l-serine (POPS)) (2:1) but not from liposomes composed of zwitterionic phosphatidylcholine, POPC. Fluorescence blue shift and quenching experiments revealed that Trp residues inserted deeper into the hydrophobic environment of POPC/POPS liposomes for peptides with high cytotoxic activity. Through circular dichroism studies, a correlation between the cytotoxic activity and the α-helical propensity was established. Structural studies of one inactive and two active peptides in the presence of micelles using NMR spectroscopy showed that only the active peptides adopted highly coiled to helical structures when bound to a membrane surface. PMID:22057278

  9. Determinants of antiretroviral adherence among HIV positive children and teenagers in rural Tanzania: a mixed methods study.

    PubMed

    Nyogea, Daniel; Mtenga, Sally; Henning, Lars; Franzeck, Fabian C; Glass, Tracy R; Letang, Emilio; Tanner, Marcel; Geubbels, Eveline

    2015-01-31

    Around 3.3 million children worldwide are infected with HIV and 90% of them live in sub-Saharan Africa. Our study aimed to estimate adherence levels and find the determinants, facilitators and barriers of ART adherence among children and teenagers in rural Tanzania. We applied a sequential explanatory mixed method design targeting children and teenagers aged 2-19 years residing in Ifakara. We conducted a quantitative cross sectional study followed by a qualitative study combining focus group discussions (FGDs) and in-depth interviews (IDIs). We used pill count to measure adherence and defined optimal adherence as > =80% of pills being taken. We analysed determinants of poor adherence using logistic regression. We held eight FGDs with adolescent boys and girls on ART and with caretakers. We further explored issues emerging in the FGDs in four in-depth interviews with patients and health workers. Qualitative data was analysed using thematic content analysis. Out of 116 participants available for quantitative analysis, 70% had optimal adherence levels and the average adherence level was 84%. Living with a non-parent caretaker predicted poor adherence status. From the qualitative component, unfavorable school environment, timing of the morning ART dose, treatment longevity, being unaware of HIV status, non-parental (biological) care, preference for traditional medicine (herbs) and forgetfulness were seen to be barriers for optimal adherence. The study has highlighted specific challenges in ART adherence faced by children and teenagers. Having a biological parent as a caretaker remains a key determinant of adherence among children and teenagers. To achieve optimal adherence, strategies targeting the caretakers, the school environment, and the health system need to be designed.

  10. Anti-citrullinated protein antibody positive rheumatoid arthritis is primarily determined by rheumatoid factor titre and the shared epitope rather than smoking per se.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dan; Mattey, Derek; Hutchinson, David

    2017-01-01

    To analyse the relationship between rheumatoid factor (RF) titre, smoking and HLA-DRB1 alleles coding a "shared epitope" (SE) in relation to anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) positivity in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). RA patients (n = 658) attending rheumatology clinics in Cornwall, UK (cohort 1) were stratified according to RF and ACPA titre, and smoking pack years at diagnosis. A further 409 RA patients from North Staffordshire, UK (cohort 2) were studied to confirm the relationship between RF levels, smoking and ACPA positivity in relation to SE status. In cohort 1 there was a trend (p<0.01) of increasing ACPA positivity rates with increasing levels of RF without statistically significant differences between patients who had never smoked and smokers (never smoked: 15/71 (21%) RF -ve, vs. 43/64 (67%) RF weak +ve, vs 88/100 (88%) RF strong +ve, ever smoked: 18/70 (26%) RF -ve vs. 66/83 (80%) RF weak +ve vs. 196/210 (93%) RF strong +ve). No significant gender difference was observed. No significant difference between smoking and ACPA positivity was seen in RF negative patients. Smoking >20 pack years conferred an increased risk of anti-CCP positive RA (158/200 (79%)), compared to having never smoked (146/235 (62%), p = <0.01), but this increased risk correlated with smokers' RF positivity as the principal determinant on subsequent regression analysis of cohort 2. In cohort 2, ACPA positivity rates significantly increased with RF positivity and carriage of 1 or 2 SE alleles (p<0.01). Little or no relationship was observed in patients lacking SE. ACPA positivity in RA strongly associates with increasing RF titre independent of smoking. This relationship is dependent on carriage of SE alleles. There is no relationship between ACPA and smoking in RF negative patients.

  11. [A study on the risk and its determinants of HIV transmission by syringe sharing among HIV-positive drug users].

    PubMed

    Bao, Yugang; Zhang, Yanhui; Liang, Ying; Chen, Mengshi; Sun, Jiangping; Tan, Hongzhuan

    2015-06-01

    To understand the risks and associated factors of HIV transmission by sharing syringes among HIV-positive drug users. The survey was conducted among HIV-positive injecting drug users (IDUs-HIV+) who received HIV counseling, testing and treatment in Changsha city Infectious Disease Hospital and Hengyang city No.3 People's Hospital from July 2012 to May 2013 to understand their socio-demographic characteristics, HIV prevalence and syringe sharing. A total of 503 IDUs-HIV+ were involved in and provided the contact list of 2 460 drug users who had the syringe sharing experience over one month with IDUs-HIV+. 420 IDUs-HIV+ among 503 were defined as infection sources due to sharing syringe with at least one drug user. Among them, 234 HIV-negative persons were in control group, and 186 HIV-positive were in cased group. A total of 1 220 drug users were followed up among 2 460 and defined as vulnerable population. The HIV transmission rate was calculated based on the HIV prevalence among vulnerable population. Based on the result of HIV transmission to vulnerable population from 420 infection sources, case-control study and the multivariate logistic regression analysis were adopted to explore the associated factors of HIV transmission among IDUs-HIV+. As the sources of HIV transmission, 420 IDUs-HIV+ had an average duration of (4.5 ± 1.2) years for drug use. As a susceptible population, 1 220 drug users sharing syringes with the 420 IDUs-HIV+ had an average duration of (1.1 ± 0.5) years for drug use. There were 238 HIV-positive persons among 1 220 vulnerable drug users, with a transmission rate of 0.57. In the case-control study, the proportion of male subjects was 87.1% (162/186) in the case group, which was higher than that in the control group (77.8%, 182/234). The proportion of subjects who received support after knowing their HIV infection status was 51.1% (95/186) in the case group, which was lower than that in the control group (79.5%, 186/234). The proportion of

  12. Determination of the position and orientation of a flat piezoelectric micro-stage by moving the optical axis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Guo-Yuan; Lee, Hau-Wei; Liu, Chien-Hung

    2014-10-01

    A moving optical axis measurement system with six degrees-of-freedom (DOF) is proposed in this study. The system is very simple and can be placed inside a flat piezoelectric micro-stage. The system comprises three two-DOF optical measurement modules, each having a quadrant photo diode (QPD), a lens, and a laser diode. These three modules and the geometric configuration of their installation allow displacement measurements with up to six-DOF to be made. A mathematical model of this system is also presented. By analyzing the sensitivity and relationship between the displacement of the stage and each of the QPD light spots, movement can be observed. Signal feedback enables multi-axis nano-scale positioning control. We also present a new six-DOF nano stage, which uses piezoelectric actuators for displacement. This stage was used to verify the proposed six-DOF measurement system. Linear and angular resolution of the system can be down to 10 nm and 0.1 arcsec. Linear and angular displacement measurement errors of this six-DOF measurement system are in the range of ±70 nm and ±0.65 arcsec.

  13. Molecular test to determine toxigenic capabilities in GDH-positive, toxin-negative samples: evaluation of the Portrait toxigenic C. difficile assay.

    PubMed

    Finch, L S; Duncan, C M

    2013-01-01

    New recommendations for testing and reporting of Clostridium difficile were introduced in the NHS in 2012. These guidelines have improved identification of potential C. difficile infection (CDI) cases, but questions remain around the management of glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH)-positive, toxin-negative patients. This study aims to assess the introduction of the Portrait C. difficile assay as the third step to identify the presence of the toxigenic C. difficile B (tcdB) gene and thus determine toxigenic capability. Stool samples with a GDH-positive, toxin-negative result were tested using the Portrait analyser to detect the presence of tcdB. A retrospective evaluation was performed, assessing the clinical course of patients who were isolated as a result of the current algorithm using GDH enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and toxin EIA. Of the stool samples tested, 40% carried the tcdB gene. Four tcdB-positive stool samples initially toxin A/B-negative subsequently became positive. Thirteen patients were isolated, four of which did not have the tcdB gene. The total time to 'process' a positive CDI case was 102 hours and cost pounds 592. The additional time and cost of incorporating the Portrait toxigenic C. difficile assay was 105-115 minutes and pounds 46.48 to pounds 51.88. This study confirms that toxigenic capabilities in GDH-positive, toxin-negative specimens can facilitate effective treatment and infection prevention, and results show there is potential value in repeat toxin testing.

  14. The utility of the prism on the correcting plate of the Tautenburg Schmidt telescope in the case of position determinations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirte, S.; Schilbach, E.

    In 1970, investigations were initiated regarding the feasibility of an employment of the Tautenburg Schmidt telescope in astronometric studies. In view of the good results obtained in these investigations, a pilot program concerning the determination of proper motions was started in 1974. Attention is given to approaches which were utilized to suppress errors which can occur in the case of measurements of objects with pronounced differences in brightness, taking into account the employment of two different times of exposure and the use of a weakly refracting prism attached to the correcting plate. Attention is given to the measurement procedure, the mathematical basis, the evaluation of regression analysis, and the results of a test regarding the parallelism of regression areas.

  15. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. PMID:26742857

  16. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  17. CCD Positions Determined in the International Celestial Reference Frame for the Outer Planets and Many of Their Satellites in 1995-1999

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Ronald C.; Harris, Frederick H.

    2000-04-01

    This paper presents 1155 accurate equatorial positions for the outer planets Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto and 17 satellites of Jupiter-Neptune. Additional positions for Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune can be determined from the planetocentric motions of their satellites given in this paper. All the positions were determined in the International Celestial Reference Frame (ICRF), the IAU standard for all future astrometric reductions, from CCD observations taken with the Flagstaff Astrometric Scanning Transit Telescope (FASTT) and reduced differentially using the ACT reference stars. The methods used to determine these positions are fully described. Accuracies of +/-0.08" to +/-0.25" were obtained in each coordinate, depending on the signal-to-noise ratio observed for each object. In many cases, planets and satellites were imaged in the same CCD field of view, thereby giving excellent relative astrometry (+/-0.04") for well-exposed images. Moreover, 424 older FASTT positions determined in 1995-1997 for Uranus, Neptune, and Pluto were converted to the ICRF and are given also in this paper. When FASTT positions are compared with modern Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) ephemerides for the planets and satellites considered herein, there is generally good agreement (less than 0.05") between observation and theory. For the planets, FASTT observations and DE405 ephemerides all agree to better than 0.05" and, in most cases, less than 0.03" when mean differences are formed. There are some exceptions for the satellites. Namely, the ephemerides for the outer satellites of Jupiter and Saturn considered in this paper (Himalia, Elara, Pasiphae, and Phoebe) and the Uranian satellites Titania and Oberon probably need improvement as indicated from the FASTT observational data. The former show systematic trends when (FASTT-JPL ephemeris) coordinate differences are plotted against either coordinate position or orbital phase, and the latter show a possible offset between the right

  18. A radio optical reference frame. I - Precise radio source positions determined by Mark III VLBI - Observations from 1979 to 1988 and a tie to the FK5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.; De Vegt, C.; Johnston, K. J.; Russell, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from 600 Mark III VLBI experiments from 1979 to 1988, resulting in 237,681 acceptable pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations, have been used to derive positions of 182 extragalactic radio sources with typical formal standard errors less than 1 mas. The sources are distributed fairly evenly above delta = -30 deg, and 70 sources have delta greater than 0 deg. Analysis with different troposphere models, as well as internal and external comparisons, indicates that a coordinate frame defined by this set of radio sources should be reliable at the 1 mas level. The right ascension zero point of this reference frame has been aligned with the FK5 by using the optical positions of 28 extragalactic radio sources whose positions are on the FK5 system. Because of known defects in the knowledge of astronomical constants, daily nutation offsets in longitude and obliquity were determined relative to an arbitrary reference day in the set of experiments.

  19. Study of accuracy in the position determination with SALSA, a γ-scanning system for the characterization of segmented HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Prieto, A.; Quintana, B.; Martìn, S.; Domingo-Pardo, C.

    2016-07-01

    Accurate characterization of the electric response of segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors as a function of the interaction position is one of the current goals of the Nuclear Physics community seeking to perform γ-ray tracking or even imaging with these detectors. For this purpose, scanning devices must be developed to achieve the signal-position association with the highest precision. With a view to studying the accuracy achieved with SALSA, the SAlamanca Lyso-based Scanning Array, here we report a detailed study on the uncertainty sources and their effect in the position determination inside the HPGe detector to be scanned. The optimization performed on the design of SALSA, aimed at minimizing the effect of the uncertainty sources, afforded an intrinsic uncertainty of ∼2 mm for large coaxial detectors and ∼1 mm for planar ones.

  20. A radio optical reference frame. I - Precise radio source positions determined by Mark III VLBI - Observations from 1979 to 1988 and a tie to the FK5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.; De Vegt, C.; Johnston, K. J.; Russell, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from 600 Mark III VLBI experiments from 1979 to 1988, resulting in 237,681 acceptable pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations, have been used to derive positions of 182 extragalactic radio sources with typical formal standard errors less than 1 mas. The sources are distributed fairly evenly above delta = -30 deg, and 70 sources have delta greater than 0 deg. Analysis with different troposphere models, as well as internal and external comparisons, indicates that a coordinate frame defined by this set of radio sources should be reliable at the 1 mas level. The right ascension zero point of this reference frame has been aligned with the FK5 by using the optical positions of 28 extragalactic radio sources whose positions are on the FK5 system. Because of known defects in the knowledge of astronomical constants, daily nutation offsets in longitude and obliquity were determined relative to an arbitrary reference day in the set of experiments.

  1. Determination of the relative positions of amino acids by partial specific cleavages of end-labeled proteins.

    PubMed

    Jue, R A; Doolittle, R F

    1985-01-01

    We have developed a new method for obtaining information about protein sequences that uses an approach analogous to that used to determine DNA sequences. In essence, three steps are involved. First, a detectable label is attached exclusively to the amino terminus of a polypeptide. Next, the labeled chain is subjected to partial specific cleavage in a way that produces roughly equimolar amounts of fragments of different sizes. Cleavages for methionine, tryptophan, arginine, aspartyl-proline bonds, and asparaginyl-glycine bonds have been employed. Lastly, the labeled fragments are separated according to size by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The distribution of target amino acids along the polypeptide chain can be deduced from the specific pattern of labeled bands by reading the "ladder" in the same way that DNA sequencing gels are read. Although the method can be conducted with a radioactive label, we have chosen to use a fluorescent label. We have applied the method successfully to the three subunit chains of two different fibrinogens.

  2. The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex – Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

    2013-01-01

    The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature. PMID:23998093

  3. Seasonal movement of the Slumgullion landslide determined from global positioning system surveys and field instrumentation, July 1998-March 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Ellis, W.L.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Savage, J.E.; Michael, J.A.; Kibler, J.D.; Powers, P.S.; Lidke, D.J.; Debray, S.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of landslide movement made by global positioning system surveys and extensometers over a 3.5-year period show that the Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwest Colorado moved throughout the monitoring period, but that daily velocities varied on a seasonal basis. Landslide velocities peaked in the early spring and summer in response to snowmelt and summer thunderstorms, respectively. Velocities were slowest in mid-winter when air and soil temperatures were coldest and precipitation was generally low and/or in the form of snow with a low water content. We hypothesize that the seasonal variability in velocities is due to ground-water levels and corresponding pore pressures that decrease when surface water is unavailable or cannot infiltrate frozen landslide material, and increase when surface water from melting snow or rainfall infiltrates unfrozen landslide material. We also suggest that patches of bouldery debris and fractures (created by continuous movement of the landslide) are conduits through which surface water can infiltrate, regardless of the frozen or unfrozen state of the landslide matrix material. Therefore, the availability of surface water is more important than landslide temperature in controlling the rate of landslide movement. This hypothesis is supported by field instrumentation data that show (1) landslide velocities coinciding with precipitation amounts regardless of the depth of freezing of landslide material, (2) spring and annual landslide velocities that were greatest when the depth of freezing was also the greatest, and (3) a rapid (several weeks or less) velocity and pore pressure response to rainfall. The persistent, but seasonally variable movement of the landslide, fits the bathtub model for landslide movement described by Baum and Reid [Baum, R.L., Reid, M.E., 2000. Ground water isolation by low-permeability clays in landslide shear zones. In: Bromhead, E.N., Dixon, N., Ibsen, M.-L. (Eds.), Landslides in

  4. Condylar axis position, as determined by the occlusion and measured by the CPI instrument, and signs and symptoms of temporomandibular dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Crawford, S D

    1999-04-01

    The importance of occlusion as an etiologic factor in signs and symptoms of TMD has been a source of controversy. Very few studies have examined occlusion-dictated condylar position using instrumentation, and none has compared an ideal sample against an untreated control. The purpose of this study was to determine if there is a relationship between condylar axis position as determined by the occlusion and signs and symptoms of TMD, using the condylar position indicator (CPI). A sample of subjects with ideal occlusions, defined as centric relation approximating centric occlusion, was compared with a control sample of untreated subjects. The comparison was based on written patient histories, clinical exams, and CPI measurements. The ideal sample of 30 subjects was selected from a population that had undergone full-mouth reconstruction using gnathologic principles that included centric relation (CR) being coincident with centric occlusion (CO). The control group consisted of 30 untreated subjects from the general population and was matched with the ideal sample with regard to sex. A duplicate written exam was given to the subjects in the ideal sample to assess symptoms prior to treatment. The CR bite registration technique developed by Roth was used. When the pre- and posttreatment examination scores of the ideal sample were compared, an 84% reduction in symptoms was found after treatment. A high correlation (p<.001) between signs and symptoms of TMD and CPI values was documented. Since condylar axis position is dictated upon closure of the dentition into maximum intercuspation and since condylar axis position was shown in this study to be strongly correlated with TMD symptomatology, it can be concluded that a statistically significant relationship exists between occlusion-dictated condylar position and symptoms of TMD.

  5. A curve of growth determination of the f-values for the fourth positive system of CO and the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield system of N2.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pilling, M. J.; Bass, A. M.; Braun, W.

    1971-01-01

    The curve of growth method has been employed to determine f-values for the fourth positive system of CO and the magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole components of the Lyman-Birge-Hopfield system of N2. No significant dependence on r-centroid was found. The mean value of the ratio of the electric quadrupole to magnetic dipole f-values was 0.076.

  6. SU-E-J-189: Determination of Markerless Lung Tumor Position in Real Time: A Feasibility Study Using a Novel Tomo-Cinegraphy Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, B; Hu, E; Yu, C; Lee, M; Lasio, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A Tomo-Cinegraphy (TC) is a method to generate a series of temporal tomographic images from projection images of the on-board imager (OBI) while gantry is moving. It is to test if this technique is useful to determine a lung tumor position during treatments. Methods: Tomographic image via background subtraction, TIBS uses a priori anatomical information from a previous CT scan to isolate a SOI from a planar kV image by factoring out the attenuations by tissues outside the SOI (background). This idea was extended to a TC, which enables to generate tomographic images of same geometry from the projection of different gantry angles and different breathing phases. Projection images of a lung patient for CBCT acquisition are used to generate TC images. A region of interest (ROI) is selected around a tumor adding 2cm margins. Center of mass (COM) of the ROI is traced to determine tumor position for every projection images. Results: Tumor is visible in the TC images while the OBI projections are not. The coordinates of the COMs represent the temporal tumor positions. While, it is not possible to trace the tumor motion using the projection images. A source of time delay is the time to acquire projection images, which is always less than a second. Conclusion: TC allows tracking the tumor positions without fiducial markers in real time for some lung patients, if the projection images are acquired during treatments. Partially supported by NIH R01CA133539.

  7. Determination of the 1,3- and 2-positional distribution of fatty acids in olive oil triacylglycerols by 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Vlahov, Giovanna

    2006-01-01

    Linear models were selected from a large data set acquired for Italian olive oil samples by quantitative 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy with distortionless enhancement by polarization transfer (DEPT). The models were used to determine the composition of the 2 fatty acid pools esterifying the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols. The linear models selected proved that the 1,3- and 2-distribution of saturated, oleate, and linoleate chains in olive oil triacylglycerols deviated from the random distribution pattern to an extent that depended on the concentration of the fatty acid in the whole triacylglycerol. To calculate the fatty acid composition of the 1,3- and 2-positions of olive oil triacylglycerols, the equations of the selected linear models were applied to the fatty acid percentages determined by gas chromatography. These data were compared with the values predicted by the computer method (used to determine the theoretical amounts of triacylglycerols), which is based on the 1,3-random-2-random theory of the fatty acid distribution in triacylglycerols. The biggest differences were found in the linoleate chain, which is the chain that deviated the most from a random distribution pattern. The results confirmed that the 1,3-random-2-random distribution theory provides an approximate method for determining the structure of triacylglycerols; however, the linear models calculated by the direct method that applies 13C NMR spectroscopy represent a more precise measurement of the composition of the 2 fatty acid pools esterifying the 1,3- and 2-positions of triacylglycerols.

  8. Determination of ANA specificity using multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients with ANA positivity at high titres after infliximab treatment: preliminary results.

    PubMed

    Caramaschi, Paola; Ruzzenente, Orazio; Pieropan, Sara; Volpe, Alessandro; Carletto, Antonio; Bambara, Lisa Maria; Biasi, Domenico

    2007-05-01

    To evaluate ANA specificity using the fully automated multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients affected either by rheumatoid arthritis or ankylosing spondylitis who developed strong positivity for ANA as assessed by indirect immunofluorescent method on HEp-2 cells during infliximab treatment. Three men affected by ankylosing spondylitis and 12 women affected by rheumatoid arthritis who developed ANA positivity at high titres during infliximab treatment underwent the identification of ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay; moreover anti-DNA and anti-ENA antibodies were tested by indirect immunofluorescence and ELISA method, respectively. In 4 out of 15 cases, the determination of ANA reactivity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay was also performed on the serum collected before infliximab administration. One patient affected by rheumatoid arthritis showed multiple ANA reactivities against SS-A, SS-B, RNP, Sm, Jo-1 and histones; one patient affected by ankylosing spondylitis resulted positive for the same autoantibodies, except for anti-Sm antibody. Moreover, two patients, one with rheumatoid arthritis and one with ankylosing spondylitis, showed single antibody specificity to SS-B and RNP, respectively. The remaining 11 cases did not show any positivity. Instead, all the patients resulted negative for anti-ENA antibodies by the ELISA method. In the four cases tested for ANA specificity by multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay before and after infliximab administration no difference was found. The search for anti-DNA antibody always resulted negative by both the traditional immunofluorescent assay and the novel technique. The use of multiplexed fluorescent microsphere immunoassay in patients treated with infliximab with ANA positivity at high titres allowed to find some ANA specificities which were not revealed by ELISA method. Nevertheless, the majority of patients resulted negative in spite of

  9. Interrupted expiratory flow on automatically constructed flow-volume curves may determine the presence of intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure during one-lung ventilation.

    PubMed

    Bardoczky, G I; d'Hollander, A A; Cappello, M; Yernault, J C

    1998-04-01

    We studied patients undergoing elective pulmonary surgery to establish whether observing interrupted expiratory flow (IEF) on the flow-volume curves constructed by the Ultima SV respiratory monitor is a reliable way to identify patients with dynamic pulmonary hyperinflation and intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEPi). Patients' tracheas were intubated with a double-lumen endotracheal tube and ventilated with a Siemens 900C constant flow ventilator. In 30 patients, PEEPi was determined by the end-expiratory occlusion (EEO) method during the periods of two-lung and one-lung ventilation in the lateral position. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and diagnostic accuracy of the IEF method were calculated. From the 122 measurement pairs, PEEPi was identified with the EEO method in 65 occasions. The mean level of PEEPi was 4.4 cm H2O. During one-lung ventilation, the level of PEEPi and the number of true-positive findings was significantly higher (PEEPi = 4.7 cm H2O and 32 episodes) than during two-lung ventilation (2.9 cm H2O and 19 episodes). When the level of PEEPi was higher than 5 cm H2O, the predictive value of IEF was 100%. The overall sensitivity of the IEF method was 0.78, its specificity was 0.91, and its predictive value was 0.92. In conclusion, examination of the flow-volume curves displayed on the respiratory monitor may identify patients with dynamic hyperinflation and PEEPi during anesthesia for thoracic surgery. To identify patients with intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure during anesthesia without the need to interrupt mechanical ventilation, the flow-volume curves of an online respiratory monitor may be examined. The presence of an interrupted expiratory flow may suggest the presence of intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure with a reasonable accuracy.

  10. β-Lactamases Encoded by blaCTX-M Group I Genes as Determinants of Resistance of Esbl-Positive Enterobacteriaceae in European Soldiers in Tropical Mali

    PubMed Central

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-01-01

    ESBL (extended-spectrum-β-lactamase)-positive Enterobacteriaceae, which colonized European soldiers in tropical Western African Mali, were subjected to a molecular assessment of their resistance determinants. By doing so, a better insight into the locally endemic pattern of ESBL-associated β-lactamase genes was aspired. From a previous study on diarrhea in European soldiers on deployment in tropical Mali, 15 ESBL-positive Escherichia coli with demonstrated high clonal diversity and one positive Klebsiella pneumoniae were assessed. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for blaTEM and blaSHV β-lactamase genes with subsequent sequencing for the discrimination of ESBL- and non-ESBL variants were performed, followed by four group-specific PCRs for blaCTX-M genes. Non-ESBL-associated blaTEM-1 was identified in six out of 15 (40%) E. coli strains, while 100% of the assessed strains were positive for group I blaCTX-M. Considering the known clonal diversity of the assessed strains, the striking restriction to one group of blaCTX-M genes accounting for the ESBL phenotypes of the isolates suggests little genetic exchange in the local setting. Under such circumstances of restricted numbers of locally endemic target genes, PCR-based screening approaches for ESBL colonization might be promising. PMID:26716016

  11. β-Lactamases Encoded by blaCTX-M Group I Genes as Determinants of Resistance of Esbl-Positive Enterobacteriaceae in European Soldiers in Tropical Mali.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Ralf Matthias; Hinz, Rebecca; Frickmann, Hagen

    2015-12-01

    ESBL (extended-spectrum-β-lactamase)-positive Enterobacteriaceae, which colonized European soldiers in tropical Western African Mali, were subjected to a molecular assessment of their resistance determinants. By doing so, a better insight into the locally endemic pattern of ESBL-associated β-lactamase genes was aspired. From a previous study on diarrhea in European soldiers on deployment in tropical Mali, 15 ESBL-positive Escherichia coli with demonstrated high clonal diversity and one positive Klebsiella pneumoniae were assessed. Polymerase chain reactions (PCRs) for blaTEM and blaSHV β-lactamase genes with subsequent sequencing for the discrimination of ESBL- and non-ESBL variants were performed, followed by four group-specific PCRs for blaCTX-M genes. Non-ESBL-associated blaTEM-1 was identified in six out of 15 (40%) E. coli strains, while 100% of the assessed strains were positive for group I blaCTX-M . Considering the known clonal diversity of the assessed strains, the striking restriction to one group of blaCTX-M genes accounting for the ESBL phenotypes of the isolates suggests little genetic exchange in the local setting. Under such circumstances of restricted numbers of locally endemic target genes, PCR-based screening approaches for ESBL colonization might be promising.

  12. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. A clinical approach to determine false positive findings of clinical endometritis by vaginoscopy by the use of uterine bacteriology and cytology in dairy cows.

    PubMed

    Westermann, S; Drillich, M; Kaufmann, T B; Madoz, L V; Heuwieser, W

    2010-10-15

    Clinical endometritis in dairy cows is defined as mucopurulent or purulent vulvar discharge 21 days or more after parturition. The diagnosis of clinical endometritis is commonly based on vaginal examination. Techniques to reduce the proportions of false negative findings have been described. This paper discusses a clinical approach to determine the proportion of false positive findings that might occur by vaginal inspection. The consequences of false positive findings in dairy practice are unnecessary or inadequate treatments. In research, incorrect diagnoses have an impact on the interpretation of studies on the diagnosis and treatment of clinical endometritis. The objective of the present study was to compare intrauterine bacteriology and endometrial cytology in cows diagnosed with clinical endometritis with findings obtained by vaginoscopy. Clinical endometritis was defined as mucopurulent or purulent vulvar discharge. On two commercial dairy farms, cows were examined 21 to 28 d postpartum. Uterine samples (n = 230) were collected from cows with clinical endometritis with the cytobrush technique to determine the proportion of polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMN) and to culture smears for aerobic bacteria. Two threshold values for the proportion of PMN (5 and 18%) were chosen as possible indicators for an inflamed endometrium. Common uterine pathogens A. pyogenes and E. coli were found in 33.5 and 10.4% of the samples, respectively. With increasing vaginal discharge score, proportion of samples positive for A. pyogenes increased significantly. The proportion of cows exceeding the thresholds for PMN increased with vaginal discharge score and the presence of A. pyogenes. Considering only the presence of aerobic uterine pathogens and a proportion of PMN above the threshold values of 5 and 18% as indicative for endometritis, a proportion of 17.3 and 28.5%, respectively, of diagnoses by vaginoscopy were false positive.

  14. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrificial pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational axis of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  15. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrifical pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational aixs of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  16. Determination of (235)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, and (241)Am in a nuclear bomb particle using a position-sensitive α-γ coincidence technique.

    PubMed

    Peräjärvi, Kari A; Ihantola, Sakari; Pöllänen, Roy C; Toivonen, Harri I; Turunen, Jani A

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear bomb particle containing 1.6 ng of Pu was investigated nondestructively with a position-sensitive α detector and a broad-energy HPGe γ-ray detector. An event-mode data acquisition system was used to record the data. α-γ coincidence counting was shown to be well suited to nondestructive isotope ratio determination. Because of the very small background, the 51.6 keV γ rays of (239)Pu and the 45.2 keV γ rays of (240)Pu were identified, which enabled isotopic ratio calculations. In the present work, the (239)Pu/((239)Pu+(240)Pu) atom ratio was determined to be 0.950 ± 0.010. The uncertainties were much smaller than in the previous more conventional nondestructive studies on this particle. Obtained results are also in good agreement with the data from the destructive mass spectrometric studies obtained previously by other investigators.

  17. Accuracy and precision of thickness determination from position-averaged convergent beam electron diffraction patterns using a single-parameter metric.

    PubMed

    Pollock, J A; Weyland, M; Taplin, D J; Allen, L J; Findlay, S D

    2017-10-01

    Position-averaged convergent beam electron diffraction patterns are formed by averaging the transmission diffraction pattern while scanning an atomically-fine electron probe across a sample. Visual comparison between experimental and simulated patterns is increasingly being used for sample thickness determination. We explore automating the comparison via a simple sum square difference metric. The thickness determination is shown to be accurate (i.e. the best-guess deduced thickness generally concurs with the true thickness), though factors such as noise, mistilt and inelastic scattering reduce the precision (i.e. increase the uncertainty range). Notably, the precision tends to be higher for smaller probe-forming aperture angles. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Determination of the variation of the fluorescence line positions of ruby, strontium tetraborate, alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Selva Vennila; Zaug, Joseph M.; Chen, Bin; Yan, Jinyuan; Knight, Jason W.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Clark, Simon M.

    2011-07-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent fluorescence line-shift of strontium tetraborate has been measured concurrently with x-ray diffraction from the pressure standards sodium chloride or gold. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift under pressure. We found a maximum pressure uncertainty of ±1.8 GPa at 25 GPa (7.2%) and 857 K when making no temperature correction. The fluorescence line-shifts for ruby, Alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet were also determined, using our strontium tetraborate calibration to determine pressure and a thermocouple to measure temperature. Fluorescence measurements were extended up to 800 K for ruby and Alexandrite. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift of samarium-doped yittrium aluminum garnet. We found a maximum uncertainty of ±2.7 GPa at 25 GPa (11.1%) and 857 K when no temperature correction was applied. We determined equations relating to the fluorescence line position from these data, which include a cross derivative term to account for the combined effect of pressure and temperature. We present a method to independently determine pressure and/or temperature from combined fluorescence line-shift measurements of a pair of optical sensors.

  19. Coreceptor signal strength regulates positive selection but does not determine CD4/CD8 lineage choice in a physiologic in vivo model.

    PubMed

    Erman, Batu; Alag, Amala S; Dahle, Oyvind; van Laethem, François; Sarafova, Sophia D; Guinter, Terry I; Sharrow, Susan O; Grinberg, Alexander; Love, Paul E; Singer, Alfred

    2006-11-15

    TCR signals drive thymocyte development, but it remains controversial what impact, if any, the intensity of those signals have on T cell differentiation in the thymus. In this study, we assess the impact of CD8 coreceptor signal strength on positive selection and CD4/CD8 lineage choice using novel gene knockin mice in which the endogenous CD8alpha gene has been re-engineered to encode the stronger signaling cytoplasmic tail of CD4, with the re-engineered CD8alpha gene referred to as CD8.4. We found that stronger signaling CD8.4 coreceptors specifically improved the efficiency of CD8-dependent positive selection and quantitatively increased the number of MHC class I (MHC-I)-specific thymocytes signaled to differentiate into CD8+ T cells, even for thymocytes expressing a single, transgenic TCR. Importantly, however, stronger signaling CD8.4 coreceptors did not alter the CD8 lineage choice of any MHC-I-specific thymocytes, even MHC-I-specific thymocytes expressing the high-affinity F5 transgenic TCR. This study documents in a physiologic in vivo model that coreceptor signal strength alters TCR-signaling thresholds for positive selection and so is a major determinant of the CD4:CD8 ratio, but it does not influence CD4/CD8 lineage choice.

  20. Quantitative determination of caffeine and alcohol in energy drinks and the potential to produce positive transdermal alcohol concentrations in human subjects.

    PubMed

    Ayala, Jessica; Simons, Kelsie; Kerrigan, Sarah

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether non-alcoholic energy drinks could result in positive "alcohol alerts" based on transdermal alcohol concentration (TAC) using a commercially available electrochemical monitoring device. Eleven energy drinks were quantitatively assayed for both ethanol and caffeine. Ethanol concentrations for all of the non-alcoholic energy drinks ranged in concentration from 0.03 to 0.230% (w/v) and caffeine content per 8-oz serving ranged from 65 to 126 mg. A total of 15 human subjects participated in the study. Subjects consumed between 6 and 8 energy drinks over an 8-h period. The SCRAM II monitoring device was used to determine TACs every 30 min before, during, and after the study. None of the subjects produced TAC readings that resulted in positive "alcohol alerts". TAC measurements for all subjects before, during and after the energy drink study period (16 h total) were <0.02% (w/v). Subjects in the study consumed a quantity of non-alcoholic energy drink that greatly exceeds what would be considered typical. Based on these results, it appears that energy drink consumption is an unlikely explanation for elevated TACs that might be identified as potential drinking episodes or "alcohol alerts" using this device.

  1. Staph ID/R: a rapid method for determining staphylococcus species identity and detecting the mecA gene directly from positive blood culture.

    PubMed

    Pasko, Chris; Hicke, Brian; Dunn, John; Jaeckel, Heidi; Nieuwlandt, Dan; Weed, Diane; Woodruff, Evelyn; Zheng, Xiaotian; Jenison, Robert

    2012-03-01

    Rapid diagnosis of staphylococcal bacteremia directs appropriate antimicrobial therapy, leading to improved patient outcome. We describe herein a rapid test (<75 min) that can identify the major pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus to the species level as well as the presence or absence of the methicillin resistance determinant gene, mecA. The test, Staph ID/R, combines a rapid isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), with a chip-based array that produces unambiguous visible results. The analytic sensitivity was 1 CFU per reaction for the mecA gene and was 1 to 250 CFU per reaction depending on the staphylococcal species present in the positive blood culture. Staph ID/R has excellent specificity as well, with no cross-reactivity observed. We validated the performance of Staph ID/R by testing 104 frozen clinical positive blood cultures and comparing the results with rpoB gene or 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species identity determinations and mecA gene PCR to confirm mecA gene results. Staph ID/R agreed with mecA gene PCR for all samples and agreed with rpoB/16S rRNA gene sequencing in all cases except for one sample that contained a mixture of two staphylococcal species, one of which Staph ID/R correctly identified, for an overall agreement of 99.0% (P < 0.01). Staph ID/R could potentially be used to positively affect patient management for Staphylococcus-mediated bacteremia.

  2. Staph ID/R: a Rapid Method for Determining Staphylococcus Species Identity and Detecting the mecA Gene Directly from Positive Blood Culture

    PubMed Central

    Pasko, Chris; Dunn, John; Jaeckel, Heidi; Nieuwlandt, Dan; Weed, Diane; Woodruff, Evelyn; Zheng, Xiaotian

    2012-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of staphylococcal bacteremia directs appropriate antimicrobial therapy, leading to improved patient outcome. We describe herein a rapid test (<75 min) that can identify the major pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus to the species level as well as the presence or absence of the methicillin resistance determinant gene, mecA. The test, Staph ID/R, combines a rapid isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), with a chip-based array that produces unambiguous visible results. The analytic sensitivity was 1 CFU per reaction for the mecA gene and was 1 to 250 CFU per reaction depending on the staphylococcal species present in the positive blood culture. Staph ID/R has excellent specificity as well, with no cross-reactivity observed. We validated the performance of Staph ID/R by testing 104 frozen clinical positive blood cultures and comparing the results with rpoB gene or 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species identity determinations and mecA gene PCR to confirm mecA gene results. Staph ID/R agreed with mecA gene PCR for all samples and agreed with rpoB/16S rRNA gene sequencing in all cases except for one sample that contained a mixture of two staphylococcal species, one of which Staph ID/R correctly identified, for an overall agreement of 99.0% (P < 0.01). Staph ID/R could potentially be used to positively affect patient management for Staphylococcus-mediated bacteremia. PMID:22170912

  3. Evaluation of BD MAX Staph SR Assay for Differentiating Between Staphylococcus aureus and Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci and Determining Methicillin Resistance Directly From Positive Blood Cultures.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jaewoong; Park, Yeon Joon; Park, Dong Jin; Park, Kang Gyun; Lee, Hae Kyung

    2017-01-01

    We evaluated the performance of the BD MAX StaphSR Assay (SR assay; BD, USA) for direct detection of Staphylococcus aureus and methicillin resistance not only in S. aureus but also in coagulase-negative Staphylococci (CNS) from positive blood cultures. From 228 blood culture bottles, 103 S. aureus [45 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 55 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 3 mixed infections (1 MRSA+Enterococcus faecalis, 1 MSSA+MRCNS, 1 MSSA+MSCNS)], and 125 CNS (102 MRCNS, 23 MSCNS) were identified by Vitek 2. For further analysis, we obtained the cycle threshold (Ct) values from the BD MAX system software to determine an appropriate cutoff value. For discrepancy analysis, conventional mecA/mecC PCR and oxacillin minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined. Compared to Vitek 2, the SR assay identified all 103 S. aureus isolates correctly but failed to detect methicillin resistance in three MRSA isolates. All 55 MSSA isolates were correctly identified by the SR assay. In the concordant cases, the highest Ct values for nuc, mecA, and mec right-extremity junction (MREJ) were 25.6, 22, and 22.2, respectively. Therefore, we selected Ct values from 0-27 as a range of positivity, and applying this cutoff, the sensitivity/specificity of the SR assay were 100%/100% for detecting S. aureus, and 97.9%/98.1% and 99.0%/95.8% for detecting methicillin resistance in S. aureus and CNS, respectively. We propose a Ct cutoff value for nuc/mec assay without considering MREJ because mixed cultures of MSSA and MRCNS were very rare (0.4%) in the positive blood cultures.

  4. Simulation for position determination of distal and proximal edges for SOBP irradiation in hadron therapy by using the maximum likelihood estimation method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inaniwa, Taku; Kohno, Toshiyuki; Tomitani, Takehiro

    2005-12-01

    In radiation therapy with hadron beams, conformal irradiation to a tumour can be achieved by using the properties of incident ions such as the high dose concentration around the Bragg peak. For the effective utilization of such properties, it is necessary to evaluate the volume irradiated with hadron beams and the deposited dose distribution in a patient's body. Several methods have been proposed for this purpose, one of which uses the positron emitters generated through fragmentation reactions between incident ions and target nuclei. In the previous paper, we showed that the maximum likelihood estimation (MLE) method could be applicable to the estimation of beam end-point from the measured positron emitting activity distribution for mono-energetic beam irradiations. In a practical treatment, a spread-out Bragg peak (SOBP) beam is used to achieve a uniform biological dose distribution in the whole target volume. Therefore, in the present paper, we proposed to extend the MLE method to estimations of the position of the distal and proximal edges of the SOBP from the detected annihilation gamma ray distribution. We confirmed the effectiveness of the method by means of simulations. Although polyethylene was adopted as a substitute for a soft tissue target in validating the method, the proposed method is equally applicable to general cases, provided that the reaction cross sections between the incident ions and the target nuclei are known. The relative advantage of incident beam species to determine the position of the distal and the proximal edges was compared. Furthermore, we ascertained the validity of applying the MLE method to determinations of the position of the distal and the proximal edges of an SOBP by simulations and we gave a physical explanation of the distal and the proximal information.

  5. Absolute Positioning Using the Global Positioning System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-04-01

    Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has becom a useful tool In providing relativ survey...Includes the development of a low cost navigator for wheeled vehicles. ABSTRACT The Global Positioning System ( GPS ) has become a useful tool In providing...technique of absolute or point positioning involves the use of a single Global Positioning System ( GPS ) receiver to determine the three-dimenslonal

  6. Incremental Yield of Including Determine-TB LAM Assay in Diagnostic Algorithms for Hospitalized and Ambulatory HIV-Positive Patients in Kenya

    PubMed Central

    Ferlazzo, Gabriella; Bevilacqua, Paolo; Kirubi, Beatrice; Ardizzoni, Elisa; Wanjala, Stephen; Sitienei, Joseph; Bonnet, Maryline

    2017-01-01

    Background Determine-TB LAM assay is a urine point-of-care test useful for TB diagnosis in HIV-positive patients. We assessed the incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM to algorithms based on clinical signs, sputum smear-microscopy, chest X-ray and Xpert MTB/RIF in HIV-positive patients with symptoms of pulmonary TB (PTB). Methods Prospective observational cohort of ambulatory (either severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl or with Body Mass Index<17Kg/m2) and hospitalized symptomatic HIV-positive adults in Kenya. Incremental diagnostic yield of adding LAM was the difference in the proportion of confirmed TB patients (positive Xpert or MTB culture) diagnosed by the algorithm with LAM compared to the algorithm without LAM. The multivariable mortality model was adjusted for age, sex, clinical severity, BMI, CD4, ART initiation, LAM result and TB confirmation. Results Among 474 patients included, 44.1% were severely ill, 69.6% had CD4<200cells/μl, 59.9% had initiated ART, 23.2% could not produce sputum. LAM, smear-microscopy, Xpert and culture in sputum were positive in 39.0% (185/474), 21.6% (76/352), 29.1% (102/350) and 39.7% (92/232) of the patients tested, respectively. Of 156 patients with confirmed TB, 65.4% were LAM positive. Of those classified as non-TB, 84.0% were LAM negative. Adding LAM increased the diagnostic yield of the algorithms by 36.6%, from 47.4% (95%CI:39.4–55.6) to 84.0% (95%CI:77.3–89.4%), when using clinical signs and X-ray; by 19.9%, from 62.2% (95%CI:54.1–69.8) to 82.1% (95%CI:75.1–87.7), when using clinical signs and microscopy; and by 13.4%, from 74.4% (95%CI:66.8–81.0) to 87.8% (95%CI:81.6–92.5), when using clinical signs and Xpert. LAM positive patients had an increased risk of 2-months mortality (aOR:2.7; 95%CI:1.5–4.9). Conclusion LAM should be included in TB diagnostic algorithms in parallel to microscopy or Xpert request for HIV-positive patients either ambulatory (severely ill or CD4<200cells/μl) or hospitalized. LAM

  7. Golgi Positioning

    PubMed Central

    Yadav, Smita; Linstedt, Adam D.

    2011-01-01

    The Golgi apparatus in mammalian cells is positioned near the centrosome-based microtubule-organizing center (Fig. 1). Secretory cargo moves inward in membrane carriers for delivery to Golgi membranes in which it is processed and packaged for transport outward to the plasma membrane. Cytoplasmic dynein motor proteins (herein termed dynein) primarily mediate inward cargo carrier movement and Golgi positioning. These motors move along microtubules toward microtubule minus-ends embedded in centrosomes. Centripetal motility is controlled by a host of regulators whose precise functions remain to be determined. Significantly, a specific Golgi receptor for dynein has not been identified. This has impaired progress toward elucidation of membrane-motor-microtubule attachment in the periphery and, after inward movement, recycling of the motor for another round. Pericentrosomal positioning of the Golgi apparatus is dynamic. It is regulated during critical cellular processes such as mitosis, differentiation, cell polarization, and cell migration. Positioning is also important as it aligns the Golgi along an axis of cell polarity. In certain cell types, this promotes secretion directed to the proximal plasma membrane domain thereby maintaining specializations critical for diverse processes including wound healing, immunological synapse formation, and axon determination. PMID:21504874

  8. Determination of the positions of aluminum atoms introduced into SSZ-35 and the catalytic properties of the generated Brønsted acid sites.

    PubMed

    Miyaji, Akimitsu; Kimura, Nobuhiro; Shiga, Akinobu; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Nishitoba, Toshiki; Motokura, Ken; Baba, Toshihide

    2017-03-01

    The positions of aluminum (Al) atoms in SSZ-35 together with the characteristics of the generated protons were investigated by (27)Al multiple quantum magic-angle spinning (MQ-MAS), (29)Si MAS, and (1)H MAS NMR data analyses accompanied by a variable temperature (1)H MAS NMR analysis. The origin of the acidic -OH groups (Brønsted acid sites) generated by introducing Al atoms into the T sites was investigated and the T sites introduced into the Al atoms were revealed. To further determine the catalytic properties of the acidic protons generated in SSZ-35, the influence of the concentration of the Al atoms on the catalytic activity and selectivity during the transformation of toluene was examined.

  9. Using cumulative diet data and stable isotope analysis to determine trophic position of walleye Sander vitreus in a large, complex system

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fincel, Mark J.; James, Daniel A.; Chipps, Steven R.; Davis, Blake A.

    2014-01-01

    Diet studies have traditionally been used to determine prey use and food web dynamics, while stable isotope analysis provides for a time-integrated approach to evaluate food web dynamics and characterize energy flow in aquatic systems. Direct comparison of the two techniques is rare and difficult to conduct in large, species rich systems. We compared changes in walleye Sander vitreus trophic position (TP) derived from paired diet content and stable isotope analysis. Individual diet-derived TP estimates were dissimilar to stable isotope-derived TP estimates. However, cumulative diet-derived TP estimates integrated from May 2001 to May 2002 corresponded to May 2002 isotope-derived estimates of TP. Average walleye TP estimates from the spring season appear representative of feeding throughout the entire previous year.

  10. New Method for Determining Isotopic Values of Glutamic Acid and Phenylalanine for Estimation of Precise Trophic Position in Food Web Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, T.; Broek, T.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Compound Specific Isotope Analysis of Amino Acids (CSI-AA) has emerged as a highly precise new method of determining trophic levels of both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Multiple studies have now shown that δ15N values for glutamic acid (Glu) and phenylalanine (Phe) can be coupled to provide extremely precise estimates of trophic position in diverse food web studies. The standard gas chromatography—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) approach is presently limited to a select number of labs since necessary equipment is both expensive and not widely accessible. Furthermore, typical GC-IRMS δ15N precision (±1‰) is significantly lower than usual bulk δ15N values (±0.1‰), thus presenting a considerable setback for precise trophic level calculations. In this study, we develop a new dual-column method to purify Glu and Phe using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phe is purified using an analytical scale reverse phase column embedded with anionic ion-pairing reagents and collected using automated fraction collection. Glu is separated from the non-polar amino acids using the same column and further purified using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) cation and anion-exchange column and collected via automated fraction collection. Isotopic analysis of the purified AAs is then conducted on an elemental analyzer—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). As a test of this method, we present and compare the trophic position of five marine organisms—cyanobacteria, deep-sea bamboo coral, juvenile and adult white sea bass, and harbor seal, calculated using Glu and Phe δ15N values produced by both GC-IRMS and our HPLC-EA-IRMS approach. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the HPLC-EA-IRMS method is a viable alternative to GC-IRMS, which should allow accurate trophic position estimates to be made by more researchers using more readily available instrumentation.

  11. Selective determination of tobacco-specific nitrosamines in mainstream cigarette smoke by GC coupled to positive chemical ionization triple quadrupole MS.

    PubMed

    Wu, Da; Lu, Yifeng; Lin, Huaqing; Zhou, Wanhong; Gu, Wenbo

    2013-08-01

    A rapid method for the selective determination of four kinds of tobacco-specific nitrosamines, N-nitrosonornicotine, N-nitrosoanatabine, N-nitrosoanabasine and 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone, in mainstream cigarette smoke was developed by GC coupled to positive chemical ionization triple-quadrupole MS. After mainstream cigarette smoke was collected on a cambridge filter pad, the particulate matter was extracted with 0.1 M HCL aqueous solution, cleaned by positive cation-exchange solid extraction, and finally injected into GC-MS/MS using isotopically labeled analogues as internal standards. Excellent linearity was obtained over the concentration range of 0.5-200.0 ng mL(-1) for all tobacco-specific nitrosamines with values for correlation coefficient between 0.9996-0.9999. Limits of detection of each tobacco specific nitrosamine varied from 0.023-0.028 ng cig(-1), and lower limits of quantification varied from 0.077-0.093 ng cig(-1). The recovery of each tobacco specific nitrosamine was from 90.0-109.0%. The relative standard deviations of the intra-day and inter-day precisions were 3.1-5.8 and 3.9-6.6, respectively. This method was applied to reference and domestic cigarettes. The result showed that the method was consistent with traditional methods and can be used as an effective approach for the routine analysis of tobacco-specific nitrosamines.

  12. Positively charged amino acids at the SNAP-25 C terminus determine fusion rates, fusion pore properties, and energetics of tight SNARE complex zippering.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qinghua; Zhao, Ying; Herbst, Adam Drew; Kim, Brian N; Lindau, Manfred

    2015-02-18

    SNAP-25 is a Q-SNARE protein mediating exocytosis of neurosecretory vesicles including chromaffin granules. Previous results with a SNAP-25 construct lacking the nine C terminal residues (SNAP-25Δ9) showed changed fusion pore properties (Fang et al., 2008), suggesting a model for fusion pore mechanics that couple C terminal zipping of the SNARE complex to the opening of the fusion pore. The deleted fragment contains the positively charged residues R198 and K201, adjacent to layers 7 and 8 of the SNARE complex. To determine how fusion pore conductance and dynamics depend on these residues, single exocytotic events in bovine chromaffin cells expressing R198Q, R198E, K201Q, or K201E mutants were investigated by carbon fiber amperometry and cell-attached patch capacitance measurements. Coarse grain molecular dynamics simulations revealed spontaneous transitions between a loose and tightly zippered state at the SNARE complex C terminus. The SNAP-25 K201Q mutant showed no changes compared with SNAP-25 wild-type. However, K201E, R198Q, and R198E displayed reduced release frequencies, slower release kinetics, and prolonged fusion pore duration that were correlated with reduced probability to engage in the tightly zippered state. The results show that the positively charged amino acids at the SNAP-25 C terminus promote tight SNARE complex zippering and are required for high release frequency and rapid release in individual fusion events.

  13. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-07-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the 'one-hormone hypothesis', which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified 'one-hormone hypothesis' for sex determination in cucumber is proposed.

  14. Determination of vibrational and rotational temperatures in highly constricted nitrogen plasmas by fitting the second positive system of N{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q. Y. Shi, D. Q.; Xu, W.; Miao, C. Y.; Ma, C. Y.; Ren, C. S.; Zhang, C.; Yi, Z.

    2015-05-15

    Highly constricted plasmas are an active research area because of their ability to generate high activity of plasma beams, which exhibit potential in applications of material processing and film deposition. In this study, optical emission spectroscopy was used to study the highly constricted nitrogen plasma created at low pressure. The vibrational and rotational temperatures of molecules were determined by fitting the second positive system of nitrogen molecule. Under the conditions of the power densities as high as 7 ∼ 85 W/cm{sup 3} and the pressures of 2 ∼ 200 Pa, the determined rotational temperature was found to be relatively low, increasing from 350 to 700 K and the vibrational temperature keeping at ∼ 5000 K. The analysis of dissipated power revealed that ∼ 80 % of input power is dissipated for the nitrogen molecule dissociation and the creation/loss of ions at the tube wall, producing an as high as 10{sup 12} ∼ 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} plasma with the nitrogen dissociation degrees of 2%∼15%. With the increase in the discharge pressure, more input power was found to be dissipated in the dissociation of nitrogen molecules instead of creation of ions, resulting in a higher density of radicals.

  15. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the ‘one-hormone hypothesis’, which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified ‘one-hormone hypothesis’ for sex determination in cucumber is proposed. PMID:22577183

  16. Determination of LY355703 in dog and mouse plasma by positive ion liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Berna, M; Shugert, R; Mullen, J

    1998-02-01

    A liquid chromatographic/mass spectrometric assay was developed for the determination of LY355703, a potent anti-tumor drug, in mouse and dog plasma. Empore (3M) C18 solid-phase extraction cartridges were used for sample preparation in conjunction with a positive pressure manifold. Chromatographic separation was obtained with a cyano high-performance liquid chromatographic column and detection was conducted using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry in the selected reaction monitoring mode. A structural analog, compound LY354504, was used as the internal standard. The assay was validated for the determination of LY355703 in mouse (ICR and NuNu) and dog (beagle) plasma. The lower and upper limits of quantitation were 2.1 and 527 ng ml-1, respectively, using a 0.1 ml plasma aliquot. The signal-to-noise ratio of a typical 2.1 ng ml-1 standard was approximately 40:1. The inter-day precision (relative standard deviation) and accuracy (relative error) derived from the analysis of validation samples at five concentrations ranged from 2.7 to 7.6% and from 4.8 to 4.5%, respectively. Throughput is approximately one sample every 3 min. This assay is simple, sensitive, accurate, precise and is being used to support toxicokinetic studies in dog and mouse.

  17. Determination of rare earth elements (REES) in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected in Tokyo, Japan, and a positive anomaly of europium and terbium.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Suzuki, Tatsunosuke; Furuta, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    The determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in airborne particulate matter (APM) was conducted, and the distribution pattern of atmospheric REEs was evaluated in this study. The APM was collected in the center of Tokyo, Japan, where serious air pollution is always of concern. A cellulose acetate membrane filter was used to collect the APM because Ba and REEs contamination is lower than that in a quartz glass fiber filter. The REEs measurement was conducted by ICP-MS after the digestion of the APM by a microwave acid digestion procedure. The standard reference material (SRM) of NIST 1648 urban particulate matter was used to validate the accuracy of the analytical method. The analytical results for SRM well agreed with those of the reference and reported values. Consequently, the analytical method established in this study was applied to the determination of REEs in APM collected in Tokyo, Japan. The obtained REEs distribution pattern in the APM showed a positive anomaly of Tb and Eu. The La/Sm ratio, which is considered to be as a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect, in size-classified APM showed a high degree of the anthropogenic effect in fine APM with a diameter of <1.1 µm. Emission sources of Tb, Eu and other REEs are discussed.

  18. Technical Note: Using k-means clustering to determine the number and position of isocenters in MLC-based multiple target intracranial radiosurgery.

    PubMed

    Yock, Adam D; Kim, Gwe-Ya

    2017-09-01

    To present the k-means clustering algorithm as a tool to address treatment planning considerations characteristic of stereotactic radiosurgery using a single isocenter for multiple targets. For 30 patients treated with stereotactic radiosurgery for multiple brain metastases, the geometric centroids and radii of each met were determined from the treatment planning system. In-house software used this as well as weighted and unweighted versions of the k-means clustering algorithm to group the targets to be treated with a single isocenter, and to position each isocenter. The algorithm results were evaluated using within-cluster sum of squares as well as a minimum target coverage metric that considered the effect of target size. Both versions of the algorithm were applied to an example patient to demonstrate the prospective determination of the appropriate number and location of isocenters. Both weighted and unweighted versions of the k-means algorithm were applied successfully to determine the number and position of isocenters. Comparing the two, both the within-cluster sum of squares metric and the minimum target coverage metric resulting from the unweighted version were less than those from the weighted version. The average magnitudes of the differences were small (-0.2 cm(2) and 0.1% for the within cluster sum of squares and minimum target coverage, respectively) but statistically significant (Wilcoxon signed-rank test, P < 0.01). The differences between the versions of the k-means clustering algorithm represented an advantage of the unweighted version for the within-cluster sum of squares metric, and an advantage of the weighted version for the minimum target coverage metric. While additional treatment planning considerations have a large influence on the final treatment plan quality, both versions of the k-means algorithm provide automatic, consistent, quantitative, and objective solutions to the tasks associated with SRS treatment planning using a single

  19. Atazanavir and other determinants of hyperbilirubinemia in a cohort of 1150 HIV-positive patients: results from 9 years of follow-up.

    PubMed

    Laprise, Claudie; Baril, Jean-Guy; Dufresne, Serge; Trottier, Helen

    2013-07-01

    Hyperbilirubinemia is common among patients exposed to atazanavir (ATV), but its long-term significance is not well documented. The objective was to analyze hyperbilirubinemia (incidence, regression, determinants, and outcome) among 1150 HIV-positive patients followed-up in a prospective cohort between 2003 and 2012. Cumulative incidence of hyperbilirubinemia grades 3-4 and its probability of regression were estimated using Kaplan-Meier method. Cox proportional hazards model was used to study the determinants. Generalized estimating equation (GEE) regression was used to evaluate the association between hyperbilirubinemia grades 3-4 and adverse health outcome. Eight years cumulative incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was 83.6% (95% CI:79.0-87.7) and 6.6% (95% CI:4.7-9.2) among ATV users and non-users, respectively. This clinical outcome fluctuated considerably, as most patients exposed to ATV (91%) regressed, transiently, to lower grade at some point during follow-up. Determinants were atazanavir (HR=147.90, 95% CI: 33.64-604.18), ritonavir (HR=5.18, 95% CI:2.33-11.48), zidovudine (HR=2.62, 95% CI:1.07-6.46), and age (HR=1.04 95% CI:1.01-1.08). Alcohol consumption and others non-antiretroviral medications including hepatotoxic and recreational drugs were not available for analyses. Incidence of hyperbilirubinemia was very high among ATV users and, although regression to lower grade was frequent in the clinical follow-up of these patients, this was usually transient as the mean level of bilirubin stayed at a relatively high level. Importantly, long-term hyperbilirubinemia was not associated with adverse health outcome.

  20. The curli biosynthesis regulator CsgD co-ordinates the expression of both positive and negative determinants for biofilm formation in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Brombacher, Eva; Dorel, Corinne; Zehnder, Alexander J B; Landini, Paolo

    2003-10-01

    Production of curli, extracellular structures important for biofilm formation, is positively regulated by OmpR, which constitutes with the EnvZ protein an osmolarity-sensing two-component regulatory system. The expression of curli is cryptic in most Escherichia coli laboratory strains such as MG1655, due to the lack of csgD expression. The csgD gene encodes a transcription activator of the curli-subunit-encoding csgBA operon. The ompR234 up-mutation can restore csgD expression, resulting in curli production and increased biofilm formation. In this report, it is shown that ompR234-dependent csgD expression, in addition to csgBA activation during stationary phase of growth, stimulates expression of the yaiC gene and negatively regulates at least two other genes, pepD and yagS. The promoter regions of these four genes share a conserved 11 bp sequence (CGGGKGAKNKA), necessary for csgBA and yaiC regulation by CsgD. While at both the csgBA and yaiC promoters the sequence is located upstream of the promoter elements, in both yagS and pepD it overlaps either the putative -10 sequence or the transcription start point, suggesting that CsgD can function as both an activator and a repressor. Adhesion experiments show that csgD-independent expression of both yagS and pepD from a multicopy plasmid negatively affects biofilm formation, which, in contrast, is stimulated by yaiC expression. Thus it is proposed that CsgD stimulates biofilm formation in E. coli by contemporary activation of adhesion positive determinants (the curli-encoding csg operons and the product of the yaiC gene) and repression of negative effectors such as yagS and pepD.

  1. Increased positive selection pressure within the complementarity determining regions of the T-cell receptor β gene in New World monkeys.

    PubMed

    Matsutani, Takaji; Fujii, Yoshiki; Kitaura, Kazutaka; Suzuki, Satsuki; Tsuruta, Yuji; Takasaki, Tomohiko; Ogasawara, Kouetsu; Nishimoto, Norihiro; Kurane, Ichiro; Suzuki, Ryuji

    2011-10-01

    Because of the long-term co-evolution of TCR and MHC molecules, numerous nucleotide substitutions have accumulated within the domains of TCRβ genes. We previously found that nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions occurred more frequently in complementarity determining region (CDR)β than in CDRα, even though only a limited number of common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus) and human T-cell receptor β variable (TRBV) sequences were compared. This interesting finding raised the question of whether the increased selective pressure within CDRβ was species-specific. In this study, we identified 21 TRBV region sequences from the common marmoset and performed comparative sequence analyses of the T-cell receptor α variable (TRAV) and TRBV regions from human, chimpanzee, rhesus monkey, cotton-top tamarin, Ma's night monkey, and common marmoset. The ratios of the number of nonsynonymous nucleotide substitutions per site (d(N) ) to the d(S) values (d(N) /d(S) ) were less than 1 within the framework regions (FRs) of TRAV and TRBV region sequences, suggesting that purifying selection is largely dominant within the FRs. In contrast, the d(N) values were statistically significantly greater for CDRβ than for CDRα only in New World monkeys. Also, increased d(N) /d(S) ratios (d(N) /d(S) >1) were observed within CDRβ between humans and New World monkeys and, interestingly, between New World monkeys, which share a relatively recent common ancestor. Moreover, phylogenetic analysis by maximum likelihood analysis provided firm evidence to support that positive selection occurred within CDRβ along New World monkey lineages. These results suggest that increased positive selection pressure within CDRβ is common in New World monkeys rather than being species-specific. This study provides an intriguing insight into the co-evolution of TCR and MHC molecules within primates. © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. Ozone-induced dissociation on a traveling wave high-resolution mass spectrometer for determination of double-bond position in lipids.

    PubMed

    Vu, Ngoc; Brown, Jeffery; Giles, Kevin; Zhang, Qibin

    2017-09-15

    The position of C=C within fatty acyl chains affects the biological function of lipids. Ozone-induced dissociation mass spectrometry (OzID-MS) has great potential in determination of lipid double-bond position, but has generally been implemented on low-resolution ion trap mass spectrometers. In addition, most of the OzID-MS experiments carried out so far were focused on the sodiated adducts of lipids; fragmentation of the most commonly observed protonated ions generated in LC/MS-based lipidomics workflow has been less explored. Ozone generated in line from an ozone generator was connected to the trap and transfer gas supply line of a Synapt G2 high-resolution mass spectrometer. Protonated ions of different phosphatidylcholines (PC) were generated by electrospray ionization through direct infusion. Different parameters, including traveling wave height and velocity, trap entrance and DC potential, were adjusted to maximize the OzID efficiency. sn-positional isomers and cis/trans isomers of lipids were compared for their reactivity with ozone. Traveling wave height and velocity were tuned to prolong the encounter time between lipid ions and ozone, and resulted in improved OzID efficiency, as did increasing trapping region DC and entrance potential. Under optimized settings, at least 1000 times enhancement in OzID efficiency was achieved compared to that under default settings for monounsaturated PC standards. Monounsaturated C=C in the sn-2 PC isomer reacted faster with ozone than the sn-1 isomer. Similarly, the C=C in trans PC reacted faster than in cis PC. This is the first implementation of OzID in the trap and transfer region of a traveling wave enabled high-resolution mass spectrometer. The OzID reaction efficiency is significantly improved by slowing down ions in the trap region for their prolonged interaction with ozone. This will facilitate application of high-resolution OzID-MS in lipidomics. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. IgA anticardiolipin and IgA anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibody positivity determined by fluorescence enzyme immunoassay in primary antiphospholipid syndrome.

    PubMed

    Mattia, Elena; Ruffatti, Amelia; Tonello, Marta; Meneghel, Lauro; Robecchi, Bianca; Pittoni, Marina; Gallo, Nicoletta; Salvan, Elisa; Teghil, Vera; Punzi, Leonardo; Plebani, Mario

    2014-09-01

    Primary antiphospholipid syndrome (PAPS) is an autoimmune disease characterized by thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity as well as blood antiphospholipid (aPL) antibodies such as anticardiolipin (aCL), anti-β2 glycoprotein I (anti-β2GPI) antibodies of the IgG/IgM isotype and lupus anticoagulant (LA). The clinical significance of aCL and anti-β2GPI antibodies of the IgA isotype in PAPS is still a controversial issue. Sera and plasma were collected from 84 PAPS patients (54 with thrombosis and/or pregnancy morbidity and 30 with pregnancy morbidity alone), 66 seronegative patients (subjects with clinical manifestations of PAPS although with negative results on conventional antiphospholipid antibody testing), and 78 healthy blood donors. IgA aCL and IgA anti-β2GPI were determined using fluorescence enzyme immunoassay (FEIA), (EliATM, Phadia AB, Uppsala, Sweden). For comparison purposes, the sera were also tested for IgG/IgM aCL/anti-β2GPI antibodies using the same immunoassay method. LA was assayed following internationally accepted guidelines. Present respectively in 19% and 50% of the PAPS patients studied, IgA aCL and IgA anti-β2GPI antibody frequencies were both statistically significant (p=0.001 and p<0.001, respectively). The mean titers of both IgA aCL and IgA anti-β2GPI antibodies were higher in the thrombotic patients, but only the latter were significantly associated with thrombosis. Isolated IgA anti-β2GPI antibody positivity was significantly prevalent (p=0.04) in seven (10.6%) of the seronegative patients. Positivity to IgA anti-β2GPI antibody detected using FEIA was found to be clinically relevant in PAPS patients. Moreover the prevalence of isolated IgA anti-β2GPI antibody positivity was significant in the seronegative patients.

  4. Determination of positions and velocity of Riyadh SLR station using satellite laser ranging observations to Lageos1 and Lageos2 satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A.; Schillak, S.

    2012-04-01

    Riyadh Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station (7832) has been established since 1995 and situated in the Arabian plate which is countering a north east motion. Laser ranging observations of about 20 global SLR stations to the LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 for 13-year (1996-2010) have been used to determine station positions and velocity of Riyadh SLR station. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The computations were performed based on 114 monthly arcs of observations with total number of normal points of 33708 and 40168 for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 respectively. The geocentric coordinates were computed and then transformed to the topocentric North-South, East-West, and Vertical components in the ITRF2008 reference frame. Effects of normal points for each arc and the empirical acceleration coefficients on estimated station coordinates have been investigated. In order to achieve a lower standard deviation (less than 1 cm) of estimated coordinates, the number of the normal points per SLR station had to be greater than 50. The range biases were 7.5mm and 7.2 mm with long term biases stability 2.5 mm and 2.0 mm for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites, respectively. RMS of fit was calculated for all stations and found to be 17.2 mm for the whole period. Time series of positions and velocities have been computed for Riyadh SLR station with stability of ±10.1 mm, ±9.3 mm, and ±9.0 mm for X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively. The estimated velocity is 29.1 mm/year, 31.6 mm/year, and 1.9 mm/year in North-South, East-West and vertical directions, respectively, with a 3D velocity 42.9 mm/year. 3D deviation from the ITRF2008 was equal 4.5 mm. To recover tectonic motion affecting the station, further analysis of velocity estimates has shown general agreement of Riyadh SLR station in comparison with recent GPS estimates for the Arabian plate motion.

  5. Incidence and determinants of bacterial infections in HIV-positive patients receiving anti-Pneumocystis carinii/Toxoplasma gondii primary prophylaxis within a randomized clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Murri, R; Ammassari, A; Pezzotti, P; Cingolani, A; De Luca, A; Pallavicini, F; Grillo, R; Antinori, A

    2001-05-01

    We assessed the incidence and determinants of bacteremia, pneumonia, and sinusitis/otitis in HIV-positive people receiving cotrimoxazole (CTX) or dapsone-pyrimethamine (DP) for primary prophylaxis of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia (PCP) and toxoplasmic encephalitis (TE) within a randomized clinical trial. In total, 244 patients were randomized: 122 were assigned to CTX and 122 to DP. In the cohort, 22 bacteremia, 63 pneumonia, and 39 sinusitis/otitis cases were observed. Incidence rates of bacteremia, pneumonia, and sinusitis/otitis as well as the 2-year probability of remaining free from any bacterial infection were not significantly different between the two groups. At multivariate analysis, the risks of developing bacteremia and pneumonia were found to be independently increased by the use of a central venous catheter (hazard ratio [HR], 4.48; p <.05 and HR, 4.13; p <.01, respectively) and by hospitalization (HR, 28.82; p <.05 and HR, 10.15; p <.05, respectively). In conclusion, CTX at the dosage employed for primary PCP/TE prophylaxis does not seem to protect against bacterial infections more than second-line DP.

  6. [Determination of physiological indices in early kernel at different ear position in maize (Zea mays L.) with UV-visible spectrophotometry].

    PubMed

    Shen, Li-xia; Wang, Pu; Sun, Xi-huan

    2009-09-01

    To examine the difference between early kernels at different ear position in maize and the effect of nitrogen supply rates on kernel development, physiological indices in apical and mid-basal kernel 5-20 days after pollination in maize under different nitrogen supply rates (0, 120, 180 and 240 kg x ha(-1)) were determined with UV-Vis spectrophotometry. The results showed that nitrogen supply obviously increased the contents of soluble sugar, sucrose and starch, and the activities of enzymes related to sucrose inversion and starch synthesis. Twenty days after pollination, the kernel volume, dry weight and the contents of soluble sugar, sucrose and starch in apical kernel under nitrogen supply rate of 180 kg x ha(-1) were higher than those with other treatments. Five to twenty days after pollination, higher activities of acid sucrose invertase (AI), neutral sucrose invertase (NI), sucrose synthase (SS), ADPGase and starch synthase in apical kernel were also obtained under nitrogen supply rate of 180 kg x ha(-1), indicating that the sucrose utilization and starch synthesis were improved, the kernel development was promoted and the kernel abortion was reduced, which resulted in higher yield.

  7. Determination of forming limit diagrams of AA6013-T6 aluminum alloy sheet using a time and position dependent localized necking criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dicecco, S.; Butcher, C.; Worswick, M.; Boettcher, E.; Chu, E.; Shi, C.

    2016-11-01

    The forming limit behaviour of AA6013-T6 aluminium alloy sheet was characterized under isothermal conditions at room temperature (RT) and 250°C using limiting dome height (LDH) tests. Full field strain measurements were acquired throughout testing using in situ stereoscopic digital image correlation (DIC) techniques. Limit strain data was generated from the resulting full field strain measurements using two localized necking criteria: ISO12004- 2:2008 and a time and position dependent criterion, termed the “Necking Zone” (NZ) approach in this paper, introduced by Martinez-Donaire et al. (2014). The limit strains resulting from the two localization detection schemes were compared. It was found that the ISO and NZ limit strains at RT are similar on the draw-side of the FLD, while the NZ approach yields a biaxial major limit strain 14.8% greater than the ISO generated major limit strain. At 250°C, the NZ generated major limit strains are 31-34% greater than the ISO generated major limit strains for near uniaxial, plane strain and biaxial loading conditions, respectively. The significant variance in limit strains between the two methodologies at 250°C highlights the need for a validation study regarding warm FLC determination.

  8. Hepatitis B virus replication and sex-determining region Y box 4 production are tightly controlled by a novel positive feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jian; Zheng, Yuan; Guo, Xiaohong; Mo, Jiayin; Xie, Xueping; Xiong, Ying; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying HBV infection and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. The sex-determining region Y box 4 (Sox4) is a transcriptional factor, which preferentially regulates the development of various organs, tissues, and cancers. But, the role of Sox4 in viral infection and pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that Sox4 is up-regulated by HBV, and revealed the mechanism by which HBV regulates Sox4 expression. First, HBV stimulates Sox4 expression through transcriptional factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), which binds to Sox4 promoter to activate Sox4 transcriptional activity. Second, miR-335, miR-129-2 and miR-203 inhibit Sox4 expression by targeting its mRNA 3’UTR, while HBV suppresses the microRNAs expression, resulting in up-regulating Sox4 post-transcriptionally. Third, Sox4 protein is degraded by proteasome, while HBV surface protein (HBsAg) prevents Sox4 from degradation by directly interacting with the protein, thereby enhancing Sox4 production post-translationlly. More interestingly, HBV-activated Sox4 in turn facilitates HBV replication by direct binding to the viral genome via its HMG box. Thus, this study revealed a novel positive feedback mechanism by which Sox4 production and HBV replication are tightly correlated. PMID:25970172

  9. Differential innate immune response programs in neuronal subtypes determine susceptibility to infection in the brain by positive-stranded RNA viruses.

    PubMed

    Cho, Hyelim; Proll, Sean C; Szretter, Kristy J; Katze, Michael G; Gale, Michael; Diamond, Michael S

    2013-04-01

    Although susceptibility of neurons in the brain to microbial infection is a major determinant of clinical outcome, little is known about the molecular factors governing this vulnerability. Here we show that two types of neurons from distinct brain regions showed differential permissivity to replication of several positive-stranded RNA viruses. Granule cell neurons of the cerebellum and cortical neurons from the cerebral cortex have unique innate immune programs that confer differential susceptibility to viral infection ex vivo and in vivo. By transducing cortical neurons with genes that were expressed more highly in granule cell neurons, we identified three interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs; Ifi27, Irg1 and Rsad2 (also known as Viperin)) that mediated the antiviral effects against different neurotropic viruses. Moreover, we found that the epigenetic state and microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of ISGs correlates with enhanced antiviral response in granule cell neurons. Thus, neurons from evolutionarily distinct brain regions have unique innate immune signatures, which probably contribute to their relative permissiveness to infection.

  10. Determination of boron content and isotopic composition in gypsum by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy and positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry using phase transformation.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yun-Qi; Peng, Zhang-Kuang; Yang, Jian; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Zhang, Yan-Ling

    2017-12-01

    As a stable isotope, boron plays an important role in hydrogeology, environmental geochemistry, ore deposit geochemistry and marine paleoclimatology. However, there is no report of boron isotopic composition in gypsum. This is mainly confined to complete dissolution of Gypsum by water or acid. In this study, gypsum was converted to calcium carbonate (CaCO3) with ammonium bicarbonate(NH4HCO3) by two steps at 50°C. In every step, the mass ratio of NH4HCO3/CaSO4·2H2O was twice, and conversion rate reached more than 98%. Converted CaCO3 was totally dissolved with hydrochloric acid (the dissolution rate was over 99%). In order to overcome the difficulties of the matrix interference and the detection limit of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES), we use Amberlite IRA 743 resin to purify and enrichment the boron at first, then eluting boron from the resin with 10mL 0.1mol/L hydrochloric acid at 75°C. The boron isotopic composition of natural gypsum samples was determined using positive thermal ionization mass spectrometry (P-TIMS). The boron isotopic composition of gypsum may be an excellent indicator for the formation environment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The homogeneous/ Heterogeneous data weighting method of LEO combined orbit determination based on BI-satellite positioning system with its application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, D. Y.; Pan, X. G.; Wang, J. Q.; Wang, Z. M.

    2008-01-01

    Aiming at combined orbit determination (COD) multi-source data fusion for low earth orbit (LEO) based on bi-satellite positioning system (BPS), an improved variance component estimation (VCE) optimal weighting method of homogeneous data is established with two-step system errors correction. And then an integrated optimal weighting method based on model structure characteristics analysis and VCE estimation of heterogeneous data is put forward by analyzing the essence of multi-source fusion measure model which is a multi-structural, multi-parametric, non-linear regression model. Then the algorithm of optimal weighting and COD parameters estimation is designed, and two kinds of COD simulation experiments are carried out by processing homogeneous data of bi-satellite range sum and its back-up satellite data, heterogeneous data of bi-satellite range sum data and star sensor angle data. Theoretical analysis and simulation computations show that improved VCE method based on two-step system errors correction can gain higher precision than that of traditional experience weighting method for COD of homogeneous data weighting. At the same time, by introducing weighting factor which denotes model structure characteristics and proves the designed optimal weighting algorithm, the amelioration of COD precision of LEO and bi-satellite gain to some extent is feasible from practical application.

  12. Using the ratio of the magnetic field to the analytic signal of the magnetic gradient tensor in determining the position of simple shaped magnetic anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karimi, Kurosh; Shirzaditabar, Farzad

    2017-08-01

    The analytic signal of magnitude of the magnetic field’s components and its first derivatives have been employed for locating magnetic structures, which can be considered as point-dipoles or line of dipoles. Although similar methods have been used for locating such magnetic anomalies, they cannot estimate the positions of anomalies in noisy states with an acceptable accuracy. The methods are also inexact in determining the depth of deep anomalies. In noisy cases and in places other than poles, the maximum points of the magnitude of the magnetic vector components and Az are not located exactly above 3D bodies. Consequently, the horizontal location estimates of bodies are accompanied by errors. Here, the previous methods are altered and generalized to locate deeper models in the presence of noise even at lower magnetic latitudes. In addition, a statistical technique is presented for working in noisy areas and a new method, which is resistant to noise by using a ‘depths mean’ method, is made. Reduction to the pole transformation is also used to find the most possible actual horizontal body location. Deep models are also well estimated. The method is tested on real magnetic data over an urban gas pipeline in the vicinity of Kermanshah province, Iran. The estimated location of the pipeline is accurate in accordance with the result of the half-width method.

  13. Zinc to cadmium replacement in the A. thaliana SUPERMAN Cys₂ His₂ zinc finger induces structural rearrangements of typical DNA base determinant positions.

    PubMed

    Malgieri, Gaetano; Zaccaro, Laura; Leone, Marilisa; Bucci, Enrico; Esposito, Sabrina; Baglivo, Ilaria; Del Gatto, Annarita; Russo, Luigi; Scandurra, Roberto; Pedone, Paolo V; Fattorusso, Roberto; Isernia, Carla

    2011-11-01

    Among heavy metals, whose toxicity cause a steadily increasing of environmental pollution, cadmium is of special concern due to its relatively high mobility in soils and potential toxicity at low concentrations. Given their ubiquitous role, zinc fingers domains have been proposed as mediators for the toxic and carcinogenic effects exerted by xenobiotic metals. To verify the structural effects of zinc replacement by cadmium in zinc fingers, we have determined the high resolution structure of the single Cys₂ His₂ zinc finger of the Arabidopsis thaliana SUPERMAN protein (SUP37) complexed to the cadmium ion by means of UV-vis and NMR techniques. SUP37 is able to bind Cd(II), though with a dissociation constant higher than that measured for Zn(II). Cd-SUP37 retains the ββα fold but experiences a global structural rearrangement affecting both the relative orientation of the secondary structure elements and the position of side chains involved in DNA recognition: among them Ser17 side chain, which we show to be essential for DNA binding, experiences the largest displacement. 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. A randomized crossover study to determine the effect of a 30° head-up versus a supine position on the functional residual capacity of term parturients.

    PubMed

    Hignett, Rachel; Fernando, Roshan; McGlennan, Alan; McDonald, Sarah; Stewart, Adrienne; Columb, Malachy; Adamou, Tina; Dilworth, Paul

    2011-11-01

    Airway management continues to pose challenges to the obstetric anesthesiologist. Functional residual capacity (FRC), which acts as an oxygen reservoir, is reduced from the second trimester onwards and is exacerbated in the supine position. Mechanisms to increase FRC may delay the onset of hypoxemia during periods of apnea. Values for changes in FRC in term parturients in semierect positions are unknown. We hypothesized that the FRC of healthy term parturients would increase significantly in the 30° head-up position in comparison with the supine position. Twenty-two healthy term parturients were recruited. Initial screening spirometry was performed to exclude undiagnosed respiratory disease. FRC was measured using the helium dilution technique in the supine, 30° head-up, and sitting erect positions. Subjects were randomized to sequence of position testing order. Noninvasive systolic blood pressure, heart rate, and oxygen saturation were measured twice in each testing position. Results from 20 subjects were analyzed. The spirometry results for all subjects were within predicted normal reference intervals. FRC measurements differed significantly (P<0.001) among all positions. FRC increased by a mean of 188 mL (95% confidence interval 18 to 358 mL) from the supine to the 30° head-up position (P=0.03). There were no significant differences in vital signs among testing positions (P>0.16). We have demonstrated that the FRC of healthy term parturients increases significantly in the 30° head-up position in comparison with supine.

  15. A zeta potential value determines the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in aqueous suspension whereas positive charge is required for toxicity against bacterial cells.

    PubMed

    Deryabin, Dmitry G; Efremova, Ludmila V; Vasilchenko, Alexey S; Saidakova, Evgeniya V; Sizova, Elena A; Troshin, Pavel A; Zhilenkov, Alexander V; Khakina, Ekaterina A; Khakina, Ekaterina E

    2015-08-08

    The cause-effect relationships between physicochemical properties of amphiphilic [60]fullerene derivatives and their toxicity against bacterial cells have not yet been clarified. In this study, we report how the differences in the chemical structure of organic addends in 10 originally synthesized penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives modulate their zeta potential and aggregate's size in salt-free and salt-added aqueous suspensions as well as how these physicochemical characteristics affect the bioenergetics of freshwater Escherichia coli and marine Photobacterium phosphoreum bacteria. Dynamic light scattering, laser Doppler micro-electrophoresis, agarose gel electrophoresis, atomic force microscopy, and bioluminescence inhibition assay were used to characterize the fullerene aggregation behavior in aqueous solution and their interaction with the bacterial cell surface, following zeta potential changes and toxic effects. Dynamic light scattering results indicated the formation of self-assembled [60]fullerene aggregates in aqueous suspensions. The measurement of the zeta potential of the particles revealed that they have different surface charges. The relationship between these physicochemical characteristics was presented as an exponential regression that correctly described the dependence of the aggregate's size of penta-substituted [60]fullerene derivatives in salt-free aqueous suspension from zeta potential value. The prevalence of DLVO-related effects was shown in salt-added aqueous suspension that decreased zeta potential values and affected the aggregation of [60]fullerene derivatives expressed differently for individual compounds. A bioluminescence inhibition assay demonstrated that the toxic effect of [60]fullerene derivatives against E. coli cells was strictly determined by their positive zeta potential charge value being weakened against P. phosphoreum cells in an aquatic system of high salinity. Atomic force microscopy data suggested that the

  16. [The possibilities for determining the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment based on the injuries to the extremities estimated with the use of the sequential mathematical analysis].

    PubMed

    Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    above morphological signs for the objective determination of the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment during traffic accidents and thereby to improve the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical examination of the injuries inflicted in car crashes.

  17. The Genotypic False Positive Rate Determined by V3 Population Sequencing Can Predict the Burden of HIV-1 CXCR4-using Species Detected by Pyrosequencing

    PubMed Central

    Svicher, Valentina; Cento, Valeria; Rozera, Gabriella; Abbate, Isabella; Santoro, Maria Mercedes; Armenia, Daniele; Fabeni, Lavinia; Bruselles, Alessandro; Latini, Alessandra; Palamara, Guido; Micheli, Valeria; Rizzardini, Giuliano; Gori, Caterina; Forbici, Federica; Ippolito, Giuseppe; Andreoni, Massimo; Antinori, Andrea; Ceccherini-Silberstein, Francesca; Capobianchi, Maria Rosaria; Perno, Carlo Federico

    2013-01-01

    Objective The false-positive rate (FPR) is a percentage-score provided by Geno2Pheno-algorithm indicating the likelihood that a V3-sequence is falsely predicted as CXCR4-using. We evaluated the correlation between FPR obtained by V3 population-sequencing and the burden of CXCR4-using variants detected by V3 ultra-deep sequencing (UDPS) and Enhanced-Sensitivity Trofile assay (ESTA). Methods 54 HIV-1 B-subtype infected-patients (all maraviroc-naïve), with viremia >10,000copies/ml, were analyzed. HIV-tropism was assessed by V3 population-sequencing, UDPS (considering variants with >0.5% prevalence), and ESTA. Results By UDPS, CCR5-using variants were detected in 53/54 patients, irrespective of FPR values, and their intra-patient prevalence progressively increased by increasing the FPR obtained by V3 population-sequencing (rho = 0.75, p = 5.0e-8). Conversely, the intra-patient prevalence of CXCR4-using variants in the 54 patients analyzed progressively decreased by increasing the FPR (rho = −0.61; p = 9.3e-6). Indeed, no CXCR4-using variants were detected in 13/13 patients with FPR>60. They were present in 7/18 (38.8%) patients with FPR 20–60 (intra-patient prevalence range: 2.1%–18.4%), in 5/7 (71.4%) with FPR 10–20, in 4/6 (66.7%) with FPR 5–10, and in 10/10(100%) with FPR<5 (intra-patient prevalence range: 12.1%–98.1%). Conclusions FPR by V3 population-sequencing can predict the burden of CXCR4-using variants. This information can be used to optimize the management of tropism determination in clinical practice. Due to its low cost and short turnaround time, V3 population-sequencing may represent the most feasible test for HIV-1 tropism determination. More sensitive methodologies (as UDPS) might be useful when V3 population-sequencing provides a FPR >20 (particularly in the range 20–60), allowing a more careful identification of patients harboring CXCR4-using variants. PMID:23341955

  18. The t(6)A modification acts as a positive determinant for the anticodon nuclease PrrC, and is distinctively nonessential in Streptococcus mutans.

    PubMed

    Bacusmo, Jo Marie; Orsini, Silvia S; Hu, Jennifer; DeMott, Michael; Thiaville, Patrick C; Elfarash, Ameer; Paulines, Mellie June; Rojas-Benítez, Diego; Meineke, Birthe; Deutsch, Chris; Iwata-Reuyl, Dirk; Limbach, Patrick A; Dedon, Peter C; Rice, Kelly C; Shuman, Stewart; Crécy-Lagard, Valérie de

    2017-07-20

    Endoribonuclease toxins (ribotoxins) are produced by bacteria and fungi to respond to stress, eliminate non-self competitor species, or interdict virus infection. PrrC is a bacterial ribotoxin that targets and cleaves tRNA(Lys)UUU in the anticodon loop. In vitro studies suggested that the post-transcriptional modification threonylcarbamoyl adenosine (t(6)A) is required for PrrC activity but this prediction had never been validated in vivo. Here, by using t(6)A-deficient yeast derivatives, it is shown that t(6)A is a positive determinant for PrrC proteins from various bacterial species. Streptococcus mutans is one of the few bacteria where the t(6)A synthesis gene tsaE (brpB) is dispensable and its genome encodes a PrrC toxin. We had previously shown using an HPLC-based assay that the S. mutans tsaE mutant was devoid of t(6)A. However, we describe here a novel and a more sensitive hybridization-based t(6)A detection method (compared to HPLC) that showed t(6)A was still present in the S. mutans ΔtsaE, albeit at greatly reduced levels (93% reduced compared with WT). Moreover, mutants in 2 other S. mutans t(6)A synthesis genes (tsaB and tsaC) were shown to be totally devoid of the modification thus confirming its dispensability in this organism. Furthermore, analysis of t(6)A modification ratios and of t(6)A synthesis genes mRNA levels in S. mutans suggest they may be regulated by growth phase.

  19. Roles of Self-Stigma, Social Support, and Positive and Negative Affects as Determinants of Depressive Symptoms Among HIV Infected Men who have Sex with Men in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinghua; Mo, Phoenix K H; Wu, Anise M S; Lau, Joseph T F

    2017-01-01

    Poor mental health was prevalent among HIV positive men who have sex with men (HIVMSM), and a tremendous burden extents on their families and society. The present study investigated the prevalence of depression and its relationship with social support, HIV self-stigma, positive affect and negative affect among 321 HIVMSM in Chengdu, China. The study was conducted during July 2013 through October 2013. Findings showed that 55.8 % of the participants had mild to severe depression. The results of structural equation modeling showed that social support and positive affect were negatively associated with depression, while HIV self-stigma and negative affect were positively associated with depression. Social support, positive affect, and negative affect mediated the association between HIV self-stigma and depression. The hypothesized model had a satisfactory fit. Interventions improving mental health among this population are warranted.

  20. Proliferation Determined by Ki-67 Defines Different Pathologic Response to Neoadjuvant Trastuzumab-Based Chemotherapy in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Muñoz, Alfonso; Navarro-Perez, Victor; Plata-Fernández, Yessica; Santonja, Angela; Moreno, Ignacio; Ribelles, Nuria; Alba, Emilio

    2015-10-01

    This study aimed to assess the role of proliferation measured by Ki-67 as a predictive factor for pathologic complete response (pCR) to trastuzumab-based chemotherapy in patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2)-positive (HER2(+)) breast cancer (BC). A total of 81 patients with HER2(+) BC were treated with a sequential schedule consisting of 4 cycles of cyclophosphamide (600 mg/m(2)) and doxorubicin (60 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks, followed by 4 cycles of weekly paclitaxel (80 mg/m(2)) or docetaxel (100 mg/m(2)) every 3 weeks combined with trastuzumab (loading dose of 8 mg/kg and then 6 mg/kg every 3 weeks) as neoadjuvant treatment. Histologic subgroups classified by hormone receptor (HR) expression and Ki-67 index were 17% HR(+)/Ki-67 ≥ 50%, 41% HR(+)/Ki-67 < 50%, 25% HR-negative (HR(-)) Ki-67 ≥ 50%, and 17% HR(-)/Ki-67 < 50%. pCR, defined as the absence of invasive cells in the breast and axillary lymph node, was achieved in 33 patients (41%). The median Ki-67 expression was significantly higher in tumors with pCR (53%) compared with tumors without pCR (30%) (P < .001). Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve methodology suggested that 50% was the optimal Ki-67 cutoff point to best identify patients who achieved a pCR. The pCR rate was significantly different between histologic subgroups: HR(-)/Ki-67 ≥ 50% (70%), HR(+)/Ki-67 ≥ 50% (71%), HR(-)/Ki-67 < 50% (22%), and HR(+)/Ki-67 < 50% (18%) (P < .001). A multivariate analysis revealed that a Ki-67 marker ≥ 50% was the only independent predictive factor of pCR (P = .003; odds ratio [OR], 0.133; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.036-0.5). The median follow-up was 32 months (range, 14-48 months). Patients who achieved a pCR had significantly lower recurrence (P = .001) and higher overall survival (OS) (P = .013) compared with those who did not. There were no statistically significant differences in disease-free survival (DFS) and OS in relation to HRs, the Ki-67 marker as a continuous or

  1. Using a graph of the abnormal predictive value versus the positive predictive value for the determination of outlier laboratories in the National Health Service cervical screening programme.

    PubMed

    Blanks, R G

    2010-12-01

    The positive predictive value (PPV) for the detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) grade 2 or worse of referral to colposcopy from moderate dyskaryosis or worse (equivalent to high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion or worse) is a standard performance measure in the National Health Service cervical screening programme. The current target is to examine 'outlier' laboratories with PPVs outside the 10th-90th percentile, which automatically identifies 20% of laboratories for further investigation. A more targeted method of identifying outliers may be more useful. A similar measure to the PPV, the abnormal predictive value (APV), can be defined as the predictive value for CIN2 or worse for referrals from borderline (includes atypical squamous and glandular cells) and mild dyskaryosis (equivalent to low-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion) combined. A scatter plot of the APV versus the PPV can be produced (the APV-PPV diagram). Three kinds of 'outlier' can be defined on the diagram to help determine laboratories with unusual data. These are termed a true outlier value (TOV) or an extreme value (EV) for either PPV or APV, or a residual extreme value (REV) from the APV-PPV best line of fit. Using annual return information for 2007/8 from 124 laboratories, two were defined as having EVs for PPV (both had a relatively low PPV of 62%). For APV, four laboratories were considered to have EVs of 34%, 34%, 34% and 4% and one was considered to be a TO with an APV of 45%. Five were identified as REV laboratories, although three of these were also identified as having extreme or outlier values, leaving two that had not been identified by the other methods. A total of eight (6%) laboratories were therefore identified as meriting further investigation using this methodology. The method proposed could be a useful alternative to the current method of identifying outliers. Slide exchange studies between the identified laboratories, particularly those at opposing ends

  2. Better position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    The U.S. Global Positioning System (GPS) will soon become more accurate for civilian users, improving the quality of navigation and of some types of scientific research. The Clinton Administration announced March 29 that within a decade, the federal government will stop degrading the civilian GPS signal and will allow nonmilitary users access to the same clear signals that U.S. troops rely upon.Designed as dual-use system with primary use by the American military, the GPS is a constellation of 24 satellites that allows soldiers to determine their exact positions (in latitude and longitude) anywhere in the world. While the GPS is operated by the Department of Defense (DoD), scientists and adventurous civilians have been able to purchase small, portable GPS devices. However, the U.S. military has kept to itself a capability known as “selective availability” that provides a much more precise signal than is available to the public. According to the White House, that selected signal will be available to all users within 4-10 years.

  3. Positive or negative feedback of optokinetic signals: degree of the misrouted optic flow determines system dynamics of human ocular motor behavior.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chien-Cheng; Bockisch, Christopher J; Olasagasti, Itsaso; Weber, Konrad P; Straumann, Dominik; Huang, Melody Ying-Yu

    2014-04-09

    The optokinetic system in healthy humans is a negative-feedback system that stabilizes gaze: slow-phase eye movements (i.e., the output signal) minimize retinal slip (i.e., the error signal). A positive-feedback optokinetic system may exist due to the misrouting of optic fibers. Previous studies have shown that, in a zebrafish mutant with a high degree of the misrouting, the optokinetic response (OKR) is reversed. As a result, slow-phase eye movements amplify retinal slip, forming a positive-feedback optokinetic loop. The positive-feedback optokinetic system cannot stabilize gaze, thus leading to spontaneous eye oscillations (SEOs). Because the misrouting in human patients (e.g., with a condition of albinism or achiasmia) is partial, both positive- and negative-feedback loops co-exist. How this co-existence affects human ocular motor behavior remains unclear. We presented a visual environment consisting of two stimuli in different parts of the visual field to healthy subjects. One mimicked positive-feedback optokinetic signals and the other preserved negative-feedback optokinetic signals. By changing the ratio and position of the visual field of these visual stimuli, various optic nerve misrouting patterns were simulated. Eye-movement responses to stationary and moving stimuli were measured and compared with computer simulations. The SEOs were correlated with the magnitude of the virtual positive-feedback optokinetic effect. We found a correlation among the simulated misrouting, the corresponding OKR, and the SEOs in humans. The proportion of the simulated misrouting needed to be greater than 50% to reverse the OKR and at least greater than or equal to 70% to evoke SEOs. Once the SEOs were evoked, the magnitude positively correlated to the strength of the positive-feedback OKR. This study provides a mechanism of how the misrouting of optic fibers in humans could lead to SEOs, offering a possible explanation for a subtype of infantile nystagmus syndrome (INS).

  4. Continuous positive airway pressure usage in hospitalized patients with known obstructive sleep apnea: discrepancy between admission pressure settings and laboratory-determined settings.

    PubMed

    Saini, Parmeet; Klada, Emile; Patel, Vishal; Zaw, Moe; Dubrovsky, Boris; George, Liziamma; Bachman, Elizabeth M; Weingarten, Jeremy A

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the frequency and predictors of correctly initiated continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) settings on the initial night of hospitalization in patients with known obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS). Hospital records of all patients who underwent an outpatient therapeutic polysomnogram (PSG) at our institution between January 2005 and December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Data collected included initial CPAP settings on hospital admission, latency to hospitalization (from sleep study), hospital length of stay, demographic variables, and PSG variables. One hundred seventy subjects were included in the analysis: 51 % were male, average age (±SD) was 55.3 ± 13.7 years, and body mass index was 43.7 ± 10.4 kg/m(2). OSAHS was generally severe (apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 52.8 ± 37.3 event/h). Mean CPAP setting during in-laboratory titration was 11.1 ± 3.1 cm H2O and during the first night of hospitalization was 9.5 ± 2.8 cm H2O (p < 0.0001). Of 170 subjects, only 71 (42 %) received the correct laboratory-derived CPAP setting on the first night of hospitalization. In a multivariable logistic regression analysis, higher body mass index (BMI), lower CPAP level determined during PSG, and shorter latency (months) between PSG and hospitalization were associated with receiving the correct CPAP setting during the first night of hospitalization: Each 1 kg/m(2) increase in BMI was associated with a 7 % increase odds of receiving the correct CPAP setting during the first night of hospitalization (OR 1.07, 95 % CI 1.02-1.12), while each 1 cm H2O increase in CPAP during PSG and each 1 month longer latency between PSG and hospitalization was associated with a 15 and 7 %, respectively, decrease in the odds of receiving the correct CPAP setting during the first night of hospitalization (CPAP OR 0.85, 95 % CI 0.74-0.97 and latency OR 0.93, 95 % CI 0.90-0.97). There was no in-hospital mortality

  5. Aging rather than sun exposure is a major determining factor for the density of miR-125b-positive epidermal stem cells in human skin.

    PubMed

    Toyokuni, Shinya; Jiang, Li; Wang, Shenqi; Hirao, Ayaka; Wada, Tamae; Soh, Chieko; Toyama, Kazumi; Kawada, Akira

    2015-08-01

    Sunlight exposure and aging are two major factors in the deterioration of skin function. In the present study, we used eighty formalin-fixed human skin samples from sun-exposed and unexposed areas from old and young individuals to evaluate the presence of miR-125b-positive epidermal stem cells (ESCs) by in situ hybridization. miR-125b-positive ESCs were detected in the basal layer of the epidermis. The density of miR-125b-positive ESCs was significantly associated with age rather than sun exposure, whereas the density of miR-125b-positive ESCs tended to decrease in the sun-exposed area. These data suggest the potential use of miR-125b as a surrogate marker for the quality of epidermal cells.

  6. An improved model to determine the inception of positive upward leader-streamer system considering the leader propagation during dark period

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Shijun; He, Junjia; Chen, Weijiang

    2013-04-01

    Stem-leader transition and front-streamer inception are two essential conditions for the inception of positive upward leader-streamer system (LSS). Previous models have not considered the initial-leader propagation during dark period and have not been verified systematically. In this paper, a series of positive upward discharge simulation experiments was designed and carried out. Characteristic parameters of the discharge process related to the inception of positive upward LSS, namely, the first-corona inception voltage, the first-corona charge, the dark period, and the LSS inception voltage, were obtained. By comparing these experiment results with simulation results calculated using previous models, it was found that it is improper to assume that the length of the initial leader is a fixed value. Finally, an improved inception model of positive upward LSS considering the leader propagation during dark period was developed and verified with experiment results.

  7. Membrane position of a basic aromatic peptide that sequesters phosphatidylinositol 4,5 bisphosphate determined by site-directed spin labeling and high-resolution NMR.

    PubMed

    Ellena, Jeffrey F; Moulthrop, Jason; Wu, Jing; Rauch, Michelle; Jaysinghne, Sajith; Castle, J David; Cafiso, David S

    2004-11-01

    The membrane interactions and position of a positively charged and highly aromatic peptide derived from a secretory carrier membrane protein (SCAMP) are examined using magnetic resonance spectroscopy and several biochemical methods. This peptide (SCAMP-E) is shown to bind to membranes containing phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate, PI(4,5)P2, and sequester PI(4,5)P2 within the plane of the membrane. Site-directed spin labeling of the SCAMP-E peptide indicates that the position and structure of membrane bound SCAMP-E are not altered by the presence of PI(4,5)P2, and that the peptide backbone is positioned within the lipid interface below the level of the lipid phosphates. A second approach using high-resolution NMR was used to generate a model for SCAMP-E bound to bicelles. This approach combined oxygen enhancements of nuclear relaxation with a computational method to dock the SCAMP-E peptide at the lipid interface. The model for SCAMP generated by NMR is consistent with the results of site-directed spin labeling and places the peptide backbone in the bilayer interfacial region and the aromatic side chains within the lipid hydrocarbon region. The charged side chains of SCAMP-E lie well within the interface with two arginine residues lying deeper than a plane defined by the position of the lipid phosphates. These data suggest that SCAMP-E interacts with PI(4,5)P2 through an electrostatic mechanism that does not involve specific lipid-peptide contacts. This interaction may be facilitated by the position of the positively charged side chains on SCAMP-E within a low-dielectric region of the bilayer interface.

  8. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  9. Antibiotic treatment algorithm development based on a microarray nucleic acid assay for rapid bacterial identification and resistance determination from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Jürgen; Karrasch, Matthias; Edel, Birgit; Stoll, Sylvia; Bohnert, Jürgen; Löffler, Bettina; Saupe, Angela; Pfister, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections remains a challenge for the early targeting of an antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients. In recent studies, the reliability of the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-positive and Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GP and BC-GN) assays for the rapid identification of bacteria and resistance genes directly from positive BCs has been demonstrated. In this work, we have developed a model to define treatment recommendations by combining Verigene test results with knowledge on local antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens. The data of 275 positive BCs were analyzed. Two hundred sixty-three isolates (95.6%) were included in the Verigene assay panels, and 257 isolates (93.5%) were correctly identified. The agreement of the detection of resistance genes with subsequent phenotypic susceptibility testing was 100%. The hospital antibiogram was used to develop a treatment algorithm on the basis of Verigene results that may contribute to a faster patient management.

  10. An amino acid at position 142 in nitrilase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 33278 determines the substrate specificity for aliphatic and aromatic nitriles

    PubMed Central

    Yeom, Soo-Jin; Kim, Hye-Jung; Lee, Jung-Kul; Kim, Dong-Eun; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2008-01-01

    Nitrilase from Rhodococcus rhodochrous ATCC 33278 hydrolyses both aliphatic and aromatic nitriles. Replacing Tyr-142 in the wild-type enzyme with the aromatic amino acid phenylalanine did not alter specificity for either substrate. However, the mutants containing non-polar aliphatic amino acids (alanine, valine and leucine) at position 142 were specific only for aromatic substrates such as benzonitrile, m-tolunitrile and 2-cyanopyridine, and not for aliphatic substrates. These results suggest that the hydrolysis of substrates probably involves the conjugated π-electron system of the aromatic ring of substrate or Tyr-142 as an electron acceptor. Moreover, the mutants containing charged amino acids such as aspartate, glutamate, arginine and asparagine at position 142 displayed no activity towards any nitrile, possibly owing to the disruption of hydrophobic interactions with substrates. Thus aromaticity of substrate or amino acid at position 142 in R. rhodochrous nitrilase is required for enzyme activity. PMID:18412544

  11. Different co-sensitizations could determine different risk assessment in peach allergy? Evaluation of an anaphylactic biomarker in Pru p 3 positive patients.

    PubMed

    Uasuf, Carina Gabriela; Villalta, Danilo; Conte, Maria Elisabetta; Di Sano, Caterina; Barrale, Maria; Cantisano, Vincenzo; Pace, Elisabetta; Gjomarkaj, Mark; Gangemi, Sebastiano; Brusca, Ignazio

    2015-01-01

    In Italy, the nsLTP (Pru p 3) has been identified as the most frequent cause of food allergy and anaphylaxis. In order to estimate the risk assessment in peach allergy, we investigated the presence of correlations between the levels of sIgE to Pru p 3 with the severity of the clinical symptoms in two Pru p 3 positive populations from two different areas of Italy. 133 consecutively Pru p 3 positive patients were recruited from South Italy, where the prevalence of PR-10 and profilin sensitization is low, and from North-East Italy, where the sensitization to pathogenesis related protein -10 (PR-10) and profilin is higher. Skin prick test (SPT) to peach extract and sIgE to peach panallergens were performed. All 133 patients were positive to SPT to peach extract and to sIgE to Pru p 3. The North-East population was simultaneously positive to Pru p 1 (42.8 %) and Pru p 4 (12.7 %), while no Southern patients were positive to PR-10 or to profilin. A significant difference in the levels of sIgE to Pru p 3 was found only in South Italy Pru p 3 + patients vs. asymptomatic patients (p = 0.01) and in mild reactions vs. severe reactions (p = 0.0008). In South Italy patients, it was also found a significant correlation between the severity of the clinical reaction and the levels of sIgE to Pru p 3 (p = 0.001). Level of sIgE to Pru p 3 indicates the possibility of development a severe food allergic reaction. Pru p 3 positive patients from different geographical areas and with different co-sensitizations to Pru p 1 and/or Pru p 4 could have a different risk assessment in peach allergy.

  12. Preliminary Evaluation of the Research-Use-Only (RUO) iCubate iC-GPC Assay for Identification of Select Gram-Positive Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants in Blood Culture Broths.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Blake W; Reymann, Garrett C; Granato, Paul A; Alkins, Brenda R; Jim, Patricia; Young, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The iC-GPC assay (iCubate, Huntsville, AL) provides a molecular option for the rapid, on-demand analysis of positive blood cultures. A preliminary evaluation of the iC-GPC assay using 203 clinical or seeded specimens demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8% to 100% and a specificity of 98.0% to 100% for the identification of five Gram-positive bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium) and three associated genetic resistance determinants (mecA, vanA, and vanB) in positive blood culture broths.

  13. Primers determine the sensitivity of PCR-mediated hepatitis B virus DNA detection and pretreatment of PCR mixture with 8-methoxypsoralen eliminates false-positive results.

    PubMed

    Keum, W K; Park, C E; Lee, J H; Khil, L Y; Kang, I; Kim, S S; Jung, J C; Oh, S M; Woo, H J; Lee, J H; Kim, Y C; Yoon, Y; Choi, J W; Ha, J

    1997-04-30

    Most methods for the diagnosis of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection largely depend on viral DNA detection by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) or radioimmunological assay of viral antigens or antibodies. The quality assurance program recently established in Europe reported that PCR-mediated HBV DNA detection methods used in many laboratories produced a high rate of false-positive and false-negative results. Thus, we attempted to improve the conditions of current PCR methods for detection of HBV DNA. In the present study, we applied a recently developed method of releasing HBV DNA from virion by NaOH treatment of patient serum. Using four different primer sets specific to the HBV core region, we found that the sensitivity of first-round PCR can be improved by more than two orders of magnitude depending on the primers. The second round of PCR using nested primers was sensitive enough to detect up to 10(-6) pg of the HBV DNA, which is equivalent to approximately 3 copies of the HBV genome. Among the approximately 800 HBV-infected patient sera investigated in our laboratory, more than 60% of the tested samples gave positive results in the first-round PCR. The rate of positive results obtained using our experimental conditions is very high in comparison with other reports. The reamplification of the first-round PCR reaction mixture with the nested primers produced practically 100% positive results. For diagnosis of HBV infection, we routinely used 1 microliter of patient serum, which was found to be optimum in our laboratory. Surprisingly, from 20% of our positive results, even serum diluted to 1/100 (0.01 microliter) produced a stronger signal than 1 microliter. This observation suggests that direct PCR amplification of HBV DNA released from serum by NaOH treatment has to be compensated by other DNA detection methods for correct quantitation. In order to eliminate the false positive signal resulting from the carry-over due to massive screening of a large number of

  14. Effect of the position of the visible sky in determining the sky view factor on micrometeorological and human thermal comfort conditions in urban street canyons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qaid, Adeb; Lamit, Hasanuddin Bin; Ossen, Dilshan Remaz; Rasidi, Mohd Hisyam

    2017-01-01

    Poor daytime and night-time micrometeorological conditions are issues that influence the quality of environmental conditions and can undermine a comfortable human lifestyle. The sky view factor (SVF) is one of the essential physical parameters used to assess the micrometeorological conditions and thermal comfort levels within city streets. The position of the visible sky relative to the path of the sun, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, has not been widely discerned as a parameter that could have an impact on the micrometeorological conditions of urban streets. To investigate this parameter, different urban streets that have a similar SVF value but diverse positions of visible sky were proposed in different street directions intersecting with the path of the sun, namely N-S, NE-SW and NW-SE. The effects of daytime and night-time micrometeorological variables and human thermal comfort variables on the street were investigated by applying ENVI-met V3.1 Beta software. The results show that the position of the visible sky has a greater influence on the street's meteorological and human thermal comfort conditions than the SVF value. It has the ability to maximise or minimise the mean radiation temperature (Tmrt, °C) and the physiological equivalent temperature (PET, °C) at street level. However, the visible sky positioned to the zenith in a NE-SW or N-S street direction and to the SW of a NW-SE street direction achieves the best daytime micrometeorological and thermal comfort conditions. Alternatively, the visible sky positioned to the NE for a NW-SE street direction, to the NW and the zenith for a NE-SW street direction and to the zenith for a N-S street direction reduces the night-time air temperature (Ta, °C). Therefore, SVF and the position of the visible sky relative to the sun's trajectory, in the cardinal and ordinal directions, must be considered during urban street planning to better understand the resultant micrometeorological and human thermal

  15. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  16. Novel approach to determining the absolute configurations at the C3-positions of various types of sterols based on an induced circular dichroism.

    PubMed

    Fujiwara, Toshio; Taniguchi, Yuka; Katsumoto, Yukiteru; Tanaka, Takeyuki; Ozeki, Minoru; Iwasaki, Hiroki; Node, Manabu; Yamashita, Masayuki; Hosoi, Shinzo

    2012-10-01

    Circular dichroism (CD) spectra of the 2,2'-binaphthyl ester derived from Δ(5)-sterols showed not bisignate CD but diagnostic CD bands at around 210 and 240 nm. These bands might be attributable to an interaction between an olefinic chromophore and a binaphthyl one. Various types of unsaturated sterols were thus derivatized followed by complete hydrogenation, to give saturated sterols. As a result, CD spectra of the binaphthyl derivatives of the saturated sterols showed bisignate curves centered at 240 nm (3S(β): positive chirality; 3R(α): negative one). This suggested a straightforward and practical method for discriminating the absolute stereogenic center at the C-3 positions of sterols based on an induced CD. This finding should contribute significantly to the analysis of metabolites of various types of sterols. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  18. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  19. [Identification, during development, of a methodology targeted at determining the positioning of new drugs for therapeutic strategies: examples of rheumatoid arthritis and cardiac insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C; Plétan, Y; Boissel, J P

    2002-01-01

    The Marketing Authorization (MA) granted to a new molecular entity does not allow for proper anticipation of its future positioning within the therapeutic strategy. A specific methodology should be devised as early as during the pre-MA development phase that could result in an initial positioning that should be subjected to further reappraisal with regard to scientific advances, the arrival of new treatments and further developments with this molecule. A methodology is thus proposed, based on early optimisation of the development plan, the granting of subsequent MAs, and reappraisal of the positioning within the strategy, based on analysis of all available data. It should be possible to take into account the economic context, within an agreed system with pre-defined medico-economic criteria. This may in turn raise the issue of the role of the various parties involved in this assessment, as well as how to understand the respective opinions of stakeholders: authorities, sponsors, prescribers and patients, each of whom has a specific view of the definition of the strategic objective that should apply to the disease concerned.

  20. Proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET in lymphoma as determined by histology: Systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Adams, Hugo J A; Kwee, Thomas C

    2016-11-01

    To systematically review and meta-analyze the proportion of false-positive lesions at interim and end-of-treatment (18)F-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) in lymphoma using biopsy as reference standard. Medline was searched for original studies. Methodological quality of included studies was evaluated, and results were meta-analytically summarized using random effects (in case of interstudy heterogeneity [I(2)≤50%]) or fixed effects (in case of no interstudy heterogeneity [I(2)>50%]). Eleven studies, comprising 139 patients who underwent biopsy of an FDG-avid lesion during or after completion of antilymphoma treatment, were included. Overall methodological quality was moderate. The proportion of false-positive results among all biopsied FDG-avid lesions at PET performed during of after completion of treatment ranged between 7.7% and 90.5% (the vast majority was due to inflammatory changes), with a weighted summary proportion (random effects, I(2)=75.7%) of 55.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 32.6-76.6%). There were no available studies on interim FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma. The pooled summary false-positive proportions were 83.0% (95% CI: 72.0%-90.2%) for interim FDG-PET in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (fixed effects, I(2)=27.7%), 23.1% (95% CI: 4.7%-64.5%) for end-of-treatment FDG-PET in Hodgkin lymphoma (random effects; I(2)=67.1%), and 31.5% (95% CI: 3.9%-83.9%) for end-of-treatment FDG-PET in non-Hodgkin lymphoma (random effects, I(2)=68.3%). Both interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET scans in patients with lymphoma suffer from a very high number of false-positive FDG-avid lesions. This finding, in combination with the previously reported high number of false-negative FGD-PET scans for residual disease detection, suggests that the role of interim and end-of-treatment FDG-PET should be reconsidered. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Position Classification. A Fair and Equitable Method of Determining the Relative Worth of Jobs = Classification des postes. Un moyen juste et equitable de determiner la valeur relative des emlois.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canada Employment and Immigration Commission, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This handbook is intended to serve as a reference guide to position classification in Employment and Immigration Canada. It is divided into 11 chapters. Chapter 1 explains Canada's current job and wage classification system, which is a direct result of the Canadian government's decision to allow collective bargaining in the public service. Chapter…

  2. Positively charged polymer brush-functionalized filter paper for DNA sequence determination following Dot blot hybridization employing a pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid probe.

    PubMed

    Laopa, Praethong S; Vilaivan, Tirayut; Hoven, Voravee P

    2013-01-07

    As inspired by the Dot blot analysis, a well known technique in molecular biology and genetics for detecting biomolecules, a new paper-based platform for colorimetric detection of specific DNA sequences employing peptide nucleic acid (PNA) as a probe has been developed. In this particular study, a pyrrolidinyl PNA bearing a conformationally rigid d-prolyl-2-aminocyclopentanecarboxylic acid backbone (acpcPNA) was used as a probe. The filter paper was modified to be positively charged with grafted polymer brushes of quaternized poly(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate (QPDMAEMA) prepared by surface-initiated polymerization of 2-(dimethylamino)ethyl methacrylate from the filter paper via ARGET ATRP followed by quaternization with methyl iodide. Following the Dot blot format, a DNA target was first immobilized via electrostatic interactions between the positive charges of the QPDMAEMA brushes and negative charges of the phosphate backbone of DNA. Upon hybridization with the biotinylated pyrrolidinyl peptide nucleic acid (b-PNA) probe, the immobilized DNA can be detected by naked eye observation of the yellow product generated by the enzymatic reaction employing HRP-labeled streptavidin. It has been demonstrated that this newly developed assay was capable of discriminating between complementary and single base mismatch targets at a detection limit of at least 10 fmol. In addition, the QPDMAEMA-grafted filter paper exhibited a superior performance to the commercial membranes, namely Nylon 66 and nitrocellulose.

  3. EMS provider determinations of necessity for transport and reimbursement for EMS response, medical care, and transport: combined resource document for the National Association of EMS Physicians position statements.

    PubMed

    Millin, Michael G; Brown, Lawrence H; Schwartz, Brian

    2011-01-01

    With increasing demands for emergency medical services (EMS), many EMS jurisdictions are utilizing EMS provider-initiated nontransport policies as a method to offload potentially nonemergent patients from the EMS system. EMS provider determination of medical necessity, resulting in nontransport of patients, has the potential to avert unnecessary emergency department visits. However, EMS systems that utilize these policies must have additional education for the providers, a quality improvement process, and active physician oversight. In addition, EMS provider determination of nontransport for a specific situation should be supported by evidence in the peer-reviewed literature that the practice is safe. Further, EMS systems that do not utilize these programs should not be financially penalized. Payment for EMS services should be based on the prudent layperson standard. EMS systems that do utilize nontransport policies should be appropriately reimbursed, as this represents potential cost savings to the health care system.

  4. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  5. Beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2000-09-21

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  6. Acetate, propionate and butyrate in plasma: determination of the concentration and isotopic enrichment by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry with positive chemical ionization.

    PubMed

    Pouteau, E; Meirim, I; Métairon, S; Fay, L B

    2001-07-01

    This study describes a rapid and simple method to determine short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentrations and their isotopic enrichments (M(0) + 1 and M(0) + 2) in human plasma. Sample preparation involves SCFA extraction and derivatization with 1-(tert-butyldimethylsilyl)imidazole. Gas chromatography/mass spectrometry was performed using chemical ionization with ammonia as the reagent gas. Outstanding resolution, excellent linearity and good detection limits were obtained. Inter-assay and intra-assay repeatability was below 10% and 3% respectively for SCFA concentration. Inter-assay repeatability was below 5%, 4%, 6%, and 14% for isotopic enrichment determination of [1-(13)C]acetate and [1,2-(13)C(2)]acetate, [1-(13)C]propionate and [1-(13)C]butyrate respectively, with intra-assay being below 6%. Such SCFA concentrations and isotopic enrichments were determined in the plasma of rats infused with a (13)C-labeled SCFA. The turnovers of acetate, propionate and butyrate in rats were 19 micromol kg(-1) min(-1), 2.6 micromol kg(-1) min(-1), 0.3 micromol kg(-1) min(-1) respectively. Copyright 2001 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Highly sensitive derivatization reagents possessing positively charged structures for the determination of oligosaccharides in glycoproteins by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun Zhe; Nagai, Keisuke; Shi, Qing; Zhou, Wenjun; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Lee, Yong-Ill; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-09-23

    We have developed three kinds of novel derivatization reagents (4-CEBTPP, 4-CBBTPP, 5-COTPP) with triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a basic structure carrying a permanent positive charge for resolution of the oligosaccharides in glycoprotein using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The synthesized reagents reacted with the sialylglycosylamine of the sialylglycopeptide after treatment by PNGase F. The final derivatives were analyzed by ESI-MS and sensitively detected in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Furthermore, the limits of detection (S/N=3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the fmol level (30fmol). Therefore, we used the limit of detection of the reagent products detected by the SRM and evaluated the utility of each reagent. Among the reagents, the positively charged 4-CEBTPP derivative's peak area was the highest; 4-CEBTPP with a positively charged structure showed about a 20 times greater sensitivity for the glycosylamine of the SGP product compared to the conventional fluorescence reagent, Fmoc-Cl. In addition, various fragment ions based on the carbohydrate units also appeared in the MS/MS spectra. Among the fragment ions, m/z 627.37 (CE=40eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP-GlcNAc and m/z 120.09 (CE=100eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP are the most important ones for identifying the oligosaccharide. 4-CEBTPP-SGA was easily identified by the selected-ion chromatogram in the product ion scan (m/z 120.09) and in the precursor ion scan (m/z 627.37) by MS/MS detection. The derivatized analytes have a high ionization efficiency and they are detected with a high sensitivity in the electrospray ionization. The novel derivatization reagent with a multi-function provided a higher sensitivity for the oligosaccharide analysis, as well as a better specificity and feasibility. Furthermore, several oligosaccharides in fetuin and ribonuclease B were successfully identified by the proposed procedure

  8. A Preclinical Model for ERα-Positive Breast Cancer Points to the Epithelial Microenvironment as Determinant of Luminal Phenotype and Hormone Response.

    PubMed

    Sflomos, George; Dormoy, Valerian; Metsalu, Tauno; Jeitziner, Rachel; Battista, Laura; Scabia, Valentina; Raffoul, Wassim; Delaloye, Jean-Francois; Treboux, Assya; Fiche, Maryse; Vilo, Jaak; Ayyanan, Ayyakkannu; Brisken, Cathrin

    2016-03-14

    Seventy-five percent of breast cancers are estrogen receptor α positive (ER⁺). Research on these tumors is hampered by lack of adequate in vivo models; cell line xenografts require non-physiological hormone supplements, and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) are hard to establish. We show that the traditional grafting of ER⁺ tumor cells into mammary fat pads induces TGFβ/SLUG signaling and basal differentiation when they require low SLUG levels to grow in vivo. Grafting into the milk ducts suppresses SLUG; ER⁺ tumor cells develop, like their clinical counterparts, in the presence of physiological hormone levels. Intraductal ER⁺ PDXs are retransplantable, predictive, and appear genomically stable. The model provides opportunities for translational research and the study of physiologically relevant hormone action in breast carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Determination of the hole drain position in dams and hydraulic structures in order to reduce the seepage in water structures by Geo studio model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahkesh, Ismaeil; Esmaeili, Kazem; Salehi, Saeid

    2017-04-01

    Stability Analysis of Cutoff Walls, Foundations and Concrete Dams Under the Uplift Force is Very Important. Hole Drain is Considered as Effective Measures to Reduce Seepage, Uplift Pressure and Exit Gradient Under the Foundation of Hydraulic Structures Which Made Up to Vertical Pipes With Different Diameters. Physical Model in The Ferdowsi University of Mashhad Was Applied in Order to Study The Effect of Hole Drains in Estimating Uplift Pressure, Seepage Discharge and Exit Gradient. The Uplift Pressure Was Measured By 14 Piezometers. In Each Experiment, The Seepage Discharge Was Measured For The Located Hole Drains, Separately. Water Head Was at Maximum Level. Results Showed That The Best Position Of Controlling Seepage and Exit Gradient by Vertical Drainages Were A/L =0.4 (A=Distance From Dam Heel, L=Dam Length). And Finally Validated Data and the Results by Geo Studio. Key words:earth dam, Geo studio, Gradiant

  10. The Use of Cone Beam Computed Tomography (CBCT) to Determine Supernumerary and Impacted Teeth Position in Pediatric Patients: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nematolahi, Hossein; Abadi, Hamed; Mohammadzade, Zahra; Soofiani Ghadim, Mostafa

    2013-01-01

    A case of a compound odontoma which caused delayed eruption of right maxillary central incisor in a ten year old girl is presented with clinical and radiographic findings. The patient presented with complaint of a hard painless swelling in the right anterior region of the maxilla and absence of right maxillary central incisor. After clinical examination, periapical and occlusal radiographs of the mentioned region were taken. Impacted maxillary right central incisor was seen malformed shape on the intraoral radiographs. After taking a cone beam computed tomography (CBCT) a compound odontoma associated with the labial aspect of impacted maxillary right central incisor was diagnosed and then removed by simple local excision under local anesthesia. The removal of the odontoma was followed by forced eruption of the impacted central incisor. After three months the tooth returned to its original position. PMID:23487351

  11. Determination of the structure of wood from the self-diffusion probability densities of a fluid observed by position-exchange NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Telkki, Ville-Veikko; Jokisaari, Jukka

    2009-02-28

    Self-diffusion of a fluid absorbed in a solid matrix is restricted by the walls of the matrix. We demonstrate that the local self-diffusion probability densities (propagators) of fluid molecules can be measured by position-exchange nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (POXSY), and analysis of the shape of the propagators reveals the local size-distributions of the voids in the matrix. We also show that, in the case of rectangular voids, size-distribution can be calculated in a long diffusion-time limit without any assumptions about the shape of the distribution. Pinus sylvestris pine wood was used as a sample material in the experiments, and the results show that this method gives detailed information about the structure of wood.

  12. Creation of 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model actual patient non-rigid body motion as determined from MRI and position tracking studies of volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, C. M.; Konik, A.; Dasari, P. K. R.; Segars, P.; Zheng, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Dey, J.; King, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Patient motion can cause artifacts, which can lead to difficulty in interpretation. The purpose of this study is to create 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model the location of the structures of the chest and upper abdomen of human volunteers undergoing a series of clinically relevant motions. The 3D anatomy is modeled using the XCAT phantom and based on MRI studies. The NURBS surfaces of the XCAT are interactively adapted to fit the MRI studies. A detailed XCAT phantom is first developed from an EKG triggered Navigator acquisition composed of sagittal slices with a 3 x 3 x 3 mm voxel dimension. Rigid body motion states are then acquired at breath-hold as sagittal slices partially covering the thorax, centered on the heart, with 9 mm gaps between them. For non-rigid body motion requiring greater sampling, modified Navigator sequences covering the entire thorax with 3 mm gaps between slices are obtained. The structures of the initial XCAT are then adapted to fit these different motion states. Simultaneous to MRI imaging the positions of multiple reflective markers on stretchy bands about the volunteer's chest and abdomen are optically tracked in 3D via stereo imaging. These phantoms with combined position tracking will be used to investigate both imaging-data-driven and motion-tracking strategies to estimate and correct for patient motion. Our initial application will be to cardiacperfusion SPECT imaging where the XCAT phantoms will be used to create patient activity and attenuation distributions for each volunteer with corresponding motion tracking data from the markers on the body-surface. Monte Carlo methods will then be used to simulate SPECT acquisitions, which will be used to evaluate various motion estimation and correction strategies.

  13. Determination of the optimal position of adjacent proton-donor centers for the activation or inhibition of peptide bond formation--a computational model study.

    PubMed

    Rangelov, Miroslav A; Petrova, Galina P; Yomtova, Vihra M; Vayssilov, Georgi N

    2011-09-01

    The study reports a computational analysis of the influence of proton donor group adjacent to the reaction center during ester ammonolysis of an acylated diol as a model reaction for peptide bond formation. This analysis was performed using catalytic maps constructed after a detailed scanning of the available space around the reaction centers in different transition states, a water molecule acting as a typical proton donor. The calculations suggest that an adjacent proton donor center can reduce the activation barrier of the rate determining transition states by up to 7.2 kcal/mol, while no inhibition of the reaction can be achieved by such a group.

  14. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  15. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  16. Positioning Agility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nilay; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Conboy, Kieran

    Agile methods are increasingly adopted by European companies. Academics too are conducting numerous studies on different tenets of agile methods. Companies often feel proud in marketing themselves as ‘agile’. However, the true notion of ‘being agile’ seems to have been overlooked due to lack of positioning of oneself for agility. This raises a call for more research and interactions between academia and the industry. The proposed workshop refers to this call. It will be highly relevant to participants, interested in positioning their company’s agility from organizational, group or project perspectives. The positioning of agility will help companies to better align their agile practices with stakeholder values. Results of the workshop will be shared across participants and they will also have opportunity to continue their work on agile positioning in their companies. At broader level, the work done in this workshop will contribute towards developing Agile Positioning System.

  17. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  18. Application of an original RT-PCR–ELISA multiplex assay for MDR1 and MRP, along with p53 determination in node-positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, J M; Etienne, M C; Formento, J L; Francoual, M; Rostagno, P; Peyrottes, I; Ettore, F; Teissier, E; Leblanc-Talent, P; Namer, M; Milano, G

    1999-01-01

    The long-term prognostic value of tumoural MDR1 and MRP, along with p53 and other classical parameters, was analysed on 85 node-positive breast cancer patients receiving anthracycline-based adjuvant therapy. All patients underwent tumour resection plus irradiation and adjuvant chemotherapy (the majority receiving fluorouracil–epirubicin–cyclophosphamide). Median follow-up for the 54 alive patients was 7.8 years. Mean age was 53.7 years (range 28–79) and 54 patients were post-menopausal. MDR1 and MRP expression were quantified according to an original reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction multiplex assay with colourimetric enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay detection(β2-microglobulin as control). P53 protein was analysed using an immunoluminometric assay (Sangtec). MDR1 expression varied within an 11-fold range (mean 94, median 83), MRP within a 45-fold range (mean 315, median 242) and p53 protein from the limit of detection (0.002 ng mg−1) up to 35.71 ng mg−1(mean 1.18, median 0.13 ng mg−1). P53 protein was significantly higher in oestrogen receptor (ER)-negative than in ER-positive tumours (P = 0.039). The higher the p53, the lower the MDR1 expression (P = 0.015, r = –0.27). P53 was not linked to progesterone receptor (PR) status, S phase fraction, or MRP. Significantly greater MDR1 expression was observed in grade I tumours (P = 0.029). No relationship was observed between MDR1 and MRP. Neither MDR1 nor MRP was linked to ER or PR status. Unlike MDR1, MRP was correlated with the S phase: the greater the MRP, the lower the S phase (P = 0.006, r = –0.42). Univariate Cox analyses revealed that MDR1, MRP, p53 and S phase had no significant influence on progression-free or specific survival. A tendency suggested that the greater the p53, the shorter the progression-free survival (P = 0.076 as continuous and 0.069 as dichotomous). © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10638986

  19. [Comparison of manual versus automatic titration in pressure determination for long-term therapy of continuous positive airway pressure in patients with obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome].

    PubMed

    Lu, Dong-xiao; Wu, Hai-gui; Luo, Jia-ying; Wu, Ying-xin; Yan, Hui-chan; Hong, Jia-xu; Luo, Yuan-ming

    2013-09-24

    To compare the continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) of automatic titration with that of manual titration. A total of 58 patients with obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS) diagnosed by overnight polysomnography at sleep center of First Affiliated Hospital, Guangzhou Medical University were studied between December 2010 and December 2012. Manual titration was performed under full polysmnography and auto-titration at home for 3-7 nights. There were 52 males and 6 females with an age range of (48 ± 11) years. CPAP pressure titrated by automatic device (10.0 ± 2.2) cm H2O (1 cm H2O = 0.098 kPa) was significantly higher than that titrated manually (7.5 ± 1.5) cm H2O (P = 0.000). Apnea-hyponea index decreased significantly from (54.0 ± 21.0) events/h pre-treatment to (3.8 ± 2.5) events/h post-treatment under manual titration (P < 0.01). CPAP pressure titrated by automatic device is usually higher than that titrated manually. Manual titration should be performed if a patient can not tolerate the CPAP pressure titrated by an automatic device.

  20. Amelogenin gene splice products A+4 and A-4 implanted in soft tissue determine the reorientation of CD45-positive cells to an osteo-chondrogenic lineage.

    PubMed

    Lacerda-Pinheiro, S; Septier, D; Tompkins, K; Veis, A; Goldberg, M; Chardin, H

    2006-12-15

    Several molecules such as bone morphogenetic protein-7, bone sialoprotein (BSP), or amelogenin gene splice products (A+4 or A-4) have been shown to induce reparative dentin formation in a rat model. However, at the moment, the origin and the mechanism of differentiation of the pulp cells stimulated by the bioactive molecules remain poorly understood. The present investigation was undertaken to validate an ectopic oral mucosal mouse model to evaluate the effects of amelogenin gene splice product implantation in a non-mineralizing tissue. Agarose beads, alone or coated with amelogenin gene splice products, were implanted in the mucosa of the cheeks in mouse. An immunohistochemical characterization of the recruited cells was undertaken for 3 days, 8 days, and 30 days after the implantation. The results showed that the implantation of agarose beads in mucosa induced the recruitment of inflammatory CD45 positive cells. When the beads were coated with amelogenin gene splice products (A+4 or A-4), the expression of osteo-chondrogenic markers (RP59, Sox9, or BSP) was also observed. However, no mineralization nodule was observed, even after 30 days of implantation. The present investigation suggests that amelognin gene splice products have the capacity of recruiting among inflammatory cell mesenchymal progenitors that eventually differentiate into osteo-chondrogenic cells. Altogether, the results obtained in the pulp model and the present data suggest the existence of different pathways of cell recruitment and differentiation in different cellular environments.

  1. BCR-ABL fusion transcript types and levels and their interaction with secondary genetic changes in determining the phenotype of Philadelphia chromosome–positive leukemias

    PubMed Central

    Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Cortes, Jorge; Thomas, Deborah; O'Brien, Susan; Bueso-Ramos, Carlos; Hai, Seema; Ravandi, Farhad; de Lima, Marcos; Kantarjian, Hagop; Jorgensen, Jeffrey L.

    2008-01-01

    It remains unresolved how different BCR-ABL transcripts differentially drive lymphoid and myeloid proliferation in Philadelphia chromosome–positive (Ph+) leukemias. We compared BCR-ABL transcript type and level with kinase domain (KD) mutation status, genotype, and phenotype in 1855 Ph+ leukemias. Compared with e1a2/p190 BCR-ABL cases, de novo e13-e14a2/p210 Ph+ lymphoid leukemia more frequently showed CML-type background, had higher blast-normalized BCR-ABL transcript levels, and more frequent persistent BCR-ABL transcript in the absence of detectable lymphoblasts. Secondary lymphoid blast transformation of CML was exclusively due to e13/e14a2/p210 BCR-ABL but was associated, at a much higher level than p210 myeloid transformation, with acquisition of new KD mutations and/or Ph genomic amplification. In contrast, myeloid blast transformation was more frequently accompanied by new acquisition of acute myeloid leukemia-type chromosomal aberrations, particularly involving the EVI1 and RUNX1 loci. Therefore, higher kinase activity by mutation, transcriptional up-regulation or gene amplification appears required for lymphoid transformation by p210 BCR-ABL. PMID:18809762

  2. A positive chemical ionization GC/MS method for the determination of airborne ethylene glycol and propylene glycols in non-occupational environments.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jiping; Feng, Yong-Lai; Aikawa, Bio

    2004-11-01

    An analytical method for ethylene glycol and propylene glycols has been developed for measuring airborne levels of these chemicals in non-occupational environments such as residences and office buildings. The analytes were collected on charcoal tubes, solvent extracted, and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry using a positive chemical ionization technique. The method had a method detection limit of 0.07 microg m(-3) for ethylene glycol and 0.03 microg m(-3) for 1,2- and 1,3-propylene glycols, respectively, based on a 1.44 m3 sampling volume. Indoor air samples of several residential homes and other indoor environments have been analyzed. The median concentrations of ethylene glycol and 1,2-propylene glycol in nine residential indoor air samples were 53 microg m(-3) and 13 microg m(-3) respectively with maximum values of 223 microg m(-3) and 25 microg m(-3) detected for ethylene glycol and 1,2-propylene glycol respectively. The concentrations of these two chemicals in one office and two laboratories were at low microg m(-3) levels. The maximum concentration of 1,3-propylene glycol detected in indoor air was 0.1 microg m(-3).

  3. Radiographic Assessment of Shoulder Position in 619 Idiopathic Scoliosis Patients: Can T1 Tilt Be Used as an Intraoperative Proxy to Determine Postoperative Shoulder Balance?

    PubMed

    Luhmann, Scott J; Sucato, Dan J; Johnston, Charles E; Richards, B Stephens; Karol, Lori A

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to assess radiographic shoulder measures from the preoperative to the postoperative time period, specifically to determine whether T1 tilt could be used as an intraoperative proxy for shoulder balance determination. This study focused on radiographic shoulder measures of 619 adolescent idiopathic scoliosis patients who underwent spinal deformity surgery. A prospective, multicenter database of adolescent idiopathic scoliosis was queried to identify all patients who had undergone spinal deformity surgery with >2 years of follow-up postoperatively. Radiographic analysis focused on measures of shoulder balance: T1 tilt, clavicle angle, and radiographic shoulder height. A total of 619 patients were included in this analysis. Mean age at surgery was 14.8 years with 83% female. Mean preoperative curve size was 58.0 degrees. Mean T1 tilt preoperatively was -0.10 degrees and postoperatively 2.42 degrees. Mean clavicle angle preoperatively was -1.39 degrees and postoperatively 0.79 degrees. Mean radiographic shoulder height preoperatively was -7.04 mm and postoperatively 1.63 mm. All 3 radiographic parameters demonstrated reasonable correlation preoperatively and postoperatively to each other. To assess the viability of T1 tilt as an intraoperative proxy for shoulder balance, standardized ratios between the variables were created. Analysis of these ratios demonstrated little or no relationship preoperatively to postoperatively, hence the relationship of T1 tilt to radiographic shoulder height does not remain constant. Analysis of the relationship of T1 tilt to radiographic shoulder height from preoperative to postoperative did not demonstrate consistency. Lenke 3 and 6 curve patterns demonstrated preoperative to postoperative correlation, both with nonstructural proximal thoracic curves; however, for the remaining curve patterns T1 tilt cannot be used as an intraoperative proxy for shoulder balance. Level IV.

  4. Inter- and intra-tester reliability of clinical measurement to determine medio-lateral patellar position using a pachymeter or visual assessment.

    PubMed

    Sacco, I C N; Onodera, A N; Butugan, M K; Taddei, U T; Mendes, Y C; Galhardo, B; Padua, M; Dreyer, S H; Lobo, R A S; Aliberti, S

    2010-01-01

    The aim was to investigate inter-tester and intra-tester reliability and parallel reliability between a visual assessment method and a method using a pachymeter for locating the mid-point of the patella in determining the medial/lateral patella orientation. Fifteen asymptomatic subjects were assessed and the mid-point of the patella was determined by both methods on two separate occasions two weeks apart. Inter-tester reliability was obtained by ANOVA and by intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC); intra-tester reliability was obtained by a paired t-test and ICC; and parallel reliability was obtained by Pearson's Correlation and ICC, for the measurement on the first and second evaluations. There was acceptable inter-tester agreement (p=0.490) and reliability for the visual inspection (ICC=0.747) and for the pachymeter (ICC=0.716) at the second evaluation. The inter-tester reliability in the first evaluation was unacceptable (visual ICC=0.604; pachymeter ICC=0.612). Although there was statistical similarity between measurements for the first and second evaluations for all testers, intra-tester reliability was not acceptable for both methods: visual (examiner 1 ICC=0.175; examiner 2 ICC=0.189; examiner 3 ICC=0.155) and pachymeter (examiner 1 ICC=0.214; examiner 2 ICC=0.246; examiner 3 ICC=0.069). Parallel reliability gave a perfect correlation at the first evaluation (r=0.828; p<0.001) and at the second (r=0.756; p<0.001) and reliability was between acceptable and very good (ICC=[0.748-0.813]). Both visual and pachymeter methods provide reliable and similar medial/lateral patella orientation and are reliable between different examiners, but the results between the two assessments at 2 weeks' interval demonstrated an unacceptable reliability.

  5. Use of the parallax-quench method to determine the position of the active-site loop of cholesterol oxidase in lipid bilayers.

    PubMed

    Chen, X; Wolfgang, D E; Sampson, N S

    2000-11-07

    To elucidate the cholesterol oxidase-membrane bilayer interaction, a cysteine was introduced into the active site lid at position-81 using the Brevibacterium enzyme. To eliminate the possibility of labeling native cysteine, the single cysteine in the wild-type enzyme was mutated to a serine without any change in activity. The loop-cysteine mutant was then labeled with acrylodan, an environment-sensitive fluorescence probe. The fluorescence increased and blue-shifted upon binding to lipid vesicles, consistent with a change into a more hydrophobic, i.e., lipid, environment. This acrylodan-labeled cholesterol oxidase was used to explore the pH, ionic strength, and headgroup dependence of binding. Between pH 6 and 10, there was no significant change in binding affinity. Incorporation of anionic lipids (phosphatidylserine) into the vesicles did not increase the binding affinity nor did altering the ionic strength. These experiments suggested that the interactions are primarily driven by hydrophobic effects not ionic effects. Using vesicles doped with either 5-doxyl phosphatidylcholine, 10-doxyl phosphatidylcholine, or phosphatidyl-tempocholine, quenching of acrylodan fluorescence was observed upon binding. Using the parallax method of London [Chattopadhyay, A., and London, E. (1987) Biochemistry 26, 39-45], the acrylodan ring is calculated to be 8.1 +/- 2.5 A from the center of the lipid bilayer. Modeling the acrylodan-cysteine residue as an extended chain suggests that the backbone of the loop does not penetrate into the lipid bilayer but interacts with the headgroups, i.e., the choline. These results demonstrate that cholesterol oxidase interacts directly with the lipid bilayer and sits on the surface of the membrane.

  6. Performance of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber for event wise, high rate thermal neutron detection with accurate 2D position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mindur, B.; Alimov, S.; Fiutowski, T.; Schulz, C.; Wilpert, T.

    2014-12-01

    A two-dimensional (2D) position sensitive detector for neutron scattering applications based on low-pressure gas amplification and micro-strip technology was built and tested with an innovative readout electronics and data acquisition system. This detector contains a thin solid neutron converter and was developed for time- and thus wavelength-resolved neutron detection in single-event counting mode, which improves the image contrast in comparison with integrating detectors. The prototype detector of a Micro-Strip Gas Chamber (MSGC) was built with a solid natGd/CsI thermal neutron converter for spatial resolutions of about 100 μm and counting rates up to 107 neutrons/s. For attaining very high spatial resolutions and counting rates via micro-strip readout with centre-of-gravity evaluation of the signal amplitude distributions, a fast, channel-wise, self-triggering ASIC was developed. The front-end chips (MSGCROCs), which are very first signal processing components, are read out into powerful ADC-FPGA boards for on-line data processing and thereafter via Gigabit Ethernet link into the data receiving PC. The workstation PC is controlled by a modular, high performance dedicated software suite. Such a fast and accurate system is crucial for efficient radiography/tomography, diffraction or imaging applications based on high flux thermal neutron beam. In this paper a brief description of the detector concept with its operation principles, readout electronics requirements and design together with the signals processing stages performed in hardware and software are presented. In more detail the neutron test beam conditions and measurement results are reported. The focus of this paper is on the system integration, two dimensional spatial resolution, the time resolution of the readout system and the imaging capabilities of the overall setup. The detection efficiency of the detector prototype is estimated as well.

  7. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    PubMed

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource.

  8. GDNF-RET signaling in ER-positive breast cancers is a key determinant of response and resistance to aromatase inhibitors.

    PubMed

    Morandi, Andrea; Martin, Lesley-Ann; Gao, Qiong; Pancholi, Sunil; Mackay, Alan; Robertson, David; Zvelebil, Marketa; Dowsett, Mitch; Plaza-Menacho, Ivan; Isacke, Clare M

    2013-06-15

    Most breast cancers at diagnosis are estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) and depend on estrogen for growth and survival. Blocking estrogen biosynthesis by aromatase inhibitors has therefore become a first-line endocrine therapy for postmenopausal women with ER(+) breast cancers. Despite providing substantial improvements in patient outcome, aromatase inhibitor resistance remains a major clinical challenge. The receptor tyrosine kinase, RET, and its coreceptor, GFRα1, are upregulated in a subset of ER(+) breast cancers, and the RET ligand, glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) is upregulated by inflammatory cytokines. Here, we report the findings of a multidisciplinary strategy to address the impact of GDNF-RET signaling in the response to aromatase inhibitor treatment. In breast cancer cells in two-dimensional and three-dimensional culture, GDNF-mediated RET signaling is enhanced in a model of aromatase inhibitor resistance. Furthermore, GDNF-RET signaling promoted the survival of aromatase inhibitor-resistant cells and elicited resistance in aromatase inhibitor-sensitive cells. Both these effects were selectively reverted by the RET kinase inhibitor, NVP-BBT594. Gene expression profiling in ER(+) cancers defined a proliferation-independent GDNF response signature that prognosed poor patient outcome and, more importantly, predicted poor response to aromatase inhibitor treatment with the development of resistance. We validated these findings by showing increased RET protein expression levels in an independent cohort of aromatase inhibitor-resistant patient specimens. Together, our results establish GDNF-RET signaling as a rational therapeutic target to combat or delay the onset of aromatase inhibitor resistance in breast cancer.

  9. Quantitative determination of saroglitazar, a predominantly PPAR alpha agonist, in human plasma by a LC-MS/MS method utilizing electrospray ionization in a positive mode.

    PubMed

    Ghoghari, Ashok; Dash, Ranjeet; Bhatt, Chandrakant; Singh, Kanchan; Jha, Anil; Patel, Harilal; Gupta, Rahul; Kansagra, Kevinkumar; Srinivas, Nuggehally R

    2016-12-01

    A sensitive LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for quantitation of saroglitazar using turboion spray interface with positive ion mode. A liquid-liquid extraction, with a mixture of dichloromethane and diethyl ether, was employed for the extraction of saroglitazar and glimepiride (IS) from human plasma. The chromatographic separation was achieved using an ACE-5, C18 (4.6 × 100 mm) column with a gradient mobile phase comprising acetonitrile and ammonium acetate buffer with trifluoracetic acid in purified water. Both analytes were separated within 10 min with retention times of 4.52 and 2.57 min for saroglitazar and IS, respectively. Saroglitazar quantitation was achieved by the summation of two MRM transition pairs (m/z 440.2 to m/z 366.0 and m/z 440.2 to m/z 183.1), while that of IS was achieved using transition pair m/z 491.3 to m/z 352.0. The calibration standards of saroglitazar showed linearity from 0.2 to 500 ng/mL, with a lower limit of quantitation of 0.2 ng/mL. The biases for inter- and intra-batch assays were -7.51-1.15% and -11.21 to -3.25%, respectively, while the corresponding precisions were 5.04-8.06% and 1.53-7.68%, respectively. The developed method was used to monitor the plasma concentrations of saroglitazar in clinical samples.

  10. Determinants of VIA (Visual Inspection of the Cervix After Acetic Acid Application) Positivity in Cervical Cancer Screening of Women in a Peri-Urban Area in Andhra Pradesh, India

    PubMed Central

    Vedantham, Haripriya; Silver, Michelle I.; Kalpana, B.; Rekha, C.; Karuna, B.P.; Vidyadhari, K.; Mrudula, S.; Ronnett, Brigitte M.; Vijayaraghavan, K.; Ramakrishna, Gayatri; Sowjanya, Pavani; Laxmi, Shantha; Shah, Keerti V.; Gravitt, Patti E.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives Visual inspection of the cervix after acetic acid application (VIA) is widely recommended as the method of choice in cervical cancer screening programs in resource-limited settings because of its simplicity and ability to link with immediate treatment. In testing the effectiveness of VIA, human papillomavirus DNA testing, and Pap cytology in a population-based study in a peri-urban area in Andhra Pradesh, India, we found the sensitivity of VIA for detection of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia grade 2 and worse (CIN2+) to be 26.3%, much lower than the 60% to 90% reported in the literature. We therefore investigated the determinants of VIA positivity in our study population. Methods We evaluated VIA positivity by demographics and reproductive history, results of clinical examination, and results from the other screening methods. Results Of the 19 women diagnosed with CIN2+, only 5 were positive by VIA (positive predictive value, 3.1%). In multivariate analysis, VIA positivity (12.74%) was associated with older age, positive Pap smear, visually apparent cervical inflammation, and interobserver variation. Cervical inflammation of unknown cause was present in 21.62% of women. In disease-negative women, cervical inflammation was associated with an increase in VIA positivity from 6.1% to 15.5% (P < 0.001). Among the six gynecologists who performed VIA, the positivity rate varied from 4% to 31%. Conclusions The interpretation of VIA is subjective and its performance cannot be readily evaluated against objective standards. Impact VIA is not a robust screening test and we caution against its use as the primary screening test in resource-limited regions. PMID:20447927

  11. The Role of Residual Casting Solvent in Determining the Lithographic and Dissolution Behavior of Poly(methyl Methacrylate), a Positive Electron Beam Resist.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Criss, Robert Randolph, Jr.

    The effect of the pre-exposure bake and the choice of casting solvent on the sensitivity and contrast of PMMA has been documented to an extent not previously reported in the literature. PMMA films were spin cast onto clean silicon substrates from chlorobenzene and tri-chloroethylene solutions. The temperature of the pre-bake was varied over the range of 59^circ to 170^circC using a convection oven with pre-bake times ranging from 30 to 90 minutes. At the end of the designated bake time, the films were removed from the oven and allowed to cool in a temperature and humidity controlled environment. They were promptly exposed to a 15 KeV electron beam, then developed, with mild agitation, in a 1:1 mixture of MIBK and IPA at 22.5^ circC. Film thickness profiles were determined with an alpha-step profilometer. Films baked at temperatures below T_{rm glass} (the temperature which marks the onset of long-range, coordinated molecular motion), exhibited improved sensitivity and poorer contrast when compared to those baked above T_{rm glass }. Unique to this work is the finding that the lithographic performance depends on the choice of casting solvent, even at pre-bake temperatures significantly above T_{rm glass}. The relative concentrations of the casting solvents remaining in the baked films was determined from UV absorption spectra. The dissolution rates of exposed films were also measured and compared to the fragmented molecular weight model of development. Energy depositions were calculated from the empirical model of Everhart and Hoff. Cross-correlation of these results indicate that the pre-bake temperature more strongly correlates with the observed improvement in sensitivity than the presence of residual casting solvent. Residual casting solvent changes the density of the film, thus changing the energy deposition and dissolution behavior. Calculations based on the aforementioned models indicate that the observed lithographic and dissolution behavior can not be

  12. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ... a mother. As you become more used to breastfeeding your baby, you can try different positions or ...

  13. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  14. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  15. Deciphering the genetic determinism of bud phenology in apple progenies: a new insight into chilling and heat requirement effects on flowering dates and positional candidate genes.

    PubMed

    Celton, J-M; Martinez, S; Jammes, M-J; Bechti, A; Salvi, S; Legave, J-M; Costes, E

    2011-10-01

    The present study investigates the genetic determinism of bud phenological traits using two segregating F(1) apple (Malus × domestica) progenies. Phenological trait variability was dissected into genetic and climatic components using mixed linear modeling, and estimated best linear unbiased predictors were used for quantitative trait locus (QTL) detection. For