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Sample records for position determines audiovestibular

  1. Audiovestibular involvement in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Berrettini, S; Ferri, C; Pitaro, N; Bruschini, P; Latorraca, A; Sellari-Franceschini, S; Segnini, G

    1994-01-01

    In order to evaluate the nature and association of audiovestibular disturbances and systemic sclerosis (SSC), 37 unselected SSC patients were studied with a detailed audiological and vestibular examination since November, 1987. Pure-tone audiometry, speech audiometry, impedance audiometry, brainstem response audiometry and vestibular function using electronystagmographic recording were performed. We found a rather frequent audiovestibular involvement (41%). A hearing loss was found in 14 SSC patients; hearing loss was sensorineural in 10 cases and mixed in 4 cases. The latter revealed a finding similar to tympanosclerosis. Four patients showed altered vestibular test values and only one of these had normal hearing. Sensorineural deafness was the more frequent pathological finding and in all cases the site of lesion was cochlear. SSC appears to be directly responsible for audiovestibular damage, since in 12 out of 15 patients with such involvement, no other apparent cause could be revealed. SSC may be included among the autoimmune diseases which may cause audiovestibular disturbances. PMID:8078672

  2. Does rheumatoid arthritis have an effect on audiovestibular tests?

    PubMed

    Özkırış, Mahmut; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Günaydın, İlhan; Kubilay, Utku; Pırtı, İlyas; Saydam, Levent

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to determine the characteristics of hearing loss, vestibular responses and the incidence of vestibular disturbances in RA patients. This prospective study was performed at the Otolaryngology Department of Bozok University School of Medicine between May and November 2012. Eighty-one RA patients (69 women and 12 men) with a mean age of 40.8 ± 13.4 years (23-67 years) and 81 healthy controls (67 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 41.3 ± 13.8 years (24-66 years). Each subject was tested with low and high-frequency audiometry by a single experienced investigator under standard audiometric testing conditions. For each set of tests, mean values of air and bone conduction at each frequency and tympanometric values were calculated for the study groups. Videonystagmography (VNG) including smooth pursuit, saccade, positional, and caloric tests were also performed. The mean air conduction threshold values at high frequencies (4,000, 6,000, and 8,000 Hz) in RA group were lower than control groups. The difference between mean air conduction threshold values of the control groups against RA group at high frequencies were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significance between the two groups in tympanometric values (p < 0.05). VNG testing revealed central abnormalities in twenty patients (24.69%), peripheral abnormalities in five patients (6.17%), and mixed abnormalities in six patients (7.4%). There was no association between VNG abnormalities in patients with RA and age, sex, duration of disease, accompanying vertigo complaint, the laboratory findings and hearing levels (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest an association of RA and audiovestibular system dysfunction regardless clinical and demographic situation of patients. We assume the hearing and vestibular disturbances in RA are more prevalent than previously recognized. Also hearing losses in high frequencies in RA patients may be considered as an indicator of cochlear

  3. Audiovestibular Function Deficits in Vestibular Schwannoma

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Vestibular schwannomas (VS) are benign tumours of the vestibular nerve and can lead to hearing loss, tinnitus, vertigo, facial palsy, and brainstem compression. Audiovestibular diagnostic tests are essential for detection and treatment planning. Methods. Medline was used to perform a systematic literature review with regard to how audiovestibular test parameters correlate with symptoms, tumour size, and tumour location. Results. The auditory brainstem response can be used to diagnose retrocochlear lesions caused by VS. Since hearing loss correlates poorly with tumour size, a retrocochlear lesion is probably not the only cause for hearing loss. Also cochlear mechanisms seem to play a role. This can be revealed by abnormal otoacoustic emissions, despite normal ABR and new MRI techniques which have demonstrated endolymphatic hydrops of the inner ear. Caloric and head impulse tests show frequency specific dynamics and vestibular evoked myogenic potentials may help to identify the location of the tumour regarding the involved nerve parts. Conclusion. In order to preserve audiovestibular function in VS, it is important to stop the growth of the tumour and to avoid degenerative changes in the inner ear. A detailed neurotological workup helps to diagnose VS of all sizes and can also provide useful prognostic information. PMID:27747231

  4. Cogan's syndrome: an oculo-audiovestibular disease

    PubMed Central

    Berrocal, J; Vargas, J; Vaquero, M; y, C; Ramirez-Camacho, R

    1999-01-01

    Typical Cogan's syndrome is a rare disease of young adults consisting of flares of interstitial keratitis and sudden onset of Ménière-like attacks (nausea, vomiting, tinnitus, vertigo and hearing loss). Life-threatening aortic insufficiency develops in 10% of reported cases. Atypical Cogan's syndrome (audiovestibular dysfunction with other types of inflammatory eye disease) is associated with vasculitis in 20% of cases and has a less favourable prognosis than typical Cogan's syndrome.


Keywords: Cogan's syndrome; hearing loss; autoimmune disease PMID:10533627

  5. Does rheumatoid arthritis have an effect on audiovestibular tests?

    PubMed

    Özkırış, Mahmut; Kapusuz, Zeliha; Günaydın, İlhan; Kubilay, Utku; Pırtı, İlyas; Saydam, Levent

    2014-06-01

    The study aimed to determine the characteristics of hearing loss, vestibular responses and the incidence of vestibular disturbances in RA patients. This prospective study was performed at the Otolaryngology Department of Bozok University School of Medicine between May and November 2012. Eighty-one RA patients (69 women and 12 men) with a mean age of 40.8 ± 13.4 years (23-67 years) and 81 healthy controls (67 women and 14 men) with a mean age of 41.3 ± 13.8 years (24-66 years). Each subject was tested with low and high-frequency audiometry by a single experienced investigator under standard audiometric testing conditions. For each set of tests, mean values of air and bone conduction at each frequency and tympanometric values were calculated for the study groups. Videonystagmography (VNG) including smooth pursuit, saccade, positional, and caloric tests were also performed. The mean air conduction threshold values at high frequencies (4,000, 6,000, and 8,000 Hz) in RA group were lower than control groups. The difference between mean air conduction threshold values of the control groups against RA group at high frequencies were statistically significant (p < 0.05). There was no statistically significance between the two groups in tympanometric values (p < 0.05). VNG testing revealed central abnormalities in twenty patients (24.69%), peripheral abnormalities in five patients (6.17%), and mixed abnormalities in six patients (7.4%). There was no association between VNG abnormalities in patients with RA and age, sex, duration of disease, accompanying vertigo complaint, the laboratory findings and hearing levels (p < 0.05). Our findings suggest an association of RA and audiovestibular system dysfunction regardless clinical and demographic situation of patients. We assume the hearing and vestibular disturbances in RA are more prevalent than previously recognized. Also hearing losses in high frequencies in RA patients may be considered as an indicator of cochlear

  6. Perceived positions determine crowding.

    PubMed

    Maus, Gerrit W; Fischer, Jason; Whitney, David

    2011-01-01

    Crowding is a fundamental bottleneck in object recognition. In crowding, an object in the periphery becomes unrecognizable when surrounded by clutter or distractor objects. Crowding depends on the positions of target and distractors, both their eccentricity and their relative spacing. In all previous studies, position has been expressed in terms of retinal position. However, in a number of situations retinal and perceived positions can be dissociated. Does retinal or perceived position determine the magnitude of crowding? Here observers performed an orientation judgment on a target Gabor patch surrounded by distractors that drifted toward or away from the target, causing an illusory motion-induced position shift. Distractors in identical physical positions led to worse performance when they drifted towards the target (appearing closer) versus away from the target (appearing further). This difference in crowding corresponded to the difference in perceived positions. Further, the perceptual mislocalization was necessary for the change in crowding, and both the mislocalization and crowding scaled with drift speed. The results show that crowding occurs after perceived positions have been assigned by the visual system. Crowding does not operate in a purely retinal coordinate system; perceived positions need to be taken into account.

  7. Nucleosome positioning determinants.

    PubMed

    Fernandez, Alfonso G; Anderson, John N

    2007-08-17

    A previous report demonstrated that one site in a nucleosome assembled onto a synthetic positioning sequence known as Fragment 67 is hypersensitive to permanganate. The site is required for positioning activity and is located 1.5 turns from the dyad, which is a region of high DNA curvature in the nucleosome. Here, the permanganate sensitivity of the nucleosome positioning Fragment 601 was examined in order to expand the dataset of nucleosome sequences containing KMnO(4) hypersensitive sites. The hyperreactive T residue in the six sites detected as well as the one in Fragment 67 and three in the 5 S rDNA positioning sequence were contained within a TA step. Seven of the ten sequences were of the form CTAGPuG or the related sequence TTAAPu. These motifs were also found in the binding sites of several transcriptional regulatory proteins that kink DNA. In order to assess the significance of these sites, the 10 bp positioning determinant in Fragment 67 was removed and replaced by the nine sequences from the 5 S rDNA and Fragment 601. The results demonstrated that these derivative fragments promoted high nucleosome stability and positioning as compared to a control sequence that contained an AT step in place of the TA step. The importance of the TA step was further tested by making single base-pair substitutions in Fragment 67 and the results revealed that stability and positioning activity followed the order: TA>TG>TT>/=TC approximately GG approximately GA approximately AT. Sequences flanking the TA step were also shown to be critical for nucleosome stability and positioning. Nucleosome positioning was restored to near wild-type levels with (CTG)(3), which can form slipped stranded structures and with one base bulges that kink DNA. The results of this study suggest that local DNA structures are important for positioning and that single base-pair changes at these sites could have profound effects on those genomic functions that depend on ordered nucleosomes. PMID

  8. Video image position determination

    DOEpatents

    Christensen, Wynn; Anderson, Forrest L.; Kortegaard, Birchard L.

    1991-01-01

    An optical beam position controller in which a video camera captures an image of the beam in its video frames, and conveys those images to a processing board which calculates the centroid coordinates for the image. The image coordinates are used by motor controllers and stepper motors to position the beam in a predetermined alignment. In one embodiment, system noise, used in conjunction with Bernoulli trials, yields higher resolution centroid coordinates.

  9. Audiovestibular Manifestations in Patients with Ankylosing Spondylitis--A Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Koç, Ahmet; Emre, İsmet Emrah

    2015-08-01

    Ankylosing spondylitis is a chronic systemic inflammatory disease of unknown origin affecting up to 1% of the population. Audiovestibular impairment has been observed in ankylosing spondylitis and sensorineural hearing loss (SNHL) is the most common form. The cause of SNHL is still unknown but the possible causes are as follows: vascular inflammation (obliterative vasculitis) of small vessels, ossification of the articular tissue of the middle ear, and use of non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs. This is a case report of a patient with ankylosing spondylitis and SNHL along with a discussion of the literature regarding cochleovestibular impairment in ankylosing spondylitis.

  10. Digital position determination system for electron microscopy.

    PubMed

    Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F; Sharp, William P; Roberson, Robert W; Blankenship, Robert E

    2005-06-01

    The precise determination of object positions within a specimen grid is important for many applications in electron microscopy. For example, real-time position determination is necessary for current statistical approaches and the efficient mapping and relocation of objects. Unfortunately, precise real-time position determination is not available on many older electron microscopes with manual stage controls. This report demonstrates the cost-effective and flexible implementation of a digital position determination system that can be adapted to many hand-operated electron microscopes. A customized solution that includes the hardware and software to accomplish position determination is presented. Lists of required parts, instructions for building the hardware, and descriptions of the developed programs are included. Two LED-photodiode assemblies detect x and y movements via an optical wheel that is in physical contact with the mechanical x and y stage control elements. These detector assemblies are interfaced with an integrated circuit that converts movement information into serial port-compatible signals, which are interpreted by a computer with specialized software. Two electron microscopes, a Philips CM12 (S)TEM and a Philips 201 TEM, were equipped with the described digital position determination system. The position fidelity and position fidelity after reloading of grids were determined for both microscopes. The determined position deviation was 1.06 microm in the x axis and 0.565 microm in the y axis for the Philips CM12 (S)TEM, and 0.303 microm in the x axis and 0.545 microm in the y axis for the Philips 201 TEM. After reloading and computational realigning, the determined average position variation was 2.66 microm in the x axis and 2.61 microm in the y axis for the Philips CM12 (S)TEM, and 1.13 microm in the x axis and 1.27 microm in the y axis for the Philips 201 TEM.

  11. Uav Onboard GPS in Positioning Determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahar, K. N.; Kamarudin, S. S.

    2016-06-01

    The establishment of ground control points is a critical issue in mapping field, especially for large scale mapping. The fast and rapid technique for ground control point's establishment is very important for small budget projects. UAV onboard GPS has the ability to determine the point positioning. The objective of this research is to assess the accuracy of unmanned aerial vehicle onboard global positioning system in positioning determination. Therefore, this research used UAV onboard GPS as an alternative to determine the point positioning at the selected area. UAV is one of the powerful tools for data acquisition and it is used in many applications all over the world. This research concentrates on the error contributed from the UAV onboard GPS during observation. There are several points that have been used to study the pattern of positioning error. All errors were analyzed in world geodetic system 84- coordinate system, which is the basic coordinate system used by the global positioning system. Based on this research, the result of UAV onboard GPS positioning could be used in ground control point establishment with the specific error. In conclusion, accurate GCP establishment could be achieved using UAV onboard GPS by applying a specific correction based on this research.

  12. Determining Equilibrium Position For Acoustical Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, M. B.; Aveni, G.; Putterman, S.; Rudnick, J.

    1989-01-01

    Equilibrium position and orientation of acoustically-levitated weightless object determined by calibration technique on Earth. From calibration data, possible to calculate equilibrium position and orientation in presence of Earth gravitation. Sample not levitated acoustically during calibration. Technique relies on Boltzmann-Ehrenfest adiabatic-invariance principle. One converts resonant-frequency-shift data into data on normalized acoustical potential energy. Minimum of energy occurs at equilibrium point. From gradients of acoustical potential energy, one calculates acoustical restoring force or torque on objects as function of deviation from equilibrium position or orientation.

  13. Method and apparatus for determining position using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John (Inventor); Ward, William S. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i.e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudo-random code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor enters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite code sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  14. Method and Apparatus for Determining Position Using Global Positioning Satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ward, John L. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A global positioning satellite receiver having an antenna for receiving a L1 signal from a satellite is presented. The L1 signal is processed by a preamplifier stage including a band pass filter and a low noise amplifier and output as a radio frequency (RF) signal. A mixer receives and de-spreads the RF signal in response to a pseudo-random noise code, i,e., Gold code, generated by an internal pseudo-random noise code generator. A microprocessor enters a code tracking loop, such that during the code tracking loop, it addresses the pseudorandom code generator to cause the pseudo-random code generator to sequentially output pseudo-random codes corresponding to satellite codes used to spread the L1 signal, until correlation occurs. When an output of the mixer is indicative of the occurrence of correlation between the RF signal and the generated pseudo-random codes, the microprocessor caters an operational state which slows the receiver code sequence to stay locked with the satellite cede sequence. The output of the mixer is provided to a detector which, in turn, controls certain routines of the microprocessor. The microprocessor will output pseudo range information according to an interrupt routine in response detection of correlation. The pseudo range information is to be telemetered to a ground station which determines the position of the global positioning satellite receiver.

  15. Surveying of a borehole for position determination

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, A. W.; Russell, M. K.

    1985-04-02

    A borehole is surveyed by positioning at the mouth of the borehole a survey instrument having a casing and a three-axis rate gyroscope unit mounted within the casing, and sensing at least two components of gravity in at least two mutually transverse directions with respect to the survey instrument by means of a gravity sensor unit. The survey instrument is then moved along the borehole with the start and finish of the run being at the mouth of the borehole or at some known reference along the path of the borehole. During the run the rates of rotation about three non-coplanar axes are sensed at a series of locations along the length of the borehole by means of the rate gyroscope unit. The position of the borehole at each measuring location is then calculated by determining the initial set of direction cosines from the sensed gravity components and an assumed initial value of the azimuth angle and incrementing these values using the rates of rotation sensed by the rate gyroscope unit to obtain the sets of direction cosines at subsequent measuring locations.

  16. Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    SciTech Connect

    Galetskii, S O; Cherezova, T Yu

    2009-02-28

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm. (human eye optics)

  17. Determining Positions and Desired Applicant Characteristics in Sports Job Ads

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Atali, Levent

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the diversity of positions occurring in sports job ads and reveal the characteristics requested from applicants for each position. This study examined 103 sports-related job ads obtained from four human resources websites. Using content analysis, job ads were examined in terms of job titles, and the…

  18. Determination of cut front position in laser cutting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, M.; Thombansen, U.

    2016-07-01

    Laser cutting has a huge importance to manufacturing industry. Laser cutting machines operate with fixed technological parameters and this does not guarantee the best productivity. The adjustment of the cutting parameters during operation can improve the machine performance. Based on a coaxial measuring device it is possible to identify the cut front position during the cutting process. This paper describes the data analysis approach used to determine the cut front position for different feed rates. The cut front position was determined with good resolution, but improvements are needed to make the whole process more stable.

  19. Video-Based Sensor for Robotic Position and Attitude determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, Richard T.; Bryan, Thomas C.; Book, Michael L.; Roe, Fred D., Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has, for the last ten years, developed various video-based sensors for use in automated docking systems. The latest generation of sensor will operate at rates of up to 100 Hz, determining the relative position (X, Y, and Z) and attitude (Roll, Pitch, and Yaw) between the sensor and a small 3-dimensional target, making it suitable for applications in robotic sensing. The Advanced Video Guidance Sensor (AVGS) is designed to track multiple targets at different ranges and determine the position and attitude of each one. The previous generation of video sensor, the Video Guidance Sensor (VGS), was flown twice on the Space Shuttle to test its performance on orbit. One of the tests performed was determining the relative positions and attitudes between the VGS and its target, which was moved to various positions using the Remote Manipulator System (RMS). The RMS position data and VGS measured data were analyzed after the flights, with good correlation between the position and attitude data of the two data sets. The test using the RMS gives a good idea of the ability of the use of the AVGS as a sensor for end-effector position and attitude determination.

  20. Determining position inside building via laser rangefinder and handheld computer

    DOEpatents

    Ramsey, Jr. James L.; Finley, Patrick; Melton, Brad

    2010-01-12

    An apparatus, computer software, and a method of determining position inside a building comprising selecting on a PDA at least two walls of a room in a digitized map of a building or a portion of a building, pointing and firing a laser rangefinder at corresponding physical walls, transmitting collected range information to the PDA, and computing on the PDA a position of the laser rangefinder within the room.

  1. Sub-milliarcsecond determination of pole position using Global Positioning System data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, Thomas A.; Dong, Danan; King, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    The determination of pole-position variations from the analysis of 23 days of Global Positioning System (GPS) data continuously collected with a globally distributed, 21-station network is discussed. The comparison of the estimated pole positions from these data with results from 11 very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments conducted during this same interval yields weighted root-mean-square differences about the mean differences of 0.5 mas for both X- and Y-pole position estimates from an analysis using single-day arcs, and 1.0 and 0.8 mas from an analysis using three weekly multiday arcs. These results are of sufficient quality that GPS could provide an alternative technique to VLBI and satellite laser ranging for regular monitoring of high-time-resolution variations in the position of the earth's rotation axis.

  2. Determination of eye position in fast jet flight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viveash, Jacqueline P.; Belyavin, A. J.; Bigmore, Dave J.; Clarkson, Geoffrey J. N.; McCarthy, G. W.; Rumbold, D. A.; Stott, J. R.

    1994-06-01

    The way in which a pilot's attention is distributed between various operational tasks during tactical flight is of prime importance when designing new cockpit displays. The point of regard, and by inference, the pilot's focus of attention, can be determined by measuring head and eye position. The measurement of head position using an electromagnetic coil technique is well proven in flight. However, most techniques currently available for determining eye position are too bulky and complex, compromise ejection safety and cannot, as yet, be used in the fast jet cockpit. This paper reports a feasibility study into the use of the electro-oculogram (EOG) to determine eye position during flight in a fast jet aircraft. EOG amplifiers have been designed for airborne use and three flight trials have been conducted in a Jaguar combat aircraft. Laboratory calibration studies have shown good linearity of the horizontal EOG, but some nonlinearity of the vertical EOG which is better described using a second order polynomial. In addition, there is an interaction between the horizonal and vertical components. These studies indicated that for an individual subject, an adequate calibration in both the horizontal and vertical planes could be achieved with a minimum of nine calibration points, but that the accuracy of the measurement was limited by the drift of the EOG signal. Results of the flight trials to validate this method will be presented.

  3. Determination of the Photon Impact Position within a DROID

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerjen, I.; Hijmering, R. A.; Verhoeve, P.; Martin, D. D. E.; Kozorezov, A. G.; Venn, R.

    2008-04-01

    Distributed read-out imaging detectors (DROIDs) combine a good energy resolution with a high position resolving power. Therefore they are promising candidates to build cameras with a huge detection area. A new method is proposed to determine the photon energy and impact position from the two signals of a one-dimensional DROID. For this purpose the diffusion equation was solved for asymmetric devices with arbitrarily trapping. The new method is then applied to fit the experimental data obtained from the illumination with soft X-ray of a 400 μm long Ta absorber strip with one Ta/Al read-out STJ at each end.

  4. Navigation using local position determination from a mobile satellite terminal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kee, Steven M.; Marquart, Robert C.

    The authors describe the implementation and performance evaluation of a location-determination system which uses a mobile satellite transmitter for one-way communications of position data for vehicle tracking. Field results have demonstrated that a mobile satellite terminal can provide reliable messaging and position reporting for many over-the-road applications. With installation techniques suitable for nontechnical personnel using a minimum of test equipment, the mobile terminal can provide proximity reporting adequate for most fleet dispatch requirements. Position data with one-way or two-way communications can improve the logistics and management of service fleets by eliminating deadhead mileage, maximizing route efficiencies, and heading off problems with up-to-date status information of transported loads.

  5. STARSYS data messaging and geographic position determination system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaveeshwar, Ashok

    The STARSYS satellite system is a low earth orbit, 'little LEO' network of 24 'bent pipe' satellites designed to provide low cost data relay (store and forward) services as well as geographic position determination services. STARSYS is a joint venture of ST Systems Corporation (STX) and North American Collection and Location by Satellite (NACLS). This project which will operate in the 148-149.9 MHz/137-138 MHz bandwidths is based upon experience gained with the Argos environmental satellite project.

  6. Atmospheric pressure loading effects on Global Positioning System coordinate determinations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vandam, Tonie M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.

    1994-01-01

    Earth deformation signals caused by atmospheric pressure loading are detected in vertical position estimates at Global Positioning System (GPS) stations. Surface displacements due to changes in atmospheric pressure account for up to 24% of the total variance in the GPS height estimates. The detected loading signals are larger at higher latitudes where pressure variations are greatest; the largest effect is observed at Fairbanks, Alaska (latitude 65 deg), with a signal root mean square (RMS) of 5 mm. Out of 19 continuously operating GPS sites (with a mean of 281 daily solutions per site), 18 show a positive correlation between the GPS vertical estimates and the modeled loading displacements. Accounting for loading reduces the variance of the vertical station positions on 12 of the 19 sites investigated. Removing the modeled pressure loading from GPS determinations of baseline length for baselines longer than 6000 km reduces the variance on 73 of the 117 baselines investigated. The slight increase in variance for some of the sites and baselines is consistent with expected statistical fluctuations. The results from most stations are consistent with approximately 65% of the modeled pressure load being found in the GPS vertical position measurements. Removing an annual signal from both the measured heights and the modeled load time series leaves this value unchanged. The source of the remaining discrepancy between the modeled and observed loading signal may be the result of (1) anisotropic effects in the Earth's loading response, (2) errors in GPS estimates of tropospheric delay, (3) errors in the surface pressure data, or (4) annual signals in the time series of loading and station heights. In addition, we find that using site dependent coefficients, determined by fitting local pressure to the modeled radial displacements, reduces the variance of the measured station heights as well as or better than using the global convolution sum.

  7. Determining Position Inside Non-industrial Buildings Using Ultrasound Transducers

    PubMed Central

    Escudero, Francesc; Margalef, Jordi; Luengo, Sonia; Alsina, Maria; Ribes, Josep M.; Pérez, Juan

    2007-01-01

    The position determination inside a building where no GPS signal is being received can be ascertained using laser transmitters in industrial situations where there are no people or using triangulation of the signal strength, normally electro-magnetic signals, if the required accuracy is more than a metre. Our solution is aimed at situations where people are present and where the required accuracy is less than 30 cm, such as in shopping precincts or supermarkets. To achieve this, a network of ultrasonic transmitters is fitted into the ceiling which receives a synchronised time signal. Each transmitter has a unique identifier code and emits its code with a delay with respect to the common time signal which is proportional to its code number with an ASK modulation over the ultrasonic band centred on 40 KHz. The receivers circulating beneath the transmitters receive the codes of those within their detection range, translate the time delays into distances and then obtain their position by triangulation since the receivers know the position of every transmitter. Since the receivers are not synchronised with the common time signal or the actual speed of the sound, whose value varies appreciably with temperature, relative humidity and atmospheric pressure, a consecutive approximation algorithm has been introduced. This is based on the fact that the Z coordinator of the receiver is known and constant and thus it is possible, with only three different identifiers received, to deduce the phase of the common time signal and estimate the speed of the sound with a fourth identifier.

  8. Determination of Earth orientation using the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freedman, A. P.

    1989-01-01

    Modern spacecraft tracking and navigation require highly accurate Earth-orientation parameters. For near-real-time applications, errors in these quantities and their extrapolated values are a significant error source. A globally distributed network of high-precision receivers observing the full Global Positioning System (GPS) configuration of 18 or more satellites may be an efficient and economical method for the rapid determination of short-term variations in Earth orientation. A covariance analysis using the JPL Orbit Analysis and Simulation Software (OASIS) was performed to evaluate the errors associated with GPS measurements of Earth orientation. These GPS measurements appear to be highly competitive with those from other techniques and can potentially yield frequent and reliable centimeter-level Earth-orientation information while simultaneously allowing the oversubscribed Deep Space Network (DSN) antennas to be used more for direct project support.

  9. Using Positive Deviance for Determining Successful Weight-Control Practices

    PubMed Central

    Stuckey, Heather L.; Boan, Jarol; Kraschnewski, Jennifer L.; Miller-Day, Michelle; Lehman, Erik B.; Sciamanna, Christopher N.

    2013-01-01

    Based on positive deviance (examining the practices of successful individuals), we identified five primary themes from 36 strategies that help to maintain long-term weight loss (weight control) in 61 people. We conducted in-depth interviews to determine what successful individuals did and/or thought about regularly to control their weight. The themes included weight-control practices related to (a) nutrition: increase water, fruit, and vegetable intake, and consistent meal timing and content; (b) physical activity: follow and track an exercise routine at least 3×/week; (c) restraint: practice restraint by limiting and/or avoiding unhealthy foods; (d) self-monitor: plan meals, and track calories/weight progress; and (e) motivation: participate in motivational programs and cognitive processes that affect weight-control behavior. Using the extensive data involving both the practices and practice implementation, we used positive deviance to create a comprehensive list of practices to develop interventions for individuals to control their weight. PMID:20956609

  10. Projectile attitude and position determination using magnetometer sensor only

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Changey, Sebastien; Fleck, Volker; Beauvois, Dominique

    2005-03-01

    A priori information given by the complete modelling of the ballistic behavior (trajectory, attitude) of the projectile is simplified to give a pertinent reduced evolution model. An algorithm based on extended Kalman filters is designed to determinate: " position: x,y,z references in earth frame. " value and direction of the velocity vector; its direction is given by 2 angles (η and θ). " attitude around velocity vector given by 3 angles: roll angle in the range [0, 2π], angle of attack α and side-slip angle β in the range of few milliradians. The estimation is based on the measures of the magnetic field of the earth given by a three-axis magnetometer sensor embedded on the projectile. The algorithm also needs the knowledge of the direction of the earth magnetic fields in the earth frame and aerodynamics coefficients of the projectile. The algorithm has been tested on simulation, using real evolution of attitude data for a shot with a 155 mm rotating projectile over a distance of 16 km, with wind and measurement noise. The results show that we can estimate milliradians with non-linear equations and approximations, with good precision.

  11. Strategies for high-precision Global Positioning System orbit determination

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lichten, Stephen M.; Border, James S.

    1987-01-01

    Various strategies for the high-precision orbit determination of the GPS satellites are explored using data from the 1985 GPS field test. Several refinements to the orbit determination strategies were found to be crucial for achieving high levels of repeatability and accuracy. These include the fine tuning of the GPS solar radiation coefficients and the ground station zenith tropospheric delays. Multiday arcs of 3-6 days provided better orbits and baselines than the 8-hr arcs from single-day passes. Highest-quality orbits and baselines were obtained with combined carrier phase and pseudorange solutions.

  12. Determining sunspot positions in the classroom using the Carrington method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaviz, Pedro; Sánchez-Bajo, Florentino; Vaquero, José M.

    2016-07-01

    The method developed by Richard Carrington nearly 150 years ago is still very useful in order to determine the sunspot heliographic coordinates, owing to its simplicity and low cost equipment required. In this paper, we present a very detailed explanation of the procedure, along with an example of an application. With regard to this, the method can be employed successfully for educational purposes, due to the noticeable accuracy that it provides using a simple instrumental setup.

  13. Determinants of positive and negative generation effects in free recall.

    PubMed

    Steffens, M C; Erdfelder, E

    1998-11-01

    Better retention of self-produced as opposed to experimenter-presented material is called generation effect; the reverse phenomenon is the negative generation effect. Both are found in intentional-learning experiments in which generating versus reading is manipulated between subjects. The present article presents an overview of those findings and aims at clarifying the conditions under which these effects emerge. Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrate that if cue-target relations are manipulated within one list, a negative generation effect in free recall can be obtained for all items, no matter which cue-target relation they bear. In Experiment 3, cue-target relations were manipulated between lists. Here, a negative generation effect in free recall was found only in lists in which items were cued with words that mismatched the inter-target relations, whereas a positive generation effect was observed in those lists in which the generation cues matched the inter-target relations. A subsequent cued-recall test demonstrated that in cases of mismatch of relations, participants in the generate condition process cue-target relations at the expense of inter-target relations. The three-factor theory can be integrated with the task-demand account in a transfer-appropriate processing framework to accommodate these findings. PMID:9854440

  14. GPS aiding of ocean current determination. [Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mohan, S. N.

    1981-01-01

    The navigational accuracy of an oceangoing vessel using conventional GPS p-code data is examined. The GPS signal is transmitted over two carrier frequencies in the L-band at 1575.42 and 1227.6 MHz. Achievable navigational uncertainties of differenced positional estimates are presented as a function of the parameters of the problem, with particular attention given to the effect of sea-state, user equivalent range error, uncompensated antenna motion, varying delay intervals, and reduced data rate examined in the unaided mode. The unmodeled errors resulting from satellite ephemeris uncertainties are shown to be negligible for the GPS-NDS (Navigation Development) satellites. Requirements are met in relatively calm seas, but accuracy degradation by a factor of at least 2 must be anticipated in heavier sea states. The aided mode of operation is examined, and it is shown that requirements can be met by using an inertial measurement unit (IMU) to aid the GPS receiver operation. Since the use of an IMU would mean higher costs, direct Doppler from the GPS satellites is presented as a viable alternative.

  15. Submillimeter horizontal position determination using very long baseline interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herring, T. A.

    1992-01-01

    An analysis of interferometric phase delays from 15 years of Mark I and Mark III very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) experiments carried out with two radio telescopes in Westford, Massachusetts, about 1.24 km apart, yields weighted root-mean-square (WRMS) scatters about the mean locally horizontal coordinates of 1.0 and 2.0 mm in the north and east directions, respectively. It is concluded that VLBI antennas of at least of the structural quality of the pair in Westford satisfy a necessary but not sufficient condition for being able to maintain a global reference system with submillimeter per year accuracy for intervals in excess of a decade. These data are also used to determine an error model for the VLBI group delay measurements, and, for this particular pair of telescopes, they indicate that the WRMS difference between group and phase delays is composed of a constant part (5.4 mm, for the most recent data) and a SNR term which is about 10 percent larger than that computed theoretically.

  16. Monitoring positive mental health and its determinants in Canada: the development of the Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework

    PubMed Central

    Orpana, H.; Vachon, J.; Dykxhoorn, J.; McRae, L.; Jayaraman, G.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: The Mental Health Strategy for Canada identified a need to enhance the collection of data on mental health in Canada. While surveillance systems on mental illness have been established, a data gap for monitoring positive mental health and its determinants was identified. The goal of this project was to develop a Positive Mental Health Surveillance Indicator Framework, to provide a picture of the state of positive mental health and its determinants in Canada. Data from this surveillance framework will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health of Canadians. Methods: A literature review and environmental scan were conducted to provide the theoretical base for the framework, and to identify potential positive mental health outcomes and risk and protective factors. The Public Health Agency of Canada’s definition of positive mental health was adopted as the conceptual basis for the outcomes of this framework. After identifying a comprehensive list of risk and protective factors, mental health experts, other governmental partners and non-governmental stakeholders were consulted to prioritize these indicators. Subsequently, these groups were consulted to identify the most promising measurement approaches for each indicator. Results: A conceptual framework for surveillance of positive mental health and its determinants has been developed to contain 5 outcome indicators and 25 determinant indicators organized within 4 domains at the individual, family, community and societal level. This indicator framework addresses a data gap identified in Canada’s strategy for mental health and will be used to inform programs and policies to improve the mental health status of Canadians throughout the life course. PMID:26789022

  17. High-precision method for determining the position of laser beam focal plane

    SciTech Connect

    Malashko, Ya I; Kleimenov, A N; Potemkin, I B; Khabibulin, V M

    2013-12-31

    The method of wavefront doubled-frequency spherical modulation for determining the laser beam waist position has been simulated and experimentally studied. The error in determining the focal plane position is less than 10{sup -5} D. The amplitude of the control doubled-frequency electric signal is experimentally found to correspond to 12% of the total radiation power. (laser beams)

  18. HUMAN EYE OPTICS: Determination of positions of optical elements of the human eye

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galetskii, S. O.; Cherezova, T. Yu

    2009-02-01

    An original method for noninvasive determining the positions of elements of intraocular optics is proposed. The analytic dependence of the measurement error on the optical-scheme parameters and the restriction in distance from the element being measured are determined within the framework of the method proposed. It is shown that the method can be efficiently used for determining the position of elements in the classical Gullstrand eye model and personalised eye models. The positions of six optical surfaces of the Gullstrand eye model and four optical surfaces of the personalised eye model can be determined with an error of less than 0.25 mm.

  19. Computer-implemented method and apparatus for autonomous position determination using magnetic field data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor A. (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    A computer-implemented method and apparatus for determining position of a vehicle within 100 km autonomously from magnetic field measurements and attitude data without a priori knowledge of position. An inverted dipole solution of two possible position solutions for each measurement of magnetic field data are deterministically calculated by a program controlled processor solving the inverted first order spherical harmonic representation of the geomagnetic field for two unit position vectors 180 degrees apart and a vehicle distance from the center of the earth. Correction schemes such as a successive substitutions and a Newton-Raphson method are applied to each dipole. The two position solutions for each measurement are saved separately. Velocity vectors for the position solutions are calculated so that a total energy difference for each of the two resultant position paths is computed. The position path with the smaller absolute total energy difference is chosen as the true position path of the vehicle.

  20. Self-Determination as a Psychological and Positive Youth Development Construct

    PubMed Central

    Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Tsang, Sandra K. M.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a review of self-determination as a positive youth development construct. The definition and conceptualization of the concept are examined from the perspective of self-determination theory and the functional theory of self-determination. Theories of self-determination from the perspective of motivation and skills enhancement are examined. Factors contributing to self-determination, such as autonomy-supportive teaching and parenting style, culture, efficacy of intervention programmes, and the educational benefits of self-determination for students, are discussed. Strategies to promote self-determination in an educational context and implications for further research and practice are discussed. PMID:22649322

  1. Position and Confidence Limits of an Extremum: The Determination of the Absorption Maximum in Wide Bands.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilbronner, Edgar

    1979-01-01

    Discusses the determination of the position of the absorption maximum in wide bands as well as the confidence limits for such calculations. A simple method, suited for pocket calculators, for the numerical evaluation of these calculations is presented. (BB)

  2. Position determination of a lander and rover at Mars with Earth-based differential tracking

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, R. D.; Folkner, W. M.; Edwards, C. D.; Vijayaraghavan, A.

    1992-01-01

    The presence of two or more landed or orbiting spacecraft at a planet provides the opportunity to perform extremely accurate Earth-based navigation by simultaneously acquiring Doppler data and either Same-Beam Interferometry (SBI) or ranging data. Covariance analyses were performed to investigate the accuracy with which lander and rover positions on the surface of Mars can be determined. Simultaneous acquisition of Doppler and ranging data from a lander and rover over two or more days enables determination of all components of their relative position to under 20 m. Acquiring one hour of Doppler and SBI enables three dimensional lander-rover relative position determination to better than 5 m. Twelve hours of Doppler and either SBI or ranging from a lander and a low circular or half synchronous circular Mars orbiter makes possible lander absolute position determination to tens of meters.

  3. Method for Determining the Radius Vector for a Planet from Two Observations of Position

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gainer, Michael Kizinski

    1977-01-01

    Presents a method for determining the approximate radius vector of a planet or asteroid from two closely separated observation positions, using mathematics suitable for lower division college students. (MLH)

  4. System and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shih, Yanhua (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A system and method for clock synchronization and position determination using entangled photon pairs is provided. The present invention relies on the measurement of the second order correlation function of entangled states. Photons from an entangled photon source travel one-way to the clocks to be synchronized. By analyzing photon registration time histories generated at each clock location, the entangled states allow for high accuracy clock synchronization as well as high accuracy position determination.

  5. Upper Limb Asymmetries in the Perception of Proprioceptively Determined Dynamic Position Sense

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Daniel J.; Brown, Susan H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies of position-related proprioceptive sense have provided evidence of a nonpreferred left arm advantage in right-handed individuals. The present study sought to determine whether similar asymmetries might exist in "dynamic position" sense. Thirteen healthy, right-handed adults were blindfolded and seated with arms placed on…

  6. Physical Fitness Qualities of Professional Rugby League Football Players: Determination of Positional Differences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meir, Rudi; Newton, Robert; Curtis, Edgar; Fardell, Matthew; Butler, Benjamin

    2001-01-01

    Australian and English professional rugby players completed various physical fitness performance tests to determine differences when grouping players into three different rugby positional categories. Results found minimal differences in test scores on the basis of players' specific positions on a team, however, when players were grouped according…

  7. Simultaneous position and mass determination of a nanoscale-thickness cantilever sensor in viscous fluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Seongkyeol; Kim, Deokman; Park, Junhong; Jang, Jaesung

    2015-02-01

    We report simultaneous determination of the mass and position of micro-beads attached to a nanoscale-thickness cantilever sensor by analyzing wave propagations along the cantilever while taking into account viscous and inertial loading due to a surrounding fluid. The fluid-structure interaction was identified by measuring the change in the wavenumber under different fluid conditions. The predicted positions and masses agreed with actual measurements. Even at large mass ratios (6%-21%) of the beads to the cantilever, this wave approach enabled accurate determination of the mass and position, demonstrating the potential for highly accurate cantilever sensing of particle-based bio-analytes such as bacteria.

  8. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  9. Real-Time and Post-Processed Orbit Determination and Positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E. (Inventor); Bertiger, William I. (Inventor); Dorsey, Angela R. (Inventor); Harvey, Nathaniel E. (Inventor); Lu, Wenwen (Inventor); Miller, Kevin J. (Inventor); Miller, Mark A. (Inventor); Romans, Larry J. (Inventor); Sibthorpe, Anthony J. (Inventor); Weiss, Jan P. (Inventor); Garcia Fernandez, Miquel (Inventor); Gross, Jason (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Novel methods and systems for the accurate and efficient processing of real-time and latent global navigation satellite systems (GNSS) data are described. Such methods and systems can perform orbit determination of GNSS satellites, orbit determination of satellites carrying GNSS receivers, positioning of GNSS receivers, and environmental monitoring with GNSS data.

  10. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  11. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  12. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  13. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  14. 5 CFR 213.3301 - Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Positions of a confidential or policy-determining nature. 213.3301 Section 213.3301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL... or policy-determining nature. (a) Upon specific authorization by OPM, agencies may make...

  15. Determination of vertical deflections using the global positioning system and geodetic leveling

    SciTech Connect

    Solar, T.; Carlson, A.E. Jr.; Evans, A.G.

    1989-07-01

    The capabilities of the Global Positioning System (GPS) for accurately determining geodetic quantities are well established. Nevertheless, no comparison between deflections of the vertical as determined through GPS with leveling and values conventionally computer by astrogeodetic methods has yet been published. This investigation demonstrates that the accurate deflections of the vertical components ({eta}, {xi}) can be obtained independently of classical astronomic observations by combining geodetic leveling with satellite GOS positioning. The approach uses a radial configuration of baselines to determine the best (in a least square sense) values of ({eta}, {xi}) at the central station.

  16. Determination of Position of Jupiter From Very-Long Baseline Interferometry Observations of Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; McElrath, T. P.; Mannucci, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    Very-long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations of the Ulysses spacecraft near its encounter with Jupiter on 1992 February 8 were made to determine the angular position of Jupiter with respect to well known extragalactic radio sources. Spacecraft range and Doppler data were used to determine the position of the spacecraft with respect to Jupiter. Thirty-one VLBI observations of the spacecraft were made within 30 days of Ulysses closest approach to Jupiter, using the California-Spain and California-Australia baselines of NASA's Deep Space Network. When combined, these data determine the position of Jupiter at the time of encounter with an accuracy of 0.003 min in right ascension and 0.005 sec in declination. In addition, the Earth-Jupiter distance was determined with 20 m accuracy.

  17. Bystander position taking in school bullying: the role of positive identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination.

    PubMed

    Tsang, Sandra K M; Hui, Eadaoin K P; Law, Bella C M

    2011-01-01

    School bullying has become an explicit, burgeoning problem challenging the healthy development of children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Many bullying prevention and intervention programs focus on victims and bullies, with bystanders treated as either nonexistent or irrelevant. This paper asserts that bystanders actually play pivotal roles in deciding whether the bullying process and dynamics are benign or adversarial. Bystanders' own abilities and characteristics often influence how they respond to victims and bullies. "P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhancement Scheme" (P.A.T.H.S. = Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) is an evidence-based positive youth development program which shows that primary intervention programs have constructive impacts on junior secondary school students' beliefs and behavior. This paper asserts that intrapsychic qualities, namely identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination, greatly influence how bystanders react in school bullying situations. The paper also explains how classroom-based educational programs based on the P.A.T.H.S. model have been designed to help junior secondary school students strengthen these characteristics, so that they can be constructive bystanders when they encounter school bullying. PMID:22194663

  18. Bystander Position Taking in School Bullying: The Role of Positive Identity, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Determination

    PubMed Central

    Tsang, Sandra K. M.; Hui, Eadaoin K. P.; Law, Bella C. M.

    2011-01-01

    School bullying has become an explicit, burgeoning problem challenging the healthy development of children and adolescents in Hong Kong. Many bullying prevention and intervention programs focus on victims and bullies, with bystanders treated as either nonexistent or irrelevant. This paper asserts that bystanders actually play pivotal roles in deciding whether the bullying process and dynamics are benign or adversarial. Bystanders' own abilities and characteristics often influence how they respond to victims and bullies. “P.A.T.H.S. to Adulthood: A Jockey Club Youth Enhancement Scheme” (P.A.T.H.S. = Positive Adolescent Training through Holistic Social Programmes) is an evidence-based positive youth development program which shows that primary intervention programs have constructive impacts on junior secondary school students' beliefs and behavior. This paper asserts that intrapsychic qualities, namely identity, self-efficacy, and self-determination, greatly influence how bystanders react in school bullying situations. The paper also explains how classroom-based educational programs based on the P.A.T.H.S. model have been designed to help junior secondary school students strengthen these characteristics, so that they can be constructive bystanders when they encounter school bullying. PMID:22194663

  19. Position determination and measurement error analysis for the spherical proof mass with optical shadow sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Zhendong; Wang, Zhaokui; Zhang, Yulin

    2016-09-01

    To meet the very demanding requirements for space gravity detection, the gravitational reference sensor (GRS) as the key payload needs to offer the relative position of the proof mass with extraordinarily high precision and low disturbance. The position determination and error analysis for the GRS with a spherical proof mass is addressed. Firstly the concept of measuring the freely falling proof mass with optical shadow sensors is presented. Then, based on the optical signal model, the general formula for position determination is derived. Two types of measurement system are proposed, for which the analytical solution to the three-dimensional position can be attained. Thirdly, with the assumption of Gaussian beams, the error propagation models for the variation of spot size and optical power, the effect of beam divergence, the chattering of beam center, and the deviation of beam direction are given respectively. Finally, the numerical simulations taken into account of the model uncertainty of beam divergence, spherical edge and beam diffraction are carried out to validate the performance of the error propagation models. The results show that these models can be used to estimate the effect of error source with an acceptable accuracy which is better than 20%. Moreover, the simulation for the three-dimensional position determination with one of the proposed measurement system shows that the position error is just comparable to the error of the output of each sensor.

  20. Parametric modeling in distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system for position determination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Hongyan; Wang, Jian; Jia, Bo

    2016-04-01

    Distributed optical fiber vibration sensing system is widely used as a monitoring system in communication cable and pipeline of long distances. When a vibration signal occurs at a particular position along the fiber, the response of the system, in the frequency domain, presents a series of periodic maxima and minima (or null frequencies). These minima depend on the position of the vibration signal along the fiber. Power spectral estimation methods are considered to denoise the power spectrum of the system and determine these minima precisely. The experimental results show higher accuracy of the position using a parametric model with appropriate selection of order p and q than just using fast Fourier transform algorithm.

  1. Method and apparatus for shape and end position determination using an optical fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Jason P. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A method of determining the shape of an unbound optical fiber includes collecting strain data along a length of the fiber, calculating curvature and bending direction data of the fiber using the strain data, curve-fitting the curvature and bending direction data to derive curvature and bending direction functions, calculating a torsion function using the bending direction function, and determining the 3D shape from the curvature, bending direction, and torsion functions. An apparatus for determining the 3D shape of the fiber includes a fiber optic cable unbound with respect to a protective sleeve, strain sensors positioned along the cable, and a controller in communication with the sensors. The controller has an algorithm for determining a 3D shape and end position of the fiber by calculating a set of curvature and bending direction data, deriving curvature, bending, and torsion functions, and solving Frenet-Serret equations using these functions.

  2. Results of the long range position-determining system tests. [Field Army system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhode, F. W.

    1973-01-01

    The long range position-determining system (LRPDS) has been developed by the Corps of Engineers to provide the Field Army with a rapid and accurate positioning capability. The LRPDS consists of an airborne reference position set (RPS), up to 30 ground based positioning sets (PS), and a position computing central (PCC). The PCC calculates the position of each PS based on the range change information provided by each Set. The positions can be relayed back to the PS again via RPS. Each PS unit contains a double oven precise crystal oscillator. The RPS contains a Hewlett-Packard cesium beam standard. Frequency drifts and off-sets of the crystal oscillators are taken in account in the data reduction process. A field test program was initiated in November 1972. A total of 54 flights were made which included six flights for equipment testing and 48 flights utilizing the field test data reduction program. The four general types of PS layouts used were: short range; medium range; long range; tactical configuration. The overall RMS radial error of the unknown positions varied from about 2.3 meters for the short range to about 15 meters for the long range. The corresponding elevation RMS errors vary from about 12 meters to 37 meters.

  3. Determination of the base recognition positions of zinc fingers from sequence analysis.

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, G H

    1992-01-01

    The CC/HH zinc finger is a small independently folded DNA recognition motif found in many eukaryotic proteins, which ligates zinc through two cysteine and two histidine ligands. A database of 1340 zinc fingers from 221 proteins has been constructed and a program for analysis of aligned sequences written. This paper describes sequence analysis aimed at determining the amino acid positions that recognize the DNA bases, by comparing two types of sequence variation. Using the idea that long runs of adjacent zinc fingers have arisen from internal gene duplication, the conservation of each position of the finger within the runs was calculated. The conservation of each position of the finger between homologous proteins from different species was also noted. A correlation of the two types of conservation showed clusters of related amino acids. One cluster of three positions was found to be especially variable within long runs, but highly conserved between corresponding fingers of homologous proteins; these positions are predicted to be the base contact positions. They match the amino acid positions that contact the bases in the co-crystal structure determined by Pavletich and Pabo [Science, 240, 809-817 (1991)]. An adjacent cluster of four positions on the plot may also be associated with DNA binding. This analysis shows that the base recognition positions can be identified even in the absence of a known structure for a zinc finger. These results are applicable to zinc fingers where the structure of the complex is unknown, in particular suggesting that the individual finger--DNA interaction seen in the Zif268--DNA structure has been conserved in many zinc finger--DNA interactions. Images PMID:1425585

  4. A practical method for quickly determining electrode positions in high-density EEG studies.

    PubMed

    He, Ping; Estepp, Justin R

    2013-04-29

    This report describes a simple and practical method for determining electrode positions in high-density EEG studies. This method reduces the number of electrodes for which accurate three-dimensional location must be measured, thus minimizing experimental set-up time and the possibility of digitization error. For each electrode cap, a reference data set is first established by placing the cap on a reference head and digitizing the 3-D position of each channel. A set of control channels are pre-selected that should be adequately distributed over the cap. A simple choice could be the standard 19 channels of the International 10-20 system or their closest substitutes. In a real experiment, only the 3-D positions of these control channels need to be measured and the position of each of the remaining channels are calculated from the position data of the same channels in the reference data set using a local transformation determined by the nearest three or four pairs of control channels. Six BioSemi ActiveTwo caps of different size and channel numbers were used to evaluate the method. Results show that the mean prediction error is about 2mm and is comparable with the residual uncertainty in direct position measurement using a Polhemus digitizer. PMID:23485737

  5. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  6. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  7. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  8. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  9. 10 CFR 26.103 - Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determining a confirmed positive test result for alcohol. 26.103 Section 26.103 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION FITNESS FOR DUTY PROGRAMS Collecting... fitness indicates that the donor is fit to safely and competently perform his or her duties....

  10. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-07-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  11. Determination of Azimuth Angle at Burnout for Placing a Satellite Over a Selected Earth Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skopinski, T. H.; Johnson, Katherine G.

    1960-01-01

    Expressions are presented for relating the satellite position in the orbital plane with the projected latitude and longitude on a rotating earth surface. An expression is also presented for determining the azimuth angle at a given burnout position on the basis of a selected passage position on the earth's surface. Examples are presented of a satellite launched eastward and one launched westward, each passing over a selected position sometime after having completed three orbits. Incremental changes from the desired latitude and longitude due to the earth's oblateness are included in the iteration for obtaining the azimuth angles of the two examples. The results for both cases are then compared with those obtained from a computing program using an oblate rotating earth. Changes from the selected latitude and longitude resulting from incremental changes from the burn-out azimuth angle and latitude are also analyzed.

  12. GPS-based orbit determination and point positioning under selective availability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bar-Sever, Yoaz E.; Yunck, Thomas P.; Wu, Sien-Chong

    1990-01-01

    Selective availability (SA) degrades the positioning accuracy for nondifferential users of the GPS Standard Positioning Service (SPS). The often quoted SPS accuracy available under normal conditions is 100 m 2DRMS. In the absence of more specific information, many prospective SPS users adopt the 100 m value in their planning, which exaggerates the error in many cases. SA error is examined for point positioning and dynamic orbit determination for an orbiting user. To minimize SA error, nondifferential users have several options: expand their field of view; observe as many GPS satellites as possible; smooth the error over time; and employ precise GPS ephemerides computed independently, as by NASA and the NGS, rather than the broadcast ephemeris. Simulations show that 3D point position error can be kept to 30 m, and this can be smoothed to 3 m in a few hours.

  13. Determination of the linear equations of position-sensing detectors for small motion measurement systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Psang Dain

    2010-11-01

    Small motion measurement systems are widely used in industry measurement fields to measure small positional/angular motions. These systems usually consist of two parts: a measuring assembly and a reference assembly. The position-sensing detectors (PSDs) are embedded in either measuring assembly or reference assembly to sense the variations of laser light incidence points when there are any small positional/angular motions. To use these systems, it is necessary to determine the linear equations of PSD readings, which relate the six-degrees-of-freedom small positional/angular motions and PSD readings. The purpose of this paper is to derive these equations based on the paraxial raytracing method. Two measurement systems are used as illustrative examples to validate the proposed methodology. The methodology of this study will be useful for system design of PSD-based measurement systems and their applications. PMID:21045913

  14. Optical position sensor for determining the interface between a clear and an opaque fluid

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2006-05-23

    An inexpensive, optical position sensor for measuring a position or length, x, along a one-dimensional curvilinear, coordinate system. The sensor can be used, for example, to determine the position of an interface between a clear and an opaque fluid (such as crude oil and water). In one embodiment, the sensor utilizes the principle of dual-fluorescence, where a primary fiber emits primary fluorescent light and a parallel secondary fiber collects a portion of the primary fluorescent light that is not blocked by the opaque fluid. This, in turn, excites secondary fluorescence in the secondary fiber at a longer wavelength. A light detector measures the intensity of secondary fluorescence emitted from an end of the secondary fiber, which is used to calculate the unknown position or length, x. Side-emitting fibers can be used in place of, or in addition to, fluorescent fibers. The all-optical sensor is attractive for applications involving flammable liquids.

  15. Influence of determination of reference position of image on rocket take-off drift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cui, Shuhua; Liu, Jun; Shen, Si; Hu, Shaolin

    2016-01-01

    Mathematical analysis model for influence of reference position deviation on carrier rocket take-off drift has been made to tackle the issue on determination of reference position of reticule for optical tracking and measurement of video image in aerospace test range and the variation in rocket take-off drift due to reference position deviation has been subjected to quantitative analysis based on angular error of tracking and lateral error of measuring point as a result of deviation of reference position of reticule cross. The method serves as technical support to quality analysis of rocket take-off deviation measurement data and improvement in data processing precision for carrier rocket take-off drift.

  16. Interplay between hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule in determining membrane-protein topology.

    PubMed

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan Jacob; Prilusky, Jaime; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-09-13

    The energetics of membrane-protein interactions determine protein topology and structure: hydrophobicity drives the insertion of helical segments into the membrane, and positive charges orient the protein with respect to the membrane plane according to the positive-inside rule. Until recently, however, quantifying these contributions met with difficulty, precluding systematic analysis of the energetic basis for membrane-protein topology. We recently developed the dsTβL method, which uses deep sequencing and in vitro selection of segments inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane to infer insertion-energy profiles for each amino acid residue across the membrane, and quantified the insertion contribution from hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule. Here, we present a topology-prediction algorithm called TopGraph, which is based on a sequence search for minimum dsTβL insertion energy. Whereas the average insertion energy assigned by previous experimental scales was positive (unfavorable), the average assigned by TopGraph in a nonredundant set is -6.9 kcal/mol. By quantifying contributions from both hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule we further find that in about half of large membrane proteins polar segments are inserted into the membrane to position more positive charges in the cytoplasm, suggesting an interplay between these two energy contributions. Because membrane-embedded polar residues are crucial for substrate binding and conformational change, the results implicate the positive-inside rule in determining the architectures of membrane-protein functional sites. This insight may aid structure prediction, engineering, and design of membrane proteins. TopGraph is available online (topgraph.weizmann.ac.il). PMID:27562165

  17. Interplay between hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule in determining membrane-protein topology.

    PubMed

    Elazar, Assaf; Weinstein, Jonathan Jacob; Prilusky, Jaime; Fleishman, Sarel Jacob

    2016-09-13

    The energetics of membrane-protein interactions determine protein topology and structure: hydrophobicity drives the insertion of helical segments into the membrane, and positive charges orient the protein with respect to the membrane plane according to the positive-inside rule. Until recently, however, quantifying these contributions met with difficulty, precluding systematic analysis of the energetic basis for membrane-protein topology. We recently developed the dsTβL method, which uses deep sequencing and in vitro selection of segments inserted into the bacterial plasma membrane to infer insertion-energy profiles for each amino acid residue across the membrane, and quantified the insertion contribution from hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule. Here, we present a topology-prediction algorithm called TopGraph, which is based on a sequence search for minimum dsTβL insertion energy. Whereas the average insertion energy assigned by previous experimental scales was positive (unfavorable), the average assigned by TopGraph in a nonredundant set is -6.9 kcal/mol. By quantifying contributions from both hydrophobicity and the positive-inside rule we further find that in about half of large membrane proteins polar segments are inserted into the membrane to position more positive charges in the cytoplasm, suggesting an interplay between these two energy contributions. Because membrane-embedded polar residues are crucial for substrate binding and conformational change, the results implicate the positive-inside rule in determining the architectures of membrane-protein functional sites. This insight may aid structure prediction, engineering, and design of membrane proteins. TopGraph is available online (topgraph.weizmann.ac.il).

  18. Photogrammetric determination of discrepancies between actual and planned position of dental implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forlani, G.; Rivara, F.

    2014-05-01

    The paper describes the design and testing of a photogrammetric measurement protocol set up to determine the discrepancies between the planned and actual position of computer-guided template-based dental implants. Two moulds with the implants positioned in pre- and post- intervention are produced and separately imaged with a highly redundant block of convergent images; the model with the implants is positioned on a steel frame with control points and with suitable targets attached. The theoretical accuracy of the system is better than 20 micrometers and 0.3-0.4° respectively for positions of implants and directions of implant axes. In order to compare positions and angles between the planned and actual position of an implant, coordinates and axes directions are brought to a common reference system with a Helmert transformation. A procedure for comparison of positions and directions to identify out-of-tolerance discrepancies is presented; a numerical simulation study shows the effectiveness of the procedure in identifying the implants with significant discrepancies between pre- and post- intervention.

  19. Accuracy of WAAS-enabled GPS for the determination of position and speed over ground.

    PubMed

    Witte, T H; Wilson, A M

    2005-08-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) offers many advantages over conventional methods for the determination of subject speed during biomechanical studies. Recent advances in GPS technology, in particular the implementation of the Wide-Angle Augmentation System and European Geostationary Navigation Overlay Service (WAAS/EGNOS), mean that small, highly portable units are available offering the potential of superior accuracy in the determination of both position and speed. This study set out to examine the accuracy of a WAAS-enabled GPS unit for the determination of position and speed. Comparison with the new and published data showed significant enhancements in both position and speed accuracy over a non-WAAS system. Position data collected during straight line cycling showed significantly lower sample-to-sample variation (mean absolute deviation from straight line 0.11 vs. 0.78 m) and greater repeatability from trial to trial (mean absolute deviation from actual path 0.37 vs. 4.8 m) for the WAAS-enabled unit compared to the non-WAAS unit. The speed determined by the WAAS-enabled GPS receiver during cycling in a straight line was within 0.2 ms(-1) of the actual speed measured for 57% of the values with 82% lying within 0.4 ms(-1), however, the data tended towards underestimation of speed during circle cycling, with 65% of values within 0.2 ms(-1) and 87% within 0.4 ms(-1) of the actual value. Local dGPS and dual frequency techniques are more accurate still, however, traditional differential GPS (dGPS), employing FM radio transmission of correction data to a separate receiver, now offers no advantage over WAAS and appears redundant.

  20. Application of global positioning system to determination of tectonic plate movements and crustal deformations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderle, R. J.

    1978-01-01

    It is shown that pseudo-range measurements to four GPS satellites based on correlation of the pseudo random code transmissions from the satellites can be used to determine the relative position of ground stations which are separated by several hundred kilometers to a precision at the centimeter level. Carrier signal measurements during the course of passage of satellites over a pair of stations also yield centimeter precision in the relative position, but oscillator instabilities limit the accuracy. The accuracy of solutions based on either type of data is limited by unmodeled tropospheric refraction effects which would reach 5 centimeters at low elevation angles for widely separated stations.

  1. Methods for enhancing carrier phase GNSS positioning and attitude determination performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Guijin

    This thesis explores the methods for enhancing the performance of using low cost, single frequency Carrier phase Differential Global Navigation Satellite System (CDGNSS) in real-time, safety or liability critical applications. This is done by improving the integer ambiguity resolution performance and carrier phase error modeling. CDGNSS is considered for a broad range of real-time applications which require both a high precision relative positioning and attitude determination system. This is because of the drift-free nature of the GNSS measurement errors and the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement. The key to making full use of the precise nature of the carrier phase measurement is to fix the integer ambiguity quickly and reliably. This poses the biggest challenge for a low cost single frequency system. For the attitude determination problem, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance. Traditionally, the relative positioning problem was solved independently of the attitude determination problem and, thus could not leverage the precisely known baseline lengths of the attitude determination system. However, by integrating the two systems together, the precisely known baseline lengths can be used to improve the relative positioning system as well. The first part of the thesis develops an integration framework to improve the integer ambiguity resolution performance for the relative positioning system and the attitude determination system simultaneously. The second part of the thesis provides a GNSS antenna Phase Center Variation (PCV) error model development to improve the accuracy of the integrated system. It also examines the feasibility analysis of using the developed error model for a real-time dynamic application. The challenging of using this in the real time lies in the fact that PCV error magnitude is small (less than 2cm) and the developed error model is a function of unknown parameter

  2. The accuracy of station positions determined from inhomogeneous laser ranging data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzmicz-Cieslak, Magdalena; Schillak, Stanislaw

    The paper presents positions of 34 Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) stations as determined in the ITRF97 system from the LAGEOS-2 laser ranging data. Three different variants of data selection were used to determine the coordinates of the stations. The calculations were performed with the use of the GEODYN II and SOLVE programs on the basis of monthly orbital arcs for 1999. The accuracy of the results for a given station strongly depends on a number and quality of observations. Preferably at least 50 of normal points per station in one month should be used for coordinates determination. The variant of orbit determination from 16 the best stations is more accurate than from all 34 stations.

  3. Mass and position determination in MEMS mass sensors: a theoretical and an experimental investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaala, Adam; Nayfeh, Ali H.; Jaber, Nizar; Younis, Mohammad I.

    2016-10-01

    We present a method to determine accurately the position and mass of an entity attached to the surface of an electrostatically actuated clamped-clamped microbeam implemented as a mass sensor. In the theoretical investigation, the microbeam is modeled as a nonlinear Euler-Bernoulli beam and a perturbation technique is used to develop a closed-form expression for the frequency shift due to an added mass at a specific location on the microbeam surface. The experimental investigation was conducted on a microbeam made of Polyimide with a special lower electrode to excite both of the first and second modes of vibration. Using an ink-jet printer, we deposited droplets of polymers with a defined mass and position on the surface of the microbeam and we measured the shifts in its resonance frequencies. The theoretical predictions of the mass and position of the deposited droplets match well with the experimental measurements.

  4. Pulse shape analysis and position determination in segmented HPGe detectors: The AGATA detector library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruyneel, B.; Birkenbach, B.; Reiter, P.

    2016-03-01

    The AGATA Detector Library (ADL) was developed for the calculation of signals from highly segmented large volume high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors. ADL basis sets comprise a huge amount of calculated position-dependent detector pulse shapes. A basis set is needed for Pulse Shape Analysis (PSA). By means of PSA the interaction position of a γ-ray inside the active detector volume is determined. Theoretical concepts of the calculations are introduced and cover the relevant aspects of signal formation in HPGe. The approximations and the realization of the computer code with its input parameters are explained in detail. ADL is a versatile and modular computer code; new detectors can be implemented in this library. Measured position resolutions of the AGATA detectors based on ADL are discussed.

  5. Determination of three-dimensional atomic positions from tomographic reconstruction using ensemble empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Po-Nan; Wu, Zong-Han; Hsiao, Chien-Nan; Lee, Ting-Kuo; Chen, Chien-Chun

    2016-08-01

    Tomographic reconstruction from a tilt series of electron micrographs has raised great interest in materials, chemical, and condensed matters science because of its capability of revealing 3D local atomic structures within nanomaterials. Previous breakthroughs have demonstrated that the positions of individual atoms can not only be visualized but also determined by combining a scanning transmission electron microscope with a high-angle annular dark-field detector, equally sloped tomography, and the filtering/denoising method. However, the filtering/denoising approach—whether imposed on 2D projections or 3D reconstruction—raises concerns regarding the robustness of image processing, the accuracy of atomic positions, and the artificial atoms introduced during filtering. In this article, we report a general method that overcomes these limitations. By removing unphysical oscillations in 2D projections through ensemble empirical mode decomposition and applying a standard Wiener filter to the 3D reconstruction, we are able to determine atomic structures with higher accuracy.

  6. Precise orbit determination for NASA's earth observing system using GPS (Global Positioning System)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, B. G.

    1988-01-01

    An application of a precision orbit determination technique for NASA's Earth Observing System (EOS) using the Global Positioning System (GPS) is described. This technique allows the geometric information from measurements of GPS carrier phase and P-code pseudo-range to be exploited while minimizing requirements for precision dynamical modeling. The method combines geometric and dynamic information to determine the spacecraft trajectory; the weight on the dynamic information is controlled by adjusting fictitious spacecraft accelerations in three dimensions which are treated as first order exponentially time correlated stochastic processes. By varying the time correlation and uncertainty of the stochastic accelerations, the technique can range from purely geometric to purely dynamic. Performance estimates for this technique as applied to the orbit geometry planned for the EOS platforms indicate that decimeter accuracies for EOS orbit position may be obtainable. The sensitivity of the predicted orbit uncertainties to model errors for station locations, nongravitational platform accelerations, and Earth gravity is also presented.

  7. Precise determination of earth's center of mass using measurements from the Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Yvonne; Lichten, Stephen M.; Blewitt, Geoffrey; Heflin, Michael B.; Malla, Rajendra P.

    1992-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) data from a worldwide geodetic experiment were collected during a 3-week period early in 1991. Geocentric station coordinates were estimated using the GPS data, thus defining a dynamically determined reference frame origin which should coincide with the earth center of mass, or geocenter. The 3-week GPS average geocenter estimates agree to 7-13 cm with geocenter estimates determined from satellite laser ranging, a well-established technique. The RMS of daily GPS geocenter estimates were 4 cm for x and y, and 30 cm for z.

  8. Autonomous satellite orbit determination during the development phases of the global positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunham, J. B.

    1980-01-01

    An onboard navigation system was developed to aid the design and evaluation of algorithms used in autonomous satellite navigation with Global Positioning System (GPS) data. The performance of the algorithms designed for a GPS Receiver/Processor Assembly (R/PA) intended for LANDSAT-D was investigated during the development phases of the GPS (four to six satellites in the constellation). This evaluation emphasized the effects on the orbit determination accuracy of the expected user clock errors, GPS satellite visibility, force model approximations, and state and covariance propagation approximations. Results are presented giving the sensitivity of orbit determination accuracy to these constraints.

  9. Determination of the position of Jupiter from radio metric tracking of Voyager 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Folkner, W. M.; Haw, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    The Voyager 1 spacecraft flew by Jupiter on March 5, 1979. Spacecraft navigation was performed with radio tracking data from NASA's Deep Space Network. In the years since then, there has been a great deal of progress in the definition of celestial reference frames and in determining the orbit and orientation of the Earth. Using these improvements, the radio metric range and Doppler data acquired from the Voyager 1 spacecraft near its encounter with Jupiter have been reanalyzed to determine the plane-of-sky position of Jupiter with much greater accuracy than was possible at the time of the encounter. The position of Jupiter at the time of encounter has been determined with an accuracy of 40 nrad in right ascension and 140 nrad in declination with respect to the celestial reference frame defined by the International Earth Rotation Service. This position estimate has been done to improve the ephemeris of Jupiter prior to the upcoming encounter of the Galileo spacecraft with Jupiter.

  10. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction. PMID:26099070

  11. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims.

    PubMed

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin's location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin's location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction. PMID:26099070

  12. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims.

    PubMed

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin's location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin's location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  13. Bloodstain Pattern Analysis: implementation of a fluid dynamic model for position determination of victims

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laan, Nick; de Bruin, Karla G.; Slenter, Denise; Wilhelm, Julie; Jermy, Mark; Bonn, Daniel

    2015-06-01

    Bloodstain Pattern Analysis is a forensic discipline in which, among others, the position of victims can be determined at crime scenes on which blood has been shed. To determine where the blood source was investigators use a straight-line approximation for the trajectory, ignoring effects of gravity and drag and thus overestimating the height of the source. We determined how accurately the location of the origin can be estimated when including gravity and drag into the trajectory reconstruction. We created eight bloodstain patterns at one meter distance from the wall. The origin’s location was determined for each pattern with: the straight-line approximation, our method including gravity, and our method including both gravity and drag. The latter two methods require the volume and impact velocity of each bloodstain, which we are able to determine with a 3D scanner and advanced fluid dynamics, respectively. We conclude that by including gravity and drag in the trajectory calculation, the origin’s location can be determined roughly four times more accurately than with the straight-line approximation. Our study enables investigators to determine if the victim was sitting or standing, or it might be possible to connect wounds on the body to specific patterns, which is important for crime scene reconstruction.

  14. Time determination for spacecraft users of the Navstar Global Positioning System /GPS/

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grenchik, T. J.; Fang, B. T.

    1977-01-01

    Global Positioning System (GPS) navigation is performed by time measurements. A description is presented of a two body model of spacecraft motion. Orbit determination is the process of inferring the position, velocity, and clock offset of the user from measurements made of the user motion in the Newtonian coordinate system. To illustrate the effect of clock errors and the accuracy with which the user spacecraft time and orbit may be determined, a low-earth-orbit spacecraft (Seasat) as tracked by six Phase I GPS space vehicles is considered. The obtained results indicate that in the absence of unmodeled dynamic parameter errors clock biases may be determined to the nanosecond level. There is, however, a high correlation between the clock bias and the uncertainty in the gravitational parameter GM, i.e., the product of the universal gravitational constant and the total mass of the earth. It is, therefore, not possible to determine clock bias to better than 25 nanosecond accuracy in the presence of a gravitational error of one part per million.

  15. Determination of substitution positions in hyaluronic acid hydrogels using NMR and MS based methods.

    PubMed

    Wende, Frida J; Gohil, Suresh; Mojarradi, Hotan; Gerfaud, Thibaud; Nord, Lars I; Karlsson, Anders; Boiteau, Jean-Guy; Kenne, Anne Helander; Sandström, Corine

    2016-01-20

    In hydrogels of cross-linked polysaccharides, the total amount of cross-linker and the degree of cross-linking influence the properties of the hydrogel. The substitution position of the cross-linker on the polysaccharide is another parameter that can influence hydrogel properties; hence methods for detailed structural analysis of the substitution pattern are required. NMR and LC-MS methods were developed to determine the positions and amounts of substitution of 1,4-butanediol diglycidyl ether (BDDE) on hyaluronic acid (HA), and for the first time it is shown that BDDE can react with any of the four available hydroxyl groups of the HA disaccharide repeating unit. This was achieved by studying di-, tetra-, and hexasaccharides obtained from degradation of BDDE cross-linked HA hydrogel by chondroitinase. Furthermore, amount of linker substitution at each position was shown to be dependent on the size of the oligosaccharides. For the disaccharide, substitutions were predominantly at ΔGlcA-OH2 and GlcNAc-OH6 while in the tetra- and hexasaccharides, it was mainly at the reducing end GlcNAc-OH4. In the disaccharide there was no substitution at this position. Since chondroitinase is able to completely hydrolyse non-substituted HA into unsaturated disaccharides, these results indicate that the enzyme is prevented to cleave on the non-reducing side of an oligosaccharide substituted at the reducing end GlcNAc-OH4. The procedure can be adopted for the determination of substitution positions in other types of polymers. PMID:26572480

  16. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  17. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate

    PubMed Central

    Hystad, Sigurd W.; Bartone, Paul T.; Eid, Jarle

    2013-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents. PMID:24454524

  18. Positive organizational behavior and safety in the offshore oil industry: Exploring the determinants of positive safety climate.

    PubMed

    Hystad, Sigurd W; Bartone, Paul T; Eid, Jarle

    2014-01-01

    Much research has now documented the substantial influence of safety climate on a range of important outcomes in safety critical organizations, but there has been scant attention to the question of what factors might be responsible for positive or negative safety climate. The present paper draws from positive organizational behavior theory to test workplace and individual factors that may affect safety climate. Specifically, we explore the potential influence of authentic leadership style and psychological capital on safety climate and risk outcomes. Across two samples of offshore oil-workers and seafarers working on oil platform supply ships, structural equation modeling yielded results that support a model in which authentic leadership exerts a direct effect on safety climate, as well as an indirect effect via psychological capital. This study shows the importance of leadership qualities as well as psychological factors in shaping a positive work safety climate and lowering the risk of accidents.

  19. 2D noise propagation in 3D object position determination from a single-perspective projection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habets, Damiaan F.; Pollmann, Steven; Holdsworth, David W.

    2002-05-01

    Image guidance during endovascular intervention is predominantly provided by two-dimensional (2D) digital radiographic systems used for vessel visualization and localization of clips and coils. This paper describes the propagation of 2D noise in the determination of three-dimensional (3D) object position from a single perspective view. In our system, a view is obtained by a digital fluoroscopic x-ray system, corrected for XRII distortions (+/- 0.035mm) and mechanical C-arm shifts (+/- 0.080mm). The tracked object contains high-contrast markers with known relative spacing, allowing for identification and centroid calculation. A least-square projection-Procrustes analysis of the 2D perspective projection is used to determine the 3D position of the object. The effect of uncertainty in 2D marker position on the precision of the 3D object localization using simulations and phantoms was investigated and a nearly linear relationship was found; however, the slope of this relationship is not unity. The slope found indicates a significant amplification of error due to the least-square solution, which is not equally distributed among the 3 major axes. In order to obtain a 3D localization error of less than +/- 1mm, the 2D localization precision must be better than +/- 0.2mm for each marker.

  20. A balance of positive and negative regulators determines the pace of the segmentation clock

    PubMed Central

    Wiedermann, Guy; Bone, Robert Alexander; Silva, Joana Clara; Bjorklund, Mia

    2015-01-01

    Somitogenesis is regulated by a molecular oscillator that drives dynamic gene expression within the pre-somitic mesoderm. Previous mathematical models of the somitogenesis clock that invoke the mechanism of delayed negative feedback predict that its oscillation period depends on the sum of delays inherent to negative-feedback loops and inhibitor half-lives. We develop a mathematical model that explores the possibility that positive feedback also plays a role in determining the period of clock oscillations. The model predicts that increasing the half-life of the positive regulator, Notch intracellular domain (NICD), can lead to elevated NICD levels and an increase in the oscillation period. To test this hypothesis, we investigate a phenotype induced by various small molecule inhibitors in which the clock is slowed. We observe elevated levels and a prolonged half-life of NICD. Reducing NICD production rescues these effects. These data provide the first indication that tight control of the turnover of positive as well as negative regulators of the clock determines its periodicity. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05842.001 PMID:26357015

  1. Researches on the Orbit Determination and Positioning of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation studies the precise orbit determination (POD) and positioning of the Chinese lunar exploration spacecraft, emphasizing the variety of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) technologies applied for the deep-space exploration, and their contributions to the methods and accuracies of the precise orbit determination and positioning. In summary, the main contents are as following: In this work, using the real-time data measured by the CE-2 (Chang'E-2) detector, the accuracy of orbit determination is analyzed for the domestic lunar probe under the present condition, and the role played by the VLBI tracking data is particularly reassessed through the precision orbit determination experiments for CE-2. The experiments of the short-arc orbit determination for the lunar probe show that the combination of the ranging and VLBI data with the arc of 15 minutes is able to improve the accuracy by 1-1.5 order of magnitude, compared to the cases for only using the ranging data with the arc of 3 hours. The orbital accuracy is assessed through the orbital overlapping analysis, and the results show that the VLBI data is able to contribute to the CE-2's long-arc POD especially in the along-track and orbital normal directions. For the CE-2's 100 km× 100 km lunar orbit, the position errors are better than 30 meters, and for the CE-2's 15 km× 100 km orbit, the position errors are better than 45 meters. The observational data with the delta differential one-way ranging (Δ DOR) from the CE-2's X-band monitoring and control system experimental are analyzed. It is concluded that the accuracy of Δ DOR delay is dramatically improved with the noise level better than 0.1 ns, and the systematic errors are well calibrated. Although it is unable to support the development of an independent lunar gravity model, the tracking data of CE-2 provided the evaluations of different lunar gravity models through POD, and the accuracies are examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution

  2. Determinants of Epstein-Barr virus-positive gastric cancer: an international pooled analysis

    PubMed Central

    Camargo, M C; Murphy, G; Koriyama, C; Pfeiffer, R M; Kim, W H; Herrera-Goepfert, R; Corvalan, A H; Carrascal, E; Abdirad, A; Anwar, M; Hao, Z; Kattoor, J; Yoshiwara-Wakabayashi, E; Eizuru, Y; Rabkin, C S; Akiba, S

    2011-01-01

    Background: Meta-analyses of the published literature indicate that about 9% of gastric cancers contain Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), with consistent and significant differences by sex and anatomic subsite. This study aimed to identify additional determinants of EBV positivity and their joint effects. Methods: From 15 international populations with consistent laboratory testing for EBV, we pooled individual-level data for 5081 gastric cancer cases including information on age, sex, subsite, histologic type, diagnostic stage, geographic region, and period of diagnosis. First, we combined population-specific EBV prevalence estimates using random effects meta-analysis. We then aggregated individual-level data to estimate odds ratios of EBV positivity in relation to all variables, accounting for within-population clustering. Results: In unadjusted analyses, EBV positivity was significantly higher in males, young subjects, non-antral subsites, diffuse-type histology, and in studies from the Americas. Multivariable analyses confirmed significant associations with histology and region. Sex interacted with age (P=0.003) and subsite (P=0.002) such that male predominance decreased with age for both subsites. The positivity of EBV was not significantly associated with either stage or time period. Conclusion: Aggregating individual-level data provides additional information over meta-analyses. Distinguishing histologic and geographic features as well as interactions among age, sex, and subsite further support classification of EBV-associated gastric cancer as a distinct aetiologic entity. PMID:21654677

  3. Monte Carlo simulation of neutron noise effects on beam position determination at the National Ignition Facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Awwal, Abdul A. S.; Leach, Richard R.; Datte, Philip; Manuel, Anastacia

    2013-09-01

    Images obtained through charged coupled device (CCD) cameras in the National Ignition Facility (NIF) are crucial to precise alignment of the 192 laser beams to the NIF target-chamber center (TCC). Cameras in and around the target chamber are increasingly exposed to the effects of neutron radiation as the laser power is increased for high energy fusion experiments. NIF was carefully designed to operate under these conditions. The present work examines the degradation of the measured TCC camera position accuracy resulting from the effects of neutron radiation on the sensor and verifies operation within design specifications. Both synthetic and real beam images are used for measuring position degradation. Monte Carlo simulations based on camera performance models are used to create images with added neutron noise. These models predict neutron induced camera noise based on exposure estimates of the cumulative single-shot fluence in the NIF environment. The neutron induced noise images are used to measure beam positions on a target calculated from the alignment images with the added noise. The effects of this noise are also determined using noise artifacts from real camera images viewing TCC to estimate beam position uncertainty.

  4. [Determination of sensitivity of biofilm-positive forms of microorganisms to antibiotics].

    PubMed

    Holá, Veronika; Růzicka, Filip; Tejkalová, Renata; Votava, Miroslav

    2004-10-01

    Nosocomial infections caused by biofilm-positive microorganisms are a serious therapeutic problem. In the biofilm, microorganisms are protected against adverse effects of the external environment, including the action of antibiotics. It is well known that the values of minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) determined for planktonic forms do not correspond to the actual concentrations of antibiotics necessary for the eradication of bacteria in a biofilm. The purpose of the study was to propose a method of determining minimum biofilm inhibitory concentrations (MBIC) and minimum biofilm eradication concentrations (MBEC) and to compare these values with MIC values. Biofilm-positive strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis were cultured so as to form a biofilm layer on polystyrene pegs. The biofilm on the pegs was then exposed to the action of antibiotics and after 18 hours we determined the minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC). The evaluation of minimum biofilm eradication concentrations was done colorimetrically from the metabolic activity of surviving cells. MBIC and MBEC values were many times higher than MIC values. We selected such a duration of the biofilms cultivation on the pegs of the plate, which ensured that the number of bacterial cells corresponded to standard MIC assessment. The MBEC values established in our study indicate that the currently used concentrations of tested antibiotics cannot be used in monotherapy for an efficacious eradication of a biofilm. The MBEC determination is a far more laborious and time-consuming method than the determination of MIC, but the use of plates with pegs facilitates the handling of biofilms. The advantage of our method is the possibility of standardization of the size of the inoculum and thus of the whole MBEC assessment.

  5. A robust method for processing scanning probe microscopy images and determining nanoobject position and dimensions.

    PubMed

    Silly, F

    2009-12-01

    Processing of scanning probe microscopy (SPM) images is essential to explore nanoscale phenomena. Image processing and pattern recognition techniques are developed to improve the accuracy and consistency of nanoobject and surface characterization. We present a robust and versatile method to process SPM images and reproducibly estimate nanoobject position and dimensions. This method is using dedicated fits based on the least-square method and the matrix operations. The corresponding algorithms have been implemented in the FabViewer portable application. We illustrate how these algorithms permit not only to correct SPM images but also to precisely determine the position and dimensions of nanocrystals and adatoms on surface. A robustness test is successfully performed using distorted SPM images. PMID:19941561

  6. New determination of the position of the pulsar B0329+54 with Chinese VLBI network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Li; Zheng, Xingwu; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Weihua; Zheng, Weimin; Shu, Fengchun; Li, Jinling; Yu, Yun; Hao, Longfei; Yuan, Jianping; Xia, Bo

    2010-08-01

    We present the first successful CVN (Chinese VLBI Network) phase-referencing observation of the pulsar B0329+54 on October 16, 2008 in S band. A new background source, J0347+5557, 2.5° away from the pulsar was employed as a position reference, which is closer to the pulsar and better for the ‘nodding’ mode than that used in previous observations. The position by fitting image of the pulsar relative to the calibrator is accurately determined at the level of tens of μas, which is comparable with the present differential VLBI astrometric accuracy, proving that CVN will be a potential powerful tool for astrometry and astrophysics.

  7. Local positive feedback regulation determines cell shape in root hair cells.

    PubMed

    Takeda, Seiji; Gapper, Catherine; Kaya, Hidetaka; Bell, Elizabeth; Kuchitsu, Kazuyuki; Dolan, Liam

    2008-02-29

    The specification and maintenance of growth sites are tightly regulated during cell morphogenesis in all organisms. ROOT HAIR DEFECTIVE 2 reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (RHD2 NADPH) oxidase-derived reactive oxygen species (ROS) stimulate a Ca2+ influx into the cytoplasm that is required for root hair growth in Arabidopsis thaliana. We found that Ca2+, in turn, activated the RHD2 NADPH oxidase to produce ROS at the growing point in the root hair. Together, these components could establish a means of positive feedback regulation that maintains an active growth site in expanding root hair cells. Because the location and stability of growth sites predict the ultimate form of a plant cell, our findings demonstrate how a positive feedback mechanism involving RHD2, ROS, and Ca2+ can determine cell shape.

  8. A Novel Sensor for Attitude Determination Using Global Positioning System Signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Quinn, David A.; Markley, F. Landis; McCullough, Jon D.

    1998-01-01

    An entirely new sensor approach for attitude determination using Global Positioning System (GPS) signals is developed. The concept involves the use of multiple GPS antenna elements arrayed on a single sensor head to provide maximum GPS space vehicle availability. A number of sensor element configurations are discussed. In addition to the navigation function, the array is used to find which GPS space vehicles are within the field-of-view of each antenna element. Attitude determination is performed by considering the sightline vectors of the found GPS space vehicles together with the fixed boresight vectors of the individual antenna elements. This approach has clear advantages over the standard differential carrier-phase approach. First, errors induced by multipath effects can be significantly reduced or eliminated altogether. Also, integer ambiguity resolution is not required, nor do line biases need to be determined through costly and cumbersome self-surveys. Furthermore, the new sensor does not require individual antennas to be physically separated to form interferometric baselines to determine attitude. Finally, development potential of the new sensor is limited only by antenna and receiver technology development unlike the physical limitations of the current interferometric attitude determination scheme. Simulation results indicate that accuracies of about 1 degree (3 omega) are possible.

  9. Comparison of digital radiography, ultrasonography, and positive contrast vaginourethrography for determining reproductive status of female cats.

    PubMed

    Woodland, Meghan; Pack, LeeAnn; Rist, Paul; Crane, Bronwyn

    2014-01-01

    It is not always possible to identify female cats that have undergone previous ovariohysterectomy based on physical examination alone. An easy, cost-effective method for screening female cats for reproductive status would be helpful for avoiding unnecessary exploratory laparotomies. The purpose of this prospective study was to compare diagnostic sensitivities of digital radiography, ultrasonography, and positive contrast vaginourethrography for determining reproductive status in female cats. Sixty-seven recently euthanized female cats of unknown medical history and reproductive status were randomly selected and included in the study. Digital abdominal radiography, digital abdominal radiography with compression, abdominal ultrasonography, and positive contrast vaginourethrography were performed in sequence by a board-certified veterinary radiologist and a second-year radiology resident. Immediately following diagnostic imaging procedures, necropsy was performed. Ultrasonography of the uterus had the highest sensitivity (86%) for determining reproductive status of all the imaging modalities tested. The specificity was 88%, and the positive predictive value and negative predictive value were 96% and 68%, respectively. The calculated sensitivities and specificities of other modalities were as follows: digital radiographs (28%, 100%), digital compression radiographs (58%, 100%), and vaginourethrography (32%, 100%). Based on McNemar's test statistic, there was a significant difference in the sensitivity of ultrasound compared to digital radiographs (P ≤ 0.05), compression radiographs (P ≤ 0.05), and vaginourethrogram (P ≤ 0.05). Findings from the current study indicated that ultrasonography is a sensitive diagnostic test for determining reproductive status in female cats. Although more readily available in private practice and shelters, digital radiography and vaginourethrography are not reliable predictors of reproductive status.

  10. Effect of Receiver Choosing on Point Positions Determination in Network RTK

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulbul, Sercan; Inal, Cevat

    2016-04-01

    Nowadays, the developments in GNSS technique allow to determinate point positioning in real time. Initially, point positioning was determined by RTK (Real Time Kinematic) based on a reference station. But, to avoid systematic errors in this method, distance between the reference points and rover receiver must be shorter than10 km. To overcome this restriction in RTK method, the idea of setting more than one reference point had been suggested and, CORS (Continuously Operations Reference Systems) was put into practice. Today, countries like ABD, Germany, Japan etc. have set CORS network. CORS-TR network which has 146 reference points has also been established in 2009 in Turkey. In CORS-TR network, active CORS approach was adopted. In Turkey, CORS-TR reference stations covering whole country are interconnected and, the positions of these stations and atmospheric corrections are continuously calculated. In this study, in a selected point, RTK measurements based on CORS-TR, were made with different receivers (JAVAD TRIUMPH-1, TOPCON Hiper V, MAGELLAN PRoMark 500, PENTAX SMT888-3G, SATLAB SL-600) and with different correction techniques (VRS, FKP, MAC). In the measurements, epoch interval was taken as 5 seconds and measurement time as 1 hour. According to each receiver and each correction technique, means and differences between maximum and minimum values of measured coordinates, root mean squares in the directions of coordinate axis and 2D and 3D positioning precisions were calculated, the results were evaluated by statistical methods and the obtained graphics were interpreted. After evaluation of the measurements and calculations, for each receiver and each correction technique; the coordinate differences between maximum and minimum values were measured to be less than 8 cm, root mean squares in coordinate axis directions less than ±1.5 cm, 2D point positioning precisions less than ±1.5 cm and 3D point positioning precisions less than ±1.5 cm. In the measurement

  11. Centrosome movement in the early divisions of Caenorhabditis elegans: A cortical site determining centrosome position

    SciTech Connect

    Hyman, A.A. )

    1989-09-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, early blastomeres of the P cell lineage divide successively on the same axis. This axis is a consequence of the specific rotational movement of the pair of centrosomes and nucleus. A laser has been used to perturb the centrosome movements that determine the pattern of early embryonic divisions. The results support a previously proposed model in which a centrosome rotates towards its correct position by shortening of connections, possibly microtubules, between a centrosome and a defined site on the cortex of the embryo.

  12. Improved treatment of global positioning system force parameters in precise orbit determination applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vigue, Y.; Lichten, S. M.; Muellerschoen, R. J.; Blewitt, G.; Heflin, M. B.

    1993-01-01

    Data collected from a worldwide 1992 experiment were processed at JPL to determine precise orbits for the satellites of the Global Positioning System (GPS). A filtering technique was tested to improve modeling of solar-radiation pressure force parameters for GPS satellites. The new approach improves orbit quality for eclipsing satellites by a factor of two, with typical results in the 25- to 50-cm range. The resultant GPS-based estimates for geocentric coordinates of the tracking sites, which include the three DSN sites, are accurate to 2 to 8 cm, roughly equivalent to 3 to 10 nrad of angular measure.

  13. Centrosome movement in the early divisions of Caenorhabditis elegans: a cortical site determining centrosome position

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    In Caenorhabditis elegans embryos, early blastomeres of the P cell lineage divide successively on the same axis. This axis is a consequence of the specific rotational movement of the pair of centrosomes and nucleus (Hyman, A. A., and J. G. White. 1987. J. Cell Biol. 105:2123-2135). A laser has been used to perturb the centrosome movements that determine the pattern of early embryonic divisions. The results support a previously proposed model in which a centrosome rotates towards its correct position by shortening of connections, possibly microtubules, between a centrosome and a defined site on the cortex of the embryo. PMID:2768338

  14. Determination of station positions and velocities from laser ranging observations to Ajisai, Starlette and Stella satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lejba, P.; Schillak, S.

    2011-02-01

    The positions and velocities of the four Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) stations: Yarragadee (7090), Greenbelt (7105), Graz (7839) and Herstmonceux (7840) from 5-year (2001-2005) SLR data of low orbiting satellites (LEO): Ajisai, Starlette and Stella were determined. The orbits of these satellites were computed from the data provided by 20 SLR stations. All orbital computations were performed by means of NASA Goddard’s GEODYN-II program. The geocentric coordinates were transformed to the topocentric North-South, East-West and Vertical components in reference to ITRF2005. The influence of the number of normal points per orbital arc and the empirical acceleration coefficients on the quality of station coordinates was studied. To get standard deviation of the coordinates determination lower than 1 cm, the number of the normal points per site had to be greater than 50. The computed positions and velocities were compared to those derived from LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 data. Three parameters were used for this comparison: station coordinates stability, differences from ITRF2005 positions and velocities. The stability of coordinates of LEO satellites is significantly worse (17.8 mm) than those of LAGEOS (7.6 mm), the better results are for Ajisai (15.4 mm) than for Starlette/Stella (20.4 mm). The difference in positions between the computed values and ITRF2005 were little bit worse for Starlette/Stella (6.6 mm) than for LAGEOS (4.6 mm), the results for Ajisai were five times worse (29.7 mm) probably due to center of mass correction of this satellite. The station velocities with some exceptions were on the same level (≈1 mm/year) for all satellites. The results presented in this work show that results from Starlette/Stella are better than those from Ajisai for station coordinates determination. We can applied the data from LEO satellites, especially Starlette and Stella for determination of the SLR station coordinates but with two times lower accuracy than when using LAGEOS

  15. Efficient and Optimal Attitude Determination Using Recursive Global Positioning System Signal Operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Lightsey, E. Glenn; Markley, F. Landis

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new and efficient algorithm is developed for attitude determination from Global Positioning System signals. The new algorithm is derived from a generalized nonlinear predictive filter for nonlinear systems. This uses a one time-step ahead approach to propagate a simple kinematics model for attitude determination. The advantages of the new algorithm over previously developed methods include: it provides optimal attitudes even for coplanar baseline configurations; it guarantees convergence even for poor initial conditions; it is a non-iterative algorithm; and it is computationally efficient. These advantages clearly make the new algorithm well suited to on-board applications. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator. Results indicate that the new algorithm accurately estimates the attitude of a moving vehicle, and provides robust attitude estimates even when other methods, such as a linearized least-squares approach, fail due to poor initial starting conditions.

  16. Single-camera method to determine the optical axis position of ellipsoidal drops.

    PubMed

    Jones, B K; Saylor, J R; Bliven, L F

    2003-02-20

    The sizing of droplets by optical imaging typically requires a small depth of field so that variations in the magnification ratio are minimized. However, if the location of the drop along the optical axis can be determined, a variable magnification ratio can be imposed on each imaged drop, and the depth of field can be increased. Previous research suggested that droplet location can be determined with a characteristic of droplet images that is obtained when the droplet is illuminated from behind. In this prior research, the method was demonstrated with spherical glass objects to simulate raindrops. Raindrop are known to deviate significantly from a spherical shape, especially when the drop size is large. We demonstrate the ability to locate the position of objects that deviate from sphericity. Deformed water drops and glass ellipsoids are tested, along with glass spheres. The role of refractive index is also discussed.

  17. Researches on the Orbit Determination and Positioning of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, P. J.

    2015-07-01

    This dissertation studies the precise orbit determination (POD) and positioning of the Chinese lunar exploration spacecraft, emphasizing the variety of VLBI (very long baseline interferometry) technologies applied for the deep-space exploration, and their contributions to the methods and accuracies of the precise orbit determination and positioning. In summary, the main contents are as following: In this work, using the real-time data measured by the CE-2 (Chang'E-2) detector, the accuracy of orbit determination is analyzed for the domestic lunar probe under the present condition, and the role played by the VLBI tracking data is particularly reassessed through the precision orbit determination experiments for CE-2. The experiments of the short-arc orbit determination for the lunar probe show that the combination of the ranging and VLBI data with the arc of 15 minutes is able to improve the accuracy by 1-1.5 order of magnitude, compared to the cases for only using the ranging data with the arc of 3 hours. The orbital accuracy is assessed through the orbital overlapping analysis, and the results show that the VLBI data is able to contribute to the CE-2's long-arc POD especially in the along-track and orbital normal directions. For the CE-2's 100 km× 100 km lunar orbit, the position errors are better than 30 meters, and for the CE-2's 15 km× 100 km orbit, the position errors are better than 45 meters. The observational data with the delta differential one-way ranging (Δ DOR) from the CE-2's X-band monitoring and control system experimental are analyzed. It is concluded that the accuracy of Δ DOR delay is dramatically improved with the noise level better than 0.1 ns, and the systematic errors are well calibrated. Although it is unable to support the development of an independent lunar gravity model, the tracking data of CE-2 provided the evaluations of different lunar gravity models through POD, and the accuracies are examined in terms of orbit-to-orbit solution

  18. Geostationary satellite position determination for common-view two-way time transfer measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhuang, Qixiang; Douglas, Robert J.

    1992-01-01

    In common-view two-way time transfer, each earth station receives an unwanted return signal from its own transmission as well as the desired signal from the other earth station. National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST), the National Research Council (NRC), and the U.S. Naval Observatory (USNO) have been cooperating in a three-corner common-view two-way time transfer experiment. Some systematic effects are known to depend on the position of the satellite (Sagnac effect and the cross-correlation pulling of the pseudo-random codes). A method is presented for deriving accurate satellite ranges from each of three stations doing common-view two-way satellite time transfer measurements, when one (and only one) station also takes ranging measurements on its 'unwanted return signal' for a brief period. The method is applied to determine the variations in position of the satellite used over the course of the NIST/NRC/USNO SBS-3 experiment, with ranging data taken at NRC, where no additional hardware was required to automate the process. The fit and extrapolation which are employed in this method have an estimated precision of 2 m. If the delays of SBS-3 satellite KU band transponder and earth station equipment were measured accurately as well as the tropospheric refractions were well modeled and corrected, we would expect a ranging accuracy of 2.5 m and satellite positioning accuracy would be 200 m (latitude) 50 m (longitude) and 20 m (height above ellipsoid).

  19. Molecular determinants of positive allosteric modulation of the human metabotropic glutamate receptor 2

    PubMed Central

    Farinha, A; Lavreysen, H; Peeters, L; Russo, B; Masure, S; Trabanco, A A; Cid, J; Tresadern, G

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The activation of the metabotropic glutamate receptor 2 (mGlu2) reduces glutamatergic transmission in brain regions where excess excitatory signalling is implicated in disorders such as anxiety and schizophrenia. Positive allosteric modulators (PAMs) can provide a fine-tuned potentiation of these receptors' function and are being investigated as a novel therapeutic approach. An extensive set of mutant human mGlu2 receptors were used to investigate the molecular determinants that are important for positive allosteric modulation at this receptor. Experimental Approach Site-directed mutagenesis, binding and functional assays were employed to identify amino acids important for the activity of nine PAMs. The data from the radioligand binding and mutagenesis studies were used with computational docking to predict a binding mode at an mGlu2 receptor model based on the recent structure of the mGlu1 receptor. Key Results New amino acids in TM3 (R635, L639, F643), TM5 (L732) and TM6 (W773, F776) were identified for the first time as playing an important role in the activity of mGlu2 PAMs. Conclusions and Implications This extensive study furthers our understanding of positive allosteric modulation of the mGlu2 receptor and can contribute to improved future design of mGlu2 PAMs. PMID:25571949

  20. Hi-alpha forebody design. Part 2: Determination of body shapes for positive directional stability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ravi, R.; Mason, William H.

    1991-01-01

    Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) has been used to study aircraft forebody flowfields at low speed high angle-of-attack conditions with sideslip. The purpose is to define forebody geometries which provide good directional stability characteristics under these conditions. The flows of the F-5A forebody and Erickson forebody were recomputed with better and refined grids. The results were obtained using a modified version of cfl3d to solve either the Euler equations or the Reynolds equations employing a form of the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model. Based on those results, we conclude that current CFD methods can be used to investigate the aerodynamic characteristics of forebodies to achieve desirable high angle-of-attack characteristics. An analytically defined generic forebody model is described, and a systematic study of forebody shapes was then conducted to determine which shapes promote a positive contribution to directional stability at high angle-of-attack. A novel way of presenting the results is used to illustrate how the positive contribution arises. Based on the results of this initial parametric study, some guidelines for aerodynamic design to promote positive directional stability are presented.

  1. Detector positioning for the initial subcriticality level determination in accelerator-driven systems

    SciTech Connect

    Uyttenhove, W.; Van Den Eynde, G.; Baeten, P.; Kochetkov, A.; Vittiglio, G.; Wagemans, J.; Lathouwers, D.; Kloosterman, J. L.; Van Der Hagen, T. J. H. H.; Wols, F.; Billebaud, A.; Chabod, S.; Thybault, H. E.

    2012-07-01

    Within the GUINEVERE project (Generation of Uninterrupted Intense Neutrons at the lead Venus Reactor) carried out at SCK-CEN in Mol, the continuous deuteron accelerator GENEPI-3C was coupled to the VENUS-F fast simulated lead-cooled reactor. Today the FREYA project (Fast Reactor Experiments for hYbrid Applications) is ongoing to study the neutronic behavior of this Accelerator Driven System (ADS) during different phases of operation. In particular the set-up of a monitoring system for the subcriticality of an ADS is envisaged to guarantee safe operation of the installation. The methodology for subcriticality monitoring in ADS takes into account the determination of the initial subcriticality level, the monitoring of reactivity variations, and interim cross-checking. At start-up, the Pulsed Neutron Source (PNS) technique is envisaged to determine the initial subcriticality level. Thanks to its reference critical state, the PNS technique can be validated on the VENUS-F core. A detector positioning methodology for the PNS technique is set up in this paper for the subcritical VENUS-F core, based on the reduction of higher harmonics in a static evaluation of the Sjoestrand area method. A first case study is provided on the VENUS-F core. This method can be generalised in order to create general rules for detector positions and types for full-scale ADS. (authors)

  2. Meteor shower radiant positions and structures as determined from single station video observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molau, S.; Arlt, R.

    1997-07-01

    Single station video observations of meteors can be used for the precise determination of radiant positions of major and minor meteor showers. Video systems combine large quantities of recorded events with high accuracies, and are therefore applied in the investigation of fine structures within the radiant. In the past four years, amateurs from the Archenhold-Observatory Berlin have been operating the wide angle video system MOVIE. The maxima of several major meteor showers could be recorded. The video tapes were digitized and analysed on PCs. Using the Radiant software developed within the International Meteor Organization, the position was determined of the Quadrantid (α = 229.4° ± 1.5°, δ = +49.7° ± 1.5°), Lyrid (α = 271.6° ± 1.5°, δ = +32.9° ± 1°), Perseid (α = 46.0° ± 2°, δ = +57.7° ± 2°), Orionid (α = 93.6° ± 1°, δ = +14.9° ± 1°) and Leonid (α = 154.5° ± 2°, δ = +21.4° ± 1°) meteor shower radiants and possible radiant fine structures searched for. The obtained radiant positions are in good agreement with the common values in the literature; no significant fine structures could be found. From the video records of the 1995 α-Monocerotid outburst, a radiant at α = 117° ± 3° and δ = +1° ± 2° was derived, which proves older results to be in error by several degrees.

  3. A Precise Position and Attitude Determination System for Lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eling, C.; Klingbeil, L.; Wieland, M.; Kuhlmann, H.

    2013-08-01

    In many unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) applications a direct georeferencing is required. The reason can be that the UAV flies autonomous and must be navigated precisely, or that the UAV performs a remote sensing operation, where the position of the camera has to be known at the moment of the recording. In our application, a project called Mapping on Demand, we are motivated by both of these reasons. The goal of this project is to develop a lightweight autonomously flying UAV that is able to identify and measure inaccessible three-dimensional objects by use of visual information. Due to payload and space limitations, precise position and attitude determination of micro- and mini-sized UAVs is very challenging. The limitations do not only affect the onboard computing capacity, but they are also noticeable when choosing the georeferencing sensors. In this article, we will present a new developed onboard direct georeferencing system which is real-time capable, applicable for lightweight UAVs and provides very precise results (position accuracy σ < 5 cm and attitude accuracy σ < 0.5 deg). In this system GPS, inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors, a barometer as well as stereo video cameras are used as georeferencing sensors. We will describe the hardware development and will go into details of the implemented software. In this context especially the RTK-GPS software and the concept of the attitude determination by use of inertial sensors, magnetic field sensors as well as an onboard GPS baseline will be highlighted. Finally, results of first field tests as well as an outlook on further developments will conclude this contribution.

  4. Integrated GNSS Attitude Determination and Positioning for Direct Geo-Referencing

    PubMed Central

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J. G.

    2014-01-01

    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0.8, matching the theoretical gain of 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station. PMID:25036330

  5. Integrated GNSS attitude determination and positioning for direct geo-referencing.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J G

    2014-07-17

    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0:8, matching the theoretical gain of √ 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station.

  6. Integrated GNSS attitude determination and positioning for direct geo-referencing.

    PubMed

    Nadarajah, Nandakumaran; Paffenholz, Jens-André; Teunissen, Peter J G

    2014-01-01

    Direct geo-referencing is an efficient methodology for the fast acquisition of 3D spatial data. It requires the fusion of spatial data acquisition sensors with navigation sensors, such as Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) receivers. In this contribution, we consider an integrated GNSS navigation system to provide estimates of the position and attitude (orientation) of a 3D laser scanner. The proposed multi-sensor system (MSS) consists of multiple GNSS antennas rigidly mounted on the frame of a rotating laser scanner and a reference GNSS station with known coordinates. Precise GNSS navigation requires the resolution of the carrier phase ambiguities. The proposed method uses the multivariate constrained integer least-squares (MC-LAMBDA) method for the estimation of rotating frame ambiguities and attitude angles. MC-LAMBDA makes use of the known antenna geometry to strengthen the underlying attitude model and, hence, to enhance the reliability of rotating frame ambiguity resolution and attitude determination. The reliable estimation of rotating frame ambiguities is consequently utilized to enhance the relative positioning of the rotating frame with respect to the reference station. This integrated (array-aided) method improves ambiguity resolution, as well as positioning accuracy between the rotating frame and the reference station. Numerical analyses of GNSS data from a real-data campaign confirm the improved performance of the proposed method over the existing method. In particular, the integrated method yields reliable ambiguity resolution and reduces position standard deviation by a factor of about 0:8, matching the theoretical gain of √ 3/4 for two antennas on the rotating frame and a single antenna at the reference station. PMID:25036330

  7. Position of Social Determinants of Health in Urban Man-Made Lakes

    PubMed Central

    Shojaei, Parisa; Karimlou, Masoud; Mohammadi, Farahnaz; Afzali, Hosein Malek; Forouzan, Ameneh Setareh

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objective: A social determinants approach proposes that enhancing living conditions in areas such as income, housing, transportation, employment, education, social support, and health services is central to improving the health of urban populations. Urban development projects can be costly but have health impacts. The benefit derived from the creation of man-made lakes in developing countries is usually associated with great risks; however, the evidence for physical and non-physical health benefits of urban man-made lake is unclear. The aim of this paper is to formulate a conceptual framework of associations between urban man-made lakes and social determinants of health. Method: This study was a qualitative study carried out using one focus group discussion and 16 individual interviews. Data were analyzed based on deductive-inductive content analysis approach. Results: Participants’ points of view were analyzed within 261 codes. Data analysis matrix was the conceptual framework of social determinants of health commission and its sub-groups, thus, two structural and mediating determinants categories as well as their sub-sets were created accordingly. In addition, some extra sub-sets including environment, air quality, weather changes, noise pollution, pathogenesis, quality of life, shortage of available resources, region popularity, ethnicity, tourism, social and physical development of children, unintentional injuries, aesthetic, and spirituality were extracted beyond the matrix factors, which were placed in each of above categories based on their thematic content. Conclusion: This paper has illustrated that the quality and type of man-made lake provided within communities can have a significant and sustained impact on community’s health and wellbeing. Therefore, in order to strengthen positive effects and reduce negative effects of any developmental projects within community, their impacts on public health should be taken into consideration

  8. Sample tilt effects on atom column position determination in ABF-STEM imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Dan; Müller-Caspary, Knut; Sigle, Wilfried; Krause, Florian F; Rosenauer, Andreas; van Aken, Peter A

    2016-01-01

    The determination of atom positions from atomically resolved transmission electron micrographs is fundamental for the analysis of crystal defects and strain. In recent years annular bright-field (ABF) imaging has become a popular imaging technique owing to its ability to map both light and heavy elements. Contrast formation in ABF is partially governed by the phase of the electron wave, which renders the technique more sensitive to the tilt of the electron beam with respect to the crystal zone axis than high-angle annular dark-field imaging. Here we show this sensitivity experimentally and use image simulations to quantify this effect. This is essential for error estimation in future quantitative ABF studies.

  9. Determination of the geometrical position of vortices in flow fields visualized by laser light sheet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foerster, S.

    A method to map out the location of vortex cores as a function of body station and angle of attack by means of a digital image processing is presented. The laser light sheet technique with smoke as tracer particles was employed to visualize the vortex cores. Later on the visualization-pictures of different planes of the light sheet, stored on video-film, were digitized and fed into an image processing system. After determination of the location of the vortex cores in picture units these vortex positions were transformed into units of the model configuration by means of an appropriate algorithm. Thus, the vortex trajectories could be defined for the horizontal and vertical planes in model coordinates.

  10. TOPEX/POSEIDON operational orbit determination results using global positioning satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinn, J.; Jee, J.; Wolff, P.; Lagattuta, F.; Drain, T.; Sierra, V.

    1994-01-01

    Results of operational orbit determination, performed as part of the TOPEX/POSEIDON (T/P) Global Positioning System (GPS) demonstration experiment, are presented in this article. Elements of this experiment include the GPS satellite constellation, the GPS demonstration receiver on board T/P, six ground GPS receivers, the GPS Data Handling Facility, and the GPS Data Processing Facility (GDPF). Carrier phase and P-code pseudorange measurements from up to 24 GPS satellites to the seven GPS receivers are processed simultaneously with the GDPF software MIRAGE to produce orbit solutions of T/P and the GPS satellites. Daily solutions yield subdecimeter radial accuracies compared to other GPS, LASER, and DORIS precision orbit solutions.

  11. Determination of whether screening tests for chronic atrophic gastritis really has a positive predictive value.

    PubMed

    Di Paola, Flaviano; D'Angelo, Valentina; Tatangelo, Fabiana; Barchiesi, Vittoria; Rizzo, Marianna; Cantile, Monica; Botti, Gerardo; Cavalcanti, Ernesta

    2015-09-01

    Intestinal‑type gastric adenocarcinomas are preceded by precancerous lesions, which begin with chronic atrophic gastritis. Over the last few years, multiple serological screening techniques have been performed and commercialized for the diagnosis of chronic atrophic gastritis. In the present study, 123 patients were recruited at the International Cancer Institute 'G. Pascale' Foundation (Naples, Italy) to test commercial kits for the serological determination of chronic atrophic gastritis, supported by histological analysis, according to the International Group of Gastroenterologists 'Operative Link for Gastritis Assessment Staging System'. The results revealed a significant discrepancy between serological screening and histological evaluation in 10.6% of patients, which highlighted the dubious positive predictive value of commercial serological screening kits.

  12. Determination of the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in sliding window and VMAT techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez, V. Abella, R.; Calvo, J. F.; Jurado-Bruggemann, D.; Sancho, I.; Carrasco, P.

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Several authors have recommended a 2 mm tolerance for multileaf collimator (MLC) positioning in sliding window treatments. In volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) treatments, however, the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning remains unknown. In this paper, the authors present the results of a multicenter study to determine the optimal tolerance for both techniques. Methods: The procedure used is based on dynalog file analysis. The study was carried out using seven Varian linear accelerators from five different centers. Dynalogs were collected from over 100 000 clinical treatments and in-house software was used to compute the number of tolerance faults as a function of the user-defined tolerance. Thus, the optimal value for this tolerance, defined as the lowest achievable value, was investigated. Results: Dynalog files accurately predict the number of tolerance faults as a function of the tolerance value, especially for low fault incidences. All MLCs behaved similarly and the Millennium120 and the HD120 models yielded comparable results. In sliding window techniques, the number of beams with an incidence of hold-offs >1% rapidly decreases for a tolerance of 1.5 mm. In VMAT techniques, the number of tolerance faults sharply drops for tolerances around 2 mm. For a tolerance of 2.5 mm, less than 0.1% of the VMAT arcs presented tolerance faults. Conclusions: Dynalog analysis provides a feasible method for investigating the optimal tolerance for MLC positioning in dynamic fields. In sliding window treatments, the tolerance of 2 mm was found to be adequate, although it can be reduced to 1.5 mm. In VMAT treatments, the typically used 5 mm tolerance is excessively high. Instead, a tolerance of 2.5 mm is recommended.

  13. Diameter and position effect determination of diaphragm on hybrid rocket motor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Xingliang; Tian, Hui; Cai, Guobiao

    2016-09-01

    This study is aimed to determine and better reveal the mixture enhancement and regression rate distribution of hybrid rocket motor with diaphragm by numerical approach. A numerical model based on the computational fluid dynamics software is built to simulate the flow and combustion inside the motor. Four firing tests of the motor, including one without diaphragm and three with diaphragm, are conducted on a standard experimental system and also used as a reference for numerical simulation, the consistency between the simulation and experiment demonstrates that the numerical approach is an effective method to study the diaphragm effect on the motor performance. The flow field characteristic and regression rate distribution inside the hybrid rocket motor are then calculated to analyze the effect of position and diameter of the diaphragm. The results indicate that the diaphragm almost have no effect on the regression rate before it. However, the regression rate after the diaphragm has a strong dependence on the position and diameter of the diaphragm. As the diameter decreases and the position moves backward, the regression rate increases larger and larger, this is mainly due to the augmentation of the eddy generated by the diaphragm, which enhances the heat feedback transferred to the grain surface. When the diameter of diaphragm located at middle of grain decreases from 50 mm to 20 mm, regression rate is increased from 0.30 mm/s to 0.57 mm/s. The use of the diaphragm does cause a combustion efficiency improvement; the maximum combustion efficiency is enhanced to 98.9% from lower than 90% of the motor with no diaphragm. The increasing amplitude displays a square relation with the diameter decrease, since the entrainment of the eddy make the reactants mix sufficiently to release more energy inside the motor.

  14. Three-dimensional position determination of catheters for the purpose of brachytherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellenberger, Stephanie L.; Verweij, Andre; de Knecht, Jurrien P.

    2000-06-01

    Treatment planning in brachytherapy depends heavily on the accurate localization of markers in a catheter implant. We are developing an interactive system to combine the image information of biplane X-ray images to reconstruct the 3D marker positions. Current systems ask the user to identify all corresponding markers in both images manually. Especially in cases where multiple, eventually crossing catheters are present this is very time consuming and difficult as markers that are visible in one image may be hidden in the other image. To improve the procedure of marker detection we apply image-processing techniques. We investigate two approaches. One is based on 3D snakes. This is a model-based technique that is not sensitive to noise or ambiguities in the image. After the user has given a number of corresponding points per catheter, the system automatically detects the complete catheter and determines all 3D-marker positions. The second approach uses edge detection in a small region of interest (ROI). In both cases, knowledge about the catheter is used to guide the marker detection algorithm. The user has to examine the result visually. In case of erroneous marker detection the user can move, add or delete single maker points. To be able to judge the accuracy of the reconstruction it is necessary to locate possible error sources. For an accurate reconstruction of the catheter positions it is important to know the exact geometry of the imaging system. With a mathematical model the influence of uncertainties in parameters on the reconstruction result is studied.

  15. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    PubMed

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-11-17

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range.

  16. The Determination of an Intermediate Perturbed Orbit from Two Position Vectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shefer, V. A.

    2003-05-01

    Based on the theory of intermediate orbits developed earlier by the author of this paper, a new approach is proposed to the solution of the problem of finding the orbit of a celestial body with the use of two position vectors of this body and the corresponding time interval. This approach makes it possible to take into account the main part of perturbations. The orbit is constructed, the motion along which is a combination of two motions: the uniform motion along a straight line of a fictitious attracting center, whose mass varies according to the first Meshchersky law, and the motion around this center. The latter is described by the equations of the Gylden-Meshchersky problem. The parameters of the constructed orbit are chosen so that their limiting values at any reference epoch determine a superosculating intermediate orbit with third-order tangency. The accuracy of approximation of the perturbed motion by the orbits calculated by the classical Gauss method and the new method is illustrated by an example of the motion of the unusual minor planet 1566 Icarus. Comparison of the results obtained shows that the new method has obvious advantages over the Gauss method. These advantages are especially prominent in cases where the angular distances between the reference positions are small.

  17. What determines positive, neutral, and negative impacts of Solidago canadensis invasion on native plant species richness?

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Li-Jia; Yu, Hong-Wei; He, Wei-Ming

    2015-01-01

    Whether plant invasions pose a great threat to native plant diversity is still hotly debated due to conflicting findings. More importantly, we know little about the mechanisms of invasion impacts on native plant richness. We examined how Solidago canadensis invasion influenced native plants using data from 291 pairs of invaded and uninvaded plots covering an entire invaded range, and quantified the relative contributions of climate, recipient communities, and S. canadensis to invasion impacts. There were three types of invasion consequences for native plant species richness (i.e., positive, neutral, and negative impacts). Overall, the relative contributions of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate to invasion impacts were 71.39%, 21.46% and 7.15%, respectively; furthermore, the roles of recipient communities, S. canadensis and climate were largely ascribed to plant diversity, density and cover, and precipitation. In terms of direct effects, invasion impacts were negatively linked to temperature and native plant communities, and positively to precipitation and soil microbes. Soil microbes were crucial in the network of indirect effects on invasion impacts. These findings suggest that the characteristics of recipient communities are the most important determinants of invasion impacts and that invasion impacts may be a continuum across an entire invaded range. PMID:26573017

  18. Determinants and beliefs of health information mavens among a lower-socioeconomic position and minority population

    PubMed Central

    Emmons, Karen M.; Puleo, Elaine; Viswanath, K.

    2011-01-01

    People of lower-socioeconomic position (SEP) and most racial/ethnic minorities face significant communication challenges which may negatively impact their health. Previous research has shown that these groups rely heavily on interpersonal sources to share and receive health information; however, little is known about these lay sources. The purpose of this paper is to apply the concept of a market maven to the public health sector with the aims of identifying determinants of high health information mavenism among low-SEP and racial/ethnic minority groups and to assess the information they may be sharing based on their own health beliefs. Data for this study were drawn from the baseline survey (n=325) of a US randomized control intervention study aimed at eliciting an understanding of Internet-related challenges among lower-SEP and minority individuals. Regression models were estimated to distinguish significant determinants of health information mavenism among the sample. Similarly, bivariate and logistic multivariable models were estimated to determine the association between health information mavenism and accurate health beliefs relating to diet, physical activity and smoking. The data illustrate that having a larger social network, being female and being older were important factors associated with higher mavenism scores. Additionally being a moderate consumer of general media as well as fewer years in the US and lower language acculturation were significant predictors of higher mavenism scores. Mavens were more likely than non-mavens to maintain accurate beliefs regarding diet; however, there was no distinction between physical activity and smoking beliefs between mavens and non-mavens. These results offer a unique understanding of health information mavenism which could better leverage word-of-mouth health communication efforts among lower-SEP and minority groups in order to reduce communication inequalities. Moreover, the data indicate that health information

  19. Functional analysis of 'a' determinant mutations associated with occult HBV in HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eleanor A; Boyce, Ceejay L; Gededzha, Maemu P; Selabe, Selokela G; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis B is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and virus transmission. Viral mutations contribute significantly to the occult HBV phenotype. Mutations in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg are of particular interest, as these mutations are associated with immune escape, vaccine escape and diagnostic failure. We examined the effects of selected occult HBV-associated mutations identified in a population of HIV-positive South Africans on HBsAg production in vitro. Mutations were inserted into two different chronic HBV backbones and transfected into a hepatocyte-derived cell line. HBsAg levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the detectability of mutant HBsAg was determined using an HA-tagged HBsAg expression system. Of the seven mutations analysed, four (S132P, C138Y, N146D and C147Y) resulted in decreased HBsAg expression in one viral background but not in the second viral background. One mutation (N146D) led to a decrease in HBsAg detected as compared to HA-tag, indicating that this mutation compromises the ability of the ELISA to detect HBsAg. The contribution of occult-associated mutations to the HBsAg-negative phenotype of occult HBV cannot be determined adequately by testing the effect of the mutation in a single viral background, and rigorous analysis of these mutations is required.

  20. Functional analysis of 'a' determinant mutations associated with occult HBV in HIV-positive South Africans.

    PubMed

    Powell, Eleanor A; Boyce, Ceejay L; Gededzha, Maemu P; Selabe, Selokela G; Mphahlele, M Jeffrey; Blackard, Jason T

    2016-07-01

    Occult hepatitis B is defined by the presence of hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA in the absence of hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg). Occult HBV is associated with the development of hepatocellular carcinoma, reactivation during immune suppression, and virus transmission. Viral mutations contribute significantly to the occult HBV phenotype. Mutations in the 'a' determinant of HBsAg are of particular interest, as these mutations are associated with immune escape, vaccine escape and diagnostic failure. We examined the effects of selected occult HBV-associated mutations identified in a population of HIV-positive South Africans on HBsAg production in vitro. Mutations were inserted into two different chronic HBV backbones and transfected into a hepatocyte-derived cell line. HBsAg levels were quantified by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), while the detectability of mutant HBsAg was determined using an HA-tagged HBsAg expression system. Of the seven mutations analysed, four (S132P, C138Y, N146D and C147Y) resulted in decreased HBsAg expression in one viral background but not in the second viral background. One mutation (N146D) led to a decrease in HBsAg detected as compared to HA-tag, indicating that this mutation compromises the ability of the ELISA to detect HBsAg. The contribution of occult-associated mutations to the HBsAg-negative phenotype of occult HBV cannot be determined adequately by testing the effect of the mutation in a single viral background, and rigorous analysis of these mutations is required. PMID:27031988

  1. Construction and testing of a computer-based intraoral laser scanner for determining tooth positions.

    PubMed

    Commer, P; Bourauel, C; Maier, K; Jäger, A

    2000-11-01

    An optical set-up for intraoral data acquisition based on the principle of laser triangulation was developed. The system consists of a pig-tailed laser with line generating optics, a stepping motor driven positioning stage, a commercial CCD (charge coupled device) camera system with frame grabber interface, a control personal computer and a mirror system compensating for the fact that there is no possibility of watching an object directly in the mouth under a certain angle except from a facial position during intraoral scanning. Due to the size of the prototype measurements were still restricted to plaster casts. In order to evaluate its accuracy, the measurements were compared with those taken with a commercial laser scanner and a coordinate measurement table. The accuracy of the prototype scanner was determined to be DeltaXYZ=0.04 mm using gauge blocks of given dimensions and proved to range between the commercial laser scanner and the coordinate measurement table (i.e., it was slightly better than that of the commercial scanner). Applications in orthodontics were demonstrated by scanning plaster casts and measuring distances on reconstructed surfaces. The measured distances showed a maximum deviation of about +/-0.2 mm compared with the data of the coordinate measurement table, which served as a reference. In addition, reconstruction of three-dimensional tooth movements was performed on the scan data. The translational and rotational parameters gained from the superimposition of scanned point clouds and describing tooth movement were also in good accordance with the reference. The achieved accuracy proved to be sufficient for further development which should include a reduction in size and the use of more precise device components.

  2. Land use and wetland spatial position jointly determine amphibian parasite communities.

    PubMed

    Hartson, Richard B; Orlofske, Sarah A; Melin, Vanessa E; Dillon, Robert T; Johnson, Pieter T J

    2011-12-01

    Land use change is one of the most commonly cited contributing factors to infectious disease emergence, yet the mechanisms responsible for such changes and the spatial scales at which they operate are rarely identified. The distributions of parasites with complex life cycles depend on interactions between multiple host species, suggesting the net effects of land use on infection patterns may be difficult to predict a priori. Here, we used an information-theoretic approach to evaluate the importance of land use and spatial scale (local, watershed, and regional) in determining the presence and abundance of multi-host trematodes of amphibians. Among 40 wetlands and 160 hosts sampled, trematode abundance, species richness, and the presence and abundance of pathogenic species were strongly influenced by variables at the watershed and regional scales. Based on model averaging results, overall parasite richness and abundance were higher in forested wetlands than in agricultural areas; however, this pattern was influenced by a wetland's proximity to the Mississippi Flyway at the regional scale. These patterns likely reflect the activity of trematode definitive hosts, such as mammals and especially birds, such that infections decreased with increasing distance from the Mississippi River. Interestingly, despite lower mean infections, agricultural wetlands had higher variances and maximum infections. At the wetland scale, phosphorus concentrations and the abundances of intermediate hosts, such as snails and larval amphibians, positively affected parasite distributions. Taken together, these results contribute to our understanding of how altered landscapes affect parasite communities and inform further research on the environmental drivers of amphibian parasite infections.

  3. Vibration reduction on city buses: Determination of optimal position of engine mounts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hafidi, Ali; Martin, Bruno; Loredo, Alexandre; Jego, Eric

    2010-10-01

    This study is composed of three essential parts. The first part describes an indirect semi-experimental method which is used to reconstruct the excitation force of an operating diesel engine from the acceleration data measured at the mounting points. These internal forces can not be directly measured with force sensors; they have to be derived from the dynamic deformation of the engine support, so a theoretical analysis is carried out to derive the equations for the force re-construction. The second part deals with prevention of low frequency vibration of the powertrain from spreading to the rest of the vehicle. Three uncoupling techniques are used to minimize these vibrations. The first technique reduces the non-diagonal elements of stiffness matrix. The second technique uses the elastic axes decoupling criterion. The third technique uncouple the torque roll axis (TRA) by using the previously determined excitation efforts. In the third part, numerical and experimental results are discussed. The solicitations deducted and the positions of mounts allowing decoupling of the powertrain are presented.

  4. Deuterium on the Ni(111) surface: An adsorption-position determination by transmission channeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mortensen, K.; Besenbacher, F.; Stensgaard, I.; Wampler, W. R.

    1988-11-01

    The results of a thorough transmission-channeling study of deuterium (D) on the Ni(111) surface are presented. For exposure to D 2 at 140 K, a (2 × 2) ordered phase is formed at a coverage of θ ≈ 0.5 ML, and a maximum coverage of ˜ 0.8 ML is obtained. Exposure to atomic D, however, gives a saturation coverage determined to be θ sat =1.0 ± 0.1 ML at Tads ⩾ 150 K. This is explained by the existence of an activation barrier for dissociative chemisorption. From an analysis of the angular scans presented, it is concluded that for the (2 × 2) phase, the D adsorbs in both types of threefold hollow sites with equal probability and at equal height above the surface, Δ z = 0.80±0.10 Å, whereas for the saturated phase, almost all D ( ˜ 90%) occupies the fcc type with the same height as for the (2 × 2) phase. Possible positions for the remaining D are discussed. From the narrowing of the [111] axial angular D scan, the two-dimensional D rms displacement parallel to the surface is extracted to be ρ D ≈ 0.25 Å. This is consistent with theoretical predictions that chemisorbed hydrogen is delocalized on metal surfaces.

  5. A Study to Determine the Presence of Observable Conditions of Positive Self-Concept in Elementary School Media Centers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McAfee, Dianne Talmadge

    Elementary school instructional media centers (IMC's) were studied to determine the presence or absence of six conditions identified as promoting positive self-concept: cooperation, independence, success, positive atmosphere, challenge, and a feeling of value or acceptance. Following a review by a panel of experts of a preliminary observation…

  6. Position and Orientation of Phalloidin in F-Actin Determined by X-Ray Fiber Diffraction Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Oda, Toshiro; Namba, Keiichi; Maéda, Yuichiro

    2005-01-01

    Knowledge of the phalloidin binding position in F-actin and the relevant understanding of the mechanism of F-actin stabilization would help to define the structural characteristics of the F-actin filament. To determine the position of bound phalloidin experimentally, x-ray fiber diffraction data were obtained from well-oriented sols of F-actin and the phalloidin-F-actin complex. The differences in the layer-line intensity distributions, which were clearly observed even at low resolution (8 Å), produced well-resolved peaks corresponding to interphalloidin vectors in the cylindrically averaged difference-Patterson map, from which the radial binding position was determined to be ∼10 Å from the filament axis. Then, the azimuthal and axial positions were determined by single isomorphous replacement phasing and a cross-Patterson map in radial projection to be ∼84° and 0.5 Å relative to the actin mass center. The refined position was close to the position found by prior researchers. The position of rhodamine attached to phalloidin in the rhodamine-phalloidin-F-actin complex was also determined, in which the conjugated Leu(OH)7 residue was found to face the outside of the filament. The position and orientation of the bound phalloidin so determined explain the increase in the interactions between long-pitch strands of F-actin and would also account for the inhibition of phosphate release, which might also contribute to the F-actin stabilization. The method of analysis developed in this study is applicable for the determination of binding positions of other drugs, such as jasplakinolide and dolastatin 11. PMID:15653738

  7. Phototropin-dependent weak and strong light responses in the determination of branch position in the moss Physcomitrella patens.

    PubMed

    Uenaka, Hidetoshi; Kadota, Akeo

    2008-12-01

    Branch position in the moss Physcomitrella patens is regulated by blue light. In this study, fluence rate dependency of branch position determination was investigated by partial cell irradiation with a microbeam. With a 30 Wm(-2) or lower fluence rate, branches formed at the microbeam area, but formed outside the microbeam when the fluence rate was raised to > or = 200 Wm(-2). Thus, both weak and strong light responses influence the determination of branch position. Further, light sensitivity of both responses was reduced in phototropin knock-out lines, revealing an involvement of phototropin as the blue light receptor.

  8. Combining global positioning system and accelerometer data to determine the locations of physical activity in children.

    PubMed

    Oreskovic, Nicolas M; Blossom, Jeff; Field, Alison E; Chiang, Sylvia R; Winickoff, Jonathan P; Kleinman, Ronald E

    2012-05-01

    National trends indicate that children and adolescents are not achieving sufficient levels of physical activity. Combining global positioning system (GPS) technology with accelerometers has the potential to provide an objective determination in locations where youth engage in physical activity. The aim of this study was to identify the optimal methods for collecting combined accelerometer and GPS data in youth, to best locate where children spend time and are physically active. A convenience sample of 24 mid-school children in Massachusetts was included. Accelerometers and GPS units were used to quantify and locate childhood physical activity over 5 weekdays and 2 weekend days. Accelerometer and GPS data were joined by time and mapped with a geographical information system (GIS) using ArcGIS software. Data were collected in winter, spring, summer in 2009-2010, collecting a total of 26,406 matched datapoints overall. Matched data yield was low (19.1% total), regardless of season (winter, 12.8%; spring, 30.1%; summer, 14.3%). Teacher-provided, pre-charged equipment yielded the most matched (30.1%; range: 10.1-52.3%) and greatest average days (6.1 days) of data. Across all seasons, children spent most of their time at home. Outdoor use patterns appeared to vary by season, with street use increasing in spring, and park and playground use increasing in summer. Children spent equal amounts of physical activity time at home and walking in the streets. Overall, the various methods for combining GPS and accelerometer data provided similarly low amounts of combined data. No combined GPS and accelerometer data collection method proved superior in every data return category, but use of GIS to map joined accelerometer and GPS data can demarcate childhood physical activity locations.

  9. Relative position determination of a lunar rover using the biased differential phase delay of same-beam VLBI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ming; Liu, Qinghui; Wu, Yajun; Zhao, Rongbing; Dai, Zhiqiang

    2011-12-01

    When only data transmission signals with a bandwidth of 1 MHz exist in the rover, the position can be obtained using the differential group delay data of the same-beam very long baseline interferometry (VLBI). The relative position between a lunar rover and a lander can be determined with an error of several hundreds of meters. When the guidance information of the rover is used to determine relative position, the rover's wheel skid behavior and integral movement may influence the accuracy of the determined position. This paper proposes a new method for accurately determining relative position. The differential group delay and biased differential phase delay are obtained from the same-beam VLBI observation, while the modified biased differential phase delay is obtained using the statistic mean value of the differential group delay and the biased phase delay as basis. The small bias in the modified biased phase delay is estimated together with other parameters when the relative position of the rover is calculated. The effectiveness of the proposed method is confirmed using the same-beam VLBI observation data of SELENE. The radio sources onboard the rover and the lander are designed for same-beam VLBI observations. The results of the simulations of the differential delay of the same-beam VLBI observation between the rover and the lander show that the differential delay is sensitive to relative position. An approach to solving the relative position and a strategy for tracking are also introduced. When the lunar topography data near the rover are used and the observations are scheduled properly, the determined relative position of the rover may be nearly as accurate as that solved using differential phase delay data.

  10. TOPEX orbit determination and gravity recovery using Global Positioning System data from repeat orbits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Jiun-Tsong; Yunck, Thomas P.

    1992-01-01

    A covariance analysis is presented for satellite tracking and gravity recovery with a differential Global Positioning System-based technique to be demonstrated on TOPEX in the early 1990s. The technique employs data from an ensemble of repeat ground tracks to recover a unique satellite epoch state for each track and a set of invariant positional parameters common to all tracks. The positional parameters represent the effect of mismodeled gravitational field on the satellite orbit. At an altitude of 1336 km, where gravity modeling is the dominant systematic error, averaging of random error over many arcs and adjustment of the gravity model reduce the final satellite position error. The positional parameters can then be used to produce a refined global gravity model. The analysis indicates that errors ranging from 5 to 8 cm in TOPEX altitude and 0.05 to 0.2 mGal for the gravity field can be achieved, depending on the number of repeat arcs used.

  11. Using positional observations of numbered minor planets for determination of star catalog errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medvedev, Y.; Kuznetsov, V.

    2015-08-01

    The systematic errors of star catalogs have been defined by the O-C of the asteroid positional observations. 102 760 633 positional observations for 404 941 numbered asteroids were used. The considerable systematic errors for the USNO A2.0 catalog are founded. For this catalogue we can estimated also the value of variation of systematic errors for some areas on the celestial sphere.

  12. Determination of the optimal positions for installing gamma ray detection systems at Tehran Research Reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sayyah, A.; Rahmani, F.; Khalafi, H.

    2015-09-01

    Dosimetric instruments must constantly monitor radiation dose levels in different areas of nuclear reactor. Tehran Research Reactor (TRR) has seven beam tubes for different research purposes. All the beam tubes extend from the reactor core to Beam Port Floor (BPF) of the reactor facility. During the reactor operation, the gamma rays exiting from each beam tube outlet produce a specific gamma dose rate field in the space of the BPF. To effectively monitor the gamma dose rates on the BPF, gamma ray detection systems must be installed in optimal positions. The selection of optimal positions is a compromise between two requirements. First, the installation positions must possess largest gamma dose rates and second, gamma ray detectors must not be saturated in these positions. In this study, calculations and experimental measurements have been carried out to identify the optimal positions of the gamma ray detection systems. Eight three dimensional models of the reactor core and related facilities corresponding to eight scenarios have been simulated using MCNPX Monte Carlo code to calculate the gamma dose equivalent rate field in the space of the BPF. These facilities are beam tubes, thermal column, pool, BPF space filled with air, facilities such as neutron radiography facility, neutron powder diffraction facility embedded in the beam tubes as well as biological shields inserted into the unused beam tubes. According to the analysis results of the combined gamma dose rate field, three positions on the north side and two positions on the south side of the BPF have been recognized as optimal positions for installing the gamma ray detection systems. To ensure the consistency of the simulation data, experimental measurements were conducted using TLDs (600 and 700) pairs during the reactor operation at 4.5 MW.

  13. Determination of parameters and research autoreflection scheme to measurement errors relative position of the optical elements of the Space Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molev, Fedor; Konyakhin, Igor; Ezhova, Kseniia

    2014-05-01

    The main advantages and disadvantages of using autoreflection and autocollimation schemes for constructing the measuring channel, which is designed to control the relative position of the elements of the optical system Space Telescope are described in this paper. Results of modeling in the Zemax software complex are given. Methods of determining the autocollimation images coordinates for calculate the error relative position of the optical system are described.

  14. The Ultrasonographic Determination of the Position of the Mental Foramen and its Relation to the Mandibular Premolar Teeth

    PubMed Central

    Motara, Feroza; Moolla, Muhammed

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The position of the mental foramen has been well researched in cadaver specimens, radiographically as well as intraoperatively. To our knowledge, this landmark study is the first to make use of ultrasonography in a study population to determine the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Ultrasonography has great potential to further revolutionize the practice of medicine and dento-maxillofacial surgery. Aim To make use of ultrasound to determine the position of the mental foramen and its relation to the mandibular premolar teeth. Materials and Methods One hundred Black and Caucasian subjects were enrolled. A high frequency (8MHz) transducer (PLF.805ST) of a diagnostic ultrasound system (model SSA-510A) was applied above the inferior border of the mandible, just lateral to the mentum. With the marker of the transducer pointing cranially, the position of the mental foramen in relation to the closest mandibular premolar tooth was determined. The position was compared across race, sex and age groups. Results All mental foramina (100%) were visualised. Overall the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right (44%) and between the first and second premolars on the left (44%). There were no statistical differences (p >0.05) between race groups, sex and age groups with regard to the position of the mental foramen in relation to the mandibular premolars. However, in Blacks, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar and in Caucasians the most common position was between the first and second premolars. The most frequent position of the mental foramen in females was in line with the long axis of the second premolar on the right and between the first and second premolars on the left. In males, the most frequent position of the mental foramen was in line with the long axis of the second premolar

  15. Determination of sounding rocket position and attitude from radar and magnetometer data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pongratz, M.

    1972-01-01

    The techniques are described that were used to determine the trajectories and orientations of three sounding rockets instrumented to study the aurora. The radar plot board data were fitted to a near earth expansion of the force of gravity to determine the trajectory. Only onboard magnetometer data were used to determine the attitude of the payload with respect to the earth's magnetic field. Computer programs in the FORTRAN language are available which generate the trajectory and attitude parameters.

  16. Using the global positioning satellite system to determine attitude rates using doppler effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Campbell, Charles E. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    In the absence of a gyroscope, the attitude and attitude rate of a receiver can be determined using signals received by antennae on the receiver. Based on the signals received by the antennae, the Doppler difference between the signals is calculated. The Doppler difference may then be used to determine the attitude rate. With signals received from two signal sources by three antennae pairs, the three-dimensional attitude rate is determined.

  17. Determination of wafer center position during the transfer process by using the beam-breaking method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi-Cheng; Wang, Zhi-Gen; Huang, Bo-Kai

    2014-09-01

    A wafer on a robot blade may slip due to inertia sliding during the acceleration or deceleration process. This study presents the implementation and experimental verification of a novel real-time wafer positioning system to be used during the transfer process. A system-integration computer program involving a human-machine interface (HMI) was also developed, exhibiting the following functions: (a) moving direction judgment; (b) notch-passing judgment; (c) indicating the sensor by which the notch passes; and (d) computing the wafer center in real time. The position of the wafer center is calculated based on the time-sequence of the beam-breaking signals from two optical sensors, and the geometric relations among the sensing points of the robot blade and wafer. When using eight-inch wafers, the experimental results indicated the capabilities of the proposed positioning system under various conditions, including distinct parameters regarding the moving direction, wafer displacement and notch-passing sensors. The accuracy and precision (repeatability) of the measurement in various conditions were calculated and discussed. Furthermore, the experimental results demonstrate that, after combining the novel wafer positioning system and HMI program, the proposed method can be used to compute the position of the wafer center in real time in various conditions.

  18. Improved Determination of Subnuclear Position Enabled by Three-Dimensional Membrane Reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yao; Schreiner, Sarah M; Koo, Peter K; Colombi, Paolo; King, Megan C; Mochrie, Simon G J

    2016-07-12

    Many aspects of chromatin biology are influenced by the nuclear compartment in which a locus resides, from transcriptional regulation to DNA repair. Further, the dynamic and variable localization of a particular locus across cell populations and over time makes analysis of a large number of cells critical. As a consequence, robust and automatable methods to measure the position of individual loci within the nuclear volume in populations of cells are necessary to support quantitative analysis of nuclear position. Here, we describe a three-dimensional membrane reconstruction approach that uses fluorescently tagged nuclear envelope or endoplasmic reticulum membrane marker proteins to precisely map the nuclear volume. This approach is robust to a variety of nuclear shapes, providing greater biological accuracy than alternative methods that enforce nuclear circularity, while also describing nuclear position in all three dimensions. By combining this method with established approaches to reconstruct the position of diffraction-limited chromatin markers-in this case, lac Operator arrays bound by lacI-GFP-the distribution of loci positions within the nuclear volume with respect to the nuclear periphery can be quantitatively obtained. This stand-alone image analysis pipeline should be of broad practical utility for individuals interested in various aspects of chromatin biology, while also providing, to our knowledge, a new conceptual framework for investigators who study organelle shape. PMID:27410730

  19. Determining the Separation and Position Angles of Orbiting Binary Stars: Comparison of Three Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Ryan; Boule, Cory; Andrews, Katelyn; Penfield, Andrew; Ross, Ian; Lucas, Gaylon; Braught, Trisha; Harfenist, Steven; Goodale, Keith

    2015-07-01

    To initiate a long term binary star research program, undergraduate students compared the accuracy and ease of measuring the separations and position angles of three long period binary pairs using three different measurement techniques. It was found that digital image capture using BackyardEOS software and subsequent analysis in Adobe Photoshop was the most accurate and easiest to use of our three methods. The systems WDS J17419+7209 (STF 2241AB), WDS 19418+5032 (STFA 46AB), and WDS 16362+5255 (STF 2087AB) were found to have separations and position angles of: 30", 16°; 39.7", 133°; and 3.1", 104°, respectively. This method produced separation values within 1.3" and position angle values within 1.3° of the most recently observed values found in the Washington Double Star Catalog.

  20. Simultaneous determination of position and mass in the cantilever sensor using transfer function method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Deokman; Hong, Seongkyeol; Jang, Jaesung; Park, Junhong

    2013-07-01

    We present the simultaneous measurement of mass and position of micro-beads attached to the cantilever-based mass sensors using the transfer function method. 10 μm diameter micro-beads were placed on micro-cantilevers and the cantilevers were excited by lead-zirconate-titanate through low-pass filtered random voltages. The cantilever vibration was measured via a laser Doppler vibrometer before and after applying the beads. From the measured transfer function, the bead position was identified using its influence on the cantilever kinetic energy. The bead mass was then obtained by analyzing the wave propagation near the beads. The predicted position and mass agreed well with actual values.

  1. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, James M.; Dodson, Michael G.; Lechelt, Wayne M.

    1989-01-01

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis.

  2. Automated measurement system employing eddy currents to adjust probe position and determine metal hardness

    DOEpatents

    Prince, J.M.; Dodson, M.G.; Lechelt, W.M.

    1989-07-18

    A system for measuring the hardness of cartridge cases employs an eddy current probe for inducing and sensing eddy currents in each cartridge case. A first component of the sensed signal is utilized in a closed loop system for accurately positioning the probe relative to the cartridge case both in the lift off direction and in the tangential direction, and a second component of the sensed signal is employed as a measure of the hardness. The positioning and measurement are carried out under closed loop microprocessor control facilitating hardness testing on a production line basis. 14 figs.

  3. An Artificial Neural Network Embedded Position and Orientation Determination Algorithm for Low Cost MEMS INS/GPS Integrated Sensors.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Kai-Wei; Chang, Hsiu-Wen; Li, Chia-Yuan; Huang, Yun-Wen

    2009-01-01

    Digital mobile mapping, which integrates digital imaging with direct geo-referencing, has developed rapidly over the past fifteen years. Direct geo-referencing is the determination of the time-variable position and orientation parameters for a mobile digital imager. The most common technologies used for this purpose today are satellite positioning using Global Positioning System (GPS) and Inertial Navigation System (INS) using an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU). They are usually integrated in such a way that the GPS receiver is the main position sensor, while the IMU is the main orientation sensor. The Kalman Filter (KF) is considered as the optimal estimation tool for real-time INS/GPS integrated kinematic position and orientation determination. An intelligent hybrid scheme consisting of an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) and KF has been proposed to overcome the limitations of KF and to improve the performance of the INS/GPS integrated system in previous studies. However, the accuracy requirements of general mobile mapping applications can't be achieved easily, even by the use of the ANN-KF scheme. Therefore, this study proposes an intelligent position and orientation determination scheme that embeds ANN with conventional Rauch-Tung-Striebel (RTS) smoother to improve the overall accuracy of a MEMS INS/GPS integrated system in post-mission mode. By combining the Micro Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS) INS/GPS integrated system and the intelligent ANN-RTS smoother scheme proposed in this study, a cheaper but still reasonably accurate position and orientation determination scheme can be anticipated.

  4. TH-C-BRD-03: Determining the Optimal Collimator Position for Collimated Pencil Beam Scanning Proton Therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, D; Smith, B; Hill, P; Gelover, E; Flynn, R; Hyer, D

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: There has been a growing interest in applying collimation to pencil beam scanning (PBS) proton therapy in order to sharpen the lateral dose falloff out of the target, especially at low energies. Currently, there is not a method to optimally determine the collimation position or margin around the target. A uniform margin would not be ideal due to the fact that an incoming symmetric pencil beam, after being intercepted by a collimator near the target boundary, will become asymmetric and experience a lateral shift away from its original spot location, leaving the target insufficiently covered. We demonstrate a method that optimally determines the collimator position on a per-spot basis, in order to maximize target dose while minimizing normal tissue dose. Methods: A library of collimated pencil beams were obtained through Monte Carlo simulation with a collimator placed at varying distances from the central axis of an incoming symmetrical pencil beam of 118 MeV and 5 mm sigma-in-air. Two-dimensional treatment plans were then created using this library of collimated pencil beams. For each spot position in a treatment plan, the collimator position was optimally determined in such a way that the resultant pencil beam maximized the ratio of in-target dose and out-of-target dose. For comparison, un-collimated treatment plans were also computed. Results: The spot-by-spot optimally determined collimator positions allowed the reduction of normal tissue dose while maintaining the same target coverage as un-collimated PBS. Quantitatively, the mean dose outside of the target was reduced by approximately 40% as compared to the plan without collimation. Conclusion: The proposed method determines the optimal collimator position for each spot in collimated PBS proton therapy. The use of a collimator will improve PBS dose distributions achievable today and will continue to be the subject of future investigations.

  5. Determinants of physical and global functioning in adult HIV-positive heterosexual men.

    PubMed

    Shah, Krupa; McMahon, James M; Trabold, Nicole; Aidala, Angela A; Chen, Michael; Pouget, Enrique R; Simmons, Janie; Klostermann, Keith

    2015-01-01

    Little is known about the psychosocial factors that might impact the functioning ability of heterosexual men living with HIV. We examined positive and negative coping, social support, and HIV stigma as predictors of physical and global functioning in a cross-sectional sample of 317 HIV-infected adult heterosexual male patients recruited from clinical and social service agencies in New York City. Study participants were primarily minority and low income. Sixty-four percent were African-American, 55% were single, and 90% were 40 years of age or older. The majority had long-term HIV (LTHIV), with an average duration of 15 years since diagnosis. After controlling for participant characteristics, structural equation modeling analyses revealed that positive coping and social support had a significant positive direct effect on global functioning, while stigma had a significant negative direct effect on global functioning. The physical functioning model revealed that negative coping and HIV stigma had significant negative direct effects, whereas social support had a significant positive indirect effect. Age and duration of HIV diagnosis were not associated with physical and global functioning. In conclusion, we found that heterosexual men living with LTHIV who have ineffective coping, less social support, and greater stigma have reduced functioning ability. Study findings have implications for developing interventions aimed at increasing and retaining functioning ability with the end goal of improving successful aging in this population.

  6. Visual and linguistic determinants of the eyes' initial fixation position in reading development.

    PubMed

    Ducrot, Stéphanie; Pynte, Joël; Ghio, Alain; Lété, Bernard

    2013-03-01

    Two eye-movement experiments with one hundred and seven first- through fifth-grade children were conducted to examine the effects of visuomotor and linguistic factors on the recognition of words and pseudowords presented in central vision (using a variable-viewing-position technique) and in parafoveal vision (shifted to the left or right of a central fixation point). For all groups of children, we found a strong effect of stimulus location, in both central and parafoveal vision. This effect corresponds to the children's apparent tendency, for peripherally located targets, to reach a position located halfway between the middle and the left edge of the stimulus (preferred viewing location, PVL), whether saccading to the right or left. For centrally presented targets, refixation probability and lexical-decision time were the lowest near the word's center, suggesting an optimal viewing position (OVP). The viewing-position effects found here were modulated (1) by print exposure, both in central and parafoveal vision; and (2) by the intrinsic qualities of the stimulus (lexicality and word frequency) for targets in central vision but not for parafoveally presented targets.

  7. DETERMINATION OF CENTRAL ENGINE POSITION AND ACCRETION DISK STRUCTURE IN NGC 4261 BY CORE SHIFT MEASUREMENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Haga, Takafumi; Doi, Akihiro; Murata, Yasuhiro; Sudou, Hiroshi; Kameno, Seiji; Hada, Kazuhiro

    2015-07-01

    We report multifrequency phase-referenced observations of the nearby radio galaxy NGC 4261, which has prominent two-sided jets, using the Very Long Baseline Array at 1.4–43 GHz. We measured radio core positions showing observing frequency dependences (known as “core shift”) in both approaching jets and counterjets. The limit of the core position as the frequency approaches infinity, which suggests a jet base, is separated by 82 ± 16 μas upstream in projection, corresponding to (310 ± 60)R{sub s} (R{sub s}: Schwarzschild radius) as a deprojected distance, from the 43 GHz core in the approaching jet. In addition, the innermost component at the counterjet side appeared to approach the same position at infinity of the frequency, indicating that cores on both sides are approaching the same position, suggesting a spatial coincidence with the central engine. Applying a phase-referencing technique, we also obtained spectral index maps, which indicate that emission from the counterjet is affected by free–free absorption (FFA). The result of the core shift profile on the counterjet also requires FFA because the core positions at 5–15 GHz cannot be explained by a simple core shift model based on synchrotron self-absorption (SSA). Our result is apparently consistent with the SSA core shift with an additional disk-like absorber over the counterjet side. Core shift and opacity profiles at the counterjet side suggest a two-component accretion: a radiatively inefficient accretion flow at the inner region and a truncated thin disk in the outer region. We proposed a possible solution about density and temperature profiles in the outer disk on the basis of the radio observation.

  8. The Global Positioning System (GPS) and attitude determination: Applications and activities in the Flight Dynamics Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ketchum, Eleanor; Garrick, Joe

    1995-01-01

    The application of GPS to spacecraft attitude determination is a new and growing field. Although the theoretical literature is extensive, space flight testing is currently sparse and inadequate. As an operations organization, the Flight Dynamics Division (FDD) has the responsibility to investigate this new technology, and determine how best to implement the innovation to provide adequate support for future missions. This paper presents some of the current efforts within FDD with regard to GPS attitude determination. This effort specifically addresses institutional capabilities to accommodate a new type of sensor, critically evaluating the literature for recent advancements, and in examining some available -albeit crude- flight data.

  9. Identification of universal selectivity-determining positions in cytochrome P450 monooxygenases by systematic sequence-based literature mining.

    PubMed

    Gricman, Łukasz; Vogel, Constantin; Pleiss, Jürgen

    2015-09-01

    Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs) are a large, highly diverse protein family with a common fold. The sequences, structures, and functions of CYPs have been extensively studied resulting in more than 53,000 scientific articles. A sequence-based literature mining algorithm was designed to systematically analyze this wealth of information on SNPs, designed mutations, structural interactions, or functional roles of individual residues. Structurally corresponding positions in different CYPs were compared and universal selectivity-determining positions were identified. Based on the Cytochrome P450 Engineering Database (www.CYPED.BioCatNet.de) and a standard numbering scheme for all CYPs, 4000 residues in 168 CYPs mentioned in 2400 articles could be assigned to 440 structurally corresponding standard positions of the CYP fold, covering 96% of all standard positions. Seventeen individual standard positions were mentioned in the context of more than 32 different CYPs. The majority of these most frequently mentioned positions are located on the six substrate recognition sites and are involved in control of selectivity, such as the well-studied position 87 in CYP102A1 (P450(BM-3)) which was mentioned in the articles on 63 different CYPs. The recurrent citation of the 17 frequently mentioned positions for different CYPs suggests their universal functional relevance. PMID:26033392

  10. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  11. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  12. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  13. 25 CFR 63.14 - What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true What positions require a background investigation and determination of suitability for employment or retention? 63.14 Section 63.14 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR TRIBAL GOVERNMENT INDIAN CHILD PROTECTION AND FAMILY VIOLENCE PREVENTION...

  14. Determinants of Tuberculosis Infection among Adult HIV Positives Attending Clinical Care in Western Ethiopia: A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Melkamu, Hatoluf; Seyoum, Berhanu; Dessie, Yadeta

    2013-01-01

    There has been a drastic rise of tuberculosis (TB) infection across the world associated with the pandemic occurrence of HIV/AIDS. There are various determinants factors that increase the chance of TB infection among HIV positives (TB/HIV confection) that varies contextually. This study aimed to assess the determinants of TB/HIV coinfection among adult HIV positives attending clinical care at two public health facilities in Nekemte, western Ethiopia. Unmatched case-control study was conducted from December 26, 2011, to February 29, 2012. Cases were 123 TB infected HIV positives, and controls were 246 non-TB infected HIV positives. Being divorced/widowed AOR = 3.02, 95% CI (1.70, 7.88), not attending formal education AOR = 4.32, 95% CI (2.20, 14.15), being underweight (BMI < 18.5 kg/m2) AOR = 3.87, 95% CI (2.18, 6.87), having history of diabetic mellitus AOR = 3.63, 95% CI (1.33, 9.94), and being in advanced WHO HIV/AIDS clinical staging AOR = 2.29, 95% CI (1.32, 3.98), were determinant factors associated with TB/HIV co-infection. Having a separate kitchen AOR = 0.48, 95% CI (0.28, 0.81) showed protective role. For most of these determinants interventions can be made at individual and institutional levels, whereas, factors like education and nutrition need societal level integrations. PMID:24222846

  15. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions involving regular contact with Indian children? 136.414 Section 136.414 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...

  16. 5 CFR 550.143 - Bases for determining positions for which premium pay under § 550.141 is authorized.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... premium pay under § 550.141 is authorized. 550.143 Section 550.143 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF... Standby Duty Pay § 550.143 Bases for determining positions for which premium pay under § 550.141 is... free to eat, sleep, read, listen to the radio, or engage in other similar pursuits. An employee...

  17. Evaluation of GPS position and attitude determination for automated rendezvous and docking missions. M.S. Thesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Diprinzio, Marc D.; Tolson, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    The use of the Global Positioning System for position and attitude determination is evaluated for an automated rendezvous and docking mission. The typical mission scenario involves the chaser docking with the target for resupply or repair purposes, and is divided into three sections. During the homing phase, the chaser utilizes coarse acquisition pseudorange data to approach the target; guidance laws for this stage are investigated. In the second phase, differential carrier phase positioning is utilized. The chaser must maintain a quasiconstant distance from the target, in order to resolve the initial integer ambiguities. Once the ambiguities are determined, the terminal phase is entered, and the rendezvous is completed with continuous carrier phase tracking. Attitude knowledge is maintained in all phases through the use of the carrier phase observable. A Kalman filter is utilized to estimate all states from the noisy measurement data. The effects of selective availability and cycle slips are also investigated.

  18. Determinants of nucleosome positioning and their influence on plant gene expression.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ming-Jung; Seddon, Alexander E; Tsai, Zing Tsung-Yeh; Major, Ian T; Floer, Monique; Howe, Gregg A; Shiu, Shin-Han

    2015-08-01

    Nucleosome positioning influences the access of transcription factors (TFs) to their binding sites and gene expression. Studies in plant, animal, and fungal models demonstrate similar nucleosome positioning patterns along genes and correlations between occupancy and expression. However, the relationships among nucleosome positioning, cis-regulatory element accessibility, and gene expression in plants remain undefined. Here we showed that plant nucleosome depletion occurs on specific 6-mer motifs and this sequence-specific nucleosome depletion is predictive of expression levels. Nucleosome-depleted regions in Arabidopsis thaliana tend to have higher G/C content, unlike yeast, and are centered on specific G/C-rich 6-mers, suggesting that intrinsic sequence properties, such as G/C content, cannot fully explain plant nucleosome positioning. These 6-mer motif sites showed higher DNase I hypersensitivity and are flanked by strongly phased nucleosomes, consistent with known TF binding sites. Intriguingly, this 6-mer-specific nucleosome depletion pattern occurs not only in promoter but also in genic regions and is significantly correlated with higher gene expression level, a phenomenon also found in rice but not in yeast. Among the 6-mer motifs enriched in genes responsive to treatment with the defense hormone jasmonate, there are no significant changes in nucleosome occupancy, suggesting that these sites are potentially preconditioned to enable rapid response without changing chromatin state significantly. Our study provides a global assessment of the joint contribution of nucleosome occupancy and motif sequences that are likely cis-elements to the control of gene expression in plants. Our findings pave the way for further understanding the impact of chromatin state on plant transcriptional regulatory circuits.

  19. Diagnostic assays for identification of microorganisms and antimicrobial resistance determinants directly from positive blood culture broth.

    PubMed

    Pence, Morgan A; McElvania TeKippe, Erin; Burnham, Carey-Ann D

    2013-09-01

    The detection of blood stream infections is one of the most important functions of the clinical microbiology laboratory. Sepsis is a clinical emergency, and mortality increases if commencement of appropriate antimicrobial therapy is delayed. Automated blood culture systems are the most sensitive approach for detection of the causative agent of sepsis. Several laboratory methods have been developed to expedite identification of organisms directly from positive blood culture broth. The principle and analytical performance characteristics of these methods are described in this review.

  20. Determination of shower central position in laterally segmented lead-fluoride electromagnetic calorimeters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazouz, M.; Ghedira, L.; Voutier, E.

    2016-07-01

    The spatial resolution of laterally segmented electromagnetic calorimeters, built of lead fluoride material, is studied on the basis of Monte-Carlo simulations. Parametrization of the relative resolution on the shower position is proposed and optimized in terms of the energy of incoming particles and the elementary size of the calorimeter blocks. A new fit algorithm method is proposed that improves spatial resolution at high energies (> 5 GeV), and provides guidance for the design optimization of electromagnetic calorimeters.

  1. Stimulus novelty and significance as determinants of electrodermal responsivity: the serial position effect.

    PubMed

    Ben-Shakhar, G; Asher, T; Poznansky-Levy, A; Asherowitz, R; Lieblich, I

    1989-01-01

    Three experiments examined the effects of stimulus novelty and significance on the skin conductance component of the orienting response. The test stimuli used in the different experiments involved either a neutral change in stimulation (i.e., adding or deleting components to the standard stimuli), or an introduction of a significant element to the standard stimulus. The serial position of the test stimulus was manipulated in all three experiments. In Experiment 1, nonsignificant test stimuli were introduced at the second, fourth, sixth, or eighth trial of the complex sequence of eight stimuli (i.e., a sequence comprised of varying standard stimuli). None of the test stimuli produced enhanced skin conductance responses under these conditions. Experiment 2 utilized the same design with only one difference: the test stimuli were presented following a simple stimulus sequence (i.e., repetition of a fixed standard stimulus). In this design enhanced skin conductance responses to the test stimuli were observed in almost all experimental conditions, with an advantage of a late over an early presentation of the test stimulus. Experiment 3 was designed to compare serial position effects of significant and neutral test stimuli. A serial position effect was obtained only for the neutral test stimuli, showing once again an advantage for late presentations. It was suggested that different mechanisms might underlie skin conductance responses to significant stimuli and to novel neutral stimuli.

  2. A Procedure to Determine the Optimal Sensor Positions for Locating AE Sources in Rock Samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duca, S.; Occhiena, C.; Sambuelli, L.

    2015-03-01

    Within a research work aimed to better understand frost weathering mechanisms of rocks, laboratory tests have been designed to specifically assess a theoretical model of crack propagation due to ice segregation process in water-saturated and thermally microcracked cubic samples of Arolla gneiss. As the formation and growth of microcracks during freezing tests on rock material is accompanied by a sudden release of stored elastic energy, the propagation of elastic waves can be detected, at the laboratory scale, by acoustic emission (AE) sensors. The AE receiver array geometry is a sensitive factor influencing source location errors, for it can greatly amplify the effect of small measurement errors. Despite the large literature on the AE source location, little attention, to our knowledge, has been paid to the description of the experimental design phase. As a consequence, the criteria for sensor positioning are often not declared and not related to location accuracy. In the present paper, a tool for the identification of the optimal sensor position on a cubic shape rock specimen is presented. The optimal receiver configuration is chosen by studying the condition numbers of each of the kernel matrices, used for inverting the arrival time and finding the source location, and obtained for properly selected combinations between sensors and sources positions.

  3. Positive selection determines T cell receptor V beta 14 gene usage by CD8+ T cells

    PubMed Central

    1989-01-01

    We report here a mAb, 14-2, reactive with TCRs that include V beta 14. The frequency of V beta 14+ T cells varies with CD4 and CD8 subset and is controlled by the H-2 genes. Thus CD8+ T cells from H-2b mice include approximately 2.3% V beta 14+ T cells while CD8+ T cells from mice expressing K kappa include greater than 8% V beta 14+ T cells. In all strains examined, 7-8% of CD4+ T cells express V beta 14. The frequent usage of V beta 14 in CD8+ T cells of K kappa-expressing mice is a result of preferential positive selection of V beta 14+ CD8+ T cells as demonstrated by analysis of radiation chimeras. These studies demonstrate that H-2-dependent positive selection occurs in unmanipulated mice. Furthermore, the results imply that positive selection, and possibly H-2 restriction, can be strongly influenced by a V beta domain, with some independence from the beta-junctional sequence and alpha chain. PMID:2501444

  4. Determinants of Intimate Partner Violence Among HIV-Positive and HIV-Negative Women in India.

    PubMed

    Chakraborty, Hrishikesh; Patted, Shobhana; Gan, Anita; Islam, Farahnaz; Revankar, Amit

    2016-02-01

    To reduce the many adverse health outcomes associated with intimate partner violence (IPV), high-risk groups need to be specifically targeted in the fight against domestic violence in India. This study aims to examine the prevalence and correlates of IPV in HIV-positive and HIV-negative women from India. A convenience sample of HIV-positive and HIV-negative women responded to questionnaires to assess their experience and perception of violence. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was used to model the association between IPV and age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status. Although adjusting for age, education, employment status, contraception use, age at first marriage, and HIV status, women who are employed were 3.5 times more likely to suffer IPV (confidence interval [CI] = [1.5, 8.5]), women aged 18 or above at first marriage are 0.3 times less likely to face IPV (CI = [0.1, 0.6]), and women who use contraception are 7 times more likely to suffer IPV (CI = [1.4, 30.2]). Also, HIV-positive women are 3 times more likely to face sexual violence compared with HIV-negative women (CI = [1.1, 7.6]).

  5. An investigation of airborne GPS/INS for high accuracy position and velocity determination

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, H.; Cannon, M.E.; Owen, T.E.; Meindl, M.A.

    1993-12-31

    An airborne test using a differential GPS-INS system in a Twin Otter was conducted by Sandia National Laboratories to assess the feasibility of using the integrated system for cm-level position and cm/s velocity. The INS is a miniaturized ring-laser gyro IMU jointly developed by Sandia and Honeywell while the GPS system consists of the NovAtel GPSCard{trademark}. INS position, velocity and attitude data were computed using Sandia`s SANDAC flight computer system and logged at 4 Hz and GPS data was acquired at a 1 Hz rate. The mission was approximately 2.5 hours in duration and the aircraft reached separations of up to 19 km from the base station. The data was post-processed using a centralized Kalman filter approach in which the double differenced carrier phase measurements are used to update the INS data. The INS position is in turn used to detect and correct GPS carrier phase cycle slips and also to bridge GPS outages. Results are presented for the GPS-only case and also for integrated GPS/INS.

  6. Determination of the pulmonary capillary wedge position in patients with giant left atrial V waves.

    PubMed

    Moore, R A; Neary, M J; Gallagher, J D; Clark, D L

    1987-04-01

    Thirteen patients with giant left atrial V waves during preoperative cardiac catheterization were admitted into the study group. While awake and breathing spontaneously, simultaneous recordings of electrocardiographic leads II and V5, radial arterial traces, and pulmonary arterial or pulmonary capillary wedge traces were obtained. Measurements were made on four consecutive cardiac cycles in the unwedged and wedged positions for the following intervals: Q wave to the radial arterial upstroke (220 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (360 +/- 10 milliseconds), Q wave to the pulmonary arterial upstroke (170 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (350 +/- 20 milliseconds), Q wave to the V wave upstroke (280 +/- 20 milliseconds) and peak (570 +/- 20 milliseconds), and QT interval (420 +/- 20 milliseconds). These findings indicate that the radial arterial and pulmonary arterial upstrokes and peaks occur nearly simultaneously. Upon wedging, the V wave upstroke occurs significantly later in the cardiac cycle (P less than .05) compared with the pulmonary arterial upstroke, and the V wave peak occurs significantly later compared with both the pulmonary arterial and the radial arterial peak (P less than .05). A rapid, simple beat-to-beat method for differentiating pulmonary arterial from pulmonary capillary wedge positions in the presence of giant left atrial V waves is the superimposition of the pulmonary arterial trace on the radial arterial trace. When a wedge position is attained, there is an immediate rightward shift in the upstroke and peak of the pulmonary arterial pressure trace, which can be easily identified by observing the relationship between the pulmonary arterial and systemic arterial traces.

  7. Material, psychosocial and sociodemographic determinants are associated with positive mental health in Europe: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Dreger, Stefanie; Buck, Christoph; Bolte, Gabriele

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the association between psychosocial, sociodemographic and material determinants of positive mental health in Europe. Design Cross-sectional analysis of survey data. Setting 34 European countries. Participants Representative Europe-wide sample consisting of 21 066 men and 22 569 women aged 18 years and over, from 34 European countries participating in the third wave of the European Quality of Life Survey (2011–2012). Outcome Positive mental health as measured by the WHO-5—Mental Well-being Index, while the lowest 25% centile indicated poor positive mental health. Results The prevalence of poor positive mental health was 30% in women and 24% in men. Material, as well as psychosocial, and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with poor positive mental health in a Europe-wide sample from 34 European countries. When studying all factors together, the highest OR for poor positive mental health was reported for social exclusion (men: OR=1.73, 95% CI 1.59 to 1.90; women: OR=1.69, 95% CI 1.57 to 1.81) among the psychosocial factors. Among the material factors, material deprivation had the highest impact (men: OR=1.96, 95% CI 1.78 to 2.15; women: OR=1.93, 95% CI 1.79 to 2.08). Conclusions This study gives the first overview on determinants of positive mental health at a European level and could be used as the basis for preventive policies in the field of positive mental health in Europe. PMID:24871540

  8. Enabling Spacecraft Formation Flying through Position Determination, Control and Enhanced Automation Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bristow, John; Bauer, Frank; Hartman, Kate; How, Jonathan

    2000-01-01

    Formation Flying is revolutionizing the way the space community conducts science missions around the Earth and in deep space. This technological revolution will provide new, innovative ways for the community to gather scientific information, share that information between space vehicles and the ground, and expedite the human exploration of space. Once fully matured, formation flying will result in numerous sciencecraft acting as virtual platforms and sensor webs, gathering significantly more and better science data than call be collected today. To achieve this goal, key technologies must be developed including those that address the following basic questions posed by the spacecraft: Where am I? Where is the rest of the fleet? Where do I need to be? What do I have to do (and what am I able to do) to get there? The answers to these questions and the means to implement those answers will depend oil the specific mission needs and formation configuration. However, certain critical technologies are common to most formations. These technologies include high-precision position and relative-position knowledge including Global Positioning System (GPS) mid celestial navigation; high degrees of spacecraft autonomy inter-spacecraft communication capabilities; targeting and control including distributed control algorithms, and high precision control thrusters and actuators. This paper provides an overview of a selection of the current activities NASA/DoD/Industry/Academia are working to develop Formation Flying technologies as quickly as possible, the hurdles that need to be overcome to achieve our formation flying vision, and the team's approach to transfer this technology to space. It will also describe several of the formation flying testbeds, such as Orion and University Nanosatellites, that are being developed to demonstrate and validate many of these innovative sensing and formation control technologies.

  9. Determining a Relationship between Higher Education Financial Position and Tuition Discount Rates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browning, Julianna

    2013-01-01

    Institutions have increased the practice of tuition discounting, that is, the strategic use of price discrimination. During the past 30 years, both the average percent discount given to students and the proportion of students receiving tuition breaks have increased. As this practice has increased, there are financial determinants and implications…

  10. Experimental Determination of Unknown Masses and Their Positions in a Mechanical Black Box

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura

    2013-01-01

    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  11. CORRESPONDENCE OF STABLE ISOTOPE AND GUT CONTENTS ANALYSES IN DETERMINING TROPHIC POSITION OF STREAM FISHES

    EPA Science Inventory

    It is generally accepted that both stable isotope analysis (SIA) and gut contents analysis (GCA) be used in food web studies; however, few researchers have analyzed these data in concert. We utilized SIA and GCA to determine if longitudinal and seasonal variation in diet affects...

  12. Determination of drug resistance and virus typology in HIV-1-positive pediatric patients in Istanbul, Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yoldaş, Ozlem; Ağaçfidan, Ali; Lübke, Nadine; Somer, Ayper; Hançerli, Selda; Verheyen, Jens; Kaiser, Rolf; Akgül, Baki

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the prevalence of drug resistance of HIV-1 in pediatric patients from Istanbul, Turkey. Genotypic drug resistance testing revealed transmission of drug resistance from mother to child in 20%. Due to rising numbers of children with HIV-1, baseline resistance testing is recommended for Turkey.

  13. Device for determining relative angular position between a spacecraft and a radiation emitting celestial body

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farthing, W. H.; Frisbie, H. F. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    Signals indicative of the relative angular position between a spin stabilized spacecraft, probe, or sounding rocket and a radiation emitting celestial body are derived with a detector including four electrodes for deriving indications of the centroid of the radiation image on the detector. During each spin of the satellite each electrode derives a signal having a first non-zero level while the detector is not illuminated by the radiation, and a sound non-zero level while it is illuminated by the radiation.

  14. The dynamics of global positioning system orbits and the determination of precise ephemerides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.

    1989-01-01

    The suggestion made on the basis of the analytical orbit perturbation theory that the errors in the ephemerides of the GPS satellites are due mostly to resonant effects that can be corrected by adjusting a few parameters in a empirical acceleration formula is tested using simulations and actual data analysis. Data from the Spring 1985 Experiment were used to calculate improved ephemerides, and these ephemerides were used in the estimation of the coordinates of GPS stations within the continental United States, previously positioned with VLBI. The results of this test support the idea that the errors are mostly of a resonant nature and can be corrected.

  15. Word and world order: semantic, phonological, and metrical determinants of serial position.

    PubMed

    McDonald, J L; Bock, K; Kelly, M H

    1993-04-01

    Animacy, word length, and prosody have all been accorded prominent roles in explanations for word order variations in language use. We examined the sequencing effects of these factors in two types of tasks. In recall tasks designed to simulate language production, we found selective effects of animacy. Animate nouns tended to appear as subjects in transitive sentences, but showed no special affinity for initial position in conjunctions within sentences, but showed no special affinity for initial position in conjunctions within sentences, suggesting a stronger involvement of animacy in grammatical role assignment than in word ordering. Word length had no significant impact: Shorter words did not appear earlier than longer words within sentences or within isolated conjunctions of nouns. Prosody had a weak effect on word order in isolated conjunctions, favoring sequences with alternating rhythm, but only in the absence of an animacy contrast. These results tend to confirm a hypothesized role for conceptual (meaning-based) accessibility in grammatical role assignment and to disconfirm a hypothesized role for lexical (form-based) accessibility in word ordering. In a judgment task, forms with animate nouns early were preferred across all constructions, and forms with short words early were often preferred both in sentences and in conjunctions. The findings suggest a possible asymmetry between comprehension and production in functional accounts of word order variations.

  16. An amino acid at position 512 in β-glucosidase from Clavibacter michiganensis determines the regioselectivity for hydrolyzing gypenoside XVII.

    PubMed

    Shin, Kyung-Chul; Hong, Seung-Hye; Seo, Min-Ju; Oh, Deok-Kun

    2015-10-01

    A recombinant β-glucosidase from Clavibacter michiganensis specifically hydrolyzed the outer and inner glucose linked to the C-3 position in protopanaxadiol (PPD)-type ginsenosides and the C-6 position in protopanaxatriol (PPT)-type ginsenosides except for the hydrolysis of gypenoside LXXV (GypLXXV). The enzyme converted gypenoside XVII (GypXVII) to GypLXXV by hydrolyzing the inner glucose linked to the C-3 position. The substrate-binding residues obtained from the GypXVII-docked homology models of β-glucosidase from C. michiganensis were replaced with alanine, and the amino acid residue at position 512 was selected because of the changed regioselectivity of W512A. Site-directed mutagenesis for the amino acid residue at position 512 was performed. W512A and W512K hydrolyzed the inner glucose linked to the C-3 position and the outer glucose linked to the C-20 position of GypXVII to produce GypLXXV and F2. W512R hydrolyzed only the outer glucose linked to the C-20 position of GypXVII to produce F2. However, W512E and W512D exhibited no activity for GypXVII. Thus, the amino acid at position 512 is a critical residue to determine the regioselectivity for the hydrolysis of GypXVII. These wild-type and variant enzymes produced diverse ginsenosides, including GypXVII, GypLXXV, F2, and compound K, from ginsenoside Rb1. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of the alteration of regioselectivity on ginsenoside hydrolysis by protein engineering.

  17. mRNA Profiling Reveals Determinants of Trastuzumab Efficiency in HER2-Positive Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    von der Heyde, Silvia; Wagner, Steve; Czerny, Alexander; Nietert, Manuel; Ludewig, Fabian; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Arlt, Dorit; Beißbarth, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we called and analyzed

  18. mRNA profiling reveals determinants of trastuzumab efficiency in HER2-positive breast cancer.

    PubMed

    von der Heyde, Silvia; Wagner, Steve; Czerny, Alexander; Nietert, Manuel; Ludewig, Fabian; Salinas-Riester, Gabriela; Arlt, Dorit; Beißbarth, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsic and acquired resistance to the monoclonal antibody drug trastuzumab is a major problem in the treatment of HER2-positive breast cancer. A deeper understanding of the underlying mechanisms could help to develop new agents. Our intention was to detect genes and single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) affecting trastuzumab efficiency in cell culture. Three HER2-positive breast cancer cell lines with different resistance phenotypes were analyzed. We chose BT474 as model of trastuzumab sensitivity, HCC1954 as model of intrinsic resistance, and BTR50, derived from BT474, as model of acquired resistance. Based on RNA-Seq data, we performed differential expression analyses on these cell lines with and without trastuzumab treatment. Differentially expressed genes between the resistant cell lines and BT474 are expected to contribute to resistance. Differentially expressed genes between untreated and trastuzumab treated BT474 are expected to contribute to drug efficacy. To exclude false positives from the candidate gene set, we removed genes that were also differentially expressed between untreated and trastuzumab treated BTR50. We further searched for SNPs in the untreated cell lines which could contribute to trastuzumab resistance. The analysis resulted in 54 differentially expressed candidate genes that might be connected to trastuzumab efficiency. 90% of 40 selected candidates were validated by RT-qPCR. ALPP, CALCOCO1, CAV1, CYP1A2 and IGFBP3 were significantly higher expressed in the trastuzumab treated than in the untreated BT474 cell line. GDF15, IL8, LCN2, PTGS2 and 20 other genes were significantly higher expressed in HCC1954 than in BT474, while NCAM2, COLEC12, AFF3, TFF3, NRCAM, GREB1 and TFF1 were significantly lower expressed. Additionally, we inferred SNPs in HCC1954 for CAV1, PTGS2, IL8 and IGFBP3. The latter also had a variation in BTR50. 20% of the validated subset have already been mentioned in literature. For half of them we called and analyzed

  19. The nature and position of processing determines why forgetting occurs in working memory tasks.

    PubMed

    Jarrold, Christopher; Tam, Helen; Baddeley, Alan D; Harvey, Caroline E

    2010-12-01

    The effect of potentially distracting processing within working memory was examined by varying the nature and position of processing across conditions of a Brown-Peterson-like task. Separate groups of participants carried out verbal or visuospatial processing operations on identical stimuli, while retaining lists of to-be-remembered words. The number of words presented either before or after the processing interval was varied systematically. Results showed that although verbal processing was no more demanding than visuospatial processing, it led to greater forgetting. However, forgetting was confined to items presented prior to processing, and the difference in degree of forgetting shown by the two groups was maximal when four items occurred before processing. Temporal isolation effects were more marked in the verbal processing group. These findings indicate that individuals can keep active a limited number of items in primary memory during processing, unless processing blocks rehearsal, in which case retrieval occurs from secondary memory.

  20. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, Mark; Talarek, Ted R.; Zollinger, W. Thor; Heckendorn, II, Frank M.; Park, Larry R.

    1994-01-01

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360.degree. about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms.

  1. Piping inspection instrument carriage with precise and repeatable position control and location determination

    DOEpatents

    Hapstack, M.; Talarek, T.R.; Zollinger, W.T.; Heckendorn, F.M. II; Park, L.R.

    1994-02-15

    An instrument carriage for inspection of piping comprises front and rear leg assemblies for engaging the interior of the piping and supporting and centering the carriage therein, and an instrumentation arm carried by a shaft system running from the front to rear leg assemblies. The shaft system has a screw shaft for moving the arm axially and a spline gear for moving the arm azimuthally. The arm has a pair of air cylinders that raise and lower a plate in the radial direction. On the plate are probes including an eddy current probe and an ultrasonic testing probe. The ultrasonic testing probe is capable of spinning 360[degree] about its axis. The instrument carriage uses servo motors and pressurized air cylinders for precise actuation of instrument components and precise, repeatable actuation of position control mechanisms. 8 figures.

  2. Determining the Position of Storks on the Phylogenetic Tree of Waterbirds by Retroposon Insertion Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Kuramoto, Tae; Nishihara, Hidenori; Watanabe, Maiko; Okada, Norihiro

    2015-01-01

    Despite many studies on avian phylogenetics in recent decades that used morphology, mitochondrial genomes, and/or nuclear genes, the phylogenetic positions of several birds (e.g., storks) remain unsettled. In addition to the aforementioned approaches, analysis of retroposon insertions, which are nearly homoplasy-free phylogenetic markers, has also been used in avian phylogenetics. However, the first step in the analysis of retroposon insertions, that is, isolation of retroposons from genomic libraries, is a costly and time-consuming procedure. Therefore, we developed a high-throughput and cost-effective protocol to collect retroposon insertion information based on next-generation sequencing technology, which we call here the STRONG (Screening of Transposons Obtained by Next Generation Sequencing) method, and applied it to 3 waterbird species, for which we identified 35,470 loci containing chicken repeat 1 retroposons (CR1). Our analysis of the presence/absence of 30 CR1 insertions demonstrated the intra- and interordinal phylogenetic relationships in the waterbird assemblage, namely 1) Loons diverged first among the waterbirds, 2) penguins (Sphenisciformes) and petrels (Procellariiformes) diverged next, and 3) among the remaining families of waterbirds traditionally classified in Ciconiiformes/Pelecaniformes, storks (Ciconiidae) diverged first. Furthermore, our genome-scale, in silico retroposon analysis based on published genome data uncovered a complex divergence history among pelican, heron, and ibis lineages, presumably involving ancient interspecies hybridization between the heron and ibis lineages. Thus, our retroposon-based waterbird phylogeny and the established phylogenetic position of storks will help to understand the evolutionary processes of aquatic adaptation and related morphological convergent evolution. PMID:26527652

  3. The position of heterologous epitopes inserted in hepatitis B virus core particles determines their immunogenicity.

    PubMed Central

    Schödel, F; Moriarty, A M; Peterson, D L; Zheng, J A; Hughes, J L; Will, H; Leturcq, D J; McGee, J S; Milich, D R

    1992-01-01

    The nucleocapsid (HBcAg) of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) has been suggested as a carrier moiety for vaccine purposes. We investigated the influence of the position of the inserted epitope within hybrid HBcAg particles on antigenicity and immunogenicity. For this purpose, genes coding for neutralizing epitopes of the pre-S region of the HBV envelope proteins were inserted at the amino terminus, the amino terminus through a precore linker sequence, the truncated carboxy terminus, or an internal site of HBcAg by genetic engineering and were expressed in Escherichia coli. All purified hybrid HBc/pre-S polyproteins were particulate. Amino- and carboxy-terminal-modified hybrid HBc particles retained HBcAg antigenicity and immunogenicity. In contrast, insertion of a pre-S(1) sequence between HBcAg residues 75 and 83 abrogated recognition of HBcAg by 5 of 6 anti-HBc monoclonal antibodies and diminished recognition by human polyclonal anti-HBc. Predictably, HBcAg-specific immunogenicity was also reduced. With respect to the inserted epitopes, a pre-S(1) epitope linked to the amino terminus of HBcAg was not surface accessible and not immunogenic. A pre-S(1) epitope fused to the amino terminus through a precore linker sequence was surface accessible and highly immunogenic. A carboxy-terminal-fused pre-S(2) sequence was also surface accessible but weakly immunogenic. Insertion of a pre-S(1) epitope at the internal site resulted in the most efficient anti-pre-S(1) antibody response. Furthermore, immunization with hybrid HBc/pre-S particles exclusively primed T-helper cells specific for HBcAg and not the inserted epitope. These results indicate that the position of the inserted B-cell epitope within HBcAg is critical to its immunogenicity. Images PMID:1370083

  4. Computational fluid dynamics vs. inverse dynamics methods to determine passive drag in two breaststroke glide positions.

    PubMed

    Costa, L; Mantha, V R; Silva, A J; Fernandes, R J; Marinho, D A; Vilas-Boas, J P; Machado, L; Rouboa, A

    2015-07-16

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays an important role to quantify, understand and "observe" the water movements around the human body and its effects on drag (D). We aimed to investigate the flow effects around the swimmer and to compare the drag and drag coefficient (CD) values obtained from experiments (using cable velocimetry in a swimming pool) with those of CFD simulations for the two ventral gliding positions assumed during the breaststroke underwater cycle (with shoulders flexed and upper limbs extended above the head-GP1; with shoulders in neutral position and upper limbs extended along the trunk-GP2). Six well-trained breaststroke male swimmers (with reasonable homogeneity of body characteristics) participated in the experimental tests; afterwards a 3D swimmer model was created to fit within the limits of the sample body size profile. The standard k-ε turbulent model was used to simulate the fluid flow around the swimmer model. Velocity ranged from 1.30 to 1.70 m/s for GP1 and 1.10 to 1.50 m/s for GP2. Values found for GP1 and GP2 were lower for CFD than experimental ones. Nevertheless, both CFD and experimental drag/drag coefficient values displayed a tendency to jointly increase/decrease with velocity, except for GP2 CD where CFD and experimental values display opposite tendencies. Results suggest that CFD values obtained by single model approaches should be considered with caution due to small body shape and dimension differences to real swimmers. For better accuracy of CFD studies, realistic individual 3D models of swimmers are required, and specific kinematics respected.

  5. Computational fluid dynamics vs. inverse dynamics methods to determine passive drag in two breaststroke glide positions.

    PubMed

    Costa, L; Mantha, V R; Silva, A J; Fernandes, R J; Marinho, D A; Vilas-Boas, J P; Machado, L; Rouboa, A

    2015-07-16

    Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) plays an important role to quantify, understand and "observe" the water movements around the human body and its effects on drag (D). We aimed to investigate the flow effects around the swimmer and to compare the drag and drag coefficient (CD) values obtained from experiments (using cable velocimetry in a swimming pool) with those of CFD simulations for the two ventral gliding positions assumed during the breaststroke underwater cycle (with shoulders flexed and upper limbs extended above the head-GP1; with shoulders in neutral position and upper limbs extended along the trunk-GP2). Six well-trained breaststroke male swimmers (with reasonable homogeneity of body characteristics) participated in the experimental tests; afterwards a 3D swimmer model was created to fit within the limits of the sample body size profile. The standard k-ε turbulent model was used to simulate the fluid flow around the swimmer model. Velocity ranged from 1.30 to 1.70 m/s for GP1 and 1.10 to 1.50 m/s for GP2. Values found for GP1 and GP2 were lower for CFD than experimental ones. Nevertheless, both CFD and experimental drag/drag coefficient values displayed a tendency to jointly increase/decrease with velocity, except for GP2 CD where CFD and experimental values display opposite tendencies. Results suggest that CFD values obtained by single model approaches should be considered with caution due to small body shape and dimension differences to real swimmers. For better accuracy of CFD studies, realistic individual 3D models of swimmers are required, and specific kinematics respected. PMID:26087879

  6. Position for determining gas-phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1998-06-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  7. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A.; Spangler, L.R.

    1995-08-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. Specifically, the EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is either unnecessary or can be safely reduced. A test program was conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative. The methodology addresses the approach for determining the drum VOC gas content for two purposes: operational period drum handling and operational period no-migration calculations.

  8. What could bring LLR observations in determining the position of the celestial pole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zerhouni, W.; Capitaine, N.; Francou, G.

    2009-09-01

    It has been demonstrated that the analysis of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) observations could bring scientific results in various domains including astronomy, gedoynamics and gravitational physics. Here, we focus on the contribution of the LLR in determining the Earth Orientation Parameters (EOP), especially, the direction towards the Celestial Intermediate Pole (CIP) in the Geocentric Celestial reference System. The strategy we have followed, consists in : first, calculating the LLR residuals over a period of more than 37 years, using the IAU 2006-2000A model of precession-nutation (i.e MHB 2000 nutation of Mathews et al. 2002 and P03 precession of Capitaine et al. 2003) and the CIO based procedure. Second, determining the GCRS X and Y coordinates of the Celestial Intermediate Pole at regular interval (i.e in our case, every 70 days). Finally, comparing the results obtained with VLBI observations in order to evaluate the potential of LLR as compared to VLBI for estimating the X, Y quantities.

  9. Burden, Determinants, and Pharmacological Management of Hypertension in HIV-Positive Patients and Populations: A Systematic Narrative Review.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Kim Anh; Peer, Nasheeta; Mills, Edward J; Kengne, Andre Pascal

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension among HIV-positive populations has emerged as a new threat to the health and well being of people living with HIV, particularly among those receiving antiretroviral therapy. We reviewed the global evidence on the burden of disease (including prevalence and incidence), determinants of hypertension among HIV-positive populations, and the pharmacological management of hypertension in HIV-positive patients. We systematically searched PubMed-MEDLINE and EMBASE from January 2000 through February 2015 for relevant studies and traced their citations through the ISI Web of Science. We also searched the websites of the World Health Organisation, the International Society of Hypertension, and the International AIDS Society and constructed a narrative data synthesis. Hypertension is common in HIV-positive populations, with prevalence estimates ranging from 4.7 to 54.4% in high-income countries, and from 8.7 to 45.9% in low- and middle-income countries. The role of HIV-specific factors including disease severity, duration of disease, and treatments on the presence of hypertension in HIV-positive patients is reported, but patterns remain unclear. The clinical management of hypertension in HIV-positive patients is similar to those with hypertension in the general population; however, additional considerations should be given to potential drug interactions between antihypertensive agents and antiretroviral drugs to inform the clinician's selection of these therapies. Hypertension is common in HIV-positive populations and remains an important comorbidity affecting mortality outcomes. Further research examining the development of hypertension and its associated care in HIV-positive patients is required to optimize management of the dual conditions.

  10. Use of global positioning system measurements to determine geocentric coordinates and variations in Earth orientation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malla, R. P.; Wu, S.-C.; Lichten, S. M.

    1993-01-01

    Geocentric tracking station coordinates and short-period Earth-orientation variations can be measured with Global Positioning System (GPS) measurements. Unless calibrated, geocentric coordinate errors and changes in Earth orientation can lead to significant deep-space tracking errors. Ground-based GPS estimates of daily and subdaily changes in Earth orientation presently show centimeter-level precision. Comparison between GPS-estimated Earth-rotation variations, which are the differences between Universal Time 1 and Universal Coordinated Time (UT1-UTC), and those calculated from ocean tide models suggests that observed subdaily variations in Earth rotation are dominated by oceanic tidal effects. Preliminary GPS estimates for the geocenter location (from a 3-week experiment) agree with independent satellite laser-ranging estimates to better than 10 cm. Covariance analysis predicts that temporal resolution of GPS estimates for Earth orientation and geocenter improves significantly when data collected from low Earth-orbiting satellites as well as from ground sites are combined. The low Earth GPS tracking data enhance the accuracy and resolution for measuring high-frequency global geodynamical signals over time scales of less than 1 day.

  11. On the determination of heliographic positions and rotation velocities of sunspots. II - Systematic effects caused by the Wilson depression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar, H.; Woehl, H.

    1983-10-01

    Using sunspot positions of small sunspots observed at Debrecen and Locarno as well as positions of recurrent sunspots taken from the Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (1940-1976) the influence of the Wilson depression on the rotation velocities was investigated. It was found that the Wilson depression can be determined by minimizing errors of the rotation velocities or minimizing the differences of rotation velocities determined from disk passages and central meridian passages. The Wilson depressions found were between 765 km and 2500 km for the first sample while they were between 0 km and several 1000 km for the second sample. The averaged Wilson depression for the second sample is between 500 km and 965 km depending on the reduction method. A dependence of the Wilson depression on the age of the spots investigated seems not to exist.

  12. Determination of optimal location for parachute ripcord handle in a suspended position.

    PubMed

    Latif, N T; Aghazadeh, F; Waikar, A M; Lee, K S

    1993-04-01

    A number of parachuting fatalities are attributed every year to the inability of the parachutist to pull the ripcord. The purpose of this study was to determine a location for the ripcord handle in parachutes, which would be most compatible with human capabilities. Eight different ripcord handle locations were selected for this investigation. Eighteen male and 18 female subjects participated in the study. The subjects were tested while being suspended 5 cm above floor level wearing a parachute harness. Maximum voluntary force exertions were measured with the subjects pulling the ripcord handle using their left, right and both hands at all locations. The results indicate that the thigh locations are superior in regard to pull forces for all hand applications (left, right, and both). Also, two-handed pulls yield the largest forces at all locations.

  13. Determination of optimal location for parachute ripcord handle in a suspended position.

    PubMed

    Latif, N T; Aghazadeh, F; Waikar, A M; Lee, K S

    1993-04-01

    A number of parachuting fatalities are attributed every year to the inability of the parachutist to pull the ripcord. The purpose of this study was to determine a location for the ripcord handle in parachutes, which would be most compatible with human capabilities. Eight different ripcord handle locations were selected for this investigation. Eighteen male and 18 female subjects participated in the study. The subjects were tested while being suspended 5 cm above floor level wearing a parachute harness. Maximum voluntary force exertions were measured with the subjects pulling the ripcord handle using their left, right and both hands at all locations. The results indicate that the thigh locations are superior in regard to pull forces for all hand applications (left, right, and both). Also, two-handed pulls yield the largest forces at all locations. PMID:15676906

  14. Position for determining gas phase volatile organic compound concentrations in transuranic waste containers

    SciTech Connect

    Connolly, M.J.; Liekhus, K.J.; Djordjevic, S.M.; Loehr, C.A. Spangler, L.R.

    1995-12-01

    In the conditional no-migration determination (NMD) for the test phase of the Waste isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) imposed certain conditions on the US Department of Energy (DOE) regarding gas phase volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in the void space of transuranic (TRU) waste containers. The EPA required the DOE to ensure that each waste container has no layer of confinement that contains flammable mixtures of gases or mixtures of gases that could become flammable when mixed with air. The EPA also required that sampling of the headspace of waste containers outside inner layers of confinement be representative of the entire void space of the container. The EPA stated that all layers of confinement in a container would have to be sampled until DOE can demonstrate to the EPA that sampling of all layers is unnecessary. A test program was conducted to demonstrate that the gas phase VOC concentration in the void space of each layer of confinement in vented drums can be estimated from measured drum headspace using a theoretical transport model and that sampling of each layer of confinement is unnecessary. This report summarizes the studies performed in the INEL test program and extends them for the purpose of developing a methodology for determining gas phase VOC concentrations in both vented and unvented TRU waste containers. The methodology specifies conditions under which waste drum headspace gases can be said to be representative of drum gases as a whole and describes a method for predicting drum concentrations in situations where the headspace concentration is not representative.

  15. Determination of the position of the. pi. -. nu. -junction in epitaxial structures of gallium arsenide doped with iron

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, N.A.; Asanov, O.M.; Bakin, N.N.; Vilisova, M.D.

    1984-05-01

    An investigation of the distribution of the electrolyte-semiconductor capacitance barrier over the thickness of epitaxial layers of gallium arsenide doped with iron on a low-resistance substrate is described. It is shown that measurements of the barrier capacitance at low frequencies enables the position of the ..pi..-..nu..-junction, formed at the boundary of separation of the epitaxial layer and the substrate, to be accurately determined.

  16. High-Accuracy Self-Calibration for Smart, Optical Orbiting Payloads Integrated with Attitude and Position Determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Chu, Daping; Liu, Zilong

    2016-01-01

    A high-accuracy space smart payload integrated with attitude and position (SSPIAP) is a new type of optical remote sensor that can autonomously complete image positioning. Inner orientation parameters (IOPs) are a prerequisite for image position determination of an SSPIAP. The calibration of IOPs significantly influences the precision of image position determination of SSPIAPs. IOPs can be precisely measured and calibrated in a laboratory. However, they may drift to a significant degree because of vibrations during complicated launches and on-orbit functioning. Therefore, laboratory calibration methods are not suitable for on-orbit functioning. We propose an on-orbit self-calibration method for SSPIAPs. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) point-source focal plane. A MEMS procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point light sources and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter and the MEMS point light sources focal plane are integrated into an SSPIAP so it can perform integrated self-calibration. Experiments show that our method can achieve micrometer-level precision, which is good enough to complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations. PMID:27472339

  17. High-Accuracy Self-Calibration for Smart, Optical Orbiting Payloads Integrated with Attitude and Position Determination

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Chu, Daping; Liu, Zilong

    2016-01-01

    A high-accuracy space smart payload integrated with attitude and position (SSPIAP) is a new type of optical remote sensor that can autonomously complete image positioning. Inner orientation parameters (IOPs) are a prerequisite for image position determination of an SSPIAP. The calibration of IOPs significantly influences the precision of image position determination of SSPIAPs. IOPs can be precisely measured and calibrated in a laboratory. However, they may drift to a significant degree because of vibrations during complicated launches and on-orbit functioning. Therefore, laboratory calibration methods are not suitable for on-orbit functioning. We propose an on-orbit self-calibration method for SSPIAPs. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) point-source focal plane. A MEMS procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point light sources and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter and the MEMS point light sources focal plane are integrated into an SSPIAP so it can perform integrated self-calibration. Experiments show that our method can achieve micrometer-level precision, which is good enough to complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations. PMID:27472339

  18. High-Accuracy Self-Calibration for Smart, Optical Orbiting Payloads Integrated with Attitude and Position Determination.

    PubMed

    Li, Jin; Xing, Fei; Chu, Daping; Liu, Zilong

    2016-01-01

    A high-accuracy space smart payload integrated with attitude and position (SSPIAP) is a new type of optical remote sensor that can autonomously complete image positioning. Inner orientation parameters (IOPs) are a prerequisite for image position determination of an SSPIAP. The calibration of IOPs significantly influences the precision of image position determination of SSPIAPs. IOPs can be precisely measured and calibrated in a laboratory. However, they may drift to a significant degree because of vibrations during complicated launches and on-orbit functioning. Therefore, laboratory calibration methods are not suitable for on-orbit functioning. We propose an on-orbit self-calibration method for SSPIAPs. Our method is based on an auto-collimating dichroic filter combined with a micro-electro-mechanical system (MEMS) point-source focal plane. A MEMS procedure is used to manufacture a light transceiver focal plane, which integrates with point light sources and a complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) sensor. A dichroic filter is used to fabricate an auto-collimation light reflection element. The dichroic filter and the MEMS point light sources focal plane are integrated into an SSPIAP so it can perform integrated self-calibration. Experiments show that our method can achieve micrometer-level precision, which is good enough to complete real-time calibration without temporal or spatial limitations.

  19. A new sensor system for accurate and precise determination of sediment dynamics and position.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maniatis, Georgios; Hoey, Trevor; Sventek, Joseph; Hodge, Rebecca

    2014-05-01

    ), with sampling frequency 4 to 10Hz, for two different initial positions over a range of slopes (from 0.026 to 0.57). The results reveal forces during the pre-entrainment phase and show the effect of slope on the temporal characteristics of the process. Finally we present results from the simulations using a mathematical framework developed to integrate the inertial-dynamics data (corresponding to the above experimental procedure and sensing conceptualization) [Abeywardana et al. 2012] with the mathematical techniques used in contemporary localization applications [Zanella et al. 2012]. We specifically assess different signal filtering techniques in terms of: a) how informative they are regarding the complexity of sediment movement; and, b) how possible it is to reduce rapidly accumulating errors that occur during sensing and increase positional accuracy. References Maniatis, G.; Hoey, T.; Sventek, J. Sensor Enclosures: Example Application and Implications for Data Coherence. J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2, 761-779. Abeywardana, D. K., A. P. Hu, and N. Kularatna. "IPT charged wireless sensor module for river sedimentation detection." Sensors Applications Symposium (SAS), 2012 IEEE. IEEE, 2012. Zannella, Fillipo, and Angelo Cenedese. "Multi-agent tracking in wireless sensor networks: implementation." WSEAS Int. Conf. on Information Technology and Computer Networks (ITCN). 2012.

  20. Intramitochondrial positions of cytochrome haem groups determined by dipolar interactions with paramagnetic cations.

    PubMed Central

    Case, G D; Leigh, J S

    1976-01-01

    c or cytochrome oxidase. The present observations strongly suggest that cytochromes bK, br and c1 reside on the exterior surface of the inner mitochondrial membrane. On the other hand, we find no positive evidence for the location of cytochrome c or cytochrome oxidase haem groups within 1 nm of either membrane surface. Because of possible shielding effects from the protein moieties, however, we cannot unequivocally assign the location of the haem groups to the membrane interior. The present results are not inconsistent with the observations of other investigators who used different techniques. However, it is clear that any model of energy coupling in mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation must account for the positioning of all the b-c cytochrome haem groups on the outside. PMID:189758

  1. False-positive rate determination of protein target discovery using a covalent modification- and mass spectrometry-based proteomics platform.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Erin C; Geer, M Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2% and <0.8% are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false-positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  2. False-Positive Rate Determination of Protein Target Discovery using a Covalent Modification- and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics Platform

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Erin C.; Geer, M. Ariel; Hong, Jiyong; Fitzgerald, Michael C.

    2014-01-01

    Detection and quantitation of protein-ligand binding interactions is important in many areas of biological research. Stability of proteins from rates of oxidation (SPROX) is an energetics-based technique for identifying the proteins targets of ligands in complex biological mixtures. Knowing the false-positive rate of protein target discovery in proteome-wide SPROX experiments is important for the correct interpretation of results. Reported here are the results of a control SPROX experiment in which chemical denaturation data is obtained on the proteins in two samples that originated from the same yeast lysate, as would be done in a typical SPROX experiment except that one sample would be spiked with the test ligand. False-positive rates of 1.2-2.2 % and <0.8 % are calculated for SPROX experiments using Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometer systems, respectively. Our results indicate that the false-positive rate is largely determined by random errors associated with the mass spectral analysis of the isobaric mass tag (e.g., iTRAQ®) reporter ions used for peptide quantitation. Our results also suggest that technical replicates can be used to effectively eliminate such false positives that result from this random error, as is demonstrated in a SPROX experiment to identify yeast protein targets of the drug, manassantin A. The impact of ion purity in the tandem mass spectral analyses and of background oxidation on the false-positive rate of protein target discovery using SPROX is also discussed.

  3. The position of lysosomes within the cell determines their luminal pH.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Danielle E; Ostrowski, Philip; Jaumouillé, Valentin; Grinstein, Sergio

    2016-03-14

    We examined the luminal pH of individual lysosomes using quantitative ratiometric fluorescence microscopy and report an unappreciated heterogeneity: peripheral lysosomes are less acidic than juxtanuclear ones despite their comparable buffering capacity. An increased passive (leak) permeability to protons, together with reduced vacuolar H(+)-adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) activity, accounts for the reduced acidifying ability of peripheral lysosomes. The altered composition of peripheral lysosomes is due, at least in part, to more limited access to material exported by the biosynthetic pathway. The balance between Rab7 and Arl8b determines the subcellular localization of lysosomes; more peripheral lysosomes have reduced Rab7 density. This in turn results in decreased recruitment of Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), an effector that regulates the recruitment and stability of the V1G1 component of the lysosomal V-ATPase. Deliberate margination of lysosomes is associated with reduced acidification and impaired proteolytic activity. The heterogeneity in lysosomal pH may be an indication of a broader functional versatility. PMID:26975849

  4. The position of lysosomes within the cell determines their luminal pH

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Danielle E.; Ostrowski, Philip; Jaumouillé, Valentin

    2016-01-01

    We examined the luminal pH of individual lysosomes using quantitative ratiometric fluorescence microscopy and report an unappreciated heterogeneity: peripheral lysosomes are less acidic than juxtanuclear ones despite their comparable buffering capacity. An increased passive (leak) permeability to protons, together with reduced vacuolar H+–adenosine triphosphatase (V-ATPase) activity, accounts for the reduced acidifying ability of peripheral lysosomes. The altered composition of peripheral lysosomes is due, at least in part, to more limited access to material exported by the biosynthetic pathway. The balance between Rab7 and Arl8b determines the subcellular localization of lysosomes; more peripheral lysosomes have reduced Rab7 density. This in turn results in decreased recruitment of Rab-interacting lysosomal protein (RILP), an effector that regulates the recruitment and stability of the V1G1 component of the lysosomal V-ATPase. Deliberate margination of lysosomes is associated with reduced acidification and impaired proteolytic activity. The heterogeneity in lysosomal pH may be an indication of a broader functional versatility. PMID:26975849

  5. Optimal integer resolution for attitude determination using global positioning system signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crassidis, John L.; Markley, F. Landis; Lightsey, E. Glenn

    1998-01-01

    In this paper, a new motion-based algorithm for GPS integer ambiguity resolution is derived. The first step of this algorithm converts the reference sightline vectors into body frame vectors. This is accomplished by an optimal vectorized transformation of the phase difference measurements. The result of this transformation leads to the conversion of the integer ambiguities to vectorized biases. This essentially converts the problem to the familiar magnetometer-bias determination problem, for which an optimal and efficient solution exists. Also, the formulation in this paper is re-derived to provide a sequential estimate, so that a suitable stopping condition can be found during the vehicle motion. The advantages of the new algorithm include: it does not require an a-priori estimate of the vehicle's attitude; it provides an inherent integrity check using a covariance-type expression; and it can sequentially estimate the ambiguities during the vehicle motion. The only disadvantage of the new algorithm is that it requires at least three non-coplanar baselines. The performance of the new algorithm is tested on a dynamic hardware simulator.

  6. Method to determine the position-dependant metal correction factor for dose-rate equivalent laser testing of semiconductor devices

    DOEpatents

    Horn, Kevin M.

    2013-07-09

    A method reconstructs the charge collection from regions beneath opaque metallization of a semiconductor device, as determined from focused laser charge collection response images, and thereby derives a dose-rate dependent correction factor for subsequent broad-area, dose-rate equivalent, laser measurements. The position- and dose-rate dependencies of the charge-collection magnitude of the device are determined empirically and can be combined with a digital reconstruction methodology to derive an accurate metal-correction factor that permits subsequent absolute dose-rate response measurements to be derived from laser measurements alone. Broad-area laser dose-rate testing can thereby be used to accurately determine the peak transient current, dose-rate response of semiconductor devices to penetrating electron, gamma- and x-ray irradiation.

  7. Determination of Lateral Diffusivity in Single Pixel X-ray Absorbers with Implications for Position Dependent Excess Broadening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saab, T.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Iyomoto, N.; Bandler, S. R.; Chervenak, J.; Finkbeiner, F.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C. A.; Porter, F. S.; Sadleir, J.

    2005-01-01

    An ideal microcalorimeter is characterized by a constant energy resolution across the sensor's dynamic range. Any dependence of pulse shape on the position within the absorber where an event occurs leads to a degradation in resolution that is linear with event s energy (excess broadening). In this paper we present a numerical simulation that was developed to model the variation in pulse shape with position based on the thermal conductivity within the absorber and between the absorber, sensor, and heat bath, for arbitrarily shaped absorbers and sensors. All the parameters required for the simulation can be measured from actual devices. We describe how the thermal conductivity of the absorber material is determined by comparing the results of this model with data taken from a position sensitive detector in which any position dependent effect is purposely emphasized by making a long, narrow absorber that is read out by sensors on both end. Finally, we present the implications for excess broadening given the measured parameters of our X-ray microcalorimeters.

  8. A direct method for determining complete positive and negative capillary pressure curves for reservoir rock using the centrifuge

    SciTech Connect

    Spinler, E.A.; Baldwin, B.A.

    1997-08-01

    A method is being developed for direct experimental determination of capillary pressure curves from saturation distributions produced during centrifuging fluids in a rock plug. A free water level is positioned along the length of the plugs to enable simultaneous determination of both positive and negative capillary pressures. Octadecane as the oil phase is solidified by temperature reduction while centrifuging to prevent fluid redistribution upon removal from the centrifuge. The water saturation is then measured via magnetic resonance imaging. The saturation profile within the plug and the calculation of pressures for each point of the saturation profile allows for a complete capillary pressure curve to be determined from one experiment. Centrifuging under oil with a free water level into a 100 percent water saturated plug results in the development of a primary drainage capillary pressure curve. Centrifuging similarly at an initial water saturation in the plug results in the development of an imbibition capillary pressure curve. Examples of these measurements are presented for Berea sandstone and chalk rocks.

  9. Modified Occlusal Rim Design and Use of Phonetics to Determine Anterior Tooth Position and Vertical Dimension: A Clinical Report.

    PubMed

    Romero, Mario F; DeRosa, Thomas A

    2016-06-01

    Prosthetic rehabilitation of edentulous patients can sometimes pose many clinical challenges for the clinician. The importance of correct vertical and horizontal positioning of the anterior teeth so that the completed denture is esthetically pleasing while being functionally correct has been well documented in the literature. Different techniques have been proposed whereby a conventional occlusal rim is used. The wax-rim thickness of this design can interfere with the neutral zone, making normal phonetics difficult. In this report, a completely edentulous patient received treatment using a modified occlusal rim so that phonetics could be used to determine the anterior tooth position and vertical dimension, following a strict adherence to a clinical protocol. The methodology involved the use of heat-processed resin record bases and a thin segment of baseplate wax that mimics anterior teeth. This approach resulted in a more natural feeling for the patient and provided the clinician the necessary information for the laboratory, which was easily communicated. PMID:27525732

  10. Determination of the viscous acoustic field for liquid drop positioning/forcing in an acoustic levitation chamber in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lyell, Margaret J.

    1992-01-01

    The development of acoustic levitation systems has provided a technology with which to undertake droplet studies as well as do containerless processing experiments in a microgravity environment. Acoustic levitation chambers utilize radiation pressure forces to position/manipulate the drop. Oscillations can be induced via frequency modulation of the acoustic wave, with the modulated acoustic radiation vector acting as the driving force. To account for tangential as well as radial forcing, it is necessary that the viscous effects be included in the acoustic field. The method of composite expansions is employed in the determination of the acoustic field with viscous effects.

  11. Determination of the anode wire position by visible light in a new type straw for NA62 experiment tracker

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glonti, L.; Misheva, M.; Potrebenikov, Yu.; Samsonov, V.; Movchan, S.; Enik, T.; Kolesnikov, A.

    2016-07-01

    Microscope investigations of new-type thin-wall tubes (straws) produced for NA62 drift chambers revealed that they are semitransparent and allow anode wires to be observed under illumination by visible light. In this work it is shown that positions of wires in straws and thus the anode spacing in the drift chambers can be directly determined with a high accuracy (~5-10 μm) using a microscope mounted on a high-precision optical bench. These data are important for decreasing errors during reconstruction of charged particle track coordinates in the drift chambers. The proposed technique is much simpler than the X-ray or radioactive source methods.

  12. A new approach to determine the susceptibility of bacteria to antibiotics directly from positive blood culture bottles in two hours.

    PubMed

    March, Gabriel A; García-Loygorri, María C; Simarro, María; Gutiérrez, María P; Orduña, Antonio; Bratos, Miguel A

    2015-02-01

    The rapid identification and antibiotic susceptibility test of bacteria causing bloodstream infections are given a very high priority by clinical laboratories. In an effort to reduce the time required for performing antibiotic susceptibility test (AST), we have developed a new method to be applied from positive blood culture bottles. The design of method was performed using blood culture bottles prepared artificially with five strains which have a known susceptibility. An aliquot of the blood culture was subcultured in the presence of specific antibiotics and bacterial counts were monitored using the Sysmex UF-1000i flow cytometer at different times up to 180min. Receiver operating curve (ROC) analysis allowed us to find out the cut-off point for differentiating between sensitive and resistant strains to the tested antibiotic. This procedure was then validated against standard commercial methods on a total of 100 positive blood culture bottles from patients. First, bacterial identification was performed by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) directly from positive blood culture bottles as we have previously reported. Secondly, antibiotic susceptibility test was performed in the same way that was carried out in artificially prepared blood culture bottles. Our results indicate that antibiotic susceptibility test can be determined as early as 120min since a blood culture bottle is flagged as positive. The essential agreement between our susceptibility test and commercial methods (E-test, MicroScan and Vitek) was 99%. In summary, we conclude that reliable results on bacterial identification and antibiotic susceptibility test performed directly from positive blood culture bottles can be obtained within 3h.

  13. Transinguinal sonographic determination of the position of the femoral head after reposition and follow-up in a spica cast

    PubMed Central

    Nievelstein, Rutger-Jan; Pruijs, Hans E.; de Jong, Pim A.; Sakkers, Ralph J. B.

    2010-01-01

    Background Transinguinal sonography can be used to demonstrate the position of the femoral head after reduction of a dislocated hip. Objective To determine whether transinguinal sonography can replace radiography and CT in the follow-up after reduction of a hip dislocation? Materials and methods Thirty-three children with 39 dislocated hips were followed up with sonography after reduction and immobilization in a spica cast. In cases of an abnormal position a CT scan was advised. A pelvic radiograph at the end of treatment served as an indicator that no dislocations were missed during the previous sonographic examinations. Results The repositioned hips were examined on 138 occasions. Twenty-four examinations were abnormal and CT scanning was performed on 11 occasions. In four children additional CT was done because a recurrent dislocation was suspected or because sonography was difficult to perform. No dislocations were demonstrated. In five children a recurrent dislocation was suspected, on one or more occasions. In all but one child a CT scan was performed that confirmed the dislocation. Conclusion Transinguinal sonography is well-suited to demonstrate a normal position of the femoral head in a spica cast. Transinguinal sonography decreases the number of radiographs and CT scans and reduces the exposure to ionizing radiation. PMID:20552186

  14. Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes.

    PubMed

    Eloranta, Antti P; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Harrod, Chris; Jones, Roger I

    2015-04-01

    Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic high-latitude lakes. We analyzed food-web structure and resource use by a generalist top predator, the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in 17 oligotrophic subarctic lakes covering a marked gradient in size (0.5-1084 km(2)) and fish species richness (2-13 species). We expected top predators to shift from littoral to pelagic energy sources with increasing lake size, as the availability of pelagic prey resources and the competition for littoral prey are both likely to be higher in large lakes with multispecies fish communities. We also expected top predators to occupy a higher trophic position in lakes with greater fish species richness due to potential substitution of intermediate consumers (prey fish) and increased piscivory by top predators. Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, the mean reliance of Arctic charr on littoral energy sources showed a significant negative relationship with lake surface area, whereas the mean trophic position of Arctic charr, reflecting the lake food-chain length, increased with fish species richness. These results were supported by stomach contents data demonstrating a shift of Arctic charr from an invertebrate-dominated diet to piscivory on pelagic fish. Our study highlights that, because they determine the main energy source (littoral vs. pelagic) and the trophic position of generalist top predators, ecosystem size and fish diversity are particularly important factors influencing function and

  15. Lake size and fish diversity determine resource use and trophic position of a top predator in high-latitude lakes

    PubMed Central

    Eloranta, Antti P; Kahilainen, Kimmo K; Amundsen, Per-Arne; Knudsen, Rune; Harrod, Chris; Jones, Roger I

    2015-01-01

    Prey preference of top predators and energy flow across habitat boundaries are of fundamental importance for structure and function of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, as they may have strong effects on production, species diversity, and food-web stability. In lakes, littoral and pelagic food-web compartments are typically coupled and controlled by generalist fish top predators. However, the extent and determinants of such coupling remains a topical area of ecological research and is largely unknown in oligotrophic high-latitude lakes. We analyzed food-web structure and resource use by a generalist top predator, the Arctic charr Salvelinus alpinus (L.), in 17 oligotrophic subarctic lakes covering a marked gradient in size (0.5–1084 km2) and fish species richness (2–13 species). We expected top predators to shift from littoral to pelagic energy sources with increasing lake size, as the availability of pelagic prey resources and the competition for littoral prey are both likely to be higher in large lakes with multispecies fish communities. We also expected top predators to occupy a higher trophic position in lakes with greater fish species richness due to potential substitution of intermediate consumers (prey fish) and increased piscivory by top predators. Based on stable carbon and nitrogen isotope analyses, the mean reliance of Arctic charr on littoral energy sources showed a significant negative relationship with lake surface area, whereas the mean trophic position of Arctic charr, reflecting the lake food-chain length, increased with fish species richness. These results were supported by stomach contents data demonstrating a shift of Arctic charr from an invertebrate-dominated diet to piscivory on pelagic fish. Our study highlights that, because they determine the main energy source (littoral vs. pelagic) and the trophic position of generalist top predators, ecosystem size and fish diversity are particularly important factors influencing function and

  16. [Determining the car driver's position at the moment of the frontal crash with a moving KAMAZ truck].

    PubMed

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical and autotechnical expertise for determining the positions of the driver and the first seat passenger of the GAS-3110 car at the moment of the frontal crash with a KAMAZ-5312 truck. The comparative analysis of the injuries in two subjects one of whom died as a result of the given accident made it possible to conclude that he had occupied the driver's seat in the car. The differential diagnosis was based on the peculiarities of the injuries to the upper extremities with the predominance of the most severe wounds at the right side of the body. Also taken into consideration were the specific conditions of the given frontal collision, design of the GAS-3110 passenger compartment, winter season, night time, and possible neglect of the passive safety means, etc.

  17. [Determining the car driver's position at the moment of the frontal crash with a moving KAMAZ truck].

    PubMed

    Gusarov, A A; Fetisov, V A; Smirenin, S A

    2016-01-01

    This article is designed to report the results of the comprehensive forensic medical and autotechnical expertise for determining the positions of the driver and the first seat passenger of the GAS-3110 car at the moment of the frontal crash with a KAMAZ-5312 truck. The comparative analysis of the injuries in two subjects one of whom died as a result of the given accident made it possible to conclude that he had occupied the driver's seat in the car. The differential diagnosis was based on the peculiarities of the injuries to the upper extremities with the predominance of the most severe wounds at the right side of the body. Also taken into consideration were the specific conditions of the given frontal collision, design of the GAS-3110 passenger compartment, winter season, night time, and possible neglect of the passive safety means, etc. PMID:27239771

  18. Evaluation of TMJ by conventional transcranial radiography and indirect digitized images to determine condylar position in primary dentition.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Luciano José; Bonjardim, Leonardo Rigoldi; Castelo, Paula Midori; Haiter Neto, Francisco; Gavião, Maria Beatriz Duarte

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate temporomandibular joint radiographs of children in primary dentition, obtained by conventional transcranial radiography, indirect digitization, digitized images using 3D and brightness/contrast tools. Condyle position was also determined measuring anterior, superior and posterior joint space. The X-Ray machine GE-1000 and the head positioner Accurad 200 were used. Radiographs were digitized using a scanner with transparency and registered in Adobe Photoshop 5.0. Images were evaluated by four examiners as follows: 0--unacceptably quality; 1--poorly diagnostic quality; 2--optimal visualization quality. Articular space was measured using a digital caliper. A significant difference (Sign Test) was found between conventional radiography and the remaining modalities (Conventional/Unenhanced p<0.001; Conventional/3D p<0.001; Conventional/Brightness and Contrast p=0.017). The mean distance of anterior, superior and posterior regions was 2.2(0.5), 3.5(0.9) and 3.9(1.2) mm, respectively. Conventional and brightness/contrast digitized radiographs showed higher diagnostic quality. The posterior joint space was larger than the anterior one, demonstrating anterior condylar position. PMID:15163152

  19. Do release-site biases reflect response to the Earth's magnetic field during position determination by homing pigeons?

    PubMed Central

    Mora, Cordula V.; Walker, Michael M.

    2009-01-01

    How homing pigeons (Columba livia) return to their loft from distant, unfamiliar sites has long been a mystery. At many release sites, untreated birds consistently vanish from view in a direction different from the home direction, a phenomenon called the release-site bias. These deviations in flight direction have been implicated in the position determination (or map) step of navigation because they may reflect local distortions in information about location that the birds obtain from the geophysical environment at the release site. Here, we performed a post hoc analysis of the relationship between vanishing bearings and local variations in magnetic intensity using previously published datasets for pigeons homing to lofts in Germany. Vanishing bearings of both experienced and naïve birds were strongly associated with magnetic intensity variations at release sites, with 90 per cent of bearings lying within ±29° of the magnetic intensity slope or contour direction. Our results (i) demonstrate that pigeons respond in an orderly manner to the local structure of the magnetic field at release sites, (ii) provide a mechanism for the occurrence of release-site biases and (iii) suggest that pigeons may derive spatial information from the magnetic field at the release site that could be used to estimate their current position relative to their loft. PMID:19556255

  20. Isotopic Methods for Determining the Relative Importance of Bioavailability Versus Trophic Position in Controlling Mercury Concentrations in Everglades Mosquitofish

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bemis, B. E.; Kendall, C.

    2007-12-01

    activity, methylmercury production, and mosquitofish mercury concentrations. The d15N, d13C, and d34S values of mosquitofish and periphyton are significantly correlated, indicating that a component of the bulk periphyton analyzed in this study is part of the mosquitofish food web. Mosquitofish mercury does not correlate significantly with tissue d15N or the d15N difference between mosquitofish and periphyton. Thus, differences in trophic level (and bioaccumulation) among the fish do not contribute a detectable influence on mercury variations in the samples studied. In contrast with the d15N results, mosquitofish mercury levels show significant, positive correlations with mosquitofish d34S and the d34S difference between mosquitofish and periphyton. This suggests that during the period studied, mosquitofish mercury concentrations in the Everglades were primarily influenced by the bioavailability of mercury, rather than by differences in trophic position. This study demonstrates that isotopic measurements, especially d34S, can be useful tools for determining causes of high mercury concentrations in fish populations.

  1. Contribution of residential wood combustion to hourly winter aerosol in Northern Sweden determined by positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Hedberg Larsson, E.; Ström, J.; Johansson, C.

    2008-03-01

    The combined effect of residential wood combustion (RWC) emissions with stable atmospheric conditions, which is a frequent occurrence in Northern Sweden during wintertime, can deteriorate the air quality even in small towns. To estimate the contribution of RWC to the total atmospheric aerosol loading, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to hourly mean particle number size distributions measured in a residential area in Lycksele during winter 2005/2006. The sources were identified based on the particle number size distribution profiles of the PMF factors, the diurnal contributions patterns estimated by PMF for both weekends and weekdays, and correlation of the modeled particle number concentration per factor with measured aerosol mass concentrations (PM10, PM1, and light-absorbing carbon MLAC). Through these analyses, the factors were identified as local traffic (factor 1), local RWC (factor 2), and local RWC plus long-range transport (LRT) of aerosols (factor 3). In some occasions, it was difficult to detach the contributions of local RWC from background concentrations since their particle number size distributions partially overlapped and the model was not able to separate these two sources. As a consequence, we report the contribution of RWC as a range of values, being the minimum determined by factor 2 and the possible maximum as the contributions of both factors 2 and 3. A multiple linear regression (MLR) of observed PM10, PM1, total particle number, and MLAC concentrations is carried out to determine the source contribution to these aerosol variables. The results reveal RWC is an important source of atmospheric particles in the size range 25-606 nm (44-57%), PM10 (36-82%), PM1 (31-83%), and MLAC (40-76%) mass concentrations in the winter season. The contribution from RWC is especially large on weekends between 18:00 LT and midnight whereas local traffic emissions show similar contributions every day.

  2. Contribution of residential wood combustion and other sources to hourly winter aerosol in Northern Sweden determined by positive matrix factorization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krecl, P.; Hedberg Larsson, E.; Ström, J.; Johansson, C.

    2008-07-01

    The combined effect of residential wood combustion (RWC) emissions with stable atmospheric conditions, which frequently occurs in Northern Sweden during wintertime, can deteriorate the air quality even in small towns. To estimate the contribution of RWC to the total atmospheric aerosol loading, positive matrix factorization (PMF) was applied to hourly mean particle number size distributions measured in a residential area in Lycksele during winter 2005/2006. The sources were identified based on the particle number size distribution profiles of the PMF factors, the diurnal contributions patterns estimated by PMF for both weekends and weekdays, and correlation of the modeled particle number concentration per factor with measured aerosol mass concentrations (PM10, PM1, and light-absorbing carbon MLAC) Through these analyses, the factors were identified as local traffic (factor 1), local RWC (factor 2), and local RWC plus long-range transport (LRT) of aerosols (factor 3). In some occasions, the PMF model could not separate the contributions of local RWC from background concentrations since their particle number size distributions partially overlapped. As a consequence, we report the contribution of RWC as a range of values, being the minimum determined by factor 2 and the possible maximum as the contributions of both factors 2 and 3. A multiple linear regression (MLR) of observed PM10, PM1, total particle number, and MLAC concentrations is carried out to determine the source contribution to these aerosol variables. The results reveal RWC is an important source of atmospheric particles in the size range 25 606 nm (44 57%), PM10 (36 82%), PM1 (31 83%), and MLAC (40 76%) mass concentrations in the winter season. The contribution from RWC is especially large on weekends between 18:00 LT and midnight whereas local traffic emissions show similar contributions every day.

  3. Determinants of positive and negative consequences of alcohol consumption in college students: alcohol use, gender, and psychological characteristics.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Grant, Christoffer

    2005-05-01

    To examine the influence of alcohol consumption, gender, and psychological risk and protective factors on college students' experiences of negative and positive consequences, the present study of 181 students assessed frequency and quantity of alcohol consumption, negative and positive consequences of alcohol use, positive alcohol expectancies, constructive thinking, and positive and negative affect. Results indicated that men and women differed in their experience of some consequences and that while alcohol consumption was generally more strongly related to consequences for women than for men, it was unrelated to most consequences. Further, when controlling for alcohol consumption, positive alcohol expectancies and negative affect were positively related to experiencing positive and negative consequences while constructive thinking was related to fewer positive and fewer negative consequences. Results indicate that consequences are much more strongly related to psychological risk and protective factors than to alcohol consumption. The article concludes with a discussion of implications for intervention efforts.

  4. Determination of the positions and orientations of concentrated rod-like colloids from 3D microscopy data.

    PubMed

    Besseling, T H; Hermes, M; Kuijk, A; de Nijs, B; Deng, T-S; Dijkstra, M; Imhof, A; van Blaaderen, A

    2015-05-20

    Confocal microscopy in combination with real-space particle tracking has proven to be a powerful tool in scientific fields such as soft matter physics, materials science and cell biology. However, 3D tracking of anisotropic particles in concentrated phases remains not as optimized compared to algorithms for spherical particles. To address this problem, we developed a new particle-fitting algorithm that can extract the positions and orientations of fluorescent rod-like particles from three dimensional confocal microscopy data stacks. The algorithm is tailored to work even when the fluorescent signals of the particles overlap considerably and a threshold method and subsequent clusters analysis alone do not suffice. We demonstrate that our algorithm correctly identifies all five coordinates of uniaxial particles in both a concentrated disordered phase and a liquid-crystalline smectic-B phase. Apart from confocal microscopy images, we also demonstrate that the algorithm can be used to identify nanorods in 3D electron tomography reconstructions. Lastly, we determined the accuracy of the algorithm using both simulated and experimental confocal microscopy data-stacks of diffusing silica rods in a dilute suspension. This novel particle-fitting algorithm allows for the study of structure and dynamics in both dilute and dense liquid-crystalline phases (such as nematic, smectic and crystalline phases) as well as the study of the glass transition of rod-like particles in three dimensions on the single particle level. PMID:25922931

  5. Measurement of the positive muon lifetime and determination of the Fermi constant to part-per-million precision.

    PubMed

    Webber, D M; Tishchenko, V; Peng, Q; Battu, S; Carey, R M; Chitwood, D B; Crnkovic, J; Debevec, P T; Dhamija, S; Earle, W; Gafarov, A; Giovanetti, K; Gorringe, T P; Gray, F E; Hartwig, Z; Hertzog, D W; Johnson, B; Kammel, P; Kiburg, B; Kizilgul, S; Kunkle, J; Lauss, B; Logashenko, I; Lynch, K R; McNabb, R; Miller, J P; Mulhauser, F; Onderwater, C J G; Phillips, J; Rath, S; Roberts, B L; Winter, P; Wolfe, B

    2011-01-28

    We report a measurement of the positive muon lifetime to a precision of 1.0 ppm; it is the most precise particle lifetime ever measured. The experiment used a time-structured, low-energy muon beam and a segmented plastic scintillator array to record more than 2×10(12) decays. Two different stopping target configurations were employed in independent data-taking periods. The combined results give τ(μ(+)) (MuLan)=2 196 980.3(2.2)  ps, more than 15 times as precise as any previous experiment. The muon lifetime gives the most precise value for the Fermi constant: G(F) (MuLan)=1.166 378 8(7)×10(-5)  GeV(-2) (0.6 ppm). It is also used to extract the μ(-)p singlet capture rate, which determines the proton's weak induced pseudoscalar coupling g(P).

  6. Stereoscopic ground-based determination of the cloud base height: theory of camera position calibration with account for lens distortion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulichkov, Alexey I.; Postylyakov, Oleg V.

    2016-05-01

    For the reconstruction of some geometrical characteristics of clouds a method was developed based on taking pictures of the sky by a pair of digital photo cameras and subsequent processing of the obtained sequence of stereo frames to obtain the height of the cloud base. Since the directions of the optical axes of the stereo cameras are not exactly known, a procedure of adjusting of obtained frames was developed which use photographs of the night starry sky. In the second step, the method of the morphological analysis of images is used to determine the relative shift of the coordinates of some fragment of cloud. The shift is used to estimate the searched cloud base height. The proposed method can be used for automatic processing of stereo data and getting the cloud base height. The earlier paper described a mathematical model of stereophotography measurement, poses and solves the problem of adjusting of optical axes of the cameras in paraxial (first-order geometric optics) approximation and was applied for the central part of the sky frames. This paper describes the model of experiment which takes into account lens distortion in Seidel approximation (depending on the third order of the distance from optical axis). We developed procedure of simultaneous camera position calibration and estimation of parameters of lens distortion in Seidel approximation.

  7. 5 CFR 595.103 - What requirements must agencies establish for determining which physician positions are covered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... positions: (1) Positions primarily involving the practice of medicine or direct service to patients... identification of causes or sources of disease or disease outbreaks; (3) Positions primarily involving the..., clinics, public health programs, diagnostic centers, and similar settings, but not including...

  8. An Evaluation of Two Internal Surrogates for Determining the Three-Dimensional Position of Peripheral Lung Tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Spoelstra, Femke Soernsen de Koste, John R. van; Vincent, Andrew; Cuijpers, Johan P.; Slotman, Ben J.; Senan, Suresh

    2009-06-01

    Purpose: Both carina and diaphragm positions have been used as surrogates during respiratory-gated radiotherapy. We studied the correlation of both surrogates with three-dimensional (3D) tumor position. Methods and Materials: A total of 59 repeat artifact-free four-dimensional (4D) computed tomography (CT) scans, acquired during uncoached breathing, were identified in 23 patients with Stage I lung cancer. Repeat scans were co-registered to the initial 4D CT scan, and tumor, carina, and ipsilateral diaphragm were manually contoured in all phases of each 4D CT data set. Correlation between positions of carina and diaphragm with 3D tumor position was studied by use of log-likelihood ratio statistics. Models to predict 3D tumor position from internal surrogates at end inspiration (EI) and end expiration (EE) were developed, and model accuracy was tested by calculating SDs of differences between predicted and actual tumor positions. Results: Motion of both the carina and diaphragm significantly correlated with tumor motion, but log-likelihood ratios indicated that the carina was more predictive for tumor position. When craniocaudal tumor position was predicted by use of craniocaudal carina positions, the SDs of the differences between the predicted and observed positions were 2.2 mm and 2.4 mm at EI and EE, respectively. The corresponding SDs derived with the diaphragm positions were 3.7 mm and 3.9 mm at EI and EE, respectively. Prediction errors in the other directions were comparable. Prediction accuracy was similar at EI and EE. Conclusions: The carina is a better surrogate of 3D tumor position than diaphragm position. Because residual prediction errors were observed in this analysis, additional studies will be performed using audio-coached scans.

  9. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... placement or retention of individuals in positions involving regular contact with Indian children? 136.414... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family Violence... positions involving regular contact with Indian children? (a) Adjudication is the process IHS uses...

  10. Satellite positioning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombo, Oscar L.; Watkins, Michael M.

    1991-01-01

    Developments in satellite positioning techniques and their applications are reviewed on the basis of the theoretical and practical work published by U.S. researchers in 1987-1990. Current techniques are classified into two main categories: satellite laser tracking and radio tracking. Particular attention is given to the Geoscience Laser Ranging System, the Lunar Laser Ranging concept; GPS ephemerides determination, fiducial networks, and reference frame; static GPS positioning; and kinematic GPS positioning.

  11. Repulsive cues combined with physical barriers and cell–cell adhesion determine progenitor cell positioning during organogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Paksa, Azadeh; Bandemer, Jan; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Razin, Nitzan; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Minina, Sofia; Meyen, Dana; Biundo, Antonio; Leidel, Sebastian A.; Peyrieras, Nadine; Gov, Nir S.; Keller, Philipp J.; Raz, Erez

    2016-01-01

    The precise positioning of organ progenitor cells constitutes an essential, yet poorly understood step during organogenesis. Using primordial germ cells that participate in gonad formation, we present the developmental mechanisms maintaining a motile progenitor cell population at the site where the organ develops. Employing high-resolution live-cell microscopy, we find that repulsive cues coupled with physical barriers confine the cells to the correct bilateral positions. This analysis revealed that cell polarity changes on interaction with the physical barrier and that the establishment of compact clusters involves increased cell–cell interaction time. Using particle-based simulations, we demonstrate the role of reflecting barriers, from which cells turn away on contact, and the importance of proper cell–cell adhesion level for maintaining the tight cell clusters and their correct positioning at the target region. The combination of these developmental and cellular mechanisms prevents organ fusion, controls organ positioning and is thus critical for its proper function. PMID:27088892

  12. Repulsive cues combined with physical barriers and cell-cell adhesion determine progenitor cell positioning during organogenesis.

    PubMed

    Paksa, Azadeh; Bandemer, Jan; Hoeckendorf, Burkhard; Razin, Nitzan; Tarbashevich, Katsiaryna; Minina, Sofia; Meyen, Dana; Biundo, Antonio; Leidel, Sebastian A; Peyrieras, Nadine; Gov, Nir S; Keller, Philipp J; Raz, Erez

    2016-04-18

    The precise positioning of organ progenitor cells constitutes an essential, yet poorly understood step during organogenesis. Using primordial germ cells that participate in gonad formation, we present the developmental mechanisms maintaining a motile progenitor cell population at the site where the organ develops. Employing high-resolution live-cell microscopy, we find that repulsive cues coupled with physical barriers confine the cells to the correct bilateral positions. This analysis revealed that cell polarity changes on interaction with the physical barrier and that the establishment of compact clusters involves increased cell-cell interaction time. Using particle-based simulations, we demonstrate the role of reflecting barriers, from which cells turn away on contact, and the importance of proper cell-cell adhesion level for maintaining the tight cell clusters and their correct positioning at the target region. The combination of these developmental and cellular mechanisms prevents organ fusion, controls organ positioning and is thus critical for its proper function.

  13. Evaluation of routine postoperative chest roentgenogram for determination of the correct position of permanent central venous catheters tip

    PubMed Central

    Salimi, Fereshteh; Hekmatnia, Ali; Shahabi, Javad; Keshavarzian, Amir; Maracy, Mohammad Reza; Jazi, Amir Hosein Davarpanah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Proper placement of central venous catheter (CVC) tip could reduce early and late catheter-related complications. Although the live fluoroscopy is standard of care for placement of the catheter, it is not available in many centers. Therefore, the present study evaluated the sensitivity and specificity of bedside chest X-ray (CXR) for proper positioning of the catheter tip. Materials and Methods: A total of 82 adult patients undergoing elective placement of tunneled CVC were enrolled in this study during 2010-2012. The catheter tip position was evaluated by postoperative bedside chest radiographs as well as trans-thoracic echocardiogram as definite diagnostic tool. The catheter position was considered correct if the tip was positioned in the right atrium both in CXR or echocardiography. Finally, CXRs interpreted by expert radiologist. Thus findings were compared by echocardiography. Sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive, and negative predictive values were calculated. Data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 (SPSS Inc., Chicago, IL), and P < 0.05 considered as significant. Results: The patients were 57.37 ± 18.91 years of age, weighed 65.79 ± 15.58 kg and were 166.36 ± 9.91 cm tall. Sensitivity and specificity of CXR for proper catheter tip position were 74.3% and 58.3%, respectively. Positive and negative predictive values were 91.2% and 28%. In addition accuracy, positive likelihood ratio, and negative likelihood ratio were 71.9%, 1.78, and 2.27 respectively. Conclusion: Bedside CXR alone does not reliably predict malpositioning after CVC placement. PMID:25767527

  14. Social determinants of syphilis in South China: the effect of sibling position on syphilis and sexual risk behaviours

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Joseph D; Young, Darwin; Yang, Ligang; Yang, Bin; Adimora, Adaora A

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the relationship between sibling position and sexual risk based on behavioural and syphilis infection data from sexually transmitted infection (STI) patients in South China. Design A cross-sectional study examining sexual behaviours and syphilis infection. Setting 4 STI clinics in the Pearl River Delta of South China. Participants 1792 Chinese men and women attending STI clinics. Primary outcome measures STI history, syphilis infection defined as positive non-treponemal and treponemal tests. Results Among all clinic patients, 824 (46.3%) were first-born, 354 (19.9%) were middle-born and 602 (33.8%) were final-born. Middle-born individuals had a higher percentage of reported STI history (44.7% compared to 34.7%, p<0.001) and syphilis infection (9.7% compared to 4.9%, p=0.01) among men (n=1163) compared to other sibling positions in bivariate analyses, but not in the final multivariate model. The relationship between sibling position and syphilis was independent of income and education level. There was no trend observed between middle-born position and female sexual risk behaviours (n=626). Higher education was significantly associated with syphilis among women and men in respective multivariate models. Conclusions This study suggests that middle-born men in China may have an increased sexual risk compared to other sibling positions. As Chinese family and social structures change, a more thorough understanding of how demographic factors influence sexual risk behaviours is needed. PMID:23793689

  15. Orbit determination of LAGEOS and STARLETTE and the position estimation of the European laser tracking stations at Kootwijk, Wettzell, Grasse and Metsahovi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wakker, K. F.; Ambrosius, B. A. C.

    1983-01-01

    The positions of the European laser tracking stations were determined by separately processing LAGEOS and STARLETTE five-day and two-revolution data arcs. Range residual rms's and the recovered apparent range and timing biases of the five-day arc solutions are reported. Mutual differences between LAGEOS and STARLETTE solutions for station positions are given. Discrepancies between European, NASA, and Texas University baselines and solutions are discussed.

  16. Determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of the geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, E.; Kaiser, G.

    2003-04-01

    The paper is concerned with the determination of the second sectorial harmonic parameters of geopotential using the positional observations of the geosynchronous satellites at the Kourovka Astronomical Observatory. The calculated corrections Delta C_{22} and Delta S_{22} for the geopotential model JGM-3 are equal to Delta C_{22}=(-2.6 ± 1.4) * 10(-10) , Delta S_{22}=(-3.1 ± 0.9) * 10(-10) . From ads Wed Jan 12 06:25:03 2005 Return-Path: Received: (from ads@localhost) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) id j0CBP3DC007102; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:25:03 -0500 (EST) Received: from cfa.harvard.edu (cfa.harvard.edu [131.142.10.1]) by head.cfa.harvard.edu (d/w) with ESMTP id j0CBOeKD007030 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:41 -0500 (EST) Received: from uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (mao.gluk.org [194.183.183.193]) by cfa.harvard.edu (8.12.9-20030924/8.12.9/cfunix Mast-Sol 1.0) with ESMTP id j0CBOXgu026863 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 06:24:35 -0500 (EST) Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (root@maoling.mao.kiev.ua [194.44.216.101]) by uqbar.mao.kiev.ua (8.11.6/8.11.6) with ESMTP id j0CBOVv08377 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:31 +0200 Received: from maoling.mao.kiev.ua (gallaz@localhost [127.0.0.1]) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) with ESMTP id j0CBOTPb014668 for ; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Received: (from gallaz@localhost) by maoling.mao.kiev.ua (8.12.3/8.12.3/Debian-7.1) id j0CBOTgq014666 for ads@cfa.harvard.edu; Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 Date: Wed, 12 Jan 2005 13:24:29 +0200 From: "Galina A. Lazorenko" Message-Id: <200501121124.j0CBOTgq014666@maoling.mao.kiev.ua> To: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Virus-Scanned: ClamAV 0.80/650/Mon Jan 3 05:00:02 2005 clamav-milter version 0.80j on maoling.mao.kiev.ua X-Virus-Status: Clean X-Loop: ads@cfa.harvard.edu X-Loop: ads@head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Checker-Version: SpamAssassin 2.64 (2004-01-11) on head.cfa.harvard.edu X-Spam-Level: * X

  17. 5 CFR 595.103 - What requirements must agencies establish for determining which physician positions are covered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... performance of preemployment examinations, preventive health screenings, or fitness-for-duty examinations; and..., clinics, public health programs, diagnostic centers, and similar settings, but not including positions... research and experimental work, including the conduct of medical work pertaining to food, drugs,...

  18. 5 CFR 595.103 - What requirements must agencies establish for determining which physician positions are covered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... performance of preemployment examinations, preventive health screenings, or fitness-for-duty examinations; and..., clinics, public health programs, diagnostic centers, and similar settings, but not including positions... research and experimental work, including the conduct of medical work pertaining to food, drugs,...

  19. 5 CFR 595.103 - What requirements must agencies establish for determining which physician positions are covered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... performance of preemployment examinations, preventive health screenings, or fitness-for-duty examinations; and..., clinics, public health programs, diagnostic centers, and similar settings, but not including positions... research and experimental work, including the conduct of medical work pertaining to food, drugs,...

  20. 5 CFR 595.103 - What requirements must agencies establish for determining which physician positions are covered?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... performance of preemployment examinations, preventive health screenings, or fitness-for-duty examinations; and..., clinics, public health programs, diagnostic centers, and similar settings, but not including positions... research and experimental work, including the conduct of medical work pertaining to food, drugs,...

  1. An Action Research Project to Determine the Utility of Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support for Elementary School Bullying Prevention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman-Scott, Emily; Doyle, Beth; Brott, Pamelia

    2014-01-01

    A trio of researchers presents a case study from a practical, participatory action research project to demonstrate how one school district implemented a school-wide bullying prevention initiative for all elementary schools based on Bully Prevention in Positive Behavior Support (BP-PBS). The purpose of this manuscript is to discuss the process of…

  2. Quantitative analysis of surface atom positions in a thick crystal as determined by a reconstructed exit wave.

    PubMed

    Kawasaki, Tadahiro; Taya, Masaki; Takai, Yoshizo

    2003-01-01

    Atomic structures of an Au (110) 2 x 1 reconstructed surface were analysed quantitatively using an exit wave reconstructed by the three-dimensional Fourier filtering method in high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. To reconstruct the exit wave in a relatively thick crystal, a practical criterion was proposed in the present analysis. In the 'pseudo-exit wave' obtained by the proposed criterion, relaxation of surface atoms was clearly visible in the top three layers. The atoms' displacement was measured to be about 5-20 pm. For quantitative analysis of the atom column positions, image contrast calculations were performed using a structural model of the Au (110) reconstructed surface. Calculations confirmed that the reconstructed pseudo-exit wave could represent the atom column positions directly with an accuracy of several pm, even for a relaxed surface, provided the sample thickness was <7 nm.

  3. Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants.

    PubMed

    Wojewoda, Christina M; Sercia, Linda; Navas, Maria; Tuohy, Marion; Wilson, Deborah; Hall, Geraldine S; Procop, Gary W; Richter, Sandra S

    2013-07-01

    Rapid identification of pathogens from blood cultures can decrease lengths of stay and improve patient outcomes. We evaluated the accuracy of the Verigene Gram-positive blood culture (BC-GP) nucleic acid test for investigational use only (Nanosphere, Inc., Northbrook, IL) for the identification of Gram-positive bacteria from blood cultures. The detection of resistance genes (mecA in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis and vanA or vanB in Enterococcus faecium and Enterococcus faecalis) by the BC-GP assay also was assessed. A total of 186 positive blood cultures (in BacT/Alert FA bottles) with Gram-positive cocci observed with Gram staining were analyzed using the BC-GP assay. The BC-GP results were compared with the identification and susceptibility profiles obtained with routine methods in the clinical laboratory. Discordant results were arbitrated with additional biochemical, cefoxitin disk, and repeat BC-GP testing. The initial BC-GP organism identification was concordant with routine method results for 94.6% of the blood cultures. Only 40% of the Streptococcus pneumoniae identifications were correct. The detection of the mecA gene for 69 blood cultures with only S. aureus or S. epidermidis was concordant with susceptibility testing results. For 3 of 6 cultures with multiple Staphylococcus spp., mecA detection was reported but was correlated with oxacillin resistance in a species other than S. aureus or S. epidermidis. The detection of vanA agreed with susceptibility testing results for 45 of 46 cultures with E. faecalis or E. faecium. Comparison of the mean times to results for each organism group showed that BC-GP results were available 31 to 42 h earlier than phenotypic identifications and 41 to 50 h earlier than susceptibility results.

  4. Determinants of Desire for Children among HIV-Positive Women in the Afar Region, Ethiopia: Case Control Study

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The desire for a child in Ethiopian society is normal. Among HIV positive women, due to the risk of MTCT, it is imperative to understand factors influencing women’s desire for children. This study aimed at assessing factors associated with desire for children among HIV-positive women in two selected hospitals of Afar Regional State, Ethiopia. Methods A facility based case-control study was conducted among 157 cases (with a desire) and 157 controls of HIV positive individuals registered in the selected health facilities. The participants were selected by random sampling technique. Data were collected using face-to-face interview and was analyzed using logistic regression. Result Factors found to be independently associated with desire for children were age categories of 20–24 years (OR = 6.22, 1.29–10.87) and 25–29 years (OR = 14.6, 3.05–21.60), being married (OR = 5.51, 2.19–13.54), Afar ethnicity (OR 6.93, 1.19–12.14), having HIV-positive children (OR 0.23, 0.09–0.63), duration on ART more than one year (3.51, 1.68–9.05), CD4 count greater than 350 (OR 4.83, 1.51–7.27) and discussion of reproductive health issues with health providers (OR 0.31, 0.12–0.51). Conclusion Women who were young, married, Afar, those who received ART more than one year, and had CD4 count >350 were more likely to have a desire for children. Recommendation Health care workers at ART clinic should openly discuss about the reproductive options for the women living with HIV/AIDS. PMID:26930467

  5. Determination of the gram-positive bacterial content of soils and sediments by analysis of teichoic acid components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gehron, M. J.; Davis, J. D.; Smith, G. A.; White, D. C.

    1984-01-01

    Many gram-positive bacteria form substituted polymers of glycerol and ribitol phosphate esters known as teichoic acids. Utilizing the relative specificity of cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid in the hydrolysis of polyphosphate esters it proved possible to quantitatively assay the teichoic acid-derived glycerol and ribitol from gram-positive bacteria added to various soils and sediments. The lipids are first removed from the soils or sediments with a one phase chloroform-methanol extraction and the lipid extracted residue is hydrolyzed with cold concentrated hydrofluoric acid. To achieve maximum recovery of the teichoic acid ribitol, a second acid hydrolysis of the aqueous extract is required. The glycerol and ribitol are then acetylated after neutralization and analyzed by capillary gas-liquid chromatography. This technique together with measures of the total phospholipid, the phospholipid fatty acid, the muramic acid and the hydroxy fatty acids of the lipopolysaccharide lipid A of the gram-negative bacteria makes it possible to describe the community structure environmental samples. The proportion of gram-positive bacteria measured as the teichoic acid glycerol and ribitol is higher in soils than in sediments and increases with depth in both.

  6. The distribution of plasmids determining citrate utilization in citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli from humans, domestic animals, feral birds and environments.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, N; Sato, G

    1979-10-01

    Sixty-seven isolates of citrate-positive variants of Escherichia coli were isolated from human, domestic animal, feral bird and environmental sources. With the exception of citrate utilization, all isolates were identified as typical E. coli by their biochemical reactions. The transmission of the ability to utilize citrate on Simmons' citrate agar was demonstrated in 53 (79.1%) out of the 67 citrate-positive E. coli variants obtained from various sources. Drug resistance determinants and citrate utilizing character were co-transmitted into E. coli K-12 by conjugation among citrate-positive E. coli isolates carrying R plasmids except for that isolated from horses. The other characters (haemolysin or colicin production, raffinose or sucrose fermentation) were not transmitted together with the citrate utilizing character. These facts suggested that the structural gene responsible for citrate utilizing ability in citrate-positive variants of E. coli was located on a conjugative plasmid.

  7. Performance Evaluation of the Verigene Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Blood Culture Test for Direct Identification of Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Cultures in Hong Kong

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Gilman K. H.; Chen, Jonathan H. K.; Ng, T. K.; Lee, Rodney A.; Fung, Kitty S. C.; To, Sabrina W. C.; Wong, Barry K. C.; Cheung, Sherman; Wong, Ivan W. F.; Tam, Marble M. P.; Lee, Swing S. W.; Yam, W. C.

    2015-01-01

    Background A multicenter study was conducted to evaluate the diagnostic performance and the time to identifcation of the Verigene Blood Culture Test, the BC-GP and BC-GN assays, to identify both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria and their drug resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures collected in Hong Kong. Methods and Results A total of 364 blood cultures were prospectively collected from four public hospitals, in which 114 and 250 cultures yielded Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, and were tested with the BC-GP and BC-GN assay respectively. The overall identification agreement for Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria were 89.6% and 90.5% in monomicrobial cultures and 62.5% and 53.6% in polymicrobial cultures, respectively. The sensitivities for most genus/species achieved at least 80% except Enterococcus spp. (60%), K.oxytoca (0%), K.pneumoniae (69.2%), whereas the specificities for all targets ranged from 98.9% to 100%. Of note, 50% (7/14) cultures containing K.pneumoniae that were missed by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as K.variicola. Approximately 5.5% (20/364) cultures contained non-target organisms, of which Aeromonas spp. accounted for 25% and are of particular concern. For drug resistance determination, the Verigene test showed 100% sensitivity for identification of MRSA, VRE and carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter, and 84.4% for ESBL-producing Enterobacteriaceae based on the positive detection of mecA, vanA, blaOXA and blaCTXM respectively. Conclusion Overall, the Verigene test provided acceptable accuracy for identification of bacteria and resistance markers with a range of turnaround time 40.5 to 99.2 h faster than conventional methods in our region. PMID:26431434

  8. 42 CFR 136.414 - How does the IHS determine eligibility for placement or retention of individuals in positions...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false How does the IHS determine eligibility for... Section 136.414 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES INDIAN HEALTH Indian Child Protection and Family...

  9. The Positive Effect on Determinants of Physical Activity of a Tailored, General Practice-Based Physical Activity Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Sluijs, E. M. F.; Van Poppel, M. N. M.; Twisk, J. W. R.; Brug, J.; Van Mechelen, W.

    2005-01-01

    PACE (Physician-based Assessment and Counseling for Exercise) is an individualized theory-based minimal intervention strategy aimed at the enhancement of regular physical activity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a PACE intervention applied by general practitioners (GPs) on potential determinants of physical activity. A…

  10. Zeading and reazing: which is faster? The position of the diverging letter in a pseudoword determines reading time.

    PubMed

    Mulatti, Claudio; Peressotti, Francesca; Job, Remo

    2007-07-01

    We present evidence that (a) at least some components of the reading process are serial and (b) pseudoword reading is affected by lexical knowledge, even in a transparent orthographic system like Italian. Pseudowords deriving from five-letter words by changing either the first or the fourth letter were presented for reading aloud. Results showed an effect of the position of the diverging letter: Early diverging pseudowords were read more slowly than late diverging pseudowords. The dual-route cascaded (DRC) model (Coltheart, Rastle, Perry, Langdon, & Ziegler, 2001) successfully simulated the behavioural data.

  11. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion.

  12. Determining position, velocity and acceleration of free-ranging animals with a low-cost unmanned aerial system.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Richard J; Roskilly, Kyle; Buse, Chris; Evans, Hannah K; Hubel, Tatjana Y; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-09-01

    Unmanned aerial systems (UASs), frequently referred to as 'drones', have become more common and affordable and are a promising tool for collecting data on free-ranging wild animals. We used a Phantom-2 UAS equipped with a gimbal-mounted camera to estimate position, velocity and acceleration of a subject on the ground moving through a grid of GPS surveyed ground control points (area ∼1200 m(2)). We validated the accuracy of the system against a dual frequency survey grade GPS system attached to the subject. When compared with GPS survey data, the estimations of position, velocity and acceleration had a root mean square error of 0.13 m, 0.11 m s(-1) and 2.31 m s(-2), respectively. The system can be used to collect locomotion and localisation data on multiple free-ranging animals simultaneously. It does not require specialist skills to operate, is easily transported to field locations, and is rapidly and easily deployed. It is therefore a useful addition to the range of methods available for field data collection on free-ranging animal locomotion. PMID:27353230

  13. The position of deuterium in HOD—NNO as determined by structural and nuclear quadrupole coupling constants

    SciTech Connect

    Obenchain, Daniel A.; Frank, Derek S.; Novick, Stewart E.; Klemperer, William

    2015-08-28

    Rotational spectra of the weakly bound H{sub 2}O—N{sub 2}O complex and its HOD—N{sub 2}O isotopologue in a supersonic jet are reported. Rotational constants of the singly substituted deuterium in water and each singly substituted nitrogen-15 are presented. Combinations of isotopic data and high level ab initio calculations place the water in a similar position to those of the isoelectronic H{sub 2}O—CO{sub 2} complex, with a slight tilt of the OH towards the NNO axis. The deuterium nuclear quadrupole coupling constant places the deuterium on the O—H axis quasi-parallel to the NNO axis.

  14. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions

    PubMed Central

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study. PMID:26327256

  15. Stereotype threat as a determinant of burnout or work engagement. Mediating role of positive and negative emotions.

    PubMed

    Bedyńska, Sylwia; Żołnierczyk-Zreda, Dorota

    2015-01-01

    Stereotype threat as an example of serious interpersonal strain at workplace can lead either to impaired work engagement or it can motivate workers to strengthen their efforts to disconfirm a stereotype and can result in excessive work engagement. Thus, the basic aim of the study was to examine whether stereotype threat is related to burnout or to work engagement. The mediating role of the negative and positive emotions were also tested in the classical approach. Mediational analysis revealed a linear relation of stereotype threat and burnout, mediated by negative emotions and a quadratic relationship between stereotype threat and work engagement. In the latter analysis none of the mediators were significant. Therefore, the results showed that both burnout and work engagement are associated with stereotype threat at the workplace, probably depending on the stage of response to the stereotype threat. Further research should confirm these associations in a longitudinal study.

  16. Application of the Global Positioning System to crustal deformation measurement. II - The influence of errors in orbit determination networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larson, Kristine M.; Webb, Frank H.; Agnew, Duncan C.

    1991-01-01

    The errors introduced into GPS measurements of a geodetic network by means of adopting different sets of stations in central and southern California as fixed points (termed fiducial stations) were investigated. Solutions for a crustal deformation network spanning distances up to 350 km were computed with a variety of fiducial networks, using fiducial coordinates determined from VLBI. Results showed that three receivers collocated with VLBI sites provide a stable reference system at a few millimeter level in the horizontal components and at 10 mm in the vertical components, indicating that local survey errors between VLBI and GPS markers at fiducial sites do not severely affect the estimates of interstation vectors.

  17. Position-dependent deflection (PPD) of a nanobeam: a new method to determine the Young's modulus of nanoscale matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, N.; Xiong, Qihua; Srinivas, Tadigadapa; Eklund, Peter

    2006-03-01

    In this approach, a nanowire beam is fixed at two ends and an AFM is used to apply a force F(x) where x locates the position along the beam and the beam deflection δz(x) is measured simultaneously. This situation is realized by placing a nanobeam over a trench fabricated on a Silicon substrate via photolithography followed by metal evaporation, lift-off and XeF2 etching. The AFM tip force-distance curve is first obtained from experiments on the rigid substrate. The slope of the AFM force-distance obtained when the tip contacts the beam is then measured and the Young's modulus Y is obtained from the change in slope using the Euler-Bernoulli (E-B) equation. The beam dimensions are also required: the beam height and length via AFM and the beam width and length by SEM. We believe this method can be used in any other nano-beam systems to measure the Young's modulus. Results for rectangular ZnS beams (˜100nm x 100 nm x 5μm long) will be presented that demonstrate the potential for this method. Values for Y lower than reported for the bulk are obtained (i.e. Y(nano) ˜ 70% Y(bulk)). This work was supported, in part, by NSF-NIRT DMR-0304178

  18. Study of accuracy in the position determination with SALSA, a γ-scanning system for the characterization of segmented HPGe detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Prieto, A.; Quintana, B.; Martìn, S.; Domingo-Pardo, C.

    2016-07-01

    Accurate characterization of the electric response of segmented high-purity germanium (HPGe) detectors as a function of the interaction position is one of the current goals of the Nuclear Physics community seeking to perform γ-ray tracking or even imaging with these detectors. For this purpose, scanning devices must be developed to achieve the signal-position association with the highest precision. With a view to studying the accuracy achieved with SALSA, the SAlamanca Lyso-based Scanning Array, here we report a detailed study on the uncertainty sources and their effect in the position determination inside the HPGe detector to be scanned. The optimization performed on the design of SALSA, aimed at minimizing the effect of the uncertainty sources, afforded an intrinsic uncertainty of ∼2 mm for large coaxial detectors and ∼1 mm for planar ones.

  19. A radio optical reference frame. I - Precise radio source positions determined by Mark III VLBI - Observations from 1979 to 1988 and a tie to the FK5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, C.; Shaffer, D. B.; De Vegt, C.; Johnston, K. J.; Russell, J. L.

    1990-01-01

    Observations from 600 Mark III VLBI experiments from 1979 to 1988, resulting in 237,681 acceptable pairs of group delay and phase delay rate observations, have been used to derive positions of 182 extragalactic radio sources with typical formal standard errors less than 1 mas. The sources are distributed fairly evenly above delta = -30 deg, and 70 sources have delta greater than 0 deg. Analysis with different troposphere models, as well as internal and external comparisons, indicates that a coordinate frame defined by this set of radio sources should be reliable at the 1 mas level. The right ascension zero point of this reference frame has been aligned with the FK5 by using the optical positions of 28 extragalactic radio sources whose positions are on the FK5 system. Because of known defects in the knowledge of astronomical constants, daily nutation offsets in longitude and obliquity were determined relative to an arbitrary reference day in the set of experiments.

  20. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    PubMed Central

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map. PMID:26742857

  1. A new physical mapping approach refines the sex-determining gene positions on the Silene latifolia Y-chromosome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kazama, Yusuke; Ishii, Kotaro; Aonuma, Wataru; Ikeda, Tokihiro; Kawamoto, Hiroki; Koizumi, Ayako; Filatov, Dmitry A.; Chibalina, Margarita; Bergero, Roberta; Charlesworth, Deborah; Abe, Tomoko; Kawano, Shigeyuki

    2016-01-01

    Sex chromosomes are particularly interesting regions of the genome for both molecular genetics and evolutionary studies; yet, for most species, we lack basic information, such as the gene order along the chromosome. Because they lack recombination, Y-linked genes cannot be mapped genetically, leaving physical mapping as the only option for establishing the extent of synteny and homology with the X chromosome. Here, we developed a novel and general method for deletion mapping of non-recombining regions by solving “the travelling salesman problem”, and evaluate its accuracy using simulated datasets. Unlike the existing radiation hybrid approach, this method allows us to combine deletion mutants from different experiments and sources. We applied our method to a set of newly generated deletion mutants in the dioecious plant Silene latifolia and refined the locations of the sex-determining loci on its Y chromosome map.

  2. Determination of relative positions and localizations of paramagnetic probe molecules in liquid crystal by analysis of concentration broadening of EPR spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomogailo, Daria A.; Paramonov, Nikita A.; Chumakova, Natalia A.; Vorobiev, Andrey Kh.

    2016-07-01

    The angular dependences of concentration broadening of EPR spectra for nitroxide spin probes in liquid crystals were experimentally measured. The obvious angular dependence of the broadening found for oriented smectic liquid crystal HOPDOB proves the paired localization of the probe molecules. The numerical calculation of the angular dependence taking into account the magnetic dipolar and spin exchange interactions have been used for quantitative determination of position of probes in the pairs. The probable localization of the probes in the smectic layer is discussed.

  3. SU-E-J-189: Determination of Markerless Lung Tumor Position in Real Time: A Feasibility Study Using a Novel Tomo-Cinegraphy Imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, B; Hu, E; Yu, C; Lee, M; Lasio, G

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: A Tomo-Cinegraphy (TC) is a method to generate a series of temporal tomographic images from projection images of the on-board imager (OBI) while gantry is moving. It is to test if this technique is useful to determine a lung tumor position during treatments. Methods: Tomographic image via background subtraction, TIBS uses a priori anatomical information from a previous CT scan to isolate a SOI from a planar kV image by factoring out the attenuations by tissues outside the SOI (background). This idea was extended to a TC, which enables to generate tomographic images of same geometry from the projection of different gantry angles and different breathing phases. Projection images of a lung patient for CBCT acquisition are used to generate TC images. A region of interest (ROI) is selected around a tumor adding 2cm margins. Center of mass (COM) of the ROI is traced to determine tumor position for every projection images. Results: Tumor is visible in the TC images while the OBI projections are not. The coordinates of the COMs represent the temporal tumor positions. While, it is not possible to trace the tumor motion using the projection images. A source of time delay is the time to acquire projection images, which is always less than a second. Conclusion: TC allows tracking the tumor positions without fiducial markers in real time for some lung patients, if the projection images are acquired during treatments. Partially supported by NIH R01CA133539.

  4. Identification of a structural determinant for resistance to β-lactam antibiotics in Gram-positive bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Mouz, N.; Gordon, E.; Di Guilmi, A.-M.; Petit, I.; Pétillot, Y.; Dupont, Y.; Hakenbeck, R.; Vernet, T.; Dideberg, O.

    1998-01-01

    Streptococcus pneumoniae is the main causal agent of pathologies that are increasingly resistant to antibiotic treatment. Clinical resistance of S. pneumoniae to β-lactam antibiotics is linked to multiple mutations of high molecular mass penicillin-binding proteins (H-PBPs), essential enzymes involved in the final steps of bacterial cell wall synthesis. H-PBPs from resistant bacteria have a reduced affinity for β-lactam and a decreased hydrolytic activity on substrate analogues. In S. pneumoniae, the gene coding for one of these H-PBPs, PBP2x, is located in the cell division cluster (DCW). We present here structural evidence linking multiple β-lactam resistance to amino acid substitutions in PBP2x within a buried cavity near the catalytic site that contains a structural water molecule. Site-directed mutation of amino acids in contact with this water molecule in the “sensitive” form of PBP2x produces mutants similar, in terms of β-lactam affinity and substrate hydrolysis, to altered PBP2x produced in resistant clinical isolates. A reverse mutation in a PBP2x variant from a clinically important resistant clone increases the acylation efficiency for β-lactams and substrate analogues. Furthermore, amino acid residues in contact with the structural water molecule are conserved in the equivalent H-PBPs of pathogenic Gram-positive cocci. We suggest that, probably via a local structural modification, the partial or complete loss of this water molecule reduces the acylation efficiency of PBP2x substrates to a point at which cell wall synthesis still occurs, but the sensitivity to therapeutic concentrations of β-lactam antibiotics is lost. PMID:9811812

  5. Determinants of Overall and Progression-Free Survival of Nigerian Patients with Philadelphia-Positive Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Oyekunle, Anthony A.; Bolarinwa, Rahman A.; Oyelese, Adesola T.; Salawu, Lateef; Durosinmi, Muheez A.

    2015-01-01

    Objective. The tyrosine kinase inhibitors have markedly changed the disease course for patients with Ph+ and/or BCR-ABL1+ chronic myeloid leukemia (CML). This study was embarked upon to assess the long-term effects of imatinib therapy on survival in adult Nigerian patients with CML. Methods. All adult patients on imatinib (400–600 mg) seen from July 2003 to December 2010 were assessed. Male/female distribution was 171/101, with a median age of 38 (range, 20–75) years. Overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were determined using the Kaplan-Meier techniques. Results. Of all the 272 patients, 205 were in chronic phase, 54 in accelerated phase, and five in blastic phase, at commencement of imatinib. As at December 2010, 222 were alive. OS at 1 and 5 years was 94% and 63%, while PFS was 89% and 54%, respectively. Similarly, amongst the 205 patients in chronic phase, OS at 1 and 5 years was 97% and 68%, while PFS was 92% and 57%. Conclusion. Imatinib's place as first-line therapy in the treatment of CML has further been reinforced in our patients, with improved survival and reduced morbidity, comparable with outcomes in other populations. PMID:26435715

  6. Determination of hearth position of a forthcoming strong EQ using gradients and phase velocities of ULF geomagnetic disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopytenko, Yu. A.; Ismaguilov, V. S.; Hattori, K.; Hayakawa, M.

    Behavior of gradient and phase velocity vectors of ULF ( F < 1 Hz) geomagnetic disturbances was investigated for two earthquake (EQ) events in Japan in 2000 ( M > 6) and 2003 ( M = 5.8) years. The gradient and phase velocity vectors were determined using the data of three high-sensitive three-component magnetic stations situated at a distance ∼5 km from each other (magnetic gradientometer). Two gradientometers were installed southeast and southwest of Tokyo at a distance ∼150 km from each other. It was found that the gradient and phase velocity values had anomaly changes 3-4 months before the strong EQs. New directions of the gradient vectors took place in the same period - the directions just to the forthcoming EQ epicenter. The directions from the forthcoming EQ epicenter arouse for the phase velocity vectors. We propose to use the gradient and phase velocity vectors of the ULF geomagnetic disturbances as important factors of the short-term prediction of strong earthquakes.

  7. The function of the PduJ microcompartment shell protein is determined by the genomic position of its encoding gene.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Chiranjit; Chun, Sunny; Sawaya, Michael R; Yeates, Todd O; Bobik, Thomas A

    2016-09-01

    Bacterial microcompartments (MCPs) are complex organelles that consist of metabolic enzymes encapsulated within a protein shell. In this study, we investigate the function of the PduJ MCP shell protein. PduJ is 80% identical in amino acid sequence to PduA and both are major shell proteins of the 1,2-propanediol (1,2-PD) utilization (Pdu) MCP of Salmonella. Prior studies showed that PduA mediates the transport of 1,2-PD (the substrate) into the Pdu MCP. Surprisingly, however, results presented here establish that PduJ has no role 1,2-PD transport. The crystal structure revealed that PduJ was nearly identical to that of PduA and, hence, offered no explanation for their differential functions. Interestingly, however, when a pduJ gene was placed at the pduA chromosomal locus, the PduJ protein acquired a new function, the ability to mediate 1,2-PD transport into the Pdu MCP. To our knowledge, these are the first studies to show that that gene location can determine the function of a MCP shell protein. We propose that gene location dictates protein-protein interactions essential to the function of the MCP shell. PMID:27561553

  8. The Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome and Glaucoma in a Sex - Determining Region Y (SRY) Positive XX Infertile Male.

    PubMed

    Jain, Manish; V, Veeramohan; Chaudhary, Isha; Halder, Ashutosh

    2013-07-01

    The XX male syndrome is a rare genetic disorder. The phenotype is variable; it ranges from a severe impairment of the external genitalia to a normal male phenotype with infertility. It generally results from an unequal crossing over between the short arms of the sex chromosomes (X and Y). We are reporting a case of a 38-year-old man who presented with infertility and the features of hypogonadism and glaucoma. The examinations revealed normal external male genitalia, soft small testes, gynaecomastia and glaucoma. The semen analysis showed azoospermia. The serum gonadotropins were high, with low Anti Mullerian Hormone (AMH) and Inhibin B levels. The chromosomal analysis demonstrated a 46, XX karyotype. Fluorescent In-Situ Hybridization (FISH) and Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) revealed the presence of a Sex-determining Region Y (SRY). Testicular Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology (FNAC) revealed the Sertoli Cell Only Syndrome (SCOS). The presence of only Sertoli Cells in the testes, with glaucoma in the XX male syndrome, to our knowledge, has not been reported in the literature.

  9. Seasonal movement of the Slumgullion landslide determined from global positioning system surveys and field instrumentation, July 1998-March 2002

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Coe, J.A.; Ellis, W.L.; Godt, J.W.; Savage, W.Z.; Savage, J.E.; Michael, J.A.; Kibler, J.D.; Powers, P.S.; Lidke, D.J.; Debray, S.

    2003-01-01

    Measurements of landslide movement made by global positioning system surveys and extensometers over a 3.5-year period show that the Slumgullion landslide in the San Juan Mountains of southwest Colorado moved throughout the monitoring period, but that daily velocities varied on a seasonal basis. Landslide velocities peaked in the early spring and summer in response to snowmelt and summer thunderstorms, respectively. Velocities were slowest in mid-winter when air and soil temperatures were coldest and precipitation was generally low and/or in the form of snow with a low water content. We hypothesize that the seasonal variability in velocities is due to ground-water levels and corresponding pore pressures that decrease when surface water is unavailable or cannot infiltrate frozen landslide material, and increase when surface water from melting snow or rainfall infiltrates unfrozen landslide material. We also suggest that patches of bouldery debris and fractures (created by continuous movement of the landslide) are conduits through which surface water can infiltrate, regardless of the frozen or unfrozen state of the landslide matrix material. Therefore, the availability of surface water is more important than landslide temperature in controlling the rate of landslide movement. This hypothesis is supported by field instrumentation data that show (1) landslide velocities coinciding with precipitation amounts regardless of the depth of freezing of landslide material, (2) spring and annual landslide velocities that were greatest when the depth of freezing was also the greatest, and (3) a rapid (several weeks or less) velocity and pore pressure response to rainfall. The persistent, but seasonally variable movement of the landslide, fits the bathtub model for landslide movement described by Baum and Reid [Baum, R.L., Reid, M.E., 2000. Ground water isolation by low-permeability clays in landslide shear zones. In: Bromhead, E.N., Dixon, N., Ibsen, M.-L. (Eds.), Landslides in

  10. [Changes of audio-vestibular parameters in experimental endolymphatic hydrops].

    PubMed

    Zhang, S Z

    1993-01-01

    Endolymphatic hydrops were produced in twenty guinea pigs by obliteration of the endolymphatic sac. Auditory and vestibular functions were investigated before and after the obliteration. Our experimental data showed that: 1) the SPVN (sinusoidal pendular vestibular nystagmus) frequency decreased after the obliteration of the lymphatic sac; 2) the CAP response threshold to filtered clicks and the CAP response threshold to clicks were both elevated after obliteration of the endolymphatic sac; and 3) 2f1-f2 DPO (distortion product otoacoustic emissions) amplitudes, as induced by primary tones of adequate frequency and level rations, decreased as endolymphatic hydrops occurred. PMID:8192928

  11. Development of a mass spectrometric hydroxyl-position determination method for the hydroxyindole metabolites of JWH-018 by GC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Kusano, Maiko; Zaitsu, Kei; Yamanaka, Mayumi; Hisatsune, Kazuaki; Asano, Tomomi; Taki, Kentaro; Hayashi, Yumi; Tsuchihashi, Hitoshi; Ishii, Akira

    2016-05-01

    One of the many issues of designer drugs of abuse like synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) such as JWH-018 is that details on their metabolism has yet to be fully elucidated and that multiple metabolites exist. The presence of isomeric compounds poses further challenges in their identification. Our group has previously shown the effectiveness of gas chromatography-electron ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (GC-EI-MS/MS) in the mass spectrometric differentiation of the positional isomers of the naphthoylindole-type SC JWH-081, and speculated that the same approach could be used for the metabolite isomers. Using JWH-018 as a model SC, the aim of this study was to differentiate the positional isomers of its hydroxyindole metabolites by GC-MS/MS. Standard compounds of JWH-018 and its hydroxyindole metabolite positional isomers were first analyzed by GC-EI-MS in full scan mode, which was only able to differentiate the 4-hydroxyindole isomer. Further GC-MS/MS analysis was performed by selecting m/z 302 as the precursor ion. All four isomers produced characteristic product ions that enabled the differentiation between them. Using these ions, MRM analysis was performed on the urine of JWH-018 administered mice and determined the hydroxyl positions to be at the 6-position on the indole ring. GC-EI-MS/MS allowed for the regioisomeric differentiation of the hydroxyindole metabolite isomers of JWH-018. Furthermore, analysis of the fragmentation patterns suggests that the present method has high potential to be extended to hydroxyindole metabolites of other naphthoylindole type SCs in identifying the position of the hydroxyl group on the indole ring. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:27194519

  12. Determining the optimal number and position of damping viscose (MR) in seismic vibration control of buildings to use genetic algorithms (fuzzy engineering application)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hatami, Farzad; Karimi, Esmail

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, study optimization performance of damping semi-active viscose MR in order to reduce the seismic vibrations of a building with 12 floors. For this purpose, we used genetic algorithms to obtain optimal number and optimal situation in 15 major earthquakes with different frequency content through which final status damping are determined. Investigating the influence of this type of damper on the construct dynamic response, the construct equation has been written regarding dampers .Then, the aforesaid equation has been transmitted to the situational setting ,the optimum quantity of each damper in the form of time function has been computed using optimization algorithm genetic and, the construct response has been determined. The results show that different positions of optimal in the structure height can have different effects on different responses. In a way that aligned damping in the upper parts of structures although much reduced Roof floor shift but are less than the rate of decline in shear force base. It also aligned damping in the bottom parts of structures are less than the rate of decline in base shear force roof and floor shift. Therefore, by determining optimized position of optimal by genetic algorithms that can simultaneously optimize the rate of reduction in the structure response.

  13. Multicenter evaluation of the Verigene Gram-negative blood culture nucleic acid test for rapid detection of bacteria and resistance determinants in positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Uno, Naoki; Suzuki, Hiromichi; Yamakawa, Hiromi; Yamada, Maiko; Yaguchi, Yuji; Notake, Shigeyuki; Tamai, Kiyoko; Yanagisawa, Hideji; Misawa, Shigeki; Yanagihara, Katsunori

    2015-12-01

    The Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Nucleic Acid Test (BC-GN) is a microarray-based assay that enables rapid detection of 9 common Gram-negative bacteria and 6 resistance determinants directly from positive blood cultures. We compared the performance of BC-GN with currently used automated systems, testing 141 clinical blood cultures and 205 spiked blood cultures. For identification of BC-GN target organisms in clinical and spiked blood cultures, the BC-GN assay showed 98.5% (130/132) and 98.9% (182/184) concordance, respectively. Of 140 resistance genes positively detected in clinical and spiked blood cultures with the BC-GN test, 139 (99.3%) were confirmed by PCR, and the detection results were consistent with the resistance phenotypes observed. The BC-GN assay, thus, can potentially improve care for sepsis patients by enabling timely detection and targeted antimicrobial therapy.

  14. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Richard R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrifical pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational aixs of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  15. Method and device for determining the position of a cutting tool relative to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece

    DOEpatents

    Williams, R.R.

    1980-09-03

    The present invention is directed to a method and device for determining the location of a cutting tool with respect to the rotational axis of a spindle-mounted workpiece. A vacuum cup supporting a machinable sacrificial pin is secured to the workpiece at a location where the pin will project along and encompass the rotational axis of the workpiece. The pin is then machined into a cylinder. The position of the surface of the cutting tool contacting the machine cylinder is spaced from the rotational axis of the workpiece a distance equal to the radius of the cylinder.

  16. Determination of (235)U, (239)Pu, (240)Pu, and (241)Am in a nuclear bomb particle using a position-sensitive α-γ coincidence technique.

    PubMed

    Peräjärvi, Kari A; Ihantola, Sakari; Pöllänen, Roy C; Toivonen, Harri I; Turunen, Jani A

    2011-02-15

    A nuclear bomb particle containing 1.6 ng of Pu was investigated nondestructively with a position-sensitive α detector and a broad-energy HPGe γ-ray detector. An event-mode data acquisition system was used to record the data. α-γ coincidence counting was shown to be well suited to nondestructive isotope ratio determination. Because of the very small background, the 51.6 keV γ rays of (239)Pu and the 45.2 keV γ rays of (240)Pu were identified, which enabled isotopic ratio calculations. In the present work, the (239)Pu/((239)Pu+(240)Pu) atom ratio was determined to be 0.950 ± 0.010. The uncertainties were much smaller than in the previous more conventional nondestructive studies on this particle. Obtained results are also in good agreement with the data from the destructive mass spectrometric studies obtained previously by other investigators.

  17. Determination of the percentage of thiazole orange (TO)-positive, "reticulated" platelets using autologous erythrocyte TO fluorescence as an internal standard.

    PubMed

    Bonan, J L; Rinder, H M; Smith, B R

    1993-01-01

    Determination of the percentage of thiazole orange (TO)-positive or "reticulated" platelets by flow cytometry has been advocated as an aid in the diagnosis of thrombocytopenic disorders. However, a reproducible method for determining control fluorescence and setting threshold values on a routine clinical basis has not been described. We used erythrocyte TO fluorescence in whole blood as an internal standard to set threshold markers for TO fluorescence of autologous, purified platelets. Since platelets have approximately a threefold higher TO fluorescence than erythrocytes, multiplying the erythrocyte threshold marker by 3 allowed a determination of the percentage of "reticulated" platelets in 29 normal controls. This value was 3.64% +/- 2.10% (S.D.) in men and 5.79 +/- 2.22% (S.D.) in women; there was a significant (P < 0.05) difference between normal men and women for this measurement. Applying this method to our earlier studies of normals and patients with immune thrombocytopenic purpura confirmed its ability to discriminate between these populations with similar sensitivity and specificity as previously reported. This method controls for fluctuations in TO labeling and fluorescence and does not require daily determination of a new normal control value.

  18. Determination of the variation of the fluorescence line positions of ruby, strontium tetraborate, alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet with pressure and temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raju, Selva Vennila; Zaug, Joseph M.; Chen, Bin; Yan, Jinyuan; Knight, Jason W.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Clark, Simon M.

    2011-07-01

    The pressure and temperature dependent fluorescence line-shift of strontium tetraborate has been measured concurrently with x-ray diffraction from the pressure standards sodium chloride or gold. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift under pressure. We found a maximum pressure uncertainty of ±1.8 GPa at 25 GPa (7.2%) and 857 K when making no temperature correction. The fluorescence line-shifts for ruby, Alexandrite, and samarium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet were also determined, using our strontium tetraborate calibration to determine pressure and a thermocouple to measure temperature. Fluorescence measurements were extended up to 800 K for ruby and Alexandrite. Temperature was found to have a small effect on the fluorescence line-shift of samarium-doped yittrium aluminum garnet. We found a maximum uncertainty of ±2.7 GPa at 25 GPa (11.1%) and 857 K when no temperature correction was applied. We determined equations relating to the fluorescence line position from these data, which include a cross derivative term to account for the combined effect of pressure and temperature. We present a method to independently determine pressure and/or temperature from combined fluorescence line-shift measurements of a pair of optical sensors.

  19. Position-Specific Isotope Analysis of Xanthines: A (13)C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Method to Determine the (13)C Intramolecular Composition at Natural Abundance.

    PubMed

    Diomande, Didier G; Martineau, Estelle; Gilbert, Alexis; Nun, Pierrick; Murata, Ariaki; Yamada, Keita; Watanabe, Naoharu; Tea, Illa; Robins, Richard J; Yoshida, Naohiro; Remaud, Gérald S

    2015-07-01

    The natural xanthines caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline are of major commercial importance as flavor constituents in coffee, cocoa, tea, and a number of other beverages. However, their exploitation for authenticity, a requirement in these commodities that have a large origin-based price-range, by the standard method of isotope ratio monitoring by mass spectrometry (irm-MS) is limited. We have now developed a methodology that overcomes this deficit that exploits the power of isotopic quantitative (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectrometry combined with chemical modification of the xanthines to enable the determination of positional intramolecular (13)C/(12)C ratios (δ(13)Ci) with high precision. However, only caffeine is amenable to analysis: theobromine and theophylline present substantial difficulties due to their poor solubility. However, their N-methylation to caffeine makes spectral acquisition feasible. The method is confirmed as robust, with good repeatability of the δ(13)Ci values in caffeine appropriate for isotope fractionation measurements at natural abundance. It is shown that there is negligible isotope fractionation during the chemical N-methylation procedure. Thus, the method preserves the original positional δ(13)Ci values. The method has been applied to measure the position-specific variation of the (13)C/(12)C distribution in caffeine. Not only is a clear difference between caffeine isolated from different sources observed, but theobromine from cocoa is found to show a (13)C pattern distinct from that of caffeine. PMID:26067163

  20. Staph ID/R: a Rapid Method for Determining Staphylococcus Species Identity and Detecting the mecA Gene Directly from Positive Blood Culture

    PubMed Central

    Pasko, Chris; Dunn, John; Jaeckel, Heidi; Nieuwlandt, Dan; Weed, Diane; Woodruff, Evelyn; Zheng, Xiaotian

    2012-01-01

    Rapid diagnosis of staphylococcal bacteremia directs appropriate antimicrobial therapy, leading to improved patient outcome. We describe herein a rapid test (<75 min) that can identify the major pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus to the species level as well as the presence or absence of the methicillin resistance determinant gene, mecA. The test, Staph ID/R, combines a rapid isothermal nucleic acid amplification method, helicase-dependent amplification (HDA), with a chip-based array that produces unambiguous visible results. The analytic sensitivity was 1 CFU per reaction for the mecA gene and was 1 to 250 CFU per reaction depending on the staphylococcal species present in the positive blood culture. Staph ID/R has excellent specificity as well, with no cross-reactivity observed. We validated the performance of Staph ID/R by testing 104 frozen clinical positive blood cultures and comparing the results with rpoB gene or 16S rRNA gene sequencing for species identity determinations and mecA gene PCR to confirm mecA gene results. Staph ID/R agreed with mecA gene PCR for all samples and agreed with rpoB/16S rRNA gene sequencing in all cases except for one sample that contained a mixture of two staphylococcal species, one of which Staph ID/R correctly identified, for an overall agreement of 99.0% (P < 0.01). Staph ID/R could potentially be used to positively affect patient management for Staphylococcus-mediated bacteremia. PMID:22170912

  1. Computerised determination of spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times in premature neonates during intermittent positive pressure ventilation. II: Results from 20 babies.

    PubMed Central

    Ahluwalia, J S; Morley, C J; Mockridge, J N

    1994-01-01

    Twenty premature infants ventilated for respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) were studied using a new computerised technique to determine spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times. The technique is continuous and non-invasive. Infants were studied during intermittent positive pressure ventilation for periods of up to 45 minutes. Median birth weight and gestation were 1477 g and 30 weeks. The median number of breaths analysed for each baby was 925. The median (range) for spontaneous inspiratory time was 0.30 (0.26 to 0.34) seconds and for spontaneous expiratory time it was 0.46 (0.34 to 0.66) seconds. The spontaneous inspiratory and expiratory times were different from the ventilator settings. PMID:7820709

  2. New Method for Determining Isotopic Values of Glutamic Acid and Phenylalanine for Estimation of Precise Trophic Position in Food Web Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamath, T.; Broek, T.; McCarthy, M.

    2012-12-01

    Compound Specific Isotope Analysis of Amino Acids (CSI-AA) has emerged as a highly precise new method of determining trophic levels of both aquatic and terrestrial organisms. Multiple studies have now shown that δ15N values for glutamic acid (Glu) and phenylalanine (Phe) can be coupled to provide extremely precise estimates of trophic position in diverse food web studies. The standard gas chromatography—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (GC-IRMS) approach is presently limited to a select number of labs since necessary equipment is both expensive and not widely accessible. Furthermore, typical GC-IRMS δ15N precision (±1‰) is significantly lower than usual bulk δ15N values (±0.1‰), thus presenting a considerable setback for precise trophic level calculations. In this study, we develop a new dual-column method to purify Glu and Phe using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Phe is purified using an analytical scale reverse phase column embedded with anionic ion-pairing reagents and collected using automated fraction collection. Glu is separated from the non-polar amino acids using the same column and further purified using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) cation and anion-exchange column and collected via automated fraction collection. Isotopic analysis of the purified AAs is then conducted on an elemental analyzer—isotope ratio mass spectrometer (EA-IRMS). As a test of this method, we present and compare the trophic position of five marine organisms—cyanobacteria, deep-sea bamboo coral, juvenile and adult white sea bass, and harbor seal, calculated using Glu and Phe δ15N values produced by both GC-IRMS and our HPLC-EA-IRMS approach. The preliminary results of this study suggest that the HPLC-EA-IRMS method is a viable alternative to GC-IRMS, which should allow accurate trophic position estimates to be made by more researchers using more readily available instrumentation.

  3. High-Resolution Identification of Specificity Determining Positions in the LacI Protein Family Using Ensembles of Sub-Sampled Alignments

    PubMed Central

    Sloutsky, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Since the advent of large-scale genomic sequencing, and the consequent availability of large numbers of homologous protein sequences, there has been burgeoning development of methods for extracting functional information from multiple sequence alignments (MSAs). One type of analysis seeks to identify specificity determining positions (SDPs) based on the assumption that such positions are highly conserved within groups of sequences sharing functional specificity, but conserved to different amino acids in different specificity groups. This unsupervised approach to utilizing evolutionary information may elucidate mechanisms of specificity in protein-protein interactions, catalytic activity of enzymes, sensitivity to allosteric regulation, and other types of protein functionality. We present an analysis of SDPs in the LacI family of transcriptional regulators in which we 1) relax the constraint that all specificity groups must contribute to SDP signal, and 2) use a novel approach to robust treatment of sequence alignment uncertainty based on sub-sampling. We find that the vast majority of SDP signal occurs at positions with a conservation pattern that significantly complicates detection by previously described methods. This pattern, which we term “partial SDP”, consists of the commonly accepted SDP conservation pattern among a subset of specificity groups and strong degeneracy among the rest. An upshot of this fact is that the SDP complement of every specificity group appears to be unique. Additionally, sub-sampling gives us the ability to assign a confidence interval to the SDP score, as well as increase fidelity, as compared to analysis of a single, comprehensive alignment—the current standard in multiple sequence alignment methodologies. PMID:27681038

  4. Simultaneous determination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide in human plasma by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionisation.

    PubMed

    Song, Min; Hang, Taijun; Zhao, Hua; Wang, Li; Ge, Ping; Ma, Pengcheng

    2007-01-01

    A new method for simultaneous determination of amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching mode was developed and validated. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was selected for sample preparation. The analytes were separated on a Phenomenex Curosil-PFP (250x4.6 mm, 5 microm) column by a gradient elution with a mobile phase consisting of 0.15% formic acid solution containing 0.23% ammonium acetate and methanol pumped at a flow rate of 1.0 mL.min(-1). Rizatriptan was used as the internal standard (IS) for quantification. The determination was carried out on a Waters Quattro-micro triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the following transitions monitored simultaneously: positive m/z 230-->171 for amiloride, m/z 270-->158 for rizatriptan, and negative m/z 296-->205 for hydrochlorothiazide. The lower limits of quantification (LLOQs) were 0.1 and 1.0 ng.mL(-1) for amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide, respectively, which were lower than other published methods by using ultraviolet (UV), fluorimetric or mass spectrometric detection. The intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy were studied at three different concentration levels and were always better than 15% (n=5). This simple and robust LC/MS/MS method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic study of compound amiloride and hydrochlorothiazide tablets in healthy male Chinese volunteers. PMID:17902196

  5. Amino Acid Position 11 of HLA-DRβ1 is a Major Determinant of Chromosome 6p Association with Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Achkar, Jean-Paul; Klei, Lambertus; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Bellone, Gaia; Rebert, Nancy; Scott, Regan; Lu, Ying; Regueiro, Miguel; Brzezinski, Aaron; Kamboh, M. Ilyas; Fiocchi, Claudio; Devlin, Bernie; Trucco, Massimo; Ringquist, Steven; Roeder, Kathryn; Duerr, Richard H

    2012-01-01

    The major histocompatibility complex (MHC) on chromosome 6p is an established risk locus for ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD). We aimed to better define MHC association signals in UC and CD by combining data from dense single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping and from imputation of classical HLA types, their constituent SNPs and corresponding amino acids in 562 UC, 611 CD, and 1,428 control subjects. Univariate and multivariate association analyses were performed, controlling for ancestry. In univariate analyses, absence of the rs9269955 C allele was strongly associated with risk for UC (P = 2.67×10−13). rs9269955 is a SNP in the codon for amino acid position 11 of HLA-DRβ1, located in the P6 pocket of the HLA-DR antigen binding cleft. This amino acid position was also the most significantly UC-associated amino acid in omnibus tests (P = 2.68×10−13). Multivariate modeling identified rs9269955-C and 13 other variants in best predicting UC versus control status. In contrast, there was only suggestive association evidence between the MHC and CD. Taken together, these data demonstrate that variation at HLA-DRβ1, amino acid 11 in the P6 pocket of the HLA-DR complex antigen binding cleft is a major determinant of chromosome 6p association with ulcerative colitis. PMID:22170232

  6. Positively charged amino acids at the SNAP-25 C terminus determine fusion rates, fusion pore properties, and energetics of tight SNARE complex zippering.

    PubMed

    Fang, Qinghua; Zhao, Ying; Herbst, Adam Drew; Kim, Brian N; Lindau, Manfred

    2015-02-18

    SNAP-25 is a Q-SNARE protein mediating exocytosis of neurosecretory vesicles including chromaffin granules. Previous results with a SNAP-25 construct lacking the nine C terminal residues (SNAP-25Δ9) showed changed fusion pore properties (Fang et al., 2008), suggesting a model for fusion pore mechanics that couple C terminal zipping of the SNARE complex to the opening of the fusion pore. The deleted fragment contains the positively charged residues R198 and K201, adjacent to layers 7 and 8 of the SNARE complex. To determine how fusion pore conductance and dynamics depend on these residues, single exocytotic events in bovine chromaffin cells expressing R198Q, R198E, K201Q, or K201E mutants were investigated by carbon fiber amperometry and cell-attached patch capacitance measurements. Coarse grain molecular dynamics simulations revealed spontaneous transitions between a loose and tightly zippered state at the SNARE complex C terminus. The SNAP-25 K201Q mutant showed no changes compared with SNAP-25 wild-type. However, K201E, R198Q, and R198E displayed reduced release frequencies, slower release kinetics, and prolonged fusion pore duration that were correlated with reduced probability to engage in the tightly zippered state. The results show that the positively charged amino acids at the SNAP-25 C terminus promote tight SNARE complex zippering and are required for high release frequency and rapid release in individual fusion events.

  7. Determination of vibrational and rotational temperatures in highly constricted nitrogen plasmas by fitting the second positive system of N{sub 2} molecules

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Q. Y. Shi, D. Q.; Xu, W.; Miao, C. Y.; Ma, C. Y.; Ren, C. S.; Zhang, C.; Yi, Z.

    2015-05-15

    Highly constricted plasmas are an active research area because of their ability to generate high activity of plasma beams, which exhibit potential in applications of material processing and film deposition. In this study, optical emission spectroscopy was used to study the highly constricted nitrogen plasma created at low pressure. The vibrational and rotational temperatures of molecules were determined by fitting the second positive system of nitrogen molecule. Under the conditions of the power densities as high as 7 ∼ 85 W/cm{sup 3} and the pressures of 2 ∼ 200 Pa, the determined rotational temperature was found to be relatively low, increasing from 350 to 700 K and the vibrational temperature keeping at ∼ 5000 K. The analysis of dissipated power revealed that ∼ 80 % of input power is dissipated for the nitrogen molecule dissociation and the creation/loss of ions at the tube wall, producing an as high as 10{sup 12} ∼ 10{sup 13} cm{sup −3} plasma with the nitrogen dissociation degrees of 2%∼15%. With the increase in the discharge pressure, more input power was found to be dissipated in the dissociation of nitrogen molecules instead of creation of ions, resulting in a higher density of radicals.

  8. STAP-2 Protein Expression in B16F10 Melanoma Cells Positively Regulates Protein Levels of Tyrosinase, Which Determines Organs to Infiltrate in the Body*

    PubMed Central

    Sekine, Yuichi; Togi, Sumihito; Muromoto, Ryuta; Kon, Shigeyuki; Kitai, Yuichi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Oritani, Kenji; Matsuda, Tadashi

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma is the most serious type of skin cancer, with a highly metastatic phenotype. In this report, we show that signal transducing adaptor protein 2 (STAP-2) is involved in cell migration, proliferation, and melanogenesis as well as chemokine receptor expression and tumorigenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells. This was evident in mice injected with STAP-2 shRNA (shSTAP-2)-expressing B16F10 cells, which infiltrated organs in a completely different pattern from the original cells, showing massive colonization in the liver, kidney, and neck but not in the lung. The most important finding was that STAP-2 expression determined tyrosinase protein content. STAP-2 colocalized with tyrosinase in lysosomes and protected tyrosinase from protein degradation. It is noteworthy that B16F10 cells with knocked down tyrosinase showed similar cell characteristics as shSTAP-2 cells. These results indicated that tyrosinase contributed to some cellular events beyond melanogenesis. Taken together, one possibility is that STAP-2 positively regulates the protein levels of tyrosinase, which determines tumor invasion via controlling chemokine receptor expression. PMID:26023234

  9. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-07-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the 'one-hormone hypothesis', which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified 'one-hormone hypothesis' for sex determination in cucumber is proposed.

  10. Determination of rare earth elements (REES) in airborne particulate matter (APM) collected in Tokyo, Japan, and a positive anomaly of europium and terbium.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yoshinari; Suzuki, Tatsunosuke; Furuta, Naoki

    2010-01-01

    The determination of rare earth elements (REEs) in airborne particulate matter (APM) was conducted, and the distribution pattern of atmospheric REEs was evaluated in this study. The APM was collected in the center of Tokyo, Japan, where serious air pollution is always of concern. A cellulose acetate membrane filter was used to collect the APM because Ba and REEs contamination is lower than that in a quartz glass fiber filter. The REEs measurement was conducted by ICP-MS after the digestion of the APM by a microwave acid digestion procedure. The standard reference material (SRM) of NIST 1648 urban particulate matter was used to validate the accuracy of the analytical method. The analytical results for SRM well agreed with those of the reference and reported values. Consequently, the analytical method established in this study was applied to the determination of REEs in APM collected in Tokyo, Japan. The obtained REEs distribution pattern in the APM showed a positive anomaly of Tb and Eu. The La/Sm ratio, which is considered to be as a good indicator of the anthropogenic effect, in size-classified APM showed a high degree of the anthropogenic effect in fine APM with a diameter of <1.1 µm. Emission sources of Tb, Eu and other REEs are discussed.

  11. A method for the determination of a system of positions and proper motions of stars with an application to the Washington 6 inch TC observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwan, H.

    In the present paper it is shown how a mean system of positions and proper motions of stars can be determined analytically. Using the formulae given by Bien et al. (1978) for the systematic differences Catalogue minus FK4 (Cat - FK4) a series development of the mean system of the catalogues involved is derived. Zero point corrections and catalogue errors are taken into account. This study has been made for providing a possible procedure for the determination of the system of the FK5. The method developed here has been tested by an application to the observations made with the Washington Six-Inch Transit Circle. The systematic differences between the FK4 and the catalogues W10, W25, W1/50, W2/50, W3/50, W4/50, W5/50, and the mean system which is defined by these catalogues are presented by analytical formulae and in tabular form. The results are discussed. In parallel to the analytical method, the system of the Washington Six-Inch Transit Circle has been derived by means of classical techniques. Both results agree very well. Finally it is shown that the developments are applicable for the case where a number of modern catalogues of observation shall serve for the improvement of the fundamental system.

  12. Determination of positions and velocity of Riyadh SLR station using satellite laser ranging observations to Lageos1 and Lageos2 satellites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alothman, A.; Schillak, S.

    2012-04-01

    Riyadh Satellite Laser Ranging (SLR) station (7832) has been established since 1995 and situated in the Arabian plate which is countering a north east motion. Laser ranging observations of about 20 global SLR stations to the LAGEOS-1/LAGEOS-2 for 13-year (1996-2010) have been used to determine station positions and velocity of Riyadh SLR station. The NASA Godard's GEODYN-II orbital software has been used to perform orbit determination of these two satellites. The computations were performed based on 114 monthly arcs of observations with total number of normal points of 33708 and 40168 for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 respectively. The geocentric coordinates were computed and then transformed to the topocentric North-South, East-West, and Vertical components in the ITRF2008 reference frame. Effects of normal points for each arc and the empirical acceleration coefficients on estimated station coordinates have been investigated. In order to achieve a lower standard deviation (less than 1 cm) of estimated coordinates, the number of the normal points per SLR station had to be greater than 50. The range biases were 7.5mm and 7.2 mm with long term biases stability 2.5 mm and 2.0 mm for LAGEOS-1 and LAGEOS-2 satellites, respectively. RMS of fit was calculated for all stations and found to be 17.2 mm for the whole period. Time series of positions and velocities have been computed for Riyadh SLR station with stability of ±10.1 mm, ±9.3 mm, and ±9.0 mm for X, Y, and Z coordinates, respectively. The estimated velocity is 29.1 mm/year, 31.6 mm/year, and 1.9 mm/year in North-South, East-West and vertical directions, respectively, with a 3D velocity 42.9 mm/year. 3D deviation from the ITRF2008 was equal 4.5 mm. To recover tectonic motion affecting the station, further analysis of velocity estimates has shown general agreement of Riyadh SLR station in comparison with recent GPS estimates for the Arabian plate motion.

  13. Crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the transfer protein TraM from the Gram-positive conjugative plasmid pIP501.

    PubMed

    Goessweiner-Mohr, Nikolaus; Grumet, Lukas; Pavkov-Keller, Tea; Birner-Gruenberger, Ruth; Grohmann, Elisabeth; Keller, Walter

    2013-02-01

    The major means of horizontal gene spread (e.g. of antibiotic resistance) is conjugative plasmid transfer. It presents a serious threat especially for hospitalized and immuno-suppressed patients, as it can lead to the accelerated spread of bacteria with multiple antibiotic resistances. Detailed information about the process is available only for bacteria of Gram-negative (G-) origin and little is known about the corresponding mechanisms in Gram-positive (G+) bacteria. Here we present the purification, biophysical characterization, crystallization and preliminary structure determination of the TraM C-terminal domain (TraMΔ, comprising residues 190-322 of the full-length protein), a putative transfer protein from the G+ conjugative model plasmid pIP501. The crystals diffracted to 2.5 Å resolution and belonged to space group P1, with unit-cell parameters a = 39.21, b = 54.98, c = 93.47 Å, α = 89.91, β = 86.44, γ = 78.63° and six molecules per asymmetric unit. The preliminary structure was solved by selenomethionine single-wavelength anomalous diffraction.

  14. [The possibilities for determining the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment based on the injuries to the extremities estimated with the use of the sequential mathematical analysis].

    PubMed

    Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    above morphological signs for the objective determination of the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment during traffic accidents and thereby to improve the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical examination of the injuries inflicted in car crashes. PMID:26245101

  15. [The possibilities for determining the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment based on the injuries to the extremities estimated with the use of the sequential mathematical analysis].

    PubMed

    Smirenin, S A; Khabova, Z S; Fetisov, V A

    2015-01-01

    above morphological signs for the objective determination of the passenger position inside the car passenger compartment during traffic accidents and thereby to improve the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical examination of the injuries inflicted in car crashes.

  16. Four sequence positions of the movement protein of Cucumber mosaic virus determine the virulence against cmv1-mediated resistance in melon.

    PubMed

    Guiu-Aragonés, Cèlia; Díaz-Pendón, Juan Antonio; Martín-Hernández, Ana Montserrat

    2015-09-01

    The resistance to a set of strains of Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) in the melon accession PI 161375, cultivar 'Songwhan Charmi', is dependent on one recessive gene, cmv1, which confers total resistance, whereas a second set of strains is able to overcome it. We tested 11 strains of CMV subgroups I and II in the melon line SC12-1-99, which carries the gene cmv1, and showed that this gene confers resistance to strains of subgroup II only and that restriction is not related to either viral replication or cell-to-cell movement. This is the first time that a resistant trait has been correlated with CMV subgroups. Using infectious clones of the CMV strains LS (subgroup II) and FNY (subgroup I), we generated rearrangements and viral chimaeras between both strains and established that the determinant of virulence against the gene cmv1 resides in the first 209 amino acids of the movement protein, as this region from FNY is sufficient to confer virulence to the LS clone in the line SC12-1-99. A comparison of the sequences of the strains of both subgroups in this region shows that there are five main positions shared by all strains of subgroup II, which are different from those of subgroup I. Site-directed mutagenesis of the CMV-LS clone to substitute these residues for those of CMV-FNY revealed that a combination of four of these changes [the group 64-68 (SNNLL to HGRIA), and the point mutations R81C, G171T and A195I] was required for a complete gain of function of the LS MP in the resistant melon plant.

  17. Positional cloning of the s haplotype determining the floral and incompatibility phenotype of the long-styled morph of distylous Turnera subulata.

    PubMed

    Labonne, Jonathan D J; Shore, Joel S

    2011-02-01

    Heterostyly is a plant breeding system occurring in approximately 28 plant families and it has often been used as a model system in plant genetics and evolution. Although heterostyly has been studied for over a century beginning with Charles Darwin, the genes determining floral architecture and incompatibility are still unknown. To identify the genes residing at the S-locus of distylous Turnera subulata, we used a positional cloning strategy and assembled three BAC contigs across the S-locus region. In total, 31 overlapping BAC clones were assembled into contigs 1, 2 and SL. We developed and mapped numerous co-dominant markers from the ends of BAC clones across the S-locus region and assayed X-ray deletion mutants to delimit the region of the contig containing the S-locus. Deletion mapping revealed that a single BAC clone (L22s) within contig-SL contains the s haplotype, while two additional BAC clones (I1 and K15) may contain parts of the dominant S haplotype. Furthermore, we exploited the contigs assembled and investigated the rates of recombination at the S-locus as well as in two regions on either side of the S-locus. We found that recombination rates (estimated in kb/cM) are 2-5 times lower at the S-locus relative to flanking regions, although they are not statistically significant. The present study represents a landmark in the molecular characterization of the S-locus of a heterostylous species. We are now on the verge of identifying the genes that have remained elusive since Darwin's comprehensive study of heterostylous systems more than 125 years ago.

  18. Nursing Positions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Story" 5 Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Nursing Positions KidsHealth > For Parents > Nursing Positions Print A ... and actually needs to feed. Getting Comfortable With Breastfeeding Nursing can be one of the most challenging ...

  19. Design and Validation of a Method to Determine the Position of the Fovea by Using the Nerve-Head to Fovea Distance of the Fellow Eye

    PubMed Central

    van de Put, Mathijs A. J.; Nayebi, Fara; Croonen, Danna; Nolte, Ilja M.; Japing, Wouter J.; Hooymans, Johanna M. M.; Los, Leonoor I.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose To measure the nerve-head to fovea distance (NFD) on fundus photographs in fellow eyes, and to compare the NFD between fellow eyes. Methods Diabetic patients without retinopathy, (n = 183) who were screened by fundus photography at the University Medical Center Groningen, the Netherlands from January 1st 2005 until January 1st 2006 were included. The NFD was measured in left and right eyes both from the center and from the rim of the nerve-head. To determine inter- and intra-observer agreement, repeated measurements by one observer (n = 3) were performed on all photographs and by two observers on 60 photographs (30 paired eyes). The effect of age, gender, and refractive error on NFD was analysed. Results The correlation of NFDs between the left and the right eye was 0.958 when measured from the center of the nerve head (mean difference 0.0078 mm. ±SD 0.079 (95% limits of agreement −0.147–0.163)) and 0.963 when measured from the rim (mean difference 0.0056±SD 0.073 (95% limits of agreement −0.137–0.149)). Using the NFD between fellow eyes interchangeably, resulted in a standard error of 0.153 mm. Intra- and inter-observer variability was small. We found a significant effect of age (center of the nerve-head (P = 0.006) and rim of the nerve head (P = 0.003)) and refractive error (center of nerve-head (P<0.001) and rim of nerve head (P<0.001)) on NFD. Conclusions The NFD in one eye provides a confident, reproducible, and valid method to address the position of the fovea in the fellow eye. We recommend using the NFD measured from the center of the nerve-head since the standard error by this method was smallest. Age and refractive error have an effect on NFD. PMID:23667483

  20. Positive Psychology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Christopher

    2009-01-01

    Positive psychology is a deliberate correction to the focus of psychology on problems. Positive psychology does not deny the difficulties that people may experience but does suggest that sole attention to disorder leads to an incomplete view of the human condition. Positive psychologists concern themselves with four major topics: (1) positive…

  1. An improved model to determine the inception of positive upward leader-streamer system considering the leader propagation during dark period

    SciTech Connect

    Xie Shijun; He Junjia; Chen Weijiang

    2013-04-15

    Stem-leader transition and front-streamer inception are two essential conditions for the inception of positive upward leader-streamer system (LSS). Previous models have not considered the initial-leader propagation during dark period and have not been verified systematically. In this paper, a series of positive upward discharge simulation experiments was designed and carried out. Characteristic parameters of the discharge process related to the inception of positive upward LSS, namely, the first-corona inception voltage, the first-corona charge, the dark period, and the LSS inception voltage, were obtained. By comparing these experiment results with simulation results calculated using previous models, it was found that it is improper to assume that the length of the initial leader is a fixed value. Finally, an improved inception model of positive upward LSS considering the leader propagation during dark period was developed and verified with experiment results.

  2. Positional plagiocephaly

    PubMed Central

    Cummings, Carl

    2011-01-01

    Cranial asymmetry occurring as a result of forces that deform skull shape in the supine position is known as deformational plagiocephaly. The risk of plagiocephaly may be modified by positioning the baby on alternate days with the head to the right or the left side, and by increasing time spent in the prone position during awake periods. When deformational plagiocephaly is already present, physiotherapy (including positioning equivalent to the preventive positioning, and exercises as needed for torticollis and positional preference) has been shown to be superior to counselling about preventive positioning only. Helmet therapy (moulding therapy) to reduce skull asymmetry has some drawbacks: it is expensive, significantly inconvenient due to the long hours of use per day and associated with skin complications. There is evidence that helmet therapy may increase the initial rate of improvement of asymmetry, but there is no evidence that it improves the final outcome for patients with moderate or severe plagiocephaly. PMID:23024590

  3. Determination of locational error associated with global positioning system (GPS) radio collars in relation to vegetation and topography in north-central New Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Bennett, K.; Biggs, J.; Fresquez, P.R.

    1997-02-01

    In 1996, a study was initiated to assess seasonal habitat use and movement patterns of Rocky Mountain elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) using global positioning system (GPS) radio collars. As part of this study, the authors attempted to assess the accuracies of GPS (non-differentially corrected) positions under various vegetation canopies and terrain conditions with the use of a GPS ``test`` collar. The test collar was activated every twenty minutes to obtain a position location and continuously uplinked to Argos satellites to transfer position data files. They used a Telonics, Inc. uplink receiver to intercept the transmission and view the results of the collar in real time. They placed the collar on a stand equivalent to the neck height of an adult elk and then placed the stand within three different treatment categories: (1) topographical influence (canyon and mesa tops), (2) canopy influence (open and closed canopy), and (3) vegetation type influence (ponderosa pine and pinion pine-juniper). The collar was kept at each location for one hour (usually obtaining three fixes). In addition, the authors used a hand-held GPS to obtain a position of the test collar at the same time and location.

  4. Preliminary Evaluation of the Research-Use-Only (RUO) iCubate iC-GPC Assay for Identification of Select Gram-Positive Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants in Blood Culture Broths.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Blake W; Reymann, Garrett C; Granato, Paul A; Alkins, Brenda R; Jim, Patricia; Young, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The iC-GPC assay (iCubate, Huntsville, AL) provides a molecular option for the rapid, on-demand analysis of positive blood cultures. A preliminary evaluation of the iC-GPC assay using 203 clinical or seeded specimens demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8% to 100% and a specificity of 98.0% to 100% for the identification of five Gram-positive bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium) and three associated genetic resistance determinants (mecA, vanA, and vanB) in positive blood culture broths.

  5. Preliminary Evaluation of the Research-Use-Only (RUO) iCubate iC-GPC Assay for Identification of Select Gram-Positive Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants in Blood Culture Broths

    PubMed Central

    Reymann, Garrett C.; Alkins, Brenda R.; Jim, Patricia; Young, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The iC-GPC assay (iCubate, Huntsville, AL) provides a molecular option for the rapid, on-demand analysis of positive blood cultures. A preliminary evaluation of the iC-GPC assay using 203 clinical or seeded specimens demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8% to 100% and a specificity of 98.0% to 100% for the identification of five Gram-positive bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium) and three associated genetic resistance determinants (mecA, vanA, and vanB) in positive blood culture broths. PMID:26468498

  6. Preliminary Evaluation of the Research-Use-Only (RUO) iCubate iC-GPC Assay for Identification of Select Gram-Positive Bacteria and Their Resistance Determinants in Blood Culture Broths.

    PubMed

    Buchan, Blake W; Reymann, Garrett C; Granato, Paul A; Alkins, Brenda R; Jim, Patricia; Young, Stephen

    2015-12-01

    The iC-GPC assay (iCubate, Huntsville, AL) provides a molecular option for the rapid, on-demand analysis of positive blood cultures. A preliminary evaluation of the iC-GPC assay using 203 clinical or seeded specimens demonstrated a sensitivity of 93.8% to 100% and a specificity of 98.0% to 100% for the identification of five Gram-positive bacterial species (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis, and Enterococcus faecium) and three associated genetic resistance determinants (mecA, vanA, and vanB) in positive blood culture broths. PMID:26468498

  7. Beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Alkire, Randy W.; Rosenbaum, Gerold; Evans, Gwyndaf

    2003-07-22

    An apparatus for determining the position of an x-ray beam relative to a desired beam axis. Where the apparatus is positioned along the beam path so that a thin metal foil target intersects the x-ray beam generating fluorescent radiation. A PIN diode array is positioned so that a portion of the fluorescent radiation is intercepted by the array resulting in an a series of electrical signals from the PIN diodes making up the array. The signals are then analyzed and the position of the x-ray beam is determined relative to the desired beam path.

  8. Antibiotic treatment algorithm development based on a microarray nucleic acid assay for rapid bacterial identification and resistance determination from positive blood cultures.

    PubMed

    Rödel, Jürgen; Karrasch, Matthias; Edel, Birgit; Stoll, Sylvia; Bohnert, Jürgen; Löffler, Bettina; Saupe, Angela; Pfister, Wolfgang

    2016-03-01

    Rapid diagnosis of bloodstream infections remains a challenge for the early targeting of an antibiotic therapy in sepsis patients. In recent studies, the reliability of the Nanosphere Verigene Gram-positive and Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GP and BC-GN) assays for the rapid identification of bacteria and resistance genes directly from positive BCs has been demonstrated. In this work, we have developed a model to define treatment recommendations by combining Verigene test results with knowledge on local antibiotic resistance patterns of bacterial pathogens. The data of 275 positive BCs were analyzed. Two hundred sixty-three isolates (95.6%) were included in the Verigene assay panels, and 257 isolates (93.5%) were correctly identified. The agreement of the detection of resistance genes with subsequent phenotypic susceptibility testing was 100%. The hospital antibiogram was used to develop a treatment algorithm on the basis of Verigene results that may contribute to a faster patient management. PMID:26712265

  9. Positive Psychotherapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C.

    2006-01-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported…

  10. Positioning Agility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oza, Nilay; Abrahamsson, Pekka; Conboy, Kieran

    Agile methods are increasingly adopted by European companies. Academics too are conducting numerous studies on different tenets of agile methods. Companies often feel proud in marketing themselves as ‘agile’. However, the true notion of ‘being agile’ seems to have been overlooked due to lack of positioning of oneself for agility. This raises a call for more research and interactions between academia and the industry. The proposed workshop refers to this call. It will be highly relevant to participants, interested in positioning their company’s agility from organizational, group or project perspectives. The positioning of agility will help companies to better align their agile practices with stakeholder values. Results of the workshop will be shared across participants and they will also have opportunity to continue their work on agile positioning in their companies. At broader level, the work done in this workshop will contribute towards developing Agile Positioning System.

  11. [Identification, during development, of a methodology targeted at determining the positioning of new drugs for therapeutic strategies: examples of rheumatoid arthritis and cardiac insufficiency].

    PubMed

    Le Jeunne, C; Plétan, Y; Boissel, J P

    2002-01-01

    The Marketing Authorization (MA) granted to a new molecular entity does not allow for proper anticipation of its future positioning within the therapeutic strategy. A specific methodology should be devised as early as during the pre-MA development phase that could result in an initial positioning that should be subjected to further reappraisal with regard to scientific advances, the arrival of new treatments and further developments with this molecule. A methodology is thus proposed, based on early optimisation of the development plan, the granting of subsequent MAs, and reappraisal of the positioning within the strategy, based on analysis of all available data. It should be possible to take into account the economic context, within an agreed system with pre-defined medico-economic criteria. This may in turn raise the issue of the role of the various parties involved in this assessment, as well as how to understand the respective opinions of stakeholders: authorities, sponsors, prescribers and patients, each of whom has a specific view of the definition of the strategic objective that should apply to the disease concerned.

  12. Positive Proof.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auty, Geoffrey

    1988-01-01

    Presents experiments which show that in electrostatics there are logical reasons for describing charged materials as positive or negative. Indicates that static and current electricity are not separate areas of physics. Diagrams of experiments and circuits are included. (RT)

  13. On the determination of heliographic positions and rotation velocities of sunspots. III - Effects caused by wrong solar image radii and their corrections

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balthasar, H.; Lustig, G.; Woehl, H.

    1984-03-01

    The effect of incorrect solar-image radius on the determination of the rotation velocity of sunspots is analyzed by comparing data collected at Sonnenobservatorium Kanzelhoehe with those from Locarno and Greenwich (for May and September, 1982, and for 27 stable recurrent sunspots during 1950-1976, respectively). While the Locarno data are insufficient to draw quantitative conclusions, the Kanzelhoehe/Greenwich comparison reveals a time-independent discrepancy of 0.004 deg/day, corresponding to a velocity difference of less than 1 m/s, from the 'true' values determined from successive passages through the central meridian.

  14. A Tyrosine-to-Histidine Switch at Position 18 of the Ross River Virus E2 Glycoprotein Is a Determinant of Virus Fitness in Disparate Hosts

    PubMed Central

    Jupille, Henri J.; Medina-Rivera, Melisa; Hawman, David W.; Oko, Lauren

    2013-01-01

    Arthritogenic alphaviruses are human pathogens maintained in nature through alternating replication in vertebrates and mosquitoes. Using chimeric viruses, we previously reported that replacement of the PE2 coding region of the T48 strain of Ross River virus (RRV-T48) with that from the attenuated DC5692 strain, which differ by 7 amino acids, resulted in an attenuated disease phenotype in a mouse model of RRV-induced rheumatic disease. Here, we demonstrate that introduction of one of these amino acid differences, a tyrosine (Y)-to-histidine (H) change at position 18 of the E2 glycoprotein (E2 Y18H), into the RRV-T48 genetic background was sufficient to generate a virus that caused dramatically less severe musculoskeletal disease in mice. The attenuated phenotype of RRV-T48 E2 Y18H was associated with reduced viral loads in musculoskeletal tissues, reduced viremia, and less efficient virus spread. Consistent with these findings, RRV-T48 E2 Y18H replicated less well in mammalian cells in vitro due to significantly reduced PFU released per infected cell. In contrast, RRV-T48 E2 Y18H replicated more efficiently than RRV-T48 in C6/36 mosquito cells. Competition studies confirmed that RRV-T48 E2 Y18H had a fitness advantage in mosquito cells and a fitness disadvantage in mammalian cells. Interestingly, all sequenced Ross River viruses encode either a tyrosine or a histidine at E2 position 18, and this holds true for other alphaviruses in the Semliki Forest antigenic complex. Taken together, these findings suggest that a tyrosine-to-histidine switch at E2 position 18 functions as a regulator of RRV fitness in vertebrate and invertebrate cells. PMID:23514884

  15. Trypsin- and low pH-mediated fusogenicity of avian metapneumovirus fusion proteins is determined by residues at positions 100, 101 and 294

    PubMed Central

    Yun, Bingling; Guan, Xiaolu; Liu, Yongzhen; Gao, Yanni; Wang, Yongqiang; Qi, Xiaole; Cui, Hongyu; Liu, Changjun; Zhang, Yanping; Gao, Li; Li, Kai; Gao, Honglei; Gao, Yulong; Wang, Xiaomei

    2015-01-01

    Avian metapneumovirus (aMPV) and human metapneumovirus (hMPV) are members of the genus Metapneumovirus in the subfamily Pneumovirinae. Metapneumovirus fusion (F) protein mediates the fusion of host cells with the virus membrane for infection. Trypsin- and/or low pH-induced membrane fusion is a strain-dependent phenomenon for hMPV. Here, we demonstrated that three subtypes of aMPV (aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C) F proteins promoted cell-cell fusion in the absence of trypsin. Indeed, in the presence of trypsin, only aMPV/C F protein fusogenicity was enhanced. Mutagenesis of the amino acids at position 100 and/or 101, located at a putative cleavage region in aMPV F proteins, revealed that the trypsin-mediated fusogenicity of aMPV F proteins is regulated by the residues at positions 100 and 101. Moreover, we demonstrated that aMPV/A and aMPV/B F proteins mediated cell-cell fusion independent of low pH, whereas the aMPV/C F protein did not. Mutagenesis of the residue at position 294 in the aMPV/A, aMPV/B, and aMPV/C F proteins showed that 294G played a critical role in F protein-mediated fusion under low pH conditions. These findings on aMPV F protein-induced cell-cell fusion provide new insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying membrane fusion and pathogenesis of aMPV. PMID:26498473

  16. Luminescence-based retrospective dosimetry using Al2O3 from mobile phones: a simulation approach to determine the effects of position.

    PubMed

    Eakins, J S; Kouroukla, E

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo modelling has been performed in support of efforts to establish emergency dosimetry services based on optically or thermally stimulated luminescence (OSL/TL) of the Al(2)O(3) substrate present on the resistors found in mobile phones, which can act as fortuitous retrospective dosemeters for photon exposures. Specifically, a range of exposure conditions has been modelled to assess the dependence of the dosimetry on factors such as the position of resistors within a phone, the orientation of the phone relative to the source, and the location of the phone relative to its owner. Variations due to the resistors' positions and the phone's orientation were generally found to contribute just a few percent to the uncertainty on the dose assessments, though the electrical contacts surrounding the resistors could potentially enhance these by several 10s of percent. But, the location of the phone was found to impact dosimetry greatly. The largest discrepancies in the results were found for low-energy exposures: for (192)Ir, differences of up to an order-of-magnitude were found between resistor and whole body doses. The outcome of the work was to derive correction / calibration factors that can be applied to estimate whole body doses from OSL/TL readings, the accurate application of which would depend on the knowledge of the exposure geometry and the degree of conservatism acceptable for the dose assessment.

  17. Luminescence-based retrospective dosimetry using Al2O3 from mobile phones: a simulation approach to determine the effects of position.

    PubMed

    Eakins, J S; Kouroukla, E

    2015-06-01

    Monte Carlo modelling has been performed in support of efforts to establish emergency dosimetry services based on optically or thermally stimulated luminescence (OSL/TL) of the Al(2)O(3) substrate present on the resistors found in mobile phones, which can act as fortuitous retrospective dosemeters for photon exposures. Specifically, a range of exposure conditions has been modelled to assess the dependence of the dosimetry on factors such as the position of resistors within a phone, the orientation of the phone relative to the source, and the location of the phone relative to its owner. Variations due to the resistors' positions and the phone's orientation were generally found to contribute just a few percent to the uncertainty on the dose assessments, though the electrical contacts surrounding the resistors could potentially enhance these by several 10s of percent. But, the location of the phone was found to impact dosimetry greatly. The largest discrepancies in the results were found for low-energy exposures: for (192)Ir, differences of up to an order-of-magnitude were found between resistor and whole body doses. The outcome of the work was to derive correction / calibration factors that can be applied to estimate whole body doses from OSL/TL readings, the accurate application of which would depend on the knowledge of the exposure geometry and the degree of conservatism acceptable for the dose assessment. PMID:25884152

  18. [Respect for self-determination and use of coercion in the treatment of mentally ill persons: an ethical position statement of the DGPPN].

    PubMed

    2014-11-01

    Respect for patient self-determination is a central ethical principle of medical care. Every person has the right to make decisions regarding his or her health autonomously, even if these decisions appear irrational to third parties. Free and informed consent is the necessary prerequisite for every diagnostic and therapeutic procedure. A patient's ability for self-determination is one requirement for valid consent. In illness, the ability for self-determination may be limited or absent in individual cases. An ethical dilemma arises if severely ill patients who are unable to make autonomous decisions put their health at significant risk and refuse medical procedures in this situation. While non-treatment can be severely detrimental to health, forced procedures can result in traumatization and can damage the relationship of trust between the doctor and patient. The dilemma is intensified in cases of danger to others. In these difficult situations doctors, therapists and nursing staff require ethical guidance for the professional conduct. The primary objective thereby is to avoid coercion. For this purpose recommendations for medical practice are formulated that can reduce the use of forced procedures (e.g. de-escalation procedures, communication competency, clinical ethics counseling, treatment agreements and patient living wills) or if they are unavoidable, that allow them to be conducted in an ethically and legally appropriate way. Further and continued education must pay greater attention to this ethical objective; therefore, for ethical reasons adequate personnel, spatial and structural are vital in hospitals. PMID:25388831

  19. The position of the in vitro micronucleus test within the battery of screening for genotoxic potential determination and the regulatory guidelines.

    PubMed

    Marzin, D

    1997-08-01

    The in vitro micronucleus test is available to demonstrate the clastogenic and aneugenic potencies of chemicals. This test is easier to evaluate than metaphase analysis and, although used routinely by some laboratories as a prescreening test for the determination of chromosomal mutation induction potency, it has not been recognised by regulatory authorities as a test to be included in the battery of assays for human risk assessment. This limitation is due to the lack of a fixed protocol, a limited data bank, particularly in the case of clastogens, and to the lack of sufficient robust interlaboratory validation studies. If we aim to recognize this test in the form of an OECD guideline and to introduce it as an alternative to in vitro metaphase analysis in cell culture, it is necessary to begin a collaborative study in order to determine the best protocol which is valid for the detection of all clastogens as well as to determine clearly the limits of the test. The use of this in vitro test as a prescreening assay could be very useful as it takes structural and numerical chromosomal abnormalities into account and is simpler to perform than in vitro metaphase analysis.

  20. Highly sensitive derivatization reagents possessing positively charged structures for the determination of oligosaccharides in glycoproteins by high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Min, Jun Zhe; Nagai, Keisuke; Shi, Qing; Zhou, Wenjun; Todoroki, Kenichiro; Inoue, Koichi; Lee, Yong-Ill; Toyo'oka, Toshimasa

    2016-09-23

    We have developed three kinds of novel derivatization reagents (4-CEBTPP, 4-CBBTPP, 5-COTPP) with triphenylphosphine (TPP) as a basic structure carrying a permanent positive charge for resolution of the oligosaccharides in glycoprotein using high-performance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS). The synthesized reagents reacted with the sialylglycosylamine of the sialylglycopeptide after treatment by PNGase F. The final derivatives were analyzed by ESI-MS and sensitively detected in the selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Furthermore, the limits of detection (S/N=3) on the SRM chromatograms were at the fmol level (30fmol). Therefore, we used the limit of detection of the reagent products detected by the SRM and evaluated the utility of each reagent. Among the reagents, the positively charged 4-CEBTPP derivative's peak area was the highest; 4-CEBTPP with a positively charged structure showed about a 20 times greater sensitivity for the glycosylamine of the SGP product compared to the conventional fluorescence reagent, Fmoc-Cl. In addition, various fragment ions based on the carbohydrate units also appeared in the MS/MS spectra. Among the fragment ions, m/z 627.37 (CE=40eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP-GlcNAc and m/z 120.09 (CE=100eV) corresponding to 4-CEBTPP are the most important ones for identifying the oligosaccharide. 4-CEBTPP-SGA was easily identified by the selected-ion chromatogram in the product ion scan (m/z 120.09) and in the precursor ion scan (m/z 627.37) by MS/MS detection. The derivatized analytes have a high ionization efficiency and they are detected with a high sensitivity in the electrospray ionization. The novel derivatization reagent with a multi-function provided a higher sensitivity for the oligosaccharide analysis, as well as a better specificity and feasibility. Furthermore, several oligosaccharides in fetuin and ribonuclease B were successfully identified by the proposed procedure. PMID

  1. Position indicator

    DOEpatents

    Tanner, David E.

    1981-01-01

    A nuclear reactor system is described in which a position indicator is provided for detecting and indicating the position of a movable element inside a pressure vessel. The movable element may be a valve element or similar device which moves about an axis. Light from a light source is transmitted from a source outside the pressure vessel to a first region inside the pressure vessel in alignment with the axis of the movable element. The light is redirected by a reflector prism to a second region displaced radially from the first region. The reflector prism moves in response to movement of the movable element about its axis such that the second region moves arcuately with respect to the first region. Sensors are arrayed in an arc corresponding to the arc of movement of the second region and signals are transmitted from the sensors to the exterior of the reactor vessel to provide indication of the position of the movable element.

  2. Creation of 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model actual patient non-rigid body motion as determined from MRI and position tracking studies of volunteers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connolly, C. M.; Konik, A.; Dasari, P. K. R.; Segars, P.; Zheng, S.; Johnson, K. L.; Dey, J.; King, M. A.

    2011-03-01

    Patient motion can cause artifacts, which can lead to difficulty in interpretation. The purpose of this study is to create 3D digital anthropomorphic phantoms which model the location of the structures of the chest and upper abdomen of human volunteers undergoing a series of clinically relevant motions. The 3D anatomy is modeled using the XCAT phantom and based on MRI studies. The NURBS surfaces of the XCAT are interactively adapted to fit the MRI studies. A detailed XCAT phantom is first developed from an EKG triggered Navigator acquisition composed of sagittal slices with a 3 x 3 x 3 mm voxel dimension. Rigid body motion states are then acquired at breath-hold as sagittal slices partially covering the thorax, centered on the heart, with 9 mm gaps between them. For non-rigid body motion requiring greater sampling, modified Navigator sequences covering the entire thorax with 3 mm gaps between slices are obtained. The structures of the initial XCAT are then adapted to fit these different motion states. Simultaneous to MRI imaging the positions of multiple reflective markers on stretchy bands about the volunteer's chest and abdomen are optically tracked in 3D via stereo imaging. These phantoms with combined position tracking will be used to investigate both imaging-data-driven and motion-tracking strategies to estimate and correct for patient motion. Our initial application will be to cardiacperfusion SPECT imaging where the XCAT phantoms will be used to create patient activity and attenuation distributions for each volunteer with corresponding motion tracking data from the markers on the body-surface. Monte Carlo methods will then be used to simulate SPECT acquisitions, which will be used to evaluate various motion estimation and correction strategies.

  3. Positive psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Seligman, Martin E P; Rashid, Tayyab; Parks, Acacia C

    2006-11-01

    Positive psychotherapy (PPT) contrasts with standard interventions for depression by increasing positive emotion, engagement, and meaning rather than directly targeting depressive symptoms. The authors have tested the effects of these interventions in a variety of settings. In informal student and clinical settings, people not uncommonly reported them to be "life-changing." Delivered on the Web, positive psychology exercises relieved depressive symptoms for at least 6 months compared with placebo interventions, the effects of which lasted less than a week. In severe depression, the effects of these Web exercises were particularly striking. This address reports two preliminary studies: In the first, PPT delivered to groups significantly decreased levels of mild-to-moderate depression through 1-year follow-up. In the second, PPT delivered to individuals produced higher remission rates than did treatment as usual and treatment as usual plus medication among outpatients with major depressive disorder. Together, these studies suggest that treatments for depression may usefully be supplemented by exercises that explicitly increase positive emotion, engagement, and meaning. ((c) 2006 APA, all rights reserved). PMID:17115810

  4. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  5. Determination of land subsidence related to ground-water-level declines using Global Positioning System and leveling surveys in Antelope Valley, Los Angeles and Kern counties, California, 1992

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ikehara, M.E.; Phillips, S.P.

    1994-01-01

    A large-scale, land-subsidence monitoring network for Antelope Valley, California, was established, and positions and elevations for 85 stations were measured using Global Positioning System geodetic surveying in spring 1992. The 95-percent confidence (2@) level of accuracy for the elevations calculated for a multiple-constraint adjustment generally ranged from +0.010 meter (0.032 foot) to +0.024 meter (0.078 foot). The magnitudes and rates of land subsidence as of 1992 were calculated for several periods for 218 bench marks throughout Antelope Valley. The maximum measured magnitude of land subsidence that occurred between 1926 and 1992 was 6.0 feet (1.83 meters) at BM 474 near Avenue I and Sierra Highway. Measured or estimated subsidence of 2-7 feet (.61-2.l3 meters) had occurred in a 210- square-mile (542-square-kilometer) area of Antelope Valley, generally bounded by Avenue K, Avenue A, 90th Street West, and 120th Street East, during the same period. Land subsidence in Antelope Valley is caused by aquifer-system compaction, which is related to ground-water-level declines and the presence of fine-grained, compressible sediments. Comparison of potentiomethric-surface, water-level decline, and subsidence-rate maps for several periods indicated a general correlation between water-level declines and the distribution and rate of subsidence in the Lancaster ground-water subbasin. A conservative estimate of the amount of the reduction in storage capacity of the aquifer system in the Lancaster subbasin is about 50,000 acre-feet in the area that has been affected by more than one foot (.30 meters) of subsidence as of 1992. Information on the history of ground-water levels and the distribution and thickness of fine-grained compressible sediments can be used to mitigate continued land subsidence. Future monitoring of ground-water levels and land-surface elevations in subsidence-sensitive regions of Antelope Valley may be an effective means to manage land subsidence.

  6. Position and Stability Are Determining Factors for Translation Repression by an RNA G-Quadruplex-Forming Sequence within the 5′ UTR of the NRAS Proto-oncogene†

    PubMed Central

    Kumari, Sunita; Bugaut, Anthony; Balasubramanian, Shankar

    2009-01-01

    Nucleic acid secondary structures in the 5′ untranslated regions (UTRs) of mRNAs have been shown to play a critical role in translation regulation. We recently demonstrated that a naturally occurring, conserved, and stable RNA G-quadruplex element (5′-GGGAGGGGCGGGUCUGGG-3′), located close to the 5′ cap within the 5′ UTR of the NRAS proto-oncogene mRNA, modulates gene expression at the translational level. Herein, we show that the translational effect of this G-quadruplex motif in NRAS 5′ UTR is not uniform, but rather depends on the location of the G-quadruplex-forming sequence. The RNA G-quadruplex-forming sequence represses translation when situated relatively proximal to the 5′ end, within the first 50 nt, in the 5′ UTR of the NRAS proto-oncogene, whereas it has no significant effect on translation if located comparatively away from the 5′ end. We have also demonstrated that the thermodynamic stability of the RNA G-quadruplex at its natural position within the NRAS 5′ UTR is an important factor contributing toward its ability to repress translation. PMID:18991403

  7. Probing a novel potato lipoxygenase with dual positional specificity reveals primary determinants of substrate binding and requirements for a surface hydrophobic loop and has implications for the role of lipoxygenases in tubers.

    PubMed Central

    Hughes, R K; West, S I; Hornostaj, A R; Lawson, D M; Fairhurst, S A; Sanchez, R O; Hough, P; Robinson, B H; Casey, R

    2001-01-01

    A new potato tuber lipoxygenase full-length cDNA sequence (lox1:St:2) has been isolated from potato tubers and used to express in Escherichia coli and characterize a novel recombinant lipoxygenase (potato 13/9-lipoxygenase). Like most plant lipoxygenases it produced carbonyl compounds from linoleate (the preferred substrate) and was purified in the Fe(II) (ferrous) state. Typical of other potato tuber lipoxygenases, it produced 5-HPETE [5(S)-hydroperoxy-(6E, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)-eicosatetraenoic acid] from arachidonate. In contrast to any other potato tuber lipoxygenase, it exhibited dual positional specificity and produced roughly equimolar amounts of 13- and 9-hydroperoxides (or only a slight molar excess of 9-hydroperoxides) from linoleate. We have used a homology model of pea 9/13-lipoxygenase to superimpose and compare the linoleate-binding pockets of different potato lipoxygenases of known positional specificity. We then tested this model by using site-directed mutagenesis to identify some primary determinants of linoleate binding to potato 13/9-lipoxygenase and concluded that the mechanism determining positional specificity described for a cucumber lipoxygenase does not apply to potato 13/9-lipoxygenase. This supports our previous studies on pea seed lipoxygenases for the role of pocket volume rather than inverse orientation as a determinant of dual positional specificity in plant lipoxygenases. We have also used deletion mutagenesis to identify a critical role in catalysis for a surface hydrophobic loop in potato 13/9-lipoxygenase and speculate that this may control substrate access. Although potato 13/9-lipoxygenase represents only a minor isoform in tubers, such evidence for a single lipoxygenase species with dual positional specificity in tubers has implications for the proposed role of potato lipoxygenases in the plant. PMID:11139400

  8. Determinants of consultation, diagnosis and treatment delays among new smear-positive pulmonary tuberculosis patients in Morocco: a cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Akrim, M; Bennani, K; Essolbi, A; Sghiar, M; Likos, A; Benmamoun, A; Menzhi, O El; Maaroufi, A

    2014-12-17

    We conducted a cross-sectional survey in 2012 in 12 selected provinces and prefectures in Morocco to determine consultation delay (patient delay), diagnosis delay and treatment delay (health system delays), and factors relating to these delays. The sample included 250 eligible and consenting newly diagnosed smearpositive pulmonary tuberculosis patients who were interviewed at the time of their registration within Diagnosis of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases Reference Centers (CDTMR) or Integrated Health Centers (CSI) using a pretested and structured questionnaire. The median total delay was 46 days [inter-quartile interval (IQI) = 29-84 days]. Patient delay (median = 20; IQI = 8-47 days) was higher than health system delay (median=15; IIQ = 7-35 days). Being illiterate, thinking symptoms will disappear by themselves; having financial constraints and feeling fear of diagnosis or social isolation were associated with patient delay. Consulting first in the private sector or having 3 or more consultations before diagnosis was associated with health system delay.

  9. The catecholamine biosynthetic enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH): first genome-wide search positions trait-determining variants acting additively in the proximal promoter

    PubMed Central

    Mustapic, Maja; Maihofer, Adam X.; Mahata, Manjula; Chen, Yuqing; Baker, Dewleen G.; O'Connor, Daniel T.; Nievergelt, Caroline M.

    2014-01-01

    Dopamine beta-hydroxylase (DBH) is the biosynthetic enzyme catalyzing formation of norepinephrine. Changes in DBH expression or activity have been implicated in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular and neuropsychiatric disorders. Genetic determination of DBH enzymatic activity and its secretion are only incompletely understood. We began with a genome-wide association search for loci contributing to DBH activity in human plasma. Initially, in a population sample of European ancestry, we identified the proximal DBH promoter as a region harboring three common trait-determining variants (top hit rs1611115, P = 7.2 × 10−51). We confirmed their effects on transcription and showed that the three variants each acted additively on gene expression. Results were replicated in a population sample of Native American descent (top hit rs1611115, P = 4.1 × 10−15). Jointly, DBH variants accounted for 57% of DBH trait variation. We further identified a genome-wide significant SNP at the LOC338797 locus on chromosome 12 as trans-quantitative trait locus (QTL) (rs4255618, P = 4.62 × 10−8). Conditional analyses on DBH identified a third genomic region contributing to DBH variation: a likely cis-QTL adjacent to DBH in SARDH (rs7040170, P = 1.31 × 10−14) on chromosome 9q. We conclude that three common SNPs in the DBH promoter act additively to control phenotypic variation in DBH levels, and that two additional novel loci (SARDH and LOC338797) may also contribute to the expression of this catecholamine biosynthetic trait. Identification of DBH variants with strong effects makes it possible to take advantage of Mendelian randomization approaches to test causal effects of this intermediate trait on disease. PMID:24986918

  10. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    PubMed

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource. PMID:26763160

  11. The albinism of the feral Asinara white donkeys (Equus asinus) is determined by a missense mutation in a highly conserved position of the tyrosinase (TYR) gene deduced protein.

    PubMed

    Utzeri, V J; Bertolini, F; Ribani, A; Schiavo, G; Dall'Olio, S; Fontanesi, L

    2016-02-01

    A feral donkey population (Equus asinus), living in the Asinara National Park (an island north-west of Sardinia, Italy), includes a unique white albino donkey subpopulation or colour morph that is a major attraction of this park. Disrupting mutations in the tyrosinase (TYR) gene are known to cause recessive albinisms in humans (oculocutaneous albinism Type 1; OCA1) and other species. In this study, we analysed the donkey TYR gene as a strong candidate to identify the causative mutation of the albinism of these donkeys. The TYR gene was sequenced from 13 donkeys (seven Asinara white albino and six coloured animals). Seven single nucleotide polymorphisms were identified. A missense mutation (c.604C>G; p.His202Asp) in a highly conserved amino acid position (even across kingdoms), which disrupts the first copper-binding site (CuA) of functional protein, was identified in the homozygous condition (G/G or D/D) in all Asinara white albino donkeys and in the albino son of a trio (the grey parents had genotype C/G or H/D), supporting the recessive mode of inheritance of this mutation. Genotyping 82 donkeys confirmed that Asinara albino donkeys had genotype G/G whereas all other coloured donkeys had genotype C/C or C/G. Across-population association between the c.604C>G genotypes and the albino coat colour was highly significant (P = 6.17E-18). The identification of the causative mutation of the albinism in the Asinara white donkeys might open new perspectives to study the dynamics of this putative deleterious allele in a feral population and to manage this interesting animal genetic resource.

  12. Position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Auer, Siegfried (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    A radiant energy angle sensor is provided wherein the sensitive portion thereof comprises a pair of linear array detectors with each detector mounted normal to the other to provide X and Y channels and a pair of slits spaced from the pair of linear arrays with each of the slits positioned normal to its associated linear array. There is also provided electrical circuit means connected to the pair of linear array detectors and to separate X and Y axes outputs.

  13. Positive Psychologists on Positive Constructs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyubomirsky, Sonja

    2012-01-01

    Comments on the original article by McNulty and Fincham (see record 2011-15476-001). In their article, the authors offered compelling evidence that constructs such as forgiveness and optimism can have both beneficial and adverse consequences, depending on the context. Their caution about labeling particular psychological processes as "positive" is…

  14. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  15. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, M.A.; Alter, P.

    1983-07-07

    An apparatus is provided for precisely adjusting the position of an article relative to a beam emerging from a neutron source disposed in a housing. The apparatus includes a support pivotably mounted on a movable base plate and freely suspended therefrom. The support is gravity biased toward the housing and carries an article holder movable in a first direction longitudinally of the axis of said beam and normally urged into engagement against said housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the suspended holder in two mutually perpendicular directions, respectively, normal to the axis of the beam.

  16. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-05-06

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  17. Positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Vogel, Max A.; Alter, Paul

    1986-01-01

    An apparatus for precisely positioning materials test specimens within the optimum neutron flux path emerging from a neutron source located in a housing. The test specimens are retained in a holder mounted on the free end of a support pivotably mounted and suspended from a movable base plate. The support is gravity biased to urge the holder in a direction longitudinally of the flux path against the housing. Means are provided for moving the base plate in two directions to effect movement of the holder in two mutually perpendicular directions normal to the axis of the flux path.

  18. POSITIONING DEVICE

    DOEpatents

    Wall, R.R.; Peterson, D.L.

    1959-09-15

    A positioner is described for a vertical reactor-control rod. The positioner comprises four grooved friction rotatable members that engage the control rod on all sides and shift it longitudinally. The four friction members are drivingly interconnected for conjoint rotation and comprise two pairs of coaxial members. The members of each pair are urged toward one another by hydraulic or pneumatic pressure and thus grip the control rod so as to hold it in any position or adjust it. Release of the by-draulic or pneumatic pressure permits springs between the friction members of each pair to force them apart, whereby the control rod moves quickly by gravity into the reactor.

  19. Robot Position Sensor Fault Tolerance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aldridge, Hal A.

    1997-01-01

    Robot systems in critical applications, such as those in space and nuclear environments, must be able to operate during component failure to complete important tasks. One failure mode that has received little attention is the failure of joint position sensors. Current fault tolerant designs require the addition of directly redundant position sensors which can affect joint design. A new method is proposed that utilizes analytical redundancy to allow for continued operation during joint position sensor failure. Joint torque sensors are used with a virtual passive torque controller to make the robot joint stable without position feedback and improve position tracking performance in the presence of unknown link dynamics and end-effector loading. Two Cartesian accelerometer based methods are proposed to determine the position of the joint. The joint specific position determination method utilizes two triaxial accelerometers attached to the link driven by the joint with the failed position sensor. The joint specific method is not computationally complex and the position error is bounded. The system wide position determination method utilizes accelerometers distributed on different robot links and the end-effector to determine the position of sets of multiple joints. The system wide method requires fewer accelerometers than the joint specific method to make all joint position sensors fault tolerant but is more computationally complex and has lower convergence properties. Experiments were conducted on a laboratory manipulator. Both position determination methods were shown to track the actual position satisfactorily. A controller using the position determination methods and the virtual passive torque controller was able to servo the joints to a desired position during position sensor failure.

  20. New data analysis technique developed for the determination of the solar limb position in measurements of the solar diameter and oblateness, and application to observations obtained with the balloon-borne Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) experiment.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djafer, D.; Sofia, S.; Irbah, A.; Thuillier, G.; Egidi, A.; Caccin, B.

    Solar diameter measurements performed from ground by several instruments during these last decades show variations which are not in agreement. In relation with solar activity, these measurements do not reveal consistent results. These results can be either attributed to Earth atmosphere effects or to instrumental ones especially in presence of noise. Noise affects directly the determination of the solar diameter defined as the zero crossing of the second derivative of the solar limb. Furthermore, presence of noise in data causes additional problems requiring appropriate data filtering without changing the solar limb slope. Several methods have been developed and used for a correct inflexion point position determination, among them, is the Fast Fourier Transform Definition (FFTD). We first present a complete description of the FFTD tool and in particular a new method to choose the filtering parameter (a) to be determined for applying FFDT. An alternative method by filtering using the wavelet analysis is also shown. The Solar Disk Sextant (SDS) is an instrument which has been flown on stratospheric balloons from 1992 to 1998 at 37 km altitude preventing all atmospheric effects. SDS uses a prism as angular reference. We present and discuss results obtained from SDS data analysis and compare them using others methods of inflexion point position detection. Finally, we discuss all other SDS experimental parameters able to cause solar diameter measurement variations.We show the relationship between the diameter variation and solar variability.

  1. Geodetic positioning using a global positioning system of satellites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fell, P. J.

    1980-01-01

    Geodetic positioning using range, integrated Doppler, and interferometric observations from a constellation of twenty-four Global Positioning System satellites is analyzed. A summary of the proposals for geodetic positioning and baseline determination is given which includes a description of measurement techniques and comments on rank deficiency and error sources. An analysis of variance comparison of range, Doppler, and interferometric time delay to determine their relative geometric strength for baseline determination is included. An analytic examination to the effect of a priori constraints on positioning using simultaneous observations from two stations is presented. Dynamic point positioning and baseline determination using range and Doppler is examined in detail. Models for the error sources influencing dynamic positioning are developed. Included is a discussion of atomic clock stability, and range and Doppler observation error statistics based on random correlated atomic clock error are derived.

  2. Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Genetic Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Culture Broths by Use of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Multiplex Microarray-Based Molecular Assay

    PubMed Central

    Ledeboer, Nathan A.; Lopansri, Bert K.; Dhiman, Neelam; Cavagnolo, Robert; Carroll, Karen C.; Granato, Paul; Thomson, Richard; Butler-Wu, Susan M.; Berger, Heather; Samuel, Linoj; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Hansen, Glen T.; Tran, Nam K.; Polage, Christopher R.; Thomson, Kenneth S.; Hanson, Nancy D.; Winegar, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Bloodstream infection is a serious condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The outcome of these infections can be positively affected by the early implementation of effective antibiotic therapy based on the identification of the infecting organism and genetic markers associated with antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated the microarray-based Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay in the identification of 8 genus or species targets and 6 genetic resistance determinants in positive blood culture broths. A total of 1,847 blood cultures containing Gram-negative organisms were tested using the BC-GN assay. This comprised 729 prospective fresh, 781 prospective or retrospective frozen, and 337 simulated cultures representing 7 types of aerobic culture media. The results were compared to those with standard bacterial culture and biochemical identification with nucleic acid sequence confirmation of the resistance determinants. Among monomicrobial cultures, the positive percent agreement (PPA) of the BC-GN assay with the reference method was as follows; Escherichia coli, 100%; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 92.9%; Klebsiella oxytoca, 95.5%; Enterobacter spp., 99.3%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 98.9%; Proteus spp., 100%; Acinetobacter spp., 98.4%; and Citrobacter spp., 100%. All organism identification targets demonstrated >99.5% negative percent agreement (NPA) with the reference method. Of note, 25/26 cultures containing K. pneumoniae that were reported as not detected by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as Klebsiella variicola. The PPA for identification of resistance determinants was as follows; blaCTX-M, 98.9%; blaKPC, 100%; blaNDM, 96.2%; blaOXA, 94.3%; blaVIM, 100%; and blaIMP, 100%. All resistance determinant targets demonstrated >99.9% NPA. Among polymicrobial specimens, the BC-GN assay correctly identified at least one organism in 95.4% of the broths and correctly identified all organisms present in 54.5% of the broths

  3. Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Genetic Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Culture Broths by Use of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Multiplex Microarray-Based Molecular Assay.

    PubMed

    Ledeboer, Nathan A; Lopansri, Bert K; Dhiman, Neelam; Cavagnolo, Robert; Carroll, Karen C; Granato, Paul; Thomson, Richard; Butler-Wu, Susan M; Berger, Heather; Samuel, Linoj; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Hansen, Glen T; Tran, Nam K; Polage, Christopher R; Thomson, Kenneth S; Hanson, Nancy D; Winegar, Richard; Buchan, Blake W

    2015-08-01

    Bloodstream infection is a serious condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The outcome of these infections can be positively affected by the early implementation of effective antibiotic therapy based on the identification of the infecting organism and genetic markers associated with antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated the microarray-based Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay in the identification of 8 genus or species targets and 6 genetic resistance determinants in positive blood culture broths. A total of 1,847 blood cultures containing Gram-negative organisms were tested using the BC-GN assay. This comprised 729 prospective fresh, 781 prospective or retrospective frozen, and 337 simulated cultures representing 7 types of aerobic culture media. The results were compared to those with standard bacterial culture and biochemical identification with nucleic acid sequence confirmation of the resistance determinants. Among monomicrobial cultures, the positive percent agreement (PPA) of the BC-GN assay with the reference method was as follows; Escherichia coli, 100%; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 92.9%; Klebsiella oxytoca, 95.5%; Enterobacter spp., 99.3%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 98.9%; Proteus spp., 100%; Acinetobacter spp., 98.4%; and Citrobacter spp., 100%. All organism identification targets demonstrated >99.5% negative percent agreement (NPA) with the reference method. Of note, 25/26 cultures containing K. pneumoniae that were reported as not detected by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as Klebsiella variicola. The PPA for identification of resistance determinants was as follows; blaCTX-M, 98.9%; blaKPC, 100%; blaNDM, 96.2%; blaOXA, 94.3%; blaVIM, 100%; and blaIMP, 100%. All resistance determinant targets demonstrated >99.9% NPA. Among polymicrobial specimens, the BC-GN assay correctly identified at least one organism in 95.4% of the broths and correctly identified all organisms present in 54.5% of the broths

  4. Identification of Gram-Negative Bacteria and Genetic Resistance Determinants from Positive Blood Culture Broths by Use of the Verigene Gram-Negative Blood Culture Multiplex Microarray-Based Molecular Assay.

    PubMed

    Ledeboer, Nathan A; Lopansri, Bert K; Dhiman, Neelam; Cavagnolo, Robert; Carroll, Karen C; Granato, Paul; Thomson, Richard; Butler-Wu, Susan M; Berger, Heather; Samuel, Linoj; Pancholi, Preeti; Swyers, Lettie; Hansen, Glen T; Tran, Nam K; Polage, Christopher R; Thomson, Kenneth S; Hanson, Nancy D; Winegar, Richard; Buchan, Blake W

    2015-08-01

    Bloodstream infection is a serious condition associated with significant morbidity and mortality. The outcome of these infections can be positively affected by the early implementation of effective antibiotic therapy based on the identification of the infecting organism and genetic markers associated with antibiotic resistance. In this study, we evaluated the microarray-based Verigene Gram-negative blood culture (BC-GN) assay in the identification of 8 genus or species targets and 6 genetic resistance determinants in positive blood culture broths. A total of 1,847 blood cultures containing Gram-negative organisms were tested using the BC-GN assay. This comprised 729 prospective fresh, 781 prospective or retrospective frozen, and 337 simulated cultures representing 7 types of aerobic culture media. The results were compared to those with standard bacterial culture and biochemical identification with nucleic acid sequence confirmation of the resistance determinants. Among monomicrobial cultures, the positive percent agreement (PPA) of the BC-GN assay with the reference method was as follows; Escherichia coli, 100%; Klebsiella pneumoniae, 92.9%; Klebsiella oxytoca, 95.5%; Enterobacter spp., 99.3%; Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 98.9%; Proteus spp., 100%; Acinetobacter spp., 98.4%; and Citrobacter spp., 100%. All organism identification targets demonstrated >99.5% negative percent agreement (NPA) with the reference method. Of note, 25/26 cultures containing K. pneumoniae that were reported as not detected by the BC-GN assay were subsequently identified as Klebsiella variicola. The PPA for identification of resistance determinants was as follows; blaCTX-M, 98.9%; blaKPC, 100%; blaNDM, 96.2%; blaOXA, 94.3%; blaVIM, 100%; and blaIMP, 100%. All resistance determinant targets demonstrated >99.9% NPA. Among polymicrobial specimens, the BC-GN assay correctly identified at least one organism in 95.4% of the broths and correctly identified all organisms present in 54.5% of the broths

  5. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  6. Are positive changes in potential determinants associated with increased fruit and vegetable intakes among primary schoolchildren? Results of two intervention studies in the Netherlands: The Schoolgruiten Project and the Pro Children Study

    PubMed Central

    Tak, Nannah I; te Velde, Saskia J; Brug, Johannes

    2008-01-01

    Background To investigate if positive changes or maintenance high scores on potential behavioral determinants of fruit and vegetable (F&V) intake are associated with increased or maintenance favorable levels of F&V intake frequency in the same time lapse or later in time. Data were used from two intervention studies in the Netherlands: the Schoolgruiten Project and the Pro Children Study. Methods A design with baseline and two follow-up measurements. 344 children of the Dutch Schoolgruiten Project and 258 children of the Pro Children Study completed questionnaires, including questions on general demographics, usual F&V intake frequency, important potential determinants of F&V intake, such as taste preferences of F&V, availability of F&V, knowledge of recommended intake levels of F&V, self-efficacy for eating F&V, and parental influences for eating F&V. Three different associations between changes in determinants of F&V intake and changes in F&V intake frequency were assessed by multilevel multinomial regression analyses. Results Results of one of the investigated associations indicated that in both studies behavior change (increase in F&V intake frequency) was preceded by changes in the following variables; liking of fruit, parental facilitation of vegetables, family rules for eating vegetables and availability at home of vegetables. Furthermore, changes in F&V intake frequency preceded changes in liking of F&V later in time. Conclusion In accordance with behavior change theories, the present study provides some evidence that behavior change was preceded by changes in certain potential determinants of F&V intake. Potential determinants of F&V intake that appear to be important to induce behavior change were liking of fruit, parental facilitation of vegetables, family rules for eating vegetables and availability at home of vegetables. Some evidence was also found that behavior changes may precede changes in presumed determinants of F&V intake, such as liking of F

  7. Positional nystagmus showing neutral points.

    PubMed

    Hiruma, Kiyoshi; Numata, Tsutomu

    2004-01-01

    We encountered patients who had their static direction-changing positional nystagmus canceled at about 20-30 degrees yaw head rotation from the supine position. This nystagmus was also canceled when the head was rotated 180 degrees from this position. We call these head positions neutral points. At the neutral points, the cupula of the horizontal semicircular canal of the affected ear is positioned vertical to the gravitational plane and no deflection of the cupula occurs. The positional nystagmus observed (except the neutral points) was thought to occur due to a "heavy cupula" or "light cupula", which may be determined by the specific gravity of its endolymph.

  8. Quickness of trunk movements in a seated position, regardless of the direction, is more important to determine the mobility in the elderly than the range of the trunk movement.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Akira; Higuchi, Yumi; Sano, Yuki; Ogaya, Shinya; Kataoka, Masataka; Okuda, Kuniharu; Iwata, Hiroshi; Fuchioka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    Although trunk function is known to be critical for maintaining balance during gait, a detailed evaluation regarding the relationship between trunk function and mobility has not been performed. We previously reported that the ability of quick lateral trunk movements in a seated position reflects mobility in elderly people. In this study, we further examined whether trunk movement in the anterior-posterior direction is also a determinant of mobility. In addition, the correlation between range of lateral trunk movement and mobility was also examined. One hundred and forty community-dwelling elderly participants (73.3±6.2 years) were enrolled in this study. We performed various trunk movement tests in a seated position, such as the seated side tapping test (SST), the seated anterior-posterior tapping test (APT), and the lateral sitting functional reach test (sitting reach test). Maximum gait speed and the timed up and go test (TUG) were performed to determine mobility. Parameters of trunk movement were compared. SST and APT showed moderate significant correlations with both maximum gate speed and TUG, while the sitting reach test weakly correlated (SST r=-0.58, p<0.01, APT r=-0.63, p<0.01, sitting reach test r=0.30, p<0.01). Moreover, multiple regression analysis revealed that SST and APT were independent indicators of both maximum gate speed and TUG, while the sitting reach test was not. These findings indicate that quickness, regardless of the direction of the movement, is more important than range in determining mobility in the elderly.

  9. Simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate in human plasma by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry with positive/negative ion-switching electrospray ionization and its application in pharmacokinetic study.

    PubMed

    Ni, Yang; Zhou, Ying; Xu, Mingzhen; He, Xiaomeng; Li, Huqun; Haseeb, Satter; Chen, Hui; Li, Weiyong

    2015-03-25

    A new method for simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate by liquid chromatography/electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS) operated in positive and negative ionization switching modes was developed and validated. Protein precipitation with acetonitrile was selected for sample preparation. Analyses were performed on a liquid chromatography system employing a Kromasil 60-5CN column (2.1 mm × 100 mm, 5 μm) and an isocratic elution with mixed solution of acetonitrile-20mM ammonium formate containing 0.3% formic acid (40:60, v/v), at a flow rate of 0.35 mL/min. Doxazosin mesylate and pioglitazone were used as the internal standard (IS) respectively for quantification. The determination was carried out on an API 4000 triple-quadrupole mass spectrometer operated in multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode using the following transitions monitored simultaneously: positive m/z 150.0/91.0 for phentermine, m/z 452.1/344.3 for doxazosin, and negative m/z 338.3/77.9 for topiramate, m/z 355.0/41.9 for pioglitazone. The method was validated to be linear over the concentration range of 1-800 ng mL(-1) for phentermine, 1-1000 ng mL(-1) for topiramate. Within- and between-day accuracy and precision of the validated method at three different concentration levels were within the acceptable limits of <15% at all concentrations. Blood samples were collected into heparinized tubes before and after administration. The simple and robust LC/MS/MS method was successfully applied for the simultaneous determination of phentermine and topiramate in a pharmacokinetic study in healthy male Chinese volunteers. PMID:25668796

  10. Deep Space Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaughan, Andrew T. (Inventor); Riedel, Joseph E. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    A single, compact, lower power deep space positioning system (DPS) configured to determine a location of a spacecraft anywhere in the solar system, and provide state information relative to Earth, Sun, or any remote object. For example, the DPS includes a first camera and, possibly, a second camera configured to capture a plurality of navigation images to determine a state of a spacecraft in a solar system. The second camera is located behind, or adjacent to, a secondary reflector of a first camera in a body of a telescope.

  11. The Kepler False Positive Table

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryson, Steve; Kepler False Positive Working Group

    2015-01-01

    The Kepler Space Telescope has detected thousands of candidate exoplanets by observing transit signals in a sample of more than 190,000 stars. Many of these transit signals are false positives, defined as a transit-like signal that is not due to a planet orbiting the target star (or a bound companion if the target is a multiple-star system). Astrophysical causes of false positives include background eclipsing binaries, planetary transits not associated with the target star, and non-planetary eclipses of the target star by stellar companions. The fraction of Kepler planet candidates that are false positives ranges from about 10% at high Galactic latitudes to 40% at low Galactic latitudes. Creating a high-reliability planet candidate catalog for statistical studies such as occurrence rate calculations requires removing clearly identified false positives.The Kepler Object of Interest (KOI) catalog at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive flags false positives, and will soon provide a high-level classification of false positives, but lacks detailed description of why a KOI was determined to be a false positive. The Kepler False Positive Working Group (FPWG) examines each false positive in detail to certify that it is correctly identified as a false positive, and determines the primary reason(s) a KOI is classified as a false positive. The work of the FPWG will be published as the Kepler False Positive Table, hosted at the NExScI NASA Exoplanet Archive.The Kepler False Positive Table provides detailed information on the evidence for background binaries, transits caused by stellar companions, and false alarms. In addition to providing insight into the Kepler false positive population, the false positive table gives information about the background binary population and other areas of astrophysical interest. Because a planet around a star not associated with the target star is considered a false positive, the false positive table likely contains further planet candidates

  12. Enumeration of Gut-Homing β7-Positive, Pathogen-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cells in Whole Blood from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli- and Vibrio cholerae-Infected Patients, Determined Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Technique.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Nishat, Naoshin Sharmin; Al Mahbuba, Deena; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Islam, Kamrul; Hossain, Lazina; Dey, Ayan; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2015-10-28

    Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are noninvasive mucosal pathogens that cause acute watery diarrhea in people in developing countries. Direct assessment of the mucosal immune responses to these pathogens is problematic. Surrogate markers of local mucosal responses in blood are increasingly being studied to determine the mucosal immune responses after infection. However, the volume of blood available in children and infants has limited this approach. We assessed whether an approach that first isolates β7-positive cells from a small volume of blood would allow measurement of the antigen-specific immune responses in patients with cholera and ETEC infection. β7 is a cell surface marker associated with mucosal homing. We isolated β7-expressing cells from blood on days 2, 7, and 30 and used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay to assess the gut-homing antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) specific to pathogen antigens. Patients with ETEC diarrhea showed a significant increase in toxin-specific gut-homing ASCs at day 7 compared to the levels at days 2 and 30 after onset of illness and to the levels in healthy controls. Similar elevations of responses to the ETEC colonization factors (CFs) CS6 and CFA/I were observed in patients infected with CS6- and CFA/I-positive ETEC strains. Antigen-specific gut-homing ASCs to the B subunit of cholera toxin and cholera-specific lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also observed on day 7 after the onset of cholera using this approach. This study demonstrates that a simple ELISPOT assay can be used to study the mucosal immunity to specific antigens using a cell-sorting protocol to isolate mucosal homing cells, facilitating measurement of mucosal responses in children following infection or vaccination.

  13. Enumeration of Gut-Homing β7-Positive, Pathogen-Specific Antibody-Secreting Cells in Whole Blood from Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli- and Vibrio cholerae-Infected Patients, Determined Using an Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Spot Assay Technique.

    PubMed

    Bhuiyan, Taufiqur Rahman; Hoq, Mohammad Rubel; Nishat, Naoshin Sharmin; Al Mahbuba, Deena; Rashu, Rasheduzzaman; Islam, Kamrul; Hossain, Lazina; Dey, Ayan; Harris, Jason B; Ryan, Edward T; Calderwood, Stephen B; Svennerholm, Ann-Mari; Qadri, Firdausi

    2016-01-01

    Vibrio cholerae and enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) are noninvasive mucosal pathogens that cause acute watery diarrhea in people in developing countries. Direct assessment of the mucosal immune responses to these pathogens is problematic. Surrogate markers of local mucosal responses in blood are increasingly being studied to determine the mucosal immune responses after infection. However, the volume of blood available in children and infants has limited this approach. We assessed whether an approach that first isolates β7-positive cells from a small volume of blood would allow measurement of the antigen-specific immune responses in patients with cholera and ETEC infection. β7 is a cell surface marker associated with mucosal homing. We isolated β7-expressing cells from blood on days 2, 7, and 30 and used an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay to assess the gut-homing antibody-secreting cells (ASCs) specific to pathogen antigens. Patients with ETEC diarrhea showed a significant increase in toxin-specific gut-homing ASCs at day 7 compared to the levels at days 2 and 30 after onset of illness and to the levels in healthy controls. Similar elevations of responses to the ETEC colonization factors (CFs) CS6 and CFA/I were observed in patients infected with CS6- and CFA/I-positive ETEC strains. Antigen-specific gut-homing ASCs to the B subunit of cholera toxin and cholera-specific lipopolysaccharides (LPS) were also observed on day 7 after the onset of cholera using this approach. This study demonstrates that a simple ELISPOT assay can be used to study the mucosal immunity to specific antigens using a cell-sorting protocol to isolate mucosal homing cells, facilitating measurement of mucosal responses in children following infection or vaccination. PMID:26512047

  14. Magnetic beam position monitor

    SciTech Connect

    Varfolomeev, A.A.; Ivanchenkov, S.N.; Khlebnikov, A.S.

    1995-12-31

    Many nondestructive beam position monitors are known. However, these devices can not be used for DC particle beam diagnostics. We investigated a method of beam diagnostics applicable for the operative control of DC high power e-beam inside closed waveguide. A design of the detector for determination of{open_quote} center of mass {close_quote} position of DC particle beam was developed. It was shown that the monitor can be used as a nondestructive method for the beam position control in resonators. Magnetic field of the particle beam outside a resonator is used. The detector consists of the steel yokes and magnetic field sensors. The sensors measure magnetic fluxes in the steel yokes fixed outside the resonator. When the particle beam changes its position, these magnetic fluxes also change. Beam displacement sensitivity of the monitor depends on the steel yoke dimensions. The detector sensitivity is equal to 1 Gauss/mm for the conditions adequate to the FOM-FEM project.

  15. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosener, A. A.; Jonkoniec, T. G.

    1975-01-01

    A positive isolation disconnect was developed for component replacement in serviced liquid and gaseous spacecraft systems. Initially a survey of feasible concepts was made to determine the optimum method for fluid isolation, sealing techniques, coupling concepts, and foolproofing techniques. The top concepts were then further evaluated, including the fabrication of a semifunctional model. After all tradeoff analyses were made, a final configuration was designed and fabricated for development testing. This resulted in a 6.35 mm (1/4 inch) line and 12.7 mm (1/2 inch) line positive isolation disconnect, each unit consisting of two coupled disconnect halves, each capable of fluid isolation with essentially zero clearance between them for zero leakage upon disconnect half disengagement. An interlocking foolproofing technique was incorporated that prevents uncoupling of disconnect halves prior to fluid isolation.

  16. Positive maps, positive polynomials and entanglement witnesses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skowronek, Łukasz; Życzkowski, Karol

    2009-08-01

    We link the study of positive quantum maps, block positive operators and entanglement witnesses with problems related to multivariate polynomials. For instance, we show how indecomposable block positive operators relate to biquadratic forms that are not sums of squares. Although the general problem of describing the set of positive maps remains open, in some particular cases we solve the corresponding polynomial inequalities and obtain explicit conditions for positivity.

  17. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barmatz, Martin B.; Aveni, Glenn; Putterman, Seth; Rudnick, Joseph

    1990-10-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  18. Acoustic positioning and orientation prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barmatz, Martin B. (Inventor); Aveni, Glenn (Inventor); Putterman, Seth (Inventor); Rudnick, Joseph (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    A method is described for use with an acoustic positioner, which enables a determination of the equilibrium position and orientation which an object assumes in a zero gravity environment, as well as restoring forces and torques of an object in an acoustic standing wave field. An acoustic standing wave field is established in the chamber, and the object is held at several different positions near the expected equilibrium position. While the object is held at each position, the center resonant frequency of the chamber is determined, by noting which frequency results in the greatest pressure of the acoustic field. The object position which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium position. The orientation of a nonspherical object is similarly determined, by holding the object in a plurality of different orientations at its equilibrium position, and noting the center resonant frequency for each orientation. The orientation which results in the lowest center resonant frequency is the equilibrium orientation. Where the acoustic frequency is constant, but the chamber length is variable, the equilibrium position or orientation is that which results in the greatest chamber length at the center resonant frequency.

  19. Precise determination of the absolute isotopic abundance ratio and the atomic weight of chlorine in three international reference materials by the positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer-Cs2Cl+-graphite method.

    PubMed

    Wei, Hai-Zhen; Jiang, Shao-Yong; Xiao, Ying-Kai; Wang, Jun; Lu, Hai; Wu, Bin; Wu, He-Pin; Li, Qing; Luo, Chong-Guang

    2012-12-01

    Because the variation in chlorine isotopic abundances of naturally occurring chlorine bearing substances is significant, the IUPAC Inorganic Chemistry Division, Commission on Isotopic Abundances and Atomic Weights (CIAAW-IUPAC) decided that the uncertainty of atomic weight of chlorine (A(r)(Cl)) should be increased so that the implied range was related to terrestrial variability in 1999 (Coplen, T. B. Atomic weights of the elements 1999 (IUPAC Technical Report), Pure Appl. Chem.2001, 73(4), 667-683; and then, it emphasized that the standard atomic weights of ten elements including chlorine were not constants of nature but depend upon the physical, chemical, and nuclear history of the materials in 2009 (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396). According to the agreement by CIAAW that an atomic weight could be defined for one specified sample of terrestrial origin (Wieser, M. E.; Coplen, T. B. Pure Appl. Chem.2011, 83(2), 359-396), the absolute isotope ratios and atomic weight of chlorine in standard reference materials (NIST 975, NIST 975a, ISL 354) were accurately determined using the high-precision positive thermal ionization mass spectrometer (PTIMS)-Cs(2)Cl(+)-graphite method. After eliminating the weighing error caused from evaporation by designing a special weighing container and accurately determining the chlorine contents in two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts by the current constant coulometric titration, one series of gravimetric synthetic mixtures prepared from two highly enriched Na(37)Cl and Na(35)Cl salts was used to calibrate two thermal ionization mass spectrometers in two individual laboratories. The correction factors (i.e., K(37/35) = R(37/35meas)/R(37/35calc)) were obtained from five cycles of iterative calculations on the basis of calculated and determined R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) values in gravimetric synthetic mixtures. The absolute R((37)Cl/(35)Cl) ratios for NIST SRM 975, NIST 975a, and ISL 354 by the precise

  20. The Global Positioning System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1999-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) is a constellation of navigation satellites called Navigation Satellite Timing And Ranging (NAVSTAR), maintained by the U.S. Department of Defense. Many outdoor enthusiasts recognize that a handheld GPS receiver can be an accurate tool for determining their location on the terrain. The GPS receiver helps determine locations on the Earth's surface by collecting signals from three or more satellites through a process called triangulation. Identifying a location on the Earth is more useful if you also know about the surrounding topographic conditions. Using a topographic map with the GPS receiver provides important information about features of the surrounding terrain and can help you plot an effective route from one location to another.

  1. Aircraft control position indicator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dennis, Dale V. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    An aircraft control position indicator was provided that displayed the degree of deflection of the primary flight control surfaces and the manner in which the aircraft responded. The display included a vertical elevator dot/bar graph meter display for indication whether the aircraft will pitch up or down, a horizontal aileron dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will roll to the left or to the right, and a horizontal dot/bar graph meter display for indicating whether the aircraft will turn left or right. The vertical and horizontal display or displays intersect to form an up/down, left/right type display. Internal electronic display driver means received signals from transducers measuring the control surface deflections and determined the position of the meter indicators on each dot/bar graph meter display. The device allows readability at a glance, easy visual perception in sunlight or shade, near-zero lag in displaying flight control position, and is not affected by gravitational or centrifugal forces.

  2. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    PubMed

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  3. [The use of the sequential mathematical analysis for the determination of the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment from the injuries to the extremities in the case of a traffic accident].

    PubMed

    Khabova, Z S; Smirenin, S A; Fetisov, V A; Tamberg, D K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine the diagnostic coefficients (DC) for the injuries to the upper and lower extremities of the vehicle drivers inflicted inside the passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. We have analysed the archival expert documents collected from 45 regional bureaus of forensic medical expertise during the period from 1995 to 2014 that contained the results of examination of 200 corpses and 300 survivors who had suffered injuries in the traffic accidents. The statistical and mathematical treatment of these materials with the use of sequential mathematical analysis based on the Bayes and Wald formulas yielded diagnostic coefficients that make it possible to elucidate the most informative features characterizing the driver of a vehicle. In case of a lethal outcome, the most significant injuries include bleeding from the posterior left elbow region (DC +7.6), skin scratches on the palm surface of the right wrist (DC +7.6), bleeding from the postrerior region of the left lower leg (DC +7.6), wounds on the dorsal surface of the left wrist (DC +6.3), bruises at the anterior surface of the left knee (DC +6.3), etc. The most informative features in the survivals of the traffic accidents are bone fractures (DC +7.0), tension of ligaments and dislocation of the right talocrural joint (DC +6.5), fractures of the left kneecap and left tibial epiphysis (DC +5.4), hemorrhage and bruises in the anterior right knee region (DC + 5.4 each), skin scratches in the right posterior carpal region (DC +5.1). It is concluded that the use of the diagnostic coefficients makes it possible to draw the attention of the experts to the above features and to objectively determine the driver's seat position inside the car passenger compartment in the case of a traffic accident. Moreover such an approach contributes to the improvement of the quality of expert conclusions and the results of forensic medical expertise of the circumstance of traffic

  4. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  5. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G

  6. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window

    PubMed Central

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  7. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research.

  8. Detecting Positioning Errors and Estimating Correct Positions by Moving Window.

    PubMed

    Song, Ha Yoon; Lee, Jun Seok

    2015-01-01

    In recent times, improvements in smart mobile devices have led to new functionalities related to their embedded positioning abilities. Many related applications that use positioning data have been introduced and are widely being used. However, the positioning data acquired by such devices are prone to erroneous values caused by environmental factors. In this research, a detection algorithm is implemented to detect erroneous data over a continuous positioning data set with several options. Our algorithm is based on a moving window for speed values derived by consecutive positioning data. Both the moving average of the speed and standard deviation in a moving window compose a moving significant interval at a given time, which is utilized to detect erroneous positioning data along with other parameters by checking the newly obtained speed value. In order to fulfill the designated operation, we need to examine the physical parameters and also determine the parameters for the moving windows. Along with the detection of erroneous speed data, estimations of correct positioning are presented. The proposed algorithm first estimates the speed, and then the correct positions. In addition, it removes the effect of errors on the moving window statistics in order to maintain accuracy. Experimental verifications based on our algorithm are presented in various ways. We hope that our approach can help other researchers with regard to positioning applications and human mobility research. PMID:26624282

  9. Navstar/Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ananda, M.

    1982-01-01

    The Global Positioning System (GPS) was developed to provide highly precise position, velocity, and time information to users anywhere in the area of the Earth and at any time. The GPS, when fully operational, will consist of 18 satellites in six orbital planes. Any GPS user, by receiving and processing the radio signals from the satellite network can instantaneously determine navigation information to an accuracy of about 15 m in position and 0.1 m/s in velocity. The GPS is compared with other systems such as Loran-C, Omega, TACAN and Transit.

  10. Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and head position during sleep.

    PubMed

    Shigeno, Kohichiro; Ogita, Hideaki; Funabiki, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    To determine whether any particular head positions during sleep are associated with BPPV, head position during sleep was monitored for 3 days in 50 BPPV patients after the disappearance of positional nystagmus and in 25 normal control subjects. A gravity sensor was attached to the center of the subject's forehead at home. The positional angle of the head was measured at 5-second intervals during sleep. In BPPV, the posterior semicircular canal was involved in 40 patients and the lateral semicircular canal in 10 patients. Recurrence was found in 22 of 50 BPPV patients. BPPV patients with recurrence were significantly more likely to sleep in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position than were patients with no history of recurrence (P< 0.02). When the head is in the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position, the non-ampullated half of the posterior semicircular canal and the non-ampullated half of the lateral semicircular canal are nearly in the earth-vertical position, making it easier for detached otoconia to fall into the posterior or lateral semicircular canal and to agglomerate and attain a certain size in the lowest portion of each semicircular canal. Our findings showed that the affected-ear-down 45-degree head position during sleep could be an etiological factor of BPPV, more particularly in patients with recurrent BPPV. PMID:23142834

  11. Positive mood broadens visual attention to positive stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Wadlinger, Heather A.; Isaacowitz, Derek M.

    2010-01-01

    In an attempt to investigate the impact of positive emotions on visual attention within the context of Fredrickson's (1998) broaden-and-build model, eye tracking was used in two studies to measure visual attentional preferences of college students (n=58, n=26) to emotional pictures. Half of each sample experienced induced positive mood immediately before viewing slides of three similarly-valenced images, in varying central-peripheral arrays. Attentional breadth was determined by measuring the percentage viewing time to peripheral images as well as by the number of visual saccades participants made per slide. Consistent with Fredrickson's theory, the first study showed that individuals induced into positive mood fixated more on peripheral stimuli than did control participants; however, this only held true for highly-valenced positive stimuli. Participants under induced positive mood also made more frequent saccades for slides of neutral and positive valence. A second study showed that these effects were not simply due to differences in emotional arousal between stimuli. Selective attentional broadening to positive stimuli may act both to facilitate later building of resources as well as to maintain current positive affective states. PMID:20431711

  12. A cutaneous positioning system.

    PubMed

    Martin, Bernard J; Lee, Beom-Chan; Sienko, Kathleen H

    2015-04-01

    Our previous work revealed that torso cutaneous information contributes to the internal representation of the torso and plays a role in postural control. Hence, the aims of this study were to assess whether posture could be manipulated by patterns of vibrotactile stimulation and to determine whether resulting modified postures were associated with specific and consistent spatial attitudes. Ten healthy young adults stood in normal and Romberg stances with six vibrating actuators positioned on the torso in contact with the skin over the anatomical locations corresponding to left and right external oblique, internal oblique and erector spinae muscles at the L4/L5 vertebrae level. A 250-Hz tactile vibration was applied for 5 s either at a single location or consecutively at each location in clockwise or counterclockwise sequences. Kinematic analysis of the body segments indicated that postural responses observed in response to single and sequential stimulation patterns were similar, while the center of pressure remained unaltered in any situations. Moreover, torso inclinations followed rectilinear-like path segments chartered by stimuli loci during sequential stimulations. Comparison of torso attitudes with previous results obtained with co-vibration patterns of the same duration showed that torso inclination amplitudes are equivalent for single (one location) and co-vibration (pairs of locations) patterns inducing the same directional effect. Hence, torso cutaneous information exhibits kinesthetic properties, appears to provide a map of upper body spatial configuration, and could assume the role of an internal positioning system for the upper body. PMID:25600816

  13. Positional Plagiocephaly (Flattened Head)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Simple practices like changing a baby's sleep position, holding your baby, and providing lots of "tummy time" ... devices to keep your baby in one position. Alternate positions in the crib. Consider how you lay ...

  14. Benign positional vertigo - aftercare

    MedlinePlus

    Vertigo - positional - aftercare; Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo - aftercare; BPPV - aftercare; Dizziness - positional vertigo ... Your health care provider may have treated your vertigo with the Epley maneuver . These are head movements ...

  15. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  16. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  17. [Positive Activities Campaign.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    This packet contains four pamphlets that are part of a campaign to encourage adults to provide and promote positive activities for youth and to serve as role models for young people. "Positive Activities: A Campaign for Youth" includes information on what positive activities are, how to get involved in helping to provide positive activities for…

  18. On Positive Functions with Positive Derivatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dobbs, David E.

    2002-01-01

    Three proofs are given for the fact that the derivative of an everywhere-positive non-constant real polynomial function must change sign. This self-contained note could find classroom use in courses on calculus or abstract algebra.

  19. A New Positioning Algorithm for Position-Sensitive Avalanche Photodiodes.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jin; Olcott, Peter D; Levin, Craig S

    2007-06-01

    We are using a novel position sensitive avalanche photodiode (PSAPD) for the construction of a high resolution positron emission tomography (PET) camera. Up to now most researchers working with PSAPDs have been using an Anger-like positioning algorithm involving the four corner readout signals of the PSAPD. This algorithm yields a significant non-linear spatial "pin-cushion" distortion in raw crystal positioning histograms. In this paper, we report an improved positioning algorithm, which combines two diagonal corner signals of the PSAPD followed by a 45° rotation to determine the X or Y position of the interaction. We present flood positioning histogram data generated with the old and new positioning algorithms using a 3 × 4 array of 2 × 2 × 3 mm(3) and a 3 × 8 array of 1 × 1 × 3 mm(3) of LSO crystals coupled to 8 × 8 mm(2) PSAPDs. This new algorithm significantly reduces the pin-cushion distortion in raw flood histogram image. PMID:24307743

  20. Evaluation of on-line pyrolysis coupled to isotope ratio mass spectrometry for the determination of position-specific (13)C isotope composition of short chain n-alkanes (C6-C12).

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Alexis; Yamada, Keita; Yoshida, Naohiro

    2016-06-01

    We measured (13)C intramolecular isotopic composition of commercially available short-chain hydrocarbons (n-C6-n-C12) using (13)C-NMR. Results show that the main variation is between the terminal and the sub-terminal C-atom positions. Site-preference (difference in δ(13)C values between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions) among all the samples varies between -12.2‰ and +8.4‰. Comparison of these results with those obtained using on-line pyrolysis coupled with GC-C-IRMS show that the thermal cracking of hydrocarbons occurs with a good isotopic fidelity between terminal and sub-terminal C-atom positions of the starting material and the related pyrolysis products (methane and ethylene). On-line pyrolysis coupled with GC-C-IRMS can thus be used for tracing hydrocarbons biogeochemical processes.

  1. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  2. Sample positioning in microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sridharan, Govind (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    Repulsion forces arising from laser beams are provided to produce mild positioning forces on a sample in microgravity vacuum environments. The system of the preferred embodiment positions samples using a plurality of pulsed lasers providing opposing repulsion forces. The lasers are positioned around the periphery of a confinement area and expanded to create a confinement zone. The grouped laser configuration, in coordination with position sensing devices, creates a feedback servo whereby stable position control of a sample within microgravity environment can be achieved.

  3. Double triplex real-time PCR assay for simultaneous detection of Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, and Staphylococcus haemolyticus and determination of their methicillin resistance directly from positive blood culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Kilic, Abdullah; Basustaoglu, A Celal

    2011-12-01

    We developed and validated here a double triplex real-time PCR assay to simultaneously detect and identify Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus hominis, Staphylococcus haemolyticus and their methicillin resistance in a single reaction directly from Gram-positive cocci-in-clusters (GPCs)-positive blood culture bottles. From August 15, 2009 through February 15, 2010, 238 GPC-positive samples were collected and identified by conventional methods as 11 methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA), 28 methicillin-susceptible S. aureus (MSSA), 176 MR coagulase-negative staphylococci (MRCoNS), 21 MSCoNS and two Enterococcus faecalis. The double triplex real-time PCR assay was targeted and detected tuf, nuc and mecA genes in the first tube and atlE, gap and mvaA genes in the second tube which could be run simultaneously. The detection limit of the assay was found at 10(3) CFU/ml for the atleE gene, 10(4) CFU/ml for the mva gene and 10(5) CFU/ml for gap, nuc, mecA and tuf genes based on seeding experiments. All Staphylococcus species except two S. epidermidis were correctly identified by the assay. The double triplex real-time PCR assay quickly and accurately detects S. aureus, S. epidermidis, S. hominis and S. haemolyticus and their methicillin resistance in a single reaction directly from positive blood culture bottles within 83 min.

  4. Comparison of multiplex real-time PCR and PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay for the direct and rapid detection of bacteria and antibiotic resistance determinants in positive culture bottles.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hye-Young; Kim, Seoyong; Kim, Jungho; Park, Soon Deok; Kim, Hyo Youl; Uh, Young; Lee, Hyeyoung

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the performance of a commercially available multiplex real-time PCR assay and a PCR-reverse blot hybridization assay (PCR-REBA) for the rapid detection of bacteria and identification of antibiotic resistance genes directly from blood culture bottles and to compare the results of these molecular assays with conventional culture methods. The molecular diagnostic methods were used to evaluate 593 blood culture bottles from patients with bloodstream infections. The detection positivity of multiplex real-time PCR assay for Gram-positive bacteria, Gram-negative bacteria and Candida spp. was equivalent to PCR-REBA as 99.6 %, 99.1 % and 100 %, respectively. Using conventional bacterial cultures as the gold standard, the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of these two molecular methods were 99.5 % [95 % confidence interval (CI), 0.980-1.000; P<0.001), 100 % (95 % CI, 0.983-1.000; P<0.001), 100 % and 99 %, respectively. However, positivity of the Real-methicillin-resistant Staphylococcusaureus multiplex real-time PCR assay targeting the mecA gene to detect methicillin resistance was lower than that of the PCR-REBA method, detecting an overall positivity of 98.4 % (n=182; 95 % CI, 0.964-1.000; P<0.009) and 99.5 % (n=184; 95 % CI, 0.985-1.000; P<0.0001), respectively. The entire two methods take about 3 h, while results from culture can take up to 48-72 h. Therefore, the use of these two molecular methods was rapid and reliable for the characterization of causative pathogens in bloodstream infections.

  5. Positioning Urban Teachers as Effective: Their Discourse on Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sosa, Teresa; Gomez, Kimberley

    2012-01-01

    This article focuses on the accounts by teachers who are positioned and who position themselves as "effective." It draws on the relational aspects of positioning theory with respect to a determination of how the "effective teacher" position necessarily positions students. Findings suggest that students are positioned as (a) individuals within a…

  6. OBSERVABLE CHANGES OF HYPOTHESES UNDER POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT.

    PubMed

    SUPPES, P; SCHLAG-REY, M

    1965-04-30

    In mathematical models of concept learning it has consistently been assumed that positive reinforcement cannot lead to a change of the hypothesis determining the overt response. When hypotheses are experimentally identified and recorded along with positive and negative reinforcements of stimulus-response pairs, it can be shown that hypotheses may change after a positive reinforcement. Positive reinforcement has an information content for subjects that has not yet been adequately recognized in concept formation studies.

  7. Sharing a Faculty Position.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Kane, Patricia K.; Meyer, Mary

    1982-01-01

    Describes the experience of two nursing faculty members who shared an assistant professor of nursing position. Discusses positive and negative aspects of the experience and notes that a unified and creative approach must be taken for it to succeed. (JOW)

  8. Positive battery plate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rowlette, John R. (Inventor)

    1985-01-01

    The power characteristics of a lead acid battery are improved by incorporating a dispersion of 1 to 10% by weight of a thermodynamically stable conductivity additive, such as conductive tin oxide coated glass fibers (34) of filamentary glass wool (42) in the positive active layer (32) carried on the grid (30) of the positive plate (16). Positive plate potential must be kept high enough to prevent reduction of the tin oxide to tin by utilizing an oversized, precharged positive paste.

  9. The Positivity Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caprara, Gian Vittorio; Alessandri, Guido; Eisenberg, Nancy; Kupfer, A.; Steca, Patrizia; Caprara, Maria Giovanna; Yamaguchi, Susumu; Fukuzawa, Ai; Abela, John

    2012-01-01

    Five studies document the validity of a new 8-item scale designed to measure "positivity," defined as the tendency to view life and experiences with a positive outlook. In the first study (N = 372), the psychometric properties of Positivity Scale (P Scale) were examined in accordance with classical test theory using a large number of college…

  10. Prone positioning for surgery.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Mark

    2012-05-01

    The role of the registered perioperative practitioner (Operating Department Practitioner or Registered Nurse) includes the responsibility for safely positioning patients for surgery. The prone position is in common use for a variety of surgical procedures. The formal term for this surgical position is ventral decubitus (meaning laying face down). PMID:22720505

  11. Positive amplitudes in the amplituhedron

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkani-Hamed, Nima; Hodges, Andrew; Trnka, Jaroslav

    2015-08-01

    The all-loop integrand for scattering amplitudes in planar SYM is determined by an "amplitude form" with logarithmic singularities on the boundary of the amplituhedron. In this note we provide strong evidence for a new striking property of the superamplitude, which we conjecture to be true to all loop orders: the amplitude form is positive when evaluated inside the amplituhedron. The statement is sensibly formulated thanks to the natural "bosonization" of the superamplitude associated with the amplituhedron geometry. However this positivity is not manifest in any of the current approaches to scattering amplitudes, and in particular not in the cellulations of the amplituhedron related to on-shell diagrams and the positive grassmannian. The surprising positivity of the form suggests the existence of a "dual amplituhedron" formulation where this feature would be made obvious. We also suggest that the positivity is associated with an extended picture of amplituhedron geometry, with the amplituhedron sitting inside a co-dimension one surface separating "legal" and "illegal" local singularities of the amplitude. We illustrate this in several simple examples, obtaining new expressions for amplitudes not associated with any triangulations, but following in a more invariant manner from a global view of the positive geometry.

  12. Precision positioning device

    DOEpatents

    McInroy, John E.

    2005-01-18

    A precision positioning device is provided. The precision positioning device comprises a precision measuring/vibration isolation mechanism. A first plate is provided with the precision measuring mean secured to the first plate. A second plate is secured to the first plate. A third plate is secured to the second plate with the first plate being positioned between the second plate and the third plate. A fourth plate is secured to the third plate with the second plate being positioned between the third plate and the fourth plate. An adjusting mechanism for adjusting the position of the first plate, the second plate, the third plate, and the fourth plate relative to each other.

  13. Position des lignes temporales sur le cranium de «Mrs » Ples (A.africanus) : une attribution sexuelle est-elle possible ?Possible position of the temporal lines on the cranium of 'Mrs' Ples (A. africanus): is sexual determination possible?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prat, Sandrine; Thackeray, John Francis

    2001-03-01

    The cranium and associated matrix of Sts 5, a cranium of Australopithecus africanus is re-examined in the context of an unfused sagittal suture and the position of the temporal lines. These lines are not developed as a sagittal crest although they are close to the mid-sagittal line. A comparative study of the presence of sagittal crests in male, female, juvenile and adult specimens of extant great apes ( Gorilla, Pan, Pongo) suggests that the existence of a sagittal crest is influenced to a greater extent by anatomical age rather than by the sex of the individuals.

  14. Positive criminology in practice.

    PubMed

    Ronel, Natti; Segev, Dana

    2014-11-01

    The discourse regarding offender rehabilitation has been criticized by various scholars who have claimed that reducing negative causes and managing risk will not automatically prompt positive human development and elements that are associated with desistance. Positive criminology is an innovative concept that challenges the common preoccupation with negative elements, by placing emphasis on human encounters and forces of inclusion that are experienced positively by target individuals and that can promote crime desistance. However, as the concept is relatively new, there are still no guiding principles for the practice of positive criminology that could direct research and the criminal justice system. This article attempts to fill that gap by providing principles that could be practiced by criminal justice personnel and examples of different interventions that reflect positive criminology. The article also provides ideological explanations for adopting the concept of positive criminology in practice.

  15. [Methods for determining the glomerular filtration rate in experiments with small animals: position report of the Animal Experiment Diagnosis of Kidney Function Study Group of the Society of Nephrology of East Germany].

    PubMed

    Hagemann, I; Wüstenberg, P W

    1987-10-01

    The methods of the investigation of the glomerular filtration rate (GFR) in the animal experiment on cats and rats used at present are demonstrated as survey and the results of the basic investigations are compared. The values in cats lie between 20 and 30 ml/min/100 g kidney, in rats GFR values are between 0.6 and 1.0 ml/min/100 g body mass and 0.6-0.3 ml/min/1 g kidney. The basic values are essentially influenced by the experimental conditions and determination methods so that only clearance values within the working team concerned are comparable. PMID:3433988

  16. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, Milton L.; Harper, William H.

    1987-01-01

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  17. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1987-06-30

    A positioning and locking apparatus are disclosed including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member. 6 figs.

  18. Positioning and locking apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Hayward, M.L.; Harper, W.H.

    1985-06-19

    A positioning and locking apparatus including a fixture having a rotatable torque ring provided with a plurality of cam segments for automatically guiding a container into a desired location within the fixture. Rotation of the ring turns the container into a final position in pressure sealing relation against a hatch member.

  19. Development and Validation of a Stability-Indicating Capillary Electrophoresis Method for the Determination of Zolpidem Tartrate in Tablet Dosage Form with Positive Confirmation using 2D- and 3D-DAD Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Al Azzam, Khaldun M.; Yit, Lee Kam; Saad, Bahruddin; Shaibah, Hassan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to develop a simple, precise, and accurate capillary zone electrophoresis method for the determination of zolpidem tartrate in tablet dosage form. Separation was conducted in normal polarity mode at 25°C, 22 kV, using hydrodynamic injection for 10 s. Separation was achieved using a background electrolyte of 20 mM disodium hydrogen phosphate adjusted with phosphoric acid (85%), pH at 5.50, and detection at 254 nm. Using the above optimized conditions, complete determination took place in less than 3 min using amiloride HCl as the internal standard. The method was linear over the range of 3–1000 μg mL−1 with a correlation coefficient of 0.9999. Forced degradation studies were conducted by introducing a sample of zolpidem tartrate standard and pharmaceutical sample solutions to different forced degradation conditions, being neutral (water), basic (0.1 M NaOH), acidic (0.1 M HCl), oxidative (10% H2O2), temperature (60°C in oven for 3 days), and photolytic (exposure to UV light at 254 nm for 2 h). Degradation products resulting from the stress studies did not interfere with the detection of zolpidem tartrate and the assay can be considered stability-indicating. PMID:24959406

  20. Determination of Four Major Saponins in Skin and Endosperm of Seeds of Horse Chestnut (Aesculus Hippocastanum L.) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Positive Confirmation by Thin Layer Chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Abudayeh, Zead Helmi Mahmoud; Al Azzam, Khaldun Mohammad; Naddaf, Ahmad; Karpiuk, Uliana Vladimirovna; Kislichenko, Viktoria Sergeevna

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To separate and quantify four major saponins in the extracts of the skin and the endosperm of seeds of horse chestnut (Aesculus hippocastanum L.) using ultrasonic solvent extraction followed by a high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) with positive confirmation by thin layer chromatography (TLC). Methods: The saponins: escin Ia, escin Ib, isoescin Ia and isoescin Ib were extracted using ultrasonic extraction method. The optimized extraction conditions were: 70% methanol as extraction solvent, 80 °C as extraction temperature, and the extraction time was achieved in 4 hours. The HPLC conditions used: Zorbax SB-ODS-(150 mm × 2.1 mm, 3 μm) column, acetonitrile and 0.10% phosphoric acid solution (39:61 v/v) as mobile phase, flow rate was 0.5 mL min−1 at 210 nm and 230 nm detection. The injection volume was 10 μL, and the separation was carried out isothermally at 30 °C in a heated chamber. Results: The results indicated that the developed HPLC method is simple, sensitive and reliable. Moreover, the content of escins in seeds decreased by more than 30% in endosperm and by more than 40% in skin upon storage for two years. Conclusion: This assay can be readily utilized as a quality control method for horse chestnut and other related medicinal plants. PMID:26819933

  1. Supplementary Investigation to Determine the Effects of Center-of-Gravity Position on the Spin, Longitudinal-Trim, and Tumbling Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 Airplane (Flying Mock-up of XF-92)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klinar, Walter J.; Jones, Ira P., Jr.

    1948-01-01

    A supplementary wind-tunnel investigation has been conducted to determine the effect of rearward positions of the center of gravity on the spin, longitudinal-trim, and tumbling characteristics of the 1/20-scale model of the Consolidated Vultee 7002 airplane equipped with the single vertical tail. A few tests were also made with dual vertical tails added to the model. The model was ballasted to represent, the airplane in its approximate design gross weight for two center-of-gravity positions, 3O and 35 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord. The original tests previously reported were for a center-of-gravity position of 24 percent of the mean aerodynamic chord.

  2. The relevance of positivity in spin physics

    SciTech Connect

    Soffer, J.; Artru, X.; Richard, J. M.

    2009-12-17

    Positivity reduces substantially the allowed domain for spin observables. We briefly recall some methods used to determine these domains and give some typical examples for exclusive and inclusive spin-dependent reactions.

  3. Position Resolution in DROIDs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samedov, Victor V.

    2008-04-01

    Since the very beginning, Distributed Read-Out Imaging Devices (DROIDs) were proposed to achieve both good position and energy resolutions. In DROIDs, the absorption of primary particle energy occurs in a long superconductive strip. Quasiparticles produced in the absorber diffuse along the strip and counted by the superconductive tunnel junctions positioned at the two ends of the strip. In this paper the formula for estimation DROID’s position resolution from experimental data was derived. This formula takes into account correlation between fluctuations of signals of DROID’s detectors.

  4. CRANE POSITIONING APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Landsiedel, F.W.; Wolff, H.

    1960-06-28

    An apparatus is described for automatically accomplishing the final accurate horizontal positioning of a crane after the latter has been placed to within 1/8 in. of its selected position. For this purpose there is provided a tiltable member on the crane mast for lowering into contact with a stationary probe. Misalignment of the tiltable member, with respect to the probe as the member is lowered, causes tilting of the latter to actuate appropriate switches that energize motors for bringing the mast into proper position. When properly aligned the member is not tilted and a central switch is actuated to indicate the final alignment of the crane.

  5. Independent modal space control with positive position feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baz, A.; Poh, S.; Fedor, J.

    1989-01-01

    An independent modal space control (IMSC) algorithm is presented, whose modal control forces are generated from a positive position feedback (PPF) strategy. The proposed algorithm combines the attributes of both the IMSC and the PPF, and maintains the simplicity of the IMSC as it designs the controller of a complex structure at the uncoupled modal level. The effectiveness of the algorithm in damping out the vibration of flexible structures is validated experimentally. A simple cantilevered beam is employed as an example of a flexible structure whose multimodes of vibration are controlled by a single actuator. Performance of the active control system is determined in the frequency and the time domains. The experimental results indicate the potential of the proposed methodology as a viable method for controlling the vibration of large flexible structures.

  6. Children Distinguish between Positive Pride and Hubris

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelson, Nicole L.; Russell, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed…

  7. How to fill key leadership positions strategically.

    PubMed

    Sanford, Kathleen D

    2011-06-01

    To fill strategic positions in their organizations with top talent, nursing and finance leaders can: Start by determining which jobs are truly "mission critical". Align the individuals in these positions on strategic teams Strengthen partnerships between key clinical leaders, such as the CMO and CNO PMID:21692375

  8. The envelope gp120 gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 determines the rate of CD4-positive T-cell depletion in SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood leukocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Gulizia, R J; Levy, J A; Mosier, D E

    1996-01-01

    We have used envelope recombinant viruses generated between two molecular clones of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1), T-cell-tropic HIV-1SF2 and macrophage-tropic HIV-1SF162, to assess pathogenic potential in the human peripheral blood leukocyte-reconstituted severe combined immune deficiency mouse model. Recombinant HIV-1SF2 viruses expressing the envelope gp120 gene of HIV-ISF162 caused as rapid a CD4+ T-cell depletion as did HIV-1SF162. The reciprocal HIV-1SF162 recombinant virus with the HIV-1SF2 envelope caused slower CD4+ T-cell loss. Although changing the V3 loop sequence of HIV-1SF162 to that of HIV-1SF2 did not change the rate of CD4+ T-cell depletion, replacing the V3 of HIV-1SF2 with the sequence of HIV-1SF162 resulted in virus that was poorly infectious in vivo but not in vitro. These studies suggest that the envelope gene determines properties important for pathogenesis in vivo as well as for cell tropism in vitro. HIV-1 infection in vivo may have more stringent requirements for envelope conformation. PMID:8648765

  9. Benign positional vertigo

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical practice guideline: Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg . 2008;139(5 Suppl 4):S47-S81. ... BH, Lund V, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Mosby; 2015: ...

  10. Reflection Positivity for Parafermions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaffe, Arthur; Pedrocchi, Fabio L.

    2015-07-01

    We establish reflection positivity for Gibbs trace states for a class of gauge-invariant, reflection-invariant Hamiltonians describing parafermion interactions on a lattice. We relate these results to recent work in the condensed-matter physics literature.

  11. Art of Positive Principalship.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Martha

    1979-01-01

    An elementary school principal explains how she promotes a positive working and learning environment in her school through written and verbal praise, open communications, and the sharing of ideas. (SJL)

  12. Optimal Centroid Position Estimation

    SciTech Connect

    Candy, J V; McClay, W A; Awwal, A S; Ferguson, S W

    2004-07-23

    The alignment of high energy laser beams for potential fusion experiments demand high precision and accuracy by the underlying positioning algorithms. This paper discusses the feasibility of employing online optimal position estimators in the form of model-based processors to achieve the desired results. Here we discuss the modeling, development, implementation and processing of model-based processors applied to both simulated and actual beam line data.

  13. Optimization of turn position of tokamak inductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aristov, Yu. A.; Vorobev, G. M.; Kuznetsov, A. V.

    Statement and methods of solution of the problem of optimizing turn position of tokamak induction are considered. Optimization is aimed at determination of inductor turn position, providing the minimal scattering of magnetic field in the region of chamber at any assigned value of volt-seconds. Algorithms of problem solution are described, and results of calculations for STX tokamak are presented. It is shown that development methods can be used for determining optimal position of turns of any coils of poloidal magnetic field, providing the assigned configuration and level of magnetic field.

  14. Local positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Kyker, R.

    1995-07-25

    Navigation systems have been vital to transportation ever since man took to the air and sea. Early navigation systems utilized the sextant to navigate by starlight as well as the magnetic needle compass. As electronics and communication technologies improved, inertial navigation systems were developed for use in ships and missile delivery. These systems consisted of electronic compasses, gyro-compasses, accelerometers, and various other sensors. Recently, systems such as LORAN and the Global Positioning System (GPS) have utilized the properties of radio wave propagation to triangulate position. The Local Positioning System (LPS), described in this paper, is an implementation of a limited inertial navigation system designed to be used on a bicycle. LPS displays a cyclist`s current position relative to a starting location. This information is displayed in Cartesian-like coordinates. To accomplish this, LPS relies upon two sensors, an electronic compass sensor and a distance sensor. The compass sensor provides directional information while the distance sensor provides the distance traveled. This information yields a distance vector for each point in time which when summed produces the cyclist`s current position. LPS is microprocessor controlled and is designed for a range of less than 90 miles.

  15. Beyond Positive Psychology?

    PubMed Central

    McNulty, James K.; Fincham, Frank D.

    2014-01-01

    The field of positive psychology rests on the assumption that certain psychological traits and processes are inherently beneficial for well-being. We review evidence that challenges this assumption. First, we review data from 4 independent longitudinal studies of marriage revealing that 4 ostensibly positive processes—forgiveness, optimistic expectations, positive thoughts, and kindness—can either benefit or harm well-being depending on the context in which they operate. Although all 4 processes predicted better relationship well-being among spouses in healthy marriages, they predicted worse relationship well-being in more troubled marriages. Then, we review evidence from other research that reveals that whether ostensibly positive psychological traits and processes benefit or harm well-being depends on the context of various noninterpersonal domains as well. Finally, we conclude by arguing that any movement to promote well-being may be most successful to the extent that it (a) examines the conditions under which the same traits and processes may promote versus threaten well-being, (b) examines both healthy and unhealthy people, (c) examines well-being over substantial periods of time, and (d) avoids labeling psychological traits and processes as positive or negative. PMID:21787036

  16. Fluorescent fluid interface position sensor

    DOEpatents

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2004-02-17

    A new fluid interface position sensor has been developed, which is capable of optically determining the location of an interface between an upper fluid and a lower fluid, the upper fluid having a larger refractive index than a lower fluid. The sensor functions by measurement, of fluorescence excited by an optical pump beam which is confined within a fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the lower fluid, but escapes from the fluorescent waveguide where that waveguide is in optical contact with the upper fluid.

  17. Children distinguish between positive pride and hubris.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Nicole L; Russell, James A

    2015-11-01

    Adults distinguish expressions of hubris from those of positive pride. To determine whether children (N = 183; 78-198 months old) make a similar distinction, we asked them to attribute emotion labels and a variety of social characteristics to dynamic expressions intended to convey hubris and positive pride. Like adults, children attributed different emotion labels to the expressions, and this tendency increased with age. Girls were more likely to distinguish between the expressions than boys were. Children also associated more positive social characteristics with the expression of positive pride and more negative characteristics with the expression of hubris.

  18. Measuring Global Position Using the Sun

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Evan; Hughes, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    The determination of latitude and longitude on Earth has always been of interest to explorers and cartographers alike. Accurate positional information is often needed for rescue purposes in locations where satellite navigational systems are inoperable. The activity described in this paper demonstrates a simple procedure to determine latitude and…

  19. Taking a Position

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    "TerrAvoid" and "Position Integrity" combine Global Positioning Satellite (GPS) data with high-resolution maps of the Earth's topography. Dubbs & Severino, Inc., based in Irvine, California, has developed software that allows the system to be run on a battery-powered laptop in the cockpit. The packages, designed primarily for military sponsors and now positioned to hit the consumer market in coming months, came about as the result of the Jet Propulsion Laboratory's Technology Affiliates Program. Intended to give American industry assistance from NASA experts and to facilitate business use of intellectual property developed for the space program, the Technology Affiliates Program introduced the start-up company of Dubbs & Severino to JPL's Dr. Nevin Bryant four years ago. GeoTIFF is now in the public domain, and its use for commercial product development has evolved into an industry standard over the last year.

  20. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, Paul F.; Shaffer, James E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine.

  1. Turbine nozzle positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Norton, P.F.; Shaffer, J.E.

    1996-01-30

    A nozzle guide vane assembly having a preestablished rate of thermal expansion is positioned in a gas turbine engine and being attached to conventional metallic components. The nozzle guide vane assembly includes an outer shroud having a mounting leg with an opening defined therein, a tip shoe ring having a mounting member with an opening defined therein, a nozzle support ring having a plurality of holes therein and a pin positioned in the corresponding opening in the outer shroud, opening in the tip shoe ring and the hole in the nozzle support ring. A rolling joint is provided between metallic components of the gas turbine engine and the nozzle guide vane assembly. The nozzle guide vane assembly is positioned radially about a central axis of the gas turbine engine and axially aligned with a combustor of the gas turbine engine. 9 figs.

  2. Uncharged positive electrode composition

    DOEpatents

    Kaun, Thomas D.; Vissers, Donald R.; Shimotake, Hiroshi

    1977-03-08

    An uncharged positive-electrode composition contains particulate lithium sulfide, another alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound other than sulfide, e.g., lithium carbide, and a transition metal powder. The composition along with a binder, such as electrolytic salt or a thermosetting resin is applied onto an electrically conductive substrate to form a plaque. The plaque is assembled as a positive electrode within an electrochemical cell opposite to a negative electrode containing a material such as aluminum or silicon for alloying with lithium. During charging, lithium alloy is formed within the negative electrode and transition metal sulfide such as iron sulfide is produced within the positive electrode. Excess negative electrode capacity over that from the transition metal sulfide is provided due to the electrochemical reaction of the other than sulfide alkali metal or alkaline earth metal compound.

  3. Nucleosome Positioning and Epigenetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schwab, David; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2008-03-01

    The role of chromatin structure in gene regulation has recently taken center stage in the field of epigenetics, phenomena that change the phenotype without changing the DNA sequence. Recent work has also shown that nucleosomes, a complex of DNA wrapped around a histone octamer, experience a sequence dependent energy landscape due to the variation in DNA bend stiffness with sequence composition. In this talk, we consider the role nucleosome positioning might play in the formation of heterochromatin, a compact form of DNA generically responsible for gene silencing. In particular, we discuss how different patterns of nucleosome positions, periodic or random, could either facilitate or suppress heterochromatin stability and formation.

  4. Natural head position: An overview

    PubMed Central

    Meiyappan, N.; Tamizharasi, S.; Senthilkumar, K. P.; Janardhanan, K.

    2015-01-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario. PMID:26538891

  5. Natural head position: An overview.

    PubMed

    Meiyappan, N; Tamizharasi, S; Senthilkumar, K P; Janardhanan, K

    2015-08-01

    Cephalometrics has given us a different perspective of interpreting various skeletal problems in the dentofacial complex. Natural head position (NHP) is a reproducible, physiologically determined aspect of function. To determine NHP, a horizontal or vertical reference line outside the crania was used, but preference was given generally to the horizontal. Various intra and extracranial cephalometric horizontal reference planes have been used to formulate diagnosis and plan individualized treatment for an integrated correction of the malocclusion cephalometrics is constantly undergoing refinements in its techniques and analyses to improve the clinical applications. Even though various methods for establishing NHP have been proposed, still it remains a challenge to the clinicians to implement the concept of NHP thoroughly in all the stages of treatment because of practical difficulties in the clinical scenario.

  6. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V.

    1980-01-01

    Positive-isolation-disconnect (PID) device with two mating halves prevents leakage or spillover when two fluid lines are disconnected. Each half has shutoff poppet to stop fluid flow. When flow is shut, poppets are flush against each other, leaving no space for fluid to remain it.

  7. Positive Discipline. (Revised Edition).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nelsen, Jane

    Understanding why children do not behave the way they used to, and why both controlling and overly-permissive discipline styles are ineffective, is the first step for parents and teachers who are facing child-discipline problems. This book describes a program of positive discipline principles aimed at assisting parents and teachers in…

  8. Nursing Research: Position Statement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Copp, Laurel; And Others

    The role of the American Association of Colleges of Nursing (AACN) in encouraging research through the programs and activities of the member schools is discussed. It is suggested that the dean or administrative head of a college of nursing is in a position to influence nursing research activities. The principal role of the academic dean in…

  9. Positive: HIV Affirmative Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kain, Craig D.

    At the end of the 1980s, counselors largely lacked an integrated approach to counseling people living with HIV disease. This book describes the experience of counseling this group of persons. The major premise here is that counselors who counsel HIV-positive clients must come to understand and affirm their clients' experiences. The text defines a…

  10. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  11. Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung-Han

    2010-01-01

    Benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV) is characterized by brief recurrent episodes of vertigo triggered by changes in head position. BPPV is the most common etiology of recurrent vertigo and is caused by abnormal stimulation of the cupula by free-floating otoliths (canalolithiasis) or otoliths that have adhered to the cupula (cupulolithiasis) within any of the three semicircular canals. Typical symptoms and signs of BPPV are evoked when the head is positioned so that the plane of the affected semicircular canal is spatially vertical and thus aligned with gravity. Paroxysm of vertigo and nystagmus develops after a brief latency during the Dix-Hallpike maneuver in posterior-canal BPPV, and during the supine roll test in horizontal-canal BPPV. Positioning the head in the opposite direction usually reverses the direction of the nystagmus. The duration, frequency, and symptom intensity of BPPV vary depending on the involved canals and the location of otolithic debris. Spontaneous recovery may be expected even with conservative treatments. However, canalithrepositioning maneuvers usually provide an immediate resolution of symptoms by clearing the canaliths from the semicircular canal into the vestibule. PMID:20607044

  12. Schoolwide Positive Behavior Supports

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, K. Brigid; Guest, Elise M.; Horner, Robert H.

    2010-01-01

    Schools are complex communities that play a major role in the social fabric of culture. Effective schools provide access to both good instruction and a social culture that supports engagement, community, and success. Over the past 10 years, more than 11,000 elementary, middle level, and high schools have adopted schoolwide positive behavior…

  13. Immunizations. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bobo, Nichole; Garrett, Jennifer; Teskey, Carmen; Duncan, Kay; Strasser, Kathy; Burrows-Mezu, Alicia L.

    2015-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that immunizations are essential to primary prevention of disease from infancy through adulthood. Promotion of immunizations by the registered professional school nurse (hereinafter referred to as school nurse) is central to the public health focus of school nursing practice…

  14. A Position Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hixson, Richard A.

    This position paper covers possible problems of collective bargaining. (1) The two sides should not bring prejudgments of good or bad to the negotiating table. (2) Neither side should exaggerate its strength or minimize its weakness. (3) Neither side should confuse intransigence with firmness. (4) The composition of each team must be carefully…

  15. Positive reinforcement for viruses

    PubMed Central

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-01-01

    Summary Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses. PMID:21035726

  16. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    PubMed

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  17. Review of HRP Positions

    SciTech Connect

    Center for Reliability Studies

    2007-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) Human Reliability Program (HRP), published as 10 CFR Part 712, is currently being reviewed and revised to address concerns identified during its implementation. Although these ''page changes'' primarily incorporate clarification of terms and language, the following discussion relates to broadening the definition of positions that require HRP certification that is found in {section}712.10.

  18. Delegation. Position Statement. Revised

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Board, Connie; Bushmiaer, Margo; Davis-Alldritt, Linda; Fekaris, Nina; Morgitan, Judith; Murphy, M. Kathleen; Yow, Barbara

    2010-01-01

    It is the position of the National Association of School Nurses (NASN) that the delegation of nursing tasks in the school setting can be a valuable tool for the school nurse, when based on the nursing definition of delegation and in compliance with state nursing regulations and guidance. Delegation in school nursing is a complex process in which…

  19. Positioning for Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapovsky, Lucie; Hubbell, Loren Loomis

    2000-01-01

    Analyzes results of the 1999 National Association of College and Business Officers tuition discounting survey and identifies trends. Finds colleges and universities are reactively responding to market pressures and proactively trying to analyze and position themselves ahead of the competition, often regional rather than national, for the…

  20. Otology versus Otosociology

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Gonzalez, Miguel A.; Cherta, Georgina; Nieto, Jose A.; Esteban, Francisco

    2012-01-01

    Otology concerns the biological study of ear alterations and diseases, solely. So, the diagnosis of audiovestibular diseases tends to be idiopathic or is based on theoretical concepts such as idiopathic sudden deafness, Ménière disease, benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, tinnitus, hyperacusis, or idiopathic facial paralysis. The treatment for these pathologies is symptomatic. Otosociology takes the aetiology and pathogenesis of the ear and situates them within the social and cultural environment of the patient. Then, audiovestibular disease is based on evidence, and the treatment options seek to solve the causes and consequences produced. Otosociology should be considered as a new discipline. Otosociology came into being since otology does not provide definitive solutions for the audiovestibular alterations produced from the point of view of the ear, whereas otosociology finds these solutions within the social/cultural environment of the patient. Where otology emphasises the diseases of the ear, otosociology deals with social manifestations. Where otology deals with idiopathic diseases, otosociology deals with causes and pathogeny produced by interactions in the social and cultural surroundings of the patient. Where otology offers symptomatic treatment, otosociology offers treatment of causes and consequences. Otosociology can fill significant voids in audiovestibular processes from the perspective of the patient's social environment. PMID:23762611

  1. Position Sensitive Microcalorimeters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadleir, J. E.; Hammock, C.; Figueroa-Feliciano, E.; Stahle, C. K.; Bandler, S.; Saab, T.; Lindeman, M.; Porter, F. S.; Chervenak, J.; Brown, G.

    2004-01-01

    A Position Sensitive Transition-Edge Sensor (PoST) is a microcalorimeter device capable of one-dimensional imaging spectroscopy. The device consists of two Transition-Edge Sensors (TESs) connected to the ends of a long X-ray absorbing strip. The energy of a photon hitting the absorber and the position of the absorption event along the strip is measured from the response in the two sensors by analyzing the relative signal sizes, pulse rise times, and the sum of the pulses measured at each sensor, We report on the recent PoST effort at Goddard for applications to large field of view, high-energy- resolution, X-ray astrophysics.

  2. Positive isolation disconnect

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Friedell, M. V. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    A disconnect composed basically of two halves each consisting of a poppet valve operable to isolate fluid with essentially zero fluid loss is presented. The two halves are coupled together by a quickly releasable coupling which may be either a coupling ring tightened or loosened by a twisting motion, or a clamp operated by a pivoted to prevent disconnecting the two halves until both valves are in closed condition. The positive feature of the device is one requiring a valve closing step before a disconnect step, and takes structural form in an accentric lobe mounted on the valve operating stem. If some obstruction prevents the poppet from moving to its seat, the eccentric lobe cannot be rotated to the closed position, and the interlock prevents a disconnect.

  3. Full Mouth Rehabilitation Determined by Anterior Tooth Position.

    PubMed

    Giannuzzi, Nicholas J; Motlagh, Shawn Davaie

    2015-07-01

    When patients seek cosmetic dentistry, their main concern is how their new smile is going to appear. In trying to achieve a patient's desire for a more beautiful smile, a careful and comprehensive analysis must be completed to insure the desired outcome is achievable and will function for many years to come. The clinician's primary goal is to restore the patient's dentition to ideal form and function. Full mouth rehabilitations need to be done in a systematic way to ensure all the parameters of an esthetic and functional outcome are achieved.

  4. A novel linear Sagnac interferometer in position determination of perturbations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pi, Shaohua; Wang, Bingjie; Zhao, Jiang; Hong, Guangwei; Zhao, Dong; Jia, Bo

    2014-07-01

    Distributed Fiber optical sensor has been widely used in communication cables and pipelines defense. Among them, Fiber Sagnac Interferometer shows several merits such as low noise, low requirement and high reliability. While the loop-based configurations are difficult in practical application for two aspects: the inconvenience to install Sagnac loop along a line (such as communication cables) and the isolation of the unused half of the Sagnac loop. Though some linear structures with delay loops or dual-loop were developed to satisfy reality requirements, they usually make a sacrifice of sensitivity and have complex circuits. To acquire high sensitivity with simple circuits, we propose a structure in which the two sides of Sagnac loop are in one cable. When a disturbance applies to the cable, one fiber is compressed and another is stretched, and vice versa. The phases of clockwise (CW) light and the counter clockwise (CCW) light are affected by the disturbance at the same time but with different direction. It means that the phase affection acting on the two fibers by the intrusion are synchronous but differ with half period. Besides the advantages of linear laying and high sensitivity, the high order of null frequencies are integer multiple of the fundamental null frequency. Closer null frequencies make more accuracy on peaks location on the Fourier transform. Experiments on simulating the intrusion in lab have been launched. A 50m resolution has been achieved when the intrusion distance is 100km. This structure is proved simple and accurate.

  5. High angular resolution and position determinations by infrared interferometry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Interferometer systems are described in the form of publications and reports. 'Distance Meter Helps Track the Stars', 'Berkeley Heterodyne Interferometer', 'Infrared Heterodyne Spectroscopy of CO2 on Mars', and 'A 10 micron Heterodyne Stellar Interferometer' are papers reported.

  6. Robust spacecraft attitude determination using global positioning system receivers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Jared Dale

    This dissertation presents the development of a new algorithm for processing GPS signals to compute attitude solutions. This new algorithm utilizes an Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) with a quaternion state to combine signal to noise ratio (SNR) and differential carrier phase measurements. Attitude solutions can be obtained from these two measurement sources if multiple antennas are utilized which have non-aligned boresight vectors. The algorithm achieves improved integer resolution and accuracy for the carrier phase approach, and is able to perform on on-orbit antenna gain pattern calibration to aid the SNR approach. The developed algorithm is tested using both hardware in the loop space simulations and actual rooftop data. These tests are used to adjust the filter parameters and algorithm logic to achieve good performance. Testing is undertaken that demonstrates the accuracy and speed of the integer resolution process. Comparisons between rooftop and simulation results demonstrate that simulations accurately represent anticipated orbit conditions. These comparisons further show that the non-aligned antenna boresight vectors introduce little or no errors to the double difference carrier phase measurements. A trade study is conducted to assess the impact of the SNR measurements on the overall solution accuracy once the more accurate carrier phase measurements become available. The final version of the algorithm demonstrates solution accuracies of less than 0.5 degrees RMS in all three angles of rotation during rooftop tests, and accuracies on the order of 0.1 RMS in multipath-free orbit simulations. The developed and tested algorithm is then ported from its original code into a flight ready version available in NASA GEONS software. The versatility of the basic algorithm design is explored by creating a new system that incorporates magnetometer data with SNR and carrier phase measurements. The addition of the magnetometer measurements is shown to improve the integer ambiguity estimation accuracy. Single antenna experiments demonstrate how magnetometer measurements and single antenna boresight estimates provide attitude solutions that are accurate enough to resolve integer ambiguities on systems with aligned antennas. In conclusion, some possible future tests are described that may provide better results by utilizing hardware more appropriate to the developed algorithm.

  7. Size and position matter.

    PubMed

    Warren, Graham

    2013-12-01

    The 2013 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine emphasizes the progress made in understanding the molecular mechanisms that underpin the vesicular movement of cargo through the exocytic and endocytic pathways. Attention now focuses on those mechanisms that govern the relative size and position of the many different membrane-bound compartments. These homeostatic mechanisms are discussed in this issue of Nature Reviews Molecular Cell Biology and must be integrated so as to satisfy the needs of the cell and the organism.

  8. Membrane position control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Ji (Inventor); Harrison, Joycelyn S. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    A membrane structure includes at least one electroactive bending actuator fixed to a supporting base. Each electroactive bending actuator is operatively connected to the membrane for controlling membrane position. Any displacement of each electroactive bending actuator effects displacement of the membrane. More specifically, the operative connection is provided by a guiding wheel assembly and a track, wherein displacement of the bending actuator effects translation of the wheel assembly along the track, thereby imparting movement to the membrane.

  9. Nuclear core positioning system

    DOEpatents

    Garkisch, Hans D.; Yant, Howard W.; Patterson, John F.

    1979-01-01

    A structural support system for the core of a nuclear reactor which achieves relatively restricted clearances at operating conditions and yet allows sufficient clearance between fuel assemblies at refueling temperatures. Axially displaced spacer pads having variable between pad spacing and a temperature compensated radial restraint system are utilized to maintain clearances between the fuel elements. The core support plates are constructed of metals specially chosen such that differential thermal expansion produces positive restraint at operating temperatures.

  10. Thermolysis Of Positive Photoresists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Donald W.

    1984-05-01

    Positive photoresists are currently being pushed to their limits to develop new processes for fine line lithography. Much of this processing is done in high temperature environments or with processes which generate a great deal of localized heat. Other processes use highly reactive free radical or ionic species. Further, current requirements demand that this processing be accomplished with minimal degredation of the resist image. All these requirements put increasing demands on the thermal stability of photoresist products. In view of these demands, a more complete understanding of the thermal chemistry of resist products would be of beneficial interest to those utilizing or designing these processes. This is of major importance in the development of new equipment, materials, and processes; especially where considerable heat is generated in the presence of resist materials. This paper attempts to provide a basic background to develop this understanding. It provides a description of the effects of thermal processing on positive photoresists. The paper discusses the thermal chemistry, particularly at temperatures above 100 degrees C, of the major positive photoresists used in microelectronic applications. The major emphasis is placed on common positive photoresist products containing diazo-oxide PAC and novolak resin. The paper gives a brief description of composition of the resists, and then an analysis of the thermolysis products at various temperatures. Analysis of the thermal reactions of the PAC, resin, and resist are given. The chemistry of the bulk films as well as the localized surface effects are examined. Finally, the effects of thermolysis are related to their impact on subsequent processing steps.

  11. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population.

  12. Positive psychiatry: its time has come.

    PubMed

    Jeste, Dilip V; Palmer, Barton W; Rettew, David C; Boardman, Samantha

    2015-06-01

    Traditionally, psychiatry has been defined and practiced as a branch of medicine focused on the diagnosis and treatment of mental illnesses. Based on growing empirical evidence, we believe that this definition warrants expansion to include the concept of positive psychiatry. In the present article, we provide a critical overview of this emerging field and a select review of relevant scientific literature. Positive psychiatry may be defined as the science and practice of psychiatry that seeks to understand and promote well-being through assessment and interventions involving positive psychosocial characteristics (PPCs) in people who suffer from or are at high risk of developing mental or physical illnesses. It can also benefit nonclinical populations. Positive psychiatry has 4 main components: (1) positive mental health outcomes (eg, well-being), (2) PPCs that comprise psychological traits (resilience, optimism, personal mastery and coping self-efficacy, social engagement, spirituality and religiosity, and wisdom-including compassion) and environmental factors (family dynamics, social support, and other environmental determinants of overall health), (3) biology of positive psychiatry constructs, and (4) positive psychiatry interventions including preventive ones. There are promising empirical data to suggest that positive traits may be improved through psychosocial and biological interventions. As a branch of medicine rooted in biology, psychiatry, especially with the proposed conceptualization of positive psychiatry, is well poised to provide major contributions to the positive mental health movement, thereby impacting the overall health care of the population. PMID:26132670

  13. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, Tuncer M.; Shu, Deming

    1995-01-01

    A photon beam position monitor for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade "shadowing". Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation.

  14. Photon beam position monitor

    DOEpatents

    Kuzay, T.M.; Shu, D.

    1995-02-07

    A photon beam position monitor is disclosed for use in the front end of a beamline of a high heat flux and high energy photon source such as a synchrotron radiation storage ring detects and measures the position and, when a pair of such monitors are used in tandem, the slope of a photon beam emanating from an insertion device such as a wiggler or an undulator inserted in the straight sections of the ring. The photon beam position monitor includes a plurality of spaced blades for precisely locating the photon beam, with each blade comprised of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond with an outer metal coating of a photon sensitive metal such as tungsten, molybdenum, etc., which combination emits electrons when a high energy photon beam is incident upon the blade. Two such monitors are contemplated for use in the front end of the beamline, with the two monitors having vertically and horizontally offset detector blades to avoid blade ''shadowing''. Provision is made for aligning the detector blades with the photon beam and limiting detector blade temperature during operation. 18 figs.

  15. Welding nozzle position manipulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilbert, Jeffrey L. (Inventor); Gutow, David A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a welding nozzle position manipulator. The manipulator consists of an angle support to which the remaining components of the device are attached either directly or indirectly. A pair of pivotal connections attach a weld nozzle holding link to the angle support and provide a two axis freedom of movement of the holding link with respect to the support angle. The manipulator is actuated by a pair of adjusting screws angularly mounted to the angle support. These screws contact a pair of tapered friction surfaces formed on the upper portion of the welding nozzle holding link. A spring positioned between the upper portions of the support angle and the holding link provides a constant bias engagement between the friction surfaces of the holding link and the adjustment screws, so as to firmly hold the link in position and to eliminate any free play in the adjustment mechanism. The angular relationships between the adjustment screws, the angle support and the tapered friction surfaces of the weld nozzle holding link provide a geometric arrangement which permits precision adjustment of the holding link with respect to the angle support and also provides a solid holding link mount which is resistant to movement from outside forces.

  16. Positional information, in bits

    PubMed Central

    Dubuis, Julien O.; Tkačik, Gašper; Wieschaus, Eric F.; Gregor, Thomas; Bialek, William

    2013-01-01

    Cells in a developing embryo have no direct way of “measuring” their physical position. Through a variety of processes, however, the expression levels of multiple genes come to be correlated with position, and these expression levels thus form a code for “positional information.” We show how to measure this information, in bits, using the gap genes in the Drosophila embryo as an example. Individual genes carry nearly two bits of information, twice as much as would be expected if the expression patterns consisted only of on/off domains separated by sharp boundaries. Taken together, four gap genes carry enough information to define a cell’s location with an error bar of along the anterior/posterior axis of the embryo. This precision is nearly enough for each cell to have a unique identity, which is the maximum information the system can use, and is nearly constant along the length of the embryo. We argue that this constancy is a signature of optimality in the transmission of information from primary morphogen inputs to the output of the gap gene network. PMID:24089448

  17. Positive Culture Rate in Revision Shoulder Arthroplasty

    PubMed Central

    Hobgood, E. Rhett

    2009-01-01

    We recognized a trend of positive cultures taken from presumably uninfected shoulders during revision arthroplasty. Owing to the indolent nature of common shoulder pathogens such as Propionibacterium acnes, these cultures often become positive several days, even weeks, after surgery. Having concern regarding the potential importance of these positive cultures, we reviewed our revision arthroplasty population to determine the rate of positive intraoperative cultures in patients presumed to be aseptic, to characterize the isolated organisms, and to determine the subsequent development of infection. We retrospectively reviewed 27 patients (28 revisions) presumed to be uninfected between April 2005 and October 2007. Intraoperative cultures were positive in eight (29%) of the 28 revisions. Propionibacterium acnes was isolated in six. Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in one patient and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus aureus was isolated in one patient. One-year followup was available on 24 of the 28 revisions. Two of the eight culture-positive revisions had a subsequent infection develop. Cultures taken at revision surgery for failed shoulder arthroplasty are often positive, and our findings document the importance of these positive cultures. Our data confirm previous reports isolating Propionibacterium acnes as a primary pathogen in revision shoulder arthroplasty. Level of Evidence: Level IV, therapeutic study. See the Guidelines for Authors for a complete description of levels of evidence. PMID:19434469

  18. Both the hydrophobicity and a positively charged region flanking the C-terminal region of the transmembrane domain of signal-anchored proteins play critical roles in determining their targeting specificity to the endoplasmic reticulum or endosymbiotic organelles in Arabidopsis cells.

    PubMed

    Lee, Junho; Lee, Hyunkyung; Kim, Jinho; Lee, Sumin; Kim, Dae Heon; Kim, Sanguk; Hwang, Inhwan

    2011-04-01

    Proteins localized to various cellular and subcellular membranes play pivotal roles in numerous cellular activities. Accordingly, in eukaryotic cells, the biogenesis of organellar proteins is an essential process requiring their correct localization among various cellular and subcellular membranes. Localization of these proteins is determined by either cotranslational or posttranslational mechanisms, depending on the final destination. However, it is not fully understood how the targeting specificity of membrane proteins is determined in plant cells. Here, we investigate the mechanism by which signal-anchored (SA) proteins are differentially targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or endosymbiotic organelles using in vivo targeting, subcellular fractionation, and bioinformatics approaches. For targeting SA proteins to endosymbiotic organelles, the C-terminal positively charged region (CPR) flanking the transmembrane domain (TMD) is necessary but not sufficient. The hydrophobicity of the TMD in CPR-containing proteins also plays a critical role in determining targeting specificity; TMDs with a hydrophobicity value >0.4 on the Wimley and White scale are targeted primarily to the ER, whereas TMDs with lower values are targeted to endosymbiotic organelles. Based on these data, we propose that the CPR and the hydrophobicity of the TMD play a critical role in determining the targeting specificity between the ER and endosymbiotic organelles.

  19. Geometrical Positioning Schemes Based on Hybrid Lines of Position

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chien-Sheng; Lin, Jium-Ming; Liu, Wen-Hsiung; Chi, Ching-Lung

    To achieve more accurate measurements of the mobile station (MS) location, it is possible to integrate many kinds of measurements. In this paper we proposed several simpler methods that utilized time of arrival (TOA) at three base stations (BSs) and the angle of arrival (AOA) information at the serving BS to give location estimation of the MS in non-line-of-sight (NLOS) environments. From the viewpoint of geometric approach, for each a TOA value measured at any BS, one can generate a circle. Rather than applying the nonlinear circular lines of position (LOP), the proposed methods are much easier by using linear LOP to determine the MS. Numerical results demonstrate that the calculation time of using linear LOP is much less than employing circular LOP. Although the location precision of using linear LOP is only reduced slightly. However, the proposed efficient methods by using linear LOP can still provide precise solution of MS location and reduce the computational effort greatly. In addition, the proposed methods with less effort can mitigate the NLOS effect, simply by applying the weighted sum of the intersections between different linear LOP and the AOA line, without requiring priori knowledge of NLOS error statistics. Simulation results show that the proposed methods can always yield superior performance in comparison with Taylor series algorithm (TSA) and the hybrid lines of position algorithm (HLOP).

  20. Position statement on cannabis.

    PubMed

    Stein For The Executive Committee Of The Central Drug Authority, Dan Joseph

    2016-05-16

    There is an ongoing national debate around cannabis policy. This brief position statement by the Executive Committee of the Central Drug Authorityoutlines some of the factors that have contributed to this debate, delineates reduction strategies, summarises the harms and benefits ofmarijuana, and provides recommendations. These recommendations emphasise an integrated and evidence-based approach, the need forresources to implement harm reduction strategies against continued and chronic use of alcohol and cannabis, and the potential value of afocus on decriminalisation rather than the legalisation of cannabis.

  1. Position from gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mather, R. S.

    1973-01-01

    Procedures for obtaining position from surface gravity observations are reviewed and their relevance assessed in the context of the application of modern geodetic techniques to programs of Earth and ocean physics. Solutions based on the use of surface layer techniques, the discrete value approach, and the development from Green's theorem are stated in summary, the latter being extended to order e cubed in the height anomaly. The representation of the surface gravity field which is required in order that this accuracy may be achieved is discussed. Interim techniques which could be used in the absence of such a representation are also outlined.

  2. Global Positioning Satellite Recorder

    1997-11-10

    The GPS Tracker is a device (automotive unit) that records position (latitude and longitude), date, and time autonomously with time. The data from the GPS Tracker can be used offline with a personal computer and map data base to plot the track of where a vehicle or other mobile battery powered object has been. The invention simplifies field operations for recording location autonomously by obviating the need to execute a set of detailed instructions priormore » to operation. The vehicle combines GPS technology and a cpu with custom software to accomplish the task.« less

  3. Tests Of A Differential Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, F. G.; Hegary, D. M.; Turner, R. N.; Van Graas, F.; Sharma, S.

    1990-01-01

    Paper describes validation tests of global positioning system (GPS) for low-flying helicopters. Configured as differential GPS, in which components in both aircraft and ground station compute position errors relative to known location using satellite navigational data. Corrections computed from differences between computed and measured ranges to four satellites being tracked by receiver in both aircraft and ground systems. Tests conducted to determine whether equipment and computer programs of system operated correctly and consistently.

  4. Nondynamic Tracking Using The Global Positioning System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yunck, T. P.; Wu, Sien-Chong

    1988-01-01

    Report describes technique for using Global Positioning System (GPS) to determine position of low Earth orbiter without need for dynamic models. Differential observing strategy requires GPS receiver on user vehicle and network of six ground receivers. Computationally efficient technique delivers decimeter accuracy on orbits down to lowest altitudes. New technique nondynamic long-arc strategy having potential for accuracy of best dynamic techniques while retaining much of computational simplicity of geometric techniques.

  5. Tipping the spindle into the right position.

    PubMed

    Akhmanova, Anna; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2016-05-01

    The position of the mitotic spindle determines the cleavage plane in animal cells, but what controls spindle positioning? Kern et al. (2016. J. Cell Biol. http://dx.doi.org/10.1083/jcb.201510117) demonstrate that the microtubule plus end-associated SKAP/Astrin complex participates in this process, possibly by affecting dynein-dependent pulling forces exerted on the tips of astral microtubules. PMID:27138251

  6. An integrated strategy for rapid and accurate determination of free and cell-bound microcystins and related peptides in natural blooms by liquid chromatography-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry using both positive and negative ionization modes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cintia; Caixach, Josep

    2015-08-14

    An integrated high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) strategy has been developed for rapid and accurate determination of free and cell-bound microcystins (MCs) and related peptides in water blooms. The natural samples (water and algae) were filtered for independent analysis of aqueous and sestonic fractions. These fractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and ESI-Orbitrap-HCD-MS. MALDI, ESI and the study of fragmentation sequences have been provided crucial structural information. The potential of combined positive and negative ionization modes, full scan and fragmentation acquisition modes (TOF/TOF and HCD) by HRMS and high resolution and accurate mass was investigated in order to allow unequivocal determination of MCs. Besides, a reliable quantitation has been possible by HRMS. This composition helped to decrease the probability of false positives and negatives, as alternative to commonly used LC-ESI-MS/MS methods. The analysis was non-target, therefore covered the possibility to analyze all MC analogs concurrently without any pre-selection of target MC. Furthermore, archived data was subjected to retrospective "post-targeted" analysis and a screening of other potential toxins and related peptides as anabaenopeptins in the samples was done. Finally, the MS protocol and identification tools suggested were applied to the analysis of characteristic water blooms from Spanish reservoirs. PMID:26141269

  7. An integrated strategy for rapid and accurate determination of free and cell-bound microcystins and related peptides in natural blooms by liquid chromatography-electrospray-high resolution mass spectrometry and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometry using both positive and negative ionization modes.

    PubMed

    Flores, Cintia; Caixach, Josep

    2015-08-14

    An integrated high resolution mass spectrometry (HRMS) strategy has been developed for rapid and accurate determination of free and cell-bound microcystins (MCs) and related peptides in water blooms. The natural samples (water and algae) were filtered for independent analysis of aqueous and sestonic fractions. These fractions were analyzed by MALDI-TOF/TOF-MS and ESI-Orbitrap-HCD-MS. MALDI, ESI and the study of fragmentation sequences have been provided crucial structural information. The potential of combined positive and negative ionization modes, full scan and fragmentation acquisition modes (TOF/TOF and HCD) by HRMS and high resolution and accurate mass was investigated in order to allow unequivocal determination of MCs. Besides, a reliable quantitation has been possible by HRMS. This composition helped to decrease the probability of false positives and negatives, as alternative to commonly used LC-ESI-MS/MS methods. The analysis was non-target, therefore covered the possibility to analyze all MC analogs concurrently without any pre-selection of target MC. Furthermore, archived data was subjected to retrospective "post-targeted" analysis and a screening of other potential toxins and related peptides as anabaenopeptins in the samples was done. Finally, the MS protocol and identification tools suggested were applied to the analysis of characteristic water blooms from Spanish reservoirs.

  8. Positional Information, in bits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubuis, Julien; Bialek, William; Wieschaus, Eric; Gregor, Thomas

    2010-03-01

    Pattern formation in early embryonic development provides an important testing ground for ideas about the structure and dynamics of genetic regulatory networks. Spatial variations in the concentration of particular transcription factors act as ``morphogens,'' driving more complex patterns of gene expression that in turn define cell fates, which must be appropriate to the physical location of the cells in the embryo. Thus, in these networks, the regulation of gene expression serves to transmit and process ``positional information.'' Here, using the early Drosophila embryo as a model system, we measure the amount of positional information carried by a group of four genes (the gap genes Hunchback, Kr"uppel, Giant and Knirps) that respond directly to the primary maternal morphogen gradients. We find that the information carried by individual gap genes is much larger than one bit, so that their spatial patterns provide much more than the location of an ``expression boundary.'' Preliminary data indicate that, taken together these genes provide enough information to specify the location of every row of cells along the embryo's anterior-posterior axis.

  9. Government Positions for Physicists.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seiler, David

    2006-03-01

    There are a number of government agencies that employ physicists in a wide variety of jobs -- from student internships to post docs to full time staff positions. You can do real, creative, fore-front physics or pursue a wide range of leadership positions. The possibilities are almost unlimited and so is the impact your work can have on the government, academia, and industry. So how do you go about finding a government job? What qualities or abilities are deemed valuable? What are the advantages and disadvantages to working in the government? I will bring some personal experiences and observations from working in the government (one year as a rotator at the National Science Foundation in the Division of Materials Research and almost 18 years at the National Institute of Standards and Technology, both as a Group Leader and a Division Chief) to bear on these questions and more. Prior to my government career I was a physics professor pursuing research and teaching in academia.

  10. Positioning of bacterial chemoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Jones, Christopher W; Armitage, Judith P

    2015-05-01

    For optimum growth, bacteria must adapt to their environment, and one way that many species do this is by moving towards favourable conditions. To do so requires mechanisms to both physically drive movement and provide directionality to this movement. The pathways that control this directionality comprise chemoreceptors, which, along with an adaptor protein (CheW) and kinase (CheA), form large hexagonal arrays. These arrays can be formed around transmembrane receptors, resulting in arrays embedded in the inner membrane, or they can comprise soluble receptors, forming arrays in the cytoplasm. Across bacterial species, chemoreceptor arrays (both transmembrane and soluble) are localised to a variety of positions within the cell; some species with multiple arrays demonstrate this variety within individual cells. In many cases, the positioning pattern of the arrays is linked to the need for segregation of arrays between daughter cells on division, ensuring the production of chemotactically competent progeny. Multiple mechanisms have evolved to drive this segregation, including stochastic self-assembly, cellular landmarks, and the utilisation of ParA homologues. The variety of mechanisms highlights the importance of chemotaxis to motile species.

  11. Position Sensitive Detection System for Charged Particles

    SciTech Connect

    Coello, E. A.; Favela, F.; Curiel, Q.; Chavez, E; Huerta, A.; Varela, A.; Shapira, Dan

    2012-01-01

    The position sensitive detection system presented in this work employs the Anger logic algorithm to determine the position of the light spark produced by the passage of charged particles on a 170 x 170 x 10 mm3 scintillator material (PILOT-U). The detection system consists of a matrix of nine photomultipliers, covering a fraction of the back area of the scintillators. Tests made with a non-collimated alpha particle source together with a Monte Carlo simulation that reproduces the data, suggest an intrinsic position resolution of up to 6 mm is achieved.

  12. Optical fiber stripper positioning apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Fyfe, Richard W.; Sanchez, Jr., Amadeo

    1990-01-01

    An optical fiber positioning apparatus for an optical fiber stripping device is disclosed which is capable of providing precise axial alignment between an optical fiber to be stripped of its outer jacket and the cutting blades of a stripping device. The apparatus includes a first bore having a width approximately equal to the diameter of an unstripped optical fiber and a counter bore axially aligned with the first bore and dimensioned to precisely receive a portion of the stripping device in axial alignment with notched cutting blades within the stripping device to thereby axially align the notched cutting blades of the stripping device with the axis of the optical fiber to permit the notched cutting blades to sever the jacket on the optical fiber without damaging the cladding on the optical fiber. In a preferred embodiment, the apparatus further includes a fiber stop which permits determination of the length of jacket to be removed from the optical fiber.

  13. Thermal motor positions magnetometer sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Scott, S. G.

    1966-01-01

    Reversing, thermal, motor-driven device positions magnetometer sensors for checking zero offset. The device alternately positions two sensors at fixed positions 90 degrees apart. The thermal motor is fabricated completely of nonmagnetic materials.

  14. Metallic positive expulsion diaphragms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gleich, D.

    1972-01-01

    High-cycle life ring-reinforced hemispherical type positive expulsion diaphragm performance was demonstrated by room temperature fluid expulsion tests of 13" diameter, 8 mil thick stainless steel configurations. A maximum of eleven (11) leak-free, fluid expulsions were achieved by a 25 deg cone angle diaphragm hoop-reinforced with .110-inch cross-sectional diameter wires. This represents a 70% improvement in diaphragm reversal cycle life compared to results previously obtained. The reversal tests confirmed analytic predictions for diaphragm cycle life increases due to increasing values of diaphragm cone angle, radius to thickness ratio and material strain to necking capacity. Practical fabrication techniques were demonstrated for forming close-tolerance, thin corrugated shells and for obtaining closely controlled reinforcing ring stiffness required to maximize diaphragm cycle life. A non-destructive inspection technique for monitoring large local shell bending strains was developed.

  15. Solar system positioning system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Penanen, Konstantin I.; Chui, Talso

    2006-01-01

    Power-rich spacecraft envisioned in Prometheus initiative open up possibilities for long-range high-rate communication. A constellation of spacecraft on orbits several A.U. from the Sun, equipped with laser transponders and precise clocks can be configured to measure their mutual distances to within few cm. High on-board power can create substantial non-inertial contribution to the spacecraft trajectory. We propose to alleviate this contribution by employing secondary ranging to a passive daughter spacecraft. Such constellation can form the basis of it navigation system capable of providing position information anywhere in the soIar system with similar accuracy. Apart from obvious Solar System exploration implications, this system can provide robust reference for GPS and its successors.

  16. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three parallel inductors, each of which has an axial core that is an independent magnetic structure. A first support couples first and second inductors and separate them by a fixed distance. A second support coupled to a third inductor disposed between the first and second inductors. The first support and second support are configured for relative movement as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first and second inductors. An oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors. A device measures a phase component of a source voltage generating the oscillating current and a phase component of voltage induced in the third inductor when the oscillating current is supplied to the first and second inductors such that the phase component of the voltage induced overlaps the phase component of the source voltage.

  17. Inductive Position Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Simmons, Stephen M. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An inductive position sensor uses three independent inductors inductively coupled by a common medium such as air. First and second inductors are separated by a fixed distance with the first inductor's axial core and second inductor's axial core maintained parallel to one another. A third inductor is disposed between the first and second inductors with the third inductor's axial core being maintained parallel to those of the first and second inductors. The combination of the first and second inductors are configured for relative movement with the third inductor's axial core remaining parallel to those of the first and second inductors as distance changes from the third inductor to each of the first inductor and second inductor. An oscillating current can be supplied to at least one of the three inductors, while voltage induced in at least one of the three inductors not supplied with the oscillating current is measured.

  18. Shaft Position Optical Sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blumenstock, Kenneth A. (Inventor); Hakum, Claef F. (Inventor); Johnson, Clarence S. (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    The present invention is an optical sensor that senses the movement of a shaft. Detection of radial movement is made when a portion of light incident on the shaft sensor-target is blocked. For detection of axial movement, a disk with flat surface is mounted and used to block a portion of light. The variation in the amount of light allowed to pass through is a measure of the position of the shaft. As proposed by this invention, significant improvement is made with respect to sensitivity and linearity of the system when the light is permanently partially blocked. To accomplish this goal this invention adds a boss to the system. To eliminate possible drift of system performance due to LED degradation or temperature variation, a feedback feature is added to the system.

  19. A POSITIONAL DATA SYSTEM

    DOEpatents

    Forster, G.A.

    1963-09-24

    between master and slave synchros is described. A threephase a-c power source is connected to the stators of the synchros and an error detector is connected to the rotors of the synchros to measure the phasor difference therebetween. A phase shift network shifts the phase of one of the rotors 90 degrees and a demodulator responsive thereto causes the phasor difference signal of the rotors to shift phase 180 degrees whenever the 90 degree phase shifted signal goes negative. The phase shifted difference signal has a waveform which, with the addition of small values of resistance and capacitance, gives a substantially pure d-c output whose amplitude and polarity is proportional to the magnitude and direction of the difference in the angular positions of the synchro's rotors. (AEC)

  20. Beyond complete positivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dominy, Jason M.; Lidar, Daniel A.

    2016-04-01

    We provide a general and consistent formulation for linear subsystem quantum dynamical maps, developed from a minimal set of postulates, primary among which is a relaxation of the usual, restrictive assumption of uncorrelated initial system-bath states. We describe the space of possibilities admitted by this formulation, namely that, far from being limited to only completely positive (CP) maps, essentially any C-linear, Hermiticity-preserving, trace-preserving map can arise as a legitimate subsystem dynamical map from a joint unitary evolution of a system coupled to a bath. The price paid for this added generality is a trade-off between the set of admissible initial states and the allowed set of joint system-bath unitary evolutions. As an application, we present a simple example of a non-CP map constructed as a subsystem dynamical map that violates some fundamental inequalities in quantum information theory, such as the quantum data processing inequality.