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Sample records for positive coping skills

  1. Appreciation and Life Satisfaction: Does Appreciation Uniquely Predict Life Satisfaction above Gender, Coping Skills, Self-Esteem, and Positive Affectivity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halle, Joshua Solomon

    2015-01-01

    The primary purpose of this research was to examine whether appreciation explains variance in life satisfaction after controlling for gender, positive affectivity, self-esteem, and coping skills. Two hundred ninety-eight undergraduates went to the informed consent page of the online survey composed of the Appreciation Scale, the Satisfaction With…

  2. Coping Skills Program for Individuals with Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.; Hood, Colleen Deyell

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based coping skills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…

  3. Assessment of Anger Coping Skills in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.; Brace, N.; Phillips, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent controlled studies have supported the effectiveness of anger management training for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This report describes an evaluation instrument designed to assess their usage of specific anger coping skills. The Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS) is designed for completion by a staff member or carer.…

  4. Participation in specific treatment components predicts alcohol-specific and general coping skills.

    PubMed

    Forys, Kelly; McKellar, John; Moos, Rudolf

    2007-08-01

    This study identified which aspects of substance abuse treatment in community residential facilities (CRFs) were correlated with patients' post-treatment coping. A total of 2376 patients supplied demographic information and completed measures at baseline (coping and abstinence self-efficacy) and one year after treatment (coping, level of drug and alcohol use, and substance-related problems). Staff provided information about treatment orientation and patients' participation in treatment (e.g., life skills training, vocational counseling). The data were used to predict coping 1 year after treatment. As expected, higher levels of general approach coping and alcohol-specific coping and lower levels of general avoidance coping were associated with less 1-year alcohol and drug use and fewer drinking problems. Patients' greater level of participation in life skills counseling predicted more approach coping at 1 year. In addition, positive social relationships and participation in 12-step self-help groups predicted less general avoidance coping and more alcohol-specific coping at 1 year post-treatment. Life skills training, 12-step self-help groups, and enhancement of supportive relationships during CRF treatment for substance abuse are related to healthy coping. Future research should examine the effect of these components in less intensive programs and with women. PMID:17182195

  5. Cognitive, behavioral and goal adjustment coping and depressive symptoms in young people with diabetes: a search for intervention targets for coping skills training.

    PubMed

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for young people with Type 1 (T1) diabetes. A wide range of coping techniques was studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 78 young people with T1 diabetes participated. They were contacted through a social networking website, several Internet sites, and flyers. A wide range of coping techniques appeared to be related to depressive symptoms. Especially the cognitive coping strategies self-blame, rumination, refocus positive, and other-blame, together with goal adjustment coping, were of importance. A large proportion of the variance of depressive symptoms could be explained (65 %). These findings suggest that these specific coping strategies should be part of coping skills trainings for young people with T1 diabetes.

  6. Adaptive Behavior vs Adaptive Skills: Dimensions in Coping Development.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leland, Henry

    This paper views the adaptive behavior of individuals with mental retardation as a coping response to the biological and social demands of the environment. Adaptive skills are contrasted with adaptive behaviors, with skills being based primarily on developing new learning and habituating specific responses. Adaptive behavior represents a more…

  7. Coping Skills Among Adolescent Suicide Attempters: Results of a Multisite Study

    PubMed Central

    Mirkovic, Bojan; Labelle, Réal; Guilé, Jean-Marc; Belloncle, Vincent; Bodeau, Nicolas; Knafo, Alexandra; Condat, Agnès; Bapt-Cazalets, Nathalie; Marguet, Christophe; Breton, Jean-Jacques; Cohen, David; Gérardin, Priscille

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: A multisite study was undertaken to advance our understanding of how coping skills, depression, and suicidal ideation are related among adolescents who attempt suicide. Two hypotheses were postulated: productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with lower and higher depression scores when age, sex, and stressful life events (SLEs) were controlled; and productive coping and nonproductive coping would be associated, respectively, with the presence and absence of suicidal ideation when age, sex, and SLEs were controlled. Methods: Participants were 167 adolescents (13 to 17 years of age) hospitalized for attempting suicide in 5 pediatric departments across France. Four instruments were administered: the Kiddie Schedule for Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia—Present and Lifetime Version, the Adolescent Coping Scale, the Life Events Questionnaire, and the Columbia-Suicide Severity Rating Scale. Descriptive analyses and univariate and multiple regression models were completed. Results: Both hypotheses were confirmed. Focus on the positive emerged as a significant variable in both models; depression emerged as a significant variable in the suicidal ideation model. The only sex difference observed was that girls made greater use of wishful thinking and seek social support. Conclusions: These findings suggest that coping skills are important mechanisms through which depression and suicidal ideation are maintained after attempting suicide. In intervening with adolescents who have attempted suicide, it may be useful to emphasize cognitive work geared to looking on the bright side, positive thinking, and fighting depression. PMID:25886670

  8. Developing Coping Skills in Early Childhood: Theory and Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forquer, Sandra L.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses techniques that child care workers can utilize to foster the development of coping skills in young children. Emphasizes the difference between psychological immunity to stress based on problem-solving abilities and pseudo-immunity created by overprotectiveness. Holds that challenges build children's competence and self-esteem.…

  9. Totally Model-Free Learned Skillful Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dreyfus, Stuart E.

    2004-01-01

    The author proposes a neural-network-based explanation of how a brain might acquire intuitive expertise. The explanation is intended merely to be suggestive and lacks many complexities found in even lower animal brains. Yet significantly, even this simplified brain model is capable of explaining the acquisition of simple skills without developing…

  10. Temper and Tantrum Tamers. Breakthrough Strategies To Teach and Counsel Troubled Youth: Social Skills, School Skills, Coping Skills Lesson Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Ruth Herman

    This document is one of eight in a series of guides designed to help teach and counsel troubled youth. It presents 20 lessons designed to teach the coping skills necessary to control one's temper. The first lesson teaches students the meaning of aggressive behavior; this lesson and several others throughout the guide focus on helping aggressive…

  11. Influence of Music Therapy on Coping Skills and Anger Management in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus

    2015-07-01

    The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes. PMID:24379454

  12. Influence of Music Therapy on Coping Skills and Anger Management in Forensic Psychiatric Patients: An Exploratory Study.

    PubMed

    Hakvoort, Laurien; Bogaerts, Stefan; Thaut, Michael H; Spreen, Marinus

    2015-07-01

    The effect of music therapy on anger management and coping skills is an innovative subject in the field of forensic psychiatry. This study explores the following research question: Can music therapy treatment contribute to positive changes in coping skills, anger management, and dysfunctional behavior of forensic psychiatric patients? To investigate this question, first a literature review is offered on music therapy and anger management in forensic psychiatry. Then, an explorative study is presented. In the study, a pre- and post-test design was used with a random assignment of patients to either treatment or control condition. Fourteen participants' complete datasets were collected. All participants received "treatment as usual." Nine of the participants received a standardized, music therapy anger management program; the five controls received, unplanned, an aggression management program. Results suggested that anger management skills improved for all participants. The improvement of positive coping skills and diminishing of avoidance as a coping skill were measured to show greater changes in music therapy participants. When controlling for the exact number of treatment hours, the outcomes suggested that music therapy might accelerate the process of behavioral changes.

  13. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  14. Grief and trauma intervention for children after disaster: exploring coping skills versus trauma narration.

    PubMed

    Salloum, Alison; Overstreet, Stacy

    2012-03-01

    This study evaluated the differential effects of the Grief and Trauma Intervention (GTI) with coping skills and trauma narrative processing (CN) and coping skills only (C). Seventy African American children (6-12 years old) were randomly assigned to GTI-CN or GTI-C. Both treatments consisted of a manualized 11-session intervention and a parent meeting. Measures of trauma exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, depression, traumatic grief, global distress, social support, and parent reported behavioral problems were administered at pre, post, 3 and 12 months post intervention. In general, children in both treatment groups demonstrated significant improvements in distress related symptoms and social support, which, with the exception of externalizing symptoms for GTI-C, were maintained up to 12 months post intervention. Results suggest that building coping skills without the structured trauma narrative may be a viable intervention to achieve symptom relief in children experiencing trauma-related distress. However, it may be that highly distressed children experience more symptom relief with coping skills plus narrative processing than with coping skills alone. More research on the differential effects of coping skills and trauma narration on child distress and adaptive functioning outcomes is needed.

  15. Clinical skills: bed making and patient positioning.

    PubMed

    Pellatt, Glynis Collis

    Providing a clean, comfortable bed and positioning a patient in the optimum posture for prevention of complications and to enable maximum independence are fundamental nursing skills. Bed-making is a daily routine that requires practical and technical skills. Selecting the correct posture for a patient in bed or in a chair is essential for physiological functioning and recovery. In this article bed-making is described, as are positioning and re-positioning in relation to patients in bed, armchairs and wheelchairs. Infection control and moving and handling issues are also considered. PMID:17505378

  16. How they cope: a qualitative study of the coping skills of hospice volunteers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary V

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the coping techniques utilized by hospice volunteers. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers who had at least 1 year of experience, working as a hospice volunteer with direct patient care. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed utilizing qualitative research methods. The results indicated the volunteers used problem-focused coping (seeking advice from members of the hospice interdisciplinary team), emotion-focused coping (talking with others, going to funerals), meaning making through appraisal (religious beliefs, downward comparison), and physical techniques (walking, deep breathing). The most significant coping mechanism utilized for the volunteer was talking with the volunteer coordinator. Implications for hospice volunteer coordinators are also discussed. PMID:21262760

  17. Adolescent romance and depressive symptoms: the moderating effects of positive coping and perceived friendship competence.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences.

  18. Adolescent romance and depressive symptoms: the moderating effects of positive coping and perceived friendship competence.

    PubMed

    Szwedo, David E; Chango, Joanna M; Allen, Joseph P

    2015-01-01

    Youths' ability to positively cope with negative emotions and their self-perceived friendship competence were examined as potential moderators of links between multiple aspects of romantic relationships and residualized increases in depressive symptoms from late adolescence into early adulthood. Participants included 184 teens (46% male; 42% non-White) assessed at ages 15 to 19 and 21, as well as a subsample of 62 romantic partners of participants assessed when teens were 18. Results of hierarchical linear regressions showed that positive coping served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for romantically involved adolescents and also for teens receiving more intense emotional support from their romantic partners, but not for youth whose relationship had ended and had not been replaced by a new relationship. Higher perceived friendship competence served as a buffer against depressive symptoms for youth enduring the dissolution and nonreplacement of their romantic relationship. Greater use of positive coping skills and higher perceived friendship competence may help protect adolescents from depressive symptoms in different types of romantic experiences. PMID:24645877

  19. Acculturation, Coping Styles, and Health Risk Behaviors Among HIV Positive Latinas

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, Mónica; Stein, Judith; Milburn, Norweeta G.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the relationships among acculturation, coping styles, substance use, sexual risk behavior, and medication non-adherence among 219 Latinas living with HIV/AIDS in Los Angeles, CA. Coping styles were hypothesized to mediate the link between acculturation and health risk behaviors for HIV positive Latinas. Structural equation modeling revealed that greater acculturation was related to less positive coping and more negative coping. In turn, negative coping was associated with more health risk behaviors and more non-adherence. Positive coping was associated with less substance use as reflected in use of cigarettes and alcohol and less non-adherence. Coping styles mediated the relationship between acculturation and health risk behaviors. Findings echo previous works examining the Hispanic Health Paradox wherein more acculturated Latinos exhibit increased risk behavior and maladaptive coping styles. HIV/AIDS interventions need to be mindful of cultural differences within Hispanic populations and be tailored to address these differences. PMID:19847637

  20. Psychosocial variables associated with coping of HIV-positive women diagnosed during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Kotzé, Marinda; Visser, Maretha; Makin, Jenny; Sikkema, Kathleen; Forsyth, Brian

    2013-02-01

    To identify psychosocial variables related to the use of coping strategies by HIV-positive South African women diagnosed during pregnancy, structured interviews were conducted with 224 HIV-positive women at antenatal clinics over a period of 2 years. Two coping styles, active and avoidant coping, were assessed using an adapted version of the Brief COPE. Psychosocial variables associated with changes in coping over time were identified with mixed linear analysis. Increases in active coping were associated with decreasing levels of internalized stigma and depression, increasing self-esteem and positive social support, knowing someone who is living with HIV, being physically healthy and living above the poverty line. Increases in avoidant coping were associated with increasing internalized stigma and depression, lower levels of self-esteem, HIV-knowledge and lower levels of education. Recommendations are made for psychological support services to strengthen women's ability to cope and enhance their health and that of their infants.

  1. Quality vs. Quantity: Acquisition of Coping Skills Following Computerized Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Substance Use Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Kiluk, Brian D.; Nich, Charla; Babuscio, Theresa; Carroll, Kathleen M.

    2010-01-01

    Aims To evaluate the changes over time in quality and quantity of coping skills acquired following cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT), and examine potential mediating effects on substance use outcomes. Design A randomized controlled trial (RCT) evaluating the effectiveness of a computerized version of CBT (CBT4CBT) as an adjunct to standard outpatient treatment over an 8-week period. Setting Data were collected from individuals seeking treatment for substance dependence in an outpatient community setting. Participants Fifty-two substance abusing individuals (50% African American), with an average age of 42 years, and a majority reporting cocaine as their primary drug of choice. Measurements Participants’ responses to behavioral role-plays of situations associated with high risk for drug and alcohol use were audio-taped and independently rated to assess their coping responses. Findings There were statistically significant increases in mean ratings of the quality of participants’ coping responses for those assigned to CBT4CBT compared to treatment as usual, and these differences remained significant three months after treatment completion. Moreover, quality of coping responses mediated the effect of treatment on participants’ duration of abstinence during the follow-up period. Conclusions These findings suggest that assignment to the computerized CBT program improved participants’ coping skills, as measured by independent ratings of a role playing task. It is also the first study to test and support quality of coping skills acquired as a mediator of the effect of CBT for substance use. PMID:20854334

  2. Developing Skilled Learners: A Strategy for Coping with New Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pearn, Michael; Downs, Sylvia

    1988-01-01

    Description of technique to enhance the development of learning skills, called Developing Skilled Learners (DSL), focuses on two case studies in British industry. The effects of change generated by new technology are discussed and the emphasis on learning processes rather than training methods is explained. (LRW)

  3. Second Wind: Bringing Good Coping Skills Materials to More Adult Students. Final Narrative Report [and] Coping Skills for Adults Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New Educational Projects, Inc., Lancaster, PA.

    This document consists of a narrative final project report and the project product, a new edition of five booklets in the "Coping with Crisis" series. The report describes the process of redesigning and repackaging existing adult basic education materials; comments from three students are given. The five booklets are as follows: (1) "Dealing with…

  4. Web-based Coping Skills Training for Women Whose Partner has a Drinking Problem

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Barrick, Christopher

    2014-01-01

    Spouses whose partner has an alcohol use disorder can experience considerable psychological distress. Yet, due to social, financial, relationship, and psychological barriers they often remain hidden, and underserved. To partially reduce treatment barriers for this population, this study evaluated the short-term efficacy of a self-paced, web-delivered coping skills training program for women experiencing distress as a result of living with a partner with an Alcohol Use Disorder. Participants (N = 89) were randomly assigned to either 8-weeks of an Internet-administered Coping Skills Training Program (iCST), or an 8-week Delayed Treatment Control (DTC). Participation in, and satisfaction with iCST was high. At the end of the 8-week access/delay period, iCST participants exhibited a significantly higher level of coping skills relative to DTC, d = 1.02, 95% CI [.64, 1.51], and reported significantly fewer depressive symptoms, d = −.65, 95% CI [−1.21, −.35], and situational anger, d = −.70, 95% CI [−1.62, −.64]. Moreover, iCST appeared to prevent an increase in symptoms among those with low baseline symptom levels; DTC did not. Skill acquisition appeared to partially mediate changes observed. Online coping skills training may be an effective way of reaching and helping a large number of this frequently underserved population. PMID:25347016

  5. Counseling with American Indians: Issues in Training Assertiveness and Coping Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.

    Recently, Indian people from the United States and Canada recommended coping-skills training for American Indians, to help in handling stress, becoming self-determined, being assertive, problem solving, and redesigning social roles and support systems. Some 30 tribal groups and agencies participated in a cultural adaptation of an assertive…

  6. Psychometric Properties of the Gifted Students' Coping with Anger and Decision Making Skills Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ersoy, Evren; Deniz, Mehmet Engin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop the scale concerning gifted children's' skills for making decisions and coping with anger and to examine the validity and reliability of the scale. A total of 324 students, which 151 were female and 173 were male, studying in 3 different Science and Arts Center's (BILSEM) in Istanbul during 2014-2015…

  7. Replacing stressful challenges with positive coping strategies: a resilience program for clinical placement learning.

    PubMed

    Delany, C; Miller, K J; El-Ansary, D; Remedios, L; Hosseini, A; McLeod, S

    2015-12-01

    Clinical education is foundational to health professional training. However, it is also a time of increased stress for students. A student's perception of stressors and their capacity to effectively manage them is a legitimate concern for educators, because anxiety and decreased coping strategies can interfere with effective learning, clinical performance and capacity to care for patients. Resilience is emerging as a valuable construct to underpin positive coping strategies for learning and professional practice. We report the development and evaluation of a psycho-education resilience program designed to build practical skills-based resilience capacities in health science (physiotherapy) students. Six final year undergraduate physiotherapy students attended four action research sessions led by a clinical health psychologist. Resilience strategies drawn from cognitive behavioural therapy, and positive and performance psychology were introduced. Students identified personal learning stressors and their beliefs and responses. They chose specific resilience-based strategies to address them, and then reported their impact on learning performance and experiences. Thematic analysis of the audio-recorded and transcribed action research sessions, and students' de identified notes was conducted. Students' initial descriptions of stressors as 'problems' outside their control resulting in poor thinking and communication, low confidence and frustration, changed to a focus on how they managed and recognized learning challenges as normal or at least expected elements of the clinical learning environment. The research suggests that replacing stressful challenges with positive coping strategies offers a potentially powerful tool to build self-efficacy and cognitive control as well as greater self-awareness as a learner and future health practitioner.

  8. Coping Skills Training for Parents of Children with Type 1 Diabetes: 12-Month Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Grey, Margaret; Jaser, Sarah S.; Whittemore, Robin; Jeon, Sangchoon; Lindemann, Evie

    2011-01-01

    Background Although it is recognized that caring for a child with type 1 diabetes (T1D) is stressful for parents, few interventions have been developed and tested for this population. Objectives To compare a group educational intervention for parents of children with T1D to a coping skills training intervention. Method Parents of children with T1D were randomized to the group educational (n = 106) or coping skills training (n = 75) conditions. Parents completed measures of family conflict, responsibility for treatment, coping, and quality of life at baseline and 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months postintervention. Clinical data (i.e., HbA1c) were collected from children’s medical records pre- and postintervention. Results There were no significant treatment effects 12 months postintervention, but parents in both groups reported improved coping (p < .001), less responsibility for treatment management (p < .001), and improved quality of life (p = .005). While children’s metabolic control worsened over time, mean values at 12 months were still within the recommended levels in this well-controlled sample (HbA1c < 8%). Discussion Group-based interventions for parents of children with T1D may lessen the impact of treatment management, improving coping and quality of life. PMID:21522034

  9. Coping Mediates Outcome Following a Randomized Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Bereaved Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Nathan Grant; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the mechanisms responsible for the beneficial psychological effects of a coping-focused group intervention for HIV-positive individuals who had lost loved ones to AIDS. Data from 235 HIV-positive men and women enrolled in a randomized controlled clinical trial testing a coping-focused group intervention were analyzed using a multiple-indicator-multiple-cause (MIMIC) structural equation model. Results revealed that the effects of the intervention on decreases in depression and grief were mediated by decreases in avoidant coping. Specifically, participants in the intervention condition decreased their use of avoidant coping. Decreases in avoidant coping, in turn, were related to decreased depression and grief. The results of this study help to validate the use of coping-focused interventions for HIV-positive bereaved individuals. PMID:19152338

  10. Coping Strategies Applied to Comprehend Multistep Arithmetic Word Problems by Students with Above-Average Numeracy Skills and Below-Average Reading Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nortvedt, Guri A.

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses how 13-year-old students with above-average numeracy skills and below-average reading skills cope with comprehending word problems. Compared to other students who are proficient in numeracy and are skilled readers, these students are more disadvantaged when solving single-step and multistep arithmetic word problems. The…

  11. Brief coping skills treatment for cocaine abuse: 12-month substance use outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, D J; Monti, P M; Martin, R A; Michalec, E; Abrams, D B

    2000-06-01

    Patients (N = 108) in a study of cocaine-specific coping skills training (CST), which was found to reduce cocaine use during a 3-month follow-up, were followed for an additional 9 months. CST involved coping skills training in the context of high-risk situations. Control treatment used meditation-relaxation. Both were added to comprehensive private substance abuse treatment. Patients in CST who relapsed had significantly fewer cocaine use days than did the control group during the first 6 months, then both conditions did equally well. Patients in CST also drank alcohol more frequently in the last 6 months than did contrast patients but did not differ in heavy drinking days. For cocaine use outcomes, no interaction of treatment was found with gender, education, route of administration, drug use severity, sociopathy, or depression. Implications include the need to investigate different lengths and combinations of treatment.

  12. A Controlled Examination of Two Coping Skills for Daily Alcohol Use and PTSD Symptom Severity Among Dually Diagnosed Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Stappenbeck, Cynthia A.; Luterek, Jane A.; Kaysen, Debra; Rosenthal, Christina F.; Gurrad, Bethann; Simpson, Tracy L.

    2015-01-01

    Investigations of targeted coping skills could help guide initial treatment decisions for individuals with co-occurring posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and alcohol dependence (AD) who often endorse worse coping skills than those with AD but not PTSD. Although improvement in coping skills is associated with enhanced alcohol use outcomes, no study has evaluated the utility of teaching specific coping skills in the context of comorbid PTSD/AD. We compared the effects of teaching two coping skills (cognitive restructuring [CR] and experiential acceptance [EA]) or an attention control condition on drinking and PTSD symptoms among 78 men and women with comorbid PTSD/AD during a 5-week daily follow-up assessment. Both CR and EA skills were associated with decreased drinking compared to control, and that change in drinking over time did not significantly differ between those who received CR and EA. Individuals who received CR skills, however, consumed less alcohol on a given day than those who received EA skills. Neither CR nor EA was associated with a decrease in PTSD symptom severity. These results provide preliminary support for clinicians to prioritize CR and EA skills during initial treatment sessions when working with individuals with PTSD/AD, and offer ideas for continued investigation and intervention refinement. PMID:25617814

  13. Stress Management in Physical Education Class: An Experiential Approach to Improve Coping Skills and Reduce Stress Perceptions in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Christin; Feldmeth, Anna Karina; Brand, Serge; Holsboer-Trachsler, Edith; Pühse, Uwe; Gerber, Markus

    2016-01-01

    In most physical education (PE) syllabuses, promoting life skills constitutes an important educational objective. The aim of this study was to implement a coping training program (EPHECT) within regular PE and to evaluate its effects on coping and stress among vocational students. Eight classes from a vocational school were selected for study;…

  14. Positive and Negative Emotions and Coping as Mediators of Mother-Child Attachment and Peer Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraham, Michelle M.; Kerns, Kathryn A.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined whether emotions and coping explain (mediate) the association between mother-child attachment and peer relationships. Attachment, positive and negative emotion experience, coping, and peer relationships were examined in 106 fourth-grade through sixth-grade girls attending a 6-day residential camp. Attachment, experience of…

  15. Influence of Personal Social Network and Coping Skills on Risk for Suicidal Ideation in Chinese University Students

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Fang; Qin, Ping

    2015-01-01

    Background Personal social network and coping skills have important influences on suicidality of young people and such influences must be understood in the context of other factors. This study aims to assess the influences of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation and to disentangle their possible pathways using a large sample of university students from China. Methods 5972 students, randomly selected from 6 universities in China, completed the questionnaire survey for the study. Logistic regression was performed to estimate individual effect of social contacts and coping skills on risk for suicidal ideation. A partial least squares path model (PLSPM) was used to probe possible paths of their effects in the context of psychopathology. Results Of the 5972 students, 16.39% reported the presence of suicidal ideation. Poor social contacts were significantly associated with an increased risk for suicidal ideation. The influence of coping skills varied by coping styles adapted toward problems. A high score of skills on seeking guidance and support, problem solving as well as seeking alternative rewards was associated with a reduced risk of suicidal ideation; whereas a high score of acceptance or resignation, emotional discharge as well as logical analysis was associated with a significantly increased risk. Modeling the data with PLSPM indicated that the avoidance coping skills conferred the most important dimensional variable in suicidal ideation prediction, followed by the approach coping skills and social network. Conclusions Poor social contacts and deficient coping skills are strong risk factors for suicidal ideation in young students. Prevention program focusing on these problems may have an enduring effect on reducing suicidal behavior in this population. PMID:25803665

  16. Psychological skills in basketball: preliminary study for development of a Greek form of the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28.

    PubMed

    Goudas, M; Theodorakis, Y; Karamousalidis, G

    1998-02-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to examine for a sample of 126 basketball players the psychometric properties of a Greek version of the 1995 Athletic Coping Skills Inventory-28 by Smith, Schutz, Smoll, and Ptacek. A confirmatory factor analysis supported the structural validity of the translated inventory. Moreover, six of the seven subscales showed adequate internal consistency. The discriminant validity of the scores on the inventory was supported by examining mean differences between experienced and inexperienced athletes as well as between athletes of different levels of competition. Further steps for the validation of the inventory in Greek are discussed.

  17. Automated Internet-based pain coping skills training to manage osteoarthritis pain: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rini, Christine; Porter, Laura S; Somers, Tamara J; McKee, Daphne C; DeVellis, Robert F; Smith, Meredith; Winkel, Gary; Ahern, David K; Goldman, Roberta; Stiller, Jamie L; Mariani, Cara; Patterson, Carol; Jordan, Joanne M; Caldwell, David S; Keefe, Francis J

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) places a significant burden on worldwide public health because of the large and growing number of people affected by OA and its associated pain and disability. Pain coping skills training (PCST) is an evidence-based intervention targeting OA pain and disability. To reduce barriers that currently limit access to PCST, we developed an 8-week, automated, Internet-based PCST program called PainCOACH and evaluated its potential efficacy and acceptability in a small-scale, 2-arm randomized controlled feasibility trial. Participants were 113 men and women with clinically confirmed hip or knee OA and associated pain. They were randomized to a group completing PainCOACH or an assessment-only control group. Osteoarthritis pain, pain-related interference with functioning, pain-related anxiety, self-efficacy for pain management, and positive and negative affect were measured before intervention, midway through the intervention, and after intervention. Findings indicated high acceptability and adherence: 91% of participants randomized to complete PainCOACH finished all 8 modules over 8 to 10 weeks. Linear mixed models showed that, after treatment, women who received the PainCOACH intervention reported significantly lower pain than that in women in the control group (Cohen d = 0.33). Intervention effects could not be tested in men because of their low pain and small sample size. Additionally, both men and women demonstrated increases in self-efficacy from baseline to after intervention compared with the control group (d = 0.43). Smaller effects were observed for pain-related anxiety (d = 0.20), pain-related interference with functioning (d = 0.13), negative affect (d = 0.10), and positive affect (d = 0.24). Findings underscore the value of continuing to develop an automated Internet-based approach to disseminate this empirically supported intervention.

  18. Positive coping styles and perigenual ACC volume: two related mechanisms for conferring resilience?

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders. PMID:26743466

  19. Positive coping styles and perigenual ACC volume: two related mechanisms for conferring resilience?

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders.

  20. Children's Disclosure and Secrecy: Links to Maternal Parenting Characteristics and Children's Coping Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almas, Alisa N.; Grusec, Joan E.; Tackett, Jennifer L.

    2011-01-01

    The relations between maternal parenting characteristics, child disclosure and secrecy, and child outcomes (positive and negative strategies for coping with distress), were examined in a study of 140 children (10-12-year-olds) and their mothers. Child disclosure and secrecy were shown to be distinct but related constructs with authoritativeness…

  1. A Feasibility Study of Virtual Reality-Based Coping Skills Training for Nicotine Dependence

    PubMed Central

    Bordnick, Patrick S.; Traylor, Amy C.; Carter, Brian L.; Graap, Ken M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Virtual reality (VR)-based cue reactivity has been successfully used for the assessment of drug craving. Going beyond assessment of cue reactivity, a novel VR-based treatment approach for smoking cessation was developed and tested for feasibility. Method In a randomized experiment, 10-week treatment feasibility trial, 46 nicotine-dependent adults, completed the10-week program. Virtual reality skills training (VRST) combined with nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) was compared to NRT alone. Participants were assessed for smoking behavior and coping skills during, at end of treatment, and at posttreatment follow-up. Results Smoking rates and craving for nicotine were significantly lower for the VRST group compared to NRT-only group at the end of treatment. Self-confidence and coping skills were also significantly higher for the VRST group, and number of cigarettes smoked was significantly lower, compared to the control group at follow-up. Conclusions Feasibility of VRST was supported in the current study. PMID:25484549

  2. Effects of a Risk and Resilience Course on Stress, Coping Skills, and Cognitive Strategies in College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shatkin, Jess P.; Diamond, Ursula; Zhao, Yihong; DiMeglio, John; Chodaczek, Michaela; Bruzzese, Jean-Marie

    2016-01-01

    This study tested the impact of the skills-building component of a two-semester risk and resilience (R&R) course on the stress, coping skills, and cognitive style of 36 undergraduates compared to 62 students enrolled in a child and adolescent psychopathology course. In the fall, students learned about risk taking and decision-making as well as…

  3. Evaluation of Pillars4life: a virtual coping skills program for cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Sophia K.; O’Donnell, Jonathan D.; Abernethy, Amy P.; MacDermott, Kristin; Staley, Tina; Samsa, Gregory P.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Pillars4Life is an educational program that teaches coping skills to cancer patients in a virtual group setting; it was recently implemented at 17 hospitals across the USA. The cost-effective, scalable, and assessable Pillars4Life curriculum targets psychosocial resources (e.g., self-efficacy and coping skills) as a means to reduce symptoms (e.g., depression, anxiety, and posttraumatic stress) and enhance quality of life. Methods Cancer patients were recruited from hospitals that received the LIVESTRONG Community Impact Project Award to enroll in a pilot study of Pillars4Life. Consenting participants met with a certified instructor weekly for 10 weeks in a virtual environment; the manualized intervention trained participants in personal coping skills. Longitudinal assessments over 6 months were assessed using validated instruments to determine changes in Pillars4Life targeted resources and outcomes. Multiple linear regression models examined the relationship between changes in targeted resources and changes in outcome from baseline to 3 months post-intervention. Results Participants (n = 130) had the following characteristics: mean age of 56 ± 11 years, 87% women, 11% non-Caucasian, and 77% with college degree. At 3- and 6-month follow-up, mean scores improved on all key outcome measures such as depression (Patient Health Questionnaire), anxiety (Generalized Anxiety Disorder), posttraumatic stress (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist), fatigue (Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy—Fatigue), and well-being (Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy—General) from baseline (all p<0.01); results were most pronounced among participants who reported ≥4/10 on the Distress Thermometer at baseline (all p<0.001). Changes in each targeted resource were associated with 3-month improvements in at least one outcome. Conclusions Participation in the Pillars4Life program was associated with statistically and clinically significant improvements in

  4. Advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of daily negative and positive affect: trigger and maintenance coping action patterns.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Ma, Denise; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C

    2014-01-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of coping action patterns that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (low) positive affect. One hundred ninety-six community adults completed measures of perfectionism, and then 6 months later completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 14 consecutive days to provide simultaneous assessments of appraisals, coping, and affect across different stressful situations in everyday life. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) supported complex explanatory conceptualizations that demonstrated (a) disengagement trigger patterns consisting of several distinct appraisals (e.g., event stress) and coping strategies (e.g., avoidant coping) that commonly operate together across many different stressors when the typical individual experiences daily increases in negative affect and drops in positive affect; and (b) disengagement maintenance patterns composed of different appraisal and coping maintenance factors that, in combination, can explain why individuals with higher levels of self-critical perfectionism have persistent daily negative affect and low positive mood 6 months later. In parallel, engagement patterns (triggers and maintenance) composed of distinct appraisals (e.g., perceived social support) and coping strategies (e.g., problem-focused coping) were linked to compensatory experiences of daily positive affect. These findings demonstrate the promise of using daily diary methodologies and MSEM to promote a shared understanding between therapists and clients of trigger and maintenance coping action patterns that explain what precipitates and perpetuates clients' difficulties, which, in turn, can help achieve the 2 overarching therapy goals of reducing clients' distress and bolstering resilience.

  5. Advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of daily negative and positive affect: trigger and maintenance coping action patterns.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Ma, Denise; Lee, Ihno A; Preacher, Kristopher J; Zuroff, David C

    2014-01-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing complex explanatory conceptualizations of coping action patterns that trigger and maintain daily negative affect and (low) positive affect. One hundred ninety-six community adults completed measures of perfectionism, and then 6 months later completed questionnaires at the end of the day for 14 consecutive days to provide simultaneous assessments of appraisals, coping, and affect across different stressful situations in everyday life. Multilevel structural equation modeling (MSEM) supported complex explanatory conceptualizations that demonstrated (a) disengagement trigger patterns consisting of several distinct appraisals (e.g., event stress) and coping strategies (e.g., avoidant coping) that commonly operate together across many different stressors when the typical individual experiences daily increases in negative affect and drops in positive affect; and (b) disengagement maintenance patterns composed of different appraisal and coping maintenance factors that, in combination, can explain why individuals with higher levels of self-critical perfectionism have persistent daily negative affect and low positive mood 6 months later. In parallel, engagement patterns (triggers and maintenance) composed of distinct appraisals (e.g., perceived social support) and coping strategies (e.g., problem-focused coping) were linked to compensatory experiences of daily positive affect. These findings demonstrate the promise of using daily diary methodologies and MSEM to promote a shared understanding between therapists and clients of trigger and maintenance coping action patterns that explain what precipitates and perpetuates clients' difficulties, which, in turn, can help achieve the 2 overarching therapy goals of reducing clients' distress and bolstering resilience. PMID:24447060

  6. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    PubMed

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials.

  7. COPING SKILLS IN CHILDREN WITH EPILEPSY--EVALUATION OF COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPY INTERVENTION.

    PubMed

    Batista, Maja; Mestrović, Antonela; Vekić, Ana Marija; Malenical, Masa; Kukuruzović, Monika; Begovac, Ivan

    2015-12-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the efficiency and satisfaction of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention in youth with epilepsy regarding coping strategies. The CBT intervention was based on the main principles and empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques. The intervention consists of epilepsy education, stress education, and coping skill strategies. Seventeen children and adolescents aged 9-17 diagnosed with epilepsy for at least one year, with at least average intelligence and no history of serious mental illness completed the CBT intervention during summer camp, providing data on the efficiency of and satisfaction with CBT intervention. Upon completion of the CBT intervention, study subjects achieved significantly higher scores on the following Scale of Coping with Stress subscales: Problem solving; Seeking for social support from friends; Seeking for social support from family; and Cognitive restructuring, for both measures of usage frequency and effectiveness of each subscale. The participants reported a high level of satisfaction with the CBT intervention. This study provided explanation of research limitations and recommendations for future clinical trials. PMID:27017721

  8. Effects of coping skills training on generalized self-efficacy and locus of control.

    PubMed

    Smith, R E

    1989-02-01

    A number of studies have shown that mastery experiences strengthen self-efficacy expectancies that are specific to the mastery situation. In this study I assessed the effects of cognitive-behavioral coping skills training on generalized expectancies concerning self-efficacy and locus of control in test-anxious college students. Compared with a waiting-list control group, the trained subjects exhibited significant decreases on trait and state measures of test anxiety and a higher level of academic performance on classroom tests, as well as changes in specific self-efficacy expectancies relating to test-anxiety management and academic performance. Consistent with generalization predictions derived from self-efficacy theory, the coping skills group also exhibited decreases in general trait anxiety and increased scores on a trait measure of generalized self-efficacy. Locus of control was unaffected by the program, and changes in general self-efficacy were unrelated to changes in locus of control, suggesting the possibility that different parameters of experience are related to changes in the two types of generalized expectancies. PMID:2926626

  9. Positive coping strategies and HIV-related stigma in south India.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Shuba; Mohanraj, Rani; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R; Manhart, Lisa E

    2015-03-01

    Whether perceived or enacted, HIV-related stigma is widespread in India, and has had a crippling effect on People Living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA). Research has shown that a positive attitude towards the illness sets a proactive framework for the individual to cope with his or her infection; therefore, healthy coping mechanisms are essential to combat HIV-related stigma. This qualitative study involving in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with PLHA affiliated with HIV support groups in South India explored positive coping strategies employed by PLHA to deal with HIV-related stigma. Interviews and focus group discussions were translated, transcribed, and analyzed for consistent themes. Taboos surrounding modes of transmission, perceiving sex workers as responsible for the spread of HIV, and avoiding associating with PLHA provided the context of HIV-related stigma. Despite these challenges, PLHA used several positive strategies, classified as Clear Knowledge and Understanding of HIV, Social Support and Family Well-Being, Selective Disclosure, Employment Building Confidence, and Participation in Positive Networks. Poor understanding of HIV and fears of being labeled immoral undermined healthy coping behavior, while improved understanding, affiliation with support groups, family support, presence of children, and financial independence enhanced PLHA confidence. Such positive coping behaviours could inform culturally relevant interventions. PMID:25612135

  10. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs. PMID:8245284

  11. Coping modeling problem solving versus mastery modeling: effects on adherence, in-session process, and skill acquisition in a residential parent-training program.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C E; Davis, J R; Bremner, R; Dunn, K W; Rzasa, T

    1993-10-01

    This trial compared two approaches used to introduce parenting skills in a residential staff training program. Fifty staff were randomly assigned to: mastery modelling in which videotaped models demonstrated new skills, coping modelling problem solving (CMPS) in which participants formulated their own solutions to the errors depicted by videotaped models, or a waiting-list control group. In both, leaders used modelling, role playing, and homework projects to promote mastery and transfer of new skills. The skills of all groups improved, but CMPS participants attended more sessions, were late to fewer sessions, completed more homework, engaged in more cooperative in-session interaction, rated the program more positively, and reported higher job accomplishment scores. These data suggest that CMPS allowing participants to formulate their own solutions may enhance adherence and reduce the resistance observed in more didactic programs.

  12. Coping Skills Training in a Telephone Health Coaching Program for Youth at Risk for Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Jefferson, Vanessa; Jaser, Sarah S.; Lindemann, Evie; Galasso, Pamela; Beale, Alison; Holl, Marita G.; Grey, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this paper is to describe components of a health coaching intervention based on coping skills training delivered via telephone. This intervention was provided to urban adolescents at risk for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), reinforcing a school-based curriculum designed to promote a healthy lifestyle and prevent T2DM. Method Health coaching via telephone was provided to at-risk, urban youth enrolled in a study of an intervention to reduce risk for T2DM. Vignettes are used to describe the use of several coping skills in this high risk youth population. Results A variety of vignettes illustrate how telephone health coaching reinforced lifestyle changes in students by incorporating coping skills training. Discussion Given the benefits and the challenges of the telephone health coaching intervention, several suggestions for others who plan to use a similar method are described. PMID:21514490

  13. COPE for Depressed and Anxious Teens: A Brief Cognitive-Behavioral Skills Building Intervention to Increase Access to Timely, Evidence-Based Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Lusk, Pamela; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2012-01-01

    TOPIC Evidence–based CBT skills building intervention – COPE -for depressed and anxious teens in brief 30 minute outpatient visits. PURPOSE Based on COPE training workshops, this paper provides an overview of the COPE program, it’s development, theoretical foundation, content of the sessions and lessons learned for best delivery of COPE to individuals and groups in psychiatric settings, primary care settings and schools. SOURCES Published literature and clinical examples CONCLUSION With the COPE program, the advanced practice nurse in busy outpatient practice can provide timely, evidence-based therapy for adolescents and use the full extent of his/her advanced practice nursing knowledge and skills. PMID:23351105

  14. Anxiety, Depression, and Coping Skills among Mexican School Children: A Comparison of Students with and without Learning Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallegos, Julia; Langley, Audra; Villegas, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with coping skills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of…

  15. The effect of songwriting on knowledge of coping skills and working alliance in psychiatric patients: a randomized clinical effectiveness study.

    PubMed

    Silverman, Michael J

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a songwriting intervention on psychiatric patients' knowledge of coping skills and working alliance. Participants were randomly assigned to scripted and manualized experimental (n=48) or control (n=41) conditions. The experimental condition was a group psychoeducational music therapy songwriting session concerning coping skills while the control condition was a group psychoeducational session concerning coping skills. Both conditions were single-session therapy with patients on an acute adult psychiatric unit. Results indicated no significant between group differences in measures of knowledge of coping skills, consumer working alliance, or perception of enjoyment (p>.05), although the experimental condition tended to have slightly higher mean scores than the control group for these measures. There was a significant between group difference in measures of therapist working alliance (p<.001), with the therapist scoring the experimental group higher than the control group. Although the music therapy group had a higher mean rate of previous psychiatric hospitalizations, their perception of enjoyment scores were still higher than those of the control condition, a finding incongruent in the literature. Furthermore, despite the increased number of previous hospitalizations, the music therapy condition had higher attendance rates than the control condition, thus possibly providing incentives for funding. It seems that group songwriting about coping skills can be as effective a psychosocial intervention as traditional talk-based psychoeducation to teach psychiatric inpatients how to proactively manage their illness. Additionally, music therapy can be as effective as talk-based psychoeducation in establishing working alliance. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.

  16. Sources of acute stress, cognitive appraisal, and coping strategies among highly skilled Mexican and U.S. competitive tennis players.

    PubMed

    Puente-Díaz, Rogelio; Anshel, Mark H

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to identify sources of acute stress, cognitive appraisal (i.e., perceived controllability), and the use of coping strategies as a function of culture among highly skilled tennis players from Mexico and the United States. Participants were 112 competitive tennis players, 54 of whom were from Mexico (44 boys, 10 girls), and 58 of whom were from the United States (30 boys, 28 girls). A qualitative analysis indicated that the most common sources of acute stress in tennis include "receiving negative comments from coaches and relatives" and "opponent cheating." The authors adapted the COPE Instrument (C. Carver, M. F. Scheier, & J. K. Weintraub, 1989) to ascertain the athletes' use of coping strategies. Regression analysis assessed the extent to which culture predicted the athletes' perceived controllability of the stressors and their use of coping strategies. The results indicated that culture significantly predicted both perceived controllability and the use of coping strategies. The authors discussed implications for the role of culture in predicting cognitive appraisal and coping in sport.

  17. Dyslexic entrepreneurs: the incidence; their coping strategies and their business skills.

    PubMed

    Logan, Julie

    2009-11-01

    This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a significantly higher incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs than in the corporate management and general US and UK populations and some of the strategies they adopt to overcome dyslexia (such as delegation of tasks) may be useful in business. The study was undertaken in two parts. First, entrepreneurs and corporate managers completed an online questionnaire, which combined questions about their company, their management or leadership role and their business skills together with questions that were designed to explore the likely incidence of dyslexia. A follow-up study that made use of a semi-structured questionnaire explored business issues and educational experience in more depth with those who had been diagnosed as dyslexic and those who did not have any history of dyslexia or any other learning difficulty.

  18. Dyslexic entrepreneurs: the incidence; their coping strategies and their business skills.

    PubMed

    Logan, Julie

    2009-11-01

    This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a significantly higher incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs than in the corporate management and general US and UK populations and some of the strategies they adopt to overcome dyslexia (such as delegation of tasks) may be useful in business. The study was undertaken in two parts. First, entrepreneurs and corporate managers completed an online questionnaire, which combined questions about their company, their management or leadership role and their business skills together with questions that were designed to explore the likely incidence of dyslexia. A follow-up study that made use of a semi-structured questionnaire explored business issues and educational experience in more depth with those who had been diagnosed as dyslexic and those who did not have any history of dyslexia or any other learning difficulty. PMID:19378286

  19. Anxiety, Depression, and Coping Skills Among Mexican School Children: A Comparison of Students With and Without Learning Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Gallegos, Julia; Langley, Audra; Villegas, Diana

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare severity and risk status for anxiety and depression with coping skills among 130 Mexican school children with learning disabilities (LD) and 130 school children without LD. This research is the first to explore the emotional difficulties of Mexican children with LD. Children completed the Spanish version of the Spence Children’s Anxiety Scale and Children’s Depression Inventory, and the Cuestionario de Afrontamiento (Coping Skills Questionnaire). Results indicated that a higher percentage of children with LD were at risk for anxiety (22.3% vs. 11.5%) and depression (32% vs. 18%). No statistically significant differences were found for coping skills. Results support the idea that there is an increased awareness of comorbid depression and anxiety among students with LD and a need to promote early identification and intervention in schools. Efforts should focus on better understanding the relationship between social-emotional difficulties and academic achievement and on developing effective interventions to support children with LD. PMID:24223470

  20. The Utility of the Rorschach Coping Deficit Index as a Measure of Depression and Social Skills Deficits in Children and Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stredny, Rebecca; Ball, J.

    2005-01-01

    Little research has evaluated the validity of the Coping Deficit Index (CDI) of the Rorschach Comprehensive System (CS). Because the CS Depression Index (DEPI) has frequently been found to yield false negatives, the CDI has been proposed as an alternative means of assessing social coping skills that may relate to depression. This study examined…

  1. Caregiver-Assisted Coping Skills Training for Lung Cancer: Results of a Randomized Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Porter, Laura S.; Keefe, Francis J.; Garst, Jennifer; Baucom, Donald H.; McBride, Colleen; McKee, Daphne C.; Sutton, Linda; Carson, Kimberly; Knowles, Verena; Rumble, Meredith; Scipio, Cindy

    2010-01-01

    Context Lung cancer is one of the most common cancers in the U.S. and is associated with high levels of symptoms including pain, fatigue, shortness of breath, and psychological distress. Caregivers as well as patients are adversely affected. However, previous studies of coping skills training (CST) interventions have not been tested in patients with lung cancer nor systematically included caregivers. Objectives This study tested the efficacy of a caregiver-assisted CST protocol in a sample of patients with lung cancer. Methods Two hundred thirty-three lung cancer patients and their caregivers were randomly assigned to receive 14 telephone-based sessions of either caregiver-assisted CST or education/support involving the caregiver. Patients completed measures assessing pain, psychological distress, QOL, and self-efficacy for symptom management; caregivers completed measures assessing psychological distress, caregiver strain, and self-efficacy for helping the patient manage symptoms. Results Patients in both treatment conditions showed improvements in pain, depression, QOL, and self-efficacy and caregivers in both conditions showed improvements in anxiety and self-efficacy from baseline to four-month follow-up. Results of exploratory analyses suggested that the CST intervention was more beneficial to patients/caregivers with Stage II and III cancers, whereas the education/support intervention was more beneficial to patients/caregivers with Stage I cancer. Conclusion Taken together with the broader literature in this area, results from this study suggest that psychosocial interventions can lead to improvements in a range of outcomes for cancer patients. Suggestions for future studies include the utilization of three-group designs (e.g., comparing two active interventions to a standard-care control) and examining mechanisms of change. PMID:20832982

  2. Coping Skills Help Explain How Future-Oriented Adolescents Accrue Greater Well-Being Over Time.

    PubMed

    Chua, Li Wen; Milfont, Taciano L; Jose, Paul E

    2015-11-01

    Adolescents who endorse greater levels of future orientation report greater well-being over time, but we do not know the mechanism by which this happens. The present longitudinal study examined whether both adaptive as well as maladaptive coping strategies might explain how future orientation leads to ill-being and well-being over time in young New Zealanders. A sample of 1,774 preadolescents and early adolescents (51.9 % female) aged 10-15 years at Time 1 completed a self-report survey three times with 1 year intervals in between. Longitudinal mediation path models were constructed to determine whether and how maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies at Time 2 functioned as mediators between future orientation at Time 1 and ill-being and well-being at Time 3. Results showed that future orientation predicted lower maladaptive coping, which in turn predicted lower substance use and self-harming behavior. All three well-being outcomes (i.e., happiness with weight, vitality, and sleep) were consistently predicted by future orientation, and all three pathways were mediated by both lower maladaptive and higher adaptive coping strategies (with the exception of happiness with weight, which was mediated only by lower maladaptive coping). The results suggest that several pathways by which future orientation leads to greater well-being occurs through an increased use of adaptive coping, a decreased use of maladaptive coping, or both.

  3. Personality dimensions, positive emotions and coping strategies in the caregivers of people living with HIV in Lahore, Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Ashraf, Mujeeba; Sitwat, Aisha

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this research was to study the relationship between personality dimensions, positive emotions and coping mechanisms of caregivers of patients living with HIV. This study used a cross-sectional research design. A sample comprising 56 caregivers was recruited from HIV/AIDS clinics in three teaching hospitals in Lahore, Pakistan. Data were collected between February and July 2010. Most caregivers were men, and of low socio-economic status. Individuals with both high and low extraversion used problem-focused coping, self-control and accepting responsibility, but those with low extraversion used more escape-avoidance coping, and they had also high levels of negative emotions. Those high in neuroticism used more tension-reduction coping than problem-focused coping, and experienced fewer positive emotions. Regression analysis findings revealed neuroticism as a significant predictor of negative emotions as well as emotion-focused coping, and only extraversion significantly predicted negative emotions. This research could help in devising psychological management plans for caregivers of patients living with HIV in order to assist them in coping with the burden of care.

  4. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner's Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2005-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners' untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did…

  5. Resilience and social support promote posttraumatic growth of women with infertility: the mediating role of positive coping.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yongju; Peng, Li; Chen, Long; Long, Ling; He, Wei; Li, Min; Wang, Tao

    2014-02-28

    According to previous research, clinical experience with individuals facing infertility has demonstrated that positive psychological changes can arise from the struggle involved (Paul et al., 2010), which is called posttraumatic growth (PTG). However, little knowledge has been gained about the relationships between PTG and its facilitating factors. The present study examined whether resilience and social support could predict PTG in women with infertility. The role of positive coping as a potential mediator was also assessed. Using a cross-sectional design, all members of a convenience sample of 182 women with infertility completed self-report measures of PTG, resilience, perceived social support, positive coping and background information. It was found that resilience, social support and positive coping positively correlated with PTG, which explained 34.0% of the total variance. The results suggested that positive coping partially mediated the impact of resilience on PTG while it totally mediated the relationship between social support and PTG. These findings demonstrated that, in clinical settings, improving positive coping in women with infertility may be helpful for the attainment of PTG.

  6. When parents' affection depends on child's achievement: parental conditional positive regard, self-aggrandizement, shame and coping in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-04-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and shame following failure, which then predict compulsive over-investment. PCPR functioned as a unique predictor of maladaptive self feelings and coping also when the effects of perceived parental conditional negative regard or psychological control were controlled for. The findings suggest that the experience of one's mother as using conditional positive regard to promote achievement leads to a non-optimal self-esteem dynamics, in which people vacillate between feelings of grandiosity following success and self-derogation and shame following failure, which in turn promote a rigid and stressful mode of coping. Thus, the practice of PCPR, although seemingly benign, appears to carry significant emotional and coping costs for adolescents.

  7. The Art of Coping with a Craniofacial Difference: Helping Others through “Positive Exposure”

    PubMed Central

    Loewenstein, Johanna; Sutton, Erica; Guidotti, Rick; Shapiro, Kristin; Ball, Karen; McLean, Diane; Biesecker, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    Finding ways to cope with social stigmatization is an important aspect of achieving adaptation for people living with visible genetic differences. This study describes the way individuals with craniofacial differences use an innovative photography and video experience with Positive Exposure (PE), a non-profit organization based in New York City, as a way to cope with their conditions. Thirty-five individuals between 12 and 61 years of age participated in this study. We administered surveys comprised of open-ended qualitative questions and quantitative measures designed to assess self-esteem, perceived stigma, and hopefulness. Data for this analysis was generated from the written questionnaires and interview transcripts. Most participants reported high levels of self-esteem and hopefulness, suggesting that they were relatively well adapted to their condition. Almost all participants described experiences of stigmatization throughout their lives. However, participants demonstrated their ability to implement a variety of coping strategies to manage stigma. ‘Helping others’ emerged as a prominent strategy among participants, aiding in the often lifelong process of adapting to their genetic difference. PE was described as an avenue through which participants could reach out to individuals and society at large, helping them adapt further to their condition. ‘Helping others’ may also benefit individuals with craniofacial differences who do not consider themselves to be well adapted to their condition. Health care providers can collaborate with PE, advocacy groups and other community or support groups to identify additional ways individuals with craniofacial differences can help themselves by reaching out to others. PMID:18478594

  8. Coping style and situational appraisals as predictors of coping strategies following stressful events in sport as a function of gender and skill level.

    PubMed

    Anshel, M H; Kaissidis, A N

    1997-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine links between coping style, situational appraisals and the subsequent use of coping strategies in response to acute stress among competitive Australian basketball players (N = 190, 93 men and 97 women, ranging in age from 18 to 44 years). Regression analyses indicated that participants' approach and avoidance coping responses varied across four sport-related stressful situations. In addition, both personal and situational factors accounted for significant variation in players' approach coping responses, with situational factors better predictors of approach coping than personal dispositions. For avoidance coping, situational appraisals (i.e. perceived stress and controllability) were again better predictors than personal dispositions. The results lend credence to the interactional (contextual) model of coping in which participants' use of coping strategies is at least a partial function of situational demands.

  9. Together - a couples' program to improve communication, coping, and financial management skills: development and initial pilot-testing.

    PubMed

    Falconier, Mariana K

    2015-04-01

    The accumulated knowledge about the negative impact of financial strain on couple's relationship functioning and the magnitude of the latest economic downturn have brought together the fields of financial counseling and couples' therapy. This article describes the development of a new interdisciplinary program that aims at helping couples under financial strain improve their financial management, communication, and dyadic coping skills. The article also reports the results from its initial pilot-testing with data collected from 18 financially distressed couples before and after participation in the program and 3 months later. Results from repeated measures ANOVAs suggest that the program may help reduce both partners' financial strain and the male negative communication and improve both partners' financial management skills and strategies to cope together with financial strain, and the male relationship satisfaction. These findings together with the high satisfaction reported by participants regarding the structure and content of the sessions and homework suggest that this program may be a promising approach to help couples experiencing financial strain. Gender differences, clinical implications, and possibilities for further research are also discussed. PMID:24910157

  10. Positive Coping, Self-Efficacy, and Self-Esteem as Mediators between Seizure Severity and Life Satisfaction in Epilepsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sung, Connie; Muller, Veronica R.; Ditchman, Nicole; Phillips, Brian; Chan, Fong

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the impact of positive psychological traits (positive coping, self-efficacy, and self-esteem) on the relationship between seizure severity and life satisfaction among individuals with epilepsy. Hierarchical regression analysis and correlation techniques were used to test a hypothesized tri-mediation model of life satisfaction…

  11. Longitudinal Effects of Coping on Outcome in a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV-Positive Adults with AIDS-Related Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Nathan B.; Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Ghebremichael, Musie; Zhang, Heping; Kochman, Arlene; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2006-01-01

    This study examined the longitudinal effects of coping on outcome one year following completion of a randomized, controlled trial of a group coping intervention for AIDS-related bereavement. Bereaved HIV-positive participants (N = 267) were administered measures of grief, psychiatric distress, quality of life, and coping at baseline,…

  12. Dyslexic Entrepreneurs: The Incidence; Their Coping Strategies and Their Business Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Logan, Julie

    2009-01-01

    This comparative study explores the incidence of dyslexia in entrepreneurs, corporate managers and the general population. It examines the suggestion that dyslexic entrepreneurs develop coping strategies to manage their weaknesses, which are subsequently of benefit in the new venture creation process. Results of this study suggest that there is a…

  13. Supplemental Curriculum for Life Coping Skills for the Elderly. Project 310. Etowah City Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Etowah City Schools, TN.

    This curriculum guide contains materials for a course that explores ways of improving the lives of older citizens and helping them cope with the rigors and pursuits of life. Section I discusses the development of community resource files at adult basic education (ABE) sites. Forms for each step are provided. Section II presents information on the…

  14. Stress and coping in HIV-positive former plasma/blood donors in China: a test of cognitive appraisal theory.

    PubMed

    Meade, Christina S; Wang, Jianping; Lin, Xiuyun; Wu, Hao; Poppen, Paul J

    2010-04-01

    Throughout the 1990s, many villagers in rural China were infected with HIV through commercial plasma/blood donation. These former plasma/blood donors (FPDs) experienced many HIV-related stressors. This study tested a cognitive appraisal model of stress and coping in a sample of HIV-positive adult FPDs. Participants (N = 207) from multiple villages completed a battery of questionnaires assessing HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, cognitive appraisal, coping behaviors, and psychological distress. Participants reported high levels of HIV-related stress, depression, and anxiety. In a structural equation model, greater HIV-related stress, HIV symptoms, and threat appraisal were directly associated with psychological distress. HIV-related stress was also indirectly associated with psychological distress through threat appraisal. In a second model, coping was found to mediate the relationship between challenge appraisal and psychological distress. Results support the utility of cognitive appraisal theory. Stress management interventions targeting HIV-positive FPDs in China are indicated.

  15. When Parents' Affection Depends on Child's Achievement: Parental Conditional Positive Regard, Self-Aggrandizement, Shame and Coping in Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Assor, Avi; Tal, Karen

    2012-01-01

    We examined the idea that adolescents' perceptions of their mothers as using parental conditional positive regard (PCPR) to promote academic achievement are associated with maladaptive self feelings and coping. A study of 153 adolescents supported the hypothesis that PCPR predicts self-aggrandizement following success and self devaluation and…

  16. Engagement as Flourishing: The Contribution of Positive Emotions and Coping to Adolescents' Engagement at School and with Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschly, Amy L.; Huebner, E. Scott; Appleton, James J.; Antaramian, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Fredrickson's (1998, 2001) broaden and build theory postulates that the experience of frequent positive emotions serves to broaden humans' thoughts and behaviors, resulting in accrual of resources, including coping resources, which catalyze upward spirals toward future well-being. Initial research supports the tenets of broaden and build; however,…

  17. Emotion-Oriented Coping, Avoidance Coping, and Fear of Pain as Mediators of the Relationship between Positive Affect, Negative Affect, and Pain-Related Distress among African American and Caucasian College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightsey, Owen Richard, Jr.; Wells, Anita G.; Wang, Mei-Chuan; Pietruszka, Todd; Ciftci, Ayse; Stancil, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The authors tested whether coping styles and fear of pain mediate the relationship between positive affect and negative affect on one hand and pain-related distress (PD) on the other. Among African American and Caucasian female college students, negative affect, fear of pain, and emotion-oriented coping together accounted for 34% of the variance…

  18. Substance Abuse, Coping Strategies, Adaptive Skills and Behavioral and Emotional Problems in Clients with Mild to Borderline Intellectual Disability Admitted to a Treatment Facility: A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Didden, Robert; Embregts, Petri; van der Toorn, Mirjam; Laarhoven, Nina

    2009-01-01

    Many clients with mild to borderline intellectual disability (ID) who are admitted to a treatment facility show serious problems in alcohol and/or drugs use. In the present case file study, we explored differences in coping strategies, adaptive skills and emotional and behavioral problems between clients who showed substance abuse and clients who…

  19. The Dynamics of Relationships: A Guide for Developing Self-Esteem and Coping Skills for Teens and Young Adults. Teacher Manual Books 1 and 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Patricia; Hockman, Fyllis, Ed.

    The "Dynamics of Relationships" program was originally designed as a preventive approach to the many social ills affecting young people and families today. This teacher's manual for the program provides objectives and activities for helping students develop and maintain a strong and secure self-image, effective communication and coping skills, and…

  20. Positive aspects of the coping of mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability in the Bedouin community in Israel.

    PubMed

    Manor-Binyamini, Iris

    2014-06-01

    This research examines the positive aspects of coping experienced by 270 mothers of adolescent children with and without a developmental disability in the Bedouin community. The mothers completed the Sociodemographic Data Questionnaire, the Grandparents Functional Support Assessment, the Gratitude Questionnaire, and the Posttraumatic Growth Inventory. Mothers of adolescent children with developmental disability reported higher levels of social support, gratitude, and personal growth than did mothers of adolescent children without developmental disability. Additionally, mothers demonstrated a higher level of gratitude toward their spouse's parents. Positive correlation was also found between gratitude and personal growth and between gratitude and support from the husband's parents. The findings highlight the important need to develop awareness and culturally appropriate intervention programs based on these positive aspects, to enhance these mothers' coping abilities.

  1. Development and Alpha Testing of QuitIT: An Interactive Video Game to Enhance Skills for Coping With Smoking Urges

    PubMed Central

    Fiske, Jeff

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite many efforts at developing relapse prevention interventions, most smokers relapse to tobacco use within a few months after quitting. Interactive games offer a novel strategy for helping people develop the skills required for successful tobacco cessation. Objective The objective of our study was to develop a video game that enables smokers to practice strategies for coping with smoking urges and maintaining smoking abstinence. Our team of game designers and clinical psychologists are creating a video game that integrates the principles of smoking behavior change and relapse prevention. We have reported the results of expert and end-user feedback on an alpha version of the game. Methods The alpha version of the game consisted of a smoking cue scenario often encountered by smokers. We recruited 5 experts in tobacco cessation research and 20 current and former smokers, who each played through the scenario. Mixed methods were used to gather feedback on the relevance of cessation content and usability of the game modality. Results End-users rated the interface from 3.0 to 4.6/5 in terms of ease of use and from 2.9 to 4.1/5 in terms of helpfulness of cessation content. Qualitative themes showed several user suggestions for improving the user interface, pacing, and diversity of the game characters. In addition, the users confirmed a high degree of game immersion, identification with the characters and situations, and appreciation for the multiple opportunities to practice coping strategies. Conclusions This study highlights the procedures for translating behavioral principles into a game dynamic and shows that our prototype has a strong potential for engaging smokers. A video game modality exemplifies problem-based learning strategies for tobacco cessation and is an innovative step in behavioral management of tobacco use. PMID:24025236

  2. Anxiety, coping skills and hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis in patients with endometriosis

    PubMed Central

    Quiñones, Maria; Urrutia, Rebecca; Torres-Reverón, Annelyn; Vincent, Katy; Flores, Idhaliz

    2015-01-01

    Background Endometriosis is an inflammatory disease that is defined by growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, resulting in pain, infertility, and emotional distress. Previous studies have shown that the HPA axis is compromised in patients with chronic, painful diseases, including endometriosis. However, the underlying mechanisms and the physiological and emotional consequences of dysfunctions in the HPA axis in these patients are largely unknown. We aimed to understand whether diurnal circulating cortisol levels in women with endometriosis are affected and how this impacts their emotional and behavioral responses. Methods Thirty-two patients with endometriosis and 36 healthy control women provided saliva samples and completed a series of psychological questionnaires. Salivary cortisol levels were measured in duplicate using a colorimetric immunoassay. Results There were significant differences in average cortisol levels between endometriosis patients and controls. A negative correlation was found between cortisol levels and infertility and dyspareunia. Furthermore, incapacitating pain was found to be a strong predictor of hypocortisolism. Women with endometriosis reported higher levels of trait anxiety, but showed no differences in perceived stress or in coping styles compared to the control group. Conclusions This study supports previous reports of hypocortisolism as a biomarker of aberrant HPA responses in women with endometriosis. Moreover, it provides further insight into the link between HPA axis dysregulation, emotional responses, and the high comorbidity between endometriosis and other inflammatory conditions. PMID:26900480

  3. Positive teacher and peer relations combine to predict primary school students' academic skill development.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results showed, first, that positive teacher affect toward the student and peer acceptance were reciprocally associated: Positive teacher affect predicted higher peer acceptance, and higher peer acceptance predicted a higher level of positive teacher affect. Second, the effect of positive teacher affect on academic skill development was partly mediated via peer acceptance, while the effect of early academic skills on peer acceptance was partly mediated via positive teacher affect. The results suggest that a warm and supportive teacher can increase a student's peer acceptance, which, in turn, is positively associated with learning outcomes.

  4. Positive teacher and peer relations combine to predict primary school students' academic skill development.

    PubMed

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-04-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results showed, first, that positive teacher affect toward the student and peer acceptance were reciprocally associated: Positive teacher affect predicted higher peer acceptance, and higher peer acceptance predicted a higher level of positive teacher affect. Second, the effect of positive teacher affect on academic skill development was partly mediated via peer acceptance, while the effect of early academic skills on peer acceptance was partly mediated via positive teacher affect. The results suggest that a warm and supportive teacher can increase a student's peer acceptance, which, in turn, is positively associated with learning outcomes. PMID:25751095

  5. Positive Teacher and Peer Relations Combine to Predict Primary School Students' Academic Skill Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kiuru, Noona; Aunola, Kaisa; Lerkkanen, Marja-Kristiina; Pakarinen, Eija; Poskiparta, Elisa; Ahonen, Timo; Poikkeus, Anna-Maija; Nurmi, Jari-Erik

    2015-01-01

    This study examined cross-lagged associations between positive teacher and peer relations and academic skill development. Reading and math skills were tested among 625 students in kindergarten and Grade 4. Teacher reports of positive affect toward each student and classmate reports of peer acceptance were gathered in Grades 1-3. The results…

  6. Replacing Stressful Challenges with Positive Coping Strategies: A Resilience Program for Clinical Placement Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delany, C.; Miller, K. J.; El-Ansary, D.; Remedios, L.; Hosseini, A.; McLeod, S.

    2015-01-01

    Clinical education is foundational to health professional training. However, it is also a time of increased stress for students. A student's perception of stressors and their capacity to effectively manage them is a legitimate concern for educators, because anxiety and decreased coping strategies can interfere with effective learning, clinical…

  7. Positive Coping Strategies among Immigrant Cambodian Families: An Ethnographic Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reiboldt, Wendy; Goldstein, Avery E.

    2000-01-01

    Interviews with two Cambodian immigrant families over 2 years revealed how they relied on each other more than formal service providers to cope with difficulties. They focused on children's education and safety, insulation of the family from external influences, and interdependence with the immigrant community. (SK)

  8. "Si, Dios Quiere"...Latina Mothers' Coping Strategies to Maintain Their Positive Well-Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welch-Scalco, Rhonda Jeannean

    2009-01-01

    Parenting a child with a disability is a lifelong journey. The coping strategies utilized by parents impact the well-being of the family, especially the mothers. The purpose of this dissertation was to explore the maternal well-being of Latina and Anglo mothers who have a child with severe to profound disabilities. Predictive variables, such as…

  9. "Practical skills" - Positioning of the GMA committee for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Scheutzel, Petra; Gerhard-Szép, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The GMA committee for dentistry of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA) considers its' main purpose the representation and interconnection of all aspects of dentistry with and within the GMA. Teaching and assessing practical skills during training is traditionally of great importance in dental education. This is also reflected in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Dental Education (NKLZ). Practical skills are not comprised in a separate chapter as they are in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medical Education (NKLM), but are considered in all sections of the NKLZ for the purpose of interdisciplinary patient- or disease-specific application, targeting the educational level of acting competency. The implementation of the associated joined interdisciplinary integrated educational concept has undoubtedly been a challenge for dental curriculum development against the backdrop of German Dental Licensure Act dating back to 1955. PMID:27579348

  10. "Practical skills" - Positioning of the GMA committee for dentistry.

    PubMed

    Scheutzel, Petra; Gerhard-Szép, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The GMA committee for dentistry of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA) considers its' main purpose the representation and interconnection of all aspects of dentistry with and within the GMA. Teaching and assessing practical skills during training is traditionally of great importance in dental education. This is also reflected in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Dental Education (NKLZ). Practical skills are not comprised in a separate chapter as they are in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medical Education (NKLM), but are considered in all sections of the NKLZ for the purpose of interdisciplinary patient- or disease-specific application, targeting the educational level of acting competency. The implementation of the associated joined interdisciplinary integrated educational concept has undoubtedly been a challenge for dental curriculum development against the backdrop of German Dental Licensure Act dating back to 1955.

  11. "Practical skills" – Positioning of the GMA committee for dentistry

    PubMed Central

    Scheutzel, Petra; Gerhard-Szép, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The GMA committee for dentistry of the German Society for Medical Education (GMA) considers its’ main purpose the representation and interconnection of all aspects of dentistry with and within the GMA. Teaching and assessing practical skills during training is traditionally of great importance in dental education. This is also reflected in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Dental Education (NKLZ). Practical skills are not comprised in a separate chapter as they are in the National Competence Based Catalogue of Learning Objectives for Medical Education (NKLM), but are considered in all sections of the NKLZ for the purpose of interdisciplinary patient- or disease-specific application, targeting the educational level of acting competency. The implementation of the associated joined interdisciplinary integrated educational concept has undoubtedly been a challenge for dental curriculum development against the backdrop of German Dental Licensure Act dating back to 1955. PMID:27579348

  12. Influence of Coping, Social Support, and Depression on Subjective Health Status Among HIV-Positive Adults With Different Sexual Identities

    PubMed Central

    Mosack, Katie E.; Weinhardt, Lance S.; Kelly, Jeffrey A.; Gore-Felton, Cheryl; McAuliffe, Timothy L.; Johnson, Mallory O.; Remien, Robert H.; Rotheram-Borus, Mary Jane; Ehrhardt, Anke A.; Chesney, Margaret A.; Morin, Stephen F.

    2009-01-01

    The authors examined associations between psychosocial variables (coping self-efficacy, social support, and cognitive depression) and subjective health status among a large national sample (N = 3,670) of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-positive persons with different sexual identities. After controlling for ethnicity, heterosexual men reported fewer symptoms than did either bisexual or gay men and heterosexual women reported fewer symptoms than did bisexual women. Heterosexual and bisexual women reported greater symptom intrusiveness than did heterosexual or gay men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression independently explained symptom reports and symptom intrusiveness for heterosexual, gay, and bisexual men. Coping self-efficacy and cognitive depression explained symptom intrusiveness among heterosexual women. Cognitive depression significantly contributed to the number of symptom reports for heterosexual and bisexual women and to symptom intrusiveness for lesbian and bisexual women. Individuals likely experience HIV differently on the basis of sociocultural realities associated with sexual identity. Further, symptom intrusiveness may be a more sensitive measure of subjective health status for these groups. PMID:19064372

  13. Teaching the Dance Class: Strategies to Enhance Skill Acquisition, Mastery and Positive Self-Image

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mainwaring, Lynda M.; Krasnow, Donna H.

    2010-01-01

    Effective teaching of dance skills is informed by a variety of theoretical frameworks and individual teaching and learning styles. The purpose of this paper is to present practical teaching strategies that enhance the mastery of skills and promote self-esteem, self-efficacy, and positive self-image. The predominant thinking and primary research…

  14. Effects of a Training Intervention to Foster Argumentation Skills While Processing Conflicting Scientific Positions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hefter, Markus H.; Berthold, Kirsten; Renkl, Alexander; Riess, Werner; Schmid, Sebastian; Fries, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Argumentation skills play a crucial role in science education and in preparing school students to act as informed citizens. While processing conflicting scientific positions regarding topics such as sustainable development in the domain of ecology, argumentation skills such as evaluating arguments or supporting theories with evidence are…

  15. Present a Positive Image. Work Maturity Skills. Competency 1.0.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. National Center for Research in Vocational Education.

    Designed for use as a part of the Work Maturity Skills Training Program, this unit consists of instructional materials dealing with presenting a positive image. (The Work Maturity Skills Training Program is a set of individualized competency-based units that are designed to help participants develop the competencies they need to find and retain…

  16. The Relationship between Principal Leadership Skills and School-Wide Positive Behavior Support: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Mary Miller; Lewis, Timothy J.; Hagar, John

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated key principal leadership skills associated with socially proactive school environments and examined the relationship between School-Wide Positive Behavior Support (SWPBS) implementation and increased evidence of those skills. Findings indicated the following: (a) certified staff members and principals from all schools rated…

  17. Effect of selected movement skills on positive self-concept.

    PubMed

    Bruya, L D

    1977-08-01

    36 boys and 36 girls in 4 fourth grades were exposed to basketball movement conditions which included the skills of dribble, chest pass, lay-up, pivot, guarding, and two-hand set shot. Eight 1/2-hr. treatment periods were spread evenly over 4 wk. and took place within the regularly assigned school physical education period. Two class groups, which included 9 boys and 9 girls each, were randomly assigned by class to an experimental group which received treatment while two class groups were assigned by class to the control group. No differences between changes in self-concept as estimated by the Piers-Harris scale for treatment and control conditions were significant.

  18. The Effects of a Telehealth Coping Skills Intervention on Outcomes in Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: Primary Results from the INSPIRE-II Study

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, James A.; Emery, Charles F.; Smith, Patrick J.; Keefe, Francis J.; Welty-Wolf, Karen; Mabe, Stephanie; Martinu, Tereza; Johnson, Julie J.; Babyak, Michael A.; O’Hayer, Virginia F.; Diaz, Philip T.; Durheim, Michael; Baucom, Donald; Palmer, Scott M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is associated with increased morbidity and mortality and reduced quality of life. Novel interventions are needed to improve outcomes in COPD patients. The present study assessed the effects of a telephone-based coping skills intervention on psychological and somatic quality of life and on the combined medical endpoint of COPD-related hospitalizations and all-cause mortality. Methods We conducted a dual-site, randomized clinical trial with assessments at baseline and after 16 weeks of treatment. The study population comprised 326 outpatients with COPD aged 38 to 81 years, randomized to Coping Skills training (CST) or to COPD Education (COPD-ED). Patients completed a battery of quality of life (QoL) instruments, pulmonary function tests, and functional measures and were followed for up to 4.4 years to assess medical outcomes. Results The CST group exhibited greater improvements in psychological QoL compared to controls (P = .001), including less depression (Cohen’s d=0.22 [95%CI 0.08, 0.36]) and anxiety (d=0.17 [95%CI 0.02, 0.33]), and better overall mental health (d=0.17 [95%CI 0.03, 0.32]), emotional role functioning (d= 0.29 [95%CI 0.10, 0.48]), vitality (d= 0.27 [95%CI 0.11, 0.42]), and social functioning (d= 0.21 [95%CI 0.03, 0.38]). A significant baseline psychological QoL by Treatment group interaction revealed that CST with lower QoL at baseline achieved even greater improvements in psychological QoL compared to COPE-ED. CST participants also exhibited greater improvements in Somatic QoL (P = .042), including greater improvements in pulmonary QoL (d= 0.13 [95%CI 0.01, 0.24]), less fatigue (d= 0.34 [95%CI 0.18, 0.50]), and less shortness of breath (d= 0.11 [95%CI −0.01, 0.23]) and greater improvement in distance walked on the 6 Minute Walk Test (d= 0.09 [95%CI 0.01, 0.16]). However, there was no significant difference in risk of time to COPD-related hospitalization or all-cause mortality between CST

  19. The effectiveness of program developed from cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress.

    PubMed

    Monkong, L; Pongpanich, S; Viwatwongkasem, C; Chantavanich, S; Wongpiromsarn, Y; Katz, L S

    2009-12-01

    Many methodologies to decrease stress in adolescents have been introduced and implemented. However, it seems that the problems in their physical, mental, emotional, and learning conditions still exist, especially for long-term. The proposed program with some booster was used to solve the long run problems. To examine the effectiveness of program developed from cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress. A quasi-experimental research in two groups is used to modify theoretical concepts of cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent coping with stress. The students of secondary schools in Nakhon Sawan Province Thailand were the target population. Two schools were randomly chosen, one for control and the other for experiment. The sample size of 84 students was randomly selected and requested to be volunteers and 44 volunteers were trained on concept of thinking, strategies to resolve the problem and control emotion for 5 days and booster in school for 9 months in every fortnight and was measured 5 times, before and after interventions at 3rd, 6th and 9th months. We used independent t-test, paired t-test, analysis of variance and covariance for data analysis. There were no difference in the mean of summation of knowledge, attitude and practice of pre-test score between treatment and control group (P = 0.124). After the training program, the volunteers showed significant improvement of knowledge, attitude and practice (P < 0.05) and the level of stress decreased was statistically significant (P < 0.05). The results indicated that the training program with modify theoretical concepts of cognitive-experiential self-theory and life skills technique on adolescent enabled the participants to improve knowledge, attitude and practice in coping with stress.

  20. The Life Skills Program IPSY: Positive Influences on School Bonding and Prevention of Substance Misuse

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Victoria; Weichold, Karina; Silbereisen, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated whether a life skills program (LSP) for the prevention of adolescent substance misuse can have positive influences on a school context and on school bonding. The study also explored whether effects on alcohol use are mediated by positive effects on school bonding resulting from program participation. The LSP IPSY…

  1. Coping Skills Training and 12-Step Facilitation for Women Whose Partner Has Alcoholism: Effects on Depression, the Partner’s Drinking, and Partner Physical Violence

    PubMed Central

    Rychtarik, Robert G.; McGillicuddy, Neil B.

    2015-01-01

    Women (N = 171), distressed from their partners’ untreated alcoholism, received either coping skills training (CST), 12-step facilitation (TSF), or delayed treatment (DTC). CST and TSF resulted in lower depression levels than DTC but did not differ from one another. Skill acquisition mediated the treatment effects of CST; Al-Anon attendance did not mediate the TSF effect. Lower depression levels were maintained at 12 months with no differences between groups. Partner drinking decreased from pretreatment to follow-up in the CST and TSF conditions. However, for partners with a history of relationship violence, drinking improved across follow-up in the CST condition but worsened in the TSF condition. Partner relationship violence was less in the CST condition. CST may be particularly useful for women experiencing physical violence from a partner with alcoholism. PMID:15796632

  2. Coping styles of older adults with ostomies.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Sheila Normand; Meeker, Bonnie Juve'

    2002-05-01

    Various clinical studies throughout the years have shown that individuals with ostomies are a unique group facing adjustment demands. One of the most important challenges for an individual with an ostomy is coping with the physiological and psychological changes. The purpose of this study was to describe coping styles of older adults after undergoing ostomy surgery and to explore its helpfulness in dealing with the stressors related to having an ostomy. Lazarus and Folkman's theory on stress and coping was used as the framework to guide this study. A sample of 27 participants ranging from age 50 to 84 years was obtained from an ostomy association in southeastern Louisiana. Participants were asked to complete a demographic data form and the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale. This revised scale measured eight coping styles related to Use and Effectiveness. Findings revealed significant differences existed among the means of the eight measures for both Use and Effectiveness at p < .01. Results demonstrated that the optimistic and self-reliant styles of coping were the most frequently used as effective styles for coping with an ostomy. This indicated a positive outlook and dependence on oneself rather than dependence on others when coping with the stressors of having an ostomy. There were no statistically significant differences related to gender or ostomy type. Also, aging did not appear to be a factor when considering coping styles of older adults with ostomies. The nursing role should include assessment of the individual preoperatively to identify fears, concerns, and stressors related to having an ostomy. Also, nurses can provide education on disease management, assist with identification of ineffective coping mechanisms, and promote effective coping skills and stress management techniques.

  3. Self-Control and Coping Skills as Factors in Pain Perception, Perceived Health and Psychological Adjustment in the Elderly.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dietrich, Coralie; And Others

    Self-control and self-efficacy have played a central role in recent behavioral medicine work on the control of chronic physical pain. Little work investigating the concepts of self-control and self-efficacy has been done with the elderly in spite of the fact that coping strategies in the elderly have been associated with a variety of health and…

  4. Analysis of Academic Self-Efficacy, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress Skills Predictive Power on Academic Procrastination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kandemir, Mehmet; Ilhan, Tahsin; Ozpolat, Ahmed Ragip; Palanci, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The goal of this research is to analyze the predictive power level of academic self-efficacy, self-esteem and coping with stress on academic procrastination behavior. Relational screening model is used in the research whose research group is made of 374 students in Kirikkale University, Education Faculty in Turkey. Students in the research group…

  5. Collaborative skill instruction for promoting positive interactions between mentally handicapped and nonhandicapped children.

    PubMed

    Putnam, J W; Rynders, J E; Johnson, R T; Johnson, D W

    1989-04-01

    Structuring cooperative learning activities has been shown to be an effective technique for integrating handicapped and nonhandicapped students. Previous research in this area has focused on the relative effects of cooperative versus competitive and individualistic learning situations upon peer relations and academic achievement. Few investigations have examined the various elements within the cooperative learning model that appear to promote positive peer interactions among handicapped and nonhandicapped students. The present study evaluated the influence of collaborative skill instruction versus no collaborative skill instruction on the social interaction behaviors of moderately/severely handicapped and nonhandicapped students participating in group science activities. These data reveal that students receiving collaborative skill instruction interacted more positively with one another than those who did not receive the instruction. PMID:2703015

  6. Coping with Changes in International Classifications of Sectors and Occupations: Application in Skills Forecasting. Research Paper No 43

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvetan, Vladimir, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    Reliable and consistent time series are essential to any kind of economic forecasting. Skills forecasting needs to combine data from national accounts and labour force surveys, with the pan-European dimension of Cedefop's skills supply and demand forecasts, relying on different international classification standards. Sectoral classification (NACE)…

  7. Identifying Skill Requirements for GIS Positions: A Content Analysis of Job Advertisements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hong, Jung Eun

    2016-01-01

    This study identifies the skill requirements for geographic information system (GIS) positions, including GIS analysts, programmers/developers/engineers, specialists, and technicians, through a content analysis of 946 GIS job advertisements from 2007-2014. The results indicated that GIS job applicants need to possess high levels of GIS analysis…

  8. New Paths to the Middle Class: Developing Social Skills Employing Positive Peer Culture.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donlevy, James G.; Donlevy, Tia Rice

    1995-01-01

    Describes Positive Peer Culture (PPC), a school-based program for teaching social skills to adolescents, especially those in foster care or juvenile justice residential settings. Outlines problem types, discusses formal and informal group meetings and benefits of PPC (critical thinking, participatory democracy, real-world literacy, business…

  9. Assessment of dietitians' nutrition counselling self-efficacy and its positive relationship to reported skill usage

    PubMed Central

    Dollahite, Jamie

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies on nutrition counselling self-efficacy assessed small groups of dietitians in focused practice areas or evaluated the effectiveness of skills training on only a few skills. This descriptive study developed a comprehensive scale to examine self-efficacy in a large, cross-sectional sample of practising dietitians in performing various counselling skills that promote dietary behaviour changes. Methods A valid and reliable instrument was developed and administered through the Internet to survey dietitians in the United States from various areas of dietetics and with varying years of experience. Items included counselling self-efficacy, skill usage, and counselling-related job characteristics. Of 612 respondents, one group (n=486) conducted counselling more than 50% of their work week; the other group (n=126) less than 50%. Factor analysis was used for scale development. Independent samples t-tests and chi-square tests were performed for group comparisons. Correlations and multiple regression analyses further assessed the relationships among variables. Results The resultant unidimensional scale contained 25 items. Dietitians reported high self-efficacy scores and frequent skill usage. Those who counsel more than 50% of their work week were more likely to work in outpatient settings and private practice; reported higher self-efficacy scores, and held longer and repeated sessions. Self-efficacy scores were positively correlated with counselling-related job characteristics. Years of counselling experience and skill usage significantly predicted self-efficacy scores. Conclusion Dietitians perceive themselves to be highly self-efficacious in using counselling skills which may contribute positively to their professional practice. However, the relationship between counselling self-efficacy and actual performance warrants future investigation. PMID:20113386

  10. Present a Positive Image. Work Skills: Work Maturity Skills Competency 1.0. Connections. School and Work Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lankard, Bettina A.

    This learning module is one of a series that teaches the competencies of "Job Search Skills," part of the "Work Skills" package--a set of competency-based instructional materials written for low-level readers that prepares students with specific job search and job keeping skills. ("Work Skills" is part of the "Connections" package, which…

  11. Personal and situational factors that predict coping strategies for acute stress among basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H; Porter, A

    1997-08-01

    The aim of this study was to establish the ways in which coping style and situational appraisals are related to the consistency of using approach and avoidance coping strategies for skilled Australian basketball referees (n = 133) after three game-related stressful events. The events, 'making a mistake', 'aggressive reactions by coaches or players' and 'presence of important others', were determined from previous research on sources of acute stress among basketball officials. Our findings indicated that: referees exhibited consistent avoidance, but not approach, coping styles; they used more avoidance than approach strategies; and they perceived stress to be positively correlated with approach, and negatively associated with avoidance, coping strategies. These findings suggest that individual differences exist in perceptions of stress (i.e. situational appraisals), controllability and coping styles among moderately and highly skilled basketball referees. The implications for teaching cognitive and behavioural strategies for effective coping with acute stress in basketball officiating are discussed.

  12. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  13. Feasibility and preliminary outcomes from a pilot study of coping skills training for adolescent--young adult survivors of childhood cancer and their parents.

    PubMed

    Judge Santacroce, Sheila; Asmus, Kirsten; Kadan-Lottick, Nina; Grey, Margaret

    2010-01-01

    Uncertainty is a central feature of long-term childhood cancer survivorship during which time it principally has to do with late effects. Therefore, the purposes of this article are (a) to assess feasibility of a randomized clinical trial of a telephone-delivered coping skills training (CST) intervention in terms of recruitment, retention, and timeline, as well as the performance of the study measures; and (b) to demonstrate trends in change on outcomes within the context of a small pilot study. The results of this pilot study suggest that HEROS PLUS CST has clinical relevance and that in-person long-term follow-up plus telephone-delivered psychosocial care is a practical way to deliver integrated care to adolescent-young adult childhood cancer survivors and their parents.

  14. Knowledge, skills, and abilities for key radiation protection positions at DOE facilities

    SciTech Connect

    1997-01-01

    This document provides detailed qualification criteria for contractor key radiation protection personnel. Although federal key radiation protection positions are also identified, qualification standards for federal positions are provided in DOE O 360.1 and the DOE Technical Qualifications Program. Appendices B and D provide detailed listings for knowledge, skills, and abilities for contractor and DOE federal key radiation protection positions. This information may be used in developing position descriptions and individual development plans. Information provided in Appendix C may be useful in developing performance measures and assessing an individual`s performance in his or her specific position. Additionally, Federal personnel may use this information to augment their Office/facility qualification standards under the Technical Qualifications Program.

  15. Psychological resilience: the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings.

    PubMed

    Moore, Philip J; Chrabaszcz, Jeffrey S; Peterson, Rolf A; Rohrbeck, Cynthia A; Roemer, Enid C; Mercurio, Andrea E

    2014-01-01

    This research examined the impact of affectivity and coping on state anxiety and positive emotions among young adults living in the Washington, DC metro area both during and after the Washington, DC sniper killings. Participants completed questionnaires during three waves of data collection: (1) during the sniper attacks (n=92); (2) within two weeks after the snipers were captured (n=45); and (3) six months later (n=43). Affectivity (measured by neuroticism) was significantly associated with state anxiety and positive emotions during all three time periods. Coping (measured by constructive thinking) predicted state anxiety and positive emotions during the shootings, but was unrelated to either outcome immediately after the attacks, and marginally related to them six months later. Consistent with the Dynamic Model of Affect, state anxiety and positive emotions were more strongly (and negatively) correlated with each other during the killings than they were after the snipers were apprehended. Taken together, these results support transactional models of stress that emphasize the interaction between dispositional and situational influences, and they suggest that affectivity reflects a fundamental set of reactions to one's environment, while coping dispositions result in more stress-specific responses. Additional theoretical and practical implications of these findings are also discussed.

  16. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.

  17. Positive affective tone and team performance: The moderating role of collective emotional skills.

    PubMed

    Collins, Amy L; Jordan, Peter J; Lawrence, Sandra A; Troth, Ashlea C

    2016-01-01

    Research on affect as a group-level phenomenon has shown that over time, individual members within a group become highly similar in their affect (i.e., members experience and display similar emotions and moods), and often become similar enough that the aggregation of individuals' affect can meaningfully represent the "affective tone" of the group. It is generally assumed that a more positive affective tone will lead to better team performance. We challenge the conclusion that positive affective tone is always good for team performance, suggesting that the relationship between positive affective tone and team performance is subject to moderating influences. Across two studies, we demonstrate that the self-reported collective emotional skills of team members play a crucial role in determining whether positive affective tone is beneficial or detrimental to team performance. Implications for theory and practice are discussed. PMID:26208085

  18. Recall of briefly presented chess positions and its relation to chess skill.

    PubMed

    Gong, Yanfei; Ericsson, K Anders; Moxley, Jerad H

    2015-01-01

    Individual differences in memory performance in a domain of expertise have traditionally been accounted for by previously acquired chunks of knowledge and patterns. These accounts have been examined experimentally mainly in chess. The role of chunks (clusters of chess pieces recalled in rapid succession during recall of chess positions) and their relations to chess skill are, however, under debate. By introducing an independent chunk-identification technique, namely repeated-recall technique, this study identified individual chunks for particular chess players. The study not only tested chess players with increasing chess expertise, but also tested non-chess players who should not have previously acquired any chess related chunks in memory. For recall of game positions significant differences between players and non-players were found in virtually all the characteristics of chunks recalled. Size of the largest chunks also correlates with chess skill within the group of rated chess players. Further research will help us understand how these memory encodings can explain large differences in chess skill.

  19. Outcomes from a Randomized Controlled Trial of a Group Intervention for HIV Positive Men and Women Coping with AIDS-Related Loss and Bereavement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Kochman, Arlene; Tate, David C.; DiFranceisco, Wayne

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of a group coping intervention for HIV-positive men and women who have lost a loved one(s) to AIDS in the past 2 years. Two hundred thirty-five participants, diverse with respect to race/ethnicity and sexual orientation, were randomly assigned to a 12-week cognitive-behavioral group intervention…

  20. Representations underlying skill in the discrete sequence production task: effect of hand used and hand position.

    PubMed

    de Kleine, Elian; Verwey, Willem B

    2009-09-01

    Various studies suggest that movement sequences are initially learned predominantly in effector-independent spatial coordinates and only after extended practice in effector-dependent coordinates. The present study examined this notion for the discrete sequence production (DSP) task by manipulating the hand used and the position of the hand relative to the body. During sequence learning in Experiment 1, in which sequences were executed by reacting to key-specific cues, hand position appeared important for execution with the practiced but not with the unpracticed hand. In Experiment 2 entire sequences were executed by reacting to one cue. This produced similar results as in Experiment 1. These experiments support the notion that robustness of sequencing skill is based on several codes, one being a representation that is both effector and position dependent.

  1. Political Skills That Superintendents Need to Embrace in Order to Maintain a Positive Working Relationship with Their Board Members

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muhammed, Anil Salim

    2012-01-01

    According to the literature, school districts are becoming increasingly political and complex. For superintendents to be successful in this environment they must exhibit great political skills in order to maintain positive working relationships with their boards of education. Thus, this study aimed to identify political skills that superintendents…

  2. The relationships among self-esteem, stress, coping, eating behavior, and depressive mood in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Martyn-Nemeth, Pamela; Penckofer, Sue; Gulanick, Meg; Velsor-Friedrich, Barbara; Bryant, Fred B

    2009-02-01

    The prevalence of adolescent overweight is significant, almost 25% in some minorities, and often is associated with depressive symptoms. Psychological and psychosocial factors as well as poor coping skills have been correlated with unhealthy eating and obesity. The purpose of this study was to examine relationships among self-esteem, stress, social support, and coping; and to test a model of their effects on eating behavior and depressive mood in a sample of 102 high school students (87% minority). Results indicate that (a) stress and low self-esteem were related to avoidant coping and depressive mood, and that (b) low self-esteem and avoidant coping were related to unhealthy eating behavior. Results suggest that teaching adolescents skills to reduce stress, build self-esteem, and use more positive approaches to coping may prevent unhealthy eating and subsequent obesity, and lower risk of depressive symptoms.

  3. The positive impact of a facilitated peer mentoring program on academic skills of women faculty

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In academic medicine, women physicians lag behind their male counterparts in advancement and promotion to leadership positions. Lack of mentoring, among other factors, has been reported to contribute to this disparity. Peer mentoring has been reported as a successful alternative to the dyadic mentoring model for women interested in improving their academic productivity. We describe a facilitated peer mentoring program in our institution's department of medicine. Methods Nineteen women enrolled in the program were divided into 5 groups. Each group had an assigned facilitator. Members of the respective groups met together with their facilitators at regular intervals during the 12 months of the project. A pre- and post-program evaluation consisting of a 25-item self-assessment of academic skills, self-efficacy, and academic career satisfaction was administered to each participant. Results At the end of 12 months, a total of 9 manuscripts were submitted to peer-reviewed journals, 6 of which are in press or have been published, and another 2 of which have been invited to be revised and resubmitted. At the end of the program, participants reported an increase in their satisfaction with academic achievement (mean score increase, 2.32 to 3.63; P = 0.0001), improvement in skills necessary to effectively search the medical literature (mean score increase, 3.32 to 4.05; P = 0.0009), an improvement in their ability to write a comprehensive review article (mean score increase, 2.89 to 3.63; P = 0.0017), and an improvement in their ability to critically evaluate the medical literature (mean score increased from 3.11 to 3.89; P = 0.0008). Conclusions This facilitated peer mentoring program demonstrated a positive impact on the academic skills and manuscript writing for junior women faculty. This 1-year program required minimal institutional resources, and suggests a need for further study of this and other mentoring programs for women faculty. PMID:22439908

  4. Positive-Themed Suicide Prevention Messages Delivered by Adolescent Peer Leaders: Proximal Impact on Classmates' Coping Attitudes and Perceptions of Adult Support.

    PubMed

    Petrova, Mariya; Wyman, Peter A; Schmeelk-Cone, Karen; Pisani, Anthony R

    2015-12-01

    Developing science-based communication guidance and positive-themed messages for suicide prevention are important priorities. Drawing on social learning and elaboration likelihood models, we designed and tested two positive-focused presentations by high school peer leaders delivered in the context of a suicide prevention program (Sources of Strength). Thirty-six classrooms in four schools (N = 706 students) were randomized to (1) peer leader modeling of healthy coping, (2) peer leader modeling plus audience involvement to identify trusted adults, or (3) control condition. Students' attitudes and norms were assessed by immediate post-only assessments. Exposure to either presentation enhanced positive coping attitudes and perceptions of adult support. Students who reported suicide ideation in the past 12 months benefited more than nonsuicidal students. Beyond modeling alone, audience involvement modestly enhanced expectations of adult support, congruent with the elaboration likelihood model. Positive peer modeling is a promising alternative to communications focused on negative consequences and directives and may enhance social-interpersonal factors linked to reduced suicidal behaviors.

  5. Foveal and peripheral fields of vision influences perceptual skill in anticipating opponents' attacking position in volleyball.

    PubMed

    Schorer, Jörg; Rienhoff, Rebecca; Fischer, Lennart; Baker, Joseph

    2013-09-01

    The importance of perceptual-cognitive expertise in sport has been repeatedly demonstrated. In this study we examined the role of different sources of visual information (i.e., foveal versus peripheral) in anticipating volleyball attack positions. Expert (n = 11), advanced (n = 13) and novice (n = 16) players completed an anticipation task that involved predicting the location of volleyball attacks. Video clips of volleyball attacks (n = 72) were spatially and temporally occluded to provide varying amounts of information to the participant. In addition, participants viewed the attacks under three visual conditions: full vision, foveal vision only, and peripheral vision only. Analysis of variance revealed significant between group differences in prediction accuracy with higher skilled players performing better than lower skilled players. Additionally, we found significant differences between temporal and spatial occlusion conditions. Both of those factors interacted separately, but not combined with expertise. Importantly, for experts the sum of both fields of vision was superior to either source in isolation. Our results suggest different sources of visual information work collectively to facilitate expert anticipation in time-constrained sports and reinforce the complexity of expert perception.

  6. I think therefore I om: cognitive distortions and coping style as mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, positive and negative affect, and hope.

    PubMed

    Sears, Sharon; Kraus, Sue

    2009-06-01

    This study examined cognitive distortions and coping styles as potential mediators for the effects of mindfulness meditation on anxiety, negative affect, positive affect, and hope in college students. Our pre- and postintervention design had four conditions: control, brief meditation focused on attention, brief meditation focused on loving kindness, and longer meditation combining both attentional and loving kindness aspects of mindfulness. Each group met weekly over the course of a semester. Longer combined meditation significantly reduced anxiety and negative affect and increased hope. Changes in cognitive distortions mediated intervention effects for anxiety, negative affect, and hope. Further research is needed to determine differential effects of types of meditation.

  7. Informal science participation positively affects the communication and pedagogical skills of university physics students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinko, Kathleen; Finkelstein, Noah

    2013-04-01

    Many undergraduate and graduate physics students choose to participate in an informal science program at the University of Colorado Boulder (Partnerships for Informal Science Education in the Community (PISEC)). They coach elementary and middle school students in inquiry-based physics activities during weekly, afterschool sessions. Observations from the afterschool sessions, field notes from the students, and pre/post surveys are collected. University students are also pre/post- videotaped explaining a textbook passage on a physics concept to an imagined audience for the Communications in Everyday Language assessment (CELA). We present findings from these data that indicate informal experiences improve the communication and pedagogical skills of the university student as well as positively influence their self-efficacy as scientific communicators and teachers.

  8. An online positive affect skills intervention reduces depression in adults with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Cohn, Michael A; Pietrucha, Martha E; Saslow, Laura R; Hult, Jen R; Moskowitz, Judith T

    2014-01-01

    Positive affect predicts improved glycemic control and longevity in adults with type 2 diabetes. We tested DAHLIA, a self-paced online intervention for type 2 diabetes that teaches positive affect skills such as savoring, gratitude, and acts of kindness. Participants (n=49) were randomized to the 5-week DAHLIA course or an emotion-reporting waitlist control. DAHLIA was understood and accepted by participants and showed good retention (78%). At post-intervention, DAHLIA participants showed a significantly greater decrease in depression than controls (-4.3 vs. +0.6 points on the CES-D, p =.05). Secondary analyses found that this effect was considerably stronger in intervention recipients recruited online than those recruited in person. Intervention recipients recruited online also showed significantly increased positive affect, reduced negative affect, and reduced perceived stress. There were no effects on measures of diabetes-specific efficacy or sense of burden, or preliminary measures of health behaviors. This successful feasibility and efficacy trial provides support for a larger trial focusing more specifically on health behavior. PMID:25214877

  9. The Relationship Between Optimism, Coping, and Depressive Symptoms in Hispanic Mothers and Fathers of Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Willis, Kelcie; Timmons, Lisa; Pruitt, Megan; Schneider, Hoa Lam; Alessandri, Michael; Ekas, Naomi V

    2016-07-01

    This study examined gender differences in the relationship between dispositional optimism, coping, and depressive symptoms of Hispanic mothers (n = 46) and fathers (n = 43) of children with autism spectrum disorder. Coping was hypothesized to mediate the relationship between optimism and depressive symptoms. The results revealed that mothers reported greater depressive symptoms and greater use of positive and support coping than fathers; however, both mothers and fathers reported similar levels of optimism and use of avoidant coping. In addition, positive and avoidant coping strategies mediated the association between optimism and depressive symptoms for both mothers and fathers. Clinical implications for this study include interventions for improving optimistic outlooks as well as interventions that improve parents' coping skills and therefore reduce negative outcomes.

  10. Effects of Positive and Negative Reinforcement on Daily Living Skills in Chronic Psychiatric Patients in Community Residences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lippman, Matthew R.; Motta, Robert W.

    1993-01-01

    Examined contingent positive and negative reinforcement and adaptive behavior and mood among 36 chronic, psychiatric outpatients who received either contingent positive token reinforcement to improve daily living skills, negative reinforcement procedure based on removal of free-tokens, or no treatment. Found significant differences between control…

  11. The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees.

  12. The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees. PMID:23111049

  13. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    Background Burnout is recognized as an occupational hazard, and nursing has a high risk of burnout. This study aims to explore the relationship between psychological capital (PsyCap) and burnout among Chinese nurses and the mediating role of coping style in this relationship. Methods A total of 1,496 nurses (effective response rate: 80.11%) from two large general hospitals in Daqing City of China were selected as participants. Data were collected via the Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory (CMBI), the psychological capital questionnaire (PCQ-24), the Chinese Trait Coping Style Questionnaire (TCSQ) and demographic and caregiver-patient relationship. Hierarchical linear regression analyses were performed to explore the mediating role of positive coping and negative coping, and we used the Bootstrap method to confirm the mediating effect. Results Self-efficacy, hope, resilience and optimism of nurses were all negatively related with emotional exhaustion, depersonalization and reduced personal accomplishment among Chinese nurses. Positive coping partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between self-efficacy/optimism and reduced personal accomplishment. Negative coping fully mediated the relationship between self-efficacy and emotional exhaustion, and in the regression model self-efficacy was positively correlated with emotional exhaustion. And negative coping also partially mediated the relationship between hope/optimism and emotional exhaustion and between optimism and depersonalization. Conclusion PsyCap had effects on burnout and coping style was a mediator in this relationship among Chinese nurses. Nurses who had a strong sense of self-efficacy adopted more negative coping style, which in turn would lead to higher levels of emotional exhaustion. These findings shed light on the influence of negative coping on burnout, and positive coping was a positive resource for fighting against nurses’ burnout. Hence, in order to

  14. Changes in Coping Following Treatment for Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serran, Geris A.; Moulden, Heather; Firestone, Philip; Marshall, W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Relapse prevention theory assumes that specific coping skills deficits contribute to sexual reoffending. Recent research suggests that the general coping style of sexual offenders is also ineffective. In this study changes were examined in specific and general coping deficits following a treatment program that incorporated specific skills training…

  15. Coping with the cold: the cold shock response in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed Central

    Weber, Michael H W; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2002-01-01

    All organisms examined to date, respond to a sudden change in environmental temperature with a specific cascade of adaptation reactions that, in some cases, have been identified and monitored at the molecular level. According to the type of temperature change, this response has been termed heat shock response (HSR) or cold shock response (CSR). During the HSR, a specialized sigma factor has been shown to play a central regulatory role in controlling expression of genes predominantly required to cope with heat-induced alteration of protein conformation. In contrast, after cold shock, nucleic acid structure and proteins interacting with the biological information molecules DNA and RNA appear to play a major cellular role. Currently, no cold-specific sigma factor has been identified. Therefore, unlike the HSR, the CSR appears to be organized as a complex stimulon rather than resembling a regulon. This review has been designed to draw a refined picture of our current understanding of the CSR in Bacillus subtilis. Important processes such as temperature sensing, membrane adaptation, modification of the translation apparatus, as well as nucleoid reorganization and some metabolic aspects, are discussed in brief. Special emphasis is placed on recent findings concerning the nucleic acid binding cold shock proteins, which play a fundamental role, not only during cold shock adaptation but also under optimal growth conditions. PMID:12171653

  16. Coping with the cold: the cold shock response in the Gram-positive soil bacterium Bacillus subtilis.

    PubMed

    Weber, Michael H W; Marahiel, Mohamed A

    2002-07-29

    All organisms examined to date, respond to a sudden change in environmental temperature with a specific cascade of adaptation reactions that, in some cases, have been identified and monitored at the molecular level. According to the type of temperature change, this response has been termed heat shock response (HSR) or cold shock response (CSR). During the HSR, a specialized sigma factor has been shown to play a central regulatory role in controlling expression of genes predominantly required to cope with heat-induced alteration of protein conformation. In contrast, after cold shock, nucleic acid structure and proteins interacting with the biological information molecules DNA and RNA appear to play a major cellular role. Currently, no cold-specific sigma factor has been identified. Therefore, unlike the HSR, the CSR appears to be organized as a complex stimulon rather than resembling a regulon. This review has been designed to draw a refined picture of our current understanding of the CSR in Bacillus subtilis. Important processes such as temperature sensing, membrane adaptation, modification of the translation apparatus, as well as nucleoid reorganization and some metabolic aspects, are discussed in brief. Special emphasis is placed on recent findings concerning the nucleic acid binding cold shock proteins, which play a fundamental role, not only during cold shock adaptation but also under optimal growth conditions.

  17. STRIVE: Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments: a pre-deployment VR system for training emotional coping skills and assessing chronic and acute stress responses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Buckwalter, J Galen; John, Bruce; Newman, Brad; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick; Williams, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after

  18. STRIVE: Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments: a pre-deployment VR system for training emotional coping skills and assessing chronic and acute stress responses.

    PubMed

    Rizzo, Albert; Buckwalter, J Galen; John, Bruce; Newman, Brad; Parsons, Thomas; Kenny, Patrick; Williams, Josh

    2012-01-01

    The incidence of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in returning OEF/OIF military personnel is creating a significant healthcare challenge. This has served to motivate research on how to better develop and disseminate evidence-based treatments for PTSD. One emerging form of treatment for combat-related PTSD that has shown promise involves the delivery of exposure therapy using immersive Virtual Reality (VR). Initial outcomes from open clinical trials have been positive and fully randomized controlled trials are currently in progress to further validate this approach. Based on our research group's initial positive outcomes using VR to emotionally engage and successfully treat persons undergoing exposure therapy for PTSD, we have begun development in a similar VR-based approach to deliver stress resilience training with military service members prior to their initial deployment. The Stress Resilience In Virtual Environments (STRIVE) project aims to create a set of combat simulations (derived from our existing Virtual Iraq/Afghanistan exposure therapy system) that are part of a multi-episode narrative experience. Users can be immersed within challenging combat contexts and interact with virtual characters within these episodes as part of an experiential learning approach for training a range of psychoeducational and cognitive-behavioral emotional coping strategies believed to enhance stress resilience. The STRIVE project aims to present this approach to service members prior to deployment as part of a program designed to better prepare military personnel for the types of emotional challenges that are inherent in the combat environment. During these virtual training experiences users are monitored physiologically as part of a larger investigation into the biomarkers of the stress response. One such construct, Allostatic Load, is being directly investigated via physiological and neuro-hormonal analysis from specimen collections taken immediately before and after

  19. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, family environment, and caregiver coping in families of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.

  20. Positive Peer Culture with German Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinebach, Christoph; Steinebach, Ursula

    2009-01-01

    Children and youth develop the ability to surmount difficult life challenges through a combination of external supports and internal strengths. Positive peers can contribute substantially to growth in resilient coping and problem-solving skills. Positive Peer Culture (PPC) programs are designed to strengthen supportive social bonds, competence,…

  1. Predictors of positive psychosocial functioning of older adults in residential care facilities.

    PubMed

    Schanowitz, Jeff Y; Nicassio, Perry M

    2006-04-01

    This research examined the contributions of active and passive coping for health problems, and meaning-based coping, to positive psychosocial functioning in a sample of 100 individuals in residential care with a mean age of 83.11 years old. Study participants resided in skilled care, intermediate care, or assisted living facilities. Based on interview data collected on site in participants' residential settings, hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that active and passive coping and meaning-based coping had separate influences on measures of positive psychosocial functioning. Active coping was correlated with higher positive affect, whereas passive coping was associated with higher negative affect and self-acceptance. Positive reappraisal, a meaning-based coping strategy, was uniquely associated with higher positive affect, positive social relations, and self-acceptance. Positive religious coping was not independently associated with positive psychosocial functioning indices, whereas negative religious coping was related to higher negative affect. Health functioning did not contribute to positive psychosocial functioning in this sample. The results confirm the separate importance of health-related and meaning-based coping strategies in explaining positive psychosocial functioning in older adults living in residential care settings. PMID:16453068

  2. Children and Adults Both See "Pirates" in "Parties": Letter-Position Effects for Developing Readers and Skilled Adult Readers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paterson, Kevin B.; Read, Josephine; McGowan, Victoria A.; Jordan, Timothy R.

    2015-01-01

    Developing readers often make anagrammatical errors (e.g. misreading pirates as parties), suggesting they use letter position flexibly during word recognition. However, while it is widely assumed that the occurrence of these errors decreases with increases in reading skill, empirical evidence to support this distinction is lacking. Accordingly, we…

  3. Improving the Social Proficiency of Art and Music Students through the Use of Specifically Taught Positive Social Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciaburri, Chris; White, Jeannette T.

    This action research project developed a program for improving the social proficiency of art and music students through the use of specifically taught positive social skills. The targeted population consisted of fifth-grade students from two different elementary school districts. Both schools were located in middle class suburban communities near…

  4. Skills, Positional Good or Social Closure? The Role of Education across Structural-Institutional Labour Market Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van de Werfhorst, Herman G.

    2011-01-01

    A theoretical approach is formulated that connects various theories of why education has an effect on labour market outcomes with institutional settings in which such theories provide the most likely mechanism. Three groups of mechanisms are distinguished: education as an indicator of productive skills, as a positional good and as a means for…

  5. Developing Teaching Assistants' Skills in Positive Behaviour Management: An Application of Video Interaction Guidance in a Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Ben; Richardson, Sally; Hindle, Sarah; Grayson, Katy

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports an action research project in a school in the UK designed to investigate the impact of a brief Video Interaction Guidance (VIG) intervention in promoting skills of non-teaching staff in positive behaviour management. A summary of the literature in relation to VIG is provided before describing the project and data collected. Ten…

  6. A matter of interpretation: developing primary pupils' enquiry skills using position-linked datalogging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan

    2012-11-01

    Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of their science teaching; (2) pupils' abilities to collect and interpret relevant environmental monitoring data; and (3) the use of scientific data within environmental education in the project schools. Programme description: The project used software which integrates data from Global Positioning System (GPS) with sensor data collected outdoors to produce Google Earth visualisations of environmental quality in each school's locality. Sample: Phase 1 involved 10 primary schools in the South West of England (2008-9), and phase 2 was implemented in six primary schools in Greater London during 2010. All pupils in the 9-10-year-old age range participated to some extent (N ≈ 450) and each school identified a focus group of between two and four pupils (n = 38) together with two members of staff (n = 32) to be more closely involved in the project. Design and methods: The evaluation adopted a multi-method approach, drawing upon documentary sources (n = 40); observations of continuing professional development (CPD) cluster days (n = 8) and dissemination events (June 2009 and January 2011): baseline pupil assessment tasks (n = 291) and teachers' baseline questionnaire (n = 25) in September 2008 and March 2010; classroom observations; samples of pupil work (n = 31); end-of-project pupil assessment (n = 38) and teachers' and pupils' responses to the project (n ≈ 180) in June 2009 and December 2010; and a longitudinal evaluation in February 2012. Results: Datalogging had become a regular feature of practical science in nearly all project schools up to 30 months after the end of the project, but the use of position-linked logging had

  7. Establishing Positive Verbal Environments: Strategies for Promoting Social Development through Positive Guidance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meece, Darrell; Rivers, Linda; Wingate, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    The quality of the verbal environment sets the stage for young children's developing perceptions of themselves and others. This document provides hands-on, practical advice for practitioners to support children's self-perception and coping skills by establishing and maintaining a positive verbal environment. Positive verbal environments enhance…

  8. Coping Styles of Individuals at Clinical High Risk for Developing Psychosis

    PubMed Central

    Jalbrzikowski, Maria; Sugar, Catherine A.; Zinberg, Jamie; Bachman, Peter; Cannon, Tyrone D.; Bearden, Carrie E.

    2012-01-01

    Aim There is a wealth of evidence suggesting that patients with schizophrenia tend to respond to life stressors using less effective coping skills, which are in turn related to poor outcome. However, the contribution of coping strategies to outcome in youth at clinical high risk (CHR) for developing psychosis has not been investigated. Methods This longitudinal study followed CHR youth over a twelve-month period, using the Brief COPE questionnaire. CHR subjects (n=88) were compared at baseline to a healthy control sample (n=53), and then mixed models were used to explore the relationship of coping strategies to clinical and psychosocial outcomes in CHR subjects over time (n=102). Results Cross-sectional analyses revealed that, in comparison to healthy controls, CHR youth reported using more maladaptive coping strategies (p<.001) and fewer adaptive coping strategies (p<.01). Longitudinal analyses within the CHR group showed significant decreases in maladaptive coping and symptom severity over time, with corresponding improvements in social and role functioning. Adaptive coping was associated with better concurrent social functioning and less severe symptomatology (both p<.001). Over time, more maladaptive coping was associated with more severe positive and negative symptoms (both p < .005). Conclusions Youth at-risk for psychosis report using fewer adaptive and more maladaptive coping strategies relative to healthy controls. Over one year follow-up, more adaptive coping styles are associated with less severe clinical symptomatology and better social functioning. These findings suggest that teaching adaptive coping styles may be an important target for intervention in youth at high risk for psychosis. PMID:23164368

  9. Motivational Interviewing Skills are Positively Associated with Nutritionist Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marley, Scott C.; Carbonneau, Kira; Lockner, Donna; Kibbe, Debra; Trowbridge, Frederick

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To examine the relationships between physical and social self-concepts, motivational interviewing (MI), and nutrition assessment skills with dimensions of counseling self-efficacy. Design: Cross-sectional survey. Setting: Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants, and Children (WIC) clinics. Participants: Sixty-five WIC…

  10. Positive Transfer and Negative Transfer/Antilearning of Problem-Solving Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Magda

    2008-01-01

    In problem-solving research, insights into the relationship between monitoring and control in the transfer of complex skills remain impoverished. To address this, in 4 experiments, the authors had participants solve 2 complex control tasks that were identical in structure but that varied in presentation format. Participants learned to solve the…

  11. The Positive Effects of Early Powered Mobility on Children's Psychosocial and Play Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerette, Paula; Furumasu, Jan; Tefft, Donita

    2013-01-01

    Powered mobility can have an important cognitive and psychosocial impact on young children who are unable to move independently. Twenty-three children with physical disabilities between the ages of 18 months and 6 years participated in this study. Data evaluating social skills, frequency of mobility play activities, frequency of interaction with…

  12. A Job Announcement Analysis of Educational Technology Professional Positions: Knowledge, Skills, and Abilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, YoungJu; Ritzhaupt, Albert D.

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to identify the competencies of an educational technologist via a job announcement analysis. Four hundred job announcements were collected from a variety of online job databases over a 5-month period. Following a systematic process of collection, documentation, and analysis, we derived over 150 knowledge, skill,…

  13. Coping by Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Sheila S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a Texas elementary school's efforts to cope with the special needs of Kenneth, a fourth grader slowly dying of kidney cancer. Besides learning their subjects like other students, Kenneth's classmates learned how to care. Every student volunteered to be Kenneth's assistant and was enriched by the boy's positive attitude and determination…

  14. Coping Power. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Coping Power" is based on the earlier "Anger Coping Power" program. It emphasizes social and emotional skills that are needed during the transition to middle school. The program incorporates child and parent components. The child component consists of thirty-four 50-minute group sessions and periodic individual sessions over the course of 15-18…

  15. Schools Must Teach Kids How To Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Patricia

    1987-01-01

    Students need opportunities for developing a strong self-image and for learning how to cope with life's problems safely and effectively. Programs should be provided that offer young people the opportunity to develop (1) a strong and secure sense of self-worth; (2) more effective communication skills; (3) the ability to cope with disappointment,…

  16. [Coping psychologically with amputation].

    PubMed

    Schulz, M

    2009-02-01

    An amputation is a "tragic event" in someone's biography which causes a dramatic change in the outer appearance, the loss of mobility, independence and self esteem. The following article is about how people learn to cope with this difficult situation; with the practical problems of everyday life as well as their emotional problems. It is important for the amputees to go through the different stages of mourning: The first stage is the rejection of the situation. Repression and denial of the loss protects the patient from emotional overstrain. Confrontation is the next step: emotionally as well as mentally. "How could it happen?", (understanding the reasons why ...) "What will my future be like?", "How will I cope?" (ability of coping) "Why did it happen to me?" (sense) The last stage of coping with the amputation is to accept and deal with the new situation and to build up new self-confidence. A successful process of coping leads to a new identity. If a person fails to adapt to the new situation, he will develop an inferiority complex and fall into a depression. He might also try to look for culprit and blame the situation on someone else. About two thirds of all amputees don't cope with their amputation and become depressive. 15% develop symptoms of anxiety. Therefore it is important to offer help. The patients should get together in self helping groups and talk about their experiences and problems. If they need more intensive and individual help, they should have the opportunity to contact a psychologist. During the process of coping with their amputation the patients often alternate between optimistic and pessimistic moods. Sometimes they fall back into a negative and resigned state of mind. This is natural and part of the process as long as they find their own way to a positive attitude and view of life. PMID:19259934

  17. Are reported stress and coping style associated with frequent recurrence of genital herpes?

    PubMed Central

    Cassidy, L; Meadows, J; Catalán, J; Barton, S

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This paper reports on the cross sectional data from the longitudinal study examining the impact of genital herpes simplex virus (HSV) infection on quality of life. In particular the report sought to study the relation between recurrence of genital HSV and coping style, mood, personality, and quality of life, among other factors. SETTING AND SUBJECTS: 116 patients with a known history of genital herpes simplex infection attending the Department of Genitourinary Medicine at Chelsea and Westminster Hospital. METHODS: Psychosocial factors (stress, anxiety, depression, health locus of control, personality, social support, coping skills, and quality of life) and the reported frequency of genital herpes episodes were measured using self administered questionnaires designed to examine the relation between psychosocial status and the frequency of genital HSV episodes. RESULTS: The number of recurrences reported by patients was significantly related to the style of coping skills used. Higher recurrences were less likely to use problem focused coping skills of planning and active coping, and the emotion focused coping skills of positive reinterpretation and growth. There was a significant difference in the number of patients who believed that psychological stress was related to the number of recurrences they experienced. This belief was related to neuroticism on the Eysenck Personality Questionnaire scale, and not to any of the other measures investigated. CONCLUSION: The findings suggest that it is the way individuals cope, and their personality characteristics rather than actual levels of psychological stress, that influence their belief in a link between recurrent genital HSV and stress. HSV may become the focus of existing concerns and be viewed as the physical manifestation of stress. PMID:9389946

  18. Elite firefighter/first responder mindsets and outcome coping efficacy.

    PubMed

    Dowdall-Thomae, Cynthia; Gilkey, John; Larson, Wanda; Arend-Hicks, Rebecca

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined coping strategies used by firefighters, the relationship between appraisals and coping strategies used, and the relationship between transitional coping strategies used and outcome coping efficacy for mental preparedness. Firefighter coping strategies of problem focused coping and seeking social support were found to have positive significant relationships to outcome coping efficacy, after transitioning from one critical incident to a second. The coping strategies of blamed self wishful thinking, and avoidance appear to have a negative significant relationship to outcome coping efficacy. Additionally, the appraisals of challenge and positive reappraisal to meet the challenge appear to have a positive significant relationship to problem focused coping and seeking social support. These findings on outcome coping efficacy may be of help to firefighters for rehabilitative efforts after traumatic incidents when used in the Peer Support Review intervention model. PMID:23980491

  19. Unleashing Creativity in Linguistic Discourses through Advertising Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suneetha, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Creative fluency is positively correlated with the quantity and quality of talk as well. The fluency gives an indication of the learner's ability to cope with real-time communication. This paper makes a correlative study on nurturing narrative tasks through advertising skills. English advertising exploits from the high adaptability of the English…

  20. An Investigation into the Role of Coping in Preventing Depression Associated with Perfectionism in Preadolescent Children

    PubMed Central

    Dry, Silja M.; Kane, Robert Thomas; Rooney, Rosanna M.

    2015-01-01

    The relationships between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism (SPP) and maladaptive and adaptive coping strategies and their collective impact on depression symptoms were examined in the context of a randomized controlled universal trial of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program. Five hundred and forty-one children aged 8–12 completed a battery of self-reports, of which responses for measures of depression symptoms, perfectionism, and coping strategies were examined for the purposes of this study. Structural equation modeling tested whether coping mediated the effects of perfectionism on depression. Results indicated that SPP had both a direct and an indirect relationship with depression symptoms through a moderate association with maladaptive coping. Implications for prevention of depression were discussed and recommendations for future research were proposed. PMID:26301212

  1. The NIE Conference on Basic Mathematical Skills and Learning (Euclid, Ohio, October 4-6, 1975). Volume I: Contributed Position Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. of Education (DHEW), Washington, DC.

    In October 1975 a conference was convened in Euclid, Ohio, by the Basic Skills Group of the National Institute of Education (NIE). Thirty-three participants presented position papers addressing two major questions: (1) What are basic mathematical skills and learning? (2) What are the major problems related to children's acquisition of basic…

  2. Relationship between alexithymia and coping strategies in patients with somatoform disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tominaga, Toshiyuki; Choi, Hyungin; Nagoshi, Yasuhide; Wada, Yoshihisa; Fukui, Kenji

    2014-01-01

    Purpose A multidimensional intervention integrating alexithymia, negative affect, and type of coping strategy is needed for the effective treatment of somatoform disorder; however, few studies have applied this approach to the three different dimensions of alexithymia in patients with somatoform disorder. The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between type of coping strategy and three different dimensions of alexithymia expressed in patients. Patients and methods A total of 196 patients with somatoform disorder completed the 20-item Toronto Alexithymia Scale, the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scale, the Spielberger State–Trait Anxiety Inventory, the Somatosensory Amplification Scale, and the Lazarus Stress Coping Inventory. The relationships between alexithymia (Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 score and subscales), demographic variables, and psychological inventory scores were analyzed using Pearson’s correlation coefficients and stepwise multiple regression analysis. Results The mean Toronto Alexithymia Scale – 20 total score (56.1±10.57) was positively correlated with the number of physical symptoms as well as with psychopathology scores (Self-Rating Depression Scale, State–Trait Anxiety Inventory trait, state, and Somatosensory Amplification Scale), but negatively correlated with planful problem solving, confrontive coping, seeking social support, and positive reappraisal coping scores. With respect to coping strategy, multiple regression analyses revealed that “difficulty in identifying feelings” was positively associated with an escape–avoidance strategy, “difficulty in describing feelings” was negatively associated with a seeking social support strategy, and “externally oriented thinking” was negatively associated with a confrontive coping strategy. Conclusion Alexithymia was strongly associated with the number of somatic symptoms and negative affect. Patients with high “difficulty in describing feelings” tend to

  3. Creating Positive Environments in Skilled Nursing Facilities to Support Best Practice Implementation: An Overview and Practical Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Natalie F; Hickey, Ellen

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss various types of organizational cultures and climates in relationship to best practice implementation. Although not specific to speech-language pathology, positive organizational cultures and climates are associated with better clinician and patient outcomes in health care services than dysfunctional and/or hierarchical organizational cultures and climates. A goal of this article is to help the practicing speech-language pathologist (SLP) promote positive culture change in the skilled nursing facility (SNF) setting. Recommendations to improve the organizational culture and climate of SNFs will be presented through practical examples of collaborative practice. Further suggestions will be surmised from the organizational psychology and interprofessional education literature. The connection between organizational culture and climate, interprofessional education, collaborative practice, and SLPs' best practice implementation in the SNF setting will be discussed. Avenues for future work are suggested. PMID:26190508

  4. Creating Positive Environments in Skilled Nursing Facilities to Support Best Practice Implementation: An Overview and Practical Suggestions.

    PubMed

    Douglas, Natalie F; Hickey, Ellen

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to discuss various types of organizational cultures and climates in relationship to best practice implementation. Although not specific to speech-language pathology, positive organizational cultures and climates are associated with better clinician and patient outcomes in health care services than dysfunctional and/or hierarchical organizational cultures and climates. A goal of this article is to help the practicing speech-language pathologist (SLP) promote positive culture change in the skilled nursing facility (SNF) setting. Recommendations to improve the organizational culture and climate of SNFs will be presented through practical examples of collaborative practice. Further suggestions will be surmised from the organizational psychology and interprofessional education literature. The connection between organizational culture and climate, interprofessional education, collaborative practice, and SLPs' best practice implementation in the SNF setting will be discussed. Avenues for future work are suggested.

  5. Life Events, Coping, and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms among Chinese Adolescents Exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Yuhong; Fan, Fang; Liu, Xianchen; Mo, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To examine the relationship between negative life events, coping styles, and symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) among adolescent survivors exposed to 2008 Wenchuan Earthquake, China. Methods A survey was conducted in a sample of 2250 adolescent students from two schools in Dujiangyan District, a seriously damaged area, 20 kilometers away from the epicenter, 6 months after the earthquake. Participants completed a self-administered questionnaire including demographics, negative life events, coping styles, and PTSD symptoms. Results Academic pressure was the strongest predictor of adolescents' PTSD symptoms among all negative life events. Main effects of negative life events, positive coping and negative coping on PTSD symptoms were significant in both younger adolescents and older adolescents, while the moderator effects of two coping styles were found significant only within older adolescents. Conclusions Coping may play a role to moderate the relationship between post-earthquake negative life events and PTSD symptom, but the function seems to depend on the age of participants. Psychosocial coping skills training may be important in the prevention and intervention of mental health problems in adolescent survivors of traumatic earthquake. PMID:22295059

  6. A Matter of Interpretation: Developing Primary Pupils' Enquiry Skills Using Position-Linked Datalogging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davies, Daniel John; Collier, Christopher; Howe, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Background: This article reports on an evaluation study of a project seeking to develop the use of position-linked datalogging with primary pupils in environmental science contexts. Purpose: The study sought to find out the extent to which the project had developed: (1) participant teachers' confidence in using datalogging as an everyday part of…

  7. The Associations of Dyadic Coping and Relationship Satisfaction Vary between and within Nations: A 35-Nation Study

    PubMed Central

    Hilpert, Peter; Randall, Ashley K.; Sorokowski, Piotr; Atkins, David C.; Sorokowska, Agnieszka; Ahmadi, Khodabakhsh; Alghraibeh, Ahmad M.; Aryeetey, Richmond; Bertoni, Anna; Bettache, Karim; Błażejewska, Marta; Bodenmann, Guy; Borders, Jessica; Bortolini, Tiago S.; Butovskaya, Marina; Castro, Felipe N.; Cetinkaya, Hakan; Cunha, Diana; David, Oana A.; DeLongis, Anita; Dileym, Fahd A.; Domínguez Espinosa, Alejandra D. C.; Donato, Silvia; Dronova, Daria; Dural, Seda; Fisher, Maryanne; Frackowiak, Tomasz; Gulbetekin, Evrim; Hamamcıoğlu Akkaya, Aslıhan; Hansen, Karolina; Hattori, Wallisen T.; Hromatko, Ivana; Iafrate, Raffaella; James, Bawo O.; Jiang, Feng; Kimamo, Charles O.; King, David B.; Koç, Fırat; Laar, Amos; Lopes, Fívia De Araújo; Martinez, Rocio; Mesko, Norbert; Molodovskaya, Natalya; Moradi, Khadijeh; Motahari, Zahrasadat; Natividade, Jean C.; Ntayi, Joseph; Ojedokun, Oluyinka; Omar-Fauzee, Mohd S. B.; Onyishi, Ike E.; Özener, Barış; Paluszak, Anna; Portugal, Alda; Relvas, Ana P.; Rizwan, Muhammad; Salkičević, Svjetlana; Sarmány-Schuller, Ivan; Stamkou, Eftychia; Stoyanova, Stanislava; Šukolová, Denisa; Sutresna, Nina; Tadinac, Meri; Teras, Andero; Tinoco Ponciano, Edna L.; Tripathi, Ritu; Tripathi, Nachiketa; Tripathi, Mamta; Vilchinsky, Noa; Xu, Feng; Yamamoto, Maria E.; Yoo, Gyesook

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Theories about how couples help each other to cope with stress, such as the systemic transactional model of dyadic coping, suggest that the cultural context in which couples live influences how their coping behavior affects their relationship satisfaction. In contrast to the theoretical assumptions, a recent meta-analysis provides evidence that neither culture, nor gender, influences the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction, at least based on their samples of couples living in North America and West Europe. Thus, it is an open questions whether the theoretical assumptions of cultural influences are false or whether cultural influences on couple behavior just occur in cultures outside of the Western world. Method: In order to examine the cultural influence, using a sample of married individuals (N = 7973) from 35 nations, we used multilevel modeling to test whether the positive association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies across nations and whether gender might moderate the association. Results: Results reveal that the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction varies between nations. In addition, results show that in some nations the association is higher for men and in other nations it is higher for women. Conclusions: Cultural and gender differences across the globe influence how couples' coping behavior affects relationship outcomes. This crucial finding indicates that couple relationship education programs and interventions need to be culturally adapted, as skill trainings such as dyadic coping lead to differential effects on relationship satisfaction based on the culture in which couples live. PMID:27551269

  8. Gender and Age Differences in How Children Cope with Daily Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morales Rodriguez, Francisco Manuel; Trianes Torres, Maria Victoria; Miranda Paez, Jesus

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The study of coping among students accounts for an interesting subject, as having coping skills guarantees a healthy lifestyle and quality of life. The present study aims to analyze the role played by age and gender on the coping strategies used by Andalusian school students to cope with situations of daily stress. These situations…

  9. A validity and reliability study of the coping self-efficacy scale

    PubMed Central

    Chesney, Margaret A.; Neilands, Torsten B.; Chambers, Donald B.; Taylor, Jonelle M.; Folkman, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Investigate the psychometric characteristics of the coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale, a 26-item measure of one’s confidence in performing coping behaviors when faced with life challenges. Design Data came from two randomized clinical trials (N1 = 149, N2 = 199) evaluating a theory-based Coping Effectiveness Training (CET) intervention in reducing psychological distress and increasing positive mood in persons coping with chronic illness. Methods The 348 participants were HIV-seropositive men with depressed mood who have sex with men. Participants were randomly assigned to intervention and comparison conditions and assessed pre- and post-intervention. Outcome variables included the CSE scale, ways of coping, and measures of social support and psychological distress and well-being. Results Exploratory (EFA) and confirmatory factor analyses (CFA) revealed a 13-item reduced form of the CSE scale with three factors: Use problem-focused coping (6 items, α = .91), stop unpleasant emotions and thoughts (4 items, α = .91), and get support from friends and family (3 items, α = .80). Internal consistency and test–retest reliability are strong for all three factors. Concurrent validity analyses showed these factors assess self-efficacy for different types of coping. Predictive validity analyses showed that residualized change scores in using problem- and emotion-focused coping skills were predictive of reduced psychological distress and increased psychological well-being over time. Conclusions The CSE scale provides a measure of a person’s perceived ability to cope effectively with life challenges, as well as a way to assess changes in CSE over time in intervention research. PMID:16870053

  10. Intervention for Positive Use of Leisure Time among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yarnal, Careen; Qian, Xinyi; Hustad, John; Sims, Damon

    2013-01-01

    College student excessive alcohol use is a pressing public health concern, and many of the negative events associated with heavy drinking occur during leisure or free time. Positive use of leisure can lead to coping skills, stress reduction, and healthy development. Negative use of leisure, including heavy alcohol use, is associated with physical…

  11. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: evidence for the coping flexibility hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-04-01

    Coping flexibility was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college students and employees were conducted to test the hypothesis that flexible coping produces more adaptive outcomes. Studies 1, 2, and 3 provided evidence of the reliability of the CFS scores as well as of its convergent and discriminant validity for Japanese samples. Study 4 further demonstrated that flexible coping was positively associated with improved psychological health, including reduced depression, anxiety, and distress. In Study 5, coping flexibility as measured by the CFS was associated with reduced future depression, even after controlling for the effects of other coping flexibility measures and popular coping strategies. Overall, these results suggest that a valid approach for assessing coping flexibility has been developed and that flexible coping can contribute to psychological health. The implications of these findings for clinical practice are discussed. PMID:22506909

  12. Coping with work and family: how do dual-earners interact?

    PubMed

    Matias, Marisa; Fontaine, Anne Marie

    2015-04-01

    Juggling the demands of both work and family has become increasingly difficult, especially for dual-earner households; nevertheless, families have developed strategies to deal with work-family challenges. This paper uses couple level analyses (APIM models) with 100 dual-earner couples to provide insight about partners' mutual influence on the use of work-family coping strategies. The results show that women's use of coping strategies is more associated with work-family conflict and work-family enrichment than men's coping. In addition, using partner coping, having a positive attitude towards multiple roles, using planning and management skills and avoiding having to cut back on professional responsibilities is associated with better outcomes (more enrichment and less conflict). Surprisingly, the use of childcare facilities is associated with women's conflict and partner effects were only found concerning the use of management and planning skills. These skills, however, have distinct effects for men and women's outcomes: their use by men reduces their own conflict but increases their wives', while their use by women decreases their own conflict and increases their own and their partner's enrichment. These results point to the fact that gender roles continue to be a hallmark of work-family issues. Our design and results point out the need for new interventions that take couple interdependences into account.

  13. Living Skills as a Core Curriculum Component.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dufty, David

    Schools should help students develop daily living skills in addition to basic cognitive skills such as reading, writing, and figuring. Living skills are interpreted to include those skills which help students cope with rapid social change. Skills need to be taught on health and nutrition, safety and first aid, interpersonal relationships, family…

  14. [Snacking behavior among elementary and junior high school students and its relationship to stress-coping].

    PubMed

    Shimai, S; Kawabata, T; Nishioka, N; Haruki, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate current problems of snacking behavior and their relationship to stress coping among 1,486 fourth through ninth grade students from 10 elementary schools and six junior high schools. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was utilized which included items about 1) selection of snack foods, which were classified into healthy, popular, complementary and western-style snacks, 2) problems of snacking behavior, which included external and emotional eating scores, and 3) stress coping scale. The stress coping scale contained two sub-scales; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. The results were as follows: 1) Students who frequently went without breakfast did not select healthy foods, i.e., fruits and dairy products, but popular snacks, i.e., potato chips, pop corn and sweet beverage. 2) Both external and emotional eating scores increased by age in girls but was not apparent in boys. 3) Students who preferred either western-style or popular snacks showed higher score of external and emotional eating. 4) The score of problem-focused coping was positively correlated with preference for health snacks, but emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with external and emotional eating scores. The close relationship between snack food selection and problematic aspects of eating behavior suggests that modification of eating behavior is necessary to develop healthy snack habits in early adolescents. Also, it is interesting that snacking behavior is closely related to stress coping, which suggested the behavioral intervention for healthy eating habit should be included in development of stress-coping skills against various kinds of demands in life.

  15. Exploring the Relationship Among Moral Distress, Coping, and the Practice Environment in Emergency Department Nurses.

    PubMed

    Zavotsky, Kathleen Evanovich; Chan, Garrett K

    2016-01-01

    Emergency department (ED) nurses practice in environments that are highly charged and unpredictable in nature and can precipitate conflict between the necessary prescribed actions and the individual's sense of what is morally the right thing to do. As a consequence of multiple moral dilemmas, ED staff nurses are at risk for experiencing distress and how they cope with these challenges may impact their practice. To examine moral distress in ED nurses and its relationship to coping in that specialty group. Using survey methods approach. One hundred ninety-eight ED nurses completed a moral distress, coping, and demographic collection instruments. Advanced statistical analysis was completed to look at relationships between the variables. Data analysis did show that moral distress is present in ED nurses (M = 80.19, SD = 53.27), and when separated into age groups, the greater the age, the less the experience of moral distress. A positive relationship between moral distress and some coping mechanisms and the ED environment was also noted. This study's findings suggest that ED nurses experience moral distress and could receive some benefit from utilization of appropriate coping skills. This study also suggests that the environment in which ED nurses practice has a significant impact on the experience of moral distress. Because health care is continuing to evolve, it is critical that issues such as moral distress and coping be studied in ED nurses to help eliminate human suffering.

  16. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.

  17. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters. PMID:25275223

  18. Gender differences in adolescent coping behaviors and suicidal ideation: findings from a sample of 73,238 adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sun Mi; Han, Doug Hyun; Trksak, George H; Lee, Young Sik

    2014-01-01

    Suicide among adolescents is an emerging global public health problem as well as a socioeconomic problem. Stress-coping strategies have been shown to be associated with suicidal ideation. We examined coping behaviors related to suicidal ideation and gender differences in adolescents using the data from the 2010 Korea Youth Risk Behavior Survey (ages 12-19 years; N = 73,238). Logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate associations between suicidal ideation and specific coping behaviors while controlling for potentially confounding variables. In both male and female groups, the coping behavior "drinking alcoholic beverages" and "smoking cigarettes" were positively associated with suicidal ideation. "Watching TV," "playing online/mobile games," and "sleeping" were negatively associated with suicidal ideation in both groups. In males, "engaging in sports" was negatively related to suicidal ideation. In females, "venting by talking to others" and "eating" were negatively related to suicidal ideation. The results indicate that there are gender differences in the effects of coping behaviors on adolescent suicidal ideation, and that developing adaptive coping strategies may function to reduce suicidality. Future studies are needed to examine whether improving coping skills can reduce suicidal ideation in a gender-specific manner.

  19. Personality and coping.

    PubMed

    Carver, Charles S; Connor-Smith, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    Personality psychology addresses views of human nature and individual differences. Biological and goal-based views of human nature provide an especially useful basis for construing coping; the five-factor model of traits adds a useful set of individual differences. Coping-responses to adversity and to the distress that results-is categorized in many ways. Meta-analyses link optimism, extraversion, conscientiousness, and openness to more engagement coping; neuroticism to more disengagement coping; and optimism, conscientiousness, and agreeableness to less disengagement coping. Relations of traits to specific coping responses reveal a more nuanced picture. Several moderators of these associations also emerge: age, stressor severity, and temporal proximity between the coping activity and the coping report. Personality and coping play both independent and interactive roles in influencing physical and mental health. Recommendations are presented for ways future research can expand on the growing understanding of how personality and coping shape adjustment to stress.

  20. Response to the DIAC Discussion Paper: "Review of the General Skilled Migration Points Test". Go8 Position Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Group of Eight (NJ1), 2010

    2010-01-01

    The Group of Eight (Go8) applauds the government's intention to comprehensively reform the skilled migration program, and it welcomes the opportunity to submit this response to the General Skilled Migration (GSM) Points Test Discussion Paper. The Go8 has argued for some time that it is inappropriate to link international education to the skilled…

  1. Foresight Group Roundtable: Fresh Thinking for Learning and Skills. Centre for Innovation in Learning--Positioning Paper

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Learning and Skills Network (NJ3), 2010

    2010-01-01

    Creating a fertile space for debate and ideas in order to drive innovation in learning and skills is integral to LSN's (Learning and Skills Network's) mission. To achieve this LSN has pioneered a new approach to making learning work from classroom to boardroom--and created the Centre for Innovation in Learning. This new, independent think tank…

  2. Acculturation strategies, coping process and acculturative stress.

    PubMed

    Kosic, Ankica

    2004-09-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examines the influences of motivational factors (Need for Cognitive Closure--NCC--and Decisiveness), coping strategies and acculturation strategies on levels of acculturative stress. Two groups of immigrants in Rome (Croatians n= 156 and Poles n= 179) completed a questionnaire that included scales for the various factors. Although our initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model showed that the motivational factors of NCC and Decisiveness indirectly influence acculturative stress. The modified model with good fit indices indicated that the relationship between NCC and Decisiveness are mediated by coping strategies and acculturation strategies. Specifically, NCC is associated positively with avoidance coping, which in turn is negatively associated with the host group relationships and positively with the original culture maintenance. The last two dimensions predicted lower levels of acculturative stress. Decisiveness was positively associated with the problem-oriented coping and, negatively, with emotional and avoidance coping. PMID:15281915

  3. Patient coping strategies in COPD across disease severity and quality of life: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Brien, Sarah B; Lewith, George T; Thomas, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has a weak relationship with lung function (LF) impairment in COPD; some cope well despite poor LF, whereas others suffer disproportionate QoL impairment despite well-preserved LF. Adjuvant non-pharmacological interventions such as rehabilitation and psychological/behavioural support may help if acceptable and targeted appropriately, but they are under-used and sometimes declined by patients. This study aimed to explore and understand variations in experiences and coping strategies in patients with different severities of disease and disease-specific QoL. Thirty-four participants were purposively sampled across a spectrum of LF and QoL impairment, to cover a grid of sub-groups (‘very severe LF, good QoL’, moderate LF, poor QoL’ and so on). Semi-structured interviews, digitally recorded, were analysed by thematic analysis. Data saturation was achieved. Four themes emerged: symptom impact, coping strategies, coping challenges and support needs. Most of them described using multiple coping strategies, yet over half reported significant challenges coping with COPD, including psychological impact, non-acceptance of diagnosis and/or disease progression, effects of co-morbidities and inadequate self-management skills. Approximately half of the participants wanted further help, ideally non-pharmacological, across all LF impairment groups but mainly with lower QoL. Those with lower QoL additionally reported greater psychological distress and greater use of non-pharmacological support strategies where accessible. Patients who develop effective coping strategies have a better QoL independent of objective LF, whereas others cope poorly, are aware of this and report more use of non-pharmacological approaches. This study suggests that severely impaired QoL, irrelevant of lung function, is a powerful patient-centred indication to explore the positive benefits of psychological and behavioural support for distressed COPD patients. PMID:27629237

  4. Patient coping strategies in COPD across disease severity and quality of life: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Brien, Sarah B; Lewith, George T; Thomas, Mike

    2016-01-01

    Quality of life (QoL) has a weak relationship with lung function (LF) impairment in COPD; some cope well despite poor LF, whereas others suffer disproportionate QoL impairment despite well-preserved LF. Adjuvant non-pharmacological interventions such as rehabilitation and psychological/behavioural support may help if acceptable and targeted appropriately, but they are under-used and sometimes declined by patients. This study aimed to explore and understand variations in experiences and coping strategies in patients with different severities of disease and disease-specific QoL. Thirty-four participants were purposively sampled across a spectrum of LF and QoL impairment, to cover a grid of sub-groups ('very severe LF, good QoL', moderate LF, poor QoL' and so on). Semi-structured interviews, digitally recorded, were analysed by thematic analysis. Data saturation was achieved. Four themes emerged: symptom impact, coping strategies, coping challenges and support needs. Most of them described using multiple coping strategies, yet over half reported significant challenges coping with COPD, including psychological impact, non-acceptance of diagnosis and/or disease progression, effects of co-morbidities and inadequate self-management skills. Approximately half of the participants wanted further help, ideally non-pharmacological, across all LF impairment groups but mainly with lower QoL. Those with lower QoL additionally reported greater psychological distress and greater use of non-pharmacological support strategies where accessible. Patients who develop effective coping strategies have a better QoL independent of objective LF, whereas others cope poorly, are aware of this and report more use of non-pharmacological approaches. This study suggests that severely impaired QoL, irrelevant of lung function, is a powerful patient-centred indication to explore the positive benefits of psychological and behavioural support for distressed COPD patients. PMID:27629237

  5. Childlessness: Strategies for Coping with Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollett, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Examines the coping strategies adopted by 50 infertile men and women. All interviewed had sought medical help, and many became knowledgeable about reproduction and infertility. Redefining the problem and managing negative concepts about infertility were other coping strategies. Seeking social support, positive identities, and other ways of meeting…

  6. Coping with Discrimination among Mexican Descent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2008-01-01

    The current research is designed to explore the relationship among discrimination stress, coping strategies, and self-esteem among Mexican descent youth (N = 73, age 11-15 years). Results suggest that primary control engagement and disengagement coping strategies are positively associated with discrimination stress. Furthermore, self-esteem is…

  7. Stress, coping, and injuries in male and female high school basketball players.

    PubMed

    Rider, S P; Hicks, R A

    1995-10-01

    Past research has identified a positive relationship between life-event stress and football injuries, but research in other sports has yielded more ambiguous results. It seems, then, that the relation of life stress and injury may be sport-specific and that different sports must be studied separately before such a relationship is assumed. The present investigation examined the relationships among life-event stress, coping skills, social support, and injuries of male and female high school basketball players. Contrary to the hypothesis, the number of days missed due to injury was not significantly related to life-event stress. As expected, the injury measure was negatively correlated with both the coping-skills and social-support variables, but these correlations did not reach statistical significance. Recommendations for research are discussed.

  8. Preliminary efficacy of an intervention to reduce psychosocial stress and improve coping in low-income families.

    PubMed

    Wadsworth, Martha E; Santiago, Catherine Decarlo; Einhorn, Lindsey; Etter, Erica M; Rienks, Shauna; Markman, Howard

    2011-12-01

    This article reports pre-post intervention results from a randomized controlled trial evaluating the initial efficacy of a couples-based intervention aimed at teaching skills for coping with stress and improving relationship skills in a sample of 173 ethnically diverse low-income co-resident mothers and fathers who were raising at least one child together. Couples were randomly assigned to one of three interventions or to an assessment-only control condition. The Fatherhood, Relationship, and Marriage Education (FRAME) intervention is a 14-h psychoeducation intervention developed specifically to strengthen the ability of low-income mothers and fathers to reduce conflict, cope with stress, and co-parent effectively. Three versions of FRAME were assessed: a men-only group, a women-only group, and a couple's group. The pre-post intervention analyses revealed reductions in financial stress, disengagement coping, and involuntary disengagement responses, as well as improvements in problem solving. These pre-post changes on stress and coping variables were both statistically significant and reliable as assessed by the Reliable Change Index (Jacobson and Truax 1991). Results were particularly strong for the couples' and women's groups. In addition, positive pre-post changes on stress and coping variables were associated with pre-post reductions on symptoms of depression for participants assigned to an intervention. The results demonstrate that participants in FRAME acquire some of the key skills taught in the intervention, and skills acquisition appears to translate into symptom reduction. In addition, this study highlights the value of an intervention aiming to improve the capacity of parents with economic hardship to cope effectively with stress.

  9. Coping: An Overview.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harrangue, Renee

    1980-01-01

    Women always have been managers, personnel directors, long-range planners, and arbitrators in the domestic realm, but, as they assume positions of responsibility outside the home, these skills no longer can be taken for granted. The author offers suggestions to women for performing well in numerous roles. (Author/KC)

  10. Project COPE, 1983-1984: OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn. Office of Educational Assessment.

    Project COPE provides supportive services, basic skills, career development, and occupational training to limited English proficient (LEP) students at three New York City high schools. Many COPE students are also limited in their ability to read and write in their native languages. Program participants in 1983-84 included: 173 Spanish-dominant…

  11. Enhancing the Emotional and Social Skills of the Youth to Promote their Wellbeing and Positive Development: A Systematic Review of Universal School-based Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Sancassiani, Federica; Pintus, Elisa; Holte, Arne; Paulus, Peter; Moro, Maria Francesca; Cossu, Giulia; Angermeyer, Matthias C; Carta, Mauro Giovanni; Lindert, Jutta

    2015-01-01

    Background: The acquisition of social and emotional skills is associated with positive youth development, character education, healthy lifestyle behaviours, reduction in depression and anxiety, conduct disorders, violence, bullying, conflict, and anger. School-based interventions aimed to enhance these skills go beyond a problem-focused approach to embrace a more positive view of health; they could also improve the youth’s wellbeing. Aim: To describe the main features and to establish the effectiveness of universal school-based RCTs for children and the youth, aimed to promote their psychosocial wellbeing, positive development, healthy lifestyle behaviours and/or academic performance by improving their emotional and social skills. Methods: Systematic review by searching for relevant papers in PubMed/Medline with the following key words: “mental health” OR “wellbeing” OR “health promotion” OR “emotional learning” OR “social learning” OR “emotional and social learning” OR “positive youth development” OR “life skills” OR “life skills training” AND “school”. Interval was set from January 2000 to April 2014. Results: 1,984 papers were identified through the search. Out of them 22 RCTs were included. While most interventions were characterized by a whole-school approach and SAFE practices, few studies only used standardized measures to assess outcomes, or had collected follow-up data after ≥ 6 months. The results of all these trials were examined and discussed. Conclusion: Universal school-based RCTs to enhance emotional and social skills showed controversial findings, due to some methodological issues mainly. Nevertheless they show promising outcomes that are relatively far-reaching for children and youth wellbeing and therefore are important in the real world. PMID:25834626

  12. Stress Coping Mechanisms in Elderly Adults: An Initial Study of Recreational and Other Coping Behaviors in Nursing Home Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…

  13. Future-Oriented Coping and Job Hunting among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yueqin; Gan, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese college students (n = 216), the present study showed that future-oriented coping negatively correlated with perceived pressure and positively correlated with successful job hunting. The relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping was also explored. Structural equation modeling suggested that a sequence…

  14. Vocational Coping Training. Participant's Workbook, Short Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Johnson, Virginia A.

    This participant's workbook is part of a training program to teach individuals with physical, intellectual, or emotional disabilities the skills required to cope with common on-the-job situations encountered with one's supervisor and co-workers. The workbook is intended to accompany the short (15-20 hour) version of the program which incorporates…

  15. Vocational Coping Training. Participants Workbook, Long Form.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roessler, Richard T.; Johnson, Virginia A.

    This participant's workbook is part of a training program to teach individuals with physical, intellectual, or emotional disabilities the skills required to cope with common on-the-job situations encountered with one's supervisor and co-workers. The workbook is intended to accompany the long (40-hour) version of the program which incorporates…

  16. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  17. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications

    PubMed Central

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S.

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person’s specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient’s coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery. PMID:25426088

  18. Internet addiction: coping styles, expectancies, and treatment implications.

    PubMed

    Brand, Matthias; Laier, Christian; Young, Kimberly S

    2014-01-01

    Internet addiction (IA) has become a serious mental health condition in many countries. To better understand the clinical implications of IA, this study tested statistically a new theoretical model illustrating underlying cognitive mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of the disorder. The model differentiates between a generalized Internet addiction (GIA) and specific forms. This study tested the model on GIA on a population of general Internet users. The findings from 1019 users show that the hypothesized structural equation model explained 63.5% of the variance of GIA symptoms, as measured by the short version of the Internet Addiction Test. Using psychological and personality testing, the results show that a person's specific cognitions (poor coping and cognitive expectations) increased the risk for GIA. These two factors mediated the symptoms of GIA if other risk factors were present such as depression, social anxiety, low self-esteem, low self-efficacy, and high stress vulnerability to name a few areas that were measured in the study. The model shows that individuals with high coping skills and no expectancies that the Internet can be used to increase positive or reduce negative mood are less likely to engage in problematic Internet use, even when other personality or psychological vulnerabilities are present. The implications for treatment include a clear cognitive component to the development of GIA and the need to assess a patient's coping style and cognitions and improve faulty thinking to reduce symptoms and engage in recovery.

  19. Coping in the Cyberworld: Program Implementation and Evaluation--A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Cecilia Wing Chi; Frydenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    As increasing numbers of adolescents become involved in online activities, many also become victims of cyberharassment. This pilot project investigates how a program teaching coping skills (Best of Coping program, BOC) and a program teaching cybersafety (Cyber Savvy Teens program, CST) can optimise adolescents' capacity to cope online.…

  20. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  1. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills During the Middle School Years.

    PubMed

    2010-08-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths' functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n = 445) or to control (n = 446) conditions. In contrast to prior findings of the effectiveness of the Fast Track intervention during the elementary school years, the current findings indicate that Fast Track had little overall impact on children's functioning in these domains during this age period. There were positive intervention effects on only 2 of 17 outcomes examined. Although the intervention had positive impact on children's hyperactive and self-reported delinquent behaviors in seventh grade, there were no intervention effects on other externalizing behavior problems or on social skills, and there was a negative intervention effect on children's involvement with deviant peers during this age period.

  2. Improving Functional Communication Skills in Adolescents and Young Adults with Severe Autism Using Gentle Teaching and Positive Approaches.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Polirstok, Susan Rovet; Dana, Lawrence; Buono, Serafino; Mongelli, Vita; Trubia, Grazia

    2003-01-01

    A study evaluated a therapeutic intervention program for young adults with severe autism at the Oasi Institute in Troina, Sicily. The program, which integrates gentle teaching, humanistic applied behavior analysis, and functional communication training, provides opportunities to acquire functional skills through errorless learning activities.…

  3. Re-Positioning Australia's International Education in Global Knowledge Economies: Implications of Shifts in Skilled Migration Policies for Universities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gribble, Cate; Blackmore, Jill

    2012-01-01

    In recent times, many key host nations have made it easier for foreign graduates to migrate after graduation. These students are often considered ideal migrants, possessing local qualifications along with a degree of acculturation, language skills and, in many cases, relevant local work experience. For the student, the opportunity to obtain…

  4. Indirect and direct associations between personality and psychological distress mediated by dispositional coping.

    PubMed

    Panayiotou, Georgia; Kokkinos, Constantinos M; Kapsou, Margarita

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the association between coping and personality, by testing the hypothesis that dispositional coping mediates the relationship between personality and psychological distress. Canonical correlations evaluated the degree of the association among personality and coping dimensions in a community sample (N = 489) from Cyprus. Results partially support the hypothesized mediation model with Agreeableness predicting distress through the full mediation of avoidant coping, expression of negative feelings and active-positive coping. Partial mediation was found for Neuroticism and Openness. Canonical correlations deciphered how coping relates to the Big Five dimensions. Neuroticism was mostly associated with maladaptive coping, whereas Conscientiousness and Extraversion with adaptive coping.

  5. Coping with Congenital Hand Differences

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.; Chung, Kevin C.; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chin, Autumn Y. T.; Nellans, Kate W.; Waljee, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although functional outcomes following reconstruction for congenital hand differences are frequently described, much less is known regarding children’s ability to cope with psychosocial effects of these conditions. We qualitatively explored stress and coping mechanisms among children following reconstructive surgery for congenital hand differences. Methods Forty patients and their parents participated in semi-structured interviews examining stress related to hand functioning and appearance, emotional responses to stress, and coping strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding by two reviewers. Themes expressed by participants were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Results In this sample, 58% of children and 40% of parents reported stress related to congenital hand differences, attributed to functional deficits (61%), hand appearance (27%), social interactions (58%), and emotional reactions (46%). Among the 18 children who reported stress, 43% of parents were not aware of the presence of stress. Eight coping strategies emerged, including humor (12%), self-acceptance (21%), avoidance (27%), seeking external support (30%), concealment (30%), educating others (9%), support programs (21%) and religion (24%). Conclusions Although children with congenital hand differences often experience emotional stress related to functional limitations and aesthetic deformities, many apply positive coping mechanisms that enhance self-esteem and self-esteem. Clinicians caring for children with congenital hand differences should inform families about potential sources of stress in order to direct resources toward strengthening coping strategies and support systems. Level of Evidence Level IV-Case series PMID:25502854

  6. Ways of coping with premenstrual change: development and validation of a premenstrual coping measure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    behaviours positioned as symptoms of premenstrual change. Explanations for this overlap may be found in cultural discourses associated with idealised femininity and PMS (premenstrual syndrome). Further psychometric investigation of the PMCM will enhance knowledge of the role of coping with negative premenstrual experience. PMID:24383580

  7. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  8. Coping and Self-Efficacy in Marijuana Treatment: Results from the Marijuana Treatment Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Mark D.; Kadden, Ronald M.; Stephens, Robert S.

    2005-01-01

    This study examined whether a coping-skills-based treatment for marijuana dependence operated by encouraging the use of coping skills or via other mechanisms. Participants were 450 men and women treated in the multisite Marijuana Treatment Project who were randomly assigned to motivational enhancement therapy plus cognitive-behavioral (MET-CB)…

  9. Psychological predictors of coping responses among Greek basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Kaissidis-Rodafinos, A; Anshel, M H

    2000-06-01

    The authors examined the effects of situational appraisals (perceived control and intensity), coping styles (monitoring and blunting), and personal dispositions (optimism and self-esteem) on the approach and avoidance coping responses of skilled Greek basketball referees (N = 162) and the consistency of their responses following 3 game-related stressful situations. In an effort to clarify the variables involved in coping and to consider the theoretical principles both within and beyond sports, the authors replicated an earlier study among Australian basketball referees (A. Kaissidis-Rodafinos, M. H. Anshel, & A. Porter, 1997). The results were equivocal: The Greek referees were not consistent in using avoidance and approach coping responses across situations. Approach coping was more predictable than avoidance coping in accounting for both situational and personal variables.

  10. Do coping styles mediate the relationship between substance use and educational attainment and antiretroviral adherence?

    PubMed

    Martinez, David A; Goggin, Kathy; Catley, Delwyn; Gerkovich, Mary M; Williams, Karen; Wright, Julie; Berkley-Patton, Jannette

    2012-11-01

    There is a substantial body of literature that demonstrates that substance use and lower educational attainment are associated with poorer antiretroviral (ART) adherence, however, the nature of these relationships are not well understood. The purpose of this study was to explore whether coping styles mediate the relationship between substance use and educational attainment and ART adherence in order to better understand how these variables relate to adherence. The sample consisted of 192 HIV-positive patients (mean age = 41 years; 75.5 % male, 46.9 % heterosexual; 52.6 % with a high school/GED education or less) who were on ART. Path analysis revealed that active and avoidant coping significantly mediated the relationship between drug use and ART adherence. No form of coping was found to mediate the relationship between either binge drinking or educational attainment and adherence. Findings suggest that a focus on coping skills should be included in any multimodal intervention to increase ART adherence among HIV-positive drug using patients.

  11. Coping with Racism: What Works and Doesn't Work for Black Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…

  12. The Relationship of Coping, Self-Worth, and Subjective Well-Being: A Structural Equation Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smedema, Susan Miller; Catalano, Denise; Ebener, Deborah J.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between various coping-related variables and the evaluation of self-worth and subjective well-being among persons with spinal cord injury. Positive coping variables included hope, proactive coping style, and sense of humor, whereas negative coping variables included perceptions of stress,…

  13. Psychotic symptoms, functioning and coping in adolescents with mental illness

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Psychotic symptoms in the context of psychiatric disorders are associated with poor functional outcomes. Environmental stressors are important in the development of psychosis; however, distress may only be pathogenic when it exceeds an individual’s ability to cope with it. Therefore, one interesting factor regarding poor functional outcomes in patients with psychotic symptoms may be poor coping. This paper aimed to address the question whether 1) psychotic symptoms are associated with poorer functioning and 2) whether poor coping moderated the association. Methods In a clinical case-clinical control study of 106 newly-referred adolescent patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders, coping was investigated using the Adolescents Coping Scale. Severity of impairment in socio-occupational functioning was assessed with the Children’s Global Assessment Scale. Results Patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms (N = 50) had poorer functioning and were more likely to use avoidance-oriented coping compared to patients with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders without psychotic symptoms (N = 56). No differences were found with respect to approach-oriented coping. When stratifying for poor/good coping, only those adolescent patients with psychotic symptoms who applied poor coping (i.e. less use of approach-oriented coping styles [OR 0.24, p < 0.015] and more use of avoidance-oriented coping [OR 0.23, p < 0.034]) had poorer functioning. However, these interactions were not significant. Conclusions Non-adaptive coping and poorer functioning were more often present in adolescents with non-psychotic psychiatric disorders and additional psychotic symptoms. Due to small subgroups, our analyses could not give definitive conclusions about the question whether coping moderated the association between psychotic symptoms and functioning. Improvement of coping skills may form an important target for intervention

  14. Multidimensional Approach Toward Spiritual Coping: Construction and Validation of the Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ).

    PubMed

    Charzyńska, Edyta

    2015-10-01

    The aim of the research was to construct the Spiritual Coping Questionnaire (SCQ). Two studies have been carried out: the first on the sample of 1,296 persons facing stressful situations, and the second, on 352 persons undergoing alcohol addiction therapy. The first study provided data for PCA and CFA, calculation of internal consistency, test-retest reliability and descriptive statistics of the questionnaire. The second study allowed the author to verify the construct and criterion validity of the tool. The final version of the SCQ is composed of 32 items constituting two scales: positive and negative spiritual coping. The scale of positive spiritual coping includes four subscales-domains (personal, social, environmental and religious), and the scale of negative spiritual coping, three subscales (personal, social and religious). The validity and reliability of the tool are satisfactory. The questionnaire can be used to measure spiritual coping, both among religious and non-religious people. PMID:24898542

  15. Maternal expectancy versus objective measures of child skill: evidence for absence of positive bias in mothers' expectations of children with internalizing disorders.

    PubMed

    Udy, Catherine M; Newall, Carol; Broeren, Suzanne; Hudson, Jennifer L

    2014-01-01

    Parents of anxious children are thought to be more attuned to threat, which might translate into less positive bias in parental report of child coping and ability, unlike parents of non-anxious children. Maternal expectancy bias was examined in a sample of 43 clinically anxious (51 % female), 30 clinically anxious/depressed (50 % female), and 44 non-clinical control children (46 % female), 8-14 years of age. When compared to an objective observer's ratings of the children, mothers of non-clinical children demonstrated a positive bias (i.e., over-rated their children's performance) for both ratings of expected speech performance in absolute terms and relative to peers. Mothers in the clinical groups did not exhibit this positive expectancy bias. Moreover, mothers of clinical children reported lower expectations in absolute terms and relative to peers than mothers of non-clinical children. The data suggest that mothers of clinical children held accurate expectations for child performance when compared to the gold standard of an objective observer.

  16. The Positive Action Program: Improving Academics, Behavior, and Character by Teaching Comprehensive Skills for Successful Learning and Living

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flay, Brian R.; Allred, Carol G.

    2010-01-01

    This chapter outlines and provides evidence for the effects of the "Positive Action Program" as a way of inculcating values, driving student wellbeing, and improving academic performance and interpersonal behavior. The program centers on addressing behavioral, emotional, and academic problems by developing in individuals positive beliefs…

  17. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  18. Exploring the relationship between perceived emotional intelligence, coping, social support and mental health in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Montes-Berges, B; Augusto, J-M

    2007-04-01

    Studies conducted with nurses or nursing students have shown that emotional intelligence is a skill that minimizes the negative stress consequences. The present work examines the role of perceived emotional intelligence (PEI) measured by the Trait Meta-Mood Scale, in the use of stress-coping strategies, in the quantity and quality of social support and in the mental health of nursing students. The results indicated positive correlations between clarity and social support, social support and repair, and social support and mental health. Hierarchy regression analysis pointed out that clarity and emotional repair are predictors of social support, and emotional repair is the main predictor of mental health. These results show the importance of PEI in stress coping within the nursing framework.

  19. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  20. Urge-specific and lifestyle coping strategies of cocaine abusers: relationships to treatment outcomes.

    PubMed

    Rohsenow, Damaris J; Martin, Rosemarie A; Monti, Peter M

    2005-05-01

    This study investigated specific coping techniques for effectiveness in reducing cocaine use after treatment. The urge-specific strategies questionnaire-cocaine (USS-C) assessed frequency of use of 21 strategies for coping with urges. The general change strategies questionnaire-cocaine (GCS-C) assessed frequency of use of 21 lifestyle change strategies designed to maintain abstinence. Cocaine-dependent patients were assessed at follow-up after residential treatment for USS-C (n=59 at 3 months, 84 at 6 months), GCS-C (n=89 at 3 months, 120 at 6 months) and substance use. Less cocaine use was associated with urge coping by thinking about negative or positive consequences, alternative behaviors, distraction, relaxation/meditation, escape, offer refusal, spiritual methods, behavior chains, mastery messages, problem-solving, meeting or sponsor, or seeking social support. The lifestyle change strategies of thinking about consequences, working toward goals, thinking of oneself as sober, clean recreation, regular relaxation, avoiding temptations, not carrying much money, living with clean people, seeking social support, spiritual involvement, keeping busy, and health activities were also associated with less cocaine use. Results suggest focusing coping skills training on these potentially effective strategies.

  1. Youth Development Program Participation and Intentional Self-Regulation Skills: Contextual and Individual Bases of Pathways to Positive Youth Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mueller, Megan Kiely; Phelps, Erin; Bowers, Edmond P.; Agans, Jennifer P.; Urban, Jennifer Brown; Lerner, Richard M.

    2011-01-01

    The present research used data from Grades 8, 9, and 10 of the 4-H Study of Positive Youth Development, a longitudinal study involving U.S. adolescents, in order to better elucidate the process through which the strengths of youth and the ecological resources promoting healthy development (such as out-of-school-time programs) may contribute to…

  2. A Group-learning Approach to Academic and Transferable Skills through an Exercise in the Global Positioning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Giles H.

    1999-01-01

    Describes a project based on the Global Positioning System (GPS) that offers students a chance to design and implement a mini-research program to prepare them for an undergraduate research project. Discusses the context of the GPS exercise, teaching and learning outcomes, and advantages and evaluation of the exercise. (CMK)

  3. Science, Technology, Engineering and Math (STEM) Academic Librarian Positions during 2013: What Carnegie Classifications Reveal about Desired STEM Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trei, Kelli

    2015-01-01

    This study analyzes the requirements and preferences of 171 science, technology, engineering, and math (STEM) academic librarian positions in the United States as advertised in 2013. This analysis compares the STEM background experience preferences with the Carnegie rankings of the employing institution. The research examines the extent to which…

  4. The role of meaning-focused coping in significant loss.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingzhu; Gan, Yiqun; Tong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    When individuals face uncontrollable situations such as natural disasters, meaning-focused coping (MFC) can contribute to individuals' adjustment. The objectives of the current study were to examine the role of MFC in post-traumatic growth and to explore how three different types of coping (problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and MFC) affected the mental health of earthquake victims following the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that MFC had a significantly incremental value in predicting positive affect (ΔR2=7.6%, p<.01) and well-being (ΔR2=3.1%, p<.01), above and beyond problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. In contrast, for negative affect and depression, these incremental effects were not significant. Path analysis was conducted to test the mediating role of post-traumatic growth among the three coping styles and the outcome variables (well-being, positive affect, negative affect, and depression). The results showed that post-traumatic growth mediated the path from MFC to well-being and positive affect (for positive affect: Sobel z = 3.74, p<.001; for well-being: Sobel z = 5.02, p<.001). In addition, post-traumatic growth mediated the path from problem-focused coping to depression (Sobel z = 2.21, p<.001). The hypothetical model of emotion-focused coping did not converge. PMID:22091795

  5. Filipino Americans and racism: A multiple mediation model of coping.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda P

    2010-04-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of adults (N = 199). Two multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediating effects of active, avoidance, support-seeking, and forbearance coping on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress and self-esteem, respectively. Separate analyses were also conducted for men and women given differences in coping utilization. For men, a bootstrap procedure indicated that active, support-seeking, and avoidance coping were mediators of the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress. Active coping was negatively associated with psychological distress, whereas both support seeking and avoidance were positively associated with psychological distress. A second bootstrap procedure for men indicated that active and avoidance coping mediated the relationship between perceived racism and self-esteem such that active coping was positively associated with self-esteem, and avoidance was negatively associated with self-esteem. For women, only avoidance coping had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in psychological distress and decreases in self-esteem. The results highlight the importance of examining the efficacy of specific coping responses to racism and the need to differentiate between the experiences of men and women.

  6. The Influence of Feedback of Diagnosis and Executive Function Skills on Rates of False Positive and False Negative Outcomes for ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bender, Stacy L.; Privitera, Gregory J.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined executive function (EF) skills and self-reported symptoms of ADHD. EF skills were measured to determine whether skills were different between groups that reported clinical levels of ADHD symptoms (clinical group) and nonclinical levels of ADHD symptoms (nonclinical group). EF skills in the nonclinical group were also…

  7. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  8. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.

  9. Uncertainty, information needs, and coping effectiveness of renal families.

    PubMed

    Brock, M J

    1990-06-01

    The purposes of this exploratory descriptive study were to assess renal families' informational needs, uncertainty level, and perceived coping effectiveness in relation to living with chronic kidney failure and hemodialysis therapy. The significant findings were: (a) knowledge was negatively correlated to uncertainty; (b) level of education was positively correlated only with coping effectiveness; and (c) neither knowledge nor uncertainty were significantly correlated to coping effectiveness.

  10. Better to bend than to break: coping strategies utilized by substance-abusing homeless youth.

    PubMed

    Dashora, Pushpanjali; Erdem, Gizem; Slesnick, Natasha

    2011-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between coping styles and problem behaviors among a sample of substance-abusing homeless youth. Homeless youth (n = 268) were recruited through the only drop-in center in Albuquerque, New Mexico. Results revealed that youth with higher task-oriented coping reported less delinquent behaviors while those with higher emotion-oriented coping reported higher levels of anxiety/ depression and higher delinquency. Contrary to expectations, youth utilizing higher avoidance-oriented coping skills showed fewer HIV risk behaviors, fewer anxiety/depressive symptoms, and less frequent alcohol use. Findings emphasize the need to examine coping strategies in the context that individuals are situated.

  11. Interrelatedness of Proactive Coping, Reactive Coping, and Learned Resourcefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of…

  12. Coping during pregnancy: a systematic review and recommendations

    PubMed Central

    Guardino, Christine M.; Schetter, Christine Dunkel

    2013-01-01

    Extensive evidence documents that prenatal maternal stress predicts a variety of adverse physical and psychological health outcomes for the mother and baby. However, the importance of the ways that women cope with stress during pregnancy is less clear. We conducted a systematic review of the English-language literature on coping behaviors and coping styles in pregnancy using PsycInfo and PubMed to identify 45 cross-sectional and longitudinal studies involving 16,060 participants published between January 1990 and June 2012. Although results were often inconsistent across studies, the literature provides some evidence that avoidant coping behaviors or styles and poor coping skills in general are associated with postpartum depression, preterm birth, and infant development. Variability in study methods including differences in sample characteristics, timing of assessments, outcome variables, and measures of coping styles or behaviors may explain the lack of consistent associations. In order to advance the scientific study of coping in pregnancy, we call attention to the need for a priori hypotheses and greater use of pregnancy-specific, daily process, and skills-based approaches. There is promise in continuing this area of research, particularly in the possible translation of consistent findings to effective interventions, but only if the conceptual basis and methodological quality of research improve. PMID:24489596

  13. Examining the Correlates of Engagement and Disengagement Coping Among Help-Seeking Battered Women

    PubMed Central

    Taft, Casey T.; Resick, Patricia A.; Panuzio, Jillian; Vogt, Dawne S.; Mechannic, Mindy B.

    2010-01-01

    This study examined several potential correlates of engagement and disengagement coping, including abuse-related factors, socioeconomic and social coping resources, and childhood trauma variables among a sample of battered women (N = 388). Relationship abuse frequency, particularly psychological aggression, and peritraumatic dissociation were the strongest positive predictors of the use of disengagement coping. Social coping resources, including tangible support and appraisals of social support and belonging, were associated with higher engagement coping and lower disengagement coping. A positive association was also found between interparental domestic violence and disengagement coping, and negative associations were found between both childhood physical and sexual abuse and engagement coping. Results suggest that coping strategies used by battered women are multidetermined and deserve further exploration. PMID:17390560

  14. Transitions: Preparing Families of Preschoolers for "Marathon Skills".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deitz, Sally J.; Warkala, Catherine Sonen

    1993-01-01

    Skills that families gain in coping with transitions at the early ages of their child with visual impairments provide skills necessary for all the life-stage transitions that follow and, thus, are termed marathon skills. The transition programing of the Lighthouse Child Development Center in New York City is designed to develop those skills. (JDD)

  15. Coping with Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative decline is predicted because of the leveling off of industrial production and exhaustion of resources. Coping with these conditions requires flexibility and adaptability. Delusions of certainty zero in on catastrophe. (Author/MLF)

  16. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  17. Coping with College Stress

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160792.html Coping With College Stress Parents can help make the transition easier for ... 5, 2016 MONDAY, Sept. 5, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Stress and anxiety are common among new college students, ...

  18. Coping with the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholzman, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in students. Suggests ways that teachers can help students cope with catastrophic events such as the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. (PKP)

  19. Coping with Feelings

    MedlinePlus

    ... coping with emotions Learn more about these emotions: Fear After any illness, it's normal to feel afraid ... life. Every heart patient has some degree of fear, but if your fear is overwhelming, it can ...

  20. Coping with the Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)

  1. Caregivers--Who Copes How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Dujela, Carren

    2009-01-01

    Within gerontological caregiving research, there is a major emphasis on stresses and burdens of this role. Yet there has been little attention directed toward the coping strategies that caregivers engage in to cope with this role and the factors that influence their adoption of different coping strategies. This article examines coping strategies…

  2. Development and Initial Validation of the Coping with Academic Demands Scale: How Students in Accelerated High School Curricula Cope with School-Related Stressors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suldo, Shannon M.; Dedrick, Robert F.; Shaunessy-Dedrick, Elizabeth; Fefer, Sarah A.; Ferron, John

    2015-01-01

    Successful coping with academic demands is important given the inverse relationship between stress and positive adjustment in adolescents. The Coping With Academic Demands Scale (CADS) is a new measure of coping appropriate for students pursuing advanced high school curricula, specifically Advanced Placement (AP) classes and the International…

  3. Perception and action in golf putting: skill differences reflect calibration.

    PubMed

    van Lier, Wim H; van der Kamp, John; Savelsbergh G, J P

    2011-06-01

    We assessed how golfers cope with the commonly observed systematic overshoot errors in the perception of the direction between the ball and the hole. Experiments 1 and 2, in which participants were required to rotate a pointer such that it pointed to the center of the hole, showed that errors in perceived direction (in degrees of deviation from the perfect aiming line) are destroyed when the head is constrained to move within a plane perpendicular to the green. Experiment 3 compared the errors in perceived direction and putting errors of novice and skilled players. Unlike the perceived direction, putting accuracy (in degrees of deviation from the perfect aiming line) was not affected by head position. Novices did show a rightward putting error, while skilled players did not. We argue that the skill-related differences in putting accuracy reflect a process of recalibration. Implications for aiming in golf are discussed. PMID:21659668

  4. Emotional Approach Coping and Self-efficacy Moderate the Effects of Written Emotional Disclosure and Relaxation Training for People With Migraine Headaches

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Christina A.; Lumley, Mark A.; D’Souza, Pamela J.; Dooley, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We tested whether emotional skills and headache management self-efficacy (HMSE) moderated effects of written emotional disclosure (WED) compared to control writing and a different intervention, relaxation training (RT). Design/Methods Undergraduates with migraine headaches reported emotional approach coping (EAC) and HMSE; were randomized to WED, RT, or control; and assessed on health measures at baseline and 3-month follow-up. Results Greater EAC predicted improvement following WED compared to RT and control, whereas low HMSE predicted improvement following both WED and RT, compared to control. Conclusions Emotional skill may specifically—and low health management self-efficacy may generally—predict positive responses to WED. PMID:18230235

  5. Resilient Coping Moderates the Effect of Trauma Exposure on Depression.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Vaughn G; Wallston, Kenneth A; Strachan, Eric

    2016-08-01

    Posttraumatic depression rates are increasing in the United States, and there is a great need to identify malleable factors that could moderate posttraumatic depression levels. The purpose of this study was to examine whether resilient coping moderates the effects of trauma exposure on depression, while controlling for neuroticism-an established predictor of depressive symptoms. This study used data from 3,734 pairs of twins from the community-based University of Washington Twin Registry. Each twin pair was randomized with twin A in one subsample and twin B in the second subsample. The four-item Brief Resilient Coping Scale measured resilient coping. The two-item Patient Health Questionnaire measured depression. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed on each subsample, controlling for neuroticism. In addition to significant effects of neuroticism and trauma exposure on depression (p < .001), the effect of the interaction of resilient coping and trauma exposure on depression was significant in both subsamples (p < .01). High levels of resilient coping were associated with lower depression scores in the context of previous trauma exposure. Individuals high in resilient coping who experienced significant life traumas were less depressed after trauma exposure, even after controlling for neuroticism. Because coping skills may be learned, interventions that teach resilient coping to individuals with traumatic histories merit investigation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27176758

  6. The Coexistence of Coping Resources and Specific Coping Styles in Stress: Evidence from Full Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Meng; Wu, Qing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, p<0.01) correlation to negative (r = −0.335, p<0.01) and also from negative (r = −0.296, p<0.01) to positive (r = 0.331, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results reveal that coping styles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include

  7. Management of Diabetes in Long-term Care and Skilled Nursing Facilities: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Medha N; Florez, Hermes; Huang, Elbert S; Kalyani, Rita R; Mupanomunda, Maria; Pandya, Naushira; Swift, Carrie S; Taveira, Tracey H; Haas, Linda B

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes is more common in older adults, has a high prevalence in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and is associated with significant disease burden and higher cost. The heterogeneity of this population with regard to comorbidities and overall health status is critical to establishing personalized goals and treatments for diabetes. The risk of hypoglycemia is the most important factor in determining glycemic goals due to the catastrophic consequences in this population. Simplified treatment regimens are preferred, and the sole use of sliding scale insulin (SSI) should be avoided. This position statement provides a classification system for older adults in LTC settings, describes how diabetes goals and management should be tailored based on comorbidities, delineates key issues to consider when using glucose-lowering agents in this population, and provides recommendations on how to replace SSI in LTC facilities. As these patients transition from one setting to another, or from one provider to another, their risk for adverse events increases. Strategies are presented to reduce these risks and ensure safe transitions. This article addresses diabetes management at end of life and in those receiving palliative and hospice care. The integration of diabetes management into LTC facilities is important and requires an interprofessional team approach. To facilitate this approach, acceptance by administrative personnel is needed, as are protocols and possibly system changes. It is important for clinicians to understand the characteristics, challenges, and barriers related to the older population living in LTC facilities as well as the proper functioning of the facilities themselves. Once these challenges are identified, individualized approaches can be designed to improve diabetes management while lowering the risk of hypoglycemia and ultimately improving quality of life. PMID:26798150

  8. Management of Diabetes in Long-term Care and Skilled Nursing Facilities: A Position Statement of the American Diabetes Association.

    PubMed

    Munshi, Medha N; Florez, Hermes; Huang, Elbert S; Kalyani, Rita R; Mupanomunda, Maria; Pandya, Naushira; Swift, Carrie S; Taveira, Tracey H; Haas, Linda B

    2016-02-01

    Diabetes is more common in older adults, has a high prevalence in long-term care (LTC) facilities, and is associated with significant disease burden and higher cost. The heterogeneity of this population with regard to comorbidities and overall health status is critical to establishing personalized goals and treatments for diabetes. The risk of hypoglycemia is the most important factor in determining glycemic goals due to the catastrophic consequences in this population. Simplified treatment regimens are preferred, and the sole use of sliding scale insulin (SSI) should be avoided. This position statement provides a classification system for older adults in LTC settings, describes how diabetes goals and management should be tailored based on comorbidities, delineates key issues to consider when using glucose-lowering agents in this population, and provides recommendations on how to replace SSI in LTC facilities. As these patients transition from one setting to another, or from one provider to another, their risk for adverse events increases. Strategies are presented to reduce these risks and ensure safe transitions. This article addresses diabetes management at end of life and in those receiving palliative and hospice care. The integration of diabetes management into LTC facilities is important and requires an interprofessional team approach. To facilitate this approach, acceptance by administrative personnel is needed, as are protocols and possibly system changes. It is important for clinicians to understand the characteristics, challenges, and barriers related to the older population living in LTC facilities as well as the proper functioning of the facilities themselves. Once these challenges are identified, individualized approaches can be designed to improve diabetes management while lowering the risk of hypoglycemia and ultimately improving quality of life.

  9. Stress, Coping, and Suicide Risk in Psychiatric Inpatients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Josepho, Sharon A.; Plutchik, Robert

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationship between interpersonal problems, coping style, and suicide risk among 71 adult psychiatric inpatients. Patients admitted with history of suicidal attempts were compared with patients admitted for other reasons. Interpersonal problems were significantly and positively related to suicide risk. Coping style of suppression was…

  10. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit

    2005-01-01

    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  11. Denial as a Strategy for Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matt, Denise A.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Asserts that, in some situations, one of the most useful strategies for helping cancer patients to cope can be denial. Presents definitions of coping in general and denial in particular. Discusses potential positive functions of denial for cancer patients and provides an overview of potential negative consequences. Concludes with brief summary and…

  12. Support and coping of male hemodialysis-dependent patients.

    PubMed

    Cormier-Daigle, M; Stewart, M

    1997-12-01

    The purpose of this descriptive-correlational study was to describe coping strategies used by males with chronic renal failure who are dependent on hemodialysis; to describe their social networks; to describe the perceived support, conflict, and reciprocity within their interpersonal relationships; and to examine the relationships among the variables support, conflict, reciprocity, social networks, and coping strategies. Social support was conceptualized as a coping resource or source of assistance in coping with the renal illness- or hemodialysis-related stressor. The Ways of Coping questionnaire and the Interpersonal Relationship Inventory were administered to 30 participants while in hospital. Although, both problem-focused and emotion-focused forms of coping were used, participants primarily used problem-focused coping, in particular, "seeking social support". Overall, the participants perceived relatively high levels of support and moderate to high levels of reciprocity with members of their social networks. Participants experienced a moderate level of conflict in their interpersonal relationships. Both escape-avoidance and conflict were positively associated with the number of people in the household. Positive reappraisal was negatively associated with the number of close relatives. The small sample size prohibits generalizability of the results. Longitudinal studies with a larger randomly selected sample would yield insights into the long-term psychological outcomes of different coping strategies and into the bi-directional relationship of support from social network and coping in this population. Implications for nurses are discussed.

  13. Coping with fibromialgia: usefulness of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Pascual, Aida; Alda, Marta; Gonzalez Ramirez, Monica Teresa

    2007-11-01

    There are few studies on coping with fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) in patients with FM. A random sample (N=402) of patients with FM was obtained from the Fibromyalgia Association of Aragon, Spain. Patients were assessed with the CPCI-42, the Fibrofatigue Scale (FFS), the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The psychometric properties of the CPCI-42 were valid and factor analyses supported the eight-factor structure described in patients with chronic pain. Illness-focused coping strategies (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) were strongly correlated with each other, positively correlated with disability and depression, and negatively correlated with quality of life, indicating construct validity. Seeking social support was weakly correlated with any other scale or outcome, confirming it belongs to a different group of coping strategies. The wellness-focused group of coping strategies was the most incoherent group. Task persistence correlated with illness-focused strategies and negative outcomes, indicating that it should be included in the illness-focused group. However, other wellness-focused strategies, including relaxation, exercise, and coping self-statements, were correlated with each other, negatively correlated with depression, and positively correlated with quality of life. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  14. Attributions and Coping Styles in Reducing Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Danielle; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of attributions and coping on children's victimization over time, 220 children completed questionnaires twice over a 6-month period. Direct and mediational models were tested using regressions, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Characterological self-blame was positively related to victimization within and across time for…

  15. Socialization of Children's Recall and Use of Strategies for Coping with Interparental Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Paul A.; Kliewer, Wendy; Partch, Jenifer

    2010-01-01

    Using experimental, observational and interview-assessment methods, we examined relations among mother-child discussion skills and suggested strategies for coping with postdivorce interparental conflict in a conflict task, children's memory for those strategies in a later recall interview, and children's self-reported use of coping strategies in…

  16. Learning Styles and Their Relationship to Stress and Coping in College Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughn, L. M.; Hensley, B.; Baker, R. C.; Dearman, L.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship between specific learning styles and stress and coping in a sample of female college students (N = 246). Participants in the study were assessed on the three variables by completing several self-report instruments measuring learning styles, life stress level, and coping skills. There were significant…

  17. Helping Children Cope with Fears: Using Children's Literature in Classroom Guidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nicholson, Janice I.; Pearson, Quinn M.

    2003-01-01

    Many children are dealing with adult fears, such as death, crime, and war at early ages. School counselors can help children cope with these fears using stories from children's literature. The role that children's literature can play in teaching these coping skills is discussed along with strategies for choosing books. (Contains 33 references.)…

  18. Maternal coping styles and adjustment in children.

    PubMed

    Atlas, J G; Rickel, A U

    1988-06-01

    A comprehensive examination of children's social-emotional adjustment as related to maternal coping styles was performed. Subjects were 186 black mothers from lower-income families, and their children who were enrolled in the Detroit Public Schools Area F, Title I Preschool Program. Maternal nurturant and restrictive child rearing practices, life stress, locus of control and marital status were evaluated with respect to each of the child variables of school adjustment, self-concept and social problem solving skills. Maternal life stress was significantly related to children's lower self-concept, higher aggression, use of finagling and nondirective problem-solving strategies. Significant negative relationships were found between maternal nurturance and child moodiness and learning problems in school, further validating the Modified Child Rearing Practices Report. These findings provide support for expanding the current child developmental focus of preventive parenting programs to include maternal coping strategies such as improved communication and assertiveness training.

  19. Coping profiles characterize individual flourishing, languishing, and depression.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Kathryn E; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, negative emotions narrow one's thought-action repertoire. In contrast, positive emotions have a broadening effect, expanding cognitive capacity, increasing potential coping strategies that come to mind, and enhancing decision-making, reaction, and adaptation to adversity. Fredrickson and Losada determined that a positivity ratio - the ratio of experienced positive to negative emotions - at or above 2.9 promotes human flourishing. A ratio below 2.9 is indicative of languishing individuals, whereas a ratio below 1.0 is a marker of depression. This study examined whether adaptive and maladaptive coping profiles differentiated those who flourish, languish, or are depressed in two convenience samples - military spouses (n =367) and public school teachers (n=267). Results were consistent with the theoretical predictions, as coping profiles of the groups differed significantly, with flourishing individuals favoring adaptive coping strategies more than those who were languishing or depressed. Conversely, depressed individuals reported greater use of maladaptive coping strategies than those who were languishing or flourishing. These results provide further empirical support for the mathematical model of Fredrickson and Losada, as the set of positivity criteria were predictive of coping profiles in two samples where successful coping and adaptation are important. PMID:22853921

  20. Spirituality and Well-Being: The Relationship between Religious Coping and Recovery from Sexual Assault

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahrens, Courtney E.; Abeling, Samantha; Ahmad, Sarah; Hinman, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    Despite a growing body of literature documenting beneficial outcomes of religious coping, there are virtually no studies examining sexual assault survivors' use of religious coping. To fill this gap in the literature, the current study examines predictors and outcomes of positive and negative religious coping among 100 sexual assault survivors who…

  1. Psychological and Religious Coping Strategies of Mothers Bereaved by the Sudden Death of a Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Miriam J.; Marwit, Samuel J.; Vandenberg, Brian; Chibnall, John T.

    2005-01-01

    The authors examined the associations of 3 types of psychological coping (task-based, emotion-based, avoidance), 2 types of religious coping (positive, negative), and their interactions with grief of 57 mothers bereaved by the sudden death of a child. Results indicated that mothers who use emotion-based coping report significantly higher levels of…

  2. The Impact of Accommodative Coping on Well-Being in Childhood and Adolescence: Longitudinal Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomsen, Tamara; Fritz, Viktoria; Mößle, Regine; Greve, Werner

    2015-01-01

    Coping research has consistently shown that accommodative coping is positively correlated with individuals' health. Until now, however, there have been little to no studies on the prognostic impact of accommodative coping on health, and only a few studies investigating its buffering effect on the relation between stress and health in childhood and…

  3. Coping Strategy Use, Personality, and Adjustment of Parents Rearing Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, L. M.; Natcher, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parents rearing children with developmental disabilities encounter stressors that require coping and adaptation. In Glidden et al. 2006, the use of problem-focused coping strategies was more often associated with positive adjustment outcomes than was the use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and parental personality was shown to…

  4. The Role of Esteem and Coping in Response to a Threat Communication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, T. John; And Others

    1982-01-01

    Examined the relations among self-esteem, perceived competency to cope, and actual coping behaviors following a threat communication. Manipulated threat level of a tetanus communication and fear level of an antismoking film. Results indicated low-esteem subjects showed coping deficits in both experiments, with positive feedback reversing the…

  5. Relationship Between Resilience and Coping Strategies in Competitive Sport.

    PubMed

    Secades, Xabel García; Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Barquín, Roberto Ruíz; de la Vega, Ricardo; Márquez, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Resilience is important in sport performers to withstand the pressure they experience. This study analyzed the relationship among resilient qualities and coping strategies in 235 Spanish athletes (126 males, 109 females; M age = 20.7 yr) who practiced different sports (79.1% team sports, 20.9% individual sports). They were evaluated at the beginning of the last competitive mesocycle and after an important competition. Coping strategies and level of resilient qualities were measured by the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport and the Resilience Scale. There was no significant difference in resilience scores between evaluations performed during the last mesocycle or competition. A significant increase occurred in the scores for emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping during competition. Resilience scores correlated positively to task-oriented coping and negatively to disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping during both periods. Analysis of variance indicated that athletes with high individual resilient qualities reached higher scores in task-oriented coping, using to a lower extent disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping. Results obtained suggest that resilient characteristics may associate in athletes to the use of more potentially adaptative coping strategies.

  6. Relationship Between Resilience and Coping Strategies in Competitive Sport.

    PubMed

    Secades, Xabel García; Molinero, Olga; Salguero, Alfonso; Barquín, Roberto Ruíz; de la Vega, Ricardo; Márquez, Sara

    2016-02-01

    Resilience is important in sport performers to withstand the pressure they experience. This study analyzed the relationship among resilient qualities and coping strategies in 235 Spanish athletes (126 males, 109 females; M age = 20.7 yr) who practiced different sports (79.1% team sports, 20.9% individual sports). They were evaluated at the beginning of the last competitive mesocycle and after an important competition. Coping strategies and level of resilient qualities were measured by the Coping Inventory for Competitive Sport and the Resilience Scale. There was no significant difference in resilience scores between evaluations performed during the last mesocycle or competition. A significant increase occurred in the scores for emotion-oriented and distraction-oriented coping during competition. Resilience scores correlated positively to task-oriented coping and negatively to disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping during both periods. Analysis of variance indicated that athletes with high individual resilient qualities reached higher scores in task-oriented coping, using to a lower extent disengagement- and distraction-oriented coping. Results obtained suggest that resilient characteristics may associate in athletes to the use of more potentially adaptative coping strategies. PMID:27420325

  7. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  8. Young carers as social actors: coping strategies of children caring for ailing or ageing guardians in Western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Skovdal, Morten; Ogutu, Vincent O; Aoro, Cellestine; Campbell, Catherine

    2009-08-01

    There is a vast body of research on the impact of HIV/AIDS on children, but little which acknowledges the role of children in providing care and support for ailing parents or ageing guardians. There has been a tendency to downplay the active role and agency of young carers, with young carers often represented as victims of damaging circumstances that compromise their psychosocial well-being. To counter-balance this tendency, and to develop the critical trend that views children as social actors, we explore how young carers cope with challenging circumstances, often with skill and ingenuity, drawing on data collected in Western Kenya in 2007. Forty-eight young carers (aged 11-17) used photography and drawing to provide accounts of their coping strategies. They described 240 of the resulting photographs and drawings in writing. In addition, 34 individual interviews and 2 group discussions were conducted with children to explore the findings further and 10 individual interviews with local adults were conducted to elucidate the dynamics between adults and children. Our data revealed that young carers cope by mobilising social support, engaging in income generating activities and constructing positive social identities around their caring roles. We conclude that children's ability to cope is determined by the extent to which they are able to participate in their community and negotiate support from it.

  9. Project COPE, 1985-1986. OEA Evaluation Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Office of Educational Evaluation.

    In its final year of funding, Project COPE provided instruction in basic skills and career development to 388 students of limited English proficiency (LEP) in grades 9 through 12 at three sites in Brooklyn and the Bronx: 150 Hispanics at John F. Kennedy High School, 150 Haitians at Prospect Heights High School, and 88 Italians at Christopher…

  10. Coping strategies and immune neglect in affective forecasting: Direct evidence and key moderators

    PubMed Central

    Hoerger, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Affective forecasting skills have important implications for decision making. However, recent research suggests that immune neglect – the tendency to overlook coping strategies that reduce future distress – may lead to affective forecasting problems. Prior evidence for immune neglect has been indirect. More direct evidence and a deeper understanding of immune neglect are vital to informing the design of future decision-support interventions. In the current study, young adults (N = 325) supplied predicted, actual, and recollected reactions to an emotionally-evocative interpersonal event, Valentine’s Day. Based on participants’ qualitative descriptions of the holiday, a team of raters reliably coded the effectiveness of their coping strategies. Supporting the immune neglect hypothesis, participants overlooked the powerful role of coping strategies when predicting their emotional reactions. Immune neglect was present not only for those experiencing the holiday negatively (non-daters) but also for those experiencing it positively (daters), suggesting that the bias may be more robust than originally theorized. Immune neglect was greater for immediate emotional reactions than more enduring reactions. Further, immune neglect was conspicuously absent from recollected emotional reactions. Implications for decision-support interventions are discussed. PMID:22375161

  11. A psychoeducational nursing intervention to enhance coping and affective state in newly diagnosed malignant melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Fawzy, N W

    1995-12-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to determine if a psychoeducational nursing intervention including (a) health education, (b) stress management, and (c) the teaching of coping skills could enhance the coping behavior and affective state of newly diagnosed Stage I/II malignant melanoma patients. The secondary purpose was to determine if this intervention could be implemented by a nurse and integrated into the overall patient care program. Sixty-one patients were randomized to a control condition or an experimental condition that received and educational manual plus 3 h of individual nurse teaching. Despite randomization, experimental patients had significantly higher baseline distress. By 3 months there was a complete reversal of the baseline trend in Profile of Mood States (POMS) total mood disturbance (TMD), suggesting that the experimental subjects were experiencing less distress over time. Between-group analysis of change scores found significant decreases in experimental subjects for POMS TMD, fatigue, and Brief Symptom Index (BSI) somatization. Within-group analysis found significant experimental decreases for BSI somatization, anxiety, grand total, General Severity Index, and Positive Symptom Distress Index as well as for POMS anxiety, fatigue, confusion, vigor, and TMD. No significant changes were found for controls. Experimental patients were using significantly fewer ineffective passive resignation coping strategies than controls at 3 months.

  12. Coping with Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Janet

    1982-01-01

    Coping with Crises is a home economics course in a rural school in Missouri. It includes experiences designed to increase the individual's ability to deal with stress and covers communication, popularity, loneliness, divorce, death and dying, mental illness, and rejection. (SK)

  13. Coping with Computing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.

    Elements of computing success of Iona College, the challenges it currently faces, and the strategies conceived to cope with future computing needs are discussed. The college has mandated computer literacy for students and offers nine degrees in the computerized information system/management information system areas. Since planning is needed in…

  14. Incarceration, Coping, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Cervera, Neil J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of incarceration on family life among 63 inmates and 38 inmate wives. Contrasted those who participated in Family Reunion (conjugal visits) Program with nonparticipants. Found that coping was in normal range for both groups of inmates and wives and, except for measures of wives' passive appraisal, did not differ according to…

  15. Coping with Traumatic Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tramonte, Michael R.

    This workshop seeks to train persons interested in counseling those who have suffered traumatic loss. The training comes about in part by the participants' introspection into their own past trauma reactions and the coping strategies they used. They also learn from the shared experiences of other participants. The goals of this workshop are to 1)…

  16. Sex differences in coping strategies in military survival school.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p≤.05), self-blame (p≤.05), and positive reinterpretation (p≤.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences. PMID:25465883

  17. Feasibility of a pediatric cognitive-behavioral self-management intervention: Coping Openly and Personally with Epilepsy (COPE).

    PubMed

    Wagner, Janelle L; Smith, Gigi; Ferguson, Pamela; van Bakergem, Karen; Hrisko, Stephanie

    2011-07-01

    A pilot study was conducted to examine the feasibility and satisfaction of an integrated cognitive-behavioral and self-management intervention for youth with epilepsy (YWE) and caregivers. The Coping Openly and Personally with Epilepsy (COPE) intervention was based on empirically supported cognitive-behavioral techniques and theory driven self-management content. Content of the intervention consists of epilepsy education, primary and secondary coping skills. Children and adolescents ages 10-15, who had been diagnosed with epilepsy for at least six months (ICD-9345 codes), had at least average intelligence, no history of a serious mental illness, were not currently being treated for major depression, and lived within an 80 mile radius were considered eligible. Nine youth and their caregivers completed the COPE program and provided self-report data on feasibility, accuracy, and satisfaction of the COPE program. Caregivers and youth reported a high level of satisfaction with the COPE program, and findings support the feasibility and accuracy of the intervention content and delivery. Results provide a foundation for future randomized, controlled, clinical trials to examine the effectiveness of the COPE program for youth with epilepsy and their caregivers.

  18. The enhanced Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program: The relationship between internalizing symptoms and family functioning in children aged 9–11 years old

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Patricia; Rooney, Rosanna M.; Kane, Robert T.; Hassan, Sharinaz; Nesa, Monique

    2015-01-01

    The family context plays a critical role in the health of the child. This was the first study to examine the usefulness of the General Functioning subscale of the Family Assessment Device (FAD-GF) in assessing family functioning and its relationship to internalizing symptoms in school-aged children aged between 9 and 11 years of age. Eight hundred and forty-seven year 4 and 5 students from 13 schools (607 intervention students, and 240 control students) participated in the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program (AO-PTS) – a universal school-based program targeting internalizing symptoms. Students rated how ‘healthy’ they perceived their family to be at pre-test and at 6-months follow-up. Although some aspects of validity and reliability could be improved, results indicated that perceptions of family functioning at pre-test were predictive of internalizing symptoms at the 6-months follow-up. The FAD-GF therefore showed promise as a potential measure of family functioning for children as young as 9 years old. Regardless of children’s pre-test levels of perceived family functioning, no intervention effects were found on the anxiety and depression scales; this finding suggests that child perceptions of family functioning may act as a general protective factor against internalizing symptomology. PMID:25983698

  19. Prevention of internalizing disorders in 9–10 year old children: efficacy of the Aussie Optimism Positive Thinking Skills Program at 30-month follow-up

    PubMed Central

    Rooney, Rosanna M.; Morrison, David; Hassan, Sharinaz; Kane, Robert; Roberts, Clare; Mancini, Vincent

    2013-01-01

    The Aussie Optimism: Positive Thinking Skills Program (AOPTP) is a school-based prevention program aimed at addressing anxious and depressive symptoms in children aged 9–10 years. Nine-hundred and ten students from 22 Australian primary schools situated in low socio-economic areas were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control group, and assessed at a 30-month follow up. Those in the intervention group received the AOPTP program, where the control group continued to receive the regular health education course. Students completed self-report measures regarding their levels of depression, anxiety, and attribution style. Parents also reported on their children's externalizing and internalizing problems outside of school. There were no significant differences between groups in regard to anxiety or depression, as well as no significant differences in attributional styles. Parents reported significantly less hyperactive behaviors from children in the intervention group. This finding suggests that AOP-PTS has the capacity to treat externalizing problems at a medium term effect. The decrease in the externalizing problems provides evidence of a partial medium term intervention effect. Future studies should continue to evaluate the program at a long term follow up. PMID:24421776

  20. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  1. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  2. Do Country-Specific Skills Lead to Improved Labor Market Positions? An Analysis of Unemployment and Labor Market Returns to Education among Immigrants in Sweden.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duvander, Ann-Zofie E.

    2001-01-01

    Comparison of 1,800 Swedish citizens and 1,600 immigrants to Sweden suggested that Swedish language skills and education do not reduce immigrants' risk of unemployment. Country-specific skills reduced risk of overqualification, but did not account for the labor market disadvantage of immigrants, which may be due to discrimination. (Contains 56…

  3. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  4. Learning Leadership Skills in a Simulated Business Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siewiorek, Anna; Saarinen, Eeli; Lainema, Timo; Lehtinen, Erno

    2012-01-01

    In today's unstable market economy, individuals have to be skilled to work efficiently in constantly changing and complex situations. Thus, graduate students have to be trained to cope with unpredictable situations before they enter the workforce. They need to exercise occupational skills, such as leadership skills, during higher education.…

  5. Coping with Depression in Single Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2016-01-01

    Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, “What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?” The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed. PMID:26979572

  6. Investigating coping strategies and social support among Canadian melanoma patients: A survey approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Melanie; Cyr, Annette; Gregorio, Nancy; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Complex support needs are involved in coping with a diagnosis of melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived social support levels and utilization of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies by Canadian melanoma patients. The impact of social support level on coping strategy utilization was also examined. Social support and coping strategies were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) and the 28-item Brief COPE, respectively. Perceived levels of emotional/informational support were significantly lower than affectionate support and positive social interaction. Acceptance, active coping, and use of emotional support were the most frequently utilized coping strategies. Patients with higher perceived levels of social support had significantly higher adaptive coping scores than patients with lower levels of social support. Health care professionals have an important role in promoting awareness of and access to emotional and informational support resources in order to improve perceived social support levels. PMID:26642495

  7. Social support, threat, and coping responses and effectiveness in the functionally disabled.

    PubMed

    McNett, S C

    1987-01-01

    A causal model based on Lazarus' (1966) cognitively oriented theory of psychological stress and coping was tested in a functionally disabled population to determine the effects of social support variables, threat appraisal, and coping responses on coping effectiveness. Social support variables (perceived availability of social support, perceived effectiveness of social support, and personal constraints to the use of social support) were hypothesized to effect coping responses both directly and through the variable of threat appraisal. Coping responses (use of social support, cognitive reappraisal, emotion-focused coping, and problem-focused coping) were hypothesized to directly effect coping effectiveness and to mediate the effect of all other variables. Data from 50 functionally disabled, wheel-chair-bound individuals discharged within 3 years from two rehabilitation facilities were analyzed using path analysis. The model fit the data and accounted for 61% of the variance in coping effectiveness. Findings indicated that perceived availability of social support, but not the use of social support, was significantly and positively related to coping effectiveness through the mediating variables of problem- and emotion-focused coping. In contrast to the relationship of marital status to coping effectiveness usually found in the literature, nonmarried subjects coped more effectively and perceived less threat.

  8. Coping behaviour after shipwreck.

    PubMed

    Henderson, S; Bostock, T

    1977-07-01

    A description is given of the coping behaviour of seven men who survived a shipwreck and were not rescued until 13 days later. The principal behaviours shown by the men were attachment ideation, drive to survive, modelling, prayer and hope. Particular attention is paid to the first of these, and consideration given to its likely origins in behavioural evolution. It is proposed as a hitherto inadequately recognized coping behaviour. A follow-up examination 12 to 24 months later showed that five of the seven men available had developed substantial psychiatric disorder, while by contrast one was not only well but claimed to have been enriched by the experience. Exposure to extreme adversity or disaster may have long-term effects on mental health. Further longitudinal studies of disaster victims are necessary for the design of informed after-care.

  9. Hardiness, coping, and burnout in the nursing workplace.

    PubMed

    Simoni, P S; Paterson, J J

    1997-01-01

    Relationships among hardiness, coping approach, and burnout were studied in a sample of 440 nurses. Within each of the coping approaches used, subjects with greater hardiness reported less stress in the form of burnout than did those with less hardiness (F = 36.21, df = 1, P = .001). Subjects using direct-active coping (changing the stressor, confronting the stressor, finding positive aspects in the situation) had the lowest burnout scores, and those using direct-inactive coping (ignoring the stressor, avoiding the stressor, leaving the stressor) had the highest (t = 2.267, df = 437, P < .012). chi 2 analysis identified independence between hardiness and coping approach. Analysis of variance identified no interaction between hardiness and coping behavior categories for burnout; however, the lowest burnout scores were encountered among nurses with greater hardiness who used direct-active coping behaviors. These findings suggest that both hardiness and direct-active coping approaches can be used independently or in concert to reduce burnout. Rationale is provided for preparing practitioners to engage in problem-solving approaches, assertive interaction, and active and direct methods of conflict resolution. PMID:9167407

  10. Psychosocial Predictors of Sexual HIV Transmission Risk Behavior among HIV-Positive Adults with a Sexual Abuse History in Childhood

    PubMed Central

    Sikkema, Kathleen J.; Hansen, Nathan B.; Meade, Christina S.; Kochman, Arlene; Fox, Ashley M.

    2015-01-01

    Childhood sexual abuse (CSA) is associated with HIV sexual risk behavior. Although many psychosocial correlates of sexual risk among HIV-positive persons have been identified, studies predicting continued risk among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA are limited. This cross-sectional study identified variables predictive of sexual transmission risk behavior among an ethnically diverse sample of 256 HIV-positive adults (women and men who have sex with men; MSM) with CSA histories. Participants were assessed for trauma symptoms, shame related to HIV and sexual trauma, substance use, coping style, and sexual risk behavior. Logistic regression analyses were conducted to identify variables predictive of unprotected sexual behavior in the past 4 months. Unprotected sex was significantly associated with substance use and trauma-related behavioral difficulties among women and men, and less spiritual coping among men. Unprotected sex with HIV negative or serostatus unknown partners was significantly associated with greater trauma-related behavioral difficulties, more HIV-related shame, and fewer active coping strategies. Thus, trauma symptoms, shame, coping style, and substance use were significantly associated with sexual risk behavior among HIV-positive adults with histories of CSA, with models of prediction differing by gender and partner serostatus. HIV prevention intervention for persons with HIV and CSA histories should address trauma-related behavioral difficulties and enhance coping skills to reduce sexual transmission risk behavior. PMID:17999171

  11. Adolescents coping with mood disorder: a grounded theory study.

    PubMed

    Meadus, R J

    2007-04-01

    A grounded theory methodology was used to explore the phenomenon of coping as experienced by adolescents with a mood disorder. Mood disorders among children and adolescents are more persistent than previously thought and have numerous negative associated features, including further episodes of depression, impaired social, academic and vocational relationships, use of alcohol and other drugs, and an increased risk of suicide. Current literature offered little awareness of how adolescents cope with a mood disorder, as well as their perspective of how such an illness impacts their lives. A substantive theory regarding the process of coping for adolescents with a mood disorder was generated from the data collected from one male and eight female adolescents. Using grounded theory coding procedures, a four-phase coping theory identified by the categories feeling different, cutting off connections, facing the challenge/reconnecting, and learning from the experience was developed. The core category identified in this research was An Unplanned Journey: Coping Through Connections. Implications identified for nursing practice, research and education included greater attention on the prevention of adolescent mood disorder, and the education of adolescents about the development and enhancement of healthy coping skills. PMID:17352785

  12. Bus commuters' coping strategies and anxiety from terrorism: an example of the Israeli experience.

    PubMed

    Gidron, Y; Gal, R; Zahavi, S

    1999-01-01

    This study examined the use of three coping strategies: (1) emotion-focused coping (calming-distraction); (2) problem-focused coping (checking-behavior); and (3) denial (reduced perceived vulnerability), and their relationship to anxiety from terrorism among 50 Israeli bus commuters. Their mean age was 31 years (60% females). Commuting frequency was negatively correlated, and problem-focused coping was positively correlated with anxiety from terrorism. Ratios of problem-focused coping/denial and of problem-focused/emotion-focused coping were each positively correlated with anxiety from terrorism. Coping ratios accounted for 15% of the variance in anxiety from terrorism, after considering commuting frequency. Combining minimal problem-focused preventative acts with distraction and reduced perceived vulnerability may be beneficial.

  13. Perception of coaching behaviors, coping, and achievement in a sport competition.

    PubMed

    Nicolas, Michel; Gaudreau, Patrick; Franche, Veronique

    2011-06-01

    This study examined the relationship between perceived coaching behaviors, coping strategies during a sport competition, and sport achievement. A prospective design was used in which 80 athletes from individual sports completed measures of perceived coaching behaviors two days before a competition (Time 1) and measures of coping and sport achievement within three hours after a sport competition (Time 2). As expected, results of multiple regressions indicated that supportive coaching was a positive predictor of task-oriented coping and sport achievement whereas unsupportive coaching was a positive predictor of disengagement-oriented coping. Both types of coping were significantly associated with sport achievement. Task-oriented coping was a significant partial mediator in the relation between supportive coaching and sport achievement. This study, which contributes to both the coaching and coping literatures, highlights the role of supportive coaching behaviors in the initiation of effective stress management during sport competitions.

  14. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  15. Coping and adaptation in adults living with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Barone, Stacey Hoffman; Waters, Katherine

    2012-10-01

    Biopsychosocial adaptation remains a multifaceted challenge for individuals with spinal cord injury, their families, and healthcare providers alike. The development of frequent medical complications necessitating healthcare interventions is an ongoing, debilitating, and costly problem for those living with spinal cord injuries. Although several demographic variables have been correlated with positive adaptation in individuals with spinal cord injury, the research outcome data present limitations in understanding and facilitating which coping techniques work best to augment biopsychosocial adaptation in this population. Coping facilitates adaptation and adjustment to stress and can help to increase quality of life in people living with spinal cord injury and reduce common complications. The purpose of this study was to determine the extent to which sociodemographic characteristics and hardiness explain coping in 243 adults living with a spinal cord injury. In addition, this study examined which predictors of coping explain biopsychosocial adaptation. A descriptive explanatory design was utilized. Standardized instruments were administered nationally to assess hardiness, coping, and physiological and psychosocial adaptation. Canonical correlation and multiple regression analyses indicated that less educated, less hardy, and recently injured participants were more likely to use escape-avoidance coping and less likely to use social support, problem solving, and positive reappraisal coping behaviors (p < .05). Individuals with paraplegia had a higher level of functional ability, spent less time in rehabilitation, had a greater sense of control, and experienced less frequent complications. The control dimension of hardiness was the only dimension that significantly related to biopsychosocial adaptation within this sample.

  16. From Fistfights to Gunfights: Preparing Teachers and Administrators To Cope with Violence in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, H. Woodrow

    Issues facing educators today include drug traffic and abuse, crime and delinquency, gangs, weapons, violence, vandalism, schoolyard bullying, and crisis management. Teachers and administrators require special skills to cope with potentially explosive situations and violent students, yet training in those skills is not being received in university…

  17. Coping behavior in normal and clinical samples: more similarities than differences?

    PubMed

    Seiffge-Krenke, I

    1993-09-01

    In our studies we tried to integrate a developmental and a clinical perspective on coping and adaptation in adolescence. Starting with a review of the author's own research, involving over 3000 12- to 20-year-olds from various cultures, the problems typical of this developmental phase and the ways of coping with these normative demands are presented. The results show that coping skills of young people in dealing with age-specific problems have so far been considerably underestimated. Their response to problems stemming from different developmental fields such as parents, peers, school or future involved three main modes of coping: Active Coping, Internal Coping and Withdrawal. Withdrawal was employed very rarely and only for certain types of problems. Age, gender and problem-specific effects in coping were found. Whereas normal adolescents most frequently choose to cope with difficulties actively by means of social resources and to think out possible solutions, risk populations appear to have a more ambivalent pattern of coping strategies with high functionality and high dysfunctionality. Even their appraisal of problems is already disturbed; they feel more readily threatened by everyday problem situations and respond more uniformly with withdrawal. Finally, similarities between the female coping style in normal samples and the more pronounced ambivalent pattern in clinical samples were discussed and related to psychopathology. PMID:8282899

  18. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version “COPE Breve”

    PubMed Central

    Orsini, Mara R. C. A.; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M.

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  19. How groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems: Symbolic coping and collective emotions.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Sabine; Bonnot, Virginie; Ratiu, Eugenia; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the way groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems. The social representations approach was adopted, and the collective symbolic coping model was used as a frame of analysis, integrating collective emotions to enhance the understanding of coping processes. The original feature of this study is that the analysis is at group level. Seven focus groups were conducted with French students. An original use of focus groups was proposed: Discussions were structured to induce feelings of collective responsibility and enable observation of how groups cope with such feelings at various levels (social knowledge; social identities; group dynamics). Two analyses were conducted: Qualitative analysis of participants' use of various kinds of knowledge, social categories and the group dynamics, and lexicometric analysis to reveal how emotions varied during the different discussion phases. Results showed that groups' emotional states moved from negative to positive: They used specific social categories and resorted to shared stereotypes to cope with collective responsibility and maintain the integrity of their worldview. Only then did debate become possible again; it was anchored in the nature-culture dichotomy such that groups switched from group-based to system-based emotions.

  20. Exploring Coping and Social Support with Gender and Education Among People Living with HIV in China.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Lin, Chunqing; Liang, Li-Jung; Ji, Guoping

    2016-02-01

    Social support promotes positive coping strategies among people living with HIV (PLH); however, little is known about the various aspects of social support and their distinct effects on coping. The present study investigates the specific links between coping and perceived social support with respect to gender and education among PLH. A total of 522 PLH in Anhui, China, participated in an assessment that collected data on demographics, perceived tangible and emotional support, and cognitive and behavioral coping. The assessment was conducted using the computer-assisted personal interviewing method. The data were analyzed using linear mixed models. Emotional support was significantly associated with both cognitive and behavioral coping. Tangible support was significantly associated with behavioral coping but not with emotional coping. Women reported significantly lower levels of emotional support, cognitive coping, and behavioral coping than men did. Significant associations between tangible support and coping were found only among illiterate males. Women living with HIV are in greater need of social support and coping strategies. Future interventions should be gender specific, with targeted support for women with lower education levels to enhance their coping strategies.

  1. Relapse Coping Strategies in Young Adults Addicts: A Quantitative Study in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Shafiei, Ebrahim; Hoseini, Agha Fatemeh; Parsaeian, Farnaz; Heidarinejad, Ali; Azmal, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Cognitive-behavioral coping approach is known as an effective strategy to preventing relapse. Its goal is to forget incompatible behaviors and replaces them with the compatible answers. Objectives: This study examines relapse coping strategies in young adults in selected substance abuse treatment centers in Iran. Patients and Methods: The present is a descriptive cross-sectional study. The sample consisted of 70 self-referred young addicts (18-24 years). Adolescence Relapse Coping Questionnaire was used to assess relapse coping strategies. Descriptive statistics was used to analyze the data. Results: The findings revealed that 71.2% have experienced a relapse totally. It was hard to control the hypothetical high risk situation and they greatly wanted to use the substance (mean 7.39 of 10). Addicts have used of all three coping skills in “definitely would do” level. Conclusion: Enhancing self-efficacy through training coping skills, especially abstinence - focused coping skills to react properly in high risk situation can be useful. PMID:27011402

  2. Psychological skill model of collegiate athletes in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kai; Chou, Tzu-Chin Rejoice

    2014-10-01

    The importance of psychological skills to an athlete is widely recognized. The Athletic Psychological Skills Inventory (APSI) was developed to evaluate psychological skills in the Taiwanese sports environment. This study employed the APSI model to refine the psychological skill factor structure. The model was supported as a reliable and valid form of measurement. A second-order confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) confirmed the factor structure of the APSI in Taiwanese collegiate athletes. Peaking under pressure and coping with adversity were combined into a simplified factor, coping with adversity. PMID:25310230

  3. Reinforcement sensitivity, coping, and delinquent behaviour in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope A

    2007-10-01

    Since 1964, the relationship between personality and criminal behaviour has been extensively studied. However, studies, which have examined the Eysenckian dimensions of extraversion, neuroticism and psychoticism have produced mixed results. Gray's [Gray, J. A. (1970). The psychophysiological basis of introversion-extroversion. Behavior Research and Therapy, 8, 249-266] Reinforcement Sensitivity Theory provides an alternative conceptualisation of the role of personality in criminal behaviour, and has generally produced more consistent findings. This study aimed to examine the relationship between reinforcement sensitivity and delinquent behaviour in a sample of 259 adolescents, and to examine the role that coping strategies play in this relationship. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that use of problem solving mediated the relationship between reward sensitivity and delinquent behaviour, while use of non-productive coping strategies moderated the relationship between BAS drive and delinquency. Consequently, it was suggested that coping skills training could be an effective early intervention for delinquent behaviour.

  4. Chronic sorrow and coping in families of children with epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Hobdell, Elizabeth F; Grant, Mitzie L; Valencia, Ignacio; Mare, Jane; Kothare, Sanjeev V; Legido, Agustin; Khurana, Divya S

    2007-04-01

    Epilepsy, a common problem in child neurology, affects the entire family. There is a potential for such psychosocial consequences as parental chronic sorrow and alterations in coping. In this study, 67 parents completed brief questionnaires about their sorrow and coping styles. Results demonstrated chronic sorrow as measured by the Adapted Burke Questionnaire (10.45 +/- 7.9). Interestingly, the total score was not significantly different between parents of children with refractory and nonrefractory epilepsy or parents of children with comorbid or without comorbid conditions. Selection of the individual item disbelief, however, was significantly increased in parents of children with nonrefractory epilepsy, and selection of the item anger was significantly increased in parents of children with comorbid conditions. Parental coping styles were similar to those reported in the normative data for the instrument used, the Coping Health Inventory for Parents (CHIP). The correlation between chronic sorrow and coping was significant between the grief component of sorrow and Coping Pattern II of the CHIP. Implications for practice include earlier identification of parental feelings of sorrow and coping styles, which may contribute to a positive outcome. PMID:17477221

  5. Depression and ways of coping with stress: A preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Orzechowska, Agata; Zajączkowska, Marlena; Talarowska, Monika; Gałecki, Piotr

    2013-01-01

    Background Coping with stress is defined as all activities undertaken by a human in a stressful situation. The effect of stress on depression, its role in triggering the subsequent phases of the disease, and the factors that mediate the stress-depression relationship become more and more often subjects of research in psychiatry and psychology. Factors important for the formation of depressive symptoms and disease progression are significantly associated with coping strategies used in the face of stress. The main aim of the study was to evaluate the most popular strategies of coping with stress in people with depression in comparison to healthy subjects. Material/Methods Initial research was carried on 80 patients aged from 20 to 66 years with a diagnosis of depression. The control group consisted of 30 healthy subjects aged 22 to 57 years. Analysis of the most popular strategies of coping with stress was performed with the Multiphasic Inventory for Measuring Coping (COPE) by Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub. Results In contrast with healthy people, patients with depression in stressful situations more often use strategies based on avoidance and denial and have more difficulties in finding positive aspects of stressful events. Conclusions Depression may be an important factor in the negative assessment of one’s own ability to cope with difficult situations and can aggravate a tendency to perceive stressful events as overwhelming. PMID:24270182

  6. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college…

  7. Facilitating Positive Psychosocial Adaptation in Children with Cystic Fibrosis by Increasing Family Communication and Problem-Solving Skills. A Research Report to the Cystic Fibrosis Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stabler, Brian; And Others

    This study tested the effects of two group-oriented supportive and educational approaches on the parents of children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Thirteen families were randomly assigned either to a group which received information on medical and technical aspects of CF or to a group which received instruction in communication skills in addition to…

  8. The Difficulty of Maintaining Positive Intervention Effects: A Look at Disruptive Behavior, Deviant Peer Relations, and Social Skills during the Middle School Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochman, John E.; Bierman, Karen L.; Coie, John D.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Greenberg, Mark T.; McMahon, Robert J.; Pinderhughes, Ellen E.

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of the Fast Track preventive intervention on youths' functioning in three domains: disruptive behavior problems, involvement with deviant peers, and social skills during the middle school years. Eight hundred ninety-one children had been randomly assigned by sets of schools within four sites to intervention (n =…

  9. Religious Coping Among Adults Caring for Family Members with Serious Mental Illness.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Michelle J; Medoff, Deborah; Lawrence, Ryan E; Dixon, Lisa

    2016-02-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated the use of religious coping strategies among family members of adults with serious mental illness. A sample of 436 individuals caring for a family member with serious mental illness were recruited into a randomized clinical trial for the National Alliance on Mental Illness Family to Family Education Program. Relationships are reported between religious coping and caregiving, care recipient, and mental health services outcomes. Religious coping was associated with more objective caregiving burden, greater care recipient need, less mental health knowledge, and less receipt of mental health services after adjusting for non-religious types of coping. At the same time, religious coping was associated with a positive caregiving experience and greater religious support. Religious coping plays an important role for many caregivers of persons with serious mental illness. Caregivers who use more religious coping may have an especially high need for mental health education and mental health services.

  10. Coping with negative emotions: connections with adolescents' academic performance and stress.

    PubMed

    Arsenio, William F; Loria, Samantha

    2014-01-01

    The authors assessed connections among adolescents' emotional dispositions, negative academic affect, coping strategies, academic stress, and overall grade point average (GPA). A total of 119 ninth through 12th-grade students completed assessments for (a) overall positive and negative moods, (b) GPA, and (c) academically related variables involving stress, negative emotions, and engaged and disengaged coping strategies. Greater negative academic affect and disengaged coping were related to lower GPAs, and disengaged coping mediated the connection between negative academic affect and GPA. By contrast, higher academic stress was related to students' overall moods, negative academic affect, and disengaged coping; disengaged coping mediated the connection between academic stress and negative overall moods. Discussion focused on the especially problematic nature of disengaged academic coping.

  11. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  12. Coping Resources of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Allen L.

    Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…

  13. Coping with Continual Motion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gutsche, Betha

    2010-01-01

    In the face of seismic shifts in technology and social organization, librarians and library staff face changing roles. A focus on competencies--the skills, knowledge, behaviors, and attitudes that are involved in a job--can help the library profession keep its footing as well as help librarians stick to values. When well done, they can define a…

  14. [Coping with chronic disease].

    PubMed

    Bachmann, Silke

    2014-03-26

    Patients suffering form chronic diseases have to deal with several problems, the illness itself only being one of them. Health care providers have to undergo a paradigm shift to be able to meet the new challenges which differ from those in acute care. From the patient's perspective, coping with a chronic disease is not a limited process, but encompasses different, often recurring phases (trajectory model). The treating physician's support may comprise the offering of information on general and specific stress factors (physical, emotional, social), empathy, respecting the individual's expertise and activating a patient's resources and self-efficacy. The amount of support given is limited by the treating physician's expert knowledge in this area. Physicians should respect their own limits and involve specialists, supervision or Balint groups.

  15. Coping With Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  16. Physical Attractiveness and Counseling Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vargas, Alice M.; Borkowski, John G.

    1982-01-01

    Searched for interaction between quality of counseling skills (presence or absence of empathy, genuineness, and positive regard) and physical attractiveness as determinants of counseling effectiveness. Attractiveness influenced perceived effectiveness of counselor's skill. Analyses of expectancy data revealed that only with good skills did…

  17. Examining Behavioural Coping Strategies as Mediators between Work-Family Conflict and Psychological Distress

    PubMed Central

    Shamsuddin, Khadijah

    2015-01-01

    We examined the mediating role of behavioral coping strategies in the association between work-family conflict and psychological distress. In particular, we examined the two directions of work-family conflict, namely, work interference into family and family interference into work. Furthermore, two coping styles in this study were adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies. This cross-sectional study was conducted among 429 Malaysian working women using self-reported data. The results of mediational analysis in the present study showed that adaptive coping strategy does not significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. However, maladaptive coping strategies significantly mediate the effect of work-family conflict on psychological distress. These results show that adaptive coping strategies, which aimed to improve the stressful situation, are not effective in managing stressor such as work-family conflict. We found that experiencing interrole conflict steers employees toward frequent use of maladaptive coping strategies which in turn lead to psychological distress. Interventions targeted at improvement of coping skills which are according to individual's needs and expectation may help working women to balance work and family demands. The important issue is to keep in mind that effective coping strategies are to control the situations not to eliminate work-family conflict. PMID:25695097

  18. Positive Education: Positive Psychology and Classroom Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seligman, Martin E. P.; Ernst, Randal M.; Gillham, Jane; Reivich, Karen; Linkins, Mark

    2009-01-01

    Positive education is defined as education for both traditional skills and for happiness. The high prevalence worldwide of depression among young people, the small rise in life satisfaction, and the synergy between learning and positive emotion all argue that the skills for happiness should be taught in school. There is substantial evidence from…

  19. Collectivistic coping strategies for distress among Polynesian Americans.

    PubMed

    Allen, G E Kawika; Smith, Timothy B

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that psychological services designed to assist clients in coping with stressful or traumatic events are more effective when aligned with clients' cultural values, practices, and worldviews. However, limited research is available regarding the preferred coping strategies of Polynesian Americans. In examining collectivistic coping styles and their association with previous distress among 94 Polynesian Americans, we found that participants were highly likely to use family support and religion/spirituality to buffer the initial and residual effects of impairment attributable to distressing events, and private emotional outlets, such as psychotherapy, very infrequently. The use of private emotional outlets was associated with lower impairment from distress, although family support was much more predictive of lower impairment and positive psychological well-being. Mental health professionals can align their services with the cultural values of Polynesian Americans by accounting for collectivistic coping styles and family dynamics.

  20. Examining the Coping Response to Peer Relational Aggression Victimization

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Melissa M.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Relational aggression, rumor spreading, backstabbing, and social isolation, is psychologically damaging for adolescent girls. The purpose of this study was to provide an explanation of victimization response after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization. Methods. Grounded theory techniques were used to gain an understanding of the victimization experience and the coping responses used. Findings. A theory of coping after experiencing peer relational aggression victimization was generated. Girls voiced feelings of hurt and anger after the experience and expressed the following ways of coping as a result: distancing from others, retaliation against the aggressor, discussing their feelings with friends and family, writing their feelings down, and/or confronting the aggressor. Clinical Implications. Nurses should be aware of the phenomenon and asses, for incidences of relational aggression victimization so that they may provide strategies to assist the adolescent and her family with positive coping mechanisms in order to prevent maladaptive responses. PMID:21994828

  1. Coping with a breast cancer diagnosis: a prospective study.

    PubMed

    Stanton, A L; Snider, P R

    1993-01-01

    Employing the stress and coping theory of Lazarus and Folkman, this study followed 117 women age 40 or over regarding personality, cognitive appraisal, coping, and mood variables before breast biopsy, after diagnosis, and, for those who had cancer, after surgery. Upon biopsy, 36 received a cancer diagnosis, and 81 received a benign diagnosis. The 2 groups did not differ on appraisals, coping, or affect before diagnosis. With prebiopsy affect controlled, cancer patients reported more negative affect postbiopsy than did benign patients. Postsurgery, cancer patients expressed less vigor and more fatigue than benign patients, but the groups did not differ on other negative emotions. Prebiopsy, psychosocial predictors accounted for 54% and 29% of the variance in negative and positive emotion, respectively. Prebiopsy variables also predicted postbiopsy and postsurgery mood; cognitive avoidance coping was a particularly important predictor of high distress and low vigor.

  2. Collectivistic coping strategies for distress among Polynesian Americans.

    PubMed

    Allen, G E Kawika; Smith, Timothy B

    2015-08-01

    Previous research has shown that psychological services designed to assist clients in coping with stressful or traumatic events are more effective when aligned with clients' cultural values, practices, and worldviews. However, limited research is available regarding the preferred coping strategies of Polynesian Americans. In examining collectivistic coping styles and their association with previous distress among 94 Polynesian Americans, we found that participants were highly likely to use family support and religion/spirituality to buffer the initial and residual effects of impairment attributable to distressing events, and private emotional outlets, such as psychotherapy, very infrequently. The use of private emotional outlets was associated with lower impairment from distress, although family support was much more predictive of lower impairment and positive psychological well-being. Mental health professionals can align their services with the cultural values of Polynesian Americans by accounting for collectivistic coping styles and family dynamics. PMID:26053646

  3. Incorporating coping into an expectancy framework for explaining drinking behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hasking, Penelope A; Oei, Tian P S

    2008-01-01

    Expectancy Theory has offered much in the way of understanding alcohol use and abuse, and has contributed greatly to prevention and treatment initiatives. However although many cognitive-behavioural treatment approaches are based on expectancy constructs, such as outcome expectancies and self-efficacy, high relapse rates imply that expectancy theory may be too narrow in scope, and that additional variables need to be examined if a comprehensive understanding of drinking behaviour, and better treatment outcomes, are to be achieved. We suggest that the coping strategies an individual employs present one such set of variables that have largely been neglected from an expectancy framework. Although coping skills training is routinely used in prevention and treatment of alcohol problems, coping research has suffered from a poor theoretical framework. In this paper we review the existing research relating expectancies, self-efficacy and coping to drinking behaviour and propose a model which explains both social and dependent drinking, by incorporating coping into an expectancy theory framework. We also outline research and clinical implications of the proposed model. PMID:19630702

  4. [Coping strategies in adaptation of higher education students].

    PubMed

    das Neves Mira Freitas, Helena Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The adjustment to higher education can be understood as a multidimensional process, which requires by the student a development of adaptive skills to a new and dynamic context in itself. To meet these challenges students have to develop effective coping strategies, enabling them to be adapted to the context. The school has a key role in the help it can give to these young people, in order to adapt effectively.

  5. [Coping strategies in adaptation of higher education students].

    PubMed

    das Neves Mira Freitas, Helena Cristina

    2007-01-01

    The adjustment to higher education can be understood as a multidimensional process, which requires by the student a development of adaptive skills to a new and dynamic context in itself. To meet these challenges students have to develop effective coping strategies, enabling them to be adapted to the context. The school has a key role in the help it can give to these young people, in order to adapt effectively. PMID:18372532

  6. Active and Avoidant Coping and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of the Relation of Maternal Involvement to Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Prelow, Hazel M.

    2007-01-01

    Our study tested an extension of the social resource model in an urban sample of 129 African American and 114 European American adolescents. Maternal involvement was positively related to the use of active and avoidant coping strategies among youth of both ethnicities. Additionally, use of active coping strategies was related to greater coping…

  7. Resilient Child Sexual Abuse Survivors: Cognitive Coping and Illusion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Himelein, Melissa J.; McElrath, Jo Ann V.

    1996-01-01

    Two studies examined coping strategies associated with resilience in a nonclinical sample of young adult child sexual abuse survivors. Survivors were likely to engage in positive illusions or such cognitive strategies as disclosing and discussing the abuse, minimization, positive reframing, and refusing to dwell on the experience. Results support…

  8. How Older Female Spouses Cope with Partners' Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Marnocha, Suzanne; Marnocha, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This research sought to better understand how older female spouses cope with a partner's coronary artery bypass graft surgery and to explore coping's relationships with life-change stress, cognitive appraisal, resilience, social support, and aspects of spouse's surgery. A sample of 96 women, aged from 55 to 81 years, completed surveys after their partner's surgery. Folkman and Lazarus' ways of coping (WCQ) scales yielded two factors in this sample—reactive coping and adaptive coping. Reactive coping, including more emotion-focused ways of coping from the WCQ, was associated only with more time spent anticipating spouses' surgeries. Women described the greatest use of ways of coping labeled adaptive, which in turn had significant relationships with greater resilience, social support, and positive appraisal of the surgical experience. Stepwise multiple regression found greater resilience, more frequent religious participation, and fewer children to be distinct predictors of adaptive coping. Nursing staff are encouraged to accept and normalize reactive coping, while facilitating adaptive coping with surgical stresses. PMID:23634299

  9. Understanding adjustment following traumatic brain injury: is the Goodness-of-Fit coping hypothesis useful?

    PubMed

    Kendall, Elizabeth; Terry, Deborah J

    2008-10-01

    Coping efforts have been recognised as an important aspect of resilience following traumatic brain injury, but little is known about what constitutes effective coping in this population. This longitudinal research examined the usefulness of the Goodness-of-Fit hypothesis, drawn from the Lazarus and Folkman [(1984). Stress, appraisal and coping. NY: Springer.] theory of stress and coping, as a way of understanding coping effectiveness. The hypothesis suggests that the nature and success of specific coping strategies will be associated with the controllability of the event. If an event is relatively uncontrollable, then emotion-focused or perception-focused coping may be more effective than problem-focused coping. In contrast, a controllable event may be best managed through problem-focused coping. Ninety people with traumatic brain injury, drawn from the inpatient rehabilitation unit of a major metropolitan hospital in Australia, and their relatives participated in this longitudinal study. No support was found for the Goodness-of-Fit model, either in the short term or the long term. Although the use of problem-focused coping strategies was positively associated with short-term and long-term role functioning, it was not associated with long-term emotional well-being if the situation was perceived to be controllable. The findings suggest that the persistent use of problem-focused coping in response to the difficulties created by traumatic brain injury can be associated with emotional distress in the long term. Reasons for this finding are explored and its implications are discussed.

  10. Effective coping with stroke disability in a community setting: the development of a causal model.

    PubMed

    Boynton De Sepulveda, L I; Chang, B

    1994-08-01

    A proposed causal model based upon Lazarus' theory of psychological stress and coping was tested in a sample of 75 persons disabled by stroke. Coping constraints such as demographic and stroke factors were hypothesized to affect resources (perceived availability of social support, perceived effectiveness of social support, social contact), stress appraisal, coping behavior and coping effectiveness. Although the model did not fit the data, several path coefficients within the model were statistically significant. Functional status was positively related to resources and negatively related to the stressor. Resources were negatively related to the stressor and positively related to coping effectiveness. It was noted that the buffering effect of social support was related to the level of disability of the stroke person. Persons with functional disability following stroke also had decreased social contact, perceived less availability of social resources and increased threat to physical well-being, and had reduced coping effectiveness.

  11. Stress, coping, and well-being in military spouses during deployment separation.

    PubMed

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Agazio, Janice G

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between stress, coping, general well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping. A descriptive correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 105 female spouses of currently deployed active duty military members. Instruments included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and the RAND-36. Perceived stress was the best predictor of both mental and physical well-being, accounting for 51.7% and 25.4% of the variance, respectively. Evasive and optimistic coping contributed an additional 1.9 % and 4.3%, respectively, to the variance in mental well-being. Differences in coping use were found among rank groups, those who grew up in a military family, and those with a previous deployment separation. Nurses are in an ideal position to identify military spouses at risk and provide education on effective coping behaviors shown to positively affect well-being during deployment separation.

  12. Positively Adolescent!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williamson, Sue

    2000-01-01

    Believes that music teachers should reassess their views toward adolescent behavior in the music classroom by learning to see their behavior in a positive light. Describes teaching strategies that build on four adolescent behaviors: (1) desire for peer acceptance; (2) abundant energy; (3) love of fun; and (4) limited time-managing skills. (CMK)

  13. Thinking Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suhor, Charles

    One of a series dealing with current issues affecting language arts instruction, this paper focuses on thinking skills. The paper begins by raising two issues: whether thinking skills should be taught as part of each subject area, as a separate skill, or both, and whether English and language arts teachers have a special role in the teaching of…

  14. Library Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Karin; Kuhlthau, Carol C.; Branch, Jennifer L.; Solowan, Diane Galloway; Case, Roland; Abilock, Debbie; Eisenberg, Michael B.; Koechlin, Carol; Zwaan, Sandi; Hughes, Sandra; Low, Ann; Litch, Margaret; Lowry, Cindy; Irvine, Linda; Stimson, Margaret; Schlarb, Irene; Wilson, Janet; Warriner, Emily; Parsons, Les; Luongo-Orlando, Katherine; Hamilton, Donald

    2003-01-01

    Includes 19 articles that address issues related to library skills and Canadian school libraries. Topics include information literacy; inquiry learning; critical thinking and electronic research; collaborative inquiry; information skills and the Big 6 approach to problem solving; student use of online databases; library skills; Internet accuracy;…

  15. Religious coping, posttraumatic stress, psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth among female survivors four years after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E

    2013-04-01

    Positive and negative religious coping strategies and their relation with posttraumatic stress (PTS), psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) were examined in the context of Hurricane Katrina. Positive religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTG, whereas negative religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTS and psychological distress. Low-income mothers (N = 386, mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.43) were surveyed before, and 1 and 4 years after the storm. Results from structural regression modeling indicated that negative religious coping was associated with psychological distress, but not PTS. Positive religious coping was associated with PTG. Further analysis indicated significant indirect effects of pre- and postdisaster religiousness on postdisaster PTG through positive religious coping. Findings underscore the positive and negative effect of religious variables in the context of a natural disaster.

  16. Religious coping, posttraumatic stress, psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth among female survivors four years after Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Chan, Christian S; Rhodes, Jean E

    2013-04-01

    Positive and negative religious coping strategies and their relation with posttraumatic stress (PTS), psychological distress, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) were examined in the context of Hurricane Katrina. Positive religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTG, whereas negative religious coping was hypothesized to be associated with PTS and psychological distress. Low-income mothers (N = 386, mean age = 25.4 years, SD = 4.43) were surveyed before, and 1 and 4 years after the storm. Results from structural regression modeling indicated that negative religious coping was associated with psychological distress, but not PTS. Positive religious coping was associated with PTG. Further analysis indicated significant indirect effects of pre- and postdisaster religiousness on postdisaster PTG through positive religious coping. Findings underscore the positive and negative effect of religious variables in the context of a natural disaster. PMID:23529889

  17. Developing Survival Skills Workshops for Urban Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thurston, Linda P.; Greenwood, Charles R.

    Survival Skills for Urban Women is a series of 10 3-hour workshops designed for low-income minority women. The workshops cover the following topics: (1) assertiveness; (2) personal health; (3) nutrition; (4) money management; (5) child management; (6) legal rights; (7) self-advocacy; (8) crisis coping; (9) community resources; and (10) re-entry to…

  18. Mustering the Will and Skill for Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Matthew B.; Louis, Karen Seashore

    1990-01-01

    A four-year study of urban high school renewal found that the leadership and management of change meant dealing with uncertainty, complexity, turbulence, and the cussedness of many different people. This article discusses four study topics (context, vision building, resources, and problem coping), explores will and skill issues, and provides…

  19. American Indian Life Skills Development Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.

    This culturally relevant curriculum was developed to teach American Indian secondary school students coping and suicide prevention skills. Although the curriculum was designed for high school students, many of the lesson plans and activities can be used with middle school students. The goal is to address the significant problem of suicide among…

  20. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  1. Occupational stress, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers

    PubMed Central

    Smith, A. P.

    2016-01-01

    Background Police are exposed to a wide range of stressors and this is especially true in developing countries such as Jamaica. Exposure to psychosocial stressors and use of maladaptive coping styles can result in mental ill-health. Aims To examine the relationship between work characteristics, coping and mental health in Jamaican police officers and to test whether work characteristics are indirectly associated with mental health outcomes through perceived job stress and job satisfaction. Methods Police officers from the Jamaican police force completed a questionnaire using a cross-sectional design. We analysed the data using hierarchical regression. Results The study group consisted of 134 police officers; the response rate was 94%. Negative work characteristics, lower levels of positive work factors and work support and emotion-focused coping styles were associated with increased levels of depression (F(8, 125) = 7.465, P < 0.001). Subjective feelings of anxiety were positively associated with negative work characteristics and emotion-focused coping (F(8, 125) = 7.586, P < 0.001). The relationship between work characteristics and mental health outcomes was mediated by perceived stress. Job satisfaction mediated the relationship between positive work characteristics and depression. Conclusions Stress management and intervention programmes should address modifiable work conditions, monitor stress levels and reduce maladaptive coping. PMID:27131386

  2. Coping with discrimination among Mexican American college students.

    PubMed

    Villegas-Gold, Roberto; Yoo, Hyung Chol

    2014-07-01

    There is limited research directly examining the process of how Mexican American college students cope with unique experiences of racial discrimination. The present study used a multiple mediation model to collectively examine the indirect effects of engagement (i.e., problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expression of emotion, and social support) and disengagement (i.e., social withdrawal, self-criticism, problem avoidance, and wishful thinking) coping strategies on the relationship between perceived racial discrimination and subjective well-being of 302 Mexican American college students. Results suggested that perceived racial discrimination was negatively correlated with subjective well-being. Moreover, of the engagement coping strategies examined, only problem solving had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in subjective well-being. Specifically, perceptions of racial discrimination were positively related to problem solving, which, in turn, was positively related to subjective well-being. Of the disengagement coping strategies examined, self-criticism, wishful thinking, and social withdrawal had a significant mediating effect that was negatively associated with subjective well-being. Specifically, perceptions of racial discrimination were positively related to self-criticism, wishful thinking, and social withdrawal, which, in turn, were negatively related to subjective well-being. Ultimately, these findings highlight the indirect and complex ways in which multiple coping strategies are used to effectively, and sometimes not effectively, deal with racism experienced by Mexican Americans college students.

  3. Coping Work Strategies and Job Satisfaction Among Iranian Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ghiyasvandian, Shahrzad; Adera Gebra, Addis

    2014-01-01

    Context: Nursing is a stressful job that could create physical and psychological disorders. Many studies presented information on stress, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction of nurses within health setting. We aimed to identify and describe nursing stresses, coping strategies and job satisfaction of Iranian nurses who are working or worked in different wards. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, we studied peer-reviewed journal articles on the field of stress, coping strategies and job satisfaction in nursing practice, especially Iranian nurses, which were published between 2000 and 2013. In this regard, we searched databases of PubMed, Elsevier, Google, BMJ, PMC, and MEDLINE. Results: The majority of the studies (60%) had analyzed the effect of coping strategies, experiences and perception of job-related stresses in Iranian nurses working in hospitals. In some of the reviewed studies (60%), the majority of the samples enrolled Iranian nurses. Forty percent of studies selected a maximum sample size of 565 (44%) participants in 2011. Nursing stress scale employed at 30% of the studies was the most commonly used strategy. This reviewed studies also revealed a combined measurement (60% of studies), based on categorical stress measurement, effects of coping strategies, and job satisfaction methods. Three studies explored the relationship between job stress and job satisfaction. For instance, the majority (74.4%) of nurses reported job satisfaction. Conclusions: Effect of coping strategies and job satisfaction on Iranian nurses is a well-accepted issue and has important positive outcomes on several areas of health discipline. PMID:25068050

  4. Coping and Suicidality among Homeless Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kidd, Sean A.; Carroll, Michelle R.

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the impact of coping strategies employed by homeless youth upon suicidal ideation, suicide attempts on the streets, and feeling trapped/helpless. Coping strategies examined in the analysis included problem-focused and avoidant coping, along with several coping strategies identified in previous exploratory qualitative studies.…

  5. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  6. Chinese adolescents' coping tactics in a parent-adolescent conflict and their relationships with life satisfaction: the differences between coping with mother and father.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongyu; Xu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xinrui

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the differences of conflict coping tactics in adolescents' grade and gender and parents' gender and explored the relationships among conflict frequency, conflict coping tactics, and life satisfaction. A total of 1874 Chinese students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 completed surveys on conflict frequency, coping tactics, and life satisfaction. The results obtained by MANOVA suggested that the adolescents' reported use of assertion and avoidance with either mothers or fathers increased from Grade 7 to Grade 8 and did not change from Grade 8 to Grade 11 in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of paired sample T-tests indicated that adolescents used more conciliation in Grade 7, more conciliation and assertion in Grade 8, and more conciliation and less avoidance in Grade 10 and 11 to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Boys used more conciliation and less avoidance, while girls used more conciliation, assertion and third-party intervention to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated the significance of the primary effects of conflict frequency and coping tactics on life satisfaction. Specifically, conflict frequency negatively predicted life satisfaction. Conciliation positively and avoidance negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with either mothers or fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Assertion negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with fathers. The moderating effects of conflict coping tactics on the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict frequency and life satisfaction were not significant.

  7. Coping strategies of families in HIV/AIDS care: some exploratory data from two developmental contexts.

    PubMed

    Palattiyil, G; Chakrabarti, M

    2008-08-01

    Caring for a family member with HIV/AIDS presents multiple challenges that strain a family's physical, economic and emotional resources. Family carers provide physical care and financial support and deal with changes in family relationships and roles, often with little support from outside of the family. Carers in developing countries face even greater challenges, due to lack of medical and support services, poverty and widespread discrimination against those with HIV/AIDS. Little is known about how family carers cope with these challenges or about the ways that development impacts on the process of coping. The current study explored coping strategies used by family carers in two contexts, Kerala, India and Scotland, UK. As part of a larger study, 28 family carers of persons living with HIV/AIDS were interviewed -23 in Kerala and 5 in Scotland. A modified version of the Ways of Coping scale was used to assess coping strategies. Responses were compared on the total number of coping responses used as well as on selected subscales of the WOC. Differences were assessed using the Mann-Whitney U-test. The two cohorts differed significantly in terms of the coping strategies used. The carers from Scotland used a larger number of different coping strategies and scored higher on measures of problem focused coping, positive reappraisal, seeking social support, self-controlling and distancing/detachment. Respondents from Kerala scored higher on a measure of self-blame. Results are discussed in terms of the impact of community resources on coping strategies.

  8. Coping with negative social identity: the case of Mexican immigrants.

    PubMed

    Shinnar, Rachel S

    2008-10-01

    Social identity theory suggests that an individual's self-concept is shaped through group identification and positive social identities are established by favorably comparing the individual's in-group against an out-group. When unfavorable intergroup comparisons occur, individuals perceive a negative social identity. Because of the motivation to maintain a positive self-concept, this perception creates a need to cope. On the basis of face-to-face interviews with Mexican immigrants, the author examined the ways in which negative social-identity perceptions triggered different coping mechanisms. The findings offer support for two coping mechanisms--individual mobility and social creativity, with social creativity used more often than individual mobility.

  9. Coping strategies employed by women with endometriosis in a public health-care setting.

    PubMed

    Roomaney, Rizwana; Kagee, Ashraf

    2016-10-01

    This study explored how South African patients attending public health facilities reported coping with endometriosis. A total of 16 women with endometriosis were interviewed, and we explored how participants coped with endometriosis. All interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed. Thematic analysis was used to identify themes. Participants reported employing both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies to cope with endometriosis. Problem-focused strategies included limiting physical activities, increasing knowledge about endometriosis, scheduling social and work activities around menstrual cycle, engaging in self-management and relying on social support. Emotion-focused coping strategies included accepting the disease, adopting a positive attitude, engaging in self talk and evoking spirituality.

  10. Religious Coping Strategies and Mental Health Among Religious Jewish Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Guy; Yossef, Ifat; Savaya, Riki

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of positive and negative religious coping strategies on the mental health of 113 Israeli gay and bisexual Jewish males with high levels of religiosity, and how sexual identity formation (internalized homophobia and coming out) and societal variables (family and friends' acceptance of sexual orientation and social connections within the LGBT community) mitigated the effects of religious coping strategies on mental health. Findings showed that when dealing with the stress arising from the conflict between religious and sexual identities, individuals used both positive and negative religious coping strategies, but only negative religious coping was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, only in the presence of social resources (social connections with the LGBT community and the acceptance of sexual orientation by friends), did the use of positive religious coping result in better mental health outcomes. These findings underlined the importance of these resilience social factors in the lives of religious Jewish gay and bisexual men.

  11. Religious Coping Strategies and Mental Health Among Religious Jewish Gay and Bisexual Men.

    PubMed

    Shilo, Guy; Yossef, Ifat; Savaya, Riki

    2016-08-01

    The present study examined the effects of positive and negative religious coping strategies on the mental health of 113 Israeli gay and bisexual Jewish males with high levels of religiosity, and how sexual identity formation (internalized homophobia and coming out) and societal variables (family and friends' acceptance of sexual orientation and social connections within the LGBT community) mitigated the effects of religious coping strategies on mental health. Findings showed that when dealing with the stress arising from the conflict between religious and sexual identities, individuals used both positive and negative religious coping strategies, but only negative religious coping was associated with poorer mental health. In addition, only in the presence of social resources (social connections with the LGBT community and the acceptance of sexual orientation by friends), did the use of positive religious coping result in better mental health outcomes. These findings underlined the importance of these resilience social factors in the lives of religious Jewish gay and bisexual men. PMID:26324183

  12. Positive impact of the new 5-layer soil-hydrology scheme on seasonal prediction skill of 2-meter air temperatures over Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bunzel, Felix; Müller, Wolfgang; Stacke, Tobias; Hagemann, Stefan; Dobrynin, Mikhail; Baehr, Johanna; Fröhlich, Kristina

    2016-04-01

    Recent studies show that the initialization of soil moisture has the potential to improve the skill of seasonal predictions with coupled climate models. Particularly, soil-moisture memory in the root zone is found to affect the predictability of surface state variables. However, in order to simulate the connection between root-zone soil-moisture and the near-surface atmospheric state realistically, the soil-hydrology scheme implemented in a coupled climate model requires a certain level of complexity. In this study, we first compare the quality of soil-moisture simulation in full-field assimilation experiments performed with the Max Planck Institute Earth System Model (MPI-ESM) in two different setups, one using the old bucket-type soil scheme and one using the new 5-layer soil-hydrology scheme. We find soil moisture to be more realistically simulated when MPI-ESM is used with the new 5-layer soil scheme. In a second step, from each of the two assimilation experiments a set of seasonal hindcast simulations is started. Each hindcast set consists of 10-member ensembles initialized on 1 May and 1 November each year within 1981-2012 with a hindcast length of 6 months each. We find the new 5-layer soil-hydrology scheme to improve the hindcast skill of both summer and winter 2-meter air temperatures over Europe compared to the old bucket-type soil scheme. In order to find possible sources for the improvement, land-atmosphere coupling is analyzed in the two hindcast sets, and a potential link to the atmospheric blocking frequency is investigated.

  13. Process of coping with intracavity radiation treatment for gynecologic cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Nail, L.M.D.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the process of coping with the experience of receiving intracavity radiation treatment (ICR) for gynecologic cancer. Data were collected on the outcomes of coping, emotion (Profile of Mood States) and level of function (Sickness Impact Profile), and symptom severity and upset the evening before, during, the day after, and 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The subjects (N = 28) had a mean age of 52 years, 39% were employed full-time, 56% had occupations as manual workers, 57% had completed 12 or more years of education, and 68% were married or widowed. The treatment required the subjects to be hospitalized on complete bedrest with radiation precautions for an average of 48 hours. Intrauterine devices were used to treat 18 subjects and vaginal applications were used to treat 10 subjects. Negative mood and level of disruption in function were generally low. Repeated measures ANOVA showed no change in negative mood over time while the change in function was attributable to the increase in disruption during treatment. Utilization of affective coping strategies and problem-oriented coping strategies was positively correlated with negative mood and disruption in function over the points of measurement. The results indicate that subjects tolerated ICR well and rapidly resumed usual function following discharge from the hospital, despite the persistence of some symptoms 1 to 2 weeks after treatment. The positive association between the utilization of coping strategies and negative outcomes of coping suggests a need to examine the measurement of coping strategies and consider the possibility that these actions represent a response to a stressful situation rather than a method of dealing with the situation.

  14. [Examination of role of personality and the effects of stress coping in stress process as within process].

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    This study used daily diary methods to investigate if fear of interpersonal stress in daily affect could be explained by coping strategies, and if daily affect and coping would vary randomly across personality traits. Every day for one week, 103 undergraduates recorded their daily events, perceived interpersonal stress, cognitive appraisal, coping strategies, positive events, and positive and negative affect twice a day. A hierarchical linear model and multilevel structural equation modeling were used to examine the relationships between variables. Results, suggest that problem-focused coping was associated with within-level maladjustment, while positive reappraisal was associated with within-level adjustment. In addition, neuroticism appeared to moderate the relationship between coping and daily affect. Furthermore, there is evidence that higher fear of interpersonal stress predicts greater active coping, and positive affect. PMID:26562939

  15. [Examination of role of personality and the effects of stress coping in stress process as within process].

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Masahiro

    2015-10-01

    This study used daily diary methods to investigate if fear of interpersonal stress in daily affect could be explained by coping strategies, and if daily affect and coping would vary randomly across personality traits. Every day for one week, 103 undergraduates recorded their daily events, perceived interpersonal stress, cognitive appraisal, coping strategies, positive events, and positive and negative affect twice a day. A hierarchical linear model and multilevel structural equation modeling were used to examine the relationships between variables. Results, suggest that problem-focused coping was associated with within-level maladjustment, while positive reappraisal was associated with within-level adjustment. In addition, neuroticism appeared to moderate the relationship between coping and daily affect. Furthermore, there is evidence that higher fear of interpersonal stress predicts greater active coping, and positive affect.

  16. [Coping with crisis as an important factor in the rehabilitation process].

    PubMed

    Clemens, K; Hack, E; Sülzer, A; Schottmann, J

    2008-03-01

    Accidents and serious illnesses are inevitably associated with an emotional crisis, based on the fact that they are followed by significant consequences. Coping with this crisis requires enormous mental adaptation. This active coping process is typically characterised by three phases: the shock phase, the coping phase in the narrow sense and the phase of successful coping versus chronification. In order to ensure a positive rehabilitation process, successful coping with the illness is necessary. It is therefore absolutely crucial to analyse individual coping styles and possible obstacles thoroughly from a psychological point of view. In order to prevent a process of chronification, relevant psychosocial factors should be considered along with the medical and occupational aspects early in the rehabilitation process. Ultimately, psychological stability is the prerequisite for successful rehabilitation.

  17. Getting a Good Night's Sleep in Adolescence: Do Strategies for Coping With Stress Matter?

    PubMed

    Matthews, Karen A; Hall, Martica H; Cousins, Jennifer; Lee, Laisze

    2016-01-01

    Getting a good night's sleep is challenging for adolescents because of early school start times and adolescents' substantial social and physical changes. We tested whether key indices of sleep health are associated with usual styles of coping with stress and interpersonal conflict in healthy black and white adolescents. Two hundred forty-two (57% female, 56% black) high school students completed daily sleep diaries, questionnaires, and actigraphy across a school week. Linear regression models tested associations, independent of race, gender, and other covariates. Students who reported using disengagement coping exhibited poor sleep health. They had shorter sleep duration, more fragmented sleep, delayed sleep, and increased daytime sleepiness. Unexpectedly, positive engagement coping was related to daytime sleepiness and delayed sleep, although not in models that included disengagement coping. Coping strategies may be an important influence on adolescent sleep. Future research should evaluate the antecedent-consequent relationships among coping, sleep, and stress.

  18. Depressive Symptoms, Religious Coping, and Cigarette Smoking Among Post-secondary Vocational Students

    PubMed Central

    Horton, Karissa D.; Loukas, Alexandra

    2014-01-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with increased levels of cigarette smoking, yet not every individual experiencing depressive symptoms smokes. This study examined whether religious coping moderated the impact of depressive symptoms on past 30-day cigarette use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 963 post-secondary vocational students (46.8% women; mean age = 25 years). Results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that depressive symptoms increased the likelihood of cigarette smoking (quantity-frequency measure of cigarette use) for female students, whereas positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of smoking for female students. Consistent with religious coping theory and as expected, negative religious coping moderated the depressive symptoms-smoking relationship such that negative religious coping exacerbated the impact of depressive symptoms on cigarette smoking among females. Positive religious coping also moderated the depressive symptoms-cigarette smoking relationship for females. However, contrary to expectations, high levels of positive religious coping exacerbated the likelihood of cigarette smoking among females with high levels of depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, neither depressive symptoms nor positive or negative religious coping contributed to the likelihood of males’ smoking. Study limitations and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed. PMID:23276324

  19. The Relationship between Supervisee Stress, Coping Resources, the Working Alliance, and the Supervisory Working Alliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gnilka, Philip B.; Chang, Catherine Y.; Dew, Brian J.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the relationship of perceived stress, specific types of coping resources, the working alliance, and the supervisory working alliance among 232 counselor supervisees. The working alliance and the supervisory working alliance were negatively related to perceived stress and positively related to multiple coping resources. Two…

  20. School Attendance Revisited: A Study of Urban African American Students' Grade Point Averages and Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steward, Robbie J.; Steward, Astin Devine; Blair, Jonathan; Jo, Hanik; Hill, Martin F.

    2008-01-01

    Urban African American first-year high school students' absenteeism was found to be negatively related to grade point average (GPA) and avoidance as a means of coping (use of substances as a way to escape--food, alcohol, smoking, caffeine, etc.) and positively related to use of social support as a means of coping (efforts to stay emotionally…

  1. Coping with Overload and Stress: Men and Women in Dual-Earner Families

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Higgins, Chris A.; Duxbury, Linda E.; Lyons, Sean T.

    2010-01-01

    This study tested gender differences in a model positing relationships between work and family demands, overload, 4 coping mechanisms, and stress. The coping mechanisms were hypothesized to moderate the relationship between overload and stress. The sample consisted of 1,404 men and 1,623 women in dual-earner families. Respondents relied on 2…

  2. Depressive symptoms, religious coping, and cigarette smoking among post-secondary vocational students.

    PubMed

    Horton, Karissa D; Loukas, Alexandra

    2013-09-01

    Depressive symptoms are associated with increased levels of cigarette smoking, yet not every individual experiencing depressive symptoms smokes. This study examined whether religious coping moderated the impact of depressive symptoms on past 30-day cigarette use among a racially/ethnically diverse sample of 963 postsecondary vocational students (46.8% women; mean age = 25 years). Results from negative binomial regression analyses indicated that depressive symptoms increased the likelihood of cigarette smoking (quantity-frequency measure of cigarette use) for female students, whereas positive religious coping decreased the likelihood of smoking for female students. Consistent with religious coping theory and as expected, negative religious coping moderated the depressive symptoms-smoking relationship such that negative religious coping exacerbated the impact of depressive symptoms on cigarette smoking among females. Positive religious coping also moderated the depressive symptoms-cigarette smoking relationship for females. However, contrary to expectations, high levels of positive religious coping exacerbated the likelihood of cigarette smoking among females with high levels of depressive symptoms. Surprisingly, neither depressive symptoms nor positive or negative religious coping contributed to the likelihood of males' smoking. Study limitations and suggestions for directions in future research are discussed.

  3. Biblio-Therapeutic Book Creations by Pre-Service Student Teachers: Helping Elementary School Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2009-01-01

    Many elementary school children may cope with difficult life struggles such as disabilities, abuse, loss, and identity issues. This article details original, student generated, biblio-therapeutic book creations and how this genre teaches positive ways for children at-risk to cope with tough life circumstances. Pre-service, elementary college…

  4. Does Experiential Avoidance Mediate the Effects of Maladaptive Coping Styles on Psychopathology and Mental Health?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fledderus, Martine; Bohlmeijer, Ernst T.; Pieterse, Marcel E.

    2010-01-01

    Experiential avoidance (EA) is considered a risk factor for psychopathology. This study explores whether EA mediates the relationship between maladaptive coping styles (palliative, avoidance, and passive coping) and psychopathology and positive mental health. A total of 93 adults with mild to moderate psychological distress completed measures…

  5. Religious Coping and Locus of Control in Normal Pregnancy: Moderating Effects Between Pregnancy Worries and Mental Health.

    PubMed

    Puente, Cecilia Peñacoba; Morales, Dolores Marín; Monge, Francisco Javier Carmona

    2015-10-01

    Most studies about coping in pregnancy focus on risk pregnancies where it has generally been found that the use of religious coping has a positive effect, although to our knowledge there are no studies that associate religious coping to locus of control. We analyzed, in a sample of 285 Spanish women with normal pregnancies, the effect of both variables on psychiatric symptoms and on the relationship between psychiatric symptoms and pregnancy worries. The results show no association between locus of control and religious coping. Locus of control has a significant influence on the pregnant women's mental health, while religious coping just adds an additional influence. PMID:24833162

  6. Drinking Patterns, Drinking Expectancies, and Coping after Spinal Cord Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heinemann, Allen W.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Drinking patterns, alcohol expectancies, and coping strategies were assessed for 121 persons with recent spinal cord injuries during hospitalization, 3 months after surgery, and 12 months after surgery. Although the rate of heavy drinking decreased, preinjury problem drinkers still had the lowest rate of positive reappraisal, problem solving, and…

  7. Religious Coping is Associated with the Quality of Life of Patients with Advanced Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Vanderwerker, Lauren C.; Paulk, Elizabeth; Pearce, Michelle J.; Kasl, Stanislav V.; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2008-01-01

    Background For patients confronting a life-threatening illness such as advanced cancer, religious coping can be an important factor influencing their quality of life (QOL). Objective The study's main purpose was to examine the association between religious coping and QOL among 170 patients with advanced cancer. Both positive religious coping (e.g., benevolent religious appraisals) and negative religious coping (e.g., anger at God) and multiple dimensions of QOL (physical, physical symptom, psychological, existential, and support) were studied. Design Structured interviews were conducted with 170 patients recruited as part of an ongoing multi-institutional longitudinal evaluation of the prevalence of mental illness and patterns of mental health service utilization in advanced cancer patients and their primary informal caregivers. Measurements Patients completed measures of QOL (McGill QOL questionnaire), religious coping (Brief Measure of Religious Coping [RCOPE] and Multidimensional Measure of Religion/Spirituality), self-efficacy (General Self-Efficacy Scale), and sociodemographic variables. Results Linear regression analyses revealed that after controlling for sociodemographic variables, lifetime history of depression and self-efficacy, greater use of positive religious coping was associated with better overall QOL as well as higher scores on the existential and support QOL dimensions. Greater use of positive religious coping was also related to more physical symptoms. In contrast, greater use of negative religious coping was related to poorer overall QOL and lower scores on the existential and psychological QOL dimensions. Conclusions Findings show that religious coping plays an important role for the QOL of patients and the types of religious coping strategies used are related to better or poorer QOL. PMID:16752970

  8. Effects on Problem Behavior and Social Skills Associated with the Implementation of School Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports Approach in an Alternative School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Erica

    2013-01-01

    In spite of research documenting the negative effects of punishment, most high schools and correctional facilities rely on punishment to establish order and compliance with rules and routines (Nelson, Sprague, Jolivette, Smith, & Tobin, 2009). One alternative to punitive consequences is School Wide Positive Behavioral Intervention and Supports…

  9. Muslim Spirituality, Religious Coping, and Reactions to Terrorism Among Pakistani University Students.

    PubMed

    Khan, Ziasma Haneef; Watson, P J; Chen, Zhuo

    2016-12-01

    Pakistani Muslim university students (N = 207) displayed Personal Distress, Public Distress, and Personal Defeat Reactions to Terrorism. All three reactions predicted poorer mental health with Personal Defeat being especially disturbed in its adjustment implications. In line with the assumptions of coping theory, scores on the Negative Religious Coping Scale correlated positively with Personal Distress and with Personal Defeat. However, Positive Religious Coping, the spirituality of Muslim Experiential Religiousness, and the Intrinsic and Extrinsic Personal Religious Orientations exhibited positive rather than the expected negative linkages with Personal Distress and Public Distress. Muslim Experiential Religiousness moderated associations of Positive and Negative Religious Coping with Public Distress. When spirituality was high, these relationships were negative. When spirituality was low, they became positive. These data documented the negative impacts that terrorism can have on Pakistanis and suggested that Muslim religious commitments may have an important role to play in resisting those influences.

  10. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Anne

    1993-01-01

    Three developments lend support to the idea that schools must help teach study skills: (1) advances in cognitive psychology that suggest children are active learners; (2) society's concern for at-risk students; and (3) growing demands for improved student performance. There is evidence that systematic study skills instruction does improve academic…

  11. Coping with Conflict.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herman, Jerry J.

    1991-01-01

    To make conflict resolution easier, this article advises board members to determine nature of the conflict and choose an appropriate course of action. Situation might call for quick, decisive action; establishing a discussion date; reaching a temporary consensus; or working with involved parties to reach a positive resolution. Sidebar offers tips…

  12. Coping with Classroom Homophobia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brito, Marcos "Qboy"

    2007-01-01

    In this article, a version of which first appeared in the February 2007 number of Gay Times, gay rapper Marcos Brito describes his experiences of dealing with a general climate of homophobia at his secondary school in Essex. He argues that positive affirmations of lesbian, gay and bisexual people should be promoted as part of the school curriculum.

  13. Coping with Chronic Illness: A Study of Illness Controllability and the Influence of Coping Strategies on Psychological Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    1984-01-01

    Evaluated the emotional consequences of using wish-fulfilling fantasy (palliative) and information-seeking (instrumental) coping strategies among patients (N=151) faced with chronic illness. Results showed information-seeking to have positive effects on adjustment and wish-fulfilling fantasy to have deleterious consequences. (LLL)

  14. Effects of coping statements on experimental pain in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Roditi, Daniela; Robinson, Michael E; Litwins, Nola

    2009-01-01

    The present study measured the effects of catastrophizing self-statements and positive coping self-statements on cold pressor-induced pain. Participants were 58 adult chronic pain patients with current facial pain. It was hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to a decrease in pain endurance whereas positive coping would lead to an increase in pain endurance. It was also hypothesized that catastrophizing would lead to an increase in peak pain intensity whereas positive coping would lead to a decrease in peak pain intensity. At pretest, participants submerged their nondominant hand in the cold pressor. Pain sensitivity ranges (PSR) were subsequently determined by calculating the difference between tolerance and threshold times. Ratings of peak pain intensity were measured using a pressure sensitive bladder/transducer. Participants underwent random assignment to either a catastrophizing group or a positive coping self-statement group. ANCOVA results revealed that on average, participants employing catastrophizing statements as a coping strategy experienced significantly lower PSR (M = 35.53, SD = 39.71) compared to participants employing positive coping self-statements (M = 73.70, SD = 86.14) when controlling for pretest PSR. Group assignment had no significant influence on peak pain intensity ratings. Thus, our results reveal that manipulation of coping causes changes in pain endurance. PMID:21197299

  15. Determinants of adolescents' ineffective and improved coping with cyberbullying: a Delphi study.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, Niels C L; Dehue, Francine; Völlink, Trijntje; Lechner, Lilian

    2014-06-01

    The study's aim was to obtain an overview of all relevant variables involved in ineffective coping behavior and improvement in coping behavior as it pertains to cyberbullying among adolescents, in order to systematically develop a theory- and evidence-based intervention. This was done by means of a three round online Delphi study. First, 20 key experts listed possible relevant determinants. Next, 70 experts scored these determinants on their relevance and finally, experts rerated relevance of each determinant based on group median scores. The experts agreed that 115 items are relevant for ineffective (62) or improvement in (53) coping behavior. New found determinants were the extent to which one can adjust behavior upon feedback, impulsivity, self-confidence, communication style, personality, decision-making skills, conflict resolution skills, previous participation in personal resilience training, social relationships, rumors and self-disclosure. We conclude that the Delphi technique is useful in discovering new and relevant determinants of behavior. PMID:24793384

  16. Association of Coping Styles with Quality of Life in Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Shakeri, Jalal; Kamangar, Mohamad; Ebrahimi, Ehteram; Aznab, Mozafar; Shakeri, Hania; Arman, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Backgrounds and Aim: Cancer patients experience a high level of stress caused by the disease and treatment processes. Dealing with cancer using more beneficial coping styles can effectively improve the quality of life (QOL) and reduce the side effects of cancer, and it is treatment. In this study, we aimed to investigate the relationship between coping styles and QOL in cancer patients. Methods: The study was performed on 150 cancer patients (71 females and 79 males) admitted to the hospitals affiliated with Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences. Endler and Parker Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, and World Health Organization's Quality of Life Questionnaire were used to evaluate their coping style and QOL, respectively. Results: The Present study showed in cancer patients being male, single, having higher salary and education, and lower age are related to higher QOL. Furthermore, in general, QOL of cancer patients was positively correlated with avoidant coping style (P < 0.05, r : 0.170) and negatively associated with emotion-focused coping styles (P < 0.01, r : −0.378). Conclusion: The results suggested that focusing on a patient's coping style, predominantly on an emotion-focused coping style, is essential to improve patient's QOL, and that patients possibly to employ a more emotion-oriented coping style should receive enough notice, particularly before discharge. PMID:26600698

  17. Examining an affect regulation model of substance abuse in schizophrenia. The role of traits and coping.

    PubMed

    Blanchard, J J; Squires, D; Henry, T; Horan, W P; Bogenschutz, M; Lauriello, J; Bustillo, J

    1999-02-01

    Comorbid substance use disorders occur frequently in schizophrenia with significant detrimental effects to clinical outcome. Unfortunately, attempts to identify factors associated with comorbid substance use disorders (beyond demographic characteristics such as gender) have not been successful. This study examined an affect regulation model of comorbid substance use in schizophrenia with a focus on personality traits and coping. It was hypothesized that maladaptive coping and the traits of negative affect (NA) and disinhibition (DIS), but not trait positive affect (PA), would be associated with greater substance use problems. Thirty-nine patients with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder completed measures of personality traits, coping, and negative consequences associated with substance use. Traits were differentially associated with coping in that NA and DIS, but not PA, were associated with maladaptive coping including the use of drugs and alcohol to cope with stress. Alternatively, PA, but not DIS or NA, was related to adaptive coping strategies. Individuals high in NA and endorsing the use of drugs and alcohol to cope reported the greatest number of negative consequences from substance use. This finding held after controlling for gender. These results are consistent with an affect regulation model of substance use and suggest the advantage of examining the role of affect, traits, and coping in understanding comorbid substance use in schizophrenia.

  18. Coping with cognitive impairment and dementia: Rural caregivers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Branger, Camille; Burton, Rachel; O'Connell, Megan E; Stewart, Norma; Morgan, Debra

    2016-07-01

    Caregiving in a rural context is unique, but the experience of rural caregivers is understudied. This paper describes how rural caregivers cope with caring for a loved one diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or dementia using qualitative description to generate a low-inference summary of a response to an open-ended question. This approach allowed these rural caregivers to describe their positive experiences in addition to the more commonly explored caregiver experiences related to stress. Analyses of coping revealed use of social support, engaging in relaxing and physical activity, and cognitive reframing. In addition, caregivers reported strong faith and religiosity, and to a lesser frequency behavioral changes, checking in with the person with dementia via telephone, and joint activity. Predominantly, these methods reflect approach-based strategies. The current data suggest that these caregivers manage well and adopt adaptive coping strategies to meet the demands of the caregiving role. PMID:24951255

  19. Self-care in adults with asthma: how they cope.

    PubMed

    Mäkinen, S; Suominen, T; Lauri, S

    2000-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out how well adult asthma patients in Finland cope with self-care in three areas of asthma treatment. The areas of physical, psychological and social asthma treatment were examined. Associations between demographic background data and self-care were also studied. Data (n = 130) for the study were collected using a questionnaire specially developed for this study. A deductive perspective was employed in data analysis. Respondents showed fairly good competence in self-care in all three areas of asthma treatment. However, up to 30% of the asthma patients had pets and 16% were smokers. Extra stress was reduced by exercise and positive thinking. Humour was also important in helping most of the respondents cope mentally. Social support played a significant part in fighting the sense of powerlessness which is caused by asthma. According to the results, women coped better than men in the social area of self-care. PMID:11261136

  20. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  1. Social anxiety, disengagement coping, and alcohol use behaviors among adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Blumenthal, Heidemarie; Ham, Lindsay S.; Cloutier, Renee M.; Bacon, Amy K.; Douglas, Megan E.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Although research indicates that social anxiety (SA) is associated with problematic drinking, few studies have examined these relations among adolescents, and all alcohol-related assessments have been retrospective. Socially anxious youth may be at risk to drink in an effort to manage negative affectivity, and a proclivity towards disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance of aversive stimuli) may enhance the desire to drink and learning of coping-related use. Design Adding to research addressing adolescent SA and alcohol use, the current study examined (1) proportional drinking motives (subscale scores divided by the sum of all subscales), (2) current desire to drink in a socially-relevant environment (introduction to research laboratory), and (3) the indirect effect of retrospectively-reported disengagement in social stress contexts on proportional coping motives and desire to drink. Method Participants were 70 community-recruited adolescents who reported recent alcohol use. Level of SA, disengagement coping, drinking motives, and desire to drink following laboratory introduction were assessed. Results Proclivity toward disengagement in prior socially-stressful contexts accounted for significant variance in the positive relations between SA and both proportional coping motives and current desire to drink. Conclusions These data complement existing work. Continued efforts in building developmentally-sensitive models of alcohol use are needed. PMID:26235528

  2. Uncontrollable Stress, Coping, and Subjective Well-Being in Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, Laura D.; Vera, Elizabeth M.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether uncontrollable stress related to levels of subjective well-being (SWB) in a group of ethnically diverse urban adolescents. Additionally, the researchers examined what types of coping skills were utilized in the face of high levels of uncontrollable stress. Finally, a moderation model was proposed,…

  3. Problem-Solving Treatment and Coping Styles in Primary Care for Minor Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxman, Thomas E.; Hegel, Mark T.; Hull, Jay G.; Dietrich, Allen J.

    2008-01-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care…

  4. Coping with Sudden Infant Death Syndrome: Intervention Strategies and a Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aadalen, Sharon

    1980-01-01

    Family-centered intervention after the death of a baby due to sudden infant death syndrome facilitates reorganization, growth, and development of the family system. A potentially defeating crisis becomes an opportunity to develop coping skills and strengthen family members. Public health nursing is an essential component of the program.…

  5. Coping Strategies Title I Teachers Use to Manage Burnout and Stress: A Multisite Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeter, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Teacher burnout contributes to poor psychological and physical health, absenteeism, early retirement, and leads to inadequate teacher performance with adverse outcomes in student learning and achievement. Effective coping skills have been proposed as possible protectors from the effects of burnout; therefore, examining teachers' coping…

  6. Enhancing Coping and Supporting Protective Factors after a Disaster: Findings From a Quasi-Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Tara; Thompson, Sanna J.

    2016-01-01

    Objective: This article presents the Journey of Hope (JoH), a school-based intervention for children who have experienced a collective trauma such as a natural disaster. Through the use of group work, the JoH focuses on building coping skills and enhancing protective factors to help children recover. Method: This quasi-experimental research…

  7. Coping with Teasing: A Program for Children Teased Due to Their Medical Condition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Ruanna MacDougall; Young, Loretta; Williams, Margaret; Bagley-Young, Abigail

    2001-01-01

    Describes a day-long group program to help children with medical conditions deal with teasing and to increase self-confidence. Reports preliminary program evaluation results, indicating that most children retained the knowledge skills acquired in the program and appeared to be using these effectively in coping with teasing 12 to 16 weeks later.…

  8. Helping Schoolchildren Cope with Anger: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention. Second Edition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Jim; Lochman, John E.

    2010-01-01

    This guide presents information and clinical tools to implement the Anger Coping Program, an empirically supported intervention for students in grades 3-6. Practitioners are taken step by step through setting up treatment groups, teaching vital skills for reducing aggression and disruptive behavior, and building strong partnerships with teachers…

  9. Cognitive Coping Tool Kit for Psychosis: Development of a Group-Based Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Joel O.; Wheeler, Heather; Lubinsky, Tobi; Van Exan, Jessica

    2007-01-01

    This article outlines an 8-week curriculum that was created to help outpatients develop cognitive and behavioral skills for coping with delusions and hallucinations as well as to reduce patients' comorbid subjective levels of distress (e.g., depression, anxiety). The manualized protocol consisted of psychoeducation and training in a variety of CBT…

  10. How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Astrid Kristin; Lassen, Liv M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used an audio-text format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of…

  11. Helping Students Cope in an Age of Terrorism: Strategies for School Counselors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chibbaro, Julia S.; Jackson, C. Marie

    2006-01-01

    School counselors experience unique challenges as they struggle to provide students with coping skills geared to the outside world including acts of terrorism. School-aged students in the United States are one of the most vulnerable populations in the event of a terrorist act. This article offers a review of the current and most relevant…

  12. Coping strategies and self-stigma in patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Hruby, Radovan; Latalova, Klara; Kamaradova, Dana; Marackova, Marketa; Slepecky, Milos; Gubova, Terezia

    2016-01-01

    Background Maladaptive coping strategies may adversely disturb the overall functioning of people with mental disorders. Also, self-stigma is considered a maladaptive psychosocial phenomenon that can affect many areas of patient life. It has a negative impact on self-image, and may lead to dysphoria, social isolation, reduced adherence, using of negative coping strategies, and lower quality of life. The objective of this study was to determine the relationship between coping strategies and self-stigma among persons with schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders. Subjects and methods A total of 104 clinically stable outpatients with chronic schizophrenia-spectrum disorders were enrolled in a cross-sectional study. Sociodemographic and clinical data were recorded. Patients were examined by psychiatrists with the Stress Coping Style Questionnaire, the Internalized Stigma of Mental Illness scale, and the Clinical Global Impression scale. Correlation and multiple-regression analyses were performed to discover contributing factors to self-stigma. Results Positive coping strategies were used by patients with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders to the same extent as in the healthy population. Negative coping strategies were overused by these patients. There were significant associations between self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in schizophrenia. The ability to use positive coping strategies was connected with lower self-stigma. Use of negative coping strategies predominantly increased the self-stigma of patients with schizophrenia. Conclusion This study revealed a significant association among self-stigma, severity of the disorder, and coping strategies in individuals suffering from schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. Thinking about coping strategies and self-stigma in practice may play a significant role in understanding people with schizophrenia-spectrum disorders, especially for mental health professionals. PMID:27445463

  13. Coping flexibility and psychological adjustment to stressful life changes: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia; Lau, Hi-Po Bobo; Chan, Man-Pui Sally

    2014-11-01

    Compared with the large body of literature on coping, coping flexibility has received relatively scant research attention, although more such studies have begun to emerge recently. Researchers have conceptualized coping flexibility in diverse ways: as a broad coping repertoire, a well-balanced coping profile, cross-situational variability in strategy deployment, a good strategy-situation fit, or the perceived ability to cope with environmental changes. This meta-analysis is the first to provide a summary estimate of the overall effect size and investigate cross-study sources of variation in the beneficial role of coping flexibility. The analysis covers all available studies conducted between 1978 and 2013 that empirically tested the relationship between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. The results of a random-effects model revealed a small to moderate overall mean effect size (r = .23, 95% CI [.19, .28], 80% CRI [-.02, .49], k = 329, N = 58,946). More important, the magnitude of the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment varied with the conceptualization of such flexibility. Studies adopting the perceived ability or strategy-situation fit conceptualization yielded moderate effect sizes, whereas those adopting the broad repertoire, balanced profile, or cross-situational variability conceptualization yielded small effect sizes. In addition, the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment was stronger in samples from countries lower (vs. higher) in individualism and samples with higher (vs. lower) average ages. Individualism and age explained 10% and 13% of the variance, respectively. We discuss the conceptual problems and implications and propose a synthesized conceptualization of coping flexibility. PMID:25222637

  14. Coping flexibility and psychological adjustment to stressful life changes: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia; Lau, Hi-Po Bobo; Chan, Man-Pui Sally

    2014-11-01

    Compared with the large body of literature on coping, coping flexibility has received relatively scant research attention, although more such studies have begun to emerge recently. Researchers have conceptualized coping flexibility in diverse ways: as a broad coping repertoire, a well-balanced coping profile, cross-situational variability in strategy deployment, a good strategy-situation fit, or the perceived ability to cope with environmental changes. This meta-analysis is the first to provide a summary estimate of the overall effect size and investigate cross-study sources of variation in the beneficial role of coping flexibility. The analysis covers all available studies conducted between 1978 and 2013 that empirically tested the relationship between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment. The results of a random-effects model revealed a small to moderate overall mean effect size (r = .23, 95% CI [.19, .28], 80% CRI [-.02, .49], k = 329, N = 58,946). More important, the magnitude of the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment varied with the conceptualization of such flexibility. Studies adopting the perceived ability or strategy-situation fit conceptualization yielded moderate effect sizes, whereas those adopting the broad repertoire, balanced profile, or cross-situational variability conceptualization yielded small effect sizes. In addition, the positive link between coping flexibility and psychological adjustment was stronger in samples from countries lower (vs. higher) in individualism and samples with higher (vs. lower) average ages. Individualism and age explained 10% and 13% of the variance, respectively. We discuss the conceptual problems and implications and propose a synthesized conceptualization of coping flexibility.

  15. Stress and the Athlete: Coping with Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Patrick

    1986-01-01

    Athletes, including recreational athletes, must cope with stress, both from within and from others. The causes of stress, identifying the distressed athlete, and coping with stress are dealt with. (MT)

  16. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  17. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  18. Helping Students Cope with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabough, Tillman

    1980-01-01

    Classroom teachers need to understand the broad differences that exist between a child's perception of death and that of an adult and should be prepared to confront and cope with the effects of death and grief upon students. Children's perceptions of death and ways in which the teacher can help the child with his grief are described. (JN)

  19. Helping Children Cope with Disaster.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Emergency Management Agency, Washington, DC.

    Noting that the most assistance adults can provide to a child during a disaster is to be calm, honest, and caring, this brochure provides suggestions for helping children cope with natural and other disasters. The brochure details how children's typical reactions vary with their age, describes how families can prepare for disasters, and suggests…

  20. Group work. Cope street revisited.

    PubMed

    Rowe, A

    1993-10-01

    45 Cope Street is a preventive health project working with pregnant women and young mothers aged between 16 and 25 years and their children in the inner city of Nottingham. A beacon of innovative health visiting practice, it has recently passed the fifth anniversary of its opening. Team leader Ann Rowe describes their philosophy and practice.

  1. Coping with School Adaptation Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cowen, Emory L.

    1971-01-01

    Strategems to cope with maladaptation have been limited in effectiveness. Presented are some key problems they present as well as guidelines for a conceptually preferable set of strategems emphasizing principles which should serve to cut down materially on school maladjustment and restore children to effective school function. (Author/BY)

  2. COPE: Computer Organized Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambdin, Dolly

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the need for and appropriate use of individual assessment in physical education and explains how computerized data management can combat the logistical difficulties of using the data. Describes project COPE (Computer Organized Physical Education), a computerized data management system for improving recordkeeping, planning, and…

  3. Coping with Stress in School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunham, Jack

    1983-01-01

    Signs and sources of stress among approximately 220 special educators were identified, the most prevalent being feelings of exhaustion, frustration, disturbed sleep, and withdrawal. Coping resources included personal, interpersonal, organizational, and community approaches. Conclusions stressed the need for more administrative support, counseling,…

  4. A Problem in Online Interpersonal Skills Training: Do Learners Practice Skills?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doo, Min Young

    2006-01-01

    One problem found when teaching interpersonal skills online is learners' lack of opportunity for skill practice. The online learning environment is deficient in face-to-face interaction, and opportunities for self-regulation make it difficult to ensure learners practice skills despite the positive effects of such practice on skill improvement. The…

  5. Relationships among dispositional coping strategies, suicidal ideation, and protective factors against suicide in older adults.

    PubMed

    Marty, Meghan A; Segal, Daniel L; Coolidge, Frederick L

    2010-11-01

    Older adults have a disproportionally high rate of completed suicide as compared to the general population. Whereas a large literature has focused on risk factors related to elder suicide, limited research exists on relationships between coping strategies with protective factors against suicide and suicidal ideation in this population. Community-dwelling older adults (N = 108, mean age = 71.5 years, age range = 60-95 years) completed the Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced scale, Reasons for Living inventory, and Geriatric Suicide Ideation Scale (GSIS). Problem- and emotion-focused coping were associated positively with reasons for living and negatively with suicide ideation. Dysfunctional coping was associated positively with suicide ideation, but results did not support the hypothesized negative relationship with reasons for living. Thus, problem- and emotion-focused coping appear to be adaptive, whereas dysfunctional coping appears to be somewhat less related to resilience to suicidal ideation among community-dwelling older adults. Implications of the study are that some coping strategies may serve as protective factors against suicide and that coping strategies should be evaluated as part of a thorough assessment of suicidal risk among older adults. The results also provide some evidence of convergent validity for the recently developed GSIS. PMID:21069608

  6. Interrelationships between Coping, School Connectedness and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Care, Esther; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chan, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships between coping styles, emotional wellbeing, and school connectedness using path analysis. A total of 536 Year 8 students (241 boys and 295 girls) responded to an in-class survey and the "Adolescent Coping Scale" (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993a) as part of a larger study. Productive coping style was positively…

  7. Coping Processes of Couples Experiencing Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…

  8. Coping Styles among Adolescent Competitive Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the various coping strategies that competitive adolescent athletes use to deal with errors, penalties, and unpleasant comments from spectators. Identifies and discusses four coping strategies: avoidance, approach, task-focused, and emotion-focused. Briefly reviews the literature on coping and the results of a survey of Australian…

  9. Coping Strategies in Young Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohino, Susana; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to analyze diverse aspects relating to the use of coping strategies among prison inmates. The specific objectives are (a) to analyze which type of coping strategies predominate among prisoners, considering both the focus and the method; (b) to relate the use of coping strategies with variables related to the prison…

  10. Challenges to the Developmental Study of Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skinner, Ellen A.; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.

    2009-01-01

    We summarize progress in the developmental study of coping, including specification of a multilevel framework, construction of definitions of coping that rely on regulation as a core concept, and identification of developmentally graded members of families of coping. We argue that these accomplishments are a prelude to the real tasks of a…

  11. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  12. Coping with Schizophrenia: Patterns in Later Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano, Nancy H.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the coping framework developed with younger adults with schizophrenia could be applied to people over 50 with schizophrenia. Results indicated that coping strategies used by older people were similar to those of younger populations. However, it was reported that efficacy of coping strategies had increased as participants had…

  13. Age Differences in Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…

  14. Leadership Skills for Migrant Parents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamaker, Mary Lou Nava

    Written for staff developers and resource personnel who work with parents, this curriculum guide is designed to develop leadership skills in migrant parents who have been elected to leadership positions in their respective Parent Advisory Committees. The booklet focuses on developing such skills as knowing how to use parliamentary procedure,…

  15. Communication Skills for Workplace Assessors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, Deborah

    This document is designed to help develop the communication skills of individuals training for the position of workplace assessor in Australia's National Training Framework and practicing workplace assessors who require additional assistance with on-the-job communication skills. The document consists of 11 units of study that each contain some or…

  16. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels.

  17. Coping within couples: adjustment two years after forced geographic relocation.

    PubMed

    Wamboldt, F S; Steinglass, P; Kaplan De-Nour, A

    1991-09-01

    Is our understanding of how individuals adjust to stressful life events increased when we analyze their adjustment in ways that recognize that these individuals are also married couples? The data used to answer this question came from a unique "natural experiment" occasioned by the forced evacuation of the Israeli settlement of Ophira under the terms of the Camp David Accords. We found that the adjustment of individuals within couples became more similar across the relocation, that is, couples adapted as a "family system." This occurred because the coping skills of one member of the couple "drove" the adjustment of both partners.

  18. "Soft Skills": A Phrase in Search of Meaning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matteson, Miriam L.; Anderson, Lorien; Boyden, Cynthia

    2016-01-01

    Soft skills are a collection of people management skills, important to many professions and job positions, including academic librarianship. Yet the concept of soft skills lacks definition, scope, instrumentation, and systematic education and training. This literature review explores the definition of "soft skills"; contrasts skills with…

  19. Coping with myocardial infarction: evaluation of a coping questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Brink, Eva; Persson, Lars-Olof; Karlson, Björn W

    2009-12-01

    The negative effects of emotional distress on the recovery following myocardial infarction make it important to study coping strategies in this situation. The present study aimed to evaluate the psychometric properties and the validity of a 10 dimensions questionnaire labelled The General Coping Questionnaire (GCQ). The structure of the questionnaire was based on a previous interview study with 26 persons with different diseases. The 10 dimensions are called self-trust, problem-reducing actions, change of values, social trust, minimization, fatalism, resignation, protest, isolation and intrusion. The present study comprised 114 first-time myocardial infarction patients (37 women, 77 men). Five months after myocardial infarction, they answered questions about health-related quality of life, health complaints, sense of coherence and the GCQ. A multi-trait/multi-item analysis showed good item-scale convergent and discriminatory validity when the GCQ was reduced from 47 to 40 items. In conclusion, the results showed that the 40-item GCQ is a well-structured and reliable questionnaire for measuring coping strategies in myocardial infarction patients. PMID:19804373

  20. Development of Maladaptive Coping: A Functional Adaptation to Chronic, Uncontrollable Stress

    PubMed Central

    Wadsworth, Martha E.

    2015-01-01

    Health disparities are rooted in childhood and stem from adverse early environments that damage physiologic stress-response systems. Developmental psychobiological models of the effects of chronic stress account for both the negative effects of a stress-response system calibrated to a dangerous and unpredictable environment from a health perspective, and the positive effects of such an adaptively calibrated stress response from a functional perspective. Our research suggests that contexts that produce functionally adapted physiologic responses to stress also encourage a functionally adapted coping response—coping that can result in maladjustment in physical and mental health, but enables children to grow and develop within those contexts. In this article, I highlight the value of reframing maladaptive coping as functional adaptation to understand more completely the development of children’s coping in different contexts, and the value of such a conceptual shift for coping-based theory, research, and intervention. PMID:26019717

  1. Life after cancer in India: coping with side effects and cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, A; Juvva, S

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to understand the coping strategies of postsurgery head and neck cancer patients in Mumbai, India. A descriptive research design with a sample of 80 patients suffering from head and neck cancer was selected to analyze their coping strategies in relation to sociodemographic profile and illness characteristics. The findings of the study highlighted that the spiritual methods of coping (such as prayer and meditation, adopting a positive attitude) were the most frequently used mainstream coping strategy, apart from other traditional methods (such as taking medications, indulging in exercise and activities to divert one's attention, etc.) of coping. The findings of the study help to broaden the understanding of various psychosocial aspects faced by the patient in India and provide progressive recommendations to improve the quality of life of the patient suffering from cancer.

  2. Optimism, coping and long-term recovery from coronary artery surgery in women.

    PubMed

    King, K B; Rowe, M A; Kimble, L P; Zerwic, J J

    1998-02-01

    Optimism, coping strategies, and psychological and functional outcomes were measured in 55 women undergoing coronary artery surgery. Data were collected in-hospital and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Optimism was related to positive moods and life satisfaction, and inversely related to negative moods. Few relationships were found between optimism and functional ability. Cognitive coping strategies accounted for a mediating effect between optimism and negative mood. Optimists were more likely to accept their situation, and less likely to use escapism. In turn, these coping strategies were inversely related to negative mood and mediated the relationship between optimism and this outcome. Optimism was not related to problem-focused coping strategies; this, these coping strategies cannot explain the relationship between optimism and outcomes.

  3. Communication and cybercoping: coping with chronic illness through communicative action in online support networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Nam; Lee, Seungyoon

    2014-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication, specifically blogs, has expanded the range of the communicative action of patients with chronic disease from information seeking to information forwarding. The authors examine the effects of these 2 types of communicative action on perceived affective and physical coping outcomes. Using a survey dataset of 254 chronic disease patients, the authors tested 2 models using structural equation modeling: first, the effects of communicative action about chronic illness on coping outcomes; and second, the mediating role of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping processes. Findings indicate overall positive effects of communicative action on coping processes and outcomes, yet with different magnitudes of effects depending on the dimensions of communication behavior, the coping process, and outcome. Implications for patients and health care providers are discussed.

  4. The process of coping following child sexual abuse:a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Oaksford, Karen; Frude, Neil

    2003-01-01

    This research employed both quantitative and qualitative approaches to studying the immediate and long-term coping strategies adopted by survivors of child sexual abuse, focusing on how strategies evolve over time. Qualitative findings showed that coping with child sexual abuse is not static, but changes over time. The narratives of these nonclinical survivors suggest that an adaptive outcome may be associated with a particular evolution of strategies across time, i.e., survivors reported coping predominantly by engaging in psychological escape methods initially, and then adopting cognitive appraisal and positive reframing strategies in the longer term. It appears that coping processes can affect psychological outcome following child sexual abuse. This study offers insight into the evolution of coping methods associated with an adaptive outcome.

  5. Life after cancer in India: coping with side effects and cancer pain.

    PubMed

    Jagannathan, A; Juvva, S

    2009-01-01

    The article aims to understand the coping strategies of postsurgery head and neck cancer patients in Mumbai, India. A descriptive research design with a sample of 80 patients suffering from head and neck cancer was selected to analyze their coping strategies in relation to sociodemographic profile and illness characteristics. The findings of the study highlighted that the spiritual methods of coping (such as prayer and meditation, adopting a positive attitude) were the most frequently used mainstream coping strategy, apart from other traditional methods (such as taking medications, indulging in exercise and activities to divert one's attention, etc.) of coping. The findings of the study help to broaden the understanding of various psychosocial aspects faced by the patient in India and provide progressive recommendations to improve the quality of life of the patient suffering from cancer. PMID:19544181

  6. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN EMOTIONAL INTELLIGENCE WITH RELIGIOUS COPING AND GENERAL HEALTH OF STUDENTS

    PubMed Central

    Nesami, Masoumeh Bagheri; Goudarzian, Amir Hossein; Zarei, Houman; Esameili, Pedram; Pour, Milad Dehghan; Mirani, Hesam

    2015-01-01

    Aim: This research organized to determine the relationship between Emotional Intelligence (EI) with Religious Coping and Mental Health of students at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Method: This descriptive and analytical study was conducted in 2014 on 335 students at Mazandaran University of Medical Sciences. Students were selected by stratified random sampling method. The instruments to gather data were Bradberry and Greaves Standard Emotional Intelligence Questionnaire, the 12-item General Health Questionnaire, and the Pargament’s Religious Coping. Data was analyzed by SPSS 21 via descriptive and inferential statistics (Pearson and Spearman’s correlation). Results: Among 335 students under investigation, 144 students were male (43%) and 191 ones were female (57%). Their ages were ranging from 17 to 34 years old (21.02±2.014). Average EI scores, positive religious coping, negative religious coping, and mental health were 91.27, 14.91, 4.86, 5.34, respectively. Moreover, there was a direct and significant relationship between EI and positive religious coping (r=0.282, P<0.001). Conclusions: According to the results of this study, there is a direct correlation between positive religious coping and emotional intelligence. So Strengthening religious coping can promote emotional intelligence that is one component of mental health. PMID:26889101

  7. A model linking sources of stress to approach and avoidance coping styles of Turkish basketball referees.

    PubMed

    Anshel, Mark Howard; Sutarso, Toto; Ekmekci, Ridvan; Saraswati, Intan W

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of this study was to externally validate and test a conceptual transient model involving six paths that linked sources of acute stress to avoidance and approach coping styles among Turkish basketball referees. The sample consisted of 125 Turkish basketball referees ranging in age from 18 to 36 years (mean = 25.58. σ = 3.69). The path analysis tested the relationships simultaneously from stressors, in consecutive order, distractions, subpar performance and verbal abuse, to coping styles, first both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive, and then approach-behaviour. Results indicated that the model achieved a good fit and that all paths tested simultaneously were significant. The distractions stressor was positively related to subpar performance, which, in turn, was positively related to verbal abuse. Verbal abuse was negatively associated with an avoidance-cognitive coping style and positively related to the approach-cognitive coping style. The results also supported a crossover effect of both avoidance-cognitive and approach-cognitive on approach-behaviour. One implication of this study is that coping should be studied in naturally occurring stages, a process-oriented approach. Another implication is that approach and avoidance coping styles, each sub-divided into cognitive and behavioural categories, provide a meaningful framework which provides sports officials a coherent structure for learning and improving ways to cope with acute stress experienced during the contest.

  8. Cancer, Coping, and Cognition: A Model for the Role of Stress Reactivity in Cancer-Related Cognitive Decline

    PubMed Central

    Andreotti, Charissa; Root, James C.; Ahles, Tim A.; McEwen, Bruce S.; Compas, Bruce E.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline and accompanying neurological changes associated with non-CNS cancer diagnosis and treatment have been increasingly identified in a subset of patients. Initially believed to be due to neurotoxic effects of chemotherapy exposure, observation of cognitive decline in patients not treated with chemotherapy, cancer-diagnosed individuals prior to treatment, and patients receiving alternative treatment modalities (surgery, endocrine therapy, radiation), has led to investigation of additional potential etiologies and moderating factors. Stressful experiences have long been posited as a contributor to these cognitive changes. Through reciprocal connectivity with peripheral systems, the brain maintains a dynamic circuitry to adapt to stress (allostasis). However, overuse of this system leads to dysregulation and contributes to pathophysiology (allostatic load). At this time, little research has been conducted to systematically examine the role of allostatic load in cancer-related cognitive dysfunction. Here we integrate theories of stress biology, neuropsychology, and coping and propose a model through which individuals with a high level of allostatic load at diagnosis may be particularly vulnerable to the neurocognitive effects of cancer. Opportunities for future research to test and extend proposed mechanisms are discussed in addition to points of prevention and intervention based on individual variation in stress reactivity and coping skills. PMID:25286084

  9. Enhancement of couples' communication and dyadic coping by a self-directed approach: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bodenmann, Guy; Hilpert, Peter; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2014-08-01

    Although prevention of relationship distress and dissolution has potential to strengthen the well-being of partners and any children they are raising, dissemination of prevention programs can be limited because couples face many barriers to in-person participation. An alternative strategy, providing couples with an instructional DVD, is tested in the present study, in which 330 Caucasian couples (N = 660 participants; mean age: men 41.4 years, women 40.0 years) were randomly assigned to a DVD group without any further support, a DVD group with technical telephone coaching, or a wait-list control group. Couples completed questionnaires at pretest, posttest, and 3 and 6 months after completion of the intervention. Self-report measures of dyadic coping, communication quality, ineffective arguing, and relationship satisfaction were used to test whether the intervention groups improved in comparison with the control group. Women in both intervention groups increased in dyadic coping, reduced conflict behavior, and were more satisfied with their relationship 6 months after the intervention. Effects for men were mixed. Participants with poorer skills reported stronger improvement. Intimate relationships can, within limits, be positively influenced by a self-directed approach. Effective dissemination of principles underlying successful relationships can be facilitated through the use of emerging low-cost tools and technologies. PMID:24660673

  10. Enhancement of couples' communication and dyadic coping by a self-directed approach: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bodenmann, Guy; Hilpert, Peter; Nussbeck, Fridtjof W; Bradbury, Thomas N

    2014-08-01

    Although prevention of relationship distress and dissolution has potential to strengthen the well-being of partners and any children they are raising, dissemination of prevention programs can be limited because couples face many barriers to in-person participation. An alternative strategy, providing couples with an instructional DVD, is tested in the present study, in which 330 Caucasian couples (N = 660 participants; mean age: men 41.4 years, women 40.0 years) were randomly assigned to a DVD group without any further support, a DVD group with technical telephone coaching, or a wait-list control group. Couples completed questionnaires at pretest, posttest, and 3 and 6 months after completion of the intervention. Self-report measures of dyadic coping, communication quality, ineffective arguing, and relationship satisfaction were used to test whether the intervention groups improved in comparison with the control group. Women in both intervention groups increased in dyadic coping, reduced conflict behavior, and were more satisfied with their relationship 6 months after the intervention. Effects for men were mixed. Participants with poorer skills reported stronger improvement. Intimate relationships can, within limits, be positively influenced by a self-directed approach. Effective dissemination of principles underlying successful relationships can be facilitated through the use of emerging low-cost tools and technologies.

  11. Coping capacity among women with abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Nurius, P S; Furrey, J; Berliner, L

    1992-01-01

    Coping capacity, although increasingly implicated as a mediating force in how individuals respond to personal threat, is an underrecognized factor in work with women of abusive partners. To explore the utility of coping capacity as a multivariable set to guide intervention with women of abusive partners, findings are reported comparing four groups of women: those whose partners do not engage in abuse, are abusive toward them, are sex offenders of children for whom the woman is a parent, or are offenders of children for whom the woman is not a parent. Three variable sets were included: vulnerability factors that may negatively influence appraisals of threat and ability to cope with abuse; coping responses that include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to the abuse; and coping resources expected to mediate effects of vulnerability factors and to influence the mobilization (of lack thereof) of coping responses. There were significant differences in coping capacity profiles across the four groups. These appeared to be a continuum of coping capacity, with women who were most directly threatened showing the lowest and women who were least directly threatened showing the highest levels of coping capacity. In order from the lowest to the highest levels of coping capacity were (1) battered women, (2) women whose partners are offenders against their children, (3) women whose partners are offenders against children of whom they are not the parent, and (4) control group women. The paper ends with a conceptual interpretation of the mediating functions of coping resources and implications for intervention and further study.

  12. Caritas, spirituality and religiosity in nurses' coping.

    PubMed

    Ekedahl, M A; Wengström, Y

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to investigate registered nurses' coping processes when working with terminally ill and dying cancer patients, with special focus on religious aspects of coping resources. What religious components can be identified as coping resources in oncology nurses' orienting system and what function has religiosity in the nurse's work? The theoretical reference is care philosophy and the psychology of religion and coping. The material consists of interviews with 15 Swedish registered oncology nurses. The results highlight different dynamic aspects of the nurses' life orientation such as caritas, religiosity, spirituality and atheism and demonstrate that religiosity can have a protective function that facilitates coping, as the nurse has something to turn to. Religious coping dominated by basic trust where prayer is used as a coping strategy may support the nurse.

  13. God, Can I Tell You Something? The Effect of Religious Coping on the Relationship between Anxiety Over Emotional Expression, Anxiety, and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Bryan, Jennifer L.; Lucas, Sydnee; Quist, Michelle C.; Steers, Mai-Ly N.; Foster, Dawn W.; Young, Chelsie M.; Lu, Qian

    2015-01-01

    The current study investigated whether religious coping would moderate the association between ambivalence over emotional expression (AEE) and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms such that the positive relationship between AEE and depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms would be weaker among those higher in religious coping. Three-hundred and fifty-two undergraduates (M age=23.51 years, SD=6.80; 84.4% female) completed study materials. Contrary to expectations, results revealed a significant interaction between religious coping and AEE such that religious coping exacerbated the relationship between higher AEE and distress symptoms. The implications of this study suggest that religious coping may not be an ideal coping mechanism for individuals with high levels of AEE. These results indicate the need to further examine the role of AEE in religious coping, and have potential implications for clinicians, healthcare professionals, and religious mentors who may promote the use of religious coping in treatment. PMID:27019677

  14. Coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenia: cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Holubova, Michaela; Prasko, Jan; Hruby, Radovan; Kamaradova, Dana; Ociskova, Marie; Latalova, Klara; Grambal, Ales

    2015-01-01

    Background The modern psychiatric view of schizophrenia spectrum disorders and their treatment has led to an increasing focus on coping strategies and the quality of life of these patients. In the present study, the authors examined the relationship between demographic data, the severity of symptoms, coping strategies, and the quality of life in psychotic patients. It is important to study the inner experience and striving of these individuals as it has been linked to their well-being and treatment adherence. Methods Psychiatric outpatients who met International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision criteria for a psychotic disorder (schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or delusional disorder) were recruited in the study. Questionnaires measuring the coping strategies (The Stress Coping Style Questionnaire [SVF-78]), the quality of life (Quality of Life Satisfaction and Enjoyment Questionnaire [Q-LES-Q]), and symptom severity (objective and subjective Clinical Global Impression – objCGI; subjCGI) were assessed. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance, Mann–Whitney U test, Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, and multiple regression analysis. Results A total of 109 psychotic patients were included in the study. The quality of life was significantly related to both the positive and negative coping strategies. The severity of disorder was highly negatively correlated with the quality of life score. The results of multiple stepwise regression analysis using the quality of life as a dependent variable showed that symptom severity (subjCGI, difference between subjCGI, and objCGI), negative coping strategies, positive coping strategies, and the difference between positive and negative coping strategies explain more than half variance. Conclusion Our study suggests the importance of utilizing the positive coping strategies in improving the quality of life in patients with psychotic disorders. PMID:26677331

  15. Associations Between Coping and Diurnal Cortisol Among Children Affected by Parental HIV/AIDS

    PubMed Central

    Slatcher, Richard B.; Chi, Peilian; Li, Xiaoming; Zhao, Junfeng; Zhao, Guoxiang; Ren, Xuequn; Zhu, Jianfeng; Stanton, Bonita

    2014-01-01

    Objective Prior research has shown that early-life adversity is associated with physical health problems, but little is known about the health-related effects of coping in the context of having a parent with HIV/AIDS. The goal of this study was to investigate the associations between positive and negative coping strategies and diurnal cortisol among children affected by parental HIV/AIDS. Method Six hundred and forty-five children aged 8-15 affected by parental HIV/AIDS provided 4 saliva samples per day over three days (two weekdays and one weekend day) to assess diurnal cortisol. Positive and negative coping strategies were measured via self-report prior to saliva collection. Possible confounds of the associations between coping and diurnal cortisol also were assessed, including age, gender, socioeconomic status, parenting quality, parental death, other stressful life events, sleep quality, and perceived health status. Results Greater positive coping (e.g., problem-solving, cognitive reframing) was associated with children's higher morning cortisol (p = .028), whereas greater negative coping (e.g., fighting, breaking things) was independently associated with lower morning cortisol (p = .032) and a flatter diurnal cortisol slope (p = .005). These associations remained significant after controlling for potential confounds. Neither positive coping nor negative coping interacted with stressful life circumstances—assessed via both stressful life events and parental death from HIV/AIDS—to predict cortisol (all p's > .27). Conclusion These findings indicate the extent to which a child's coping strategy is associated with indicators of stress biology in the context of having a parent with HIV/AIDS. PMID:25581701

  16. Religious coping moderates the relation between racism and psychological well-being among Christian Asian American college students.

    PubMed

    Kim, Paul Youngbin; Kendall, Dana L; Webb, Marcia

    2015-01-01

    The authors examined the moderating role of positive and negative religious coping in the relation between racism and psychological well-being in a sample of Catholic and Protestant Asian American college students (N = 107). On the basis of prior theorizing on the 2 types of religious coping, combined with some limited empirical evidence, they predicted that positive religious coping would have a buffering effect (Hypothesis 1) on the racism-mental health relation and that negative religious coping would have an exacerbating effect (Hypothesis 2). Participants completed an online survey containing measures corresponding to the study variables. Results indicated that the interaction between positive religious coping and racism was nonsignificant, so Hypothesis 1 was not supported. For Hypothesis 2, the negative religious coping and racism interaction term was statistically significant, but the moderating effect was in an unexpected direction, such that negative religious coping actually protected against the deleterious impact of racism on mental health. The findings suggest that the theorized deleterious influence of negative religious coping may need to be reconsidered in an Asian American setting. The findings have the potential to inform practitioners who work with Asian American college students to better cope with the detrimental consequences of racism.

  17. The association between coping method and distress in infertile woman: A cross-sectional study from Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Dag, Hande; Yigitoglu, Sayime; Aksakal, Belgin Iyik; Kavlak, Oya

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To assess the distress level in infertile women and their coping skills. Methods: One hundred and twenty-seven infertile women who had been referred to the Family Planning and Infertility Research and Practice Center (IRPC) of a university hospital to receive therapy between June 2012-2013 were enrolled in this study. Several surveys, including the “Infertile Woman Identification Form”, the “Infertility Distress Scale (IDS)” and the “Ways of Coping Inventory (WCI),” were used as data collection tools. Results: The mean age of the women who participated in the study was 32.34 ± 5.44. They had been on therapy for 3.95 ± 3.21 years and had been referred for therapy 2.73 ± 1.76 times. The mean score of the IDS was determined to be 37.0 ± 9.7 (23–66), and the mean score of the WCI subscale was 1.86 ± 0.55 (0.5-3.0). In the IDS and WCI subscales, statistically significant negative relationships were detected between “Optimism” (r=-0.327), “Seeking Social Support” (r=-0.255), and “Self-Confidence” (r=-0.305), whereas there were statistically significant positive relationships between “Helplessness” (r=0.376) and “Submissiveness” (r=0.278) (p<0.01). Conclusion: The women who developed negative coping strategies had higher infertility distress scores than other women. PMID:26870115

  18. [Translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and content validation of the Portuguese version of the Coping Behaviours Inventory (CBI) for the Brazilian population].

    PubMed

    Constant, Hilda Maria Rodrigues Moleda; Figueiró, Luciana Rizzieri; Signor, Luciana; Bisch, Nadia Krubskaya; Barros, Helena Maria Tanhauser; Ferigolo, Maristela

    2014-10-01

    Coping skills correlate directly with the success of alcohol abstinence. Brazil previously lacked an instrument to identify alcohol users' specific coping skills. The current study therefore aimed to perform the translation, cross-cultural adaptation, and content validation of the Coping Behaviours Inventory (CBI). Procedures included translation and back-translation, cross-cultural adaptation, content evaluation, and a pilot study. The final Portuguese version was administered by telephone to 40 alcohol users seeking help through a telephone hotline called VIVAVOZ. The retranslated version was close to the original. As for content validation, most of the items proved satisfactory and acceptable. The theoretical dimension showed a mean kappa index of 0.666 between evaluators, which was considered a substantial level of agreement. The results were satisfactory and acceptable, demonstrating that the inventory is appropriate for investigating coping skills in Brazilian alcohol users.

  19. Changes in Coping, Pain and Activity following Cognitive-Behavioral Training: A Randomized Clinical Trial for Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Jeffrey; Schlenz, Alyssa; McClellan, Catherine B.; Puffer, Eve S.; Hardy, Steven; Pfeiffer, Matthew; Roberts, Carla W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the outcomes of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for pain in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) using smartphones as a novel delivery method. Methods Forty-six children with SCD received CBT coping skills training using a randomized, waitlist control design. The intervention involved a single-session of CBT training and home-based practice using smartphones for eight weeks. Pre-post questionnaires between the randomized groups were used to evaluate changes in active psychological coping and negative thinking using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Daily diaries completed by the full sample during the treatment period were used to assess if CBT skill use was related to reductions in next day pain intensity and increases in same day functional activity. Results The pre-post group comparison suggested that youth increased active psychological coping attempts with the intervention. Daily diary data indicated that when children used CBT skills on days with higher pain, there were reductions in next day pain intensity. There was no such association between skill use and functional activity. Discussion CBT coping skills training supported via smartphones can increase coping and reduce pain intensity for children with SCD; however, additions to the study protocols are recommended in future studies. Advantages and caveats of using smartphones are also discussed. PMID:25503599

  20. Coping with a community stressor: a proposed hazardous waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined a number of factors believed to influence community involvement. Residents of a rural community near Phoenix, Arizona, where a hazardous waste facility had been proposed to built, were interviewed at home in August 1982. Most residents were chosen at random (n = 70) while a smaller number (n = 29) were selected because of known involvement in activities regarding the hazardous waste facility. Residents who perceived the facility as a threat to their health, safety, and general well-being employed a number of coping strategies. Strategies to change or alter the source of stress, problem-focused coping, were associated with greater community involvement. Strategies to regulate one's emotional response to stress, emotion-focused coping, were associated with less community involvement. Increased self-efficacy and sense of community led to increased community involvement. Both measures indirectly influenced community involvement through different modes of coping. Self-efficacy was negatively related to emotion-focused coping while sense of community was positively related to problem-focused coping. Increased demoralization was associated with decreased self-efficacy, increased emotion-focused coping, and decreased community involvement. The results suggest that the psychologically most fragile residents are underrepresented in community activities, and that the use of high levels of emotion-focused coping may have been maladaptive.

  1. Perfectionism and athlete burnout in junior elite athletes: the mediating role of coping tendencies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K; Appleton, Paul R

    2010-07-01

    Recent research indicates that some dimensions of perfectionism are positively related to athlete burnout, whereas others are negatively related to athlete burnout. The divergent relationship between these dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout may be explained by different coping tendencies. The present investigation examined whether different coping tendencies mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. Two-hundred and six junior elite athletes (M age=15.15 years, SD=1.88 years, range=11-22 years) completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, coping tendencies, and athlete burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout was mediated by different coping tendencies. Higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism was related to higher levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to higher levels of athlete burnout. In contrast, higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism was related to higher levels of problem-focused coping and lower levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to lower levels of athlete burnout. The findings suggest that different coping tendencies may underpin the divergent relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout.

  2. The Effect of Metacognitive Instruction on Problem Solving Skills in Iranian Students of Health Sciences

    PubMed Central

    Safari, Yahya; Meskini, Habibeh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Learning requires application of such processes as planning, supervision, monitoring and reflection that are included in the metacognition. Studies have shown that metacognition is associated with problem solving skills. The current research was conducted to investigate the impact of metacognitive instruction on students’ problem solving skills. Methods: The study sample included 40 students studying in the second semester at Kermanshah University of Medical Sciences, 2013-2014. They were selected through convenience sampling technique and were randomly assigned into two equal groups of experimental and control. For the experimental group, problem solving skills were taught through metacognitive instruction during ten two-hour sessions and for the control group, problem solving skills were taught via conventional teaching method. The instrument for data collection included problem solving inventory (Heppner, 1988), which was administered before and after instruction. The validity and reliability of the questionnaire had been previously confirmed. The collected data were analyzed by descriptive statistics, mean and standard deviation and the hypotheses were tested by t-test and ANCOVA. Results: The findings of the posttest showed that the total mean scores of problem solving skills in the experimental and control groups were 151.90 and 101.65, respectively, indicating a significant difference between them (p<0.001). This difference was also reported to be statistically significant between problem solving skills and its components, including problem solving confidence, orientation-avoidance coping style and personal control (p<0.001). No significant difference, however, was found between the students’ mean scores in terms of gender and major. Conclusion: Since metacognitive instruction has positive effects on students’ problem solving skills and is required to enhance academic achievement, metacognitive strategies are recommended to be taught to the

  3. Want Positive Behavior? Use Positive Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Chip; Freeman-Loftis, Babs

    2012-01-01

    Positive adult language is the professional use of words and tone of voice to enable students to learn in an engaged, active way. This includes learning social skills. To guide children toward choosing and maintaining positive behaviors, adults need to carefully choose the words and tone of voice used when speaking to them. Learning to use…

  4. Determining the Study Skills of Student Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tural Dincer, Guner; Akdeniz, Ali Riza

    2008-01-01

    Background: It is known that success of a student is affected by the skills of motivation, time management. Studies have showed that there is positive relationship between academic achievement and study skills of a student. Purpose: It is thought that study skills of learners should be defined to be more successful on teaching-learning process.…

  5. Contributions of Study Skills to Academic Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gettinger, Maribeth; Seibert, Jill K.

    2002-01-01

    Study skills are fundamental to academic competence. Effective study skills are associated with positive outcomes across multiple academic content areas and for diverse learners. The purpose of this article is to describe an information-processing perspective on the contribution of study skills to academic competence, and to identify…

  6. Positivity Coping Style and Tobacco and Alcohol Use in Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lara, M. Dolores; Bermudez, Jose; Perez-Garcia, Ana M.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Adolescence is a period when at-risk health behaviors often begin, such as tobacco and alcohol use; thus, it is a critical period for implementing preventive strategies. Method: In this context, 106 adolescents took part in this research (54 females and 52 males; mean age for both groups = 14.10). The main objectives were to first…

  7. Parental bonding and depressive affect: the mediating role of coping resources.

    PubMed

    Matheson, Kimberly; Kelly, Owen; Cole, Barbara; Tannenbaum, Beth; Dodd, Charlene; Anisman, Hymie

    2005-09-01

    Ordinarily, when stressors are encountered, a cascade of cognitive and behavioural responses is evoked that serves to protect the individual from compromised well-being. When coping resources or skills are limited or ineffective, then psychological disturbances, such as depression, may ensue (Paykel, 2001). Although any number of factors could account for variations of stress resilience, this paper argues that early life experiences and relationships, and particularly those with parents or primary caregivers, may contribute to the development of appropriate styles of coping, which, in turn, influence affective responses in the face of stressors encountered in adulthood.

  8. Flexible Applications of the Coping Cat Program for Anxious Youth1

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Benjamin, Courtney L.; Puleo, Connor M.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2010-01-01

    The current article offers suggestions for ways to adapt empirically supported treatments (ESTs). A specific manualized EST (Coping Cat; Kendall & Hedtke, 2006a) is used to illustrate the concept of “flexibility within fidelity” (Kendall & Beidas, 2007; Kendall, Gosch, Furr, & Sood, 2008). Flexibility within fidelity stresses the importance of using ESTs while considering and taking into account individual client presentations. In this discussion, recommendations are offered for the use of the Coping Cat with younger youth, adolescents, and youth with secondary comorbidities (i.e., social skills deficits, inattentive symptoms, and depressive symptoms). PMID:20936081

  9. Profiles of Psychological Well-being and Coping Strategies among University Students

    PubMed Central

    Freire, Carlos; Ferradás, María Del Mar; Valle, Antonio; Núñez, José C.; Vallejo, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    In the transactional model of stress, coping responses are the key to preventing the stress response. In this study, the possible role of psychological well-being as a personal determinant of coping strategies in the academic context was analyzed. Specifically, the study has two objectives: (a) to identify different profiles of students according to their level of psychological well-being; and (b) to analyze the differences between these profiles in the use of three coping strategies (positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning). Age, gender, and degree were estimated as covariables. A total of 1,072 university students participated in the study. Latent profile analysis was applied to four indices of psychological well-being: self-acceptance, environmental mastery, purpose in life, and personal growth. An optimal four-profile solution, reflecting significant incremental shifts from low to very high psychological well-being, was obtained. As predicted, the profile membership distinguished between participants in positive reappraisal, support-seeking, and planning. Importantly, the higher the profile of psychological well-being was, the higher the use of the three coping strategies. Gender differences in coping strategies were observed, but no interaction effects with psychological well-being were found. Age and degree were not relevant in explaining the use of coping strategies. These results suggest that psychological well-being stands as an important personal resource to favor adaptive coping strategies for academic stress. PMID:27790168

  10. A stress and coping model of adjustment to caring for an adult with mental illness.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Christina; Pakenham, Kenneth I

    2012-08-01

    This study investigated the utility of a stress and coping framework for identifying factors associated with adjustment to informal caregiving to adults with mental illness. Relations between stress and coping predictors and negative (distress) and positive (positive affect, life satisfaction, benefit finding, health) carer adjustment outcomes were examined. A total of 114 caregivers completed questionnaires. Predictors included relevant background variables (carer and care recipient characteristics and caregiving context), coping resources (optimism, social support, carer-care recipient relationship quality), appraisal (threat, control, challenge) and coping strategies (problem-focused, avoidance, acceptance, meaning-focused). Results indicated that after controlling for relevant background variables (burden, caregiving frequency, care recipient symptom unpredictability), better caregiver adjustment was related to higher social support and optimism, better quality of carer-care recipient relationship, lower threat and higher challenge appraisals, and less reliance on avoidance coping, as hypothesised. Coping resources emerged as the most consistent predictor of adjustment. Findings support the utility of stress and coping theory in identifying risk and protective factors associated with adaptation to caring for an adult with mental illness.

  11. Personality and coping in first episode psychosis linked to mental health care use.

    PubMed

    Scholte-Stalenhoef, Anne Neeltje; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; van de Willige, Gerard; Dost-Otter, Rianne; Visser, Ellen; Liemburg, Edith J; Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Schoevers, Robert A; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; Bruggeman, Richard

    2016-04-30

    A body of literature focuses on associations of neuroticism, extraversion, passive coping and active coping with the course of psychotic illness. Less is known about other personality and coping variables - and underlying causal mechanisms between variables remain unclear. We explored causal effects from personality, coping and symptoms on mental health care consumption over two years in 208 first episode patients. Causal inference search algorithms lead to formation of a hypothetical causal model based on presumptions on (non-)mutuality between variables and consistent with data. Structural equation modelling estimated effect sizes conditionally on the causal model. Our observed model implies that none of the coping or personality variables have any effect on the number of days of hospitalisation, whereas general psychopathology symptoms do have a direct positive effect. For ambulatory care it is proposed that openness to experience, depressive symptoms and age have direct positive effects. Reassuring thoughts as a coping strategy seems to have a direct negative effect on the use of ambulatory care and mediates indirect effects of other personality and coping variables on ambulatory care. Furthermore, while previously established relations between personality and symptoms are confirmed by our model, it challenges traditional ideas about causation between personality and symptoms.

  12. Understanding and Coping with Loneliness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    France, M. Honore; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Discusses the concept of loneliness and some program strategies for school counselors to use in responding to concerns about loneliness. Counseling techniques include exploration of loneliness, improving self-esteem, improving social skills, and managing anxiety. (JAC)

  13. Chinese adolescents' coping tactics in a parent-adolescent conflict and their relationships with life satisfaction: the differences between coping with mother and father

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hongyu; Xu, Yan; Wang, Fang; Jiang, Jiang; Zhang, Xiaohui; Wang, Xinrui

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined the differences of conflict coping tactics in adolescents' grade and gender and parents' gender and explored the relationships among conflict frequency, conflict coping tactics, and life satisfaction. A total of 1874 Chinese students in grades 7, 8, 10, and 11 completed surveys on conflict frequency, coping tactics, and life satisfaction. The results obtained by MANOVA suggested that the adolescents' reported use of assertion and avoidance with either mothers or fathers increased from Grade 7 to Grade 8 and did not change from Grade 8 to Grade 11 in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of paired sample T-tests indicated that adolescents used more conciliation in Grade 7, more conciliation and assertion in Grade 8, and more conciliation and less avoidance in Grade 10 and 11 to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Boys used more conciliation and less avoidance, while girls used more conciliation, assertion and third-party intervention to cope with mothers than with fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. The results of the hierarchical regression analysis indicated the significance of the primary effects of conflict frequency and coping tactics on life satisfaction. Specifically, conflict frequency negatively predicted life satisfaction. Conciliation positively and avoidance negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with either mothers or fathers in parent-adolescent conflicts. Assertion negatively predicted life satisfaction when adolescents coped with fathers. The moderating effects of conflict coping tactics on the relationship between parent-adolescent conflict frequency and life satisfaction were not significant. PMID:26528224

  14. Skills Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canter, Patricia; And Others

    The services of the Living Skills Center for the Visually Handicapped, a habilitative service for blind young adults, are described. It is explained that the Center houses its participants in their own apartments in a large complex and has served over 70 young people in 4 years. The evaluation section describes such assessment instruments as an…

  15. Study Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gleason, Mary M.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Study strategies used to assist mildly handicapped students become more actively engaged and successful in gaining and responding to information in content area classes are described. They include using advance organizers, summarizing/paraphrasing what is read, enhancing listening skills, and improving the organization, appearance, and accuracy of…

  16. Leadership Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parish, Thomas S.

    2006-01-01

    While this may not be a "complete list" of what leadership skills one needs to effectively lead in any/every situation, it should provide a great overview of many of the things s/he needs to do, at least initially.

  17. Sharing Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mealy, Virginia; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Three articles describe methods for teaching library skills. The first presents a song used to teach students the Dewey Decimal system; the second describes a reading program incorporating Halloween and foreign countries; and the third includes short poems designed to teach students to care for library books properly. (CLB)

  18. The Relationship Between Hope and Religious Coping Among Patients With Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Shamsalinia, Abbas; Pourghaznein, Tayebe; Parsa, Marzie

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose: Globally, diabetes is one of the most common non-contagious diseases resulting in severe complications. Fostered hope facilitates coping and improves self-care and one of the Factors affecting hope is religious beliefs. This research investigated the level of hope and its relationship with religious coping among Type 2 diabetes patients. Material and Methods: This correlation, cross-sectional study was conducted on 150 patients with Type 2 diabetes, who had been referred to the Karaj Diabetes Association during the period, March–June 2011, and selected through purposive sampling. A three-part questionnaire including demographic data, the Herth Hope Index, and a short form of religious coping, was used for data collection. The data were analyzed using descriptive and analytic statistics, including Pearson’s correlation coefficient, the t-test, a one-way ANOVA, and a multiple regression analysis. The set significance level was p<0.05. Results: The mean hope score was 34.89 (SD±8.75); most of the subjects (46.7%) showed high levels of hope. Positive religious coping, marital status, and social support significantly affected hope fostering (r=0.897, p =0.000). A significant negative relationship was found between hope and age (r=-0.373, p=0.000), and between hope and negative religious coping (r=-0.749, p=0.000). Conclusion: Positive religious coping, married life, and social support significantly affected the development of hope. Moreover, there was a significant positive relationship between positive religious coping and social support. So, strengthening social support could lead to increased levels of positive religious coping and fostering of hope. PMID:26234981

  19. Spiritual/religious coping in patients with epilepsy: relationship with sociodemographic and clinical aspects and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Tedrus, Glória Maria Almeida Souza; Fonseca, Lineu Corrêa; De Pietro Magri, Fabiane; Mendes, Pedro Henrique Magalhães

    2013-09-01

    One hundred and ten patients with epilepsy with a mean age of 45.9 were assessed by a clinical-neurological evaluation, Quality of Life in Epilepsy Inventory-31 (QOLIE-31), and the Spiritual/Religious Coping (SRCOPE) Scale. The objective of this study was to evaluate if patients with epilepsy used positive and/or negative spiritual/religious coping and the relationships between this type of coping and the sociodemographic and clinical aspects of epilepsy and the QOLIE-31. A greater use of positive coping (3.0±0.7) than negative coping (2.3±0.7) was found. The use of the positive factor was greater in mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (MTLE) than in other types of epilepsy. The ratio of negative/positive coping was associated with lower scores in the QOLIE-31 (-0.222; p=0.036). Patients with epilepsy appear to use spiritual/religious coping, especially those with MTLE, and a predominance of negative coping was associated with a reduced quality of life. Future studies should evaluate interventions considering the knowledge of spiritual/religious strategies by the patients.

  20. The Best Years of Our Lives? Coping with Stress Predicts School Grades, Life Satisfaction, and Feelings about High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidant coping strategies predict key outcomes in a sample of 354 high school students. The four outcomes considered are: academic achievement, life satisfaction, positive feelings towards school, and negative feelings towards school. Results demonstrate that coping incrementally…

  1. Longitudinal spiritual coping with trauma in people with HIV: implications for health care.

    PubMed

    Kremer, Heidemarie; Ironson, Gail

    2014-03-01

    This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (p<0.05). Results suggest that spirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts. PMID:24601735

  2. Longitudinal Spiritual Coping with Trauma in People with HIV: Implications for Health Care

    PubMed Central

    Ironson, Gail

    2014-01-01

    Abstract This 10-year study (N=177) examines how people with HIV use spirituality to cope with life's trauma on top of HIV-related stress (e.g., facing death, stigma, poverty, limited healthcare) usual events. Spirituality, defined as a connection to a higher presence, is independent from religion (institutionalized spirituality). As a dynamic adaptive process, coping requires longitudinal studying. Qualitative content-analysis of interviews/essays yielded a coding of specific aspects and a longitudinal rating of overall spiritual coping. Most participants were rated as spiritual, using spiritual practices, about half experienced comfort, empowerment, growth/transformation, gratitude, less than one-third meaning, community, and positive reframing. Up to one-fifth perceived spiritual conflict, struggle, or anger, triggering post-traumatic stress, which sometimes converted into positive growth/transformation later. Over time, 65% used spiritual coping positively, 7% negatively, and 28% had no significant use. Spirituality was mainly beneficial for women, heterosexuals, and African Americans (p<0.05). Results suggest that spirituality is a major source of positive and occasionally negative coping (e.g., viewing HIV as sin). We discuss how clinicians can recognize and prevent when spirituality is creating distress and barriers to HIV treatment, adding a literature review on ways of effective spiritual assessment. Spirituality may be a beneficial component of coping with trauma, considering socio-cultural contexts. PMID:24601735

  3. Validation of the Coping with Discrimination Scale in sexual minorities.

    PubMed

    Ngamake, Sakkaphat T; Walch, Susan E; Raveepatarakul, Jirapattara

    2014-01-01

    The Coping With Discrimination Scale (CDS) shows promise as a self-report measure of strategies for coping with racial discrimination. To assess the psychometric properties of the measure for use with sexual minorities (i.e., gay, lesbian, bisexual, or GLB persons), a nonprobability sample of 371 GLB adults completed the instrument along with several standardized, self-report measures. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the five-factor structure of the original scale with the exclusion of five items. Adequate internal consistency reliability was found. Internalization, drug and alcohol use, and detachment subscales were correlated positively with measures of psychological distress and negatively with a measure of life satisfaction, providing evidence of construct validity. The education/advocacy and resistance subscales were largely unrelated to concurrently administered validation measures, consistent with prior findings. Coping strategy use varied as a function of primary sources of social support. The CDS appears to be a psychometrically sound measure of several discrimination coping strategies for use with sexual minorities.

  4. Factors Affecting Nurses’ Coping With Transition: An Exploratory Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Azimian, Jalil; Negarandeh, Reza; Fakhr- Movahedi, Ali

    2014-01-01

    Aim: One of the most important factors contributing to staff shortage is nurses’ ineffective coping with transitions. Changes in nurses’ official positions are usually associated with varying degrees of transition. Identification of affecting factors on nurses’ coping in responding to transition can promote quality of nursing activity and prevent nurses’ shortage. So the aim of this study was to explore factors affecting nurses’ coping with transitions. Methods: The participant of this exploratory qualitative study consisted of sixteen nurses that were work in medical wards of four hospitals in Qazvin, Iran. Data collected by semi-structured interviews. The data were analyzed by qualitative content analysis approach. Results: The main theme of the study was ‘inadequate preparation for transition’. This theme consisted of six categories including “staff training and development”, “professional relationships”, “perceived level of support”, “professional accountability and commitment”, “welfare services”, and “nursing staff shortage”. Conclusion: Nursing managers and policy makers need to pay special attention to the affecting factors on nurses’ coping with transition and develop effective strategies for facilitating it. PMID:25363117

  5. Coping strategies during and after spaceflight: Data from retired cosmonauts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suedfeld, Peter; Brcic, Jelena; Johnson, Phyllis J.; Gushin, Vadim

    2015-05-01

    Coping is a dynamic physiological and psychological process in response to perceived environmental stress that functions to restore physiological homeostasis and reduce negative affect [1]. Thematic content analysis was employed for references to 13 well-established coping strategies in interviews with 20 retired long-duration male cosmonauts. As in previous research with other space samples [2,3] the retired cosmonauts mentioned Problem-Oriented strategies more frequently than Emotion-Oriented ones. In the present sample, Seeking Social Support, Planful Problem Solving and Endurance/Obedience/Effort were the top three most mentioned coping strategies. Cosmonauts who had spent more than a year in space, compared to those who had spent less than a year, mentioned using Planful Problem Solving more as they recalled their career and retirement. Examining changes over time, spaceflight had a positive effect on Accepting Responsibility. Endurance/Obedience/Effort steadily decreased over time, while we found an inverted-U pattern for Distancing and Self-Control. Additional results in relation to other astronaut samples and the relationship between coping and post-flight growth are discussed.

  6. Coping with guilt and shame after gambling loss.

    PubMed

    Yi, Sunghwan; Kanetkar, Vinay

    2011-09-01

    In this study we examined the relations between guilt and shame and coping strategies in response to gambling loss. Based on H.B. Lewis's (Shame & guilt in neurosis. New York: International Universities Press, 1971) account of guilt and shame, we proposed that unlike guilt, the experience of shame involves the attribution of gambling loss to stable and global internal factors (i.e., self-devaluation). We hypothesized that problem gambling severity would be more strongly associated with the intensity of shame than with the intensity of guilt following gambling loss. Further, we hypothesized that the intensity of shame would be positively associated with the use of avoidant coping strategies following gambling loss. Finally, we hypothesized that the intensity of shame would mediate the association between problem gambling severity and the use of avoidant coping. These hypotheses were supported by a retrospective survey of recent gambling losses. Our finding suggests that the experience of shame and the use of avoidant coping strategies to deal with this emotion are central to problem gambling severity. PMID:20857182

  7. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory. PMID:27029108

  8. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory.

  9. Depression, Social Support, and Coping Styles among Pregnant Women after the Lushan Earthquake in Ya’an, China

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Jianrong; Li, Xirong; Liu, Xinghui; Pang, Meiche

    2015-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study is to assess the depression of pregnant women in the aftermath of an earthquake, and to identify the social support that they obtained, their coping styles and socio-demographic factors associated with depression. Methods A total of 128 pregnant women from three hospitals in the epicenter area were recruited immediately after the Ya’an earthquake. Their depression was investigated using the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS) with a cutoff score of 14; the social support that they obtained was measured using the Social Support Questionnaire; and their coping styles were assessed using the Coping Styles Questionnaire. Results Immediately after the earthquake, the incidence rate of depression in pregnant women was 35.2%, higher than that of the general pregnant population (7%-14%). The EPDS scores were significantly correlated with gestation age at the time of the earthquake, objective support, subjective support, use of support, negative coping style, and positive coping style. The regression analysis indicated that risk factors of prenatal depression include the number of children, relatives wounded, subjective support, and coping styles. A further analysis of the interaction between social support and two types of coping styles with depression showed that there was interaction effect between subjective social support and positive coping styles in relation to EPDS scores. There was an inverse relationship between low EPDS scores and positive coping styles and high social support, and vice versa. Conclusion The timing of the occurrence of the earthquake may not necessarily affect the progress of the illness and recovery from depression, and psychological intervention could be conducted in the immediate aftermath after the earthquake. The impact of coping styles on prenatal depression appeared to be linked with social support. Helping pregnant women to adopt positive coping styles with good social support after a recent major

  10. Quantifying insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress: a cross-cultural study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Juan P; Barragán, Elena; Botella, Cristina; Braun, Silke; Bridler, René; Camussi, Elisabetta; Chafrat, Verónica; Lott, Petra; Mohr, Christine; Moragrega, Inés; Papagno, Costanza; Sanchez, Susana; Seifritz, Erich; Soler, Carla; Stassen, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to quantify insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress is of major clinical relevance. In fact, chronic stress increasingly dominates modern work conditions and can affect nearly every system of the human body, as suggested by physical, cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms. Since freshmen students experience constantly high levels of stress due to tight schedules and frequent examinations, we carried out a 3-center study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina in order to develop socioculturally independent means for quantifying coping behavior. The data analysis relied on 2 self-report questionnaires: the Coping Strategies Inventory (COPE) for the assessment of coping behavior and the Zurich Health Questionnaire which assesses consumption behavior and general health dimensions. A neural network approach was used to determine the structural properties inherent in the COPE instrument. Our analyses revealed 2 highly stable, socioculturally independent scales that reflected basic coping behavior in terms of the personality traits activity-passivity and defeatism-resilience. This replicated previous results based on Swiss and US-American data. The percentage of students exhibiting insufficient coping behavior was very similar across the study sites (11.5-18.0%). Given their stability and validity, the newly developed scales enable the quantification of basic coping behavior in a cost-efficient and reliable way, thus clearing the way for the early detection of subjects with insufficient coping skills under chronic stress who may be at risk of physical or mental health problems. PMID:25967599

  11. Psychometric Evaluation of the Parent Situation Inventory: A Role-Play Measure of Coping in Parents of Substance-Using Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    McGillicuddy, Neil B.; Rychtarik, Robert G.; Morsheimer, Elizabeth T.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the generalizability, reliability, and construct validity of the Parent Situation Inventory (PSI), a role-play measure of coping skills in parents experiencing problems from an adolescent’s drug and alcohol use. Generalizability was robust (.80) and alternate form and test–retest reliability were satisfactory. PSI skillfulness was negatively related to the parent’s own substance use and to the adolescent’s alcohol use. The PSI shows promise as a reliable and potentially valid measure of coping in this population and has direct implications for developing and evaluating skill-based parent training programs. PMID:15584798

  12. The adolescent emotional coping after an earthquake: a risk factor for suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Stratta, Paolo; Capanna, Cristina; Carmassi, Claudia; Patriarca, Sara; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Riccardi, Ilaria; Collazzoni, Alberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation. PMID:24931563

  13. The potential of forgiveness as a response for coping with negative peer experiences.

    PubMed

    Flanagan, Kelly S; Vanden Hoek, Kristin K; Ranter, Jennifer M; Reich, Holly A

    2012-10-01

    Coping strategies employed by adolescents in response to negative peer experiences are related to their adjustment. This study examines the potential of forgiveness as a coping response for negative peer experiences in early adolescence. Participants were 616 6th through 8th grade students at a middle school (46% girls) who completed self-report measures of bullying and victimization experiences, general coping strategies in response to bullying, social anxiety, self-esteem, and a measure of forgiveness to a self-identified experience of being bullied or hurt by a peer. Forgiveness was positively associated with conflict resolution, advice and support seeking strategies, and negatively associated with revenge seeking. Forgiveness was also positively associated with concurrent self-esteem and negatively associated with social anxiety. Further, forgiveness was related to social anxiety and self-esteem after accounting for bullying behavior and victimization experiences, general coping responses, and gender. Developmental considerations of forgiveness and implications for this response are considered.

  14. Endogenous opioids regulate glucocorticoid-dependent stress-coping strategies in mice.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, Klaudia; Korostynski, Michal; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Ficek, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2016-08-25

    Coping skills are essential in determining the outcomes of aversive life events. Our research was aimed to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of different coping styles in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and SWR/J. We compared the influence of a preceding stressor (0.5h of restraint) on behavioral and gene expression profiles between these two strains. The C57BL/6J strain exhibited increased conditioned fear and high immobility (passive coping). Oppositely, the SWR/J mice demonstrated low freezing and immobility, low post-restraint anxiety and considerable struggling during the forced swim test (active coping). Gene profiling in the amygdala revealed transcriptional patterns that were related to the differential stress reactivity, such as the activation of glucocorticoid-dependent genes specifically in the C57BL/6J mice. Post-restraint blood sampling for corticosterone levels confirmed the association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation with a passive coping style. Pharmacological tools were used to modulate the stress-coping strategies. The blockade of opioid receptors (ORs) before the aversive event caused transcriptional and neuroendocrine changes in the SWR/J mice that were characteristic of the passive coping strategy. We found that treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist (dexamethasone (DEX), 4mg/kg) impaired the consolidation of fear memory in the C57BL/6J mice and that this effect was reversed by OR blockade (naltrexone (NTX), 2mg/kg). In parallel, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (mifepristone (MIF), 20mg/kg) reversed the effect of morphine (20mg/kg) on conditioned fear in the C57BL/6J mice. Our results suggest that in mice, stress-coping strategies are determined by opioid-dependent mechanisms that modulate activity of the HPA axis. PMID:27235740

  15. Coping and caregiving experience of parents of children and adolescents with type-1 diabetes: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Bhadada, Sanjay; Kate, Natasha; Sarkar, Siddharth; Bhansali, Anil; Avasthi, Ajit; Sharma, Sunil; Goel, Rashi

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To assess the coping strategies and the relationship of coping with subjective burden and positive caregiving consequences as perceived by the caregivers of children and adolescents with Type-1 diabetes. Design: Cross-sectional assessment. Setting: Outpatient of Endocrinology Department. Participants: Forty-one parents of children and adolescents with Type-1 diabetes Main Outcome Measure: Ways of coping checklist (WCC), involvement evaluation questionnaire (IEQ) and scale for assessment of positive aspects of caregiving experience (scale for positive aspects of caregiving experience) to study the coping, burden and positive aspects of caregiving respectively. Results: On WCC, the highest score was obtained for seeking social support, followed by planful problem-solving. More frequent use of coping strategies of confrontation and escape-avoidance was associated with significantly higher score on the tension domain of IEQ. Those who more frequently used problem-solving and distancing had significantly higher scores on worrying-urging-I domain of IEQ. supervision domain of IEQ was associated with more frequent use of confrontation, self-control, social support, escape-avoidance and positive reappraisal. More frequent use of distancing and problem-solving were associated with lower caregiving personal gains. More frequent use of problem-solving was associated with higher caregiver satisfaction and lower scores in the domain of self-esteem and social aspects of caring. Conclusion: Caregivers of patients with Type-1 diabetes predominantly use adaptive coping strategies. Higher use of certain coping strategies is associated with negative and positive caregiving consequences. PMID:26955574

  16. Coping with contraception: cognitive and behavioral methods with adolescents.

    PubMed

    Gilchrist, L D; Schinke, S P

    1983-01-01

    Teenagers' sporadic use or nonuse of contraception is 1 explanation for the high rates of unwanted pregnancies in the US. Past efforts have had limited impact as they focused on simply providing adolescents with information and increased access to birth control. The argument here points to specific cognitive and behavioral skills, which adolescents lack, and which are required for effective contraception. Previous research documents an increase in teenagers' use of contraception following a skills-training program presented in intensive small-group format. The present study evaluates cognitive and behavioral skills training methods implemented with large groups (n=120), in the natural environment. The subjects are male and female students of a middle class suburban public high school. Training in this preventive approach stresses verbal and nonverbal components of effective interpersonal communication--approach, refusal and request responses--as important behavioral skills. Cognitive skills training emphasizes the application of facts about reproduction and contraception to make optimal decisions in situations involving sexual activity. Leaders help the subjects relate abstract facts and observable risks to their own life circumstances and choices. Additional skills practice involves the completion of written assignments outside the group setting. At the end of the 2-week training period, the students are evaluated along 4 measures: a knowledge inventory, a contraceptive attitudes and intentions inventory, and a videotaped performance test. Analyses of findings support the feasibility of large-group procedures for helping adolescents cope with sexuality and contraception. Future investigations are needed to replicate the present research as are longitudinal follow-up data to assess the long-term effects of this treatment approach.

  17. Religious coping methods of Taiwanese folk religion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Jung

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms.

  18. Coping styles of Chicago adults: description.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 2,299 Chicago adults the author empirically describes the coping styles used to combat stressors in the social roles of marriage, parenting, finances, and job. Factor analyses of coping responses uncovered three major patterns: taking direct action, rationalization avoidance of the stressor, and acceptance of the stressful situation without attempting alteration. Respondents did not consistently utilize one coping style across all role areas, but rather employed a repertoire of responses. Demographic characteristics were found to explain only a small amount of variation in the coping styles.

  19. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce. PMID:7847571

  20. Psychosocial coping resources in elementary school-age children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Kurtz, L

    1994-10-01

    The psychosocial coping resources of elementary school-age children living in the sole custody of a divorced single parent were compared with those of their peers living with nondivorced parents. Children of divorced parents were found to have lower levels of self-efficacy, self-esteem, and social support, and less effectual coping styles. Contact with the noncustodial parent was found to have a positive influence on their attitudes toward divorce.

  1. Occupational stress and coping strategies among emergency department nurses of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-ying; Kong, Fan-ying; Li, Qiu-jie

    2015-08-01

    Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (P<0.001). Too much documents work, criticism, instrument equipment shortage, night shift, rank of professional were the influence factors about occupational stress to positive coping styles. Too much documents work, and medical insurance for ED nurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development.

  2. Occupational stress and coping strategies among emergency department nurses of China.

    PubMed

    Lu, Dong-Mei; Sun, Ning; Hong, Su; Fan, Yu-ying; Kong, Fan-ying; Li, Qiu-jie

    2015-08-01

    Emergency department(ED) nurses work in a rapidly changing environment with patients that have wide variety of conditions. Occupational stress in emergency department nurses is a common problem. The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship between coping strategies and occupational stress among ED nurses in China. A correlational, cross-sectional design was adopted. Two questionnaires were given to a random sample of 127 ED nurses registered at the Heilongjiang Nurses' Association. Data were collected from the nurses that worked in the ED of five general hospitals in Harbin China. Occupational stress and coping strategies were measured by two questionnaires. A multiple regression model was applied to analyze the relationship between stress and coping strategies. The stressors of ED nurses mainly come from the ED specialty of nursing (2.97±0.55), workload and time distribution (2.97±0.58). The mean score of positive coping strategies was 2.19±0.35, higher than the norm (1.78±0.52). The mean score of negative coping strategies was 1.20±0.61, lower than the norm (1.59±0.66), both had significant statistical difference (P<0.001). Too much documents work, criticism, instrument equipment shortage, night shift, rank of professional were the influence factors about occupational stress to positive coping styles. Too much documents work, and medical insurance for ED nurses were the influential factors on occupational stress to negative coping styles. This study identified several factors associated with occupational stress in ED nurses. These results could be used to guide nurse managers of ED nurses to reduce work stress. The managers could pay more attention to the ED nurse's coping strategies which can further influence their health state and quality of nursing care. Reducing occupational stress and enhancing coping strategies are vital not only for encouraging nurses but also for the future of nursing development. PMID:26165974

  3. Environmental Emergency Preparedness. Outdoor Living Skills Series. Instructor Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deaton, Don

    This instructor's manual contains 21 lesson plans to teach advanced skills to cope with emergency outdoor living situations and emphasizes being prepared, rather than survival. Written for the classroom teacher, but adaptable for other youth groups, the module contains subject information, lesson plans with activities, student handouts, a written…

  4. MANDALA: Developing Parenting Skills Through a Simulation Game.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Bryan E.

    A simulation game designed as a tool for teaching parenting skills is described. This board game, called MANDALA, guides participants through the process of rearing a child from conception to adolescence. Assuming the parenting role, players must cope with true-life experiences of their child. A throw of the dice sends players through the various…

  5. Leadership skills?

    PubMed

    2016-09-01

    Senior executive leaders might be interested in applying for the NHS Leadership Academy's director programme, which is designed to 'stretch and challenge' those with an 'existing level of complex leadership skills'. The programme also offers an opportunity for participants to work with other leaders and other parts of the system to enhance inclusiveness. There are three cohorts a year, and the programme runs for a 12 months. Closing dates for applicants are 4 September 2016, 22 January 2017 and 21 May 2017.

  6. Cultural Adaptation of the Skills Training Model: Assertion Training with American Indians.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LaFromboise, Teresa D.; Rowe, Wayne

    A skills training approach provides a conceptual framework from which human services can be provided for the personal and emotional needs of Indian people without the subtle, culturally erosive effect of traditional psychotherapy. Some 30 tribal groups and agencies participated in a cultural adaptation of an assertive coping-skills training…

  7. Three Authentic Curriculum-Integration Approaches to Bird Adaptations That Incorporate Technology and Thinking Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C.; Barrera, Manuel T., III

    2008-01-01

    Integration of subject areas with technology and thinking skills is a way to help teachers cope with today's overloaded curriculum and to help students see the connectedness of different curriculum areas. This study compares three authentic approaches to teaching a science unit on bird adaptations for habitat that integrate thinking skills and…

  8. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  9. Coping Strategies in Late Adolescence: Relationships to Parental Attachment and Time Perspective.

    PubMed

    Blomgren, Anna-Sara; Svahn, Kajsa; Åström, Elisabeth; Rönnlund, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The authors investigated adolescents' use of coping strategies in relation to attachment to parents and time perspective. Adolescents in Grade 3 upper secondary school (M age = 18.3 years, SD = 0.6 years; n = 160) completed the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment, the Zimbardo Time Perspective Inventory, and the Brief COPE. Correlational analyses showed that attachment to parents was associated with a more favorable view of the past (higher past positive and lower past negative), a less fatalistic view of the present, and a more favorable view of the future (higher future positive and lower future negative). Parental attachment accounted for significant variance in composite coping scores (adaptive and maladaptive) when entered before, but not after, time perspective subscales in hierarchical regression analyses. However, time perspective (mainly present hedonistic and positive or negative future) predicted adaptive or maladaptive coping over and beyond attachment. The results are consistent with the hypothesis that most of the relationship between adolescents' attachment to parents and coping is mediated by individual differences in time perspective. By contrast, factors other than attachment to parents (e.g., temperament) must be considered to fully account for the relationship between time perspective and coping.

  10. Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Parkerson, Holly A.; Kehler, Melissa D.; Sharpe, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale (CMSS) was developed to assess coping strategies specific to multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite its wide application in MS research, psychometric support for the CMSS remains limited to the initial factor analytic investigation by Pakenham in 2001. Methods: The current investigation assessed the factor structure and construct validity of the CMSS. Participants with MS (N = 453) completed the CMSS, as well as measures of disability related to MS (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results: The original factor structure reported by Pakenham was a poor fit to the data. An alternate seven-factor structure was identified using exploratory factor analysis. Although there were some similarities with the existing CMSS subscales, differences in factor content and item loadings were found. Relationships between the revised CMSS subscales and additional measures were assessed, and the findings were consistent with previous research. Conclusions: Refinement of the CMSS is suggested, especially for subscales related to acceptance and avoidance strategies. Until further research is conducted on the revised CMSS, it is recommended that the original CMSS continue to be administered. Clinicians and researchers should be mindful of lack of support for the acceptance and avoidance subscales and should seek additional scales to assess these areas. PMID:27551244

  11. Problem-solving treatment and coping styles in primary care for minor depression.

    PubMed

    Oxman, Thomas E; Hegel, Mark T; Hull, Jay G; Dietrich, Allen J

    2008-12-01

    Research was undertaken to compare problem-solving treatment for primary care (PST-PC) with usual care for minor depression and to examine whether treatment effectiveness was moderated by coping style. PST-PC is a 6-session, manual-based, psychosocial skills intervention. A randomized controlled trial was conducted in 2 academic, primary care clinics. Those subjects who were eligible were randomized (N = 151), and 107 subjects completed treatment (57 PST-PC, 50 usual care) and a 35-week follow-up. Analysis with linear mixed modeling revealed significant effects of treatment and coping, such that those in PST-PC improved at a faster rate and those initially high in avoidant coping were significantly more likely to have sustained benefit from PST-PC.

  12. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    SciTech Connect

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  13. Coping capacity among women with abusive partners.

    PubMed

    Nurius, P S; Furrey, J; Berliner, L

    1992-01-01

    Coping capacity, although increasingly implicated as a mediating force in how individuals respond to personal threat, is an underrecognized factor in work with women of abusive partners. To explore the utility of coping capacity as a multivariable set to guide intervention with women of abusive partners, findings are reported comparing four groups of women: those whose partners do not engage in abuse, are abusive toward them, are sex offenders of children for whom the woman is a parent, or are offenders of children for whom the woman is not a parent. Three variable sets were included: vulnerability factors that may negatively influence appraisals of threat and ability to cope with abuse; coping responses that include cognitive, emotional, and behavioral reactions to the abuse; and coping resources expected to mediate effects of vulnerability factors and to influence the mobilization (of lack thereof) of coping responses. There were significant differences in coping capacity profiles across the four groups. These appeared to be a continuum of coping capacity, with women who were most directly threatened showing the lowest and women who were least directly threatened showing the highest levels of coping capacity. In order from the lowest to the highest levels of coping capacity were (1) battered women, (2) women whose partners are offenders against their children, (3) women whose partners are offenders against children of whom they are not the parent, and (4) control group women. The paper ends with a conceptual interpretation of the mediating functions of coping resources and implications for intervention and further study. PMID:1294238

  14. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction.

    PubMed

    Harzer, Claudia; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities): (1) character strengths correlate with coping and (2) buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175]) filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality.

  15. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses.

  16. Gender differences in psychological adaptation and coping in parents of pediatric cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra-Weebers, J E; Jaspers, J P; Kamps, W A; Klip, E C

    1998-01-01

    This study investigated differences in psychological distress and coping styles between fathers and mothers of pediatric cancer patients, over a 1-year time period. Also examined were (dis)similarities in couples in distress and coping, and the relationship between (dis)similarities in coping and psychological functioning of both members of a couple. Parents (n = 124, 62 couples) were assessed at diagnosis, at 6 and 12 months. Fathers and mothers experienced higher levels of psychiatric symptomatology and psychological distress at diagnosis than men and women of a normgroup. Distress declined significantly with time. Although parents did not report more symptoms than the normgroup 12 months post-diagnosis, they still were psychologically out of balance. Contrary to findings in the general population, no differences were found between fathers and mothers in psychiatric symptoms or psychological distress on any of the measurements. Only a few gender differences in coping were found. Fathers used more active-problem focusing at diagnosis and a less palliative reaction pattern at 12 months than did mothers. Mothers used more social-support seeking on all measurements. A tendency for similarity in the use of the coping styles within couples was found. Discrepancies in coping in couples were positively related to distress in fathers at diagnosis. However, 12 months later, the more discrepant the couples were in their coping preferences the more distress the mothers indicated.

  17. The relationships of character strengths with coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction

    PubMed Central

    Harzer, Claudia; Ruch, Willibald

    2015-01-01

    Personality traits have often been highlighted to relate to how people cope with stressful events. The present paper focuses on character strengths as positive personality traits and examines two basic assumptions that were derived from a core characteristic of character strengths (i.e., to determine how individuals deal with adversities): (1) character strengths correlate with coping and (2) buffer the effects of work-related stress on job satisfaction. Two different samples (i.e., a mixed sample representing various occupations [N = 214] and a nurses sample [N = 175]) filled in measures for character strengths, coping, work-related stress, and job satisfaction. As expected, intellectual, emotional, and interpersonal strengths were related to coping. Interpersonal strengths played a greater role for coping among nurses, as interactions with others are an essential part of their workday. Furthermore, intellectual strengths partially mediated the negative effect of work-related stress on job satisfaction. These findings open a new field for research on the role of personality in coping with work-related stress. Character strengths are trainable personal characteristics, and therefore valuable resources to improve coping with work-related stress and to decrease the negative effects of stress. Further research is needed to investigate this assumed causality. PMID:25767452

  18. Coping Behavior of International Late Adolescent Students in Selected Australian Educational Institutions

    PubMed Central

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were: work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample’s performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267

  19. Engaging in Rather than Disengaging from Stress: Effective Coping and Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Maria T. M.; Homan, Astrid C.

    2016-01-01

    Being able to cope effectively with stress can help people to avoid negative consequences for their psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to find out why some coping strategies are effective in reducing the negative effect of stressors on well-being and some are not. We argue that the degree to which such coping strategies engage or disengage people from stressful incidents is related to their perceived control of the situation that, in turn, is positively associated with their psychological well-being. We thus propose that the relationship between coping and psychological well-being is mediated by the extent of perceived sense of control. We collected cross-sectional data from a large heterogeneous sample (N = 543) in the Netherlands. We assessed seven different coping strategies, perceived control, and psychological well-being. Our results indeed revealed that strategies reflecting more engaged coping such as active confronting and reassuring thoughts, were associated with more sense of control and therefore to psychological well-being. In contrast, strategies reflecting disengagement coping, such as passive reaction pattern, palliative reaction, and avoidance, were associated with less perceived control, which in turn was negatively associated with psychological well-being. Results regarding the coping strategies expressing emotions and seeking social support were less straightforward, with the former being negatively associated with perceived control and psychological well-being, even though this strategy has stress engaging elements, and the latter only showing a positive indirect effect on psychological well-being via perceived control, but no positive main effect on well-being. These findings are discussed from the perspective of stress being an environment-perception-response process. PMID:27708603

  20. Coping behavior of international late adolescent students in selected Australian educational institutions.

    PubMed

    Shahrill, Masitah; Mundia, Lawrence

    2014-01-01

    Using the Adolescent Coping Scale, ACS (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993) we surveyed 45 randomly selected foreign adolescents in Australian schools. The coping strategies used most by the participants were: focus on solving the problem; seeking relaxing diversions; focusing on the positive; seeking social support; worry; seeking to belong; investing in close friends; wishful thinking; and keep to self (Table 4). With regard to coping styles, the most widely used was the productive coping followed by non-productive coping while the least used style was reference to others (Table 4). In terms of both genders the four coping strategies used most often were:  work hard to achieve; seeking relaxing diversions; focus on solving the problem; and focus on the positive (Table 5). The most noticeable gender difference was the use of the physical recreation coping strategy in which male students engaged more (Fig 1). The usage of four coping strategies (solving problem; work hard; focus on positive; and social support) was higher for students who have been away from family more than once as compared to those who have been away once only while the usage of seeking relaxing diversions was higher for the first timers (Table 6). No significant differences were obtained on the sample's performance on the ACS subscales by gender (Table 7), frequency of leaving own country (Table 8), country of origin (Table 9), and length of stay in Australia (Table 11). However, foundation students scored significantly higher on the reference to others variable than their secondary school peers (Table 10). We recommended counseling for students with high support needs and further large-scale mixed-methods research to gain additional insights. PMID:24373267