Science.gov

Sample records for positive feedback mechanisms

  1. Evaluating the negative or valuing the positive? Neural mechanisms supporting feedback-based learning across development.

    PubMed

    van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Zanolie, Kiki; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Raijmakers, Maartje E J; Crone, Eveline A

    2008-09-17

    How children learn from positive and negative performance feedback lies at the foundation of successful learning and is therefore of great importance for educational practice. In this study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the neural developmental changes related to feedback-based learning when performing a rule search and application task. Behavioral results from three age groups (8-9, 11-13, and 18-25 years of age) demonstrated that, compared with adults, 8- to 9-year-old children performed disproportionally more inaccurately after receiving negative feedback relative to positive feedback. Additionally, imaging data pointed toward a qualitative difference in how children and adults use performance feedback. That is, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and superior parietal cortex were more active after negative feedback for adults, but after positive feedback for children (8-9 years of age). For 11- to 13-year-olds, these regions did not show differential feedback sensitivity, suggesting that the transition occurs around this age. Pre-supplementary motor area/anterior cingulate cortex, in contrast, was more active after negative feedback in both 11- to 13-year-olds and adults, but not 8- to 9-year-olds. Together, the current data show that cognitive control areas are differentially engaged during feedback-based learning across development. Adults engage these regions after signals of response adjustment (i.e., negative feedback). Young children engage these regions after signals of response continuation (i.e., positive feedback). The neural activation patterns found in 11- to 13-year-olds indicate a transition around this age toward an increased influence of negative feedback on performance adjustment. This is the first developmental fMRI study to compare qualitative changes in brain activation during feedback learning across distinct stages of development.

  2. Novel Sinorhizobium meliloti quorum sensing positive and negative regulatory feedback mechanisms respond to phosphate availability.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Matthew; Meyer, Stefan; Becker, Anke

    2009-12-01

    The Sin quorum sensing system of Sinorhizobium meliloti depends upon at least three genes, sinR, sinI and expR, and N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) as signals to regulate multiple processes in its free-living state in the rhizosphere and in the development towards symbiosis with its plant host. In this study, we have characterized novel mechanisms of transcription control through which the system regulates itself. At low AHL levels a positive feedback loop activates expression of sinI (AHL synthase), resulting in amplification of AHL levels. At high AHL levels, expression of sinI is reduced by a negative feedback loop. These feedback mechanisms are mediated by the LuxR-type regulators ExpR and SinR. Expression of sinR and expR is regulated by ExpR in the presence of AHLs. A novel ExpR binding site in the promoter of sinR is responsible for the reduction of expression of this gene. In addition, expression of sinR, upon which sinI expression is dependent, is induced by phoB during growth under phosphate-limiting conditions. This indicates that this response ensures quorum sensing in phosphate-restricted growth.

  3. Studies Of Positive-Position-Feedback Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fanson, James L.; Caughey, Thomas K.

    1992-01-01

    Report discusses theoretical and experimental studies of positive-position-feedback control for suppressing vibrations in large flexible structures. Positive-position-feedback control involves placement of actuators and sensors on structure; control voltages applied to actuators in response to outputs of sensors processed via compensator algorithm. Experiments demonstrate feasibility of suppressing vibrations by positive position feedback, and spillover of vibrational energy into uncontrolled modes has stabilizing effect if control gain sufficiently small.

  4. Position feedback control system

    DOEpatents

    Bieg, Lothar F.; Jokiel, Jr., Bernhard; Ensz, Mark T.; Watson, Robert D.

    2003-01-01

    Disclosed is a system and method for independently evaluating the spatial positional performance of a machine having a movable member, comprising an articulated coordinate measuring machine comprising: a first revolute joint; a probe arm, having a proximal end rigidly attached to the first joint, and having a distal end with a probe tip attached thereto, wherein the probe tip is pivotally mounted to the movable machine member; a second revolute joint; a first support arm serially connecting the first joint to the second joint; and coordinate processing means, operatively connected to the first and second revolute joints, for calculating the spatial coordinates of the probe tip; means for kinematically constraining the articulated coordinate measuring machine to a working surface; and comparator means, in operative association with the coordinate processing means and with the movable machine, for comparing the true position of the movable machine member, as measured by the true position of the probe tip, with the desired position of the movable machine member.

  5. Histone demethylase KDM5A is regulated by its reader domain through a positive-feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Idelisse Ortiz; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M.; Nnadi, Chimno I.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Kelly, Mark J.S.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić

    2016-01-01

    The retinoblastoma binding protein KDM5A removes methyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). Misregulation of KDM5A contributes to the pathogenesis of lung and gastric cancers. In addition to its catalytic jumonji C domain, KDM5A contains three PHD reader domains, commonly recognized as chromatin recruitment modules. It is unknown whether any of these domains in KDM5A have functions beyond recruitment and whether they regulate the catalytic activity of the demethylase. Here using biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structural studies, we show that the PHD1 preferentially recognizes unmethylated H3K4 histone tail, product of KDM5A-mediated demethylation of tri-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me3). Binding of unmodified H3 peptide to the PHD1 stimulates catalytic domain-mediated removal of methyl marks from H3K4me3 peptide and nucleosome substrates. This positive-feedback mechanism—enabled by the functional coupling between a reader and a catalytic domain in KDM5A—suggests a model for the spread of demethylation on chromatin. PMID:25686748

  6. Histone demethylase KDM5A is regulated by its reader domain through a positive-feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torres, Idelisse Ortiz; Kuchenbecker, Kristopher M.; Nnadi, Chimno I.; Fletterick, Robert J.; Kelly, Mark J. S.; Fujimori, Danica Galonić

    2015-02-01

    The retinoblastoma binding protein KDM5A removes methyl marks from lysine 4 of histone H3 (H3K4). Misregulation of KDM5A contributes to the pathogenesis of lung and gastric cancers. In addition to its catalytic jumonji C domain, KDM5A contains three PHD reader domains, commonly recognized as chromatin recruitment modules. It is unknown whether any of these domains in KDM5A have functions beyond recruitment and whether they regulate the catalytic activity of the demethylase. Here using biochemical and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based structural studies, we show that the PHD1 preferentially recognizes unmethylated H3K4 histone tail, product of KDM5A-mediated demethylation of tri-methylated H3K4 (H3K4me3). Binding of unmodified H3 peptide to the PHD1 stimulates catalytic domain-mediated removal of methyl marks from H3K4me3 peptide and nucleosome substrates. This positive-feedback mechanism—enabled by the functional coupling between a reader and a catalytic domain in KDM5A—suggests a model for the spread of demethylation on chromatin.

  7. Positive feedback, memory, and the predictability of earthquakes

    PubMed Central

    Sammis, C. G.; Sornette, D.

    2002-01-01

    We review the “critical point” concept for large earthquakes and enlarge it in the framework of so-called “finite-time singularities.” The singular behavior associated with accelerated seismic release is shown to result from a positive feedback of the seismic activity on its release rate. The most important mechanisms for such positive feedback are presented. We solve analytically a simple model of geometrical positive feedback in which the stress shadow cast by the last large earthquake is progressively fragmented by the increasing tectonic stress. PMID:11875202

  8. Reactivity feedback mechanisms in aqueous fissile solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Kornreich, D.E. . Dept. of Nuclear and Energy Engineering)

    1993-09-01

    Solutions of fissile materials are often encountered during spent-fuel reprocessing. To estimate the hazards from accidental criticalities in these solutions, models have been developed to understand better the dynamics involved. Accurate representation of reactivity feedback mechanisms is a crucial part of such models. Reactivity feedback from uniform volumetric solution expansion is studied. For faster transients, density redistribution may also occur because of a variation of nuclear energy as a function of position in the assembly. Neutronic spectral temperature reactivity effects are studied by creating temperature-dependent cross sections from ENDF/B-VI data. The volumetric and temperature reactivity feedback coefficients are determined for the CRAC, KEWB-5, SILENE, and SHEBA solution assemblies. Spectral temperature coefficients are also calculated for poisoned, unpoisoned, and reflected plutonium solutions. Feedback coefficients are seen to be functions of geometry and isotopic contents of the assemblies. Results for plutonium solutions agree with other calculations, which confirms the possibility of autocatalytic excursions in large, dilute solutions.

  9. Regulation of alkane degradation pathway by a TetR family repressor via an autoregulation positive feedback mechanism in a Gram-positive Dietzia bacterium.

    PubMed

    Liang, Jie-Liang; Nie, Yong; Wang, Miaoxiao; Xiong, Guangming; Wang, Yi-Ping; Maser, Edmund; Wu, Xiao-Lei

    2016-01-01

    n-Alkanes are ubiquitous in nature and serve as important carbon sources for both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. Hydroxylation of n-alkanes by alkane monooxygenases is the first and most critical step in n-alkane metabolism. However, regulation of alkane degradation genes in Gram-positive bacteria remains poorly characterized. We therefore explored the transcriptional regulation of an alkB-type alkane hydroxylase-rubredoxin fusion gene, alkW1, from Dietzia sp. DQ12-45-1b. The alkW1 promoter was characterized and so was the putative TetR family regulator, AlkX, located downstream of alkW1 gene. We further identified an unusually long 48 bp inverted repeat upstream of alkW1 and demonstrated the binding of AlkX to this operator. Analytical ultracentrifugation and microcalorimetric results indicated that AlkX formed stable dimers in solution and two dimers bound to one operator in a positive cooperative fashion characterized by a Hill coefficient of 1.64 (± 0.03) [k(D)  = 1.06 (± 0.16) μM, k(D) ' = 0.05 (± 0.01) μM]. However, the DNA-binding affinity was disrupted in the presence of long-chain fatty acids (C10-C24), suggesting that AlkX can sense the concentrations of n-alkane degradation metabolites. A model was therefore proposed where AlkX controls alkW1 expression in a metabolite-dependent manner. Bioinformatic analysis revealed that the alkane hydroxylase gene regulation mechanism may be common among Actinobacteria.

  10. Potential macro-detritivore range expansion into the subarctic stimulates litter decomposition: a new positive feedback mechanism to climate change?

    PubMed

    van Geffen, Koert G; Berg, Matty P; Aerts, Rien

    2011-12-01

    As a result of low decomposition rates, high-latitude ecosystems store large amounts of carbon. Litter decomposition in these ecosystems is constrained by harsh abiotic conditions, but also by the absence of macro-detritivores. We have studied the potential effects of their climate change-driven northward range expansion on the decomposition of two contrasting subarctic litter types. Litter of Alnus incana and Betula pubescens was incubated in microcosms together with monocultures and all possible combinations of three functionally different macro-detritivores (the earthworm Lumbricus rubellus, isopod Oniscus asellus, and millipede Julus scandinavius). Our results show that these macro-detritivores stimulated decomposition, especially of the high-quality A. incana litter and that the macro-detritivores tested differed in their decomposition-stimulating effects, with earthworms having the largest influence. Decomposition processes increased with increasing number of macro-detritivore species, and positive net diveristy effects occurred in several macro-detritivore treatments. However, after correction for macro-detritivore biomass, all interspecific differences in macro-detritivore effects, as well as the positive effects of species number on subarctic litter decomposition disappeared. The net diversity effects also appeared to be driven by variation in biomass, with a possible exception of net diversity effects in mass loss. Based on these results, we conclude that the expected climate change-induced range expansion of macro-detritivores into subarctic regions is likely to result in accelerated decomposition rates. Our results also indicate that the magnitude of macro-detritivore effects on subarctic decomposition will mainly depend on macro-detritivore biomass, rather than on macro-detritivore species number or identity.

  11. Hepatitis B virus replication and sex-determining region Y box 4 production are tightly controlled by a novel positive feedback mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Shang, Jian; Zheng, Yuan; Guo, Xiaohong; Mo, Jiayin; Xie, Xueping; Xiong, Ying; Liu, Yingle; Wu, Kailang; Wu, Jianguo

    2015-01-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major cause of liver diseases. However, the mechanisms underlying HBV infection and pathogenesis remain largely unknown. The sex-determining region Y box 4 (Sox4) is a transcriptional factor, which preferentially regulates the development of various organs, tissues, and cancers. But, the role of Sox4 in viral infection and pathogenesis has not been elucidated. Here, we demonstrated that Sox4 is up-regulated by HBV, and revealed the mechanism by which HBV regulates Sox4 expression. First, HBV stimulates Sox4 expression through transcriptional factor Yin Yang 1 (YY1), which binds to Sox4 promoter to activate Sox4 transcriptional activity. Second, miR-335, miR-129-2 and miR-203 inhibit Sox4 expression by targeting its mRNA 3’UTR, while HBV suppresses the microRNAs expression, resulting in up-regulating Sox4 post-transcriptionally. Third, Sox4 protein is degraded by proteasome, while HBV surface protein (HBsAg) prevents Sox4 from degradation by directly interacting with the protein, thereby enhancing Sox4 production post-translationlly. More interestingly, HBV-activated Sox4 in turn facilitates HBV replication by direct binding to the viral genome via its HMG box. Thus, this study revealed a novel positive feedback mechanism by which Sox4 production and HBV replication are tightly correlated. PMID:25970172

  12. Positive force feedback in bouncing gaits?

    PubMed Central

    Geyer, Hartmut; Seyfarth, Andre; Blickhan, Reinhard

    2003-01-01

    During bouncing gaits (running, hopping, trotting), passive compliant structures (e.g. tendons, ligaments) store and release part of the stride energy. Here, active muscles must provide the required force to withstand the developing tendon strain and to compensate for the inevitable energy losses. This requires an appropriate control of muscle activation. In this study, for hopping, the potential involvement of afferent information from muscle receptors (muscle spindles, Golgi tendon organs) is investigated using a two-segment leg model with one extensor muscle. It is found that: (i) positive feedbacks of muscle-fibre length and muscle force can result in periodic bouncing; (ii) positive force feedback (F+) stabilizes bouncing patterns within a large range of stride energies (maximum hopping height of 16.3 cm, almost twofold higher than the length feedback); and (iii) when employing this reflex scheme, for moderate hopping heights (up to 8.8 cm), an overall elastic leg behaviour is predicted (hopping frequency of 1.4-3 Hz, leg stiffness of 9-27 kN m(-1)). Furthermore, F+ could stabilize running. It is suggested that, during the stance phase of bouncing tasks, the reflex-generated motor control based on feedbacks might be an efficient and reliable alternative to central motor commands. PMID:14561282

  13. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.)

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-01-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the ‘one-hormone hypothesis’, which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified ‘one-hormone hypothesis’ for sex determination in cucumber is proposed. PMID:22577183

  14. A putative positive feedback regulation mechanism in CsACS2 expression suggests a modified model for sex determination in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.).

    PubMed

    Li, Zheng; Wang, Shu; Tao, Qianyi; Pan, Junsong; Si, Longting; Gong, Zhenhui; Cai, Run

    2012-07-01

    It is well established that the plant hormone ethylene plays a key role in cucumber sex determination. Since the unisexual control gene M was cloned and shown to encode an ethylene synthase, instead of an ethylene receptor, the 'one-hormone hypothesis', which was used to explain the cucumber sex phenotype, has been challenged. Here, the physiological function of CsACS2 (the gene encoded by the M locus) was studied using the transgenic tobacco system. The results indicated that overexpression of CsACS2 increased ethylene production in the tobacco plant, and the native cucumber promoter had no activity in transgenic tobacco (PM). However, when PM plants were treated with exogenous ethylene, CsACS2 expression could be detected. In cucumber, ethylene treatment could also induce transcription of CsACS2, while inhibition of ethylene action reduced the expression level. These findings suggest a positive feedback regulation mechanism for CsACS2, and a modified 'one-hormone hypothesis' for sex determination in cucumber is proposed.

  15. The Positive Impact of Negative Feedback

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    supervisors, subordinates, and peers prior to course start. Following the FRLM lesson on day five, students received individual feedback reports based...Additionally, Nowack (2009) identified where managers who received a small amount of unfavorable feedback actually improved their performance...their arrival at Squadron Officer School, students received a web-based 360-degree feedback survey. Once students completed the surveys, identical

  16. Distinguishing Feedback Mechanisms in Clock Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golden, Alexander; Lubensky, David

    Biological oscillators are very diverse but can be classified based on dynamical motifs such as type of feedback. The S. Elongatus circadian oscillator is a novel circadian oscillator that can operate at constant protein number by modifying covalent states. It can be reproduced in vitro with only 3 different purified proteins: KaiA, KaiB, and KaiC. We use computational and analytic techniques to compare models of the S. Elongatus post-translational oscillator that rely on positive feedback with models that rely on negative feedback. We show that introducing a protein that binds competitively with KaiA to the KaiB-KaiC complex can distinguish between positive and negative feedback as the primary driver of the rhythm, which has so far been difficult to address experimentally. NSF Grant DMR-1056456.

  17. Sex Differences, Positive Feedback and Intrinsic Motivation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deci, Edward L.; And Others

    The paper presents two experiments which test the "change in feelings of competence and self-determination" proposition of cognitive evaluation theory. This proposition states that when a person receives feedback about his performance on an intrinsically motivated activity this information will affect his sense of competence and…

  18. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    PubMed Central

    van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals with ASD remained emotionally unaffected. Thus, individuals with ASD do not experience feedback from activated facial expressions as controls do. This facial feedback-impairment enhances our understanding of the social and emotional lives of individuals with ASD. PMID:18293075

  19. The development of a thermal hydraulic feedback mechanism with a quasi-fixed point iteration scheme for control rod position modeling for the TRIGSIMS-TH application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karriem, Veronica V.

    Nuclear reactor design incorporates the study and application of nuclear physics, nuclear thermal hydraulic and nuclear safety. Theoretical models and numerical methods implemented in computer programs are utilized to analyze and design nuclear reactors. The focus of this PhD study's is the development of an advanced high-fidelity multi-physics code system to perform reactor core analysis for design and safety evaluations of research TRIGA-type reactors. The fuel management and design code system TRIGSIMS was further developed to fulfill the function of a reactor design and analysis code system for the Pennsylvania State Breazeale Reactor (PSBR). TRIGSIMS, which is currently in use at the PSBR, is a fuel management tool, which incorporates the depletion code ORIGEN-S (part of SCALE system) and the Monte Carlo neutronics solver MCNP. The diffusion theory code ADMARC-H is used within TRIGSIMS to accelerate the MCNP calculations. It manages the data and fuel isotopic content and stores it for future burnup calculations. The contribution of this work is the development of an improved version of TRIGSIMS, named TRIGSIMS-TH. TRIGSIMS-TH incorporates a thermal hydraulic module based on the advanced sub-channel code COBRA-TF (CTF). CTF provides the temperature feedback needed in the multi-physics calculations as well as the thermal hydraulics modeling capability of the reactor core. The temperature feedback model is using the CTF-provided local moderator and fuel temperatures for the cross-section modeling for ADMARC-H and MCNP calculations. To perform efficient critical control rod calculations, a methodology for applying a control rod position was implemented in TRIGSIMS-TH, making this code system a modeling and design tool for future core loadings. The new TRIGSIMS-TH is a computer program that interlinks various other functional reactor analysis tools. It consists of the MCNP5, ADMARC-H, ORIGEN-S, and CTF. CTF was coupled with both MCNP and ADMARC-H to provide the

  20. Positive Feedbacks Enhance Macroalgal Resilience on Degraded Coral Reefs

    PubMed Central

    Dell, Claire L. A.; Longo, Guilherme O.

    2016-01-01

    Many reefs have shifted from coral and fish dominated habitats to less productive macroalgal dominated habitats, and current research is investigating means of reversing this phase shift. In the tropical Pacific, overfished reefs with inadequate herbivory can become dominated by the brown alga Sargassum polycystum. This alga suppresses recruitment and survival of corals and fishes, thus limiting the potential for reef recovery. Here we investigate the mechanisms that reinforce S. polycystum dominance and show that in addition to negatively affecting other species, this species acts in a self-reinforcing manner, positively promoting survival and growth of conspecifics. We found that survival and growth of both recruit-sized and mature S. polycystum fronds were higher within Sargassum beds than outside the beds and these results were found in both protected and fished reefs. Much of this benefit resulted from reduced herbivory within the Sargassum beds, but adult fronds also grew ~50% more within the beds even when herbivory did not appear to be occurring, suggesting some physiological advantage despite the intraspecific crowding. Thus via positive feedbacks, S. polycystum enhances its own growth and resistance to herbivores, facilitating its dominance (perhaps also expansion) and thus its resilience on degraded reefs. This may be a key feedback mechanism suppressing the recovery of coral communities in reefs dominated by macroalgal beds. PMID:27186979

  1. Positive Feedbacks Enhance Macroalgal Resilience on Degraded Coral Reefs.

    PubMed

    Dell, Claire L A; Longo, Guilherme O; Hay, Mark E

    2016-01-01

    Many reefs have shifted from coral and fish dominated habitats to less productive macroalgal dominated habitats, and current research is investigating means of reversing this phase shift. In the tropical Pacific, overfished reefs with inadequate herbivory can become dominated by the brown alga Sargassum polycystum. This alga suppresses recruitment and survival of corals and fishes, thus limiting the potential for reef recovery. Here we investigate the mechanisms that reinforce S. polycystum dominance and show that in addition to negatively affecting other species, this species acts in a self-reinforcing manner, positively promoting survival and growth of conspecifics. We found that survival and growth of both recruit-sized and mature S. polycystum fronds were higher within Sargassum beds than outside the beds and these results were found in both protected and fished reefs. Much of this benefit resulted from reduced herbivory within the Sargassum beds, but adult fronds also grew ~50% more within the beds even when herbivory did not appear to be occurring, suggesting some physiological advantage despite the intraspecific crowding. Thus via positive feedbacks, S. polycystum enhances its own growth and resistance to herbivores, facilitating its dominance (perhaps also expansion) and thus its resilience on degraded reefs. This may be a key feedback mechanism suppressing the recovery of coral communities in reefs dominated by macroalgal beds.

  2. Mechanical feedback stabilizes budding yeast morphogenesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Samhita; Trogdon, Michael; Petzold, Linda; Campas, Otger

    Walled cells have the ability to remodel their shape while sustaining an internal turgor pressure that can reach values up to 10 atmospheres. This requires a tight and simultaneous regulation of cell wall assembly and mechanochemistry, but the underlying mechanisms by which this is achieved remain unclear. Using the growth of mating projections in budding yeast (S. cerevisiae) as a motivating example, we have developed a theoretical description that couples the mechanics of cell wall expansion and assembly via a mechanical feedback. In the absence of a mechanical feedback, cell morphogenesis is inherently unstable. The presence of a mechanical feedback stabilizes changes in cell shape and growth, and provides a mechanism to prevent cell lysis in a wide range of conditions. We solve for the dynamics of the system and obtain the different dynamical regimes. In particular, we show that several parameters affect the stability of growth, including the strength of mechanical feedback in the system. Finally, we compare our results to existing experimental data.

  3. Feedback mechanism in network dynamics with preferential flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, H.; Wang, Z.; Chen, L.; Aihara, K.

    2009-02-01

    We study complex systems or networks in which each node holds an internal dynamics and interacts with other nodes through some kinds of topologies. Collective behavior with dynamical fluctuations is analyzed in complex systems. The dynamical fluctuations of a node can be divided into two parts: one is the internal dynamical fluctuation of the node and the other is the external dynamical fluctuation caused by other nodes. Based on a theoretical analysis, a hidden feedback mechanism is identified in complex systems, which is illustrated in a macroeconomic network and in a city-population network. Furthermore, we study the effect of the topology of the networks on the feedback mechanism. The feedback mechanism is preserved for hub nodes in the networks with a scale-free topology as well as in the networks with an evolving topology. By the hidden feedback mechanism, the observation data can be utilized to judge directly whether the system of each node is with positive feedback or with negative feedback even without knowing its dynamical model.

  4. The Positive Supervisor: Using Feedback as a Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reyes, Donald J.

    1984-01-01

    Argues that systematic positive feedback techniques such as those currently used in industry can and should be adapted as a management technique in schools--between administrators and teachers and between teachers and students as well. (TE)

  5. Facial Feedback Mechanisms in Autistic Spectrum Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stel, Marielle; van den Heuvel, Claudia; Smeets, Raymond C.

    2008-01-01

    Facial feedback mechanisms of adolescents with Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD) were investigated utilizing three studies. Facial expressions, which became activated via automatic (Studies 1 and 2) or intentional (Study 2) mimicry, or via holding a pen between the teeth (Study 3), influenced corresponding emotions for controls, while individuals…

  6. Position feedback system for volume holographic storage media

    DOEpatents

    Hays, Nathan J.; Henson, James A.; Carpenter, Christopher M.; Akin, Jr.. William R.; Ehrlich, Richard M.; Beazley, Lance D.

    1998-07-07

    A method of holographic recording in a photorefractive medium wherein stored holograms may be retrieved with maximum signal-to noise ratio (SNR) is disclosed. A plurality of servo blocks containing position feedback information is recorded in the crystal and made non-erasable by heating the crystal. The servo blocks are recorded at specific increments, either angular or frequency, depending whether wavelength or angular multiplexing is applied, and each servo block is defined by one of five patterns. Data pages are then recorded at positions or wavelengths enabling each data page to be subsequently reconstructed with servo patterns which provide position feedback information. The method of recording data pages and servo blocks is consistent with conventional practices. In addition, the recording system also includes components (e.g. voice coil motor) which respond to position feedback information and adjust the angular position of the reference angle of a reference beam to maximize SNR by reducing crosstalk, thereby improving storage capacity.

  7. Microscopic spiral waves reveal positive feedback in subcellular calcium signaling.

    PubMed Central

    Lipp, P; Niggli, E

    1993-01-01

    The regenerative Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release mechanism is an important amplifier of signal transduction in diverse cells. In heart muscle cells, this mechanism contributes to the Ca2+ transient activating the mechanical contraction, but it is also believed to drive Ca2+ waves propagating within the cytosol. We investigated the subcellular Ca2+ distribution in heart muscle cells during spontaneous Ca2+ release using laser scanning confocal microscopy with a ratiometric fluorescent indicator technique. Besides planar Ca2+ waves with linear propagation, sequences of confocal optical sections also revealed spiral Ca2+ waves spinning around a subcellular core at approximately 1 Hz. Although the Ca2+ spirals were continuous processes they frequently exhibited an apparently oscillatory output function into the elongated cell body. These oscillatory waves emanating from the spiral at regular intervals were formally considered to be short outer segments of the spiral but could not be distinguished from planar Ca2+ waves propagating along the longitudinal cell axis. The complex spatiotemporal pattern of spiral Ca2+ waves implies the participation of an active process exhibiting a large degree of positive feedback, most likely the Ca(2+)-induced Ca2+ release mechanism. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 PMID:8312468

  8. Prompts, feedback, positive reinforcement, and potty training.

    PubMed

    Halligan, Sarah M; Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    Two parents were concerned because their two young girls were delayed in learning to use the potty. In this study we obtained data on the frequency of wet diapers and use of the potty at home. Following baseline, an intervention was implemented that involved increased intake of liquids and salty foods, prompting, and positive reinforcement. Once a substantial decrease in wet diapers was achieved, together with an increase in use of the potty, the girls were offered the opportunity to wear "Princess Underwear!" as an even more powerful prompt and reinforcer. An ABC design was used with each girl. The results showed significant increases in their use of the potty and decreased incidents of wet diapers when the intervention was in effect. Although this design does not rule out possible effects of coincidences, the data are consistent with the hypothesis that the intervention produced improvements in potty training.

  9. Positive feedback in the transition from sexual reproduction to parthenogenesis.

    PubMed

    Schwander, Tanja; Vuilleumier, Séverine; Dubman, Janie; Crespi, Bernard J

    2010-05-07

    Understanding how new phenotypes evolve is challenging because intermediate stages in transitions from ancestral to derived phenotypes often remain elusive. Here we describe and evaluate a new mechanism facilitating the transition from sexual reproduction to parthenogenesis. In many sexually reproducing species, a small proportion of unfertilized eggs can hatch spontaneously ('tychoparthenogenesis') and develop into females. Using an analytical model, we show that if females are mate-limited, tychoparthenogenesis can result in the loss of males through a positive feedback mechanism whereby tychoparthenogenesis generates female-biased sex ratios and increasing mate limitation. As a result, the strength of selection for tychoparthenogenesis increases in concert with the proportion of tychoparthenogenetic offspring in the sexual population. We then tested the hypothesis that mate limitation selects for tychoparthenogenesis and generates female-biased sex ratios, using data from natural populations of sexually reproducing Timema stick insects. Across 41 populations, both the tychoparthenogenesis rates and the proportions of females increased exponentially as the density of individuals decreased, consistent with the idea that low densities of individuals result in mate limitation and selection for reproductive insurance through tychoparthenogenesis. Our model and data from Timema populations provide evidence for a simple mechanism through which parthenogenesis can evolve rapidly in a sexual population.

  10. On feedback and stable price adjustment mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez-Anaya, Guillermo; Alvarez-Ramirez, Jose; Ibarra-Valdez, Carlos

    2007-04-01

    Given an excess demand function of an economy, say Z(p), a stable price adjustment mechanism (SPAM) guarantees convergence of solution path p(t,p0) to an equilibrium peq solution of Z(p)=0. Besides, all equilibrium points of Z(p) are asymptotically stable. Some SPAMs have been proposed, including Newton and transpose Jacobian methods. Despite this powerful stability property of SPAMs, their acceptation in the economics community has been limited by a lack of interpretation. This paper focuses on this issue. Specifically, feedback control theory is used to link SPAMs and price dynamics models with control inputs, which match the economically intuitive Walrasian Hypothesis (i.e., prices change with excess demand sign). Under mild conditions, it is shown the existence of a feedback function that transforms the price dynamics into a desired SPAM. Hence, a SPAM is interpreted as a fundamental (e.g., Walrasian) price dynamics under the action of a feedback function aimed to stabilize the equilibrium set of the excess demand function.

  11. Positivity effect in healthy aging in observational but not active feedback-learning.

    PubMed

    Bellebaum, Christian; Rustemeier, Martina; Daum, Irene

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the impact of healthy aging on the bias to learn from positive or negative performance feedback in observational and active feedback learning. In active learning, a previous study had already shown a negative learning bias in healthy seniors older than 75 years, while no bias was found for younger seniors. However, healthy aging is accompanied by a 'positivity effect', a tendency to primarily attend to stimuli with positive valence. Based on recent findings of dissociable neural mechanisms in active and observational feedback learning, the positivity effect was hypothesized to influence older participants' observational feedback learning in particular. In two separate experiments, groups of young (mean age 27) and older participants (mean age 60 years) completed an observational or active learning task designed to differentially assess positive and negative learning. Older but not younger observational learners showed a significant bias to learn better from positive than negative feedback. In accordance with previous findings, no bias was found for active learning. This pattern of results is discussed in terms of differences in the neural underpinnings of active and observational learning from performance feedback.

  12. Cognitive Evaluation Theory, Locus of Control and Positive Verbal Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lonky, Edward; Reihman, Jacqueline

    This study tests the hypothesis that individual differences in locus of control orientation may mediate elementary school students' responses to positive verbal feedback. A total of 30 kindergarten through fourth grade subjects were assessed for locus of control orientation using the Bialer Children's Locus of Control Questionnaire. To establish a…

  13. Safety studies on hydraulic proportional valves with electrical position feedback.

    PubMed

    Reinert, Dietmar; Kimura, Tetsuya; Gorgs, Karl-Josef

    2006-01-01

    The authors analysed a proportional valve with electrical position feedback for its failure behaviour. Several failures were introduced into the feedback loop, especially into the 2 solenoids and the inductive position transducer. The behaviour of the valve for square and ramp reference signals was recorded and systematically analysed. It was shown that failures could be detected by monitoring the residual signal from the equipment under control or the residual signal from the sensor. It was possible to achieve the safe position within twice the normal response time of the valve by switching off the current of both solenoids. The application of these results for a new generation of safe proportional valves is discussed. The use of the results of these investigations obviates the need for redundancy of the electrical position monitoring arrangement in a safe proportional valve.

  14. Experimental study on feedback control system of plasma position

    SciTech Connect

    Abe, M.; Otsuka, M.; Nishi, M.; Kanamori, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Uchikawa, S.

    1981-01-01

    Performance of the feedback control system for the horizontal plasma position in the small shell-less tokamak, HT-1, has been studied numerically and experimentally. Emphasis was put on verifying the validity of coupling parameter evaluation methods for poloidal field coils and structures such as the vaccum vessel and the transformer iron core. The effect of the iron core on the poloidal field distribution was analyzed numerically. Mutual inductances between poloidal field coils and structures were obtained from the calculated eddy currents. Using these calculated parameters, the indicial response of the feedback control loop was studied analytically. Good agreement between calculations and experiments was obtained.

  15. Effects of Mechanical and Radiative Supernova Feedback on Subhalo Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quirk, Amanda; Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.

    2017-01-01

    Using cosmological hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the effects supernova feedback has on populations of subhalos at current redshift. A group of halos was run through two simulations, each with different feedback models. One had thermal feedback, and the other had mechanical and radiative feedback. We used a friend-of-friend halo finder on the output of these simulations to explore the stellar and dark matter subhalos created. The number of stellar subhalos created by the mechanical feedback simulation was significantly less than the number created by the thermal feedback model, especially at low mass. Thus, the mechanical feedback model created a number of stellar subhalos more consistent with observations. The mechanical feedback model also showed a presence of dark matter subhalos that lacked stellar particles, or dark subhalos. The results of this analysis can give insight to the Missing Satellite Problem.

  16. People newly in love are more responsive to positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Brown, Cassandra L; Beninger, Richard J

    2012-06-01

    Passionate love is associated with increased activity in dopamine-rich regions of the brain. Increased dopamine in these regions is associated with a greater tendency to learn from reward in trial-and-error learning tasks. This study examined the prediction that individuals who were newly in love would be better at responding to reward (positive feedback). In test trials, people who were newly in love selected positive outcomes significantly more often than their single (not in love) counterparts but were no better at the task overall. This suggests that people who are newly in love show a bias toward responding to positive feedback, which may reflect a general bias towards reward-seeking.

  17. AGN feedback and star formation in ETGs: negative and positive feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciotti, Luca; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Novak, Greg; Negri, Andrea; Pellegrini, Silvia; Posacki, Silvia

    2015-08-01

    AGN feedback from supermassive black holes at the center of Early Type Galaxies is commonly invoked as the explanation for the quenching of star formation in these systems, that after this phase are considered “red and dead”. The situation is by far more complicated, due to the significant amount of mass injected in the galaxy by the evolving stellar population over cosmological times. In absence of feedback, this mass would lead to unobserved galactic cooling flows, and to central black holes two orders of magnitude more massive than observed. I will present the results of state-of-the-art hydrodynamical simulations with radiative transport and star formation of the “passive” evolution of ETGs, focusing in particular on highly structured spatial and temporal nature of the intermittent AGN feedback, that is not only negative (shutting down the cooling episodes of the ISM), but also positive, inducing star formation in the inner regions of the host galaxy.

  18. Improved Position Sensor for Feedback Control of Levitation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert; Savage, Larry; Rogers, Jan

    2004-01-01

    An improved optoelectronic apparatus has been developed to provide the position feedback needed for controlling the levitation subsystem of a containerless-processing system. As explained, the advantage of this apparatus over prior optoelectronic apparatuses that have served this purpose stems from the use of an incandescent lamp, instead of a laser, to illuminate the levitated object. In containerless processing, a small object to be processed is levitated (e.g., by use of a microwave, low-frequency electromagnetic, electrostatic, or acoustic field) so that it is not in contact with the wall of the processing chamber or with any other solid object during processing. In the case of electrostatic or low-frequency electromagnetic levitation, real-time measurement of the displacement of the levitated object from its nominal levitation position along the vertical axis (and, in some cases, along one or two horizontal axes) is needed for feedback control of the levitating field.

  19. Dynamic positive feedback source-coupled logic (D-PFSCL)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Kirti; Pandey, Neeta; Gupta, Maneesha

    2016-10-01

    This paper presents dynamic positive feedback source-coupled logic (D-PFSCL) style which is derived from positive feedback source-coupled logic (PFSCL). The proposed logic style uses dynamic current source in contrast to constant current source of PFSCL to attain lower power consumption. Two techniques for D-PFSCL style-based multistage applications are suggested. Several D-PFSCL gates are simulated and compared with the respective PFSCL counterparts through SPICE simulations by using Taiwan semiconductor manufacturing company 0.18 µm CMOS technology parameters. A maximum power reduction of 84% is achieved for D-PFSCL gates. The effect of process variation on the power consumption of the D-PFSCL gates shows a maximum variation factor of 1.5 between the best and the worst cases.

  20. Reputation can enhance or suppress cooperation through positive feedback.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Doodson, Polly

    2015-01-20

    One possible explanation for the widespread existence of cooperation in nature is that individuals cooperate to establish reputations and so benefit in future interactions with others. We consider a class of games in which individuals contribute to a common good at a cost to themselves. Population members vary in type, that is, in the cost paid for a given level of contribution. We consider a form of indirect reciprocity in which the contribution of an individual depends on their partner's reputation and their own type. Here we show that for such games, reputation destabilizes the selfish equilibrium through a novel and robust feedback mechanism. For those games in which the selfish optimal contribution to the common good increases as the contribution of the partner increases, the feedback mechanism enhances cooperation levels. In contrast, when the optimal contribution decreases as partner's contribution increases, cooperation levels are reduced still further.

  1. [Feedback control mechanisms of plant cell expansion

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1992-01-01

    We have generated considerable evidence for the significance of wall stress relaxation in the control of plant growth and found that several agents (gibberellin, light, genetic loci for dwarf stature) influence growth rate via alteration of wall relaxation. We have refined our methods for measuring wall relaxation and, moreover, have found that wall relaxation properties bear only a distance relationship to wall mechanical properties. We have garnered novel insights into the nature of cell expansion mechanisms by analyzing spontaneous fluctuations of plant growth rate in seedlings. These experiments involved the application of mathematical techniques for analyzing growth rate fluctuations and the development of new instrumentation for measuring and forcing plant growth in a controlled fashion. These studies conclude that growth rate fluctuations generated by the plant as consequence of a feedback control system. This conclusion has important implications for the nature of wall loosening processes and demands a different framework for thinking about growth control. It also implies the existence of a growth rate sensor.

  2. Graded Positive Feedback in Elasmobranch Ampullae of Lorenzini

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalmijn, Ad. J.

    2003-05-01

    The acute electrical sensitivity of marine sharks and rays is the greatest known in the Animal Kingdom. I investigate the possibility that the underlying biophysical principles are the very same as those encountered in the central nervous system of animal and man. The elasmobranch ampullae of Lorenzini detect the weak electric fields originating from the oceanic environment, whereas the nerve cells of the brain detect the electric fields arising, well, from the central nervous system. In responding to electrical signals, the cell membranes of excitable cells behave in different regions of the cell as negative or positive conductors. The negative and positive conductances in series, loaded by the cell's electrolytic environment, constitute a positive feedback circuit. The result may be of an all-or-none nature, as in peripheral nerve conduction, or of a graded nature, as in central processing. In this respect, the operation of the elasmobranch ampullae of Lorenzini is more akin to the graded, integrative processes of higher brain centers than to the conduction of nerve action potentials. Hence, the positive-feedback ampullary circuit promises to help elucidate the functioning of the central nervous system as profoundly as the squid giant axon has served to reveal the process of nervous conduction.

  3. Optical position feedback for electrostatically driven MOEMS scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortschanoff, A.; Baumgart, M.; Frank, A.; Wildenhain, M.; Sandner, T.; Schenk, H.; Kenda, A.

    2012-03-01

    For MOEMS devices which do not have intrinsic on-chip feedback, position information can be provided with optical methods, most simply by using a reflection from the backside of a MOEMS scanner. Measurement of timing signals using fast differential photodiodes can be used for resonant scanner mirrors performing sinusoidal motion with large amplitude. While this approach provides excellent accuracy it cannot be directly extended to arbitrary trajectories or static deflection angles. Another approach is based on the measurement of the position of the reflected laser beam with a quadrant diode. In this work, we present position sensing devices based on either principle and compare both approaches showing first experimental results from the implemented devices

  4. The better, the bigger: The effect of graded positive performance feedback on the reward positivity.

    PubMed

    Frömer, Romy; Stürmer, Birgit; Sommer, Werner

    2016-02-01

    In this study on skill acquisition in a computerized throwing task, we examined the effect of graded correct-related performance feedback on the reward positivity of the event-related brain potential (ERP). Theories of reinforcement learning predict effects of reward magnitude and expectancy on the reward prediction error. The later is supposed to be reflected in reward positivity, a fronto-central ERP component. A sample of 68 participants learned to throw at a beamer-projected target disk while performance accuracy, displayed as the place of impact of the projectile on the target, served as graded feedback. Effects of performance accuracy in successful trials, hit frequency, and preceding trial performance on reward positivity were analyzed simultaneously on a trial-by-trial basis by means of linear mixed models. In accord with previous findings, reward positivity increased with feedback about more accurate performance. This relationship was not linear, but cubic, with larger impact of feedback towards the end of the accuracy distribution. In line with being a measure of expectancy, the reward positivity decreased with increasing hit frequency and was larger after unsuccessful trials. The effect of hit frequency was more pronounced following successful trials. These results indicate a fast trial-by-trial adaptation of expectation. The results confirm predictions of reinforcement learning theory and extend previous findings on reward magnitude to the area of complex, goal directed skill acquisition.

  5. Towards positive feedbacks between vegetation and tropospheric O3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    VanLoocke, A. D.; Bernacchi, C. J.; Ainsworth, E. A.; Betzelberger, A. M.

    2011-12-01

    The concentration of tropospheric ozone ([O3]) has approximately doubled since 1900 and is projected to continue increasing. The extent of this increase depends strongly on the emission of ozone precursors as well as changing temperature and humidity. The responses of vegetation to O3 may also have the potential to positively feedback on regional climate and on the cycle of O3 formation and destruction. Plant productivity is linked to feedbacks in the climate indirectly through the carbon cycle as well as directly through the partitioning of radiation into sensible and latent heat fluxes. In the troposphere, O3 reduces plant productivity, an effect that is pronounced in soybean, the 4th most important food crop in the world. The soybean-maize agro-ecosystem is the largest ecosystem in the contiguous U.S., therefore changes in productivity and water use by soybean under increasing [O3] could impact the regional climate and hydrologic cycle in Midwestern U.S. with feedback effects on tropospheric O3 production and cycling. To assess the response to increasing [O3], soybeans were grown under open-air agricultural conditions at the SoyFACE research facility. During the 2009 growing season, eight 20 m diameter plots were exposed to different [O3] ranging from 40 to 200 ppb. Measurements of leaf-level gas exchange were made on four dates throughout the growing season and non-destructive measurements of Leaf Area Index were made weekly. Canopy latent and sensible heat fluxes were measured continuously throughout the growing season (day of year 197-245) using a residual energy balance micrometeorological technique. Results show that as [O3] increased, rates of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance decreased. Productivity, (i.e. seed yield) decreased by over 60% from 40 to 200 ppb while canopy evapotranspiration decreased by 30%. Sensible heat flux increased by 30%, while the growing season average canopy temperatures increased by 1 °C and with peak increases of 2

  6. Stabilization of linear undamped systems via position and delayed position feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Bo; Hu, Haiyan

    2008-05-01

    This paper presents a systematic approach to stabilizing a kind of linear undamped systems of multiple degrees of freedom by using both position and delayed position feedbacks, namely, PDP feedbacks for short. For the fully actuated system, the approach enables one to complete the design of controller directly through the use of modal decoupling and a stability chart. For the under-actuated system, the approach includes two steps. The first step is to move all the eigenvalues of the system on the imaginary axis of the complex plane by using a position feedback, and the second step is to drag all the eigenvalues of the system to the left half open complex plane through the use of a delayed position feedback, which can be determined on the basis of sensitivity analysis of eigenvalues. Two examples, i.e., a fully actuated robotic manipulator and an under-actuated double inverted pendulum, are discussed in the paper to demonstrate the design of controllers for the two different types of systems and to support the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  7. Integrated packaging of 2D MOEMS mirrors with optical position feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baumgart, M.; Lenzhofer, M.; Kremer, M. P.; Tortschanoff, A.

    2015-02-01

    Many applications of MOEMS microscanners rely on accurate position feedback. For MOEMS devices which do not have intrinsic on-chip feedback, position information can be provided with optical methods, most simply by using a reflection from the backside of a MOEMS scanner. By measuring the intensity distribution of the reflected beam across a quadrant diode, one can precisely detect the mirror's deflection angles. Previously, we have presented a position sensing device, applicable to arbitrary trajectories, which is based on the measurement of the position of the reflected laser beam with a quadrant diode. In this work, we present a novel setup, which comprises the optical position feedback functionality integrated into the device package itself. The new device's System-in-Package (SiP) design is based on a flip-folded 2.5D PCB layout and fully assembled as small as 9.2×7×4 mm³ in total. The device consists of four layers, which supply the MOEMS mirror, a spacer to provide the required optical path length, the quadrant photo-diode and a laser diode to serve as the light source. In addition to describing the mechanical setup of the novel device, we will present first experimental results and optical simulation studies. Accurate position feedback is the basis for closed-loop control of the MOEMS devices, which is crucial for some applications as image projection for example. Position feedback and the possibility of closed-loop control will significantly improve the performance of these devices.

  8. Robust, tunable genetic memory from protein sequestration combined with positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Shopera, Tatenda; Henson, William R; Ng, Andrew; Lee, Young Je; Ng, Kenneth; Moon, Tae Seok

    2015-10-15

    Natural regulatory networks contain many interacting components that allow for fine-tuning of switching and memory properties. Building simple bistable switches, synthetic biologists have learned the design principles of complex natural regulatory networks. However, most switches constructed so far are so simple (e.g. comprising two regulators) that they are functional only within a limited parameter range. Here, we report the construction of robust, tunable bistable switches in Escherichia coli using three heterologous protein regulators (ExsADC) that are sequestered into an inactive complex through a partner swapping mechanism. On the basis of mathematical modeling, we accurately predict and experimentally verify that the hysteretic region can be fine-tuned by controlling the interactions of the ExsADC regulatory cascade using the third member ExsC as a tuning knob. Additionally, we confirm that a dual-positive feedback switch can markedly increase the hysteretic region, compared to its single-positive feedback counterpart. The dual-positive feedback switch displays bistability over a 10(6)-fold range of inducer concentrations, to our knowledge, the largest range reported so far. This work demonstrates the successful interlocking of sequestration-based ultrasensitivity and positive feedback, a design principle that can be applied to the construction of robust, tunable, and predictable genetic programs to achieve increasingly sophisticated biological behaviors.

  9. New observational evidence for a positive cloud feedback that amplifies the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bellomo, Katinka; Clement, Amy C.; Murphy, Lisa N.; Polvani, Lorenzo M.; Cane, Mark A.

    2016-09-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) affects climate variability in the North Atlantic basin and adjacent continents with potential societal impacts. Previous studies based on model simulations and short-term satellite retrievals hypothesized an important role for cloud radiative forcing in modulating the persistence of the AMO in the tropics, but this mechanism remains to be tested with long-term observational records. Here we analyze data sets that span multiple decades and present new observational evidence for a positive feedback between total cloud amount, sea surface temperature (SST), and atmospheric circulation that can strengthen the persistence and amplitude of the tropical branch of the AMO. In addition, we estimate cloud amount feedback from observations and quantify its impact on SST with idealized modeling experiments. From these experiments we conclude that cloud feedbacks can account for 10% to 31% of the observed SST anomalies associated with the AMO over the tropics.

  10. Output feedback control of a mechanical system using magnetic levitation.

    PubMed

    Beltran-Carbajal, F; Valderrabano-Gonzalez, A; Rosas-Caro, J C; Favela-Contreras, A

    2015-07-01

    This paper presents an application of a nonlinear magnetic levitation system to the problem of efficient active control of mass-spring-damper mechanical systems. An output feedback control scheme is proposed for reference position trajectory tracking tasks on the flexible mechanical system. The electromagnetically actuated system is shown to be a differentially flat nonlinear system. An extended state estimation approach is also proposed to obtain estimates of velocity, acceleration and disturbance signals. The differential flatness structural property of the system is then employed for the synthesis of the controller and the signal estimation approach presented in this work. Some experimental and simulation results are included to show the efficient performance of the control approach and the effective estimation of the unknown signals.

  11. Periodic explosions by positive feedback in a rising foam column

    PubMed Central

    Zener, Clarence; Noriega, Jaime

    1982-01-01

    An aqueous foam rising adiabatically in a column suffers a drop in temperature. Under appropriate conditions, such a column periodically explodes. We here trace this explosion to the tight thermal coupling between the foam and its enclosing glass column. When the surface surfactant concentration is unbuffered by micelles, a positive feedback exists between the flow of heat from the walls into the foam and the thermal conductivity of the foam itself. In our highly expanded foam, heat is conducted through the foam cells' interior primarily by the heat-pipe effect. Such an effect is retarded by a dense layer of surfactant molecules. Heat absorption causes cell expansion, which, in a foam unbuffered by micelles, causes a reduction in surface concentration of surfactant molecules and, hence, in an increase in thermal conductivity. This interpretation of our observed periodic explosions is in agreement with all of our observations. PMID:16593192

  12. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Civano, F.

    2015-01-20

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s{sup –1}) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  13. From Positivity to Negativity Bias: Ambiguity Affects the Neurophysiological Signatures of Feedback Processing.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Henning; Schnuerch, Robert; Stahl, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    Previous studies on the neurophysiological underpinnings of feedback processing almost exclusively used low-ambiguity feedback, which does not fully address the diversity of situations in everyday life. We therefore used a pseudo trial-and-error learning task to investigate ERPs of low- versus high-ambiguity feedback. Twenty-eight participants tried to deduce the rule governing visual feedback to their button presses in response to visual stimuli. In the blocked condition, the same two feedback words were presented across several consecutive trials, whereas in the random condition feedback was randomly drawn on each trial from sets of five positive and five negative words. The feedback-related negativity (FRN-D), a frontocentral ERP difference between negative and positive feedback, was significantly larger in the blocked condition, whereas the centroparietal late positive complex indicating controlled attention was enhanced for negative feedback irrespective of condition. Moreover, FRN-D in the blocked condition was due to increased reward positivity (Rew-P) for positive feedback, rather than increased (raw) FRN for negative feedback. Our findings strongly support recent lines of evidence that the FRN-D, one of the most widely studied signatures of reinforcement learning in the human brain, critically depends on feedback discriminability and is primarily driven by the Rew-P. A novel finding concerned larger frontocentral P2 for negative feedback in the random but not the blocked condition. Although Rew-P points to a positivity bias in feedback processing under conditions of low feedback ambiguity, P2 suggests a specific adaptation of information processing in case of highly ambiguous feedback, involving an early negativity bias. Generalizability of the P2 findings was demonstrated in a second experiment using explicit valence categorization of highly emotional positive and negative adjectives.

  14. FEEDBACK FROM CENTRAL BLACK HOLES IN ELLIPTICAL GALAXIES. II. CAN PURELY MECHANICAL ENERGY FEEDBACK MODELS WORK?

    SciTech Connect

    Shin Minsu; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Ciotti, Luca

    2010-03-01

    By using high-resolution one-dimensional hydrodynamical simulations, we investigate the effects of purely mechanical feedback from super massive black holes (SMBHs) in the evolution of elliptical galaxies for a broad range of feedback efficiencies and compare the results to four major observational constraints. In particular, we focus on (1) the central black hole to stellar mass ratio of the host galaxy, (2) the lifetime of the luminous quasar phase, (3) the mass of stars formed in the host galaxy within the last Gyr, and (4) the X-ray luminosity of the hot diffuse gas. As a result, we try to pin down the most successful range of mechanical feedback efficiencies. We find that while low feedback efficiencies result in too much growth of the SMBH, high efficiencies totally blow out the hot interstellar gas, and the models are characterized by very low thermal X-ray luminosity well below the observed range. The net lifetime of the quasar phase is strongly coupled to the mass ratio between SMBH and its host galaxy, while the X-ray luminosity is generally correlated to the recent star formation within the last Gyr. When considering the popularly adopted model of the constant feedback efficiency, the feedback energy deposited into the ambient medium should be more than 0.01% of the SMBH accretion energy to be consistent with the SMBH mass to stellar mass ratio in the local universe. Yet, the X-ray luminosity of the hot gas favors about 0.005% of the accretion energy as the mechanical active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback energy. We conclude that the purely mechanical feedback mode is unlikely to be simultaneously compatible with all four observable tests, even allowing a broad range of feedback efficiencies, and that including both radiative and mechanical feedback together may be a solution to comply with the observational constraints. In addition to the adopted observational constraints, our simulations also show that the ratio of SMBH growth rate over its current

  15. Homeostatic signaling: the positive side of negative feedback.

    PubMed

    Turrigiano, Gina

    2007-06-01

    Synaptic homeostasis provides a means for neurons and circuits to maintain stable function in the face of perturbations such as developmental or activity-dependent changes in synapse number or strength. These forms of plasticity are thought to utilize negative feedback signaling to sense some aspect of activity, compare this with an internal set point, and then adjust synaptic properties to keep activity close to this set point. However, the molecular identity of these signaling components has not been firmly established. Recent work suggests that there are likely to be multiple forms of synaptic homeostasis, mediated by distinct signaling pathways and with distinct expression mechanisms. These include presynaptic forms that depend on retrograde signaling to presynaptic Ca(2+) channels, and postsynaptic forms influenced by BDNF, TNFalpha and Arc signaling. Current challenges include matching signaling elements to their functions (i.e. as detectors of activity, as part of the set-point mechanism and/or as effectors of synaptic change), and fitting these molecular candidates into a unified view of the signaling pathways that underlie synaptic homeostasis.

  16. Feedback mechanism for smart nozzles and nebulizers

    DOEpatents

    Montaser, Akbar [Potomac, MD; Jorabchi, Kaveh [Arlington, VA; Kahen, Kaveh [Kleinburg, CA

    2009-01-27

    Nozzles and nebulizers able to produce aerosol with optimum and reproducible quality based on feedback information obtained using laser imaging techniques. Two laser-based imaging techniques based on particle image velocimetry (PTV) and optical patternation map and contrast size and velocity distributions for indirect and direct pneumatic nebulizations in plasma spectrometry. Two pulses from thin laser sheet with known time difference illuminate droplets flow field. Charge coupled device (CCL)) captures scattering of laser light from droplets, providing two instantaneous particle images. Pointwise cross-correlation of corresponding images yields two-dimensional velocity map of aerosol velocity field. For droplet size distribution studies, solution is doped with fluorescent dye and both laser induced florescence (LIF) and Mie scattering images are captured simultaneously by two CCDs with the same field of view. Ratio of LIF/Mie images provides relative droplet size information, then scaled by point calibration method via phase Doppler particle analyzer.

  17. Input overload: Contributions of retinoic acid signaling feedback mechanisms to heart development and teratogenesis.

    PubMed

    D'Aniello, Enrico; Waxman, Joshua S

    2015-03-01

    Appropriate levels of retinoic acid (RA) signaling are critical for normal heart development in vertebrates. A fascinating property of RA signaling is the thoroughness by which positive and negative feedback are employed to promote proper embryonic RA levels. In the present short review, we first cover the advancement of hypotheses regarding the impact of RA signaling on cardiac specification. We then discuss our current understanding of RA signaling feedback mechanisms and the implications of recent studies, which have indicated improperly maintained RA signaling feedback can be a contributing factor to developmental malformations.

  18. Triggering star formation by both radiative and mechanical AGN feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chao; Gan, Zhao-Ming; Xie, Fu-Guo

    2013-08-01

    We perform two dimensional hydrodynamic numerical simulations to study the positive active galactic nucleus (AGN) feedback which triggers, rather than suppresses, star formation. Recently, it was shown by Nayakshin et al. and Ishibashi et al. that star formation occurs when the cold interstellar medium (ISM) is squeezed by the impact of mass outflow or radiation pressure, respectively. Mass outflow is ubiquitous in this astrophysical context, and radiation pressure is also important if the AGN is luminous. For the first time in this subject, we incorporate both mass outflow feedback and radiative feedback into our model. Consequently, the ISM is shocked into shells by the AGN feedback, and these shells soon fragment into clumps and filaments because of Rayleigh-Taylor and thermal instabilities. We have two major findings: (1) the star formation rate can indeed be very large in the clumps and filaments. However, the resultant star formation rate density is too large compared with previous works, which is mainly because we ignore the fact that most of the stars that are formed would be disrupted when they move away from the galactic center. (2) Although radiation pressure feedback has a limited effect, when mass outflow feedback is also included, they reinforce each other. Specifically, in the gas-poor case, mass outflow is always the dominant contributor to feedback.

  19. Positive feedback and momentum growth during debris-flow entrainment of wet bed sediment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iverson, R.M.; Reid, M.E.; Logan, M.; LaHusen, R.G.; Godt, J.W.; Griswold, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Debris flows typically occur when intense rainfall or snowmelt triggers landslides or extensive erosion on steep, debris-mantled slopes. The flows can then grow dramatically in size and speed as they entrain material from their beds and banks, but the mechanism of this growth is unclear. Indeed, momentum conservation implies that entrainment of static material should retard the motion of the flows if friction remains unchanged. Here we use data from large-scale experiments to assess the entrainment of bed material by debris flows. We find that entrainment is accompanied by increased flow momentum and speed only if large positive pore pressures develop in wet bed sediments as the sediments are overridden by debris flows. The increased pore pressure facilitates progressive scour of the bed, reduces basal friction and instigates positive feedback that causes flow speed, mass and momentum to increase. If dryer bed sediment is entrained, however, the feedback becomes negative and flow momentum declines. We infer that analogous feedbacks could operate in other types of gravity-driven mass flow that interact with erodible beds. ?? 2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

  20. Is Positive Feedback a Forgotten Classroom Practice? Findings and Implications for At-Risk Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sprouls, Katie; Mathur, Sarup R.; Upreti, Gita

    2015-01-01

    Although using higher rates of positive to negative feedback is one best practice often recommended to teachers, particularly when it comes to students experiencing behavioral problems in classroom settings, research on the use of positive feedback in classroom teaching practice has revealed inconsistent results. Research has documented…

  1. Polarity establishment by Cdc42: Key roles for positive feedback and differential mobility.

    PubMed

    Woods, Benjamin; Lew, Daniel J

    2017-03-28

    Cell polarity is fundamental to the function of most cells. The evolutionarily conserved molecular machinery that controls cell polarity is centered on a family of GTPases related to Cdc42. Cdc42 becomes activated and concentrated at polarity sites, but studies in yeast model systems led to controversy on the mechanisms of polarization. Here we review recent studies that have clarified how Cdc42 becomes polarized in yeast. On one hand, findings that appeared to support a key role for the actin cytoskeleton and vesicle traffic in polarity establishment now appear to reflect the action of stress response pathways induced by cytoskeletal perturbations. On the other hand, new findings strongly support hypotheses on the polarization mechanism whose origins date back to the mathematician Alan Turing. The key features of the polarity establishment mechanism in yeasts include a positive feedback pathway in which active Cdc42 recruits a Cdc42 activator to polarity sites, and differential mobility of polarity "activators" and "substrates."

  2. The Impact of Positive, Negative and Topical Relevance Feedback

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    REPORT NUMBER(S) 12. DISTRIBUTION/AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for public release; distribution unlimited 13 . SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES Seventeenth...lead to significant improvements over the baseline on the 13 test topics, for MAP no improvement at all is achieved. We do achieve more than 8...improvement in P10. Since the effect of using topical feedback varies a lot over differ- ent queries, the test set of 13 topics is a bit small to draw

  3. Eco-hydrological feedback mechanisms control ecological services in wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coletti, J.; Hinz, C.; Vogwill, R.; Tareque, H.; Hipsey, M. R.

    2011-12-01

    Wetland ecosystems contain various feedback mechanisms between their abiotc and biotic components. The feedbacks are triggered by climate and propagate into patterns of environment partitioning based on distinct zones of hydrological function that vary in time and space. This partitioning co-evolves with vegetation, defines carbon metabolism and creates niches that govern patterns of flora and fauna abundance and distribution. Using a minimalistic model for wetland eco-hydrology, we explore vegetation adaptation to climate variability and the net metabolism of a wetland ecosystem given a range of climate conditions. We then apply the model to characterize the changes in niche habitat availability for a tortoise population endangered by a drying climate.

  4. Impact of time delays on oscillatory dynamics of interlinked positive and negative feedback loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Tian, Xinyu; Liu, Feng; Wang, Wei

    2016-11-01

    Interlinking a positive feedback loop (PFL) with a negative feedback loop (NFL) constitutes a typical motif in genetic networks, performing various functions in cell signaling. How time delay in feedback regulation affects the dynamics of such systems still remains unclear. Here, we investigate three systems of interlinked PFL and NFL with time delays: a synthetic genetic oscillator, a three-node circuit, and a simplified single-node model. The stability of steady states and the routes to oscillation in the single-node model are analyzed in detail. The amplitude and period of oscillations vary with a pointwise periodicity over a range of time delay. Larger-amplitude oscillations can be induced when the PFL has an appropriately long delay, in comparison with the PFL with no delay or short delay; this conclusion holds true for all the three systems. We unravel the underlying mechanism for the above effects via analytical derivation under a limiting condition. We also develop a stochastic algorithm for simulating a single reaction with two delays and show that robust oscillations can be maintained by the PFL with a properly long delay in the single-node system. This work presents an effective method for constructing robust large-amplitude oscillators and interprets why similar circuit architectures are engaged in timekeeping systems such as circadian clocks.

  5. Positive feedback can lead to dynamic nanometer-scale clustering on cell membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Wehrens, Martijn; Rein ten Wolde, Pieter; Mugler, Andrew

    2014-11-28

    Clustering of molecules on biological membranes is a widely observed phenomenon. A key example is the clustering of the oncoprotein Ras, which is known to be important for signal transduction in mammalian cells. Yet, the mechanism by which Ras clusters form and are maintained remains unclear. Recently, it has been discovered that activated Ras promotes further Ras activation. Here we show using particle-based simulation that this positive feedback is sufficient to produce persistent clusters of active Ras molecules at the nanometer scale via a dynamic nucleation mechanism. Furthermore, we find that our cluster statistics are consistent with experimental observations of the Ras system. Interestingly, we show that our model does not support a Turing regime of macroscopic reaction-diffusion patterning, and therefore that the clustering we observe is a purely stochastic effect, arising from the coupling of positive feedback with the discrete nature of individual molecules. These results underscore the importance of stochastic and dynamic properties of reaction diffusion systems for biological behavior.

  6. Two Independent Positive Feedbacks and Bistability in the Bcl-2 Apoptotic Switch

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Haizhu; Sun, Tingzhe; Shen, Pingping

    2008-01-01

    Background The complex interplay between B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2) family proteins constitutes a crucial checkpoint in apoptosis. Its detailed molecular mechanism remains controversial. Our former modeling studies have selected the ‘Direct Activation Model’ as a better explanation for experimental observations. In this paper, we continue to extend this model by adding interactions according to updating experimental findings. Methodology/Principal Findings Through mathematical simulation we found bistability, a kind of switch, can arise from a positive (double negative) feedback in the Bcl-2 interaction network established by anti-apoptotic group of Bcl-2 family proteins. Moreover, Bax/Bak auto-activation as an independent positive feedback can enforce the bistability, and make it more robust to parameter variations. By ensemble stochastic modeling, we also elucidated how intrinsic noise can change ultrasensitive switches into gradual responses. Our modeling result agrees well with recent experimental data where bimodal Bax activation distributions in cell population were found. Conclusions/Significance Along with the growing experimental evidences, our studies successfully elucidate the switch mechanism embedded in the Bcl-2 interaction network and provide insights into pharmacological manipulation of Bcl-2 apoptotic switch as further cancer therapies. PMID:18213378

  7. Through-wafer optical probe characterization for microelectromechanical systems positional state monitoring and feedback control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawson, Jeremy M.; Chen, Jingdong; Brown, Kolin S.; Famouri, Parviz F.; Hornak, Lawrence A.

    2000-12-01

    Implementation of closed-loop microelectromechanical system (MEMS) control enables mechanical microsystems to adapt to the demands of the environment that they are actuating, opening a broad range of new opportunities for future MEMS applications. Integrated optical microsystems have the potential to enable continuous in situ optical interrogation of MEMS microstructure position fully decoupled from the means of mechanical actuation that is necessary for realization of feedback control. We present the results of initial research evaluating through-wafer optical microprobes for surface micromachined MEMS integrated optical position monitoring. Results from the through-wafer free-space optical probe of a lateral comb resonator fabricated using the multiuser MEMS process service (MUMPS) indicate significant positional information content with an achievable return probe signal dynamic range of up to 80% arising from film transmission contrast. Static and dynamic deflection analysis and experimental results indicate a through-wafer probe positional signal sensitivity of 40 mV/micrometers for the present setup or 10% signal change per micrometer. A simulation of the application of nonlinear sliding control is presented illustrating position control of the lateral comb resonator structure given the availability of positional state information.

  8. Coordination between digit forces and positions: interactions between anticipatory and feedback control.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qiushi; Santello, Marco

    2014-04-01

    Humans adjust digit forces to compensate for trial-to-trial variability in digit placement during object manipulation, but the underlying control mechanisms remain to be determined. We hypothesized that such digit position/force coordination was achieved by both visually guided feed-forward planning and haptic-based feedback control. The question arises about the time course of the interaction between these two mechanisms. This was tested with a task in which subjects generated torque (± 70 N·mm) on a virtual object to control a cursor moving to target positions to catch a falling ball, using a virtual reality environment and haptic devices. The width of the virtual object was varied between large (L) and small (S). These object widths result in significantly different horizontal digit relative positions and require different digit forces to exert the same task torque. After training, subjects were tested with random sequences of L and S widths with or without visual information about object width. We found that visual cues allowed subjects to plan manipulation forces before contact. In contrast, when visual cues were not available to predict digit positions, subjects implemented a "default" digit force plan that was corrected after digit contact to eventually accomplish the task. The time course of digit forces revealed that force development was delayed in the absence of visual cues. Specifically, the appropriate digit force adjustments were made 250-300 ms after initial object contact. This result supports our hypothesis and further reveals that haptic feedback alone is sufficient to implement digit force-position coordination.

  9. Understanding Informal Feedback Seeking in the Workplace: The Impact of the Position in the Organizational Hierarchy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Rijt, Janine; Van den Bossche, Piet; Segers, Mien S. R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to investigate whether the position of employees in the organizational hierarchy is important in explaining their feedback seeking behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: This study takes a social network perspective by using an ego-centric network survey to investigate employees' feedback seeking behaviour…

  10. Positive Feedback in Pairwork and its Association with ESL Course Level Promotion

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reigel, David

    2008-01-01

    What is the role of positive feedback in the adult English language classroom? This study applies ideas from complexity theory to explore the relation between frequency of oral feedback received and student language proficiency. The researcher collected data from digital recordings of adult students (N = 41) who attended classes for 30 weeks at…

  11. The effect of positive and negative verbal feedback on surgical skills performance and motivation.

    PubMed

    Kannappan, Aarthy; Yip, Dana T; Lodhia, Nayna A; Morton, John; Lau, James N

    2012-01-01

    There is considerable effort and time invested in providing feedback to medical students and residents during their time in training. However, little effort has been made to measure the effects of positive and negative verbal feedback on skills performance and motivation to learn and practice. To probe these questions, first-year medical students (n = 25) were recruited to perform a peg transfer task on Fundamentals of Laparoscopic Surgery box trainers. Time to completion and number of errors were recorded. The students were then randomized to receive either positive or negative verbal feedback from an expert in the field of laparoscopic surgery. After this delivery of feedback, the students repeated the peg transfer task. Differences in performance pre- and post-feedback and also between the groups who received positive feedback (PF) vs negative feedback (NF) were analyzed. A survey was then completed by all the participants. Baseline task times were similar between groups (PF 209.3 seconds; NF 203 seconds, p = 0.58). The PF group averaged 1.83 first-time errors while the NF group 1 (p = 0.84). Post-feedback task times were significantly decreased for both groups (PF 159.75 seconds, p = 0.05; NF 132.08 seconds, p = 0.002). While the NF group demonstrated a greater improvement in mean time than the PF group, this was not statistically significant. Both groups also made fewer errors (PF 0.33 errors, p = 0.04; NF 0.38 errors, p = 0.23). When surveyed about their responses to standardized feedback scenarios, the students stated that both positive and negative verbal feedback could be potent stimulants for improved performance and motivation. Further research is required to better understand the effects of feedback on learner motivation and the interpersonal dynamic between mentors and their trainees.

  12. Consensus positive position feedback control for vibration attenuation of smart structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omidi, Ehsan; Nima Mahmoodi, S.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new network-based approach for active vibration control in smart structures. In this approach, a network with known topology connects collocated actuator/sensor elements of the smart structure to one another. Each of these actuators/sensors, i.e., agent or node, is enhanced by a separate multi-mode positive position feedback (PPF) controller. The decentralized PPF controlled agents collaborate with each other in the designed network, under a certain consensus dynamics. The consensus constraint forces neighboring agents to cooperate with each other such that the disagreement between the time-domain actuation of the agents is driven to zero. The controller output of each agent is calculated using state-space variables; hence, optimal state estimators are designed first for the proposed observer-based consensus PPF control. The consensus controller is numerically investigated for a flexible smart structure, i.e., a thin aluminum beam that is clamped at its both ends. Results demonstrate that the consensus law successfully imposes synchronization between the independently controlled agents, as the disagreements between the decentralized PPF controller variables converge to zero in a short time. The new consensus PPF controller brings extra robustness to vibration suppression in smart structures, where malfunctions of an agent can be compensated for by referencing the neighboring agents’ performance. This is demonstrated in the results by comparing the new controller with former centralized PPF approach.

  13. Suspicion of Motives Predicts Minorities’ Responses to Positive Feedback in Interracial Interactions

    PubMed Central

    Major, Brenda; Kunstman, Jonathan W.; Malta, Brenna D.; Sawyer, Pamela J.; Townsend, Sarah S. M.; Mendes, Wendy Berry

    2015-01-01

    Strong social and legal norms in the United States discourage the overt expression of bias against ethnic and racial minorities, increasing the attributional ambiguity of Whites’ positive behavior to ethnic minorities. Minorities who suspect that Whites’ positive overtures toward minorities are motivated more by their fear of appearing racist than by egalitarian attitudes may regard positive feedback they receive from Whites as disingenuous. This may lead them to react to such feedback with feelings of uncertainty and threat. Three studies examined how suspicion of motives relates to ethnic minorities’ responses to receiving positive feedback from a White peer or same-ethnicity peer (Experiment 1), to receiving feedback from a White peer that was positive or negative (Experiment 2), and to receiving positive feedback from a White peer who did or did not know their ethnicity (Experiment 3). As predicted, the more suspicious Latinas were of Whites’ motives for behaving positively toward minorities in general, the more they regarded positive feedback from a White peer who knew their ethnicity as disingenuous and the more they reacted with cardiovascular reactivity characteristic of threat/avoidance, increased feelings of stress, heightened uncertainty, and decreased self-esteem. We discuss the implications for intergroup interactions of perceptions of Whites’ motives for nonprejudiced behavior. PMID:26688594

  14. Positive and Negative Feedbacks and Free-Scale Pattern Distribution in Rural-Population Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Alados, Concepción L.; Errea, Paz; Gartzia, Maite; Saiz, Hugo; Escós, Juan

    2014-01-01

    Depopulation of rural areas is a widespread phenomenon that has occurred in most industrialized countries, and has contributed significantly to a reduction in the productivity of agro-ecological resources. In this study, we identified the main trends in the dynamics of rural populations in the Central Pyrenees in the 20th C and early 21st C, and used density independent and density dependent models and identified the main factors that have influenced the dynamics. In addition, we investigated the change in the power law distribution of population size in those periods. Populations exhibited density-dependent positive feedback between 1960 and 2010, and a long-term positive correlation between agricultural activity and population size, which has resulted in a free-scale population distribution that has been disrupted by the collapse of the traditional agricultural society and by emigration to the industrialized cities. We concluded that complex socio-ecological systems that have strong feedback mechanisms can contribute to disruptive population collapses, which can be identified by changes in the pattern of population distribution. PMID:25474704

  15. Performance Feedback Processing Is Positively Biased As Predicted by Attribution Theory

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez Buritica, Julia M.; Heekeren, Hauke R.

    2016-01-01

    A considerable literature on attribution theory has shown that healthy individuals exhibit a positivity bias when inferring the causes of evaluative feedback on their performance. They tend to attribute positive feedback internally (e.g., to their own abilities) but negative feedback externally (e.g., to environmental factors). However, all empirical demonstrations of this bias suffer from at least one of the three following drawbacks: First, participants directly judge explicit causes for their performance. Second, participants have to imagine events instead of experiencing them. Third, participants assess their performance only after receiving feedback and thus differences in baseline assessments cannot be excluded. It is therefore unclear whether the classically reported positivity bias generalizes to setups without these drawbacks. Here, we aimed at establishing the relevance of attributions for decision-making by showing an attribution-related positivity bias in a decision-making task. We developed a novel task, which allowed us to test how participants changed their evaluations in response to positive and negative feedback about performance. Specifically, we used videos of actors expressing different facial emotional expressions. Participants were first asked to evaluate the actors’ credibility in expressing a particular emotion. After this initial rating, participants performed an emotion recognition task and did—or did not—receive feedback on their veridical performance. Finally, participants re-rated the actors’ credibility, which provided a measure of how they changed their evaluations after feedback. Attribution theory predicts that participants change their evaluations of the actors’ credibility toward the positive after receiving positive performance feedback and toward the negative after negative performance feedback. Our results were in line with this prediction. A control condition without feedback showed that correct or incorrect

  16. Positive Feedback Cycle of TNFα Promotes Staphylococcal Enterotoxin B-Induced THP-1 Cell Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiaopeng; Shang, Weilong; Yuan, Jizhen; Hu, Zhen; Peng, Huagang; Zhu, Junmin; Hu, Qiwen; Yang, Yi; Liu, Hui; Jiang, Bei; Wang, Yinan; Li, Shu; Hu, Xiaomei; Rao, Xiancai

    2016-01-01

    Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) has been demonstrated to be of importance in Staphylococcus aureus related diseases, such as atopic dermatitis (AD). Dysregulated apoptosis in AD is remarkable, and SEB can induce apoptosis of various cell types. However, the mechanisms by which SEB induces apoptosis and influences disease processes remain unclear. In this study, the recombinant SEB-induced THP-1 monocyte apoptosis was demonstrated in the absence of preliminary cell activation in a time- and dose-dependent manner. SEB could up-regulate the expression of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in THP-1 cells and induce apoptosis via an extrinsic pathway. TNFα could in turn increase the expression of HLA-DRa, the SEB receptor on the cell surface. As a result, a positive feedback cycle of TNFα was established. TNFα expression and SEB-induced apoptosis were decreased by knocking down the expression of either HLA-DRa or TNFR1. Therefore, the feedback cycle of TNFα is crucial for SEB functions. This work provides insights into the mechanisms of SEB-induced monocyte apoptosis and emphasizes the major role of TNFα in future related studies. PMID:27709104

  17. Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide and climate feedback mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cess, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    As a consequence of fossil fuel burning, the atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide has increased from 314 ppm in 1958, when detailed measurements of this quantity began, to a present value of 335 ppm; and it is estimated that during the next century, the CO2 concentration will double relative to its assumed preindustrial value of 290 ppm. Since CO2 is an infrared-active gas, increases in its atmospheric concentration would lead to a larger infrared opacity for the atmospheric which, by normal logic, would result in a warmer Earth. A number of modeling endeavors suggest a 2 to 4 C increase in global mean surface temperature with doubling of the CO2 concentration. But such estimates of CO2-induced warming are highly uncertain because of a lack of knowledge of climate feedback mechanisms. Interactive influences upon the solar and infrared opacities of the Earth-atmosphere system can either amplify or damp a climate-forcing mechanism such as increasing CO2. Climate feedback mechanisms discussed include climate sensitivity, cloudiness-radiation feedback, climate change predictions, and interactive atmospheric chemistry.

  18. 78 FR 13057 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Information Collection; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism... to review and approve a previously approved information collection requirement regarding IT Dashboard... identified by Information Collection 3090- 0285, IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism, by any of the...

  19. A DNA break– and phosphorylation-dependent positive feedback loop promotes immunoglobulin class-switch recombination

    PubMed Central

    Vuong, Bao Q; Ucher, Anna J; Donghia, Nina M; Gu, Xiwen; Nicolas, Laura; Nowak, Urszula; Rahman, Numa; Strout, Matthew P; Mills, Kevin D; Stavnezer, Janet; Chaudhuri, Jayanta

    2014-01-01

    The ability of activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) to efficiently mediate class-switch recombination (CSR) is dependent on its phosphorylation at Ser38; however, the trigger that induces AID phosphorylation and the mechanism by which phosphorylated AID drives CSR have not been elucidated. Here we found that phosphorylation of AID at Ser38 was induced by DNA breaks. Conversely, in the absence of AID phosphorylation, DNA breaks were not efficiently generated at switch (S) regions in the immunoglobulin heavy-chain locus (Igh), consistent with a failure of AID to interact with the endonuclease APE1. Additionally, deficiency in the DNA-damage sensor ATM impaired the phosphorylation of AID at Ser38 and the interaction of AID with APE1. Our results identify a positive feedback loop for the amplification of DNA breaks at S regions through the phosphorylation- and ATM-dependent interaction of AID with APE1. PMID:24097111

  20. Self-sustained micro mechanical oscillator with linear feedback

    DOE PAGES

    Chen, Changyao; Zanette, Damian H.; Guest, Jeffrey R.; ...

    2016-07-01

    Autonomous oscillators, such as clocks and lasers, produce periodic signals without any external frequency reference. In order to sustain stable periodic motions, there needs to be external energy supply as well as nonlinearity built into the oscillator to regulate the amplitude. Usually, nonlinearity is provided by the sustaining feedback mechanism, which also supplies energy, whereas the constituent resonator that determines the output frequency stays linear. Here we propose a new self-sustaining scheme that relies on the nonlinearity originating from the resonator itself to limit the oscillation amplitude, while the feedback remains linear. We introduce a model to describe the workingmore » principle of the self-sustained oscillations and validate it with experiments performed on a nonlinear microelectromechanical (MEMS) based oscillator.« less

  1. Self-sustained micro mechanical oscillator with linear feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Changyao; Zanette, Damian H.; Guest, Jeffrey R.; Czaplewski, David A.; Lopez, Daniel

    2016-07-01

    Autonomous oscillators, such as clocks and lasers, produce periodic signals without any external frequency reference. In order to sustain stable periodic motions, there needs to be external energy supply as well as nonlinearity built into the oscillator to regulate the amplitude. Usually, nonlinearity is provided by the sustaining feedback mechanism, which also supplies energy, whereas the constituent resonator that determines the output frequency stays linear. Here we propose a new self-sustaining scheme that relies on the nonlinearity originating from the resonator itself to limit the oscillation amplitude, while the feedback remains linear. We introduce a model to describe the working principle of the self-sustained oscillations and validate it with experiments performed on a nonlinear microelectromechanical (MEMS) based oscillator.

  2. Predation risk suppresses the positive feedback between size structure and cannibalism.

    PubMed

    Kishida, Osamu; Trussell, Geoffrey C; Ohno, Ayaka; Kuwano, Shinya; Ikawa, Takuya; Nishimura, Kinya

    2011-11-01

    1. Cannibalism can play a prominent role in the structuring and dynamics of ecological communities. Previous studies have emphasized the importance of size structure and density of cannibalistic species in shaping short- and long-term cannibalism dynamics, but our understanding of how predators influence cannibalism dynamics is limited. This is despite widespread evidence that many prey species exhibit behavioural and morphological adaptations in response to predation risk. 2. This study examined how the presence and absence of predation risk from larval dragonflies Aeshna nigroflava affected cannibalism dynamics in its prey larval salamanders Hynobius retardatus. 3. We found that feedback dynamics between size structure and cannibalism depended on whether dragonfly predation risk was present. In the absence of dragonfly risk cues, a positive feedback between salamander size structure and cannibalism through time occurred because most of the replicates in this treatment contained at least one salamander larvae having an enlarged gape (i.e. cannibal). In contrast, this feedback and the emergence of cannibalism were rarely observed in the presence of the dragonfly risk cues. Once salamander size divergence occurred, experimental reversals of the presence or absence of dragonfly risk cues did not alter existing cannibalism dynamics as the experiment progressed. Thus, the effects of risk on the mechanisms driving cannibalism dynamics likely operated during the early developmental period of the salamander larvae. 4. The effects of dragonfly predation risk on behavioural aspects of cannibalistic interactions among hatchlings may prohibit the initiation of dynamics between size structure and cannibalism. Our predation trials clearly showed that encounter rates among hatchlings and biting and ingestion rates of prospective prey by prospective cannibals were significantly lower in the presence vs. absence of dragonfly predation risk even though the size asymmetry

  3. A Program That Acquires Language Using Positive and Negative Feedback.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brand, James

    1987-01-01

    Describes the language learning program "Acquire," which is a sample of grammar induction. It is a learning algorithm based on a pattern-matching scheme, using both a positive and negative network to reduce overgeneration. Language learning programs may be useful as tutorials for learning the syntax of a foreign language. (Author/LMO)

  4. Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine

    PubMed Central

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; O’Dell, Steve J.; Marshall, John F.; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2014-01-01

    Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules. PMID:24959862

  5. Positive and negative feedback learning and associated dopamine and serotonin transporter binding after methamphetamine.

    PubMed

    Stolyarova, Alexandra; O'Dell, Steve J; Marshall, John F; Izquierdo, Alicia

    2014-09-01

    Learning from mistakes and prospectively adjusting behavior in response to reward feedback is an important facet of performance monitoring. Dopamine (DA) pathways play an important role in feedback learning and a growing literature has also emerged on the importance of serotonin (5HT) in reward learning, particularly during punishment or reward omission (negative feedback). Cognitive impairments resulting from psychostimulant exposure may arise from altered patterns in feedback learning, which in turn may be modulated by DA and 5HT transmission. We analyzed long-term, off-drug changes in learning from positive and negative feedback and associated striatal DA transporter (DAT) and frontocortical 5HT transporter (SERT) binding in rats pretreated with methamphetamine (mAMPH). Specifically, we assessed the reversal phase of pairwise visual discrimination learning in rats receiving single dose- (mAMPHsingle) vs. escalating-dose exposure (mAMPHescal). Using fine-grained trial-by-trial analyses, we found increased sensitivity to and reliance on positive feedback in mAMPH-pretreated animals, with the mAMPHsingle group showing more pronounced use of this type of feedback. In contrast, overall negative feedback sensitivity was not altered following any mAMPH treatment. In addition to validating the enduring effects of mAMPH on early reversal learning, we found more consecutive error commissions before the first correct response in mAMPH-pretreated rats. This behavioral rigidity was negatively correlated with subregional frontocortical SERT whereas positive feedback sensitivity negatively correlated with striatal DAT binding. These results provide new evidence for the overlapping, yet dissociable roles of DA and 5HT systems in overcoming perseveration and in learning new reward rules.

  6. EMG feedback tasks reduce reflexive stiffness during force and position perturbations.

    PubMed

    Forbes, Patrick A; Happee, Riender; van der Helm, Frans C T; Schouten, Alfred C

    2011-08-01

    Force and position perturbations are widely applied to identify muscular and reflexive contributions to posture maintenance of the arm. Both task instruction (force vs. position) and the inherently linked perturbation type (i.e., force perturbations-position task and position perturbations-force tasks) affect these contributions and their mutual balance. The goal of this study is to explore the modulation of muscular and reflexive contributions in shoulder muscles using EMG biofeedback. The EMG biofeedback provides a harmonized task instruction to facilitate the investigation of perturbation type effects irrespective of task instruction. External continuous force and position perturbations with a bandwidth of 0.5-20 Hz were applied at the hand while subjects maintained prescribed constant levels of muscular co-activation using visual feedback of an EMG biofeedback signal. Joint admittance and reflexive impedance were identified in the frequency domain, and parametric identification separated intrinsic muscular and reflexive feedback properties. In tests with EMG biofeedback, perturbation type (position and force) had no effect on joint admittance and reflexive impedance, indicating task as the dominant factor. A reduction in muscular and reflexive stiffness was observed when performing the EMG biofeedback task relative to the position task. Reflexive position feedback was effectively suppressed during the equivalent EMG biofeedback task, while velocity and acceleration feedback were both decreased by approximately 37%. This indicates that force perturbations with position tasks are a more effective paradigm to investigate complete dynamic motor control of the arm, while EMG tasks tend to reduce the reflexive contribution.

  7. On the Feed-back Mechanism of Chinese Stock Markets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shu Quan; Ito, Takao; Zhang, Jianbo

    Feed-back models in the stock markets research imply an adjustment process toward investors' expectation for current information and past experiences. Error-correction and cointegration are often used to evaluate the long-run relation. The Efficient Capital Market Hypothesis, which had ignored the effect of the accumulation of information, cannot explain some anomalies such as bubbles and partial predictability in the stock markets. In order to investigate the feed-back mechanism and to determine an effective model, we use daily data of the stock index of two Chinese stock markets with the expectational model, which is one kind of geometric lag models. Tests and estimations of error-correction show that long-run equilibrium seems to be seldom achieved in Chinese stock markets. Our result clearly shows the common coefficient of expectations and fourth-order autoregressive disturbance exist in the two Chinese stock markets. Furthermore, we find the same coefficient of expectations has an autoregressive effect on disturbances in the two Chinese stock markets. Therefore the presence of such feed-back is also supported in Chinese stock markets.

  8. Physical mechanisms of low-latitude cloud feedback on climate change (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bretherton, C. S.

    2009-12-01

    Recent studies of the AR4 coupled climate models suggest that all have positive cloud feedbacks and that cloud feedbacks are still the dominant source of intermodel variability in climate sensitivity (Soden and Held 2006). Separation of the cloud response by latitude band and dynamical regime (Bony et al. 2006) shows that subtropical boundary-layer cloud induces most of the intermodel variability. We argue that overall cloud feedback is positive mainly because of the Hartmann-Larson (2002) Fixed Anvil Temperature (FAT) hypothesis. In both GCMs and CRMs, tropical deep convective cloudtops rise in a warmer climate, maintaining a constant temperature. This can be rationalized as a consequence of the strong dependence of saturation humidity and cloud microphysics on temperature. The result is a strong positive climate feedback. In most models, it is partly compensated by a slight decrease in high cloud amount as convection becomes more geographically focused. Most, but not all, GCMs predict a positive subtropical low cloud feedback as well, associated with decreased cloud cover in a warmer climate. Physical mechanisms of low-cloud sensitivity to climate change are poorly understood. It is argued that the diverse GCM responses reflect different parameterized responses to roughly the same changes in the large-scale environment of marine subtropical boundary layers as the climate warms. Two such robust changes are more warming above the boundary layer than at the surface (a strengthened trade inversion) due to the increased stratification of a moist adiabat in a warmer climate, and a reduction in boundary-layer radiative cooling due to the greenhouse effect of CO2. The strengthened inversion favors cloud increases, while reduced radiative cooling favors cloud decreases. An increased moisture jump across the inversion in a warmer climate has also been argued to destabilize inversion cloud, producing a positive feedback (Lock 2009). These uncertain and counteracting

  9. The negative shortwave cloud feedback at high latitudes: mechanisms and observational constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ceppi, Paulo; McCoy, Daniel; Hartmann, Dennis; Webb, Mark

    2016-04-01

    Climate models agree on a negative shortwave cloud feedback at high latitudes, driven by increases in cloud optical depth and liquid water path (LWP), but the mechanisms remain uncertain. We assess the importance of microphysical processes for the negative optical depth feedback by perturbing temperature in the microphysics schemes of two aquaplanet models, both of which have separate prognostic equations for liquid water and ice. We find that most of the LWP increase with warming is caused by a suppression of ice microphysical processes in mixed-phase clouds, resulting in reduced conversion efficiencies of liquid water to ice and precipitation, and yielding an enhanced reservoir of cloud liquid water. Hence, in climate models, the suppression of ice-phase microphysics that deplete cloud liquid water is a key mechanism of the LWP increase with warming and of the associated negative shortwave cloud feedback in cold clouds. In support of these findings, we show the existence of a very robust positive relationship between monthly-mean LWP and temperature in CMIP5 models and observations in mixed-phase cloud regions only. In models, the historical LWP sensitivity to temperature is a good predictor of the forced global warming response poleward of about 45°, although models appear to overestimate the LWP response to warming compared to observations. Historical cloud optical depth-temperature relationships are shown to provide an observational constraint on the modeled cloud feedback, and support the prediction of a negative cloud feedback at high latitudes. Because optical thickening with warming is supported by simple temperature-dependent mechanisms and dominates over cloud amount changes, we conclude that the shortwave cloud feedback is very likely negative in mid to high latitudes.

  10. Emergent bistability by a growth-modulating positive feedback circuit.

    PubMed

    Tan, Cheemeng; Marguet, Philippe; You, Lingchong

    2009-11-01

    Synthetic gene circuits are often engineered by considering the host cell as an invariable 'chassis'. Circuit activation, however, may modulate host physiology, which in turn can substantially impact circuit behavior. We illustrate this point by a simple circuit consisting of mutant T7 RNA polymerase (T7 RNAP*) that activates its own expression in the bacterium Escherichia coli. Although activation by the T7 RNAP* is noncooperative, the circuit caused bistable gene expression. This counterintuitive observation can be explained by growth retardation caused by circuit activation, which resulted in nonlinear dilution of T7 RNAP* in individual bacteria. Predictions made by models accounting for such effects were verified by further experimental measurements. Our results reveal a new mechanism of generating bistability and underscore the need to account for host physiology modulation when engineering gene circuits.

  11. Stabilizing PID controllers for a single-link biomechanical model with position, velocity, and force feedback.

    PubMed

    Iqbal, Kamran; Roy, Anindo

    2004-12-01

    In this paper we address the problem of PID stabilization of a single-link inverted pendulum-based biomechanical model with force feedback, two levels of position and velocity feedback, and with delays in all the feedback loops. The novelty of the proposed model lies in its physiological relevance, whereby both small and medium latency sensory feedbacks from muscle spindle (MS), and force feedback from Golgi tendon organ (GTO) are included in the formulation. The biomechanical model also includes active and passive viscoelastic feedback from Hill-type muscle model and a second-order low-pass function for muscle activation. The central nervous system (CNS) regulation of postural movement is represented by a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller. Padé approximation of delay terms is employed to arrive at an overall rational transfer function of the biomechanical model. The Hermite-Biehler theorem is then used to derive stability results, leading to the existence of stabilizing PID controllers. An algorithm for selection of stabilizing feedback gains is developed using the linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach.

  12. Control of cardiac alternans by mechanical and electrical feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yapari, Felicia; Deshpande, Dipen; Belhamadia, Youssef; Dubljevic, Stevan

    2014-07-01

    A persistent alternation in the cardiac action potential duration has been linked to the onset of ventricular arrhythmia, which may lead to sudden cardiac death. A coupling between these cardiac alternans and the intracellular calcium dynamics has also been identified in previous studies. In this paper, the system of PDEs describing the small amplitude of alternans and the alternation of peak intracellular Ca2+ are stabilized by optimal boundary and spatially distributed actuation. A simulation study demonstrating the successful annihilation of both alternans on a one-dimensional cable of cardiac cells by utilizing the full-state feedback controller is presented. Complimentary to these studies, a three variable Nash-Panfilov model is used to investigate alternans annihilation via mechanical (or stretch) perturbations. The coupled model includes the active stress which defines the mechanical properties of the tissue and is utilized in the feedback algorithm as an independent input from the pacing based controller realization in alternans annihilation. Simulation studies of both control methods demonstrate that the proposed methods can successfully annihilate alternans in cables that are significantly longer than 1 cm, thus overcoming the limitations of earlier control efforts.

  13. 78 FR 36190 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-17

    ... ADMINISTRATION Agency Information Collection Activities; Submission for OMB Review; IT Dashboard Feedback... request to review and approve a previously approved information collection requirement regarding IT... comments identified by Information Collection 3090- 0285, IT Dashboard Feedback Mechanism, by any of...

  14. Extremum seeking x-ray position feedback using power line harmonic leakage as the perturbation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zohar, S.; Kissick, D. J.; Venugopalan, N.; Ogata, C. M.; Makarov, O.; Stepanov, S.; Fischetti, R. F.

    2016-09-01

    Small x-ray beam sizes necessary for probing nanoscale phenomena require exquisite stability to prevent data corruption by noise. One source of instability at synchrotron radiation x-ray beamlines is the slow detuning of x-ray optics to marginal alignment where the onset of clipping increases the beam's susceptibility to higher frequency position oscillations. In this article, we show that a 1 μ m amplitude horizontal x-ray beam oscillation driven by power line harmonic leakage into the electron storage ring can be used as perturbation for horizontal position extremum seeking feedback. Feedback performance is characterized by convergence to 1.5% away from maximum intensity at optimal alignment.

  15. Cellular mechanisms for integral feedback in visually guided behavior.

    PubMed

    Schnell, Bettina; Weir, Peter T; Roth, Eatai; Fairhall, Adrienne L; Dickinson, Michael H

    2014-04-15

    Sensory feedback is a ubiquitous feature of guidance systems in both animals and engineered vehicles. For example, a common strategy for moving along a straight path is to turn such that the measured rate of rotation is zero. This task can be accomplished by using a feedback signal that is proportional to the instantaneous value of the measured sensory signal. In such a system, the addition of an integral term depending on past values of the sensory input is needed to eliminate steady-state error [proportional-integral (PI) control]. However, the means by which nervous systems implement such a computation are poorly understood. Here, we show that the optomotor responses of flying Drosophila follow a time course consistent with temporal integration of horizontal motion input. To investigate the cellular basis of this effect, we performed whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from the set of identified visual interneurons [horizontal system (HS) cells] thought to control this reflex during tethered flight. At high stimulus speeds, HS cells exhibit steady-state responses during flight that are absent during quiescence, a state-dependent difference in physiology that is explained by changes in their presynaptic inputs. However, even during flight, the membrane potential of the large-field interneurons exhibits no evidence for integration that could explain the behavioral responses. However, using a genetically encoded indicator, we found that calcium accumulates in the terminals of the interneurons along a time course consistent with the behavior and propose that this accumulation provides a mechanism for temporal integration of sensory feedback consistent with PI control.

  16. Positive And Negative Feedback Loops Coupled By Common Transcription Activator And Repressor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sielewiesiuk, Jan; Łopaciuk, Agata

    2015-03-01

    Dynamical systems consisting of two interlocked loops with negative and positive feedback have been studied using the linear analysis of stability and numerical solutions. Conditions for saddle-node bifurcation were formulated in a general form. Conditions for Hopf bifurcations were found in a few symmetrical cases. Auto-oscillations, when they exist, are generated by the negative feedback repressive loop. This loop determines the frequency and amplitude of oscillations. The positive feedback loop of activation slightly modifies the oscillations. Oscillations are possible when the difference between Hilll's coefficients of the repression and activation is sufficiently high. The highly cooperative activation loop with a fast turnover slows down or even makes the oscillations impossible. The system under consideration can constitute a component of epigenetic or enzymatic regulation network.

  17. The resonant excitation of a wineglass using positive feedback with optical sensing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skeldon, Kenneth D.; Nadeau, Valerie J.; Adams, Christopher

    1998-10-01

    We describe an apparatus that will sense the vibration of a wineglass through the jitter induced on a laser beam reflected from the glass wall. A positive feedback system provides a high level sound-wave-train that maintains the vibration of the glass, while a light-emitting diode lighting panel, also deriving its signal from the feedback system, allows the motion of the glass to be clearly observed in a user-controllable way. The positive feedback signal, along with observations from some additional experiments, can be used to highlight some of the nonlinear aspects of the resonance. Although the apparatus is primarily intended as a demonstration exhibit, we have found it useful also as a physics teaching aid.

  18. The motivating role of positive feedback in sport and physical education: evidence for a motivational model.

    PubMed

    Mouratidis, Athanasios; Vansteenkiste, Maarten; Lens, Willy; Sideridis, Georgios

    2008-04-01

    Based on self-determination theory (Deci & Ryan, 2000), an experimental study with middle school students participating in a physical education task and a correlational study with highly talented sport students investigated the motivating role of positive competence feedback on participants' well-being, performance, and intention to participate. In Study 1, structural equation modeling favored the hypothesized motivational model, in which, after controlling for pretask perceived competence and competence valuation, feedback positively predicted competence satisfaction, which in turn predicted higher levels of vitality and greater intentions to participate, through the mediation of autonomous motivation. No effects on performance were found. Study 2 further showed that autonomous motivation mediated the relation between competence satisfaction and well-being, whereas a motivation mediated the negative relation between competence satisfaction and ill-being and rated performance. The discussion focuses on the motivational role of competence feedback in sports and physical education settings.

  19. A Positive Autoregulatory BDNF Feedback Loop via C/EBPβ Mediates Hippocampal Memory Consolidation

    PubMed Central

    Bambah-Mukku, Dhananjay; Travaglia, Alessio; Chen, Dillon Y.; Pollonini, Gabriella

    2014-01-01

    Little is known about the temporal progression and regulation of the mechanisms underlying memory consolidation. Brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor (BDNF) has been shown to mediate the maintenance of memory consolidation, but the mechanisms of this regulation remain unclear. Using inhibitory avoidance (IA) in rats, here we show that a hippocampal BDNF-positive autoregulatory feedback loop via CCAAT-enhancer binding protein β (C/EBPβ) is necessary to mediate memory consolidation. At training, a very rapid, learning-induced requirement of BDNF accompanied by rapid de novo translation controls the induction of a persistent activation of cAMP-response element binding-protein (CREB) and C/EBPβ expression. The latter, in turn, controls an increase in expression of bdnf exon IV transcripts and BDNF protein, both of which are necessary and, together with the initial BDNF requirement, mediate memory consolidation. The autoregulatory loop terminates by 48 h after training with decreased C/EBPβ and pCREB and increased methyl-CpG binding protein-2, histone-deacetylase-2, and switch-independent-3a binding at the bdnf exon IV promoter. PMID:25209292

  20. Positive force feedback in development of substrate grip in the stick insect tarsus.

    PubMed

    Zill, Sasha N; Chaudhry, Sumaiya; Exter, Annelie; Büschges, Ansgar; Schmitz, Josef

    2014-09-01

    The mechanics of substrate adhesion has recently been intensively studied in insects but less is known about the sensorimotor control of substrate engagement. We characterized the responses and motor effects of tarsal campaniform sensilla in stick insects to understand how sensory signals of force could contribute to substrate grip. The tarsi consist of a chain of segments linked by highly flexible articulations. Morphological studies showed that one to four campaniform sensilla are located on the distal end of each segment. Activities of the receptors were recorded neurographically and sensilla were identified by stimulation and ablation of their cuticular caps. Responses were characterized to bending forces and axial loads, muscle contractions and to forces applied to the retractor apodeme (tendon). The tarsal sensilla effectively encoded both the rate and amplitude of loads and muscle forces, but only when movement was resisted. Mechanical stimulation of the receptors produced activation of motor neurons in the retractor unguis and tibial flexor muscles. These findings indicate that campaniform sensilla can provide information about the effectiveness of the leg muscles in generating substrate adherence. They can also produce positive force feedback that could contribute to the development of substrate grip and stabilization of the tarsal chain.

  1. The jet feedback mechanism (JFM) in stars, galaxies and clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, Noam

    2016-12-01

    I review the influence jets and the bubbles they inflate might have on their ambient gas as they operate through a negative jet feedback mechanism (JFM). I discuss astrophysical systems where jets are observed to influence the ambient gas, in many cases by inflating large, hot, and low-density bubbles, and systems where the operation of the JFM is still a theoretical suggestion. The first group includes cooling flows in galaxies and clusters of galaxies, star-forming galaxies, young stellar objects, and bipolar planetary nebulae. The second group includes core collapse supernovae, the common envelope evolution, the grazing envelope evolution, and intermediate luminosity optical transients. The suggestion that the JFM operates in these four types of systems is based on the assumption that jets are much more common than what is inferred from objects where they are directly observed. Common to all eight types of systems reviewed here is the presence of a compact object inside an extended ambient gas. The ambient gas serves as a potential reservoir of mass to be accreted on to the compact object. If the compact object launches jets as it accretes mass, the jets might reduce the accretion rate as they deposit energy to the ambient gas, or even remove the entire ambient gas, hence closing a negative feedback cycle.

  2. Angular Positioning Sensor for Space Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steiner, Nicolas; Chapuis, Dominique

    2013-09-01

    Angular position sensors are used on various rotating mechanisms such as solar array drive mechanisms, antenna pointing mechanisms, scientific instruments, motors or actuators.Now a days, potentiometers and encoders are mainly used for angular measurement purposes. Both of them have their own pros and cons.As alternative, Ruag Space Switzerland Nyon (RSSN) is developing and qualifying two innovative technologies of angular position sensors which offer easy implementation, medium to very high lifetime and high flexibility with regards to the output signal shape/type.The Brushed angular position sensor uses space qualified processes which are already flying on RSSN's sliprings for many years. A large variety of output signal shape can be implemented to fulfill customer requirements (digital, analog, customized, etc.).The contactless angular position sensor consists in a new radiation hard Application Specific Integrated Circuit (ASIC) based on the Hall effect and providing the angular position without complex processing algorithm.

  3. Confinement and diffusion modulate bistability and stochastic switching in a reaction network with positive feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Mlynarczyk, Paul J.; Pullen, Robert H.; Abel, Steven M.

    2016-01-07

    Positive feedback is a common feature in signal transduction networks and can lead to phenomena such as bistability and signal propagation by domain growth. Physical features of the cellular environment, such as spatial confinement and the mobility of proteins, play important but inadequately understood roles in shaping the behavior of signaling networks. Here, we use stochastic, spatially resolved kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to explore a positive feedback network as a function of system size, system shape, and mobility of molecules. We show that these physical properties can markedly alter characteristics of bistability and stochastic switching when compared with well-mixed simulations. Notably, systems of equal volume but different shapes can exhibit qualitatively different behaviors under otherwise identical conditions. We show that stochastic switching to a state maintained by positive feedback occurs by cluster formation and growth. Additionally, the frequency at which switching occurs depends nontrivially on the diffusion coefficient, which can promote or suppress switching relative to the well-mixed limit. Taken together, the results provide a framework for understanding how confinement and protein mobility influence emergent features of the positive feedback network by modulating molecular concentrations, diffusion-influenced rate parameters, and spatiotemporal correlations between molecules.

  4. Negative Feedback and Positive Evidence in Task-Based Interaction: Differential Effects on L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iwashita, Noriko

    2003-01-01

    This study examines the role of task-based conversation in second language (L2) grammatical development, focusing on the short-term effects of both negative feedback and positive evidence on the acquisition of two Japanese structures. The data are drawn from 55 L2 learners of Japanese at a beginning level of proficiency in an Australian tertiary…

  5. Microcantilever Displacement Measurement Using a Mechanically Modulated Optical Feedback Interferometer.

    PubMed

    Azcona, Francisco J; Jha, Ajit; Yáñez, Carlos; Atashkhooei, Reza; Royo, Santiago

    2016-06-29

    Microcantilever motion detection is a useful tool for the characterization of the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials. In the past, different approaches have been proposed and tested to enhance the behavior, size and simplicity of microcantilever motion detectors. In this paper, a new approach to measure microcantilever motion with nanometric resolution is presented. The proposed approach is based on the concept of mechanically-modulated optical feedback interferometry, a technique that has shown displacement measurement capabilities well within the nanometric scale and that, due to its size, compactness and low cost, may be a suitable choice for measuring nanometric motions in cantilever-like sensors. It will be shown that the sensor, in its current state of development, is capable of following a cantilever sinusoidal trajectory at different sets of frequencies ranging up to 200 Hz and peak to peak amplitudes up to λ / 2 with experimental resolutions in the λ / 100 range.

  6. Feedback-Enhanced Parametric Squeezing of Mechanical Motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinante, A.; Falferi, P.

    2013-11-01

    We present a single-quadrature feedback scheme able to overcome the conventional 3 dB limit on parametric squeezing. The method is experimentally demonstrated in a micromechanical system based on a cantilever with a magnetic tip. The cantilever is detected at low temperature by a SQUID susceptometer, while parametric pumping is obtained by modulating the magnetic field gradient at twice the cantilever frequency. A maximum squeezing of 11.5 dB and 11.3 dB is observed, respectively, in the response to a sinusoidal test signal and in the thermomechanical noise. So far, the maximum squeezing factor is limited only by the maximum achievable parametric modulation. The proposed technique might be used to squeeze one quadrature of a mechanical resonator below the quantum noise level, even without the need for a quantum limited detector.

  7. Microcantilever Displacement Measurement Using a Mechanically Modulated Optical Feedback Interferometer

    PubMed Central

    Azcona, Francisco J.; Jha, Ajit; Yáñez, Carlos; Atashkhooei, Reza; Royo, Santiago

    2016-01-01

    Microcantilever motion detection is a useful tool for the characterization of the physical, chemical and biological properties of materials. In the past, different approaches have been proposed and tested to enhance the behavior, size and simplicity of microcantilever motion detectors. In this paper, a new approach to measure microcantilever motion with nanometric resolution is presented. The proposed approach is based on the concept of mechanically-modulated optical feedback interferometry, a technique that has shown displacement measurement capabilities well within the nanometric scale and that, due to its size, compactness and low cost, may be a suitable choice for measuring nanometric motions in cantilever-like sensors. It will be shown that the sensor, in its current state of development, is capable of following a cantilever sinusoidal trajectory at different sets of frequencies ranging up to 200 Hz and peak to peak amplitudes up to λ/2 with experimental resolutions in the λ/100 range. PMID:27367702

  8. Quantum feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator using variational measurements: tweaking Heisenberg’s microscope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habibi, Hojat; Zeuthen, Emil; Ghanaatshoar, Majid; Hammerer, Klemens

    2016-08-01

    We revisit the problem of preparing a mechanical oscillator in the vicinity of its quantum-mechanical ground state by means of feedback cooling based on continuous optical detection of the oscillator position. In the parameter regime relevant to ground-state cooling, the optical back-action and imprecision noise set the bottleneck of achievable cooling and must be carefully balanced. This can be achieved by adapting the phase of the local oscillator in the homodyne detection realizing a so-called variational measurement. The trade-off between accurate position measurement and minimal disturbance can be understood in terms of Heisenberg’s microscope and becomes particularly relevant when the measurement and feedback processes happen to be fast within the quantum coherence time of the system to be cooled. This corresponds to the regime of large quantum cooperativity {C}{{q}}≳ 1, which was achieved in recent experiments on feedback cooling. Our method provides a simple path to further pushing the limits of current state-of-the-art experiments in quantum optomechanics.

  9. Can interactive educational technologies support the link between ultrasound theory and practice via feedback mechanisms?

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Linking theory to practice is an area of concern for ultrasound students, clinical mentors and academic staff. The link between theory and practice requires a robust clinical mentorship scheme in addition to careful curricula design considerations to improve student outcomes. The introduction of interactive technology in education provides ripe opportunity to improve feedback to students to support the link between theory and practice. A series of three interactive learning and teaching activities were designed and delivered to a PostGraduate Ultrasound cohort, after which, evaluation was performed to answer the research question: Which interactive technologies support the link between theory and practice through improved feedback mechanisms? An action research methodology was adopted involving an enquiry based literature review, planning, design and action process. Data were collected following action of three interactive teaching and learning sessions within the Medical Ultrasound cohort of 2013/2014 at Glasgow Caledonian University via a paper based questionnaire. A 100% response rate was achieved (n = 14). All three interactive learning and teaching sessions were considered with 100% highest point agreement to support the link between ultrasound theory and practice via feedback. Students found all three designed and facilitated sessions valuable and relevant to their learning, which in turn provided positive experiences which were perceived to support the link between theory and practice through feedback. These activities can be considered valuable in Postgraduate Ultrasound education. PMID:27433244

  10. Vegetation dynamics and plant CO2 responses as positive feedbacks in a greenhouse world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'ishi, Ryouta; Abe-Ouchi, Ayako; Prentice, I. Colin; Sitch, Stephen

    2009-06-01

    An atmosphere-ocean-vegetation coupled model is used to quantify the biogeophysical feedback that emerges as vegetation adjusts dynamically to a quadrupling of atmospheric CO2. This feedback amplifies global warming by 13%. About half of it is due to climatically induced expansion of boreal forest into tundra, reinforced by reductions in snow and sea ice cover. The other half represents a global climatic effect of increased vegetative cover (an indirect consequence of plant physiological responses to CO2) in the semi-arid subtropics. Enhanced absorption of shortwave radiation in these regions produces a net surface warming, which the atmosphere communicates poleward. The greatest vegetation-induced warming is co-located with large, vulnerable carbon stores in the north. These lose carbon, so that in the long term, the biospheric response to CO2 and climate change becomes dominated by positive feedbacks that overwhelm the effect of CO2 fertilization on terrestrial carbon stocks.

  11. The regulation of positive and negative social feedback: A psychophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; Remue, Jonathan; Ng, Kwun Kei; Mueller, Sven C; De Raedt, Rudi

    2015-09-01

    Everyday social evaluations are psychologically potent and trigger self-reflective thoughts and feelings. The present study sought to examine the psychophysiological impact of such evaluations using eye tracking, pupillometry, and heart-rate variability. Fifty-nine healthy adult volunteers received rigged social feedback (criticism and praise) based on their photograph. Gaze data were collected to investigate processes of attentional deployment/allocation toward the self or the evaluator expressing criticism or praise. Whereas voluntary attention was directed to evaluators who expressed praise, attention was drawn to one's own picture after criticism. Pupil dilation and heart-rate variability were larger in response to criticism as compared to praise, suggesting a flexible and adaptive emotion regulatory effort in response to social information that triggers an affective response. Altogether, healthy individuals recruited more regulatory resources to cope with negative (as compared to positive) social feedback, and this processing of social feedback was associated with adjustments in self-focused attention.

  12. ON THE EXTREME POSITIVE STAR FORMATION FEEDBACK CONDITION IN SCUBA SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Silich, Sergiy; Tenorio-Tagle, Guillermo; Hueyotl-Zahuantitla, Filiberto; Munoz-Tunon, Casiana; Wuensch, Richard; Palous, Jan

    2010-03-01

    We present a detailed study of the hydrodynamics of the matter reinserted by massive stars via stellar winds and supernovae explosions in young assembling galaxies. We show that the interplay between the thermalization of the kinetic energy provided by massive stars, radiative cooling of the thermalized plasma, and the gravitational pull of the host galaxy lead to three different hydrodynamic regimes. These are: (1) the quasi-adiabatic supergalactic winds; (2) the bimodal flows, with mass accumulation in the central zones and gas expulsion from the outer zones of the assembling galaxy; and (3) the gravitationally bound regime, for which all of the gas returned by massive stars remains bound to the host galaxy and is likely to be reprocessed into further generations of stars. Which of the three possible solutions takes place depends on the mass of the star-forming region, its mechanical luminosity (or star formation rate), and its size. The model predicts that massive assembling galaxies with large star formation rates similar to those detected in Submillimeter Common-User Bolometric Array sources ({approx}1000 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}) are likely to evolve in a positive star formation feedback condition, either in the bimodal or in the gravitationally bound regime. This implies that star formation in these sources may have little impact on the intergalactic medium and result instead into a fast interstellar matter enrichment, as observed in high redshift quasars.

  13. A positive feedback loop between Dumbfounded and Rolling pebbles leads to myotube enlargement in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Menon, Sree Devi; Osman, Zalina; Chenchill, Kho; Chia, William

    2005-01-01

    In Drosophila, myoblasts are subdivided into founders and fusion-competent myoblasts (fcm) with myotubes forming through fusion of one founder and several fcm. Duf and rolling pebbles 7 (Rols7; also known as antisocial) are expressed in founders, whereas sticks and stones (SNS) is present in fcm. Duf attracts fcm toward founders and also causes translocation of Rols7 from the cytoplasm to the fusion site. We show that Duf is a type 1 transmembrane protein that induces Rols7 translocation specifically when present intact and engaged in homophilic or Duf–SNS adhesion. Although its membrane-anchored extracellular domain functions as an attractant and is sufficient for the initial round of fusion, subsequent fusions require replenishment of Duf through cotranslocation with Rols7 tetratricopeptide repeat/coiled-coil domain-containing vesicles to the founder/myotube surface, causing both Duf and Rols7 to be at fusion sites between founders/myotubes and fcm. This implicates the Duf–Rols7 positive feedback loop to the occurrence of fusion at specific sites along the membrane and provides a mechanism by which the rate of fusion is controlled. PMID:15955848

  14. A Positive Feedback Loop between Akt and mTORC2 via SIN1 Phosphorylation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guang; Murashige, Danielle S; Humphrey, Sean J; James, David E

    2015-08-11

    The mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 2 (mTORC2) regulates cell survival and cytoskeletal organization by phosphorylating its AGC kinase substrates; however, little is known about the regulation of mTORC2 itself. It was previously reported that Akt phosphorylates the mTORC2 subunit SIN1 at T86, activating mTORC2 through a positive feedback loop, though another study reported that S6K phosphorylates SIN1 at the same site, inhibiting mTORC2 activity. We performed extensive analysis of SIN1 phosphorylation upon inhibition of Akt, S6K, and mTOR under diverse cellular contexts, and we found that, in all cell lines and conditions studied, Akt is the major kinase responsible for SIN1 phosphorylation. These findings refine the activation mechanism of the Akt-mTORC2 signaling branch as follows: PDK1 phosphorylates Akt at T308, increasing Akt kinase activity. Akt phosphorylates SIN1 at T86, enhancing mTORC2 kinase activity, which leads to phosphorylation of Akt S473 by mTORC2, thereby catalyzing full activation of Akt.

  15. Combination of the Flow Disturbance Observer and Base Plate Jerk Feedback in a Pneumatic Positioning Stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wali, Mohebullah; Wakui, Shinji

    Pneumatic actuation systems are commonly used to drive the positioning stage due to several merits. However, one of the critical demerits of the pneumatic systems is the problem of the compressibility, which results in the flow disturbance. Another problem of the positioning stage can be addressed to the vibration which occurs due to the active condition of the base plate. This paper concerns the mentioned two issues in a pneumatic positioning stage. In order to suppress the flow disturbance and to reduce the horizontal vibration of the stage due to the reaction force, a combined control scheme is proposed. This scheme is composed of the fusion of flow disturbance observer (FDOB) and base plate jerk feedback (BPJFB) scheme. An enhanced experimental methodology is provided to successfully implement the fusion of the mentioned feedback controllers. The results show the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. On the feedback mechanism in supersonic cavity flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Weipeng; Nonomura, Taku; Fujii, Kozo

    2013-05-01

    Self-sustained oscillations in supersonic cavity flows are investigated by implicit large-eddy simulations of a supersonic flow (M∞ = 2.0, ReD = 105) past a three-dimensional rectangular cavity with length-to-depth ratio of 2. Both turbulent and laminar inflows are considered, and a variation of boundary-layer thickness in the turbulent inflow case is conducted. An additional simulation of turbulent free shear layer is also performed to illustrate the relationship between shedding vortices and acoustic excitations. Feedback mechanism is identified as the dominant mechanism driving the self-sustained oscillations in supersonic open cavity flows, regardless of the upstream turbulent state and the boundary-layer thickness. The generation of discrete vortices in the cavity shear layer is shown to be highly associated with acoustic excitations rather than natural instabilities of the cavity shear layer. Simulation results support that the primary noise source arises from the successive passage of large-scale vortices over the cavity trailing edge. The effects of upstream boundary layer on the shear-layer characteristics and acoustic fields will also be discussed.

  17. Switching between colors and shapes on the basis of positive and negative feedback: an fMRI and EEG study on feedback-based learning.

    PubMed

    Zanolie, Kiki; Teng, Santani; Donohue, Sarah E; van Duijvenvoorde, Anna C K; Band, Guido P H; Rombouts, Serge A R B; Crone, Eveline A

    2008-05-01

    A crucial element of testing hypotheses about rules for behavior is the use of performance feedback. In this study, we used fMRI and EEG to test the role of medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) and dorsolateral (DL) PFC in hypothesis testing using a modified intradimensional/extradimensional rule shift task. Eighteen adults were asked to infer rules about color or shape on the basis of positive and negative feedback in sets of two trials. Half of the trials involved color-to-color or shape-to-shape trials (intradimensional switches; ID) and the other half involved color-to-shape or shape-to-color trials (extradimensional switches; ED). Participants performed the task in separate fMRI and EEG sessions. ED trials were associated with reduced accuracy relative to ID trials. In addition, accuracy was reduced and response latencies increased following negative relative to positive feedback. Negative feedback resulted in increased activation in medial PFC and DLPFC, but more so for ED than ID shifts. Reduced accuracy following negative feedback correlated with increased activation in DLPFC, and increased response latencies following negative feedback correlated with increased activation in medial PFC. Additionally, around 250msec following negative performance feedback participants showed a feedback-related negative scalp potential, but this potential did not differ between ID and ED shifts. These results indicate that both medial PFC and DLPFC signal the need for performance adjustment, and both regions are sensitive to the increased demands of set shifting in hypothesis testing.

  18. Photon wave mechanics and position eigenvectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hawton, Margaret

    2007-06-01

    One and two photon wave functions are derived by projecting the quantum state vector onto simultaneous eigenvectors of the number operator and a recently constructed photon position operator [Phys. Rev. A 59, 954 (1999)] that couples spin and orbital angular momentum. While only the Landau-Peierls wave function defines a positive definite photon density, a similarity transformation to a biorthogonal field-potential pair of positive frequency solutions of Maxwell’s equations preserves eigenvalues and expectation values. We show that this real space description of photons is compatible with all of the usual rules of quantum mechanics and provides a framework for understanding the relationships amongst different forms of the photon wave function in the literature. It also gives a quantum picture of the optical angular momentum of beams that applies to both one photon and coherent states. According to the rules of quantum mechanics, this wave function gives the probability to count a photon at any position in space.

  19. Positive low cloud and dust feedbacks amplify tropical North Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, Tianle; Oreopoulos, Lazaros; Zelinka, Mark; Yu, Hongbin; Norris, Joel R.; Chin, Mian; Platnick, Steven; Meyer, Kerry

    2016-02-01

    The Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) is characterized by a horseshoe pattern of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies and has a wide range of climatic impacts. While the tropical arm of AMO is responsible for many of these impacts, it is either too weak or completely absent in many climate model simulations. Here we show, using both observational and model evidence, that the radiative effect of positive low cloud and dust feedbacks is strong enough to generate the tropical arm of AMO, with the low cloud feedback more dominant. The feedbacks can be understood in a consistent dynamical framework: weakened tropical trade wind speed in response to a warm middle latitude SST anomaly reduces dust loading and low cloud fraction over the tropical Atlantic, which warms the tropical North Atlantic SST. Together they contribute to the appearance of the tropical arm of AMO. Most current climate models miss both the critical wind speed response and two positive feedbacks though realistic simulations of them may be essential for many climatic studies related to the AMO.

  20. Eliminating the possibility at Chernobyl 4 of recriticality with positive feedback

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, C.D.

    1996-04-29

    We have recently published an article in which we discuss means by which plutonium and other fissile material stored underground could reach criticality with positive feedback and therefore explosive potential. The Chernobyl rubble involving hundreds of tons of material is similar in some respects to the systems analyzed in the paper, and the practices there to control criticality may well increase the probability of a second event at Chernobyl 4. This paper explores the Chernobyl situation and remedial actions are recommended.

  1. CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter N.; Austin, Phillip H.; Bacmeister, Julio T.; Bony, Sandrine; Brient, Florent; Cheedela, Suvarchal K.; Cheng, Anning; DelGenio, Anthony; DeRoode, Stephan R.; Endo, Satoshi; Franklin, Charmaine N.; Oolaz, Jean-Christophe; Hannay, Cecile; Heus, Thijs; Isotta, Francesco Alessandro; Dufresne, Jean-Louis; Kang, In-Sik; Kawai, Hideaki; Kiehler, Martin; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Yangang; Lock, Adrian P.; Lohmann, Ulrike; Molod, Andrea M.; Suarez, Max J.

    2013-01-01

    1] CGILS-the CFMIP-GASS Intercomparison of Large Eddy Models (LESs) and single column models (SCMs)-investigates the mechanisms of cloud feedback in SCMs and LESs under idealized climate change perturbation. This paper describes the CGILS results from 15 SCMs and 8 LES models. Three cloud regimes over the subtropical oceans are studied: shallow cumulus, cumulus under stratocumulus, and well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus. In the stratocumulus and coastal stratus regimes, SCMs without activated shallow convection generally simulated negative cloud feedbacks, while models with active shallow convection generally simulated positive cloud feedbacks. In the shallow cumulus alone regime, this relationship is less clear, likely due to the changes in cloud depth, lateral mixing, and precipitation or a combination of them. The majority of LES models simulated negative cloud feedback in the well-mixed coastal stratus/stratocumulus regime, and positive feedback in the shallow cumulus and stratocumulus regime. A general framework is provided to interpret SCM results: in a warmer climate, the moistening rate of the cloudy layer associated with the surface-based turbulence parameterization is enhanced; together with weaker large-scale subsidence, it causes negative cloud feedback. In contrast, in the warmer climate, the drying rate associated with the shallow convection scheme is enhanced. This causes positive cloud feedback. These mechanisms are summarized as the "NESTS" negative cloud feedback and the "SCOPE" positive cloud feedback (Negative feedback from Surface Turbulence under weaker Subsidence-Shallow Convection PositivE feedback) with the net cloud feedback depending on how the two opposing effects counteract each other. The LES results are consistent with these interpretations

  2. Successful implementation of a guideline by peer comparisons, education, and positive physician feedback.

    PubMed

    Wigder, H N; Cohan Ballis, S F; Lazar, L; Urgo, R; Dunn, B H

    1999-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if peer comparisons, an educational intervention, and positive physician feedback would decrease ordering of knee X-ray studies. We prospectively studied the ordering of knee X-ray studies for patients presenting with knee injuries before and after an educational program to encourage use of the Ottawa decision rule for knee radiography. Physicians were able to privately compare their individual baseline X-ray utilization data with that of their colleagues. Although acceptance of the rule was voluntary, both oral and written feedback encouraged consideration of the rule in clinical decision-making. The percentage of knee injury patients who received X-ray studies, as well as the Percentage Abnormal Results (PAR, defined as the percentage of X-ray studies demonstrating a fracture or effusion), were calculated before and after the educational meeting. Results of the study showed that the percentage of patients presenting with knee injuries who received X-ray studies decreased 23%. In addition, the PAR increased 58.4% between the two study periods. In conclusion, physician behavior can be altered positively with reinforcement. Peer comparisons, education, and positive physician feedback decreased test ordering by physicians even without mandating use of a protocol. PAR is a useful outcome measure to track physician utilization.

  3. The Use of Feedback Mechanisms in Interpreting the Robustness of a Neoliberal Educational Assemblage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Demerath, Peter; Mattheis, Allison

    2015-01-01

    This article demonstrates how using feedback mechanisms or "loops" as heuristic devices can help ethnographers explain the interior logic, robustness and contradictions within complex educational assemblages. After reviewing the use of feedback mechanisms in the natural and social sciences, particularly practice theory, the article…

  4. Switching of the Relative Dominance between Feedback Mechanisms in Lipopolysaccharide-Induced NF-κB Signaling

    PubMed Central

    Sung, Myong-Hee; Li, Ning; Lao, Qizong; Gottschalk, Rachel A.; Hager, Gordon L.; Fraser, Iain D.C.

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental goal in biology is to gain a quantitative understanding of how appropriate cell responses are achieved amid conflicting signals that work in parallel. Here, through live, single-cell imaging, we monitored both the dynamics of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) signaling and inflammatory cytokine transcription in macrophages exposed to the bacterial product lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our analysis revealed a previously uncharacterized positive feedback loop involving induction of the expression of Rela [which encodes the RelA (p65) subunit of NF-κB], which rewires the regulatory network when cells were stimulated with LPS above a distinct concentration. Paradoxically, this rewiring of NF-κB signaling in macrophages (a myeloid cell type) required the transcription factor Ikaros, which promotes the development of lymphoid cells. Mathematical modeling and experimental validation showed that the RelA positive feedback overcame existing negative feedback loops and enabled cells to discriminate between different concentrations of LPS so as to mount an effective innate immune response only at higher concentrations. We suggest that this switching in the relative dominance of feedback loops (“feedback dominance switching”) may be a general mechanism whereby immune cells integrate opposing feedback on a key transcriptional regulator and set a response threshold for the host. PMID:24425788

  5. A novel TGFβ modulator that uncouples R-Smad/I-Smad-mediated negative feedback from R-Smad/ligand-driven positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Gu, Wenchao; Monteiro, Rui; Zuo, Jie; Simões, Filipa Costa; Martella, Andrea; Andrieu-Soler, Charlotte; Grosveld, Frank; Sauka-Spengler, Tatjana; Patient, Roger

    2015-02-01

    As some of the most widely utilised intercellular signalling molecules, transforming growth factor β (TGFβ) superfamily members play critical roles in normal development and become disrupted in human disease. Establishing appropriate levels of TGFβ signalling involves positive and negative feedback, which are coupled and driven by the same signal transduction components (R-Smad transcription factor complexes), but whether and how the regulation of the two can be distinguished are unknown. Genome-wide comparison of published ChIP-seq datasets suggests that LIM domain binding proteins (Ldbs) co-localise with R-Smads at a substantial subset of R-Smad target genes including the locus of inhibitory Smad7 (I-Smad7), which mediates negative feedback for TGFβ signalling. We present evidence suggesting that zebrafish Ldb2a binds and directly activates the I-Smad7 gene, whereas it binds and represses the ligand gene, Squint (Sqt), which drives positive feedback. Thus, the fine tuning of TGFβ signalling derives from positive and negative control by Ldb2a. Expression of ldb2a is itself activated by TGFβ signals, suggesting potential feed-forward loops that might delay the negative input of Ldb2a to the positive feedback, as well as the positive input of Ldb2a to the negative feedback. In this way, precise gene expression control by Ldb2a enables an initial build-up of signalling via a fully active positive feedback in the absence of buffering by the negative feedback. In Ldb2a-deficient zebrafish embryos, homeostasis of TGFβ signalling is perturbed and signalling is stably enhanced, giving rise to excess mesoderm and endoderm, an effect that can be rescued by reducing signalling by the TGFβ family members, Nodal and BMP. Thus, Ldb2a is critical to the homeostatic control of TGFβ signalling and thereby embryonic patterning.

  6. Vacuum ultraviolet light source utilizing rare gas scintillation amplification sustained by photon positive feedback

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aprile, Elena (Inventor); Chen, Danli (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A source of light in the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) spectral region includes a reflective UV-sensitive photocathode supported in spaced parallel relationship with a mesh electrode within a rare gas at low pressure. A high positive potential applied to the mesh electrode creates an electric field which causes drifting of free electrons occurring between the electrodes and producing continuous VUV light output by electric field-driven scintillation amplification sustained by positive photon feedback mediated by photoemission from the photocathode. In one embodiment the lamp emits a narrow-band continuum peaked at 175 nm.

  7. Dynamics and Feedback Control of Plasma Equilibrium Position in a Tokamak.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burenko, Oleg

    A brief history of the beginnings of nuclear fusion research involving toroidal closed-system magnetic plasma containment is presented. A tokamak machine is defined mathematically for the purposes of plasma equilibrium position perturbation analysis. The perturbation equations of a tokamak plasma equilibrium position are developed. Solution of the approximated perturbation equations is carried out. A unique, simple, and useful plasma displacement dynamics transfer function of a tokamak is developed. The dominant time constants of the dynamics transfer function are determined in a symbolic form. This symbolic form of the dynamics transfer function makes it possible to study the stability of a tokamak's plasma equilibrium position. Knowledge of the dynamics transfer function permits systematic syntheses of the required plasma displacement feedback control systems. The major parameters governing the plasma equilibrium position stability of a tokamak are shown to be (1) external magnetic field decay index, (2) transformer iron core effect, (3) plasma current, (4) radial rate-of-change inductance parameter, (5) vertical rate-of-change inductance parameter, and (6) vacuum vessel eddy-current time constant. An important and unique result is derived, showing that for a vacuum vessel eddy-current time constant exceeding a certain value the vertical plasma equilibrium position is stable, in spite of an intentional vertical instability design represented by a negative decay index. It is shown that a tokamak design having a theoretical set of positive decay index, negative radical rate-of-change inductance parameter, and positive vertical rate-of-change inductance parameter is expected to have a better plasma equilibrium position stability tolerance than a tokamak design having the same set with the signs reversed. The results of an actual hardware ISX-A tokamak plasma displacement feed-back control system design are presented. It is shown that a theoretical design computer

  8. Consecutive Positive Feedback Loops Create a Bistable Switch that Controls Preadipocyte-to-Adipocyte Conversion

    PubMed Central

    Park, Byung Ouk; Ahrends, Robert; Teruel, Mary N.

    2016-01-01

    SUMMARY Adipogenesis, or the conversion of proliferating preadipocytes into nondividing adipocytes, is an important part of the vertebrate weight-maintenance program. It is not yet understood how and when an irreversible transition occurs into a distinct state capable of accumulating lipid. Here, we use single-cell fluorescence imaging to show that an all-or-none switch is induced before lipid accumulation occurs. Conversion begins by glucocorticoid and cAMP signals raising C/EBPβ levels above a critical threshold, triggering three consecutive positive feedback loops: from PPARγ to C/EBPα, then to C/EBPβ, and last to the insulin receptor. Experiments and modeling show that these feedbacks create a robust, irreversible transition to a terminally differentiated state by rejecting short- and low-amplitude stimuli. After the differentiation switch is triggered, insulin controls fat accumulation in a graded fashion. Altogether, our study introduces a regulatory motif that locks cells in a differentiated state by engaging a sequence of positive feedback loops. PMID:23063366

  9. Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop promotes the invasion ability of ovarian cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jing; Ye, Wei; Wu, Juan; Liu, Lijuan; Yang, Lina; Gao, Lu; Chen, Biliang; Zhang, Fanglin; Yang, Hong; Li, Yu

    2015-07-01

    CD147 is a novel cancer biomarker that has been confirmed to be overexpressed in ovarian carcinoma, which is significantly associated with poor prognosis. Although the Sp1 protein regulates the expression level of CD147, it remains unclear whether Sp1 phosphorylation plays a role in this regulation. A dual-luciferase assay revealed that T453 and T739 mutations decreased the activity of Sp1 binding to the promoter of CD147, followed by a decrease in CD147 mRNA and protein expression. Western blot analysis showed that CD147 promoted Sp1 phosphorylation at T453 and T739 through the PI3K/AKT and MAPK/ERK pathways. In addition, blocking the Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop reduced the invasion ability of HO-8910pm cells. Immunohistochemical staining showed that the components of the feedback loop were overexpressed in ovarian cancer tissues. The correlation analysis revealed a significant correlation between phospho-Sp1 (T453), phospho-Sp1 (T739) and CD147 expression levels, with correlation coefficients of r=0.477 and r=0.461, respectively. Collectively, our results suggest that a Sp1-CD147 positive feedback loop plays a critical role in the invasion ability of ovarian cancer cells.

  10. Positive feedback of G1 cyclins ensures coherent cell cycle entry.

    PubMed

    Skotheim, Jan M; Di Talia, Stefano; Siggia, Eric D; Cross, Frederick R

    2008-07-17

    In budding yeast, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the Start checkpoint integrates multiple internal and external signals into an all-or-none decision to enter the cell cycle. Here we show that Start behaves like a switch due to systems-level feedback in the regulatory network. In contrast to current models proposing a linear cascade of Start activation, transcriptional positive feedback of the G1 cyclins Cln1 and Cln2 induces the near-simultaneous expression of the approximately 200-gene G1/S regulon. Nuclear Cln2 drives coherent regulon expression, whereas cytoplasmic Cln2 drives efficient budding. Cells with the CLN1 and CLN2 genes deleted frequently arrest as unbudded cells, incurring a large fluctuation-induced fitness penalty due to both the lack of cytoplasmic Cln2 and insufficient G1/S regulon expression. Thus, positive-feedback-amplified expression of Cln1 and Cln2 simultaneously drives robust budding and rapid, coherent regulon expression. A similar G1/S regulatory network in mammalian cells, comprised of non-orthologous genes, suggests either conservation of regulatory architecture or convergent evolution.

  11. Response to "The Iris Hypothesis: A Negative or Positive Cloud Feedback?"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chou, Ming-Dah; Lindzen, Richard S.; Hou, Arthur Y.; Lau, William K. M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Based on radiance measurements of Japan's Geostationary Meteorological Satellite, Lindzen et al. found that the high-level cloud cover averaged over the tropical western Pacific decreases with increasing sea surface temperature. They further found that the response of high-level clouds to the sea surface temperature had an effect of reducing the magnitude of climate change, which is referred as a negative climate feedback. Lin et al. reassessed the results found by Lindzen et al. by analyzing the radiation and clouds derived from the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission Clouds and the Earth's Radiant Energy System measurements. They found a weak positive feedback between high-level clouds and the surface temperature. We have found that the approach taken by Lin et al. to estimating the albedo and the outgoing longwave radiation is incorrect and that the inferred climate sensitivity is unreliable.

  12. Enhanced Positive Water Vapor Feedback Associated with Tropical Deep Convection: New Evidence from Aura MLS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Su, Hui; Read, William G.; Jiang, Jonathan H.; Waters, Joe W.; Wu, Dong L.; Fetzer, Eric J.

    2006-01-01

    Recent simultaneous observations of upper tropospheric (UT) water vapor and cloud ice from the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on the Aura satellite provide new evidence for tropical convective influence on UT water vapor and its associated greenhouse effect. The observations show that UT water vapor increases as cloud ice water content increases. They also show that, when sea surface temperature (SST) exceeds approx.300 K, UT cloud ice associated with tropical deep convection increases sharply with increasing SST. The moistening of the upper troposphere by deep convection leads to an enhanced positive water vapor feedback, about 3 times that implied solely by thermodynamics. Over tropical oceans when SST greater than approx.300 K, the 'convective UT water vapor feedback' inferred from the MLS observations contributes approximately 65% of the sensitivity of the clear-sky greenhouse parameter to SST.

  13. PLAYING WITH POSITIVE FEEDBACK: EXTERNAL PRESSURE-TRIGGERING OF A STAR-FORMING DISK GALAXY

    SciTech Connect

    Bieri, Rebekka; Dubois, Yohan; Silk, Joseph; Mamon, Gary A.

    2015-10-20

    In massive galaxies, the currently favored method for quenching star formation is via active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback, which ejects gas from the galaxy using a central supermassive black hole. At high redshifts however, explanation of the huge rates of star formation often found in galaxies containing AGNs may require a more vigorous mode of star formation than is attainable by simply enriching the gas content of galaxies in the usual gravitationally driven mode that is associated with the nearby universe. Using idealized hydrodynamical simulations, we show that AGN-pressure-driven star formation potentially provides the positive feedback that may be required to generate the accelerated star formation rates observed in the distant universe.

  14. Control of position and movement is simplified by combined muscle spindle and Golgi tendon organ feedback.

    PubMed

    Kistemaker, Dinant A; Van Soest, Arthur J Knoek; Wong, Jeremy D; Kurtzer, Isaac; Gribble, Paul L

    2013-02-01

    Whereas muscle spindles play a prominent role in current theories of human motor control, Golgi tendon organs (GTO) and their associated tendons are often neglected. This is surprising since there is ample evidence that both tendons and GTOs contribute importantly to neuromusculoskeletal dynamics. Using detailed musculoskeletal models, we provide evidence that simple feedback using muscle spindles alone results in very poor control of joint position and movement since muscle spindles cannot sense changes in tendon length that occur with changes in muscle force. We propose that a combination of spindle and GTO afferents can provide an estimate of muscle-tendon complex length, which can be effectively used for low-level feedback during both postural and movement tasks. The feasibility of the proposed scheme was tested using detailed musculoskeletal models of the human arm. Responses to transient and static perturbations were simulated using a 1-degree-of-freedom (DOF) model of the arm and showed that the combined feedback enabled the system to respond faster, reach steady state faster, and achieve smaller static position errors. Finally, we incorporated the proposed scheme in an optimally controlled 2-DOF model of the arm for fast point-to-point shoulder and elbow movements. Simulations showed that the proposed feedback could be easily incorporated in the optimal control framework without complicating the computation of the optimal control solution, yet greatly enhancing the system's response to perturbations. The theoretical analyses in this study might furthermore provide insight about the strong physiological couplings found between muscle spindle and GTO afferents in the human nervous system.

  15. Positive feedback between mycorrhizal fungi and plants influences plant invasion success and resistance to invasion.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qian; Yang, Ruyi; Tang, Jianjun; Yang, Haishui; Hu, Shuijin; Chen, Xin

    2010-08-24

    Negative or positive feedback between arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and host plants can contribute to plant species interactions, but how this feedback affects plant invasion or resistance to invasion is not well known. Here we tested how alterations in AMF community induced by an invasive plant species generate feedback to the invasive plant itself and affect subsequent interactions between the invasive species and its native neighbors. We first examined the effects of the invasive forb Solidago canadensis L. on AMF communities comprising five different AMF species. We then examined the effects of the altered AMF community on mutualisms formed with the native legume forb species Kummerowia striata (Thunb.) Schindl. and on the interaction between the invasive and native plants. The host preferences of the five AMF were also assessed to test whether the AMF form preferred mutualistic relations with the invasive and/or the native species. We found that S. canadensis altered AMF spore composition by increasing one AMF species (Glomus geosporum) while reducing Glomus mosseae, which is the dominant species in the field. The host preference test showed that S. canadensis had promoted the abundance of AMF species (G. geosporum) that most promoted its own growth. As a consequence, the altered AMF community enhanced the competitiveness of invasive S. canadensis at the expense of K. striata. Our results demonstrate that the invasive S. canadensis alters soil AMF community composition because of fungal-host preference. This change in the composition of the AMF community generates positive feedback to the invasive S. canadensis itself and decreases AM associations with native K. striata, thereby making the native K. striata less dominant.

  16. Histone deacetylase-3 mediates positive feedback relationship between anaphylaxis and tumor metastasis.

    PubMed

    Eom, Sangkyung; Kim, Youngmi; Park, Deokbum; Lee, Hansoo; Lee, Yun Sil; Choe, Jongseon; Kim, Young Myeong; Jeoung, Dooil

    2014-04-25

    Allergic inflammation has been known to enhance the metastatic potential of tumor cells. The role of histone deacetylase-3 (HDAC3) in allergic skin inflammation was reported. We investigated HDAC3 involvement in the allergic inflammation-promotion of metastatic potential of tumor cells. Passive systemic anaphylaxis (PSA) induced HDAC3 expression and FcεRI signaling in BALB/c mice. PSA enhanced the tumorigenic and metastatic potential of mouse melanoma cells in HDAC3- and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1-(MCP1)-dependent manner. The PSA-mediated enhancement of metastatic potential involved the induction of HDAC3, MCP1, and CD11b (a macrophage marker) expression in the lung tumor tissues. We examined an interaction between anaphylaxis and tumor growth and metastasis at the molecular level. Conditioned medium from antigen-stimulated bone marrow-derived mouse mast cell cultures induced the expression of HDAC3, MCP1, and CCR2, a receptor for MCP1, in B16F1 mouse melanoma cells and enhanced migration and invasion potential of B16F1 cells. The conditioned medium from B16F10 cultures induced the activation of FcεRI signaling in lung mast cells in an HDAC3-dependent manner. FcεRI signaling was observed in lung tumors derived from B16F10 cells. Target scan analysis predicted HDAC3 to be as a target of miR-384, and miR-384 and HDAC3 were found to form a feedback regulatory loop. miR-384, which is decreased by PSA, negatively regulated HDAC3 expression, allergic inflammation, and the positive feedback regulatory loop between anaphylaxis and tumor metastasis. We show the miR-384/HDAC3 feedback loop to be a novel regulator of the positive feedback relationship between anaphylaxis and tumor metastasis.

  17. Exploring A Thermal-Orbital Feedback Mechanism At Europa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, Matthew; Mitchell, Jonathan L.; Bills, Bruce

    2016-10-01

    We present a geophysical model of the Europa system to describe it's structural, orbital, and thermal states. In doing so, we examine the potential for feedback mechanisms to occur which can produce oscillatory behavior in shell thickness, eccentricity, and heat flux, due to the coupled nature of the relevant processes. We implement a tidal heating model to describe the heat flux into the body. This model depends primarily on the shell structure as well as the orbital eccentricity. The model has the capacity to consider multilayered bodies for which the interior structure can evolve over time. Furthermore, the tidal heating model is fully three dimensionally resolved, having the ability to predict radial and lateral variations in heating throughout Europa. This allows us to predict particular locations on Europa that should have the maximum surface heat flux. This heating model is coupled to the orbital evolution as well. Tidal dissipation pulls energy out of the orbit, effectively reducing the semi-major axis and eccentricity, circularizing the orbit. This would slow, and even shut down, the tidal heating at Europa, however, the Galilean Satellites' Laplace resonance continuously transfers energy back into Europa's orbit, keeping the tidal dissipation active. We compare the tidal heat input to the heat conducted out of the ice shell, which is a function of shell thickness, among other things. Heat transfer into or out of the ice compensates any imbalance of heat. This heating, in turn, leads to structural variations of the shell. For example, if tidal heating is greater than the heat conducted out of the shell, the remaining balance goes into sensible and latent heats which thin the shell (thus increasing the surface heat output to balance that which is tidally input). Oppositely, when conducted heat output is greater than the tidal heating, the shell thickens. Shell thickness variations then result in global extension or contraction, due to the density difference

  18. Kinetics of Inhibitory Feedback from Horizontal Cells to Photoreceptors: Implications for an Ephaptic Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Ted J.; Van Hook, Matthew J.; Tranchina, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Inhibitory feedback from horizontal cells (HCs) to cones generates center-surround receptive fields and color opponency in the retina. Mechanisms of HC feedback remain unsettled, but one hypothesis proposes that an ephaptic mechanism may alter the extracellular electrical field surrounding photoreceptor synaptic terminals, thereby altering Ca2+ channel activity and photoreceptor output. An ephaptic voltage change produced by current flowing through open channels in the HC membrane should occur with no delay. To test for this mechanism, we measured kinetics of inhibitory feedback currents in Ambystoma tigrinum cones and rods evoked by hyperpolarizing steps applied to synaptically coupled HCs. Hyperpolarizing HCs stimulated inward feedback currents in cones that averaged 8–9 pA and exhibited a biexponential time course with time constants averaging 14–17 ms and 120–220 ms. Measurement of feedback-current kinetics was limited by three factors: (1) HC voltage-clamp speed, (2) cone voltage-clamp speed, and (3) kinetics of Ca2+ channel activation or deactivation in the photoreceptor terminal. These factors totaled ∼4–5 ms in cones meaning that the true fast time constants for HC-to-cone feedback currents were 9–13 ms, slower than expected for ephaptic voltage changes. We also compared speed of feedback to feedforward glutamate release measured at the same cone/HC synapses and found a latency for feedback of 11–14 ms. Inhibitory feedback from HCs to rods was also significantly slower than either measurement kinetics or feedforward release. The finding that inhibitory feedback from HCs to photoreceptors involves a significant delay indicates that it is not due to previously proposed ephaptic mechanisms. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Lateral inhibitory feedback from horizontal cells (HCs) to photoreceptors creates center-surround receptive fields and color-opponent interactions. Although underlying mechanisms remain unsettled, a longstanding hypothesis proposes that

  19. A positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qiao; Yang, Zhe; Wang, Weiping; Guo, Ting; Jia, Zhuqing; Ma, Kangtao; Zhou, Chunyan

    2014-07-04

    Highlights: • ISL-1 is highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL. • ISL-1 accelerates the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. • c-Myc positively regulates ISL-1 expression in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells. • ISL-1 and c-Myc forms an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex only in DLBCL. • Positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 does not exist in normal pancreatic β-cell. - Abstract: Insulin enhancer binding protein-1 (ISL-1), a LIM-homeodomain transcription factor, has been reported to play essential roles in promoting adult pancreatic β-cells proliferation. Recent studies indicate that ISL-1 may also involve in the occurrence of a variety of tumors. However, whether ISL-1 has any functional effect on tumorigenesis, and what are the differences on ISL-1 function in distinct conditions, are completely unknown. In this study, we found that ISL-1 was highly expressed in human pancreatic β-cells, as well as in diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL), but to a much less extent in other normal tissues or tumor specimens. Further study revealed that ISL-1 promoted the proliferation of pancreatic β-cells and DLBCL cells, and also accelerated the tumorigenesis of DLBCL in vivo. We also found that ISL-1 could activate c-Myc transcription not only in pancreatic β-cells but also in DLBCL cells. However, a cell-specific feedback regulation was detectable only in DLBCL cells. This auto-regulatory loop was established by the interaction of ISL-1 and c-Myc to form an ISL-1/c-Myc transcriptional complex, and synergistically to promote ISL-1 transcription through binding on the ISL-1 promoter. Taken together, our results demonstrate a positive feedback regulation of ISL-1 in DLBCL but not in pancreatic β-cells, which might result in the functional diversities of ISL-1 in different physiological and pathological processes.

  20. Experience Sampling-Based Personalized Feedback and Positive Affect: A Randomized Controlled Trial in Depressed Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hartmann, Jessica A.; Wichers, Marieke; Menne-Lothmann, Claudia; Kramer, Ingrid; Viechtbauer, Wolfgang; Peeters, Frenk; Schruers, Koen R. J.; van Bemmel, Alex L.; Myin-Germeys, Inez; Delespaul, Philippe; van Os, Jim; Simons, Claudia J. P.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Positive affect (PA) plays a crucial role in the development, course, and recovery of depression. Recently, we showed that a therapeutic application of the experience sampling method (ESM), consisting of feedback focusing on PA in daily life, was associated with a decrease in depressive symptoms. The present study investigated whether the experience of PA increased during the course of this intervention. Design Multicentre parallel randomized controlled trial. An electronic random sequence generator was used to allocate treatments. Settings University, two local mental health care institutions, one local hospital. Participants 102 pharmacologically treated outpatients with a DSM-IV diagnosis of major depressive disorder, randomized over three treatment arms. Intervention Six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with weekly PA-focused feedback sessions (experimental group); six weeks of ESM self-monitoring combined with six weekly sessions without feedback (pseudo-experimental group); or treatment as usual (control group). Main outcome The interaction between treatment allocation and time in predicting positive and negative affect (NA) was investigated in multilevel regression models. Results 102 patients were randomized (mean age 48.0, SD 10.2) of which 81 finished the entire study protocol. All 102 patients were included in the analyses. The experimental group did not show a significant larger increase in momentary PA during or shortly after the intervention compared to the pseudo-experimental or control groups (χ2 (2) =0.33, p=.846). The pseudo-experimental group showed a larger decrease in NA compared to the control group (χ2 (1) =6.29, p=.012). Conclusion PA-focused feedback did not significantly impact daily life PA during or shortly after the intervention. As the previously reported reduction in depressive symptoms associated with the feedback unveiled itself only after weeks, it is conceivable that the effects on daily life PA also evolve

  1. Mechanical feedback amplification in Drosophila hearing is independent of synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Kamikouchi, Azusa; Albert, Jörg T; Göpfert, Martin C

    2010-02-01

    Vertebrate inner-ear hair cells use mechanical feedback to amplify sound-induced vibrations. The gain of this 'cochlear amplifier' is centrally controlled via efferent fibres that, making synaptic contacts with the hair cells, modulate the feedback gain. The sensory neurons of the Drosophila ear likewise employ mechanical feedback to assist sound-evoked vibrations, yet whether this neuron-based feedback is also subject to efferent control has remained uncertain. We show here that the function of Drosophila auditory neurons is independent of efferent modulation, and that no synaptic transmission is needed to control the gain of mechanical feedback amplification. Immunohistochemical, mechanical and electrophysiological analyses revealed that the Drosophila auditory organ lacks peripheral synapses and efferent innervations, and that blocking synaptic transmission in a pan-neural manner does not affect the afferent electrical activity of the sensory neurons or the mechanical feedback gain. Hence, unlike the cochlear amplifier of vertebrates, mechanical feedback amplification in Drosophila is not associated with an efferent control system but seems to be a purely local process that is solely controlled peripherally within the ear itself.

  2. Studies of the sensing mechanism in the tubuloglomerular feedback pathway.

    PubMed

    Wright, F S; Mandin, H; Persson, A E

    1982-08-01

    Two aspects of the single nephron feedback response previously observed by us have been reexamined. The first, the effect of modifying the composition of fluid used to perfuse the loop of Henle of a single nephron, was studied in rats by comparing flow-induced changes in stop-flow pressure (PSF) with three different perfusion solutions: artificial tubule fluid (ATF); 0.3 M mannitol (M); and mannitol plus 25 to 30 mM sodium chloride (M + E). The second, triggering of the feedback response by injection of ionic current into the distal tubule, was studied in similarly prepared rats by monitoring PSF while passing current. Increasing the rate of loop of Henle perfusion with either ATF or M + E resulted in similar decreases in PSF. In contrast, with M, changes in PSF were usually transient and if persistent were smaller than the changes observed with the other two solutions. When loops of Henle were perfused with ATF at a constant rate, injection of current into the early distal tubule making the lumen more negative resulted in decreases in PSF. Currents of opposite polarity caused no change in PSF if loop flow rate was low; these currents increased PSF if the loop flow rates had previously been high. Current-induced feedback responses were obtained with micropipette electrodes filled with either potassium chloride or lithium acetate. Addition of 10(-4) M furosemide blocked the current-induced feedback responses.

  3. The Y-located gonadoblastoma gene TSPY amplifies its own expression through a positive feedback loop in prostate cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kido, Tatsuo; Lau, Yun-Fai Chris

    2014-03-28

    Highlights: • Y-encoded proto-oncoprotein TSPY amplifies its expression level via a positive feedback loop. • TSPY binds to the chromatin/DNA at exon 1 of TSPY gene. • TSPY enhances the gene expression in a TSPY exon 1 sequence dependent manner. • The conserved SET/NAP-domain is essential for TSPY transactivation. • Insights on probable mechanisms on TSPY exacerbation on cancer development in men. - Abstract: The testis-specific protein Y-encoded (TSPY) is a repetitive gene located on the gonadoblastoma region of the Y chromosome, and has been considered to be the putative gene for this oncogenic locus on the male-only chromosome. It is expressed in spermatogonial cells and spermatocytes in normal human testis, but abundantly in gonadoblastoma, testicular germ cell tumors and a variety of somatic cancers, including melanoma, hepatocellular carcinoma and prostate cancer. Various studies suggest that TSPY accelerates cell proliferation and growth, and promotes tumorigenesis. In this report, we show that TSPY could bind directly to the chromatin/DNA at exon 1 of its own gene, and greatly enhance the transcriptional activities of the endogenous gene in the LNCaP prostate cancer cells. Domain mapping analyses of TSPY have localized the critical and sufficient domain to the SET/NAP-domain. These results suggest that TSPY could efficiently amplify its expression and oncogenic functions through a positive feedback loop, and contribute to the overall tumorigenic processes when it is expressed in various human cancers.

  4. A computational model clarifies the roles of positive and negative feedback loops in the Drosophila circadian clock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junwei; Zhou, Tianshou

    2010-06-01

    Previous studies showed that a single negative feedback structure should be sufficient for robust circadian oscillations. It is thus pertinent to ask why current cellular clock models almost universally have interlocked negative feedback loop (NFL) and positive feedback loop (PFL). Here, we propose a molecular model that reflects the essential features of the Drosophila circadian clock to clarify the different roles of negative and positive feedback loops. In agreement with experimental observations, the model can simulate circadian oscillations in constant darkness, entrainment by light-dark cycles, as well as phenotypes of per and clk mutants. Moreover, sustained oscillations persist when the PFL is removed, implying the crucial role of NFL for rhythm generation. Through parameter sensitivity analysis, it is revealed that incorporation of PFL increases the robustness of the system to regulatory processes in PFL itself. Such reduced models can aid understanding of the design principles of circadian clocks in Drosophila and other organisms with complex transcriptional feedback structures.

  5. Distributed mechanical feedback in arthropods and robots simplifies control of rapid running on challenging terrain.

    PubMed

    Spagna, J C; Goldman, D I; Lin, P-C; Koditschek, D E; Full, R J

    2007-03-01

    Terrestrial arthropods negotiate demanding terrain more effectively than any search-and-rescue robot. Slow, precise stepping using distributed neural feedback is one strategy for dealing with challenging terrain. Alternatively, arthropods could simplify control on demanding surfaces by rapid running that uses kinetic energy to bridge gaps between footholds. We demonstrate that this is achieved using distributed mechanical feedback, resulting from passive contacts along legs positioned by pre-programmed trajectories favorable to their attachment mechanisms. We used wire-mesh experimental surfaces to determine how a decrease in foothold probability affects speed and stability. Spiders and insects attained high running speeds on simulated terrain with 90% of the surface contact area removed. Cockroaches maintained high speeds even with their tarsi ablated, by generating horizontally oriented leg trajectories. Spiders with more vertically directed leg placement used leg spines, which resulted in more effective distributed contact by interlocking with asperities during leg extension, but collapsing during flexion, preventing entanglement. Ghost crabs, which naturally lack leg spines, showed increased mobility on wire mesh after the addition of artificial, collapsible spines. A bioinspired robot, RHex, was redesigned to maximize effective distributed leg contact, by changing leg orientation and adding directional spines. These changes improved RHex's agility on challenging surfaces without adding sensors or changing the control system.

  6. Pinus contorta invasions increase wildfire fuel loads and may create a positive feedback with fire.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Kimberley T; Maxwell, Bruce D; McWethy, David B; Pauchard, Aníbal; Nuñez, Martín A; Whitlock, Cathy

    2017-03-01

    Invasive plant species that have the potential to alter fire regimes have significant impacts on native ecosystems. Concern that pine invasions in the Southern Hemisphere will increase fire activity and severity and subsequently promote further pine invasion prompted us to examine the potential for feedbacks between Pinus contorta invasions and fire in Patagonia and New Zealand. We determined how fuel loads and fire effects were altered by P. contorta invasion. We also examined post-fire plant communities across invasion gradients at a subset of sites to assess how invasion alters the post-fire vegetation trajectory. We found that fuel loads and soil heating during simulated fire increase with increasing P. contorta invasion age or density at all sites. However, P. contorta density did not always increase post-fire. In the largest fire, P. contorta density only increased significantly post-fire where the pre-fire P. contorta density was above an invasion threshold. Below this threshold, P. contorta did not dominate after fire and plant communities responded to fire in a similar manner as uninvaded communities. The positive feedback observed at high densities is caused by the accumulation of fuel that in turn results in greater soil heating during fires and high P. contorta density post-fire. Therefore, a positive feedback may form between P. contorta invasions and fire, but only above an invasion density threshold. These results suggest that management of pine invasions before they reach the invasion density threshold is important for reducing fire risk and preventing a transition to an alternate ecosystem state dominated by pines and novel understory plant communities.

  7. Shifts in a single muscle's control potential of body dynamics are determined by mechanical feedback

    PubMed Central

    Sponberg, Simon; Libby, Thomas; Mullens, Chris H.; Full, Robert J.

    2011-01-01

    Muscles are multi-functional structures that interface neural and mechanical systems. Muscle work depends on a large multi-dimensional space of stimulus (neural) and strain (mechanical) parameters. In our companion paper, we rewrote activation to individual muscles in intact, behaving cockroaches (Blaberus discoidalis L.), revealing a specific muscle's potential to control body dynamics in different behaviours. Here, we use those results to provide the biologically relevant parameters for in situ work measurements. We test four hypotheses about how muscle function changes to provide mechanisms for the observed control responses. Under isometric conditions, a graded increase in muscle stress underlies its linear actuation during standing behaviours. Despite typically absorbing energy, this muscle can recruit two separate periods of positive work when controlling running. This functional change arises from mechanical feedback filtering a linear increase in neural activation into nonlinear work output. Changing activation phase again led to positive work recruitment, but at different times, consistent with the muscle's ability to also produce a turn. Changes in muscle work required considering the natural sequence of strides and separating swing and stance contributions of work. Both in vivo control potentials and in situ work loops were necessary to discover the neuromechanical coupling enabling control. PMID:21502130

  8. Positive Feedback Genetic Circuit Incorporating a Constitutively Active Mutant Gal3 into Yeast GAL Induction System.

    PubMed

    Ryo, Shintaro; Ishii, Jun; Matsuno, Toshihide; Nakamura, Yasuyuki; Matsubara, Daiki; Tominaga, Masahiro; Kondo, Akihiko

    2017-03-27

    The GAL expression system is the most frequently used induction technique in the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Here we report a simple but powerful genetic circuit for use with the GAL induction system. Briefly, an artificial positive feedback circuit was incorporated into the GAL regulatory network. We selected green fluorescent protein (GFP) as a reporter of GAL1 induction, and designed a strain that expressed a constitutively active Gal3 mutant protein (Gal3(c)) under control of the GAL10 promoter. In the resulting strain, GAL1 and GAL10 promoters regulate the expression of GFP and GAL3(c), respectively. Because Gal3(c) sequesters the Gal80 repressor away from the Gal4 transcriptional activator in the same manner as the galactose-bound Gal3, the expressed Gal3(c) protein provokes further expression of GFP and Gal3(c), yielding further enhancement of GAL induction. Thus, this GAL3(c)-mediated positive feedback circuit permits substantially enriched induction of a target gene at extremely low concentrations, or even in the absence, of galactose, while maintaining the strict glucose-mediated repression of the target.

  9. Positive feedback between chironomids and algae creates net mutualism between benthic primary consumers and producers.

    PubMed

    Herren, Cristina M; Webert, Kyle C; Drake, Michael D; Jake Vander Zanden, M; Einarsson, Árni; Ives, Anthony R; Gratton, Claudio

    2017-02-01

    The chironomids of Lake Mývatn show extreme population fluctuations that affect most aspects of the lake ecosystem. During periods of high chironomid densities, chironomid larvae comprise over 90% of aquatic secondary production. Here, we show that chironomid larvae substantially stimulate benthic gross primary production (GPP) and net primary production (NPP), despite consuming benthic algae. Benthic GPP in experimental mesocosms with 140,000 larvae/m(2) was 71% higher than in mesocosms with no larvae. Similarly, chlorophyll a concentrations in mesocosms increased significantly over the range of larval densities. Furthermore, larvae showed increased growth rates at higher densities, possibly due to greater benthic algal availability in these treatments. We investigated the hypothesis that larvae promote benthic algal growth by alleviating nutrient limitation, and found that (1) larvae have the potential to cycle the entire yearly external loadings of nitrogen and phosphorus during the growing season, and (2) chlorophyll a concentrations were significantly greater in close proximity to larvae (on larval tubes). The positive feedback between chironomid larvae and benthic algae generated a net mutualism between the primary consumer and primary producer trophic levels in the benthic ecosystem. Thus, our results give an example in which unexpected positive feedbacks can lead to both high primary and high secondary production.

  10. Theory and calculations of synchrotron instabilities and feedback-mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Meijssen, T.E.M.

    1981-08-12

    The properties of the phenomenon synchrotron radiation are given with general theory on the basic processes and betatron and synchrotron oscillations. A more extended theoretical view at transverse instabilities and the influence of a damping feedback system are discussed. The longitudinal case is covered. For the calculations on the longitudinal case with M equally spaced pointbunches, with N electrons each, in the storage ring, the parasitic modes of the radio-frequency cavity were measured. A description of this is given. The values of damping rates of the longitudinal feedback system found, are as expected, but too low to damp the longitudinal instabilities calculated. This might be caused by the input data. The calculated growth rates are very sensitive to changes in frequency and width of the parasitic modes, which were measured under conditions differing slightly from the operating conditions.

  11. Seed Predation by the Shore Crab Carcinus maenas: A Positive Feedback Preventing Eelgrass Recovery?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    There is an increasing interest to restore the ecosystem services that eelgrass provides, after their continuous worldwide decline. Most attempts to restore eelgrass using seeds are challenged by very high seed losses and the reasons for these losses are not all clear. We assess the impact of predation on seed loss and eelgrass establishment, and explore methods to decrease seed loss during restoration in the Swedish northwest coast. In a laboratory study we identified three previously undescribed seed predators, the shore crab Carcinus maenas, the hermit crab Pagurus bernhardus and the sea urchin Strongylocentrotus droebachiensis, of which shore crabs consumed 2–7 times more seeds than the other two species. The importance of shore crabs as seed predators was supported in field cage experiments where one enclosed crab caused 73% loss of seeds over a 1-week period on average (~ 21 seeds per day). Seedling establishment was significantly higher (14%) in cages that excluded predators over an 8-month period than in uncaged plots and cages that allowed predators but prevented seed-transport (0.5%), suggesting that seed predation constitutes a major source of seed loss in the study area. Burying the seeds 2 cm below the sediment surface prevented seed predation in the laboratory and decreased predation in the field, constituting a way to decrease seed loss during restoration. Shore crabs may act as a key feedback mechanism that prevent the return of eelgrass both by direct consumption of eelgrass seeds and as a predator of algal mesograzers, allowing algal mats to overgrow eelgrass beds. This shore crab feedback mechanism could become self-generating by promoting the growth of its own nursery habitat (algal mats) and by decreasing the nursery habitat (seagrass meadow) of its dominant predator (cod). This double feedback-loop is supported by a strong increase of shore crab abundance in the last decades and may partly explain the regime shift in vegetation observed

  12. Efficient plant growth using automatic position-feedback laser light irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakinoki, Yoshiaki; Kato, Yuya; Ogawa, Kosuke; Nakao, Akira; Okai, Zenshiro; Katsuyama, Toshio

    2013-05-01

    The plant growth based on the scanning laser beam is newly developed. Three semiconductor lasers with three primary colors, i.e., blue, green and red are used. Here, the laser scanned position is restricted only to the plant leaves, where the light illumination is needed. The feedback system based on the perspective projection is developed. The system consists of the automatic position correction from the camera image. The automatic image extraction of the leaf parts is also introduced. The electric power needed for this system is as small as 6.25% compared with the traditional white fluorescent lamp. Furthermore, experimental results show that the red-color laser light is particularly efficient for the growth of the radish sprouts.

  13. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts

    PubMed Central

    Losecaat Vermeer, Annabel B.; Sanfey, Alan G.

    2015-01-01

    Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as these gain/loss outcomes are usually confounded with participant performance, and therefore it is unclear whether these effects are driven purely by the monetary gains or losses, or rather by success or failure at the actual task. Here, we experimentally separated the effects of monetary gains/losses from performance success/failure prior to a standard risky choice. Participants performed a task in which they experienced contextual effects: 1) monetary gain or loss based directly on performance, 2) monetary gain or loss that was randomly awarded and was, crucially, independent from performance, and 3) success or failure feedback based on performance, but without any monetary incentive. Immediately following these positive/negative contexts, participants were presented with a gain-loss gamble that they had to decide to either play or pass. We found that risk preferences for identical sets of gambles were biased by positive and negative contexts containing monetary gains and losses, but not by contexts containing performance feedback. This data suggests that the observed framing effects are driven by aversion for monetary losses and not simply by the positive or negative valence of the context, or by potential moods resulting from positive or negative contexts. These results highlight the specific context dependence of risk preferences. PMID:26407298

  14. The Effect of Positive and Negative Feedback on Risk-Taking across Different Contexts.

    PubMed

    Losecaat Vermeer, Annabel B; Sanfey, Alan G

    2015-01-01

    Preferences for risky choices have often been shown to be unstable and context-dependent. Though people generally avoid gambles with mixed outcomes, a phenomenon often attributed to loss aversion, contextual factors can impact this dramatically. For example, people typically prefer risky options after a financial loss, while generally choosing safer options after a monetary gain. However, it is unclear what exactly contributes to these preference shifts as a function of prior outcomes, as these gain/loss outcomes are usually confounded with participant performance, and therefore it is unclear whether these effects are driven purely by the monetary gains or losses, or rather by success or failure at the actual task. Here, we experimentally separated the effects of monetary gains/losses from performance success/failure prior to a standard risky choice. Participants performed a task in which they experienced contextual effects: 1) monetary gain or loss based directly on performance, 2) monetary gain or loss that was randomly awarded and was, crucially, independent from performance, and 3) success or failure feedback based on performance, but without any monetary incentive. Immediately following these positive/negative contexts, participants were presented with a gain-loss gamble that they had to decide to either play or pass. We found that risk preferences for identical sets of gambles were biased by positive and negative contexts containing monetary gains and losses, but not by contexts containing performance feedback. This data suggests that the observed framing effects are driven by aversion for monetary losses and not simply by the positive or negative valence of the context, or by potential moods resulting from positive or negative contexts. These results highlight the specific context dependence of risk preferences.

  15. Sahara Heat Low Perturbations and Water Vapor in the Sahel: A Positive Feedback System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caughman, L.; Evan, A. T.

    2013-12-01

    It is necessary to understand the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification, motivated by the increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Climate change and land dynamics are the perturbations that are major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a ';';desertified'' state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. This research focuses on changes in precipitation resulting from land-atmosphere interactions and changes in vegetation cover. We concentrate on the Sahel region of Africa (a strip of land that is a transitional area between the Sahara desert to the North and the rain forest to the South). It is a dry land, semi arid environment and is a bistable ecosystem that can either be in the state of 'dry' or 'wet'. After an abnormally wet/high precipitation period in the 1950s the Sahel experienced terrible droughts and desertification which peaked in the 1980s. Since then, precipitation has gradually increased and a sinusoidal model has been shown run on a multi decadal cycle. Discrepancies in the data exist, however, and although the overall cycle has been modeled well, the large inter-annual fluctuations in precipitation have yet to be sufficiently modeled or explained. This research offers new evidence as to why such a phenomenon exists and attempts to attribute this behavior to a coupled land-atmosphere feedback system, linking together changes in vegetation cover and precipitation in the Sahel. Using the model output data from a high resolution Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model to look at Africa and compare the difference between perturbations and the mean, this research asserts that when the surface of the Saharan Heat Low (SHL) becomes extremely hot the pressure drops substantially. Subsequently, due to the West African Monsoon system, air rushes in from high-pressure areas, and pulls monsoon precipitation

  16. Functional characteristics of a double positive feedback loop coupled with autorepression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subhasis; Bose, Indrani

    2008-12-01

    We study the functional characteristics of a two-gene motif consisting of a double positive feedback loop and an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. The motif appears in the gene regulatory network controlling the functional activity of pancreatic β-cells. The model exhibits bistability and hysteresis in appropriate parameter regions. The two stable steady states correspond to low (OFF state) and high (ON state) protein levels, respectively. Using a deterministic approach, we show that the region of bistability increases in extent when the copy number of one of the genes is reduced from 2 to 1. The negative feedback loop has the effect of reducing the size of the bistable region. Loss of a gene copy, brought about by mutations, hampers the normal functioning of the β-cells giving rise to the genetic disorder, maturity-onset diabetes of the young (MODY). The diabetic phenotype makes its appearance when a sizable fraction of the β-cells is in the OFF state. Using stochastic simulation techniques we show that, on reduction of the gene copy number, there is a transition from the monostable ON to the ON state in the bistable region of the parameter space. Fluctuations in the protein levels, arising due to the stochastic nature of gene expression, can give rise to transitions between the ON and OFF states. We show that as the strength of autorepression increases, the ON → OFF state transitions become less probable whereas the reverse transitions are more probable. The implications of the results in the context of the occurrence of MODY are pointed out.

  17. Spatial pattern formation of coastal vegetation in response to external gradients and positive feedbacks affecting soil porewater salinity: A model study

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jiang, J.; DeAngelis, D.L.; Smith, T. J.; Teh, S.Y.; Koh, H. L.

    2012-01-01

    Coastal vegetation of South Florida typically comprises salinity-tolerant mangroves bordering salinity-intolerant hardwood hammocks and fresh water marshes. Two primary ecological factors appear to influence the maintenance of mangrove/hammock ecotones against changes that might occur due to disturbances. One of these is a gradient in one or more environmental factors. The other is the action of positive feedback mechanisms, in which each vegetation community influences its local environment to favor itself, reinforcing the boundary between communities. The relative contributions of these two factors, however, can be hard to discern. A spatially explicit individual-based model of vegetation, coupled with a model of soil hydrology and salinity dynamics is presented here to simulate mangrove/hammock ecotones in the coastal margin habitats of South Florida. The model simulation results indicate that an environmental gradient of salinity, caused by tidal flux, is the key factor separating vegetation communities, while positive feedback involving the different interaction of each vegetation type with the vadose zone salinity increases the sharpness of boundaries, and maintains the ecological resilience of mangrove/hammock ecotones against small disturbances. Investigation of effects of precipitation on positive feedback indicates that the dry season, with its low precipitation, is the period of strongest positive feedback. ?? 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. (outside the USA).

  18. Sexual differentiation of oestradiol-LH positive feedback in a marsupial.

    PubMed

    Rudd, C D; Short, R V; McFarlane, J R; Renfree, M B

    1999-03-01

    The surge of LH that induces ovulation in mammals showing spontaneous ovulation is precipitated by the positive feedback of increasing oestrogens from the developing follicles in the ovary. In eutherians, exogenous oestrogens can mimic this effect by eliciting an LH surge in females, but not usually in males. The absence of a positive LH response to eutherian males is either due to an acute suppression by the secretory products of the testes during adulthood or the permanent disabling of the system by testosterone during early development. This phenomenon is examined in tammar wallabies, Macropus eugenii. The results show that the oestradiol-LH positive feedback response is sexually dimorphic in this marsupial. A surge in plasma LH occurred between 15 and 28 h after injection of 2.5 micrograms oestradiol benzoate kg-1 in 13 of 16 intact females and 4 of 4 ovariectomized females, but in none of 11 intact males. Five females each implanted with a 100 mg testosterone pellet 3 months earlier failed to produce an LH surge. Four males castrated in adulthood and three adult males castrated before puberty also failed to show an LH surge. However, three males castrated 24-26 days after birth showed an unambiguous LH surge when challenged with oestradiol benzoate during adulthood. Thus, in tammar wallabies, the ability to generate an LH surge to oestradiol is a sexually dimorphic response that is suppressed in the male by the organizational effects of the testes in early life and presumably supplemented by an inhibitory effect of circulating testosterone in adulthood.

  19. Healthcare professional and patient codesign and validation of a mechanism for service users to feedback patient safety experiences following a care transfer: a qualitative study

    PubMed Central

    Scott, Jason; Heavey, Emily; Waring, Justin; Jones, Diana; Dawson, Pamela

    2016-01-01

    Objective To develop and validate a mechanism for patients to provide feedback on safety experiences following a care transfer between organisations. Design Qualitative study using participatory methods (codesign workshops) and cognitive interviews. Workshop data were analysed concurrently with participants, and cognitive interviews were thematically analysed using a deductive approach based on the developed feedback mechanism. Participants Expert patients (n=5) and healthcare professionals (n=11) were recruited purposively to develop the feedback mechanism in 2 workshops. Workshop 1 explored principles underpinning safety feedback mechanisms, and workshop 2 included the practical development of the feedback mechanism. Final design and content of the feedback mechanism (a safety survey) were verified by workshop participants, and cognitive interviews (n=28) were conducted with patients. Results Workshop participants identified that safety feedback mechanisms should be patient-centred, short and concise with clear signposting on how to complete, with an option to be anonymous and balanced between positive (safe) and negative (unsafe) experiences. The agreed feedback mechanism consisted of a survey split across 3 stages of the care transfer: departure, journey and arrival. Care across organisational boundaries was recognised as being complex, with healthcare professionals acknowledging the difficulty implementing changes that impact other organisations. Cognitive interview participants agreed the content of the survey was relevant but identified barriers to completion relating to the survey formatting and understanding of a care transfer. Conclusions Participatory, codesign principles helped overcome differences in understandings of safety in the complex setting of care transfers when developing a safety survey. Practical barriers to the survey's usability and acceptability to patients were identified, resulting in a modified survey design. Further research is

  20. Analysis of Feedback Mechanisms with Unknown Delay Using Sparse Multivariate Autoregressive Method

    PubMed Central

    Ip, Edward H.; Zhang, Qiang; Sowinski, Tomasz; Simpson, Sean L.

    2015-01-01

    This paper discusses the study of two interacting processes in which a feedback mechanism exists between the processes. The study was motivated by problems such as the circadian oscillation of gene expression where two interacting protein transcriptions form both negative and positive feedback loops with long delays to equilibrium. Traditionally, data of this type could be examined using autoregressive analysis. However, in circadian oscillation the order of an autoregressive model cannot be determined a priori. We propose a sparse multivariate autoregressive method that incorporates mixed linear effects into regression analysis, and uses a forward-backward greedy search algorithm to select non-zero entries in the regression coefficients, the number of which is constrained not to exceed a pre-specified number. A small simulation study provides preliminary evidence of the validity of the method. Besides the circadian oscillation example, an additional example of blood pressure variations using data from an intervention study is used to illustrate the method and the interpretation of the results obtained from the sparse matrix method. These applications demonstrate how sparse representation can be used for handling high dimensional variables that feature dynamic, reciprocal relationships. PMID:26252637

  1. A Simple Negative Interaction in the Positive Transcriptional Feedback of a Single Gene Is Sufficient to Produce Reliable Oscillations

    PubMed Central

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M.; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators. PMID:22205920

  2. A simple negative interaction in the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is sufficient to produce reliable oscillations.

    PubMed

    Miró-Bueno, Jesús M; Rodríguez-Patón, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    Negative and positive transcriptional feedback loops are present in natural and synthetic genetic oscillators. A single gene with negative transcriptional feedback needs a time delay and sufficiently strong nonlinearity in the transmission of the feedback signal in order to produce biochemical rhythms. A single gene with only positive transcriptional feedback does not produce oscillations. Here, we demonstrate that this single-gene network in conjunction with a simple negative interaction can also easily produce rhythms. We examine a model comprised of two well-differentiated parts. The first is a positive feedback created by a protein that binds to the promoter of its own gene and activates the transcription. The second is a negative interaction in which a repressor molecule prevents this protein from binding to its promoter. A stochastic study shows that the system is robust to noise. A deterministic study identifies that the dynamics of the oscillator are mainly driven by two types of biomolecules: the protein, and the complex formed by the repressor and this protein. The main conclusion of this paper is that a simple and usual negative interaction, such as degradation, sequestration or inhibition, acting on the positive transcriptional feedback of a single gene is a sufficient condition to produce reliable oscillations. One gene is enough and the positive transcriptional feedback signal does not need to activate a second repressor gene. This means that at the genetic level an explicit negative feedback loop is not necessary. The model needs neither cooperative binding reactions nor the formation of protein multimers. Therefore, our findings could help to clarify the design principles of cellular clocks and constitute a new efficient tool for engineering synthetic genetic oscillators.

  3. Influence of visual feedback on successive control mechanisms in upright quiet stance in humans assessed by fractional Brownian motion modelling.

    PubMed

    Rougier, P

    1999-05-14

    An up-to-date way to model the centre of pressure (CP) trajectories may consist in using fractional Brownian motion (fBm). By doing so, one may note that standing still is in fact controlled by two separate and successive mechanisms. The point raised in this study concerns the nature of these control mechanisms and their level of interaction. Following this idea, visual feedback (VFB), which is known to affect postural control by significantly decreasing sway magnitudes, was used. Twelve healthy adults, instructed to stand as still as possible, were tested under this VFB protocol (via a PC screen). In order to model the CP trajectories as fBm, variograms (mean square distances, MSD, expressed as a function of increasing time intervals deltat) were bi-logarithmically plotted. The main visual effect of VFB on these variograms concerns longest latency scaling regimes which reveal less stochastic and consequently more accurate control (P < 0.05 and P < 0.01 for X and Y components, respectively). An increase in the MSD of the transition point, which corresponds to the switch between the two control mechanisms, is also noted (P < 0.05). Overall, evidence is provided from this data that long latency scaling regimes do operate through a feedback process. Interestingly, this improved determinism in feedback control in turn induces a similar effect on the control operating over the shortest deltat. Thus, by privileging a control strategy based on feedback mechanisms, VFB in turn would make the subjects quicker in their initial displacement in order to reach a position capable of initiating a feedback mechanism.

  4. Olfactory Performance Can Be Influenced by the Presentation Order, Background Noise, and Positive Concurrent Feedback.

    PubMed

    Walliczek-Dworschak, Ute; Pellegrino, Robert; Lee, Shangwa; Hummel, Cornelia; Hähner, Antje; Hummel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Sniffin' Sticks have become a popular procedure to measure overall olfactory functionality with 3 subtest: phenyl ethyl alcohol threshold test (T), discrimination (D), and identification (I). However, several procedural components specified by the original paper have not been tested nor has the impact of deviations been measured. The aim of the present work was to measure olfactory performance under modified testing procedures. First, the reverse order of subtests (IDT) was compared with more standard practices (TDI). Next, the possible impact of background noise and positive concurrent feedback were assessed. A total of 120 individuals participated in the study where the 3 conditional experiments, each involving 40 participants, were completed. Testing procedures that reversed the presentation order of subtests (I->D->T) scored a significantly lower overall TDI score than standard testing order with the threshold subtest being the most influenced. Additionally, nonverbal background noise lowered overall olfactory performance while concurrent feedback modulated threshold performance. These results emphasize the importance of testing parameters where olfactory perception and tasks may be modulated by adaptation and attentional distraction, respectively. This study helped furthermore to demonstrate that the investigated 3 deviations from the standard procedure revealed a significant impact on the performance outcome in olfactory assessment using the Sniffin' Sticks.

  5. Assessing the effects of positive feedback and reinforcement in the introduction phase of an ergonomic intervention.

    PubMed

    Brandenburg, David L; Mirka, Gary A

    2005-01-01

    Resistance to change is common in ergonomic interventions, often resulting in negative consequences when the intervention's effectiveness is studied. A lab-based study assessed the effects of positive reinforcement during the intervention process. On Day 1 all participants performed a simple screw-driving task that placed stress on the cervicobrachial region through static loading. On Day 2 a control group received basic information about ergonomics and then performed the task using an ergonomic intervention that has been shown to reduce loading on these muscle groups. The experimental group received the same basic information but also received positive reinforcement while performing the task with the ergonomic intervention. Subjective task assessment surveys and body-part discomfort surveys were administered, and these, along with speed of performance, were assessed in both groups. The results showed a significantly (p < .05) more positive subjective impression of the intervention for the feedback group than for the control group (29%-57% improvement) with no real changes in either the performance or discomfort levels. Applications of this research include improving workers' acceptance of ergonomic interventions in industrial and other settings. The reinforcement technique evaluated in this paper has yielded consistently positive effects in our ongoing ergonomic intervention research.

  6. A Haptic Feedback Scheme to Accurately Position a Virtual Wrist Prosthesis Using a Three-Node Tactor Array.

    PubMed

    Erwin, Andrew; Sup, Frank C

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, a novel haptic feedback scheme, used for accurately positioning a 1DOF virtual wrist prosthesis through sensory substitution, is presented. The scheme employs a three-node tactor array and discretely and selectively modulates the stimulation frequency of each tactor to relay 11 discrete haptic stimuli to the user. Able-bodied participants were able to move the virtual wrist prosthesis via a surface electromyography based controller. The participants evaluated the feedback scheme without visual or audio feedback and relied solely on the haptic feedback alone to correctly position the hand. The scheme was evaluated through both normal (perpendicular) and shear (lateral) stimulations applied on the forearm. Normal stimulations were applied through a prototype device previously developed by the authors while shear stimulations were generated using an ubiquitous coin motor vibrotactor. Trials with no feedback served as a baseline to compare results within the study and to the literature. The results indicated that using normal and shear stimulations resulted in accurately positioning the virtual wrist, but were not significantly different. Using haptic feedback was substantially better than no feedback. The results found in this study are significant since the feedback scheme allows for using relatively few tactors to relay rich haptic information to the user and can be learned easily despite a relatively short amount of training. Additionally, the results are important for the haptic community since they contradict the common conception in the literature that normal stimulation is inferior to shear. From an ergonomic perspective normal stimulation has the potential to benefit upper limb amputees since it can operate at lower frequencies than shear-based vibrotactors while also generating less noise. Through further tuning of the novel haptic feedback scheme and normal stimulation device, a compact and comfortable sensory substitution device for upper

  7. Experimental warming reveals positive feedbacks to climate change in the Eurasian Steppe.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ximei; Johnston, Eric R; Li, Linghao; Konstantinidis, Konstantinos T; Han, Xingguo

    2017-04-01

    Identifying soil microbial feedbacks to increasing temperatures and moisture alterations is critical for predicting how terrestrial ecosystems will respond to climate change. We performed a 5-year field experiment manipulating warming, watering and their combination in a semiarid temperate steppe in northern China. Warming stimulated the abundance of genes responsible for degrading recalcitrant soil organic matter (SOM) and reduced SOM content by 13%. Watering, and warming plus watering also increased the abundance of recalcitrant SOM catabolism pathways, but concurrently promoted plant growth and increased labile SOM content, which somewhat offset SOM loss. The treatments also increased microbial biomass, community complexity and metabolic potential for nitrogen and sulfur assimilation. Both microbial and plant community composition shifted with the treatment conditions, and the sample-to-sample compositional variations of the two communities (pairwise β-diversity distances) were significantly correlated. In particular, microbial community composition was substantially correlated with the dominant plant species (~0.54 Spearman correlation coefficient), much more than with measured soil indices, affirming a tight coupling between both biological communities. Collectively, our study revealed the direction and underlying mechanisms of microbial feedbacks to warming and suggested that semiarid regions of northern steppes could act as a net carbon source under increased temperatures, unless precipitation increases concurrently.

  8. The impact of mechanical AGN feedback on the formation of massive early-type galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Ena; Ostriker, Jeremiah P.; Naab, Thorsten; Oser, Ludwig; Moster, Benjamin P.

    2015-06-01

    We employ cosmological hydrodynamical simulations to investigate the effects of AGN feedback on the formation of massive galaxies with present-day stellar masses of M_stel= 8.8 × 10^{10}-6.0 × 10^{11} M_{⊙}. Using smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulations with a pressure-entropy formulation that allows an improved treatment of contact discontinuities and fluid mixing, we run three sets of simulations of 20 haloes with different AGN feedback models: (1) no feedback, (2) thermal feedback, and (3) mechanical and radiation feedback. We assume that seed black holes are present at early cosmic epochs at the centre of emerging dark matter haloes and trace their mass growth via gas accretion and mergers with other black holes. Both feedback models successfully recover the observed MBH-σ relation and black hole-to-stellar mass ratio for simulated central early-type galaxies. The baryonic conversion efficiencies are reduced by a factor of 2 compared to models without any AGN feedback at all halo masses. However, massive galaxies simulated with thermal AGN feedback show a factor of ˜10-100 higher X-ray luminosities than observed. The mechanical/radiation feedback model reproduces the observed correlation between X-ray luminosities and velocity dispersion, e.g. for galaxies with σ = 200 km s- 1, the X-ray luminosity is reduced from 1042 erg s- 1 to 1040 erg s- 1. It also efficiently suppresses late-time star formation, reducing the specific star formation rate from 10-10.5 yr- 1 to 10-14 yr- 1 on average and resulting in quiescent galaxies since z = 2, whereas the thermal feedback model shows higher late-time in situ star formation rates than observed.

  9. Output feedback integral control for nano-positioning using piezoelectric actuators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, Jinjun; Yang, Liu; Li, Zhan

    2015-04-01

    This paper proposes a robust output feedback controller for a piezoelectrically actuated system with only position sensor. This considered piezoelectric actuator (PEA) system is subjected to model imperfection, creep nonlinearity, hysteresis nonlinearity and other external effects. The designed controller employs a second-order auxiliary system and a discontinuous uncertainty and disturbance estimation term to generate filtered error signals and to compensate for the model uncertainties and system disturbance, respectively. The global stability of the proposed controller is proved through Lyapunov-based stability analysis. The feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed control approach are verified experimentally using a PEA stage. Results demonstrate that both set-point and tracking control without/with external loads are realized with good performance and the PEA system with high-accuracy can be achieved. Moreover, the robustness of the controller is verified and analyzed through the sinusoidal tracking with external disturbance.

  10. Calculating the spontaneous magnetization and defining the Curie temperature using a positive-feedback model

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, R. G.

    2014-01-21

    A positive-feedback mean-field modification of the classical Brillouin magnetization theory provides an explanation of the apparent persistence of the spontaneous magnetization beyond the conventional Curie temperature—the little understood “tail” phenomenon that occurs in many ferromagnetic materials. The classical theory is unable to resolve this apparent anomaly. The modified theory incorporates the temperature-dependent quantum-scale hysteretic and mesoscopic domain-scale anhysteretic magnetization processes and includes the effects of demagnetizing and exchange fields. It is found that the thermal behavior of the reversible and irreversible segments of the hysteresis loops, as predicted by the theory, is a key to the presence or absence of the “tails.” The theory, which permits arbitrary values of the quantum spin number J, generally provides a quantitative agreement with the thermal variations of both the spontaneous magnetization and the shape of the hysteresis loop.

  11. Optical boundary reconstruction of tokamak plasmas for feedback control of plasma position and shape

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hommen, G.; de Baar, M.; Nuij, P.; McArdle, G.; Akers, R.; Steinbuch, M.

    2010-11-01

    A new diagnostic is developed to reconstruct the plasma boundary using visible wavelength images. Exploiting the plasma's edge localized and toroidally symmetric emission profile, a new coordinate transform is presented to reconstruct the plasma boundary from a poloidal view image. The plasma boundary reconstruction is implemented in MATLAB and applied to camera images of Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak discharges. The optically reconstructed plasma boundaries are compared to magnetic reconstructions from the offline reconstruction code EFIT, showing very good qualitative and quantitative agreement. Average errors are within 2 cm and correlation is high. In the current software implementation, plasma boundary reconstruction from a single image takes 3 ms. The applicability and system requirements of the new optical boundary reconstruction, called OFIT, for use in both feedback control of plasma position and shape and in offline reconstruction tools are discussed.

  12. Optical boundary reconstruction of tokamak plasmas for feedback control of plasma position and shape.

    PubMed

    Hommen, G; de Baar, M; Nuij, P; McArdle, G; Akers, R; Steinbuch, M

    2010-11-01

    A new diagnostic is developed to reconstruct the plasma boundary using visible wavelength images. Exploiting the plasma's edge localized and toroidally symmetric emission profile, a new coordinate transform is presented to reconstruct the plasma boundary from a poloidal view image. The plasma boundary reconstruction is implemented in MATLAB and applied to camera images of Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak discharges. The optically reconstructed plasma boundaries are compared to magnetic reconstructions from the offline reconstruction code EFIT, showing very good qualitative and quantitative agreement. Average errors are within 2 cm and correlation is high. In the current software implementation, plasma boundary reconstruction from a single image takes 3 ms. The applicability and system requirements of the new optical boundary reconstruction, called OFIT, for use in both feedback control of plasma position and shape and in offline reconstruction tools are discussed.

  13. Optical boundary reconstruction of tokamak plasmas for feedback control of plasma position and shape

    SciTech Connect

    Hommen, G.; Baar, M. de; Nuij, P.; Steinbuch, M.; McArdle, G.; Akers, R.

    2010-11-15

    A new diagnostic is developed to reconstruct the plasma boundary using visible wavelength images. Exploiting the plasma's edge localized and toroidally symmetric emission profile, a new coordinate transform is presented to reconstruct the plasma boundary from a poloidal view image. The plasma boundary reconstruction is implemented in MATLAB and applied to camera images of Mega-Ampere Spherical Tokamak discharges. The optically reconstructed plasma boundaries are compared to magnetic reconstructions from the offline reconstruction code EFIT, showing very good qualitative and quantitative agreement. Average errors are within 2 cm and correlation is high. In the current software implementation, plasma boundary reconstruction from a single image takes 3 ms. The applicability and system requirements of the new optical boundary reconstruction, called OFIT, for use in both feedback control of plasma position and shape and in offline reconstruction tools are discussed.

  14. Indications of a positive feedback between coastal development and beach nourishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Armstrong, Scott; Lazarus, Eli; Limber, Patrick W; Goldstein, Evan; Thorpe, Curtis; Ballinger, Rhoda

    2016-01-01

    Beach nourishment, a method for mitigating coastal storm damage or chronic erosion by deliberately replacing sand on an eroded beach, has been the leading form of coastal protection in the U.S. for four decades. However, investment in hazard protection can have the unintended consequence of encouraging development in places especially vulnerable to damage. In a comprehensive, parcel-scale analysis of all shorefront single-family homes in the state of Florida, we find that houses in nourishing zones are significantly larger and more numerous than in non-nourishing zones. The predominance of larger homes in nourishing zones suggests a positive feedback between nourishment and development that is compounding coastal risk in zones already characterized by high vulnerability.

  15. Effect of positive feedback loops on the robustness of oscillations in the network of cyclin-dependent kinases driving the mammalian cell cycle.

    PubMed

    Gérard, Claude; Gonze, Didier; Goldbeter, Albert

    2012-09-01

    The transitions between the G(1), S, G(2) and M phases of the mammalian cell cycle are driven by a network of cyclin-dependent kinases (Cdks), whose sequential activation is regulated by intertwined negative and positive feedback loops. We previously proposed a detailed computational model for the Cdk network, and showed that this network is capable of temporal self-organization in the form of sustained oscillations, which govern ordered progression through the successive phases of the cell cycle [Gérard and Goldbeter (2009) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 106, 21643-21648]. We subsequently proposed a skeleton model for the cell cycle that retains the core regulatory mechanisms of the detailed model [Gérard and Goldbeter (2011) Interface Focus 1, 24-35]. Here we extend this skeleton model by incorporating Cdk regulation through phosphorylation/dephosphorylation and by including the positive feedback loops that underlie the dynamics of the G(1)/S and G(2)/M transitions via phosphatase Cdc25 and via phosphatase Cdc25 and kinase Wee1, respectively. We determine the effects of these positive feedback loops and ultrasensitivity in phosphorylation/dephosphorylation on the dynamics of the Cdk network. The multiplicity of positive feedback loops as well as the existence of ultrasensitivity promote the occurrence of bistability and increase the amplitude of the oscillations in the various cyclin/Cdk complexes. By resorting to stochastic simulations, we further show that the presence of multiple, redundant positive feedback loops in the G(2)/M transition of the cell cycle markedly enhances the robustness of the Cdk oscillations with respect to molecular noise.

  16. Terrestrial ecosystem feedbacks to global climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Lashof, D.A.; DeAngelo, B.J.; Saleska, S.R.; Harte, J.

    1997-12-31

    Anthropogenic greenhouse gases are expected to induce changes in global climate that can alter ecosystems in ways that, in turn, may further affect climate. Such climate-ecosystem interactions can generate either positive or negative feedbacks to the climate system, thereby either enhancing or diminishing the magnitude of global climate change. Important terrestrial feedback mechanisms include CO{sub 2} fertilization (negative feedbacks), carbon storage in vegetation and soils (positive and negative feedbacks), vegetation albedo (positive feedbacks), and peatland methane emissions (positive and negative feedbacks). While the processes involved are complex, not readily quantifiable, and demonstrate both positive and negative feedback potential, the authors conclude that the combined effect of the feedback mechanisms reviewed here will likely amplify climate change relative to current projections that have not yet adequately incorporated these mechanisms. 162 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Laser-Machined Shape Memory Alloy Sensors for Position Feedback in Active Catheters

    PubMed Central

    Tung, Alexander T.; Park, Byong-Ho; Liang, David H.; Niemeyer, Günter

    2008-01-01

    Catheter-based interventions are a form of minimally invasive surgery that can decrease hospitalization time and greatly lower patient morbidity compared to traditional methods. However, percutaneous catheter procedures are hindered by a lack of precise tip manipulation when actuation forces are transmitted over the length of the catheter. Active catheters with local shape-memory-alloy (SMA) actuation can potentially provide the desired manipulation of a catheter tip, but hysteresis makes it difficult to control the actuators. A method to integrate small-volume, compliant sensors on an active catheter to provide position feedback for control would greatly improve the viability of SMA-based active catheters. In this work, we describe the design, fabrication, and performance of resistance-based position sensors that are laser-machined from superelastic SMA tubing. Combining simple material models and rapid prototyping, we can develop sensors of appropriate stiffness and sensitivity with simple modifications in sensor geometry. The sensors exhibit excellent linearity over the operating range and are designed to be easily integrated onto an active catheter substrate. PMID:19759806

  18. Methods and mechanisms for contact feedback in a robot-assisted minimally invasive environment.

    PubMed

    Tavakoli, M; Aziminejad, A; Patel, R V; Moallem, M

    2006-10-01

    Providing a surgeon with information regarding contacts made between instruments and tissue during robot-assisted interventions can improve task efficiency and reliability. In this report, different methods for feedback of such information to the surgeon are discussed. It is hypothesized that various methods of contact feedback have the potential to enhance performance in a robot-assisted minimally invasive environment. To verify the hypothesis, novel mechanisms needed for incorporating contact feedback were designed, including a surgeon-robot interface with full force feedback capabilities and a surgical end-effector with full force sensing capabilities, that are suitable for minimally invasive applications. These two mechanisms were used to form a robotic "master-slave" test bed for studying the effect of contact feedback on the system and user performance. Using the master-slave system, experiments for surgical tasks involving soft tissue palpation were conducted. The performance of the master-slave system was validated in terms of criteria that assess the accurate transmission of task-related information to the surgeon, which is critical in the context of soft tissue surgical applications. Moreover, using a set of experiments involving human subjects, the performance of several users in carrying out the task was compared among different methods of contact feedback.

  19. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    PubMed

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed.

  20. Positive Feedback Loop of OCT4 and c-JUN Expedites Cancer Stemness in Liver Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Kung-Kai; Lee, King-Teh; Chen, Ker-Kong; Yang, Ya-Han; Lin, Ying-Chu; Tsai, Ming-Ho; Wuputra, Kenly; Lee, Yen-Liang; Ku, Chia-Chen; Miyoshi, Hiroyuki; Nakamura, Yukio; Saito, Shigeo; Wu, Chun-Chieh; Chai, Chee-Yin; Eckner, Richard; Steve Lin, Chen-Lung; Wang, Sophie S-W; Wu, Deng-Chyang; Lin, Chang-Shen; Yokoyama, Kazunari K

    2016-06-24

    The network of stemness genes and oncogenes in human patient-specific reprogrammed cancer stem cells (CSCs) remains elusive, especially in liver cancer. HepG2-derived induced pluripotent stem cell-like cells (HepG2-iPS-like cells) were generated by introducing Yamanaka factors and the knockdown vector shTP53. They exhibited features of stemness and a higher tumorigenesis after xenograft transplantation compared with HepG2 cells. The cancerous mass of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice derived from one colony was dissected and cultured to establish reprogrammed HepG2-derived CSC-like cells (designated rG2-DC-1C). A single colony exhibited 42% occurrence of tumors with higher proliferation capacities. rG2-DC-1C showed continuous expression of the OCT4 stemness gene and of representative tumor markers, potentiated chemoresistance characteristics, and invasion activities. The sphere-colony formation ability and the invasion activity of rG2-DC-1C were also higher than those of HepG2 cells. Moreover, the expression of the OCT4 gene and the c-JUN oncogene, but not of c-MYC, was significantly elevated in rG2-DC-1C, whereas no c-JUN expression was observed in HepG2 cells. The positive-feedback regulation via OCT4-mediated transactivation of the c-JUN promoter and the c-JUN-mediated transactivation of the OCT4 promoter were crucial for promoting cancer development and maintaining cancer stemness in rG2-DC-1C. Increased expression of OCT4 and c-JUN was detected in the early stage of human liver cancer. Therefore, the positive feedback regulation of OCT4 and c-JUN, resulting in the continuous expression of oncogenes such as c-JUN, seems to play a critical role in the determination of the cell fate decision from iPS cells to CSCs in liver cancer. Stem Cells 2016.

  1. Transformed eddy-PV flux and positive synoptic eddy feedback onto low-frequency flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Hong-Li; Jin, Fei-Fei; Kug, Jong-Seong; Gao, Li

    2011-06-01

    Interaction between synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow (SELF) has been the subject of many studies. In this study, we further examine the interaction by introducing a transformed eddy-potential-vorticity (TEPV) flux that is obtained from eddy-potential-vorticity flux through a quasi-geostrophic potential-vorticity inversion. The main advantage of using the TEPV flux is that it combines the effects of the eddy-vorticity and heat fluxes into the net acceleration of the low-frequency flow in such a way that the TEPV flux tends to be analogous to the eddy-vorticity fluxes in the barotropic framework. We show that the anomalous TEPV fluxes are preferentially directed to the left-hand side of the low-frequency flow in all vertical levels throughout the troposphere for monthly flow anomalies and for climate modes such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Furthermore, this left-hand preference of the TEPV flux direction is a convenient three-dimensional indicator of the positive reinforcement of the low-frequency flow by net eddy-induced acceleration. By projecting the eddy-induced net accelerations onto the low-frequency flow anomalies, we estimate the eddy-induced growth rates for the low frequency flow anomalies. This positive eddy-induced growth rate is larger (smaller) in the lower (upper) troposphere. The stronger positive eddy feedback in the lower troposphere may play an important role in maintaining an equivalent barotropic structure of the low-frequency atmospheric flow by balancing some of the strong damping effect of surface friction.

  2. Transformed Eddy-PV Flux and Positive Synoptic Eddy Feedback onto Low-Frequency Flow

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, H.; Jin, F.; Kug, J.; Gao, L.

    2010-12-01

    Interaction between synoptic eddy and low-frequency flow (SELF) has been the subject of many studies. In this study, we further examine the interaction by introducing a transformed eddy-potential-vorticity (TEPV) flux that is obtained from eddy-potential-vorticity flux through a quasi-geostrophic potential-vorticity inversion. The main advantage of using the TEPV flux is that it combines the effects of the eddy-vorticity and heat fluxes into the net acceleration of the low-frequency flow in such a way that the TEPV flux tends to be analogous to the eddy-vorticity fluxes in the barotropic framework. We show that the anomalous TEPV fluxes are preferentially directed to the left-hand side of the low-frequency flow in all vertical levels throughout the troposphere for monthly flow anomalies and for climate modes such as the Arctic Oscillation (AO). Furthermore, this left-hand preference of the TEPV flux direction is a convenient three-dimensional indicator of the positive reinforcement of the low-frequency flow by net eddy-induced acceleration. By projecting the eddy-induced net accelerations onto the low-frequency flow anomalies, we estimate the eddy-induced growth rates for the low frequency flow anomalies. This positive eddy-induced growth rate is larger (smaller) in the lower (upper) troposphere. The stronger positive eddy feedback in the lower troposphere may play an important role in maintaining an equivalent barotropic structure of the low-frequency atmospheric flow by balancing some of the strong damping effect of surface friction.

  3. An exploratory pilot study of mechanisms of action within normative feedback for adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Muench, Frederick J.; Lee, Rufina; Pena, Juan; Hail, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Normative feedback (NF), or receiving information about one’s drinking compared to peer drinking norms, is one of the most widely used brief interventions for prevention and intervention for hazardous alcohol use. NF has demonstrated predominantly small but significant effect sizes for intention to change and other drinking related outcomes. Identifying mechanisms of action may improve the effectiveness of NF; however, few studies have examined NF’s mechanisms of action, particularly among adults. Objective. This study is an exploratory analysis of two theorized mechanisms of NF: discrepancy (specifically personal dissonance—the affective response to feedback) and belief in the accuracy of feedback. Method. Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 87 men (n = 56) and women (n = 31) completed an online survey during which they were asked about their perceptions about their drinking and actual drinking behaviors. Then participants were provided tailored NF and evaluated for their reactions. Severity of discrepancy was measured by the difference between one’s estimated percentile ranking of drinking compared to peers and actual percentile ranking. Surprise and worry reported due to the discrepancy were proxies for personal dissonance. Participants were also asked if they believed the feedback and if they had any plans to change their drinking. Mediation analyses were implemented, exploring whether surprise, worry, or belief in the accuracy of feedback mediated severity of discrepancy’s impact on plan for change. Results. Among this sample of adult drinkers, severity of discrepancy did not predict plan for change, and personal dissonance did not mediate severity of discrepancy. Severity of discrepancy was mediated by belief in the accuracy of feedback. In addition, viewing one’s drinking as a problem prior to feedback and post-NF worry both predicted plan for change independently. Conclusions. Results revealed that NF may not work to create personal

  4. An epidemic spreading model on adaptive scale-free networks with feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Tao; Liu, Xiongding; Wu, Jie; Wan, Chen; Guan, Zhi-Hong; Wang, Yuanmei

    2016-05-01

    A SIRS epidemic model with feedback mechanism on adaptive scale-free networks is presented. Using the mean field theory the spreading dynamics of the epidemic is studied in detail. The basic reproductive number and equilibriums are derived. Theoretical results indicate that the basic reproductive number is significantly dependent on the topology of the underlying networks. The existence of equilibriums is determined by the basic reproductive number. The global stability of disease-free equilibrium and the epidemic permanence are proved in detail. The feedback mechanism cannot change the basic reproductive number, but it can reduce the endemic level and weaken the epidemic spreading. Numerical simulations confirmed the analytical results.

  5. Acetyl salicylic acid inhibits Th17 airway inflammation via blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Moon, Hyung-Geun; Kang, Chil Sung; Choi, Jun-Pyo; Choi, Dong Sic; Choi, Hyun Il; Choi, Yong Wook; Jeon, Seong Gyu; Yoo, Joo-Yeon; Jang, Myoung Ho; Gho, Yong Song; Kim, Yoon-Keun

    2013-01-18

    T-helper (Th)17 cell responses are important for the development of neutrophilic inflammatory disease. Recently, we found that acetyl salicylic acid (ASA) inhibited Th17 airway inflammation in an asthma mouse model induced by sensitization with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-containing allergens. To investigate the mechanism(s) of the inhibitory effect of ASA on the development of Th17 airway inflammation, a neutrophilic asthma mouse model was generated by intranasal sensitization with LPS plus ovalbumin (OVA) and then challenged with OVA alone. Immunologic parameters and airway inflammation were evaluated 6 and 48 h after the last OVA challenge. ASA inhibited the production of interleukin (IL)-17 from lung T cells as well as in vitro Th17 polarization induced by IL-6. Additionally, ASA, but not salicylic acid, suppressed Th17 airway inflammation, which was associated with decreased expression of acetyl-STAT3 (downstream signaling of IL-6) in the lung. Moreover, the production of IL-6 from inflammatory cells, induced by IL-17, was abolished by treatment with ASA, whereas that induced by LPS was not. Altogether, ASA, likely via its acetyl moiety, inhibits Th17 airway inflammation by blockade of IL-6 and IL-17 positive feedback.

  6. The Effects of Positive and Negative Feedback on Maximal Voluntary Contraction Level of the Biceps Brachii Muscle: Moderating Roles of Gender and Conscientiousness.

    PubMed

    Sarıkabak, Murat; Yaman, Çetin; Tok, Serdar; Binboga, Erdal

    2016-11-02

    We investigated the effect of positive and negative feedback on maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) of the biceps brachii muscle and explored the mediating effects of gender and conscientiousness. During elbow flexion, MVCs were measured in positive, negative, and no-feedback conditions. Participants were divided into high- and low-conscientiousness groups based on the median split of their scores on Tatar's five-factor personality inventory. Considering all participants 46 college student athletes (21 female, 28 male), positive feedback led to a greater MVC percentage change (-5.76%) than did negative feedback (2.2%). MVC percentage change in the positive feedback condition differed significantly by gender, but the negative feedback condition did not. Thus, positive feedback increased female athletes' MVC level by 3.49%, but decreased male athletes' MVC level by 15.6%. For conscientiousness, MVC percentage change in the positive feedback condition did not differ according to high and low conscientiousness. However, conscientiousness interacted with gender in the positive feedback condition, increasing MVC in high-conscientiousness female athletes and decreasing MVC in low-conscientiousness female athletes. Positive feedback decreased MVC in both high- and low-conscientiousness male athletes.

  7. Positive Feedback Amplifies the Response of Mitochondrial Membrane Potential to Glucose Concentration in Clonal Pancreatic Beta Cells.

    PubMed

    Gerencser, Akos A; Mookerjee, Shona A; Jastroch, Martin; Brand, Martin D

    2016-10-20

    Analysis of the cellular mechanisms of metabolic disorders, including type 2 diabetes mellitus, is complicated by the large number of reactions and interactions in metabolic networks. Metabolic control analysis with appropriate modularization is a powerful method for simplifying and analyzing these networks. To analyze control of cellular energy metabolism in adherent cell cultures of the INS-1 832/13 pancreatic β-cell model we adapted our microscopy assay of absolute mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔψM) to a fluorescence microplate reader format, and applied it in conjunction with cell respirometry. In these cells the sensitive response of ΔψM to extracellular glucose concentration drives glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. Using metabolic control analysis we identified the control properties that generate this sensitive response. Force-flux relationships between ΔψM and respiration were used to calculate kinetic responses to ΔψM of processes both upstream (glucose oxidation) and downstream (proton leak and ATP turnover) of ΔψM. The analysis revealed that glucose-evoked ΔψM hyperpolarization is amplified by increased glucose oxidation activity caused by factors downstream of ΔψM. At high glucose, the hyperpolarized ΔψM is stabilized almost completely by the action of glucose oxidation, whereas proton leak also contributes to the homeostatic control of ΔψM at low glucose. These findings suggest a strong positive feedback loop in the regulation of β-cell energetics, and a possible regulatory role of proton leak in the fasting state. Analysis of islet bioenergetics from published cases of type 2 diabetes suggests that disruption of this feedback can explain the damaged bioenergetic response of β-cells to glucose.

  8. Nur1 Dephosphorylation Confers Positive Feedback to Mitotic Exit Phosphatase Activation in Budding Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Godfrey, Molly; Kuilman, Thomas; Uhlmann, Frank

    2015-01-01

    Substrate dephosphorylation by the cyclin-dependent kinase (Cdk)-opposing phosphatase, Cdc14, is vital for many events during budding yeast mitotic exit. Cdc14 is sequestered in the nucleolus through inhibitory binding to Net1, from which it is released in anaphase following Net1 phosphorylation. Initial Net1 phosphorylation depends on Cdk itself, in conjunction with proteins of the Cdc14 Early Anaphase Release (FEAR) network. Later on, the Mitotic Exit Network (MEN) signaling cascade maintains Cdc14 release. An important unresolved question is how Cdc14 activity can increase in early anaphase, while Cdk activity, that is required for Net1 phosphorylation, decreases and the MEN is not yet active. Here we show that the nuclear rim protein Nur1 interacts with Net1 and, in its Cdk phosphorylated form, inhibits Cdc14 release. Nur1 is dephosphorylated by Cdc14 in early anaphase, relieving the inhibition and promoting further Cdc14 release. Nur1 dephosphorylation thus describes a positive feedback loop in Cdc14 phosphatase activation during mitotic exit, required for faithful chromosome segregation and completion of the cell division cycle. PMID:25569132

  9. Dominant pole and eigenstructure assignment for positive systems with state feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhao; Lam, James

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, the dominant pole assignment problem, the dominant eigenstructure assignment problem and the robust dominant pole assignment problem for linear time-invariant positive systems with state feedback are considered. The dominant pole assignment problem is formulated as a linear programming problem, and the dominant eigenstructure problem is formulated as a quasiconvex optimisation problem with linear constraints. The robust dominant pole assignment problem is formulated as a non-convex optimisation problem with non-linear constraints which is solved using particle swarm optimisation (PSO) with an efficient scheme which employs the dominant eigenstructure assignment technique to accelerate the convergence of the PSO procedure. Each of the three problems can be further constrained by requiring that the controller has a pre-specified structure, or the gain matrix have both elementwise upper and lower bounds. These constraints can be incorporated into the proposed scheme without increasing the complexity of the algorithms. Both the continuous-time case and the discrete-time case are treated in the paper.

  10. Positive intergenic feedback circuitry, involving EBF1 and FOXO1, orchestrates B-cell fate

    PubMed Central

    Mansson, Robert; Welinder, Eva; Åhsberg, Josefine; Benner, Christopher; Glass, Christopher K.; Lucas, Joseph S.; Sigvardsson, Mikael; Murre, Cornelis

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have identified a number of transcriptional regulators, including E2A, early B-cell factor 1 (EBF1), FOXO1, and paired box gene 5 (PAX5), that promote early B-cell development. However, how this ensemble of regulators mechanistically promotes B-cell fate remains poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that B-cell development in FOXO1-deficient mice is arrested in the common lymphoid progenitor (CLP) LY6D+ cell stage. We demonstrate that this phenotype closely resembles the arrest in B-cell development observed in EBF1-deficient mice. Consistent with these observations, we find that the transcription signatures of FOXO1- and EBF1-deficient LY6D+ progenitors are strikingly similar, indicating a common set of target genes. Furthermore, we found that depletion of EBF1 expression in LY6D+ CLPs severely affects FOXO1 mRNA abundance, whereas depletion of FOXO1 activity in LY6D+ CLPs ablates EBF1 transcript levels. We generated a global regulatory network from EBF1 and FOXO1 genome-wide transcription factor occupancy and transcription signatures derived from EBF1- and FOXO1-deficient CLPs. This analysis reveals that EBF1 and FOXO1 act in a positive feedback circuitry to promote and stabilize specification to the B-cell lineage. PMID:23213261

  11. A positive feedback pathway of estrogen biosynthesis in breast cancer cells is contained by resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yun; Ye, Lan; Leung, Lai K

    2008-06-27

    Cytochrome P450 (CYP) 19 enzyme or aromatase catalyses the rate-determining step of estrogen synthesis. The transcriptional control of CYP19 gene is highly specific in different cell types, for instance, Promoter I.3/II is commonly used for regulation in breast cancer cells. Recently, a positive feedback pathway for estrogen synthesis has been identified in ER alpha expressing SK-BR-3 cells. CYP19 mRNA abundance and activity are increased in this pathway and the promoter usage is switched from Promoter I.3/II to I.1 through a non-genomic process. In the present study, effect of the phytocompound resveratrol on this Promoter I.1-controlled expression of aromatase was investigated. Results indicated that resveratrol reduced the estradiol-induced mRNA abundance in SK-BR-3 cells expressing ER alpha. Luciferase reporter gene assays revealed that resveratrol could also repress the transcriptional control dictated by Promoter I.1. Since the ERE-driven luciferase activity was not repressed by resveratrol, the nuclear events of estrogen were unlikely to be suppressed by resveratrol. Instead the phytochemical reduced the amount of ERK activated by estradiol, which could be the pathway responsible for Promoter I.1 transactivation and the induced CYP19 expression. The present study illustrated that resveratrol impeded the non-genomic induction of estrogen on CYP19.

  12. Positive allosteric feedback regulation of the stringent response enzyme RelA by its product

    PubMed Central

    Shyp, Viktoriya; Tankov, Stoyan; Ermakov, Andrey; Kudrin, Pavel; English, Brian P; Ehrenberg, Måns; Tenson, Tanel; Elf, Johan; Hauryliuk, Vasili

    2012-01-01

    During the stringent response, Escherichia coli enzyme RelA produces the ppGpp alarmone, which in turn regulates transcription, translation and replication. We show that ppGpp dramatically increases the turnover rate of its own ribosome-dependent synthesis by RelA, resulting in direct positive regulation of an enzyme by its product. Positive allosteric regulation therefore constitutes a new mechanism of enzyme activation. By integrating the output of individual RelA molecules and ppGpp degradation pathways, this regulatory circuit contributes to a fast and coordinated transition to stringency. PMID:22814757

  13. Mammary blood flow and metabolic activity are linked by a feedback mechanism involving nitric oxide synthesis.

    PubMed

    Cieslar, S R L; Madsen, T G; Purdie, N G; Trout, D R; Osborne, V R; Cant, J P

    2014-01-01

    To test which, if any, of the major milk precursors can elicit a rapid change in the rate of mammary blood flow (MBF) and to define the time course and magnitude of such changes, 4 lactating cows were infused with glucose, amino acids, or triacylglycerol into the external iliac artery feeding one udder half while iliac plasma flow (IPF) was monitored continuously by dye dilution. Adenosine and saline were infused as positive and negative controls, respectively, and insulin was infused to characterize the response to a centrally produced anabolic hormone. To test the roles of cyclooxygenase, NO synthase and ATP-sensitive K (KATP) channels in nutrient-mediated changes in blood flow, their respective inhibitors-indomethacin, Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), and glibenclamide-were infused simultaneously with glucose. Each day, 1 infusate was given twice to each cow, over a 20-min period each time, separated by a 20-min washout period. In addition, each treatment protocol was administered on 2 separate days. A 73% increase in IPF during adenosine infusion showed that the mammary vasodilatory response was quadratic in time, with most changes occurring in the first 5min. Glucose infusion decreased IPF by 9% in a quadratic manner, most rapidly in the first 5min, indicating that a feedback mechanism of local blood flow control, likely through adenosine release, was operative in the mammary vasculature. Amino acid infusion increased IPF 9% in a linear manner, suggesting that mammary ATP utilization was stimulated more than ATP production. This could reflect a stimulation of protein synthesis. Triacylglycerol only tended to decrease IPF and insulin did not affect IPF. A lack of IPF response to glibenclamide indicates that KATP channels are not involved in MBF regulation. Indomethacin and L-NAME both depressed IPF. In the presence of indomethacin, glucose infusion caused a quadratic 9% increase in IPF. Indomethacin is an inhibitor of mitochondrial

  14. Quantum enhanced feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator using nonclassical light

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Kerdoncuff, Hugo; Hoff, Ulrich B.; Fu, Hao; Huck, Alexander; Bilek, Jan; Harris, Glen I.; Bowen, Warwick P.; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-11-01

    Laser cooling is a fundamental technique used in primary atomic frequency standards, quantum computers, quantum condensed matter physics and tests of fundamental physics, among other areas. It has been known since the early 1990s that laser cooling can, in principle, be improved by using squeezed light as an electromagnetic reservoir; while quantum feedback control using a squeezed light probe is also predicted to allow improved cooling. Here we show the implementation of quantum feedback control of a micro-mechanical oscillator using squeezed probe light. This allows quantum-enhanced feedback cooling with a measurement rate greater than it is possible with classical light, and a consequent reduction in the final oscillator temperature. Our results have significance for future applications in areas ranging from quantum information networks, to quantum-enhanced force and displacement measurements and fundamental tests of macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  15. Quantum enhanced feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator using nonclassical light

    PubMed Central

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Kerdoncuff, Hugo; Hoff, Ulrich B.; Fu, Hao; Huck, Alexander; Bilek, Jan; Harris, Glen I.; Bowen, Warwick P.; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik L.

    2016-01-01

    Laser cooling is a fundamental technique used in primary atomic frequency standards, quantum computers, quantum condensed matter physics and tests of fundamental physics, among other areas. It has been known since the early 1990s that laser cooling can, in principle, be improved by using squeezed light as an electromagnetic reservoir; while quantum feedback control using a squeezed light probe is also predicted to allow improved cooling. Here we show the implementation of quantum feedback control of a micro-mechanical oscillator using squeezed probe light. This allows quantum-enhanced feedback cooling with a measurement rate greater than it is possible with classical light, and a consequent reduction in the final oscillator temperature. Our results have significance for future applications in areas ranging from quantum information networks, to quantum-enhanced force and displacement measurements and fundamental tests of macroscopic quantum mechanics. PMID:27897181

  16. Quantum enhanced feedback cooling of a mechanical oscillator using nonclassical light.

    PubMed

    Schäfermeier, Clemens; Kerdoncuff, Hugo; Hoff, Ulrich B; Fu, Hao; Huck, Alexander; Bilek, Jan; Harris, Glen I; Bowen, Warwick P; Gehring, Tobias; Andersen, Ulrik L

    2016-11-29

    Laser cooling is a fundamental technique used in primary atomic frequency standards, quantum computers, quantum condensed matter physics and tests of fundamental physics, among other areas. It has been known since the early 1990s that laser cooling can, in principle, be improved by using squeezed light as an electromagnetic reservoir; while quantum feedback control using a squeezed light probe is also predicted to allow improved cooling. Here we show the implementation of quantum feedback control of a micro-mechanical oscillator using squeezed probe light. This allows quantum-enhanced feedback cooling with a measurement rate greater than it is possible with classical light, and a consequent reduction in the final oscillator temperature. Our results have significance for future applications in areas ranging from quantum information networks, to quantum-enhanced force and displacement measurements and fundamental tests of macroscopic quantum mechanics.

  17. Method to quantify accuracy of position feedback signals of a three-dimensional two-photon laser-scanning microscope

    PubMed Central

    Kummer, Michael; Kirmse, Knut; Witte, Otto W.; Haueisen, Jens; Holthoff, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy enables to record neuronal network activity in three-dimensional space while maintaining single-cellular resolution. One of the proposed approaches combines galvanometric x-y scanning with piezo-driven objective movements and employs hardware feedback signals for position monitoring. However, readily applicable methods to quantify the accuracy of those feedback signals are currently lacking. Here we provide techniques based on contact-free laser reflection and laser triangulation for the quantification of positioning accuracy of each spatial axis. We found that the lateral feedback signals are sufficiently accurate (defined as <2.5 µm) for a wide range of scan trajectories and frequencies. We further show that axial positioning accuracy does not only depend on objective acceleration and mass but also its geometry. We conclude that the introduced methods allow a reliable quantification of position feedback signals in a cost-efficient, easy-to-install manner and should be applicable for a wide range of two-photon laser scanning microscopes. PMID:26504620

  18. Method to quantify accuracy of position feedback signals of a three-dimensional two-photon laser-scanning microscope.

    PubMed

    Kummer, Michael; Kirmse, Knut; Witte, Otto W; Haueisen, Jens; Holthoff, Knut

    2015-10-01

    Two-photon laser-scanning microscopy enables to record neuronal network activity in three-dimensional space while maintaining single-cellular resolution. One of the proposed approaches combines galvanometric x-y scanning with piezo-driven objective movements and employs hardware feedback signals for position monitoring. However, readily applicable methods to quantify the accuracy of those feedback signals are currently lacking. Here we provide techniques based on contact-free laser reflection and laser triangulation for the quantification of positioning accuracy of each spatial axis. We found that the lateral feedback signals are sufficiently accurate (defined as <2.5 µm) for a wide range of scan trajectories and frequencies. We further show that axial positioning accuracy does not only depend on objective acceleration and mass but also its geometry. We conclude that the introduced methods allow a reliable quantification of position feedback signals in a cost-efficient, easy-to-install manner and should be applicable for a wide range of two-photon laser scanning microscopes.

  19. Effects of Supervisor Performance Feedback on Increasing Preservice Teachers' Positive Communication Behaviors with Students with Emotional and Behavioral Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathel, Jeanna Marie; Drasgow, Erik; Christle, Christine C.

    2008-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to examine the effects of supervisor performance feedback on preservice teachers' rates of positive and negative communication behaviors with students with emotional and behavioral disorders and the effects of the intervention on the preservice teachers' perceptions of classroom management and climate. The authors…

  20. Does Gender Influence Emotions Resulting from Positive Applause Feedback in Self-Assessment Testing? Evidence from Neuroscience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Chia-Ju; Huang, Chin-Fei; Liu, Ming-Chi; Chien, Yu-Cheng; Lai, Chia-Hung; Huang, Yueh-Min

    2015-01-01

    Computerized self-assessment testing can help learners reflect on learning content and can also promote their motivation toward learning. However, a positive affective state is the key to achieving these learning goals. This study aims to examine learning gains and emotional reactions resulting from receiving emotional feedback in the form of…

  1. Video-Feedback Intervention to Promote Positive Parenting Adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne BA; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-01-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child…

  2. Visual Feedback of the Non-Moving Limb Improves Active Joint-Position Sense of the Impaired Limb in Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smorenburg, Ana R. P.; Ledebt, Annick; Deconinck, Frederik J. A.; Savelsbergh, Geert J. P.

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the active joint-position sense in children with Spastic Hemiparetic Cerebral Palsy (SHCP) and the effect of static visual feedback and static mirror visual feedback, of the non-moving limb, on the joint-position sense. Participants were asked to match the position of one upper limb with that of the contralateral limb. The task…

  3. AP-1 regulates sphingosine kinase 1 expression in a positive feedback manner in glomerular mesangial cells exposed to high glucose.

    PubMed

    Huang, Kaipeng; Huang, Juan; Chen, Cheng; Hao, Jie; Wang, Shaogui; Huang, Junying; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Heqing

    2014-03-01

    Our previous studies have confirmed that the sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1)-sphingosine 1-phosphate (S1P) signaling pathway in the kidney under diabetic conditions is closely correlated with the pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy (DN). The activation of SphK1-S1P pathway by high glucose (HG) can increase the expression of fibronectin (FN), an important fibrotic component, in glomerular mesangial cells (GMCs) by promoting the DNA-binding activity of transcription factor AP-1. However, the mechanism responsible for the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway remains unclear. Given the binding motifs for AP-1 within the first intron of the SphK1 gene, we speculated that the activated AP-1 in the kidney under HG condition possibly regulates SphK1 expression in a positive feedback manner, thereby promoting the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway and mediating the pathological progression of DN. Here, we observed the effect of AP-1 on SphK1 expression in GMCs and explored the molecular mechanism involved in the sustained activation of SphK1-S1P pathway. We found two consensus binding motifs for AP-1 in the promoter sequences and non-coding region downstream of the transcriptional initiation of the rat SphK1 gene by chromatin immunoprecipitation assay. The treatment of GMCs with both HG and S1P significantly increased the protein expression of c-Jun and c-Fos, and obviously enhanced the phosphorylation of c-Jun at Ser63 and Ser73, and c-Fos at Ser32. Knockdown of c-Jun and c-Fos with siRNAs substantially inhibited the expression of SphK1 and FN, whereas overexpression of c-Jun and c-Fos significantly increased the expression of SphK1 and FN. Curcumin treatment greatly decreased the levels of c-Jun, c-Fos, SphK1, and FN in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats. SiRNAs targeting SphK1 and S1P2 receptor respectively inhibited the phosphorylation of c-Jun (ser63 and ser73) and c-Fos (ser32), as well as FN expression under both normal and HG conditions. Our data

  4. Version pressure feedback mechanisms for speculative versioning caches

    DOEpatents

    Eichenberger, Alexandre E.; Gara, Alan; O& #x27; Brien, Kathryn M.; Ohmacht, Martin; Zhuang, Xiaotong

    2013-03-12

    Mechanisms are provided for controlling version pressure on a speculative versioning cache. Raw version pressure data is collected based on one or more threads accessing cache lines of the speculative versioning cache. One or more statistical measures of version pressure are generated based on the collected raw version pressure data. A determination is made as to whether one or more modifications to an operation of a data processing system are to be performed based on the one or more statistical measures of version pressure, the one or more modifications affecting version pressure exerted on the speculative versioning cache. An operation of the data processing system is modified based on the one or more determined modifications, in response to a determination that one or more modifications to the operation of the data processing system are to be performed, to affect the version pressure exerted on the speculative versioning cache.

  5. The effects of feedback and positive reinforcement on the on-task behavior of dancers.

    PubMed

    Liberatore, Jennica S; Luyben, Paul D

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of feedback on the on-task behavior of adolescent members of a dance company in central New York. The intervention consisted of immediate group and delayed individual feedback. We used a single-subject reversal design. We hypothesized that implementation of the feedback conditions would increase overall on-task rates and decrease variability relative to baseline rates. The data supported this hypothesis with increased on-task rates and decreased variability when the intervention was in effect.

  6. Positive effects of augmented verbal feedback on power production in NCAA Division I collegiate athletes.

    PubMed

    Staub, Joseph N; Kraemer, William J; Pandit, Ashley L; Haug, William B; Comstock, Brett A; Dunn-Lewis, Courtenay; Hooper, David R; Maresh, Carl M; Volek, Jeff S; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine how augmented verbal feedback, specifically knowledge of performance during a countermovement vertical jump (CMVJ) protocol, would affect acute power output. Each subject (N = 14 [9 men and 5 women], 21.4 ± 0.8 years, 179.6 ± 6.1 cm, 87.5 ± 14.8 kg) completed the CMVJ protocol twice in a balanced randomized order, one trial with feedback and one without feedback. At least 48 hours were allowed between sessions for resting. Student-athletes were used because of their trained state and their familiarity with plyometrics and receiving and processing feedback during training. Each testing session began with a 10-minute warm-up consisting of a combination of dynamic stretching and submaximal jumps (no proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation or static stretching). After completion of the warm-up, the subjects then began the CMVJ protocol. The CMVJ protocol consisted of 3 sets of 5 jumps on a calibrated force plate set to read at 200 Hz (Accupower). Subjects were instructed at the start of the protocol to give maximal effort on each jump. The standard set and repetition scheme for this protocol was 3 sets of 5 maximal repetitions with 3 minutes rest between sets. This was used to mimic the practice of training for maximal power. Before each jump, the subject was told the jump number and given a verbal start cue before the jump's initiation. The verbal performance feedback given consisted of the full kinetic numerical value of the peak power output in watts of the last completed jump. Significance in this study was set at p ≤ 0.05. There was a significant difference between mean power outputs (4,335 ± 366 W to 4,108 ± 345 W, p = 0.003) and the peak power outputs (4,567 ± 381 W to 4,319 ± 371 W, p = 0.018) when comparing feedback to no feedback, respectively. There was a significant difference in peak power output between the feedback and no feedback trials during set 2 (mean difference 361 ± 161 W, p = 0.043) and set 3

  7. A study on positive-feedback configuration of a bipolar SiC high temperature operational amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kargarrazi, Saleh; Lanni, Luigia; Zetterling, Carl-Mikael

    2016-02-01

    This paper reports on the design and implementation of an integrated operational amplifier in bipolar SiC, and elaborates on its operation in positive-feedback configuration.The opamp is studied in different feedback setups: closed-loop compensated amplifier, comparator with hysteresis (Schmitt trigger), and as a relaxation oscillator. Measurement results suggest a stable closed-loop opamp with ∼40 dB gain, a Schmitt trigger with constant threshold levels over a wide temperature range, and a relaxation oscillator tested up to 540 kHz. All the setups were tested from 25 °C up to 500 °C.

  8. TLR4 signaling promotes a COX-2/PGE2/STAT3 positive feedback loop in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells.

    PubMed

    Lin, Ang; Wang, Guan; Zhao, Huajun; Zhang, Yuyi; Han, Qiuju; Zhang, Cai; Tian, Zhigang; Zhang, Jian

    2016-02-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) can be expressed by tumor cells, and each TLR exhibits different biological functions. Evidences showed the activation of some certain TLRs could promote tumor progression. One of which TLR4 has been found to promote hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells proliferation, but the detailed mechanism is still unknown. In the present study, we verified that TLR4 was functionally expressed on HCC cells, and TLR4 agonist lipopolysaccharide (LPS) could stimulate the proliferation and clone formation of HCC cells. Most importantly, we found a COX-2/PGE2/STAT3 positive feedback loop exists in HCC cells, which could be provoked by TLR4 activation. Consistently, the expression of TLR4, COX-2 and p-STAT3(Y705) was positively correlated with each other in liver tumor tissues from patients with primary HCC. Further investigation demonstrated this loop played a dominant role in TLR4-induced HCC cell proliferation and multidrug resistance (MDR) to chemotherapy. Inhibition of TLR4 or COX-2/PGE2/STAT3 loop would attenuate LPS-induced inflammation and proliferation of HCC cells, and enhance the sensitivity of HCC cells to chemotherapeutics in vitro. By using a primary HCC model, we observed COX-2/PGE2/STAT3 loop was significantly blocked in TLR4(-/-) mice compared to wild type mice, and there was no obvious tumorgenesis sign in TLR4(-/-) mice. Therefore, these findings provided the precise molecular mechanism of TLR4 signaling pathway involved in HCC progress, and suggested that TLR4 may be a promising target for HCC treatment.

  9. The positive feedback bias as a response to self-image threat.

    PubMed

    Harber, Kent D; Stafford, Reshma; Kennedy, Kathleen A

    2010-03-01

    This research examined whether Whites favourably bias their feedback to minorities in order to see themselves as egalitarian. White teacher trainees first had their egalitarian self-images affirmed, left unchanged, or threatened. They then provided feedback on a poorly written essay supposedly authored by either a Black or a White student. As predicted, trainees in the Black writer/self-image threat condition selectively rated essay content more favourably, recommended less time for skill development, provided more favourable copy-editing comments, and generated more equivocating 'buffers'. In contrast, trainees in the Black writer/self-image boost condition supplied feedback indistinguishable from feedback provided by trainees in the White writer conditions, which was unaffected by the self-image conditions. The implications for minority education and intergroup communication are discussed.

  10. Noise suppression of on-chip mechanical resonators by chaotic coherent feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Nan; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Hui; Liu, Yu-xi; Wu, Re-Bing; Liu, Lian-qing; Li, Chun-Wen; Nori, Franco

    2015-09-01

    We propose a method to decouple the nanomechanical resonator in optomechanical systems from the environmental noise by introducing a chaotic coherent feedback loop. We find that the chaotic controller in the feedback loop can modulate the dynamics of the controlled optomechanical system and induce a broadband response of the mechanical mode. This broadband response of the mechanical mode will cut off the coupling between the mechanical mode and the environment and thus suppress the environmental noise of the mechanical modes. As an application, we use the protected optomechanical system to act as a quantum memory. It is shown that the noise-decoupled optomechanical quantum memory is efficient for storing information transferred from coherent or squeezed light.

  11. Landscape urbanization and economic growth in China: positive feedbacks and sustainability dilemmas.

    PubMed

    Bai, Xuemei; Chen, Jing; Shi, Peijun

    2012-01-03

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China's policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization.

  12. Landscape Urbanization and Economic Growth in China: Positive Feedbacks and Sustainability Dilemmas

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Accelerating urbanization has been viewed as an important instrument for economic development and reducing regional income disparity in some developing countries, including China. Recent studies (Bloom et al. 2008) indicate that demographic urbanization level has no causal effect on economic growth. However, due to the varying and changing definition of urban population, the use of demographic indicators as a sole representing indicator for urbanization might be misleading. Here, we re-examine the causal relationship between urbanization and economic growth in Chinese cities and provinces in recent decades, using built-up areas as a landscape urbanization indicator. Our analysis shows that (1) larger cities, both in terms of population size and built-up area, and richer cities tend to gain more income, have larger built-up area expansion, and attract more population, than poorer cities or smaller cities; and (2) that there is a long-term bidirectional causality between urban built-up area expansion and GDP per capita at both city and provincial level, and a short-term bidirectional causality at provincial level, revealing a positive feedback between landscape urbanization and urban and regional economic growth in China. Our results suggest that urbanization, if measured by a landscape indicator, does have causal effect on economic growth in China, both within the city and with spillover effect to the region, and that urban land expansion is not only the consequences of economic growth in cities, but also drivers of such growth. The results also suggest that under its current economic growth model, it might be difficult for China to control urban expansion without sacrificing economic growth, and China’s policy to stop the loss of agricultural land, for food security, might be challenged by its policy to promote economic growth through urbanization. PMID:22103244

  13. Positive feedback loop of YB-1 interacting with Smad2 promotes liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Panpan; Zhang, Jun; Xu, Diannan; Zhu, Jie; Li, Wenshuai; Liu, Jie; Liu, Fei

    2017-03-18

    Y-box binding protein (YB-1), known as a multifunctional cellular protein in various biological processes, was recently reported to be associated with liver fibrosis. The critical role of TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway in stimulating the transcription of fibrotic genes in fibroblasts have already been identified, however, whether and how YB-1 modulated liver fibrosis via TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway remains largely unknown. In our previous study, we proved that ectopic TGF-β was associated with YB-1 expression. Herein, by combining in vitro experiments in LX2 human hepatic stellate cells and in vivo studies by building CCl4 based mice liver fibrosis model, we showed that YB-1 and p-YB-1 were upregulated in liver fibrosis tissue, and YB-1 promoted the deposition of excess extracellular matrix. Mechanistically, Smad2, a key member in TGF-β signaling pathway, acted as a transcription factor that triggered YB-1 promoter, while on the other hand, p-YB-1 stabilized Smad2 by attenuating its ubiquitination. Knockdown of Smad2 could reduce YB-1 expression, which in turn shorter the half time of Smad2. Furthermore, the serine102 residue of YB-1 both affected its binding and stabilizing activity to Smad2. These finding demonstrated that YB-1 and Smad2 played as a positive feedback loop in promoting liver fibrosis. In conclusion, TGF-β signaling pathway may influence liver fibrosis by incorporating with YB-1, indicating that YB-1 could be a potential target for therapies against liver fibrosis.

  14. The influence of Antarctic ice sheet topography change on Antarctic climate -- a positive feedback.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steig, E. J.

    2015-12-01

    The potential for climate change to result in changes to the Antarctic ice sheet -- including the possibility of a full collapse of the West Antarctic Ice Shet (WAIS) is well known. Less well known is that the collapse of the ice sheet, if it occured, would have significant impcts on regional climate. We use climate model simulations to quantify the impact of topographic changes on the surface climate of Antarctica. As a general rule, lowered topography produces anomalous cyclonic circulation owing to fundamental atmospheric dynamical constraints. In the case of WAIS collapse, this causes increased flow of warm, maritime air toward the South Pole and cold-air advection from the East Antarctic plateau toward the Ross Sea and Marie Byrd Land, West Antarctica. This resulting pattern The result is cooling in some areas and warming in others, a pattern that is similar to that observed from ice core paleotemperature data for the last interglacial period, suggesting that WAIS collapse occurred at that time. We find that magnitude of the response is roughly linear with the magnitude of the imposed elevation change. The regional response over West Antarctica is large enough that it probably needs to be taken into account in modeling future changes to the ice sheet. Of particular interest is that lowering of the WAIS topography results in anomalous westerlies along the Amundsen Sea coastline. Anomalous westerlies in this region today are in large part responsible for the for intrusion of circumpolar deepwater onto the continental shelf, and the observed rapid thinning of West Antarctic ice shelves. A positive feedback may thus exist in which lowering of the WAIS surface from climate forcing may enhance that forcing, leading to further elevation lowering and ice sheet mass loss.

  15. On the dynamic forcing of short-term climate fluctuations by feedback mechanisms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reiter, E. R.

    1979-01-01

    Various internal feedback mechanisms in the ocean atmosphere system were studied. A variability pattern of sea surface temperature with a quasibiennial oscillation (QBO) was detected off the coast of Senegal, in the Gulf of Guinea and even in the Gulf Stream as it leaves the North American continental shelf. Possible physical connections between some of these QBO's were pointed out by a hypothetical feedback model. Interaction of a QBO with the annual cycle may lead to beating frequencies resembling climatic trends of a duration of several years.

  16. A general non-equilibrium framework for the parameterization of positive and negative feedbacks in atmospheric systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrett, T. J.

    2012-12-01

    For any identifiable system, regardless of its complexity or scale, evolution can be treated as a spontaneous thermodynamic response to a local convergence of down-gradient material flows. In climate studies, examples of identifiable systems might include cloud cover or the global incidence of temperatures warmer than a certain threshold. Here it is shown how the time-dependent evolution of such systems is constrained by positive and negative feedbacks that fall into a few mathematically distinct modes. In general, evolution depends on the time integral of past flows and the current availability of material and energetic resources. More specifically, negative feedbacks arise from the depletion or predation of the material and potential energy reservoirs that supply the system. Positive feedbacks are due to either new reservoir "discovery" or system expansion into existing reservoirs. When positive feedbacks dominate, the time dependent response of system growth falls into a few clearly identifiable behaviors that include a law of diminishing returns, logistic behavior, and, if reservoirs are expanding very rapidly, unstable super-exponential or explosive growth. For open systems (e.g. radiative flows in our atmosphere) that have a resolved sink as well as a source, oscillatory behavior emerges and can be characterized in terms of a slightly modified form of the predator-prey equations commonly employed in ecology. The perturbation formulation of these equations is equivalent to a damped simple harmonic oscillator. Specific examples of non-equilibrium positive and negative feedback response can be described for the sudden development of rain and the oscillatory evolution of open-celled stratocumulus cloud decks.

  17. Positive feedback loop of IL-1β/Akt/RARα/Akt signaling mediates oncogenic property of RARα in gastric carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gui-Li; Liu, Yu; Shen, Jin-Xing; Zhou, Pan; Liu, Wen-Ming; Shen, Dong-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Abnormal expression and function of retinoic acid receptor α (RARα) have been reported to be associated with various cancers including acute promyelocytic leukemia and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the role and the mechanism of RARα in gastric carcinoma (GC) were unknown. Here, the expression of RARα was frequently elevated in human GC tissues and cell lines, and its overexpression was closely correlated with tumor size, lymph node metastasis and clinical stages in GC patients. Moreover, RARα overexpression was related with pathological differentiation. Functionally, RARα knockdown inhibited the proliferation and metastasis of GC cells, as well as enhanced drug susceptibility both in vitro and in vivo. Additionally, RARα knockdown suppressed GC progression through regulating the expression of cell proliferation, cell cycle, invasion and drug resistance associated proteins, such as PCNA, CyclinB1, CyclinD2, CyclinE, p21, MMP9 and MDR1. Mechanistically, the above oncogenic properties of RARα in GC were closely associated with Akt signaling activation. Moreover, overexpression of RARα was induced by IL-1β/Akt signaling activation, which suggested a positive feedback loop of IL-1β/Akt/RARα/Akt signaling in GC. Taken together, we demonstrated that RARα was frequently elevated in GC and exerted oncogenic properties. It might be a potential molecular target for GC treatment. PMID:28035062

  18. Interaction of apoptotic cells with macrophages upregulates COX-2/PGE2 and HGF expression via a positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Byun, Ji Yeon; Youn, Young-So; Lee, Ye-Ji; Choi, Youn-Hee; Woo, So-Yeon; Kang, Jihee Lee

    2014-01-01

    Recognition of apoptotic cells by macrophages is crucial for resolution of inflammation, immune tolerance, and tissue repair. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2)/prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) play important roles in the tissue repair process. We investigated the characteristics of macrophage COX-2 and PGE2 expression mediated by apoptotic cells and then determined how macrophages exposed to apoptotic cells in vitro and in vivo orchestrate the interaction between COX-2/PGE2 and HGF signaling pathways. Exposure of RAW 264.7 cells and primary peritoneal macrophages to apoptotic cells resulted in induction of COX-2 and PGE2. The COX-2 inhibitor NS-398 suppressed apoptotic cell-induced PGE2 production. Both NS-398 and COX-2-siRNA, as well as the PGE2 receptor EP2 antagonist, blocked HGF expression in response to apoptotic cells. In addition, the HGF receptor antagonist suppressed increases in COX-2 and PGE2 induction. The in vivo relevance of the interaction between the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF pathways through a positive feedback loop was shown in cultured alveolar macrophages following in vivo exposure of bleomycin-stimulated lungs to apoptotic cells. Our results demonstrate that upregulation of the COX-2/PGE2 and HGF in macrophages following exposure to apoptotic cells represents a mechanism for mediating the anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic consequences of apoptotic cell recognition.

  19. Feedback mechanisms between M2 macrophages and Th17 cells in colorectal cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Mao, Hui; Pan, Fei; Guo, Hongxia; Bu, Fangfang; Xin, Tong; Chen, Shukun; Guo, Yajun

    2016-09-01

    IL-17 and IL-22 are linked to the development of intestinal inflammation and colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the maintenance of IL-17 and IL-22 production, as well as the cell type (Th17) that mediates these cytokines in CRC patients, remains unknown. To examine this, untreated CRC patients and healthy controls were recruited in this study. We first observed that CRC patients contained significantly elevated levels of IL-17- and IL-22-producing CD4(+) T cells. The vast majority of IL-22-expressing CD4(+) T cells also expressed IL-17. We then found that the production of both IL-17 and IL-22 required support from autologous monocytes, since the depletion of monocytes significantly downregulated IL-17 and IL-22 secretion. Naive T cells from CRC patients did not secrete IL-17 or IL-22 initially, but long-term coculture with autologous monocytes significantly upregulated IL-17 and IL-22 production in an IL-6-dependent manner. Blockade of IL-6 significantly reduced the levels of both IL-17 and IL-22. We then observed that CD163(+) M2 macrophages were the main contributor of IL-6. Interestingly, incubation of monocytes with CCR4(+)CCR6(+) Th17 cells resulted in significantly higher levels of CD163(+) macrophages as well as higher IL-6 secretion, than incubation with non-Th17 CD4(+) T cells. Together, our study discovered a positive feedback mechanism between Th17 and M2 macrophages in CRC patients.

  20. Strict control of auricin production in Streptomyces aureofaciens CCM 3239 involves a feedback mechanism.

    PubMed

    Kutas, Peter; Feckova, Lubomira; Rehakova, Alena; Novakova, Renata; Homerova, Dagmar; Mingyar, Erik; Rezuchova, Bronislava; Sevcikova, Beatrica; Kormanec, Jan

    2013-03-01

    The polyketide gene cluster aur1 is responsible for the production of the angucycline antibiotic auricin in Streptomyces aureofaciens CCM 3239. Auricin production is regulated in a complex manner involving several regulators, including a key pathway-specific positive regulator Aur1P that belongs to the family of 'atypical' response regulators. Production of auricin is induced after entry into stationary phase. However, auricin was produced in only a short time interval of several hours. We found that the decrease of auricin production was due to a strict regulation of auricin biosynthetic genes at the transcriptional level by a feedback mechanism; auricin and/or its intermediate(s) inhibited binding of Aur1P to its cognate biosynthetic promoter aur1Ap and consequently stopped its activation. In addition, we also determined that synthesised auricin is unstable during growth of S. aureofaciens CCM3239 in the production medium even though purified auricin is stable for days in various organic solvents. The critical parameter affecting its stability was pH. Auricin is stable at acid pH and unstable at neutral and alkaline pH. The drop in auricin concentration was due to an increase of pH shortly after induction of auricin production during cultivation of S. aureofaciens CCM3239.

  1. Failure of feedback as a putative common mechanism of spreading depolarizations in migraine and stroke

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahlem, Markus A.; Schneider, Felix M.; Schöll, Eckehard

    2008-06-01

    The stability of cortical function depends critically on proper regulation. Under conditions of migraine and stroke a breakdown of transmembrane chemical gradients can spread through cortical tissue. A concomitant component of this emergent spatio-temporal pattern is a depolarization of cells detected as slow voltage variations. The propagation velocity of ˜3mm/min indicates a contribution of diffusion. We propose a mechanism for spreading depolarizations (SD) that rests upon a nonlocal or noninstantaneous feedback in a reaction-diffusion system. Depending upon the characteristic space and time scales of the feedback, the propagation of cortical SD can be suppressed by shifting the bifurcation line, which separates the parameter regime of pulse propagation from the regime where a local disturbance dies out. The optimization of this feedback is elaborated for different control schemes and ranges of control parameters.

  2. CaCDPK15 positively regulates pepper responses to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation and forms a positive-feedback loop with CaWRKY40 to amplify defense signaling

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Cheng, Wei; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Mou, Shaoliang; Liu, Zhiqin; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is a positive regulator of pepper (Capsicum annum) response to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI), but the underlying mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we functionally characterize CaCDPK15 in the defense signaling mediated by CaWRKY40. Pathogen-responsive TGA, W, and ERE boxes were identified in the CaCDPK15 promoter (pCaCDPK15), and pCaCDPK15-driven GUS expression was significantly enhanced in response to RSI and exogenously applied salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate, abscisic acid, and ethephon. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) of CaCDPK15 significantly increased the susceptibility of pepper to RSI and downregulated the immunity-associated markers CaNPR1, CaPR1, and CaDEF1. By contrast, transient CaCDPK15 overexpression significantly activated hypersensitive response associated cell death, upregulated the immunity-associated marker genes, upregulated CaWRKY40 expression, and enriched CaWRKY40 at the promoters of its targets genes. Although CaCDPK15 failed to interact with CaWRKY40, the direct binding of CaWRKY40 to pCaCDPK15 was detected by chromatin immunoprecipitation, which was significantly potentiated by RSI in pepper plants. These combined results suggest that RSI in pepper induces CaCDPK15 and indirectly activates downstream CaWRKY40, which in turn potentiates CaCDPK15 expression. This positive-feedback loop would amplify defense signaling against RSI and efficiently activate strong plant immunity. PMID:26928570

  3. A positive feedback between p53 and miR-34 miRNAs mediates tumor suppression.

    PubMed

    Okada, Nobuhiro; Lin, Chao-Po; Ribeiro, Marcelo C; Biton, Anne; Lai, Gregory; He, Xingyue; Bu, Pengcheng; Vogel, Hannes; Jablons, David M; Keller, Andreas C; Wilkinson, J Erby; He, Biao; Speed, Terry P; He, Lin

    2014-03-01

    As bona fide p53 transcriptional targets, miR-34 microRNAs (miRNAs) exhibit frequent alterations in many human tumor types and elicit multiple p53 downstream effects upon overexpression. Unexpectedly, miR-34 deletion alone fails to impair multiple p53-mediated tumor suppressor effects in mice, possibly due to the considerable redundancy in the p53 pathway. Here, we demonstrate that miR-34a represses HDM4, a potent negative regulator of p53, creating a positive feedback loop acting on p53. In a Kras-induced mouse lung cancer model, miR-34a deficiency alone does not exhibit a strong oncogenic effect. However, miR-34a deficiency strongly promotes tumorigenesis when p53 is haploinsufficient, suggesting that the defective p53-miR-34 feedback loop can enhance oncogenesis in a specific context. The importance of the p53/miR-34/HDM4 feedback loop is further confirmed by an inverse correlation between miR-34 and full-length HDM4 in human lung adenocarcinomas. In addition, human lung adenocarcinomas generate an elevated level of a short HDM4 isoform through alternative polyadenylation. This short HDM4 isoform lacks miR-34-binding sites in the 3' untranslated region (UTR), thereby evading miR-34 regulation to disable the p53-miR-34 positive feedback. Taken together, our results elucidated the intricate cross-talk between p53 and miR-34 miRNAs and revealed an important tumor suppressor effect generated by this positive feedback loop.

  4. Improvement of the thermo-mechanical position stability of the beam position monitor in the PLS-II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ha, Taekyun; Hong, Mansu; Kwon, Hyuckchae; Han, Hongsik; Park, Chongdo

    2016-09-01

    In the storage ring of the Pohang Light Source-II (PLS-II), we reduced the mechanical displacement of the electron-beam position monitors (e-BPMs) that is caused by heating during e-beam storage. The BPM pickup itself must be kept stable to sub-micrometer precision in order for a stable photon beam to be provided to beamlines because the orbit feedback system is programmed to make the electron beam pass through the center of the BPM. Thermal deformation of the vacuum chambers on which the BPM pickups are mounted is inevitable when the electron beam current is changed by an unintended beam abort. We reduced this deformation by improving the vacuum chamber support and by enhancing the water cooling. We report a thermo-mechanical analysis and displacement measurements for the BPM pickups after improvements.

  5. Activation of TGF-β1-CD147 positive feedback loop in hepatic stellate cells promotes liver fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Ju, Di; Zhang, Da-Wei; Li, Hao; Kong, Ling-Min; Guo, Yanhai; Li, Can; Wang, Xi-Long; Chen, Zhi-Nan; Bian, Huijie

    2015-11-12

    Activation of hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) by transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) initiates HBV-associated fibrogenesis. The mechanism of TGF-β1 modulating HSC activation is not fully uncovered. We hypothesized a positive feedback signaling loop of TGF-β1-CD147 promoting liver fibrogenesis by activation of HSCs. Human HSC cell line LX-2 and spontaneous liver fibrosis model derived from HBV transgenic mice were used to evaluate the activation of molecules in the signaling loop. Wound healing and cell contraction assay were performed to detect the CD147-overexpressed HSC migration and contraction. The transcriptional regulation of CD147 by TGF-β1/Smad4 was determined using dual-luciferase reporter assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation. We found that a positive reciprocal regulation between TGF-β1 and CD147 mediated HSC activation. CD147 over-expression promoted HSC migration and accelerated TGF-β1-induced cell contraction. Phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 in cooperation with Smad4 mediated the TGF-β1-regulated CD147 expression. Smad4 activated the transcription by direct interaction with CD147 promoter. Meanwhile, CD147 modulated the activated phenotype of HSCs through the ERK1/2 and Sp1 which up-regulated α-SMA, collagen I, and TGF-β1 synthesis. These findings indicate that TGF-β1-CD147 loop plays a key role in regulating the HSC activation and combination of TGF-β receptor inhibitor and anti-CD147 antibody might be promised to reverse fibrogenesis.

  6. Two different modes of oscillation in a gene transcription regulatory network with interlinked positive and negative feedback loops

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karmakar, Rajesh

    2016-12-01

    We study the oscillatory behavior of a gene regulatory network with interlinked positive and negative feedback loop. The frequency and amplitude are two important properties of oscillation. The studied network produces two different modes of oscillation. In one mode (mode-I), frequency of oscillation remains constant over a wide range of amplitude and in the other mode (mode-II) the amplitude of oscillation remains constant over a wide range of frequency. Our study reproduces both features of oscillations in a single gene regulatory network and shows that the negative plus positive feedback loops in gene regulatory network offer additional advantage. We identified the key parameters/variables responsible for different modes of oscillation. The network is flexible in switching between different modes by choosing appropriately the required parameters/variables.

  7. Modelling feedback mechanisms in the carbon cycle: balancing the carbon budget

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rotmans, J.; den Elzen, M. G. J.

    1993-09-01

    Within the carbon cycle feedback, mechanisms that amplify or dampen the exchange of carbon dioxide between the different reservoirs to enhance concentrations of carbon dioxide and increase temperature from anthropogenic perturbations, play a crucial rôle. Quite a lot of these feedbacks are known, but most of them only potentially. This article evaluates the role of a number of these feedback processes within the carbon cycle. In order to assess their impact, some terrestrial feedbacks have been built into a coupled carbon cycle and climate model, as part of the integrated climate assessment model IMAGE. A number of simulation experiments have been performed with this coupled carbon cycle/climate model to compare historical atmospheric concentration values of carbon dioxide with simulated values. Also global biospheric and oceanic carbon fluxes were validated against other modelling estimates. Based on the assumptions of the IPCC's 1990 Business-as-Usual (BaU-1990) scenario, future projections of the carbon dioxide concentration have been made. A key principle in this is that we have used the modelled feedbacks in order to balance the past and present carbon budget. For atmospheric carbon dioxide, this results in substantially lower projections than the IPCC-estimates: the difference in 2100 is approximately 16% from the 1990 level. Furthermore, the IPCC's 'best guess' or 'central estimate' value of the CO2 concentration in 2100 falls outside the uncertainty range estimated with our balanced modelling approach. Sensitivity experiments with the model have been performed to quantify to what extent the terrestrial feedback processes and oceanic fluxes influence the global carbon balance in the model. It is shown that a historical and present carbon balance can be obtained in many different ways, resulting in different biospheric fluxes and thus in considerably different atmospheric CO2 projections.

  8. Performance Analysis of Positive-feedback-based Active Anti-islanding Schemes for Inverter-Based Distributed Generators

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Pengwei; Aponte, Erick E.; Nelson, J. Keith

    2010-06-14

    Recently proposed positive-feedback-based anti-islanding schemes (AI) are highly effective in preventing islanding without causing any degradation in power quality. This paper aims to analyze the performance of these schemes quantitatively in the context of the dynamic models of inverter-based distributed generators (DG). In this study, the characteristics of these active anti-islanding methods are discussed and design guidelines are derived.

  9. Dynamic behavior of positive solutions for a leslie predator-prey system with mutual interference and feedback controls.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Cong; Huang, Nan-jing; Deng, Chuan-xian

    2014-01-01

    We consider a Leslie predator-prey system with mutual interference and feedback controls. For general nonautonomous case, by using differential inequality theory and constructing a suitable Lyapunov functional, we obtain some sufficient conditions which guarantee the permanence and the global attractivity of the system. For the periodic case, we obtain some sufficient conditions which guarantee the existence, uniqueness, and stability of a positive periodic solution.

  10. Early Detection of Online Auction Opportunistic Sellers through the Use of Negative-Positive Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinert, Gregory J.

    2010-01-01

    Apparently fraud is a growth industry. The monetary losses from Internet fraud have increased every year since first officially reported by the Internet Crime Complaint Center (IC3) in 2000. Prior research studies and third-party reports of fraud show rates substantially higher than eBay's reported negative feedback rate of less than 1%. The…

  11. The jet feedback mechanism (JFM): From supernovae to clusters of galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soker, N.; Akashi, M.; Gilkis, A.; Hillel, S.; Papish, O.; Refaelovich, M.; Tsebrenko, D.

    2013-04-01

    We study the similarities of jet-medium interactions in several quite different astrophysical systems using 2D and 3D hydrodynamical numerical simulations, and find many similarities. The systems include cooling flow (CF) clusters of galaxies, core collapse supernovae (CCSNe), planetary nebulae (PNe), and common envelope (CE) evolution. The similarities include hot bubbles inflated by jets in a bipolar structure, vortices on the sides of the jets, vortices inside the inflated bubbles, fragmentation of bubbles to two and more bubbles, and buoyancy of bubbles. The activity in many cases is regulated by a negative feedback mechanism. In CF clusters we find that heating of the intra-cluster medium (ICM) is done by mixing hot shocked jet gas with the ICM, and not by shocks. Our results strengthen the jet feedback mechanism (JFM) as a common process in many astrophysical objects.

  12. Connections among several chaos feedback control approaches and chaotic vibration control of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dixiong; Zhou, Jilei

    2014-11-01

    This study reveals the essential connections among several popular chaos feedback control approaches, such as delayed feedback control (DFC), stability transformation method (STM), adaptive adjustment method (AAM), parameter adjustment method, relaxed Newton method, and speed feedback control method (SFCM), etc. Meanwhile, the generality and practical applicability of these approaches are evaluated and compared. It is shown that for discrete chaotic maps, STM can be regarded as a kind of predictive feedback control, and AAM is actually a special case of STM which is merely effective for a particular dynamical system. The parameter adjustment method is only a different expression of the relaxed Newton method, and both of them represent just one search direction of STM, i.e., the gradient direction. Moreover, the intrinsic relation between the STM and SFCM for controlling the equilibrium of continuous autonomous systems is investigated, indicating that STM can be viewed as a special form of the SFCM. Finally, both the STM and SFCM are extended to control the chaotic vibrations of non-autonomous mechanical systems effectively.

  13. Modeling Discontinuous Phase Transitions in Gel Membranes: Focus on Hysteresis and Feedback Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuksenok, Olga

    Feedback mechanisms are vital in a number of processes in biological systems. For example, feedback loops play an essential role during a limb development in mammals and are responsible for the asymmetric cell division to constrain the growth in plants to the specific regions. An integration of well-controlled feedback loops into the fully synthetic materials is an important step in designing a range of biomimetic functionalities. Herein, we focus on hydrogels functionalized with light-sensitive trisodium salt of copper chlorophyllin and study discontinuous phase transitions in these systems. Prior experimental studies had shown that illumination of these functionalized gels results in their heating and in discontinuous, first order phase transition upon the variation in temperature. Herein, we develop the first computational model for these gels; the framework of the model is based on the gel Lattice Spring Model, in this work we account for the gel heating under the illumination. The results of our simulations are in a good agreement with prior experimental studies. We focus on pattern development during the volume phase transitions in membranes of various thicknesses and show that one can effectively utilize light intensity to remotely control feedback loops in these systems.

  14. FOXM1 confers resistance to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma via a MET/AKT-dependent positive feedback loop.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Zhang, Weiwei; Wen, Li; Yang, Huiling; Wen, Mingling; Yun, Yuyu; Zhao, Lisheng; Zhu, Xiaofei; Tian, Li; Luo, Erping; Li, Yu; Liu, Wenchao; Wen, Ning

    2016-09-13

    Gefitinib resistance remains a major problem in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms of gefitinib resistance are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the critical role of transcription factor Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) in gefitinib resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro drug sensitivity assays demonstrated that FOXM1 inhibition sensitized PC9/GR and HCC827/GR cells to gefitinib, whereas FOXM1 overexpression enhanced PC9 and HCC827 cell resistance to gefitinib. Increased FOXM1 resulted in the upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), which led to activation of the protein kinase B (AKT) pathway, whereas knockdown of FOXM1 did the opposite. FOXM1 bound directly to the MET promoter regions and regulated the promoter activities and the expression of MET at the transcriptional level. Moreover, MET/AKT pathway upregulated the expression of FOXM1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of pAKT by LY294002 or inhibition of pMET by PHA-665752 significantly inhibited the expression of FOXM1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Importantly, we further demonstrated that the expression levels of FOXM1, pAKT and MET were significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma tissues relative to normal lung tissues, and these three biomarkers were concomitantly overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Taken together, our results indicate that FOXM1 promotes acquired resistance to gefitinib of lung adenocarcinoma cells, and FOXM1 crosstalks with MET/AKT signaling to form a positive feedback loop to promote lung adenocarcinoma development.

  15. F-actin waves, actin cortex disassembly and focal exocytosis driven by actin-phosphoinositide positive feedback.

    PubMed

    Masters, Thomas A; Sheetz, Michael P; Gauthier, Nils C

    2016-04-01

    Actin polymerization is controlled by the phosphoinositide composition of the plasma membrane. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying the spatiotemporal regulation of actin network organization over extended length scales are still unclear. To observe phosphoinositide-dependent cytoskeletal dynamics we combined the model system of frustrated phagocytosis, total internal reflection microscopy and manipulation of the buffer tonicity. We found that macrophages interacting with IgG-coated glass substrates formed circular F-actin waves on their ventral surface enclosing a region of plasma membrane devoid of cortical actin. Plasma membrane free of actin cortex was strongly depleted of PI(4,5)P2 , but enriched in PI(3,4)P2 and displayed a fivefold increase in exocytosis. Wave formation could be promoted by application of a hypotonic shock. The actin waves were characteristic of a bistable wavefront at the boundary between the regions of membrane containing and lacking cortical actin. Phosphoinositide modifiers and RhoGTPase activities dramatically redistributed with respect to the wavefronts, which often exhibited spatial oscillations. Perturbation of either lipid or actin cytoskeleton-related pathways led to rapid loss of both the polarized lipid distribution and the wavefront. As waves travelled over the plasma membrane, wavefront actin was seen to rapidly polymerize and depolymerize at pre-existing clusters of FcγRIIA, coincident with rapid changes in lipid composition. Thus the potential of receptors to support rapid F-actin polymerization appears to depend acutely on the local concentrations of multiple lipid species. We propose that interdependence through positive feedback from the cytoskeleton to lipid modifiers leads to coordinated local cortex remodeling, focal exocytosis, and organizes extended actin networks.

  16. A positive feedback loop involving Erk5 and Akt turns on mesangial cell proliferation in response to PDGF.

    PubMed

    Bera, Amit; Das, Falguni; Ghosh-Choudhury, Nandini; Li, Xiaonan; Pal, Sanjay; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S; Abboud, Hanna E; Ghosh Choudhury, Goutam

    2014-06-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor BB and its receptor (PDGFRβ) play a pivotal role in the development of renal glomerular mesangial cells. Their roles in increased mesangial cell proliferation during mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis have long been noted, but the operating logic of signaling mechanisms regulating these changes remains poorly understood. We examined the role of a recently identified MAPK, Erk5, in this process. PDGF increased the activating phosphorylation of Erk5 and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in a time-dependent manner. A pharmacologic inhibitor of Erk5, XMD8-92, abrogated PDGF-induced DNA synthesis and mesangial cell proliferation. Similarly, expression of dominant negative Erk5 or siRNAs against Erk5 blocked PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation. Inhibition of Erk5 attenuated expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein, resulting in suppression of CDK4-mediated phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor protein pRb. Expression of cyclin D1 or CDK4 prevented the dominant negative Erk5- or siErk5-mediated inhibition of DNA synthesis and mesangial cell proliferation induced by PDGF. We have previously shown that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) contributes to PDGF-induced proliferation of mesangial cells. Inhibition of PI3-kinase blocked PDGF-induced phosphorylation of Erk5. Since PI3-kinase acts through Akt, we determined the role of Erk5 on Akt phosphorylation. XMD8-92, dominant negative Erk5, and siErk5 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt by PDGF. Interestingly, we found inhibition of PDGF-induced Erk5 phosphorylation by a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt kinase and kinase dead Akt in mesangial cells. Thus our data unfold the presence of a positive feedback microcircuit between Erk5 and Akt downstream of PI3-kinase nodal point for PDGF-induced mesangial cell proliferation.

  17. FOXM1 confers resistance to gefitinib in lung adenocarcinoma via a MET/AKT-dependent positive feedback loop

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Mingling; Yun, Yuyu; Zhao, Lisheng; Zhu, Xiaofei; Tian, Li; Luo, Erping; Li, Yu; Liu, Wenchao; Wen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    Gefitinib resistance remains a major problem in the treatment of lung adenocarcinoma. However, the molecular mechanisms of gefitinib resistance are not fully understood. In this study, we characterized the critical role of transcription factor Forkhead box protein M1 (FOXM1) in gefitinib resistance of lung adenocarcinoma cells. In vitro drug sensitivity assays demonstrated that FOXM1 inhibition sensitized PC9/GR and HCC827/GR cells to gefitinib, whereas FOXM1 overexpression enhanced PC9 and HCC827 cell resistance to gefitinib. Increased FOXM1 resulted in the upregulation of hepatocyte growth factor receptor (MET), which led to activation of the protein kinase B (AKT) pathway, whereas knockdown of FOXM1 did the opposite. FOXM1 bound directly to the MET promoter regions and regulated the promoter activities and the expression of MET at the transcriptional level. Moreover, MET/AKT pathway upregulated the expression of FOXM1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Inhibition of pAKT by LY294002 or inhibition of pMET by PHA-665752 significantly inhibited the expression of FOXM1 in lung adenocarcinoma cells. Importantly, we further demonstrated that the expression levels of FOXM1, pAKT and MET were significantly increased in lung adenocarcinoma tissues relative to normal lung tissues, and these three biomarkers were concomitantly overexpressed in lung adenocarcinoma tissues. Taken together, our results indicate that FOXM1 promotes acquired resistance to gefitinib of lung adenocarcinoma cells, and FOXM1 crosstalks with MET/AKT signaling to form a positive feedback loop to promote lung adenocarcinoma development. PMID:27494877

  18. RhoA-mediated inhibition of vascular endothelial cell mobility: positive feedback through reduced cytosolic p21 and p27.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Yung-Ho; Chang, Chih-Cheng; Yang, Nian-Jie; Lee, Yi-Hsuan; Juan, Shu-Hui

    2014-10-01

    We previously identified that activation of the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) by 3-methylcholanthrene (3MC) exerts antiproliferative and antimigratory effects on human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) through the upregulation of p21/p27 transcription and RhoA activation. In this study, we investigated the mechanisms of 3MC-mediated downregulation of cytosolic p21/ p27, and the effects of 3MC on RhoA activation and cell migration, in mouse cerebral vascular endothelial cells (MCVECs). Our results indicated that 3MC reduced the phosphorylation of p21/p27 through AhR/RhoA/PTEN-mediated PI3K/Akt inactivation, which reduced cytosolic p21/p27 retention, causing RhoA activation through positive feedback. Downregulation of p21/p27 by siRNA, and cytosolic p21/p27 by the nuclear export blocker leptomycin B, further reduced cell migration in the 3MC-treated cells. Reduced cytosolic p21/p27 expression led to reduced interaction between RhoA and the RhoA inhibitor p190RhoGAP, causing RhoA activation. Treatment with YS-49 activated PI3K/Akt, a downstream target of RhoA, to reduce RhoA/PTEN activation in the 3MC-treated cells, whereas treatment with wortmannin, a PI3K inhibitor, activated RhoA/PTEN. Gain- and loss-of-function analyses revealed that constitutively active (CA) Akt1, but not CA Akt2, inactivated RhoA and stimulated migratory activity. Considering the essential role of RhoA activation in cell migration, we evaluated the potential use of simvastatin, a RhoA inhibitor, as a therapeutic intervention in vivo using matrigel plug formation assays. Our results provide a molecular basis for the therapeutic application of simvastatin to reduce RhoA/PTEN activation, restore cytosolic levels of phosphorylated p21/p27, and induce angiogenic processes.

  19. A positive feedback loop involving Erk5 and Akt turns on mesangial cell proliferation in response to PDGF

    PubMed Central

    Bera, Amit; Das, Falguni; Li, Xiaonan; Pal, Sanjay; Gorin, Yves; Kasinath, Balakuntalam S.; Abboud, Hanna E.; Ghosh Choudhury, Goutam

    2014-01-01

    Platelet-derived growth factor BB and its receptor (PDGFRβ) play a pivotal role in the development of renal glomerular mesangial cells. Their roles in increased mesangial cell proliferation during mesangioproliferative glomerulonephritis have long been noted, but the operating logic of signaling mechanisms regulating these changes remains poorly understood. We examined the role of a recently identified MAPK, Erk5, in this process. PDGF increased the activating phosphorylation of Erk5 and tyrosine phosphorylation of proteins in a time-dependent manner. A pharmacologic inhibitor of Erk5, XMD8-92, abrogated PDGF-induced DNA synthesis and mesangial cell proliferation. Similarly, expression of dominant negative Erk5 or siRNAs against Erk5 blocked PDGF-stimulated DNA synthesis and proliferation. Inhibition of Erk5 attenuated expression of cyclin D1 mRNA and protein, resulting in suppression of CDK4-mediated phosphorylation of the tumor suppressor protein pRb. Expression of cyclin D1 or CDK4 prevented the dominant negative Erk5- or siErk5-mediated inhibition of DNA synthesis and mesangial cell proliferation induced by PDGF. We have previously shown that phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3-kinase) contributes to PDGF-induced proliferation of mesangial cells. Inhibition of PI3-kinase blocked PDGF-induced phosphorylation of Erk5. Since PI3-kinase acts through Akt, we determined the role of Erk5 on Akt phosphorylation. XMD8-92, dominant negative Erk5, and siErk5 inhibited phosphorylation of Akt by PDGF. Interestingly, we found inhibition of PDGF-induced Erk5 phosphorylation by a pharmacological inhibitor of Akt kinase and kinase dead Akt in mesangial cells. Thus our data unfold the presence of a positive feedback microcircuit between Erk5 and Akt downstream of PI3-kinase nodal point for PDGF-induced mesangial cell proliferation. PMID:24740537

  20. Balanced bridge feedback control system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lurie, Boris J. (Inventor)

    1990-01-01

    In a system having a driver, a motor, and a mechanical plant, a multiloop feedback control apparatus for controlling the movement and/or positioning of a mechanical plant, the control apparatus has a first local bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of voltage and current at the output driver, and a second bridge feedback loop for feeding back a signal representative of a selected ratio of force and velocity at the output of the motor. The control apparatus may further include an outer loop for feeding back a signal representing the angular velocity and/or position of the mechanical plant.

  1. State transitions and feedback mechanisms control hydrology in the constructed catchment ´Chicken Creeḱ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schaaf, Wolfgang; Gerwin, Werner; Hinz, Christoph; Zaplata, Markus

    2016-04-01

    Landscapes and ecosystems are complex systems with many feedback mechanisms acting between the various abiotic and biotic components. The knowledge about these interacting processes is mainly derived from mature ecosystems. The initial development of ecosystem complexity may involve state transitions following catastrophic shifts, disturbances or transgression of thresholds. The Chicken Creek catchment was constructed in 2005 in the mining area of Lusatia/Germany to study processes and feedback mechanisms during ecosystem evolution. The hillslope-shaped 6 ha site has defined boundary conditions and well-documented inner structures. The dominating substrate above the underlying clay layer is Pleistocene sandy material representing mainly the lower C horizon of the former landscape. Since 2005, the unrestricted, unmanaged development of the catchment was intensively monitored. During the ten years since then, we observed characteristic state transitions in catchment functioning driven by feedbacks between original substrate properties, surface structures, soil development and vegetation succession. Whereas surface runoff induced by surface crusting and infiltration dominated catchment hydrology in the first years, the impact of vegetation on hydrological pathways and groundwater levels became more and more evident during the last years. Discharge from the catchment changed from episodic events driven by precipitation and surface runoff to groundwater driven. This general picture is overlain by spatial patterns and single episodic events of external drivers. The scientific value of the Chicken Creek site with known boundary conditions and structure information could help in disentangling general feedback mechanisms between hydrologic, pedogenic, biological and geomorphological processes as well as a in gaining a more integrative view of succession and its drivers during the transition from initial, less complex systems to more mature ecosystems. Long-term time series

  2. ASSESSING RADIATION PRESSURE AS A FEEDBACK MECHANISM IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews, Brett H.; Thompson, Todd A.

    2011-02-01

    Radiation pressure from the absorption and scattering of starlight by dust grains may be an important feedback mechanism in regulating star-forming galaxies. We compile data from the literature on star clusters, star-forming subregions, normal star-forming galaxies, and starbursts to assess the importance of radiation pressure on dust as a feedback mechanism, by comparing the luminosity and flux of these systems to their dust Eddington limit. This exercise motivates a novel interpretation of the Schmidt law, the L{sub IR}-L'{sub CO} correlation, and the L{sub IR}-L'{sub HCN} correlation. In particular, the linear L{sub IR}-L'{sub HCN} correlation is a natural prediction of radiation pressure regulated star formation. Overall, we find that the Eddington limit sets a hard upper bound to the luminosity of any star-forming region. Importantly, however, many normal star-forming galaxies have luminosities significantly below the Eddington limit. We explore several explanations for this discrepancy, especially the role of 'intermittency' in normal spirals-the tendency for only a small number of subregions within a galaxy to be actively forming stars at any moment because of the time dependence of the feedback process and the luminosity evolution of the stellar population. If radiation pressure regulates star formation in dense gas, then the gas depletion timescale is 6 Myr, in good agreement with observations of the densest starbursts. Finally, we highlight the importance of observational uncertainties, namely, the dust-to-gas ratio and the CO-to-H{sub 2} and HCN-to-H{sub 2} conversion factors, that must be understood before a definitive assessment of radiation pressure as a feedback mechanism in star-forming galaxies.

  3. The oncogenic transcription factor IRF4 is regulated by a novel CD30/NF-κB positive feedback loop in peripheral T-cell lymphoma

    PubMed Central

    Boddicker, Rebecca L.; Kip, N. Sertac; Xing, Xiaoming; Zeng, Yu; Yang, Zhi-Zhang; Lee, Jeong-Heon; Almada, Luciana L.; Elsawa, Sherine F.; Knudson, Ryan A.; Law, Mark E.; Ketterling, Rhett P.; Cunningham, Julie M.; Wu, Yanhong; Maurer, Matthew J.; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Cerhan, James R.; Slager, Susan L.; Link, Brian K.; Porcher, Julie C.; Grote, Deanna M.; Jelinek, Diane F.; Dogan, Ahmet; Ansell, Stephen M.; Fernandez-Zapico, Martin E.

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are generally aggressive non-Hodgkin lymphomas with poor overall survival rates following standard therapy. One-third of PTCLs express interferon regulatory factor-4 (IRF4), a tightly regulated transcription factor involved in lymphocyte growth and differentiation. IRF4 drives tumor growth in several lymphoid malignancies and has been proposed as a candidate therapeutic target. Because direct IRF4 inhibitors are not clinically available, we sought to characterize the mechanism by which IRF4 expression is regulated in PTCLs. We demonstrated that IRF4 is constitutively expressed in PTCL cells and drives Myc expression and proliferation. Using an inhibitor screen, we identified nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) as a candidate regulator of IRF4 expression and cell proliferation. We then demonstrated that the NF-κB subunits p52 and RelB were transcriptional activators of IRF4. Further analysis showed that activation of CD30 promotes p52 and RelB activity and subsequent IRF4 expression. Finally, we showed that IRF4 transcriptionally regulates CD30 expression. Taken together, these data demonstrate a novel positive feedback loop involving CD30, NF-κB, and IRF4; further evidence for this mechanism was demonstrated in human PTCL tissue samples. Accordingly, NF-κB inhibitors may represent a clinical means to disrupt this feedback loop in IRF4-positive PTCLs. PMID:25833963

  4. Positive future climate feedback due to changes in oceanic DMS emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tjiputra, Jerry; Six, Katharina; Seland, Øyvind; Heinze, Christoph

    2015-04-01

    The global ocean is the largest natural source of dimethylsulphide (DMS) gas to the atmosphere. DMS is produced by phytoplankton and is released to the surface ocean if cells are degraded. Once it enters the atmosphere, it might contribute to the nucleation particles important for cloud formation, which then effect the Earth's radiation budget and climate. Future global warming and ocean acidification is projected to alter marine DMS production and emission. However the none of the models assessed in the last IPCC report includes the DMS-climate feedback. Recent study indicated that under high CO2 emissions future, the oceanic DMS emission is projected to decrease by 12 to 24% by the end of this century, potentially leading to an equilibrium temperature response of 0.1K to 0.76K. Here, for the first time using a fully interactive Earth system model including a microphysical aerosol module with sulfur chemistry, we perform simulations on future climate projection with coupled DMS feedback. Under the highest pH sensitivity, our simulation shows that projected DMS production and emission decrease relative to the preindustrial state by 50% and 36%, respectively toward the end of the 21st century under the RCP8.5 emissions scenario. The largest emission reduction is simulated in the Southern Ocean. On contrast, emissions at polar latitudes increase owing to the sea ice retreat. This large change in marine sulfur emisson leads to an additional global warming of 0.3K relative to the reference simulation without DMS-climate feedback at the end of the 21st century. Both simulations also produce similar trajectories in atmospheric CO2 concentration, consistent with little change in the cumulative oceanic and terrestrial carbon sinks.

  5. Nearly time-optimal feedback control of a magnetically levitated photolithography positioning system

    SciTech Connect

    Redmond, J.

    1993-12-31

    This paper focuses on the development of an approximate time-optimal feedback strategy for conducting rest-to-rest maneuvers of a magnetically levitated table. Classical switching curves are modified to account for the complexities of magnetic actuation as well as the coupling of the rigid body modes through the control. A smooth blend of time-optimal and proportional-derivative controls is realized near the destination point to correct for inaccuracies produced by the approximate time-optimal strategy. Detailed computer simulations of the system indicate that this hybrid control strategy provides a significant reduction in settling time as compared to proportional-derivative control alone.

  6. A Collaborative Approach to Implement Positive Behavior Support Plans for Children with Problem Behaviors: A Comparison of Consultation versus Consultation and Feedback Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Erbas, Dilek

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to compare the effectiveness of consultation alone and consultation plus feedback on the proper use of positive behavior support strategies (PBS) on behaviors of three mothers with children with developmental disabilities. Results indicated that consultation plus feedback was more effective than consultation alone…

  7. Antimicrobial Peptide Resistance Mechanisms of Gram-Positive Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Nawrocki, Kathryn L; Crispell, Emily K; McBride, Shonna M

    2014-10-13

    Antimicrobial peptides, or AMPs, play a significant role in many environments as a tool to remove competing organisms. In response, many bacteria have evolved mechanisms to resist these peptides and prevent AMP-mediated killing. The development of AMP resistance mechanisms is driven by direct competition between bacterial species, as well as host and pathogen interactions. Akin to the number of different AMPs found in nature, resistance mechanisms that have evolved are just as varied and may confer broad-range resistance or specific resistance to AMPs. Specific mechanisms of AMP resistance prevent AMP-mediated killing against a single type of AMP, while broad resistance mechanisms often lead to a global change in the bacterial cell surface and protect the bacterium from a large group of AMPs that have similar characteristics. AMP resistance mechanisms can be found in many species of bacteria and can provide a competitive edge against other bacterial species or a host immune response. Gram-positive bacteria are one of the largest AMP producing groups, but characterization of Gram-positive AMP resistance mechanisms lags behind that of Gram-negative species. In this review we present a summary of the AMP resistance mechanisms that have been identified and characterized in Gram-positive bacteria. Understanding the mechanisms of AMP resistance in Gram-positive species can provide guidelines in developing and applying AMPs as therapeutics, and offer insight into the role of resistance in bacterial pathogenesis.

  8. A Mechanism for Land-Atmosphere Feedback Involving Planetary Wave Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D.; Chang, Yehui; Schubert, Siegfried D.

    2014-01-01

    While the ability of land surface conditions to influence the atmosphere has been demonstrated in various modeling and observational studies, the precise mechanisms by which land-atmosphere feedback occurs are still largely unknown particularly the mechanisms that allow land moisture state in one region to affect atmospheric conditions in another. Such remote impacts are examined here in the context of atmospheric general circulation model (AGCM) simulations, leading to the identification of one potential mechanism: the phase-locking and amplification of a planetary wave through the imposition of a spatial pattern of soil moisture at the land surface. This mechanism, shown here to be relevant in the AGCM, apparently also operates in nature, as suggested by supporting evidence found in reanalysis data.

  9. Experimental study on narrow linewidth fiber ring laser based on parallel feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Cui-yun; Wang, Da-liang; Wang, Zi-nan; Lu, Ping; Xu, Lian-yu; Yu, Xiao-qi; Jiang, Yun; Zhu, Li-xin; Li, Zheng-bin

    2011-06-01

    Narrow linewidth fiber lasers are intensively studied during these years, for their wide use in coherent optical communication, optical fiber sensing, high-precision spectroscopy and many other industrial and military applications. A usual technique to suppress linewidth is narrow band filtering in the resonating structure of the laser. However, it is hard in fabrication for a tradition optical filter to achieve an ultra narrow pass band such as kilo-Hertz. In this paper, the parallel feedback structure is proposed and experimentally studied. A fiber laser with ultra narrow linewidth (15Hz detected) is achieved in laboratory, basing on the parallel feedback mechanism in a fiber ring cavity. In multimode fiber, each transverse mode has a different propagation constant. Equivalently, when a light beam propagates form single mode fiber to multimode fiber, it will split into a few parallel light paths with different propagation constants. The parallel feedback structure of a fiber ring laser is carried out by introducing one or more pieces of multi-mode fiber into its resonant cavity. Lasing light in the cavity must fit the restrictions of all light paths, thus linewidth of the laser output is suppressed. Ultra narrow linewidth can be achieved by carefully adjusting the amount and length of multi-mode fiber pieces. The narrowest linewidth achieved in laboratory is 15Hz detected by a delayed self-heterodyne interferometer with a 100km fiber delay line. In this work, we focus on pressuring linewidth, and mechanism of selecting and stabilizing mode isn't employed. Therefore, the narrow linewidth fiber laser isn't single-longitudinal-mode (SLM). A similar ring laser structure with bidirectional output is also experimental implemented, achieving a bandwidth of the same order. The bidirectional ring laser is the basic component of a laser gyroscope, and its linewidth is one key limiting factor of the gyroscope accuracy. This narrow linewidth bidirectional ring laser is a

  10. Technology transfer through performance management: the effects of graphical feedback and positive reinforcement on drug treatment counselors' behavior.

    PubMed

    Andrzejewski, M E; Kirby, K C; Morral, A R; Iguchi, M Y

    2001-07-01

    After drug treatment counselors at a community-based methadone treatment clinic were trained in implementing a contingency management (CM) intervention, baseline measures of performance revealed that, on average, counselors were meeting the performance criteria specified by the treatment protocol about 42% of the time. Counselors were exposed to graphical feedback and a drawing for cash prizes in an additive within-subjects design to assess the effectiveness of these interventions in improving protocol adherence. Counselor performance measures increased to 71% during the graphical feedback condition, and to 81% during the drawing. Each counselor's performance improved during the intervention conditions. Additional analyses suggested that counselors did not have skill deficits that hindered implementation. Rather, protocol implementation occurred more frequently when consequences were added, thereby increasing the overall proportion of criteria met. Generalizations, however, may be limited due to a small sample size and possible confounding of time and intervention effects. Nonetheless, present results show promise that feedback and positive reinforcement could be used to improve technology transfer of behavioral interventions into community clinic settings.

  11. Essential role of Bmp signaling and its positive feedback loop in the early cell fate evolution of chordates.

    PubMed

    Kozmikova, Iryna; Candiani, Simona; Fabian, Peter; Gurska, Daniela; Kozmik, Zbynek

    2013-10-15

    In chordates, early separation of cell fate domains occurs prior to the final specification of ectoderm to neural and non-neural as well as mesoderm to dorsal and ventral during development. Maintaining such division with the establishment of an exact border between the domains is required for the formation of highly differentiated structures such as neural tube and notochord. We hypothesized that the key condition for efficient cell fate separation in a chordate embryo is the presence of a positive feedback loop for Bmp signaling within the gene regulatory network (GRN), underlying early axial patterning. Here, we therefore investigated the role of Bmp signaling in axial cell fate determination in amphioxus, the basal chordate possessing a centralized nervous system. Pharmacological inhibition of Bmp signaling induces dorsalization of amphioxus embryos and expansion of neural plate markers, which is consistent with an ancestral role of Bmp signaling in chordate axial patterning and neural plate formation. Furthermore, we provided evidence for the presence of the positive feedback loop within the Bmp signaling network of amphioxus. Using mRNA microinjections we found that, in contrast to vertebrate Vent genes, which promote the expression of Bmp4, amphioxus Vent1 is likely not responsible for activation of cephalochordate ortholog Bmp2/4. Cis-regulatory analysis of amphioxus Bmp2/4, Admp and Chordin promoters in medaka embryos revealed remarkable conservation of the gene regulatory information between vertebrates and basal chordates. Our data suggest that emergence of a positive feedback loop within the Bmp signaling network may represent a key molecular event in the evolutionary history of the chordate cell fate determination.

  12. A satellite digital controller or 'play that PID tune again, Sam'. [Position, Integral, Derivative feedback control algorithm for design strategy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seltzer, S. M.

    1976-01-01

    The problem discussed is to design a digital controller for a typical satellite. The controlled plant is considered to be a rigid body acting in a plane. The controller is assumed to be a digital computer which, when combined with the proposed control algorithm, can be represented as a sampled-data system. The objective is to present a design strategy and technique for selecting numerical values for the control gains (assuming position, integral, and derivative feedback) and the sample rate. The technique is based on the parameter plane method and requires that the system be amenable to z-transform analysis.

  13. A positive feedback loop between ROS and Mxi1-0 promotes hypoxia-induced VEGF expression in human hepatocellular carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Hu, Zhenzhen; Dong, Na; Lu, Dian; Jiang, Xiuqin; Xu, Jinjin; Wu, Zhiwei; Zheng, Datong; Wechsler, Daniel S

    2017-02-01

    VEGF expression induced by hypoxia plays a critical role in promoting tumor angiogenesis. However, the molecular mechanism that modulates VEGF expression under hypoxia is still poorly understood. In this study, we found that VEGF induction in hypoxic HepG2 cells is ROS-dependent. ROS mediates hypoxia-induced VEGF by upregulation of Mxi1-0. Furthermore, PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α signaling pathway is involved in ROS-mediated Mxi1-0 and VEGF expression in hypoxic HepG2 cells. Finally, Mxi1-0 could in turn regulate ROS generation in hypoxic HepG2 cells, creating a positive feedback loop. Taken together, this study demonstrate a positive regulatory feedback loop in which ROS mediates hypoxia-induced Mxi1-0 via activation of PI3K/AKT/HIF-1α pathway, events that in turn elevate ROS generation and promote hypoxia-induced VEGF expression. These findings could provide a rationale for designing new therapies based on inhibition of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) angiogenesis.

  14. Characterizing Feedback Control Mechanisms in Nonlinear Microbial Models of Soil Organic Matter Decomposition by Stability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, K.; Tang, J.; Riley, W. J.; Torn, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM) decomposition is regulated by biotic and abiotic processes. Feedback interactions between such processes may act to dampen oscillatory responses to perturbations from equilibrium. Indeed, although biological oscillations have been observed in small-scale laboratory incubations, the overlying behavior at the plot-scale exhibits a relatively stable response to disturbances in input rates and temperature. Recent studies have demonstrated the ability of microbial models to capture nonlinear feedbacks in SOM decomposition that linear Century-type models are unable to reproduce, such as soil priming in response to increased carbon input. However, these microbial models often exhibit strong oscillatory behavior that is deemed unrealistic. The inherently nonlinear dynamics of SOM decomposition have important implications for global climate-carbon and carbon-concentration feedbacks. It is therefore imperative to represent these dynamics in Earth System Models (ESMs) by introducing sub-models that accurately represent microbial and abiotic processes. In the present study we explore, both analytically and numerically, four microbe-enabled model structures of varying levels of complexity. The most complex model combines microbial physiology, a non-linear mineral sorption isotherm, and enzyme dynamics. Based on detailed stability analysis of the nonlinear dynamics, we calculate the system modes as functions of model parameters. This dependence provides insight into the source of state oscillations. We find that feedback mechanisms that emerge from careful representation of enzyme and mineral interactions, with parameter values in a prescribed range, are critical for both maintaining system stability and capturing realistic responses to disturbances. Corroborating and expanding upon the results of recent studies, we explain the emergence of oscillatory responses and discuss the appropriate microbe-enabled model structure for inclusion in ESMs.

  15. Modeling the relativistic runaway electron avalanche and the feedback mechanism with GEANT4

    PubMed Central

    Skeltved, Alexander Broberg; Østgaard, Nikolai; Carlson, Brant; Gjesteland, Thomas; Celestin, Sebastien

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first study that uses the GEometry ANd Tracking 4 (GEANT4) toolkit to do quantitative comparisons with other modeling results related to the production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes and high-energy particle emission from thunderstorms. We will study the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) and the relativistic feedback process, as well as the production of bremsstrahlung photons from runaway electrons. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the effects of electron ionization, electron by electron (Møller), and electron by positron (Bhabha) scattering as well as the bremsstrahlung process and pair production, in the 250 eV to 100 GeV energy range. Our results indicate that the multiplication of electrons during the development of RREAs and under the influence of feedback are consistent with previous estimates. This is important to validate GEANT4 as a tool to model RREAs and feedback in homogeneous electric fields. We also determine the ratio of bremsstrahlung photons to energetic electrons Nγ/Ne. We then show that the ratio has a dependence on the electric field, which can be expressed by the avalanche time τ(E) and the bremsstrahlung coefficient α(ε). In addition, we present comparisons of GEANT4 simulations performed with a “standard” and a “low-energy” physics list both validated in the 1 keV to 100 GeV energy range. This comparison shows that the choice of physics list used in GEANT4 simulations has a significant effect on the results. Key Points Testing the feedback mechanism with GEANT4 Validating the GEANT4 programming toolkit Study the ratio of bremsstrahlung photons to electrons at TGF source altitude PMID:26167437

  16. Positive water vapour feedback in climate models confirmed by satellite data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rind, D.; Lerner, J.; Chiou, E.-W.; Chu, W.; Larsen, J.; Mccormick, M. P.; Mcmaster, L.

    1991-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that GCMs used to evaluate climate change overestimate the greenhouse effect due to increased concentrations of trace gases in the atmosphere. Here, new satellite-generated water vapor data are used to compare summer and winter moisture values in regions of the middle and upper troposphere that have previously been difficult to observe with confidence. It is found that, as the hemispheres warm, increased convection leads to increased water vapor above 500 mbar in approximate quantitative agreement with results from current climate models. The same conclusion is reached by comparing the tropical western and eastern Pacific regions. Thus, water vapor feedback is not overestimated in models and should amplify the climate response to increased trace-gas concentrations.

  17. The Evolution of Different Forms of Sociality: Behavioral Mechanisms and Eco-Evolutionary Feedback

    PubMed Central

    van der Post, Daniel J.; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K.

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific characteristics of different species. Our approach to studying such trajectories is to use evolutionary case-studies, so that we can investigate how grouping co-evolves with a multitude of individual characteristics. Here we focus on anti-predator vigilance and foraging. We use an individual-based model, where behavioral mechanisms are specified, and costs and benefits are not predefined. We show that evolutionary changes in grouping alter selection pressures on vigilance, and vice versa. This eco-evolutionary feedback generates an evolutionary progression from “leader-follower” societies to “fission-fusion” societies, where cooperative vigilance in groups is maintained via a balance between within- and between-group selection. Group-level selection is generated from an assortment that arises spontaneously when vigilant and non-vigilant foragers have different grouping tendencies. The evolutionary maintenance of small groups, and cooperative vigilance in those groups, is therefore achieved simultaneously. The evolutionary phases, and the transitions between them, depend strongly on behavioral mechanisms. Thus, integrating behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback is critical for understanding what kinds of intermediate stages are involved during the evolution of particular forms of sociality. PMID:25629313

  18. Role of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau in feedback mechanisms affecting the planetary circulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reiter, E.R.; Yi-Hui, D.

    1980-01-01

    It has been recognized for some time that the Qinghai-Xizang plateau is of great importance in generating planetary long-waves which, in resonance with similar waves induced by the Rocky Mountains, lead to the familiar pattern of quasi-stationary Rossby waves observed on monthly-mean upper level pressure charts. Seasonal forcing of flow patterns also appears to be particularly strong in the Qinghai-Xizang plateau region. Recent investigations suggest that the Qinghai-Xizang plateau may also be involved in feedback mechanisms which control in an important way the interannual variability of the general circulation of the atmosphere. It appears that the effects of the Qinghai-Xizang plateau on the interannual variability of the atmospheric circulation over Asia are but one important manifestation of a network of feedback mechanisms, ranging from the El Nino problems along the Peruvian coast to droughts in the Sahel region. A better understanding of each of the mechanisms involved will lead us closer to successful long-range forecasting of some of the weather phenomena which have a considerable effect on local and regional economics.

  19. The evolution of different forms of sociality: behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback.

    PubMed

    van der Post, Daniel J; Verbrugge, Rineke; Hemelrijk, Charlotte K

    2015-01-01

    Different forms of sociality have evolved via unique evolutionary trajectories. However, it remains unknown to what extent trajectories of social evolution depend on the specific characteristics of different species. Our approach to studying such trajectories is to use evolutionary case-studies, so that we can investigate how grouping co-evolves with a multitude of individual characteristics. Here we focus on anti-predator vigilance and foraging. We use an individual-based model, where behavioral mechanisms are specified, and costs and benefits are not predefined. We show that evolutionary changes in grouping alter selection pressures on vigilance, and vice versa. This eco-evolutionary feedback generates an evolutionary progression from "leader-follower" societies to "fission-fusion" societies, where cooperative vigilance in groups is maintained via a balance between within- and between-group selection. Group-level selection is generated from an assortment that arises spontaneously when vigilant and non-vigilant foragers have different grouping tendencies. The evolutionary maintenance of small groups, and cooperative vigilance in those groups, is therefore achieved simultaneously. The evolutionary phases, and the transitions between them, depend strongly on behavioral mechanisms. Thus, integrating behavioral mechanisms and eco-evolutionary feedback is critical for understanding what kinds of intermediate stages are involved during the evolution of particular forms of sociality.

  20. Creating a Positive Classroom Atmosphere: Teachers' Use of Effective Praise and Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conroy, Maureen A.; Sutherland, Kevin S.; Snyder, Angela; Al-Hendawi, Maha; Vo, Abigail

    2009-01-01

    Creating a positive and engaging classroom atmosphere is one of the most powerful tools teachers can use to encourage children's learning and prevent problem behaviors from occurring. Teachers' responses to children's appropriate and problem behavior can help set the tone of the classroom environment. Creating positive interactions between a…

  1. Analysis of Links Positions in Landing Gear Mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewczyński, D.; Tora, G.

    2014-08-01

    This article contains a kinematic analysis of an aircraft chassis mechanism in a range of positions. The mechanism of the chassis is made up of several smaller subsystems with different functions. The first mechanism is used to eject the chassis before landing (touchdown) and fold it to hatchway after the lift off. The second mechanism is designed to perform rotation of the crossover with the wheel, in order to adjust the position of the wheel to fit it in the limited space in the hold. The third mechanism allows movement of the chassis resulting from the change in length of the damper. To determine the position of the following links of the mechanism calculus of vectors was applied in which unit vectors were used to represent the angular position of the links. The aim of the analysis is to determine the angle of convergence and the angle of heel wheels as a function of the variable length of hydraulic cylinder, length of the shock absorber, length of the regulations rods

  2. Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Jamie

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability, and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.

  3. Design of a High Resolution Hexapod Positioning Mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Britt, Jamie; Brodeur, Stephen J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper describes the development of a high resolution, six-degree of freedom positioning mechanism. This mechanism, based on the Stewart platform concept, was designed for use with the Developmental Comparative Active Optics Telescope Testbed (DCATT), a ground-based technology testbed for the Next Generation Space Telescope (NGST). The mechanism provides active control to the DCATT telescope's segmented primary mirror. Emphasis is on design decisions and technical challenges. Significant issues include undesirable motion properties of PZT-inchworm actuators, testing difficulties, dimensional stability and use of advanced composite materials. Supporting test data from prototype mechanisms is presented.

  4. Hyperosmotic Shock Engages Two Positive Feedback Loops through Caspase-3-dependent Proteolysis of JNK1-2 and Bid*

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Jicheng; Ben Messaoud, Nabil; López, José M.

    2015-01-01

    Hyperosmotic shock induces early calpain activation, Smac/DIABLO release from the mitochondria, and p38/JNK activation in Xenopus oocytes. These pathways regulate late cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Here, we show that JNK1-1 and JNK1-2 are activated early by osmostress, and sustained activation of both isoforms accelerates the apoptotic program. When caspase-3 is activated, JNK1-2 is proteolyzed at Asp-385 increasing the release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activity, thereby creating a positive feedback loop. Expression of Bcl-xL markedly reduces hyperosmotic shock-induced apoptosis. In contrast, expression of Bid induces rapid caspase-3 activation, even in the absence of osmostress, which is blocked by Bcl-xL co-expression. In these conditions a significant amount of Bid in the cytosol is mono- and bi-ubiquitinated. Caspase-3 activation by hyperosmotic shock induces proteolysis of Bid and mono-ubiquitinated Bid at Asp-52 increasing the release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation, and thus creating a second positive feedback loop. Revealing the JNK isoforms and the loops activated by osmostress could help to design better treatments for human diseases caused by perturbations in fluid osmolarity. PMID:26511318

  5. Hyperosmotic Shock Engages Two Positive Feedback Loops through Caspase-3-dependent Proteolysis of JNK1-2 and Bid.

    PubMed

    Yue, Jicheng; Ben Messaoud, Nabil; López, José M

    2015-12-18

    Hyperosmotic shock induces early calpain activation, Smac/DIABLO release from the mitochondria, and p38/JNK activation in Xenopus oocytes. These pathways regulate late cytochrome c release and caspase-3 activation. Here, we show that JNK1-1 and JNK1-2 are activated early by osmostress, and sustained activation of both isoforms accelerates the apoptotic program. When caspase-3 is activated, JNK1-2 is proteolyzed at Asp-385 increasing the release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activity, thereby creating a positive feedback loop. Expression of Bcl-xL markedly reduces hyperosmotic shock-induced apoptosis. In contrast, expression of Bid induces rapid caspase-3 activation, even in the absence of osmostress, which is blocked by Bcl-xL co-expression. In these conditions a significant amount of Bid in the cytosol is mono- and bi-ubiquitinated. Caspase-3 activation by hyperosmotic shock induces proteolysis of Bid and mono-ubiquitinated Bid at Asp-52 increasing the release of cytochrome c and caspase-3 activation, and thus creating a second positive feedback loop. Revealing the JNK isoforms and the loops activated by osmostress could help to design better treatments for human diseases caused by perturbations in fluid osmolarity.

  6. Positive feedback of elevated CO2 on soil respiration in late autumn and winter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keidel, L.; Kammann, C.; Grünhage, L.; Moser, G.; Müller, C.

    2014-06-01

    Soil respiration of terrestrial ecosystems, a major component in the global carbon cycle is affected by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. However, seasonal differences of feedback effects of elevated CO2 have rarely been studied. At the Giessen Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (GiFACE) site, the effects of +20% above ambient CO2 concentration (corresponds to conditions reached 2035-2045) have been investigated since 1998 in a temperate grassland ecosystem. We defined five distinct annual periods, with respect to management practices and phenological cycles. For a period of three years (2008-2010), weekly measurements of soil respiration were carried out with a survey chamber on vegetation-free subplots. The results revealed a pronounced and repeated increase of soil respiration during late autumn and winter dormancy. Increased CO2 losses during the autumn period (September-October) were 15.7% higher and during the winter period (November-March) were 17.4% higher compared to respiration from control plots. However, during spring time and summer, which are characterized by strong above- and below-ground plant growth, no significant change in soil respiration was observed at the FACE site under elevated CO2. This suggests (i) that soil respiration measurements, carried out only during the vegetative growth period under elevated CO2 may underestimate the true soil-respiratory CO2 loss (i.e. overestimate the C sequestered) and (ii) that additional C assimilated by plants during the growing period and transferred below-ground will quickly be lost via enhanced heterotrophic respiration outside the main vegetation period.

  7. Positional Reproducibility of Pancreatic Tumors Under End-Exhalation Breath-Hold Conditions Using a Visual Feedback Technique

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Mitsuhiro; Shibuya, Keiko; Shiinoki, Takehiro; Matsuo, Yukinori; Nakamura, Akira; Nakata, Manabu; Sawada, Akira; Mizowaki, Takashi; Hiraoka, Masahiro

    2011-04-01

    Purpose: To assess positional reproducibility of pancreatic tumors under end-exhalation (EE) breath-hold (BH) conditions with a visual feedback technique based on computed tomography (CT) images. Methods and Materials: Ten patients with pancreatic cancer were enrolled in an institutional review board-approved trial. All patients were placed in a supine position on an individualized vacuum pillow with both arms raised. At the time of CT scan, they held their breath at EE with the aid of video goggles displaying their abdominal displacement. Each three-consecutive helical CT data set was acquired four times (sessions 1-4; session 1 corresponded to the time of CT simulation). The point of interest within or in proximity to a gross tumor volume was defined based on certain structural features. The positional variations in point of interest and margin size required to cover positional variations were assessed. Results: The means {+-} standard deviations (SDs) of intrafraction positional variations were 0.0 {+-} 1.1, 0.1 {+-} 1.2, and 0.1 {+-} 1.0 mm in the left-right (LR), anterior-posterior (AP), and superior-inferior (SI) directions, respectively (p = 0.726). The means {+-} SDs of interfraction positional variations were 0.3 {+-} 2.0, 0.8 {+-} 1.8, and 0.3 {+-} 1.8 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively (p = 0.533). Population-based margin sizes required to cover 95th percentiles of the overall positional variations were 4.7, 5.3, and 4.9 mm in the LR, AP, and SI directions, respectively. Conclusions: A margin size of 5 mm was needed to cover the 95th percentiles of the overall positional variations under EE-BH conditions, using this noninvasive approach to motion management for pancreatic tumors.

  8. Nucleosome positioning in yeasts: methods, maps, and mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Lieleg, Corinna; Krietenstein, Nils; Walker, Maria; Korber, Philipp

    2015-06-01

    Eukaryotic nuclear DNA is packaged into nucleosomes. During the past decade, genome-wide nucleosome mapping across species revealed the high degree of order in nucleosome positioning. There is a conserved stereotypical nucleosome organization around transcription start sites (TSSs) with a nucleosome-depleted region (NDR) upstream of the TSS and a TSS-aligned regular array of evenly spaced nucleosomes downstream over the gene body. As nucleosomes largely impede access to DNA and thereby provide an important level of genome regulation, it is of general interest to understand the mechanisms generating nucleosome positioning and especially the stereotypical NDR-array pattern. We focus here on the most advanced models, unicellular yeasts, and review the progress in mapping nucleosomes and which nucleosome positioning mechanisms are discussed. There are four mechanistic aspects: How are NDRs generated? How are individual nucleosomes positioned, especially those flanking the NDRs? How are nucleosomes evenly spaced leading to regular arrays? How are regular arrays aligned at TSSs? The main candidates for nucleosome positioning determinants are intrinsic DNA binding preferences of the histone octamer, specific DNA binding factors, nucleosome remodeling enzymes, transcription, and statistical positioning. We summarize the state of the art in an integrative model where nucleosomes are positioned by a combination of all these candidate determinants. We highlight the predominance of active mechanisms involving nucleosome remodeling enzymes which may be recruited by DNA binding factors and the transcription machinery. While this mechanistic framework emerged clearly during recent years, the involved factors and their mechanisms are still poorly understood and require future efforts combining in vivo and in vitro approaches.

  9. Separate adaptive mechanisms for controlling trajectory and final position in reaching.

    PubMed

    Scheidt, Robert A; Ghez, Claude

    2007-12-01

    We examined control of the hand's trajectory (direction and shape) and final equilibrium position in horizontal planar arm movements by quantifying transfer of learned visuomotor rotations between two tasks that required aiming the hand to the same spatial targets. In a trajectory-reversal task ("slicing"), the hand reversed direction within the target and returned to the origin. In a positioning task ("reaching"), subjects moved the hand to the target and held it there; cursor feedback was provided only after movement ended to isolate learning of final position from trajectory direction. We asked whether learning acquired in one task would transfer to the other. Transfer would suggest that the hand's entire trajectory, including its endpoint, was controlled using a common spatial plan. Instead we found minimal transfer, suggesting that the brain used different representations of target position to specify the hand's initial trajectory and its final stabilized position. We also observed asymmetrical practice effects on hand trajectory, including systematic curvature of reaches made after rotation training and hypermetria of untrained slice reversals after reach training. These are difficult to explain with a unified control model, but were replicated in computer simulations that specified the hand's initial trajectory and its final equilibrium position. Our results suggest that the brain uses different mechanisms to plan the hand's initial trajectory and final position in point-to-point movements, that it implements these control actions sequentially, and that trajectory planning does not account for specific impedance values to be implemented about the final stabilized posture.

  10. Optical position feedback of quasi-static 2D MOEMS mirrors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tortschanoff, A.; Baumgart, M.; Holzmann, D.; Lenzhofer, M.; Sandner, T.; Kenda, A.

    2013-05-01

    Recently, we have realized a new position sensing device for MOEMS mirrors applicable to arbitrary trajectories, which is based on the measurement of a reflected light beam with a quadrant diode. In this work we present the characteristics of this device, showing first experimental results obtained with a test set-up, but also theoretical considerations and optical ray-tracing simulations.

  11. 360-Degree Feedback Implementation Plan: Dean Position, Graduate School of Business and Public Policy, Naval Postgraduate School

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-03-01

    are learners and make everything into a learning experience, and (3) despite their desire to learn and improve , most managers operate in feedback ...Downward Feedback ………………………………..…… 13 2. Upward Feedback …………………………………...…… 14 3. Peer Feedback ………………………………………...…. 14 4. Self- Feedback ...perspectives. Groups frequently selected to provide feedback include supervisors, peers , and subordinates. In contrast to the traditional top-down

  12. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mechanical positioning of parts. 33.23 Section 33.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN...

  13. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mechanical positioning of parts. 33.23 Section 33.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN...

  14. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mechanical positioning of parts. 33.23 Section 33.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN...

  15. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mechanical positioning of parts. 33.23 Section 33.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN...

  16. 30 CFR 33.23 - Mechanical positioning of parts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mechanical positioning of parts. 33.23 Section 33.23 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR TESTING, EVALUATION, AND APPROVAL OF MINING PRODUCTS DUST COLLECTORS FOR USE IN CONNECTION WITH ROCK DRILLING IN...

  17. Reciprocal Markov modeling of feedback mechanisms between emotion and dietary choice using experience sampling data

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Ji; Pan, Junhao; Zhang, Qiang; Dubé, Laurette; Ip, Edward H.

    2015-01-01

    With intensively collected longitudinal data, recent advances in Experience Sampling Method (ESM) benefit social science empirical research, but also pose important methodological challenges. As traditional statistical models are not generally well-equipped to analyze a system of variables that contain feedback loops, this paper proposes the utility of an extended hidden Markov model to model reciprocal relationship between momentary emotion and eating behavior. This paper revisited an ESM data set (Lu, Huet & Dube, 2011) that observed 160 participants’ food consumption and momentary emotions six times per day in 10 days. Focusing on the analyses on feedback loop between mood and meal healthiness decision, the proposed Reciprocal Markov Model (RMM) can accommodate both hidden (“general” emotional states: positive vs. negative state) and observed states (meal: healthier, same or less healthy than usual) without presuming independence between observations and smooth trajectories of mood or behavior changes. The results of RMM analyses illustrated the reciprocal chains of meal consumption and mood as well as the effect of contextual factors that moderate the interrelationship between eating and emotion. A simulation experiment that generated data consistent to the empirical study further demonstrated that the procedure is promising in terms of recovering the parameters. PMID:26717120

  18. Interlocked positive and negative feedback network motifs regulate β-catenin activity in the adherens junction pathway

    PubMed Central

    Klinke, David J.; Horvath, Nicholas; Cuppett, Vanessa; Wu, Yueting; Deng, Wentao; Kanj, Rania

    2015-01-01

    The integrity of epithelial tissue architecture is maintained through adherens junctions that are created through extracellular homotypic protein–protein interactions between cadherin molecules. Cadherins also provide an intracellular scaffold for the formation of a multiprotein complex that contains signaling proteins, including β-catenin. Environmental factors and controlled tissue reorganization disrupt adherens junctions by cleaving the extracellular binding domain and initiating a series of transcriptional events that aim to restore tissue homeostasis. However, it remains unclear how alterations in cell adhesion coordinate transcriptional events, including those mediated by β-catenin in this pathway. Here were used quantitative single-cell and population-level in vitro assays to quantify the endogenous pathway dynamics after the proteolytic disruption of the adherens junctions. Using prior knowledge of isolated elements of the overall network, we interpreted these data using in silico model-based inference to identify the topology of the regulatory network. Collectively the data suggest that the regulatory network contains interlocked network motifs consisting of a positive feedback loop, which is used to restore the integrity of adherens junctions, and a negative feedback loop, which is used to limit β-catenin–induced gene expression. PMID:26224311

  19. Tunable Coupling to a Mechanical Oscillator Circuit Using a Coherent Feedback Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerckhoff, Joseph; Andrews, Reed W.; Ku, H. S.; Kindel, William F.; Cicak, Katarina; Simmonds, Raymond W.; Lehnert, K. W.

    2013-04-01

    We demonstrate a fully cryogenic microwave feedback network composed of modular superconducting devices connected by transmission lines and designed to control a mechanical oscillator that is coupled to one of the devices. The network features an electromechanical device and a tunable controller that coherently receives, processes, and feeds back continuous microwave signals that modify the dynamics and readout of the mechanical state. While previous electromechanical systems represent some compromise between efficient control and efficient readout of the mechanical state, as set by the electromagnetic decay rate, the tunable controller produces a closed-loop network that can be dynamically and continuously tuned between both extremes much faster than the mechanical response time. We demonstrate that the microwave decay rate may be modulated by at least a factor of 10 at a rate greater than 104 times the mechanical response rate. The system is easy to build and suggests that some useful functions may arise most naturally at the network level of modular, quantum electromagnetic devices.

  20. Biotic degradation at night, abiotic degradation at day: positive feedbacks on litter decomposition in drylands.

    PubMed

    Gliksman, Daniel; Rey, Ana; Seligmann, Ron; Dumbur, Rita; Sperling, Or; Navon, Yael; Haenel, Sabine; De Angelis, Paolo; Arnone, John A; Grünzweig, José M

    2017-04-01

    The arid and semi-arid drylands of the world are increasingly recognized for their role in the terrestrial net carbon dioxide (CO2 ) uptake, which depends largely on plant litter decomposition and the subsequent release of CO2 back to the atmosphere. Observed decomposition rates in drylands are higher than predictions by biogeochemical models, which are traditionally based on microbial (biotic) degradation enabled by precipitation as the main mechanism of litter decomposition. Consequently, recent research in drylands has focused on abiotic mechanisms, mainly photochemical and thermal degradation, but they only partly explain litter decomposition under dry conditions, suggesting the operation of an additional mechanism. Here we show that in the absence of precipitation, absorption of dew and water vapor by litter in the field enables microbial degradation at night. By experimentally manipulating solar irradiance and nighttime air humidity, we estimated that most of the litter CO2 efflux and decay occurring in the dry season was due to nighttime microbial degradation, with considerable additional contributions from photochemical and thermal degradation during the daytime. In a complementary study, at three sites across the Mediterranean Basin, litter CO2 efflux was largely explained by litter moisture driving microbial degradation and ultraviolet radiation driving photodegradation. We further observed mutual enhancement of microbial activity and photodegradation at a daily scale. Identifying the interplay of decay mechanisms enhances our understanding of carbon turnover in drylands, which should improve the predictions of the long-term trend of global carbon sequestration.

  1. Indirect adaptive output feedback control of a biorobotic AUV using pectoral-like mechanical fins.

    PubMed

    Naik, Mugdha S; Singh, Sahjendra N; Mittal, Rajat

    2009-06-01

    This paper treats the question of servoregulation of autonomous underwater vehicles (AUVs) in the yaw plane using pectoral-like mechanical fins. The fins attached to the vehicle have oscillatory swaying and yawing motion. The bias angle of the angular motion of the fin is used for the purpose of control. Of course, the design approach considered here is applicable to AUVs for other choices of oscillation patterns of the fins, which produce periodic forces and moments. It is assumed that the vehicle parameters, hydrodynamic coefficients, as well the fin forces and moments are unknown. For the trajectory control of the yaw angle, a sampled-data indirect adaptive control system using output (yaw angle) feedback is derived. The control system has a modular structure, which includes a parameter identifier and a stabilizer. For the control law derivation, an internal model of the exosignals (reference signal (constant or ramp) and constant disturbance) is included. Unlike the direct adaptive control scheme, the derived control law is applicable to minimum as well as nonminimum phase biorobotic AUVs (BAUVs). This is important, because for most of the fin locations on the vehicle, the model is a nonminimum phase. In the closed-loop system, the yaw angle trajectory tracking error converges to zero and the remaining state variables remain bounded. Simulation results are presented which show that the derived modular control system accomplishes precise set point yaw angle control and turning maneuvers in spite of the uncertainties in the system parameters using only yaw angle feedback.

  2. Development of a Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting for Children with Autism (VIPP-AUTI).

    PubMed

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne B A; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; De Jonge, Maretha V; Van Engeland, Herman; Van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we describe the development and content of Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting for Children with Autism (VIPP-AUTI). VIPP-AUTI is an adapted version of the evidence-based intervention VIPP. The lack of social responsiveness in children with autism often lowers the quality of the parent-child interaction. A wide range of early interventions exist to cope with the disorder. The majority of early interventions for children with autism focus on their deficits of (social) skills, but the number of evidence-based interventions to improve early parent-child interaction patterns is limited. The aim of VIPP-AUTI is to enhance parental sensitivity to children's autistic characteristics, in order to improve child developmental outcome by increased parental support.

  3. Regulation of blood flow at the onset of exercise by feed forward and feedback mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hughson, Richard L

    2003-10-01

    Blood flow adapts quickly after the onset of exercise to meet the metabolic demands of skeletal muscle. This review approaches the issue of how rapidly blood flow adapts and what the mechanisms for adaptation are primarily from a control theory perspective. Several recent papers have suggested that O2 transport proceeds at a rate that anticipates the metabolic demand over a very wide range of work rates. When considered from a control theory perspective, this implies involvement of feed forward control. Although there is one very important feed forward mechanism in the muscle pump that is activated with the onset of exercise, other evidence suggests that adjustment of blood flow to match the metabolic demand relies on feedback control from local dilator factors released in proportion to the metabolic demand. These distinct mechanisms with different onset times mean that blood flow adapts to the exercise demand with at least two distinct phases. The time course of the adaptation varies greatly between work rates, showing that blood flow control cannot be described by a linear control system and that the mechanisms responsible for vasodilation are dependent on work rate.

  4. Modelling ecogeomorphic feedbacks: investigating mechanisms of land degradation in semi-arid grassland and shrubland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turnbull, Laura; Mueller, Eva; Tietjen, Britta; Wainwright, John

    2014-05-01

    Across vast areas of the world's drylands, land degradation is exacerbated by ecohydrological processes, which alter the structure, function and connectivity of dryland hillslopes. These processes are often interlinked through feedback mechanisms in such a way that a trigger may result in a re-organization of the affected landscape. Here, we present a spatially explicit process-based ecogeomorphic model, MAHLERAN-EcoHyD to enhance our understanding of complex linkages between abiotic and biotic drivers and processes of degradation in drylands. This ecogeomorphic modelling approach is innovative in two main ways: it couples biotic and abiotic processes, and simulates intra and inter-event dynamics, thus overcoming a key limitation of previous modelling approaches in terms of their temporal scaling, by simulating key ecogeomorphic processes at process-relevant time steps. Redistribution of water, sediment and nutrients during high-intensity rainstorms is simulated at 1-sec time steps, soil moisture and transpiration dynamics at daily time steps, and vegetation dynamics (establishment, growth, mortality) at 14-day time steps, over a high-resolution 1x1 m grid. We use this innovative modelling approach to investigate soil-vegetation feedback mechanisms within a grassland-shrubland transition zone at the Sevilleta Long Term Ecological Research site in the south-western United States. Results from three modelling experiments are presented: the first modelling experiment investigates the impact of annual variations in individual high-intensity storms to assess long-term variations in runoff, soil-moisture conditions and sediment and nutrient fluxes over two decades; the second modelling experiment assesses the impact of vegetation composition on spatial changes in surface soil texture due to soil erosion by water; and the third modelling experiment investigates how long-term changes in vegetation alter feedbacks between biotic and abiotic processes using scenarios for

  5. A feedback mechanism converts individual cell features into a supracellular ECM structure in Drosophila trachea.

    PubMed

    Öztürk-Çolak, Arzu; Moussian, Bernard; Araújo, Sofia J; Casanova, Jordi

    2016-02-02

    The extracellular matrix (ECM), a structure contributed to and commonly shared by many cells in an organism, plays an active role during morphogenesis. Here, we used the Drosophila tracheal system to study the complex relationship between the ECM and epithelial cells during development. We show that there is an active feedback mechanism between the apical ECM (aECM) and the apical F-actin in tracheal cells. Furthermore, we reveal that cell-cell junctions are key players in this aECM patterning and organisation and that individual cells contribute autonomously to their aECM. Strikingly, changes in the aECM influence the levels of phosphorylated Src42A (pSrc) at cell junctions. Therefore, we propose that Src42A phosphorylation levels provide a link for the ECM environment to ensure proper cytoskeletal organisation.

  6. Modal self-excitation by nonlinear acceleration feedback in a class of mechanical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malas, Anindya; Chatterjee, S.

    2016-08-01

    The article proposes an acceleration feedback based technique for exciting modal self-oscillation in a class of multi degrees-of-freedom mechanical systems. The controller comprises a bank of second-order filters and the control law is formulated as the nonlinear function of the filter output. A design methodology is developed to excite self-oscillation in any desired mode or combination of modes (mixed-mode oscillation). The choice of control parameters takes into account the control cost and robustness of the controller. The effects of structural damping on the system performance are also studied. Analytical results are confirmed by numerical simulations. An adaptive control is proposed to maintain the oscillation amplitude at the desired level.

  7. Dynamics of mechanical feedback-type hydraulic servomotors under inertia loads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gold, Harold; Otto, Edward W; Ransom, Victor L

    1953-01-01

    An analysis of the dynamics of mechanical feedback-type hydraulic servomotors under inertia loads is developed and experimental verification is presented. The analysis, which is developed in terms of two physical parameters, yields direct expressions for the following dynamic responses: (1) the transient response to a step input and the maximum cylinder pressure during the transient and (2) the variation of amplitude attenuation and phase shift with the frequency of a sinusoidally varying input. The validity of the analysis is demonstrated by means of recorded transient and frequency responses obtained on two servomotors. The calculated responses are in close agreement with the measured responses. The relations presented are readily applicable to the design as well as to the analysis of hydraulic servomotors.

  8. The Effects of Varied Ratios of Positive and Negative Nonverbal Audience Feedback on Selected Attitudes and Behaviors of Normal Speaking College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwind, Jack Alan

    Based on a theoretical rationale derived from dissonance theory, this study investigated the effects of 80%/20% ratios of positive/negative and negative/positive audience feedback on perceptual, attitudinal, and behavioral responses of normal speaking college students. Twenty-six skilled speakers and 30 unskilled speakers were randomly assigned to…

  9. Positive regulation of the Egr-1/osteopontin positive feedback loop in rat vascular smooth muscle cells by TGF-{beta}, ERK, JNK, and p38 MAPK signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, Hong-Wei; Liu, Qi-Feng; Liu, Gui-Nan

    2010-05-28

    Previous studies identified a positive feedback loop in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) in which early growth response factor-1 (Egr-1) binds to the osteopontin (OPN) promoter and upregulates OPN expression, and OPN upregulates Egr-1 expression via the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) signaling pathway. The current study examined whether transforming growth factor-{beta} (TGF-{beta}) activity contributes to Egr-1 binding to the OPN promoter, and whether other signaling pathways act downstream of OPN to regulate Egr-1 expression. ChIP assays using an anti-Egr-1 antibody showed that amplification of the OPN promoter sequence decreased in TGF-{beta} DNA enzyme-transfected VSMCs relative to control VSMCs. Treatment of VSMCs with PD98059 (ERK inhibitor), SP600125 (JNK inhibitor), or SB203580 (p38 MAPK inhibitor) significantly inhibited OPN-induced Egr-1 expression, and PD98059 treatment was associated with the most significant decrease in Egr-1 expression. OPN-stimulated VSMC cell migration was inhibited by SP600125 or SB203580, but not by PD98059. Furthermore, MTT assays showed that OPN-mediated cell proliferation was inhibited by PD98059, but not by SP600125 or SB203580. Taken together, the results of the current study show that Egr-1 binding to the OPN promoter is positively regulated by TGF-{beta}, and that the p38 MAPK, JNK, and ERK pathways are involved in OPN-mediated Egr-1 upregulation.

  10. Reliability of Lift Alert(™) as a feedback device for detecting changes in body position.

    PubMed

    Ekes, A M; Krister, J D; Loseth, A E; McKenzie, C L

    1995-03-01

    The Lift Alert (™) is a small battery-operated unit, usually worn on the back of a worker's collar that is designed to provide a form of biofeedback about changes in trunk position during lifting tasks. The purpose of this study was to determine how consistent the Lift Alert (™) was at each of five different sensitivity settings (A-E) in detecting changes in trunk flexion in a given individual during a controlled bending maneuver. The subjects were videotaped while performing a series of trials of bending maneuvers at each of the sensitivity settings according to a specific protocol. The videotapes were then converted onto a computer program where the still images were captured and marked for data analysis. The reliability of the Lift Alert (™) was determined by calculating a coefficient of agreement, that is, the percentage of trials that were within both 10 and 15 degrees for each of the trials at a given setting for a single individual. The coefficient of agreement for all trials at all five settings was 0.76 within 10 degrees and 0.92 within 15 degrees. The results of this study suggest that the Lift Alert (™) is a reliable device for detecting changes in trunk flexion during a controlled bending maneuver for a given individual.

  11. Epigenetically deregulated microRNA-375 is involved in a positive feedback loop with estrogen receptor alpha in breast cancer cells.

    PubMed

    de Souza Rocha Simonini, Pedro; Breiling, Achim; Gupta, Nibedita; Malekpour, Mahdi; Youns, Mahmoud; Omranipour, Ramesh; Malekpour, Fatemeh; Volinia, Stefano; Croce, Carlo M; Najmabadi, Hossein; Diederichs, Sven; Sahin, Ozgür; Mayer, Doris; Lyko, Frank; Hoheisel, Jörg D; Riazalhosseini, Yasser

    2010-11-15

    Estrogen receptor α (ERα) upregulation causes abnormal cell proliferation in about two thirds of breast cancers, yet understanding of the underlying mechanisms remains incomplete. Here, we show that high expression of the microRNA miR-375 in ERα-positive breast cell lines is a key driver of their proliferation. miR-375 overexpression was caused by loss of epigenetic marks including H3K9me2 and local DNA hypomethylation, dissociation of the transcriptional repressor CTCF from the miR-375 promoter, and interactions of ERα with regulatory regions of miR-375. Inhibiting miR-375 in ERα-positive MCF-7 cells resulted in reduced ERα activation and cell proliferation. A combination of expression profiling from tumor samples and miRNA target prediction identified RASD1 as a potential miR-375 target. Mechanistic investigations revealed that miR-375 regulates RASD1 by targeting the 3' untranslated region in RASD1 mRNA. Additionally, we found that RASD1 negatively regulates ERα expression. Our findings define a forward feedback pathway in control of ERα expression, highlighting new strategies to treat ERα-positive invasive breast tumors.

  12. Protein kinase A and regulation of neonatal Nav1.5 expression in human breast cancer cells: activity-dependent positive feedback and cellular migration.

    PubMed

    Chioni, Athina-Myrto; Shao, Dongmin; Grose, Richard; Djamgoz, Mustafa B A

    2010-02-01

    Voltage-gated Na(+) channels (VGSCs) are expressed in excitable cells (e.g. neurons and muscles), as well as in some classically 'non-excitable' cells (e.g. fibroblasts), and in carcinomas. In general, functional expression of VGSCs in plasma membrane (PM) is hierarchical and dynamic. Previously, we have shown that an activity-dependent positive feedback mechanism involving cAMP-dependent protein kinase A (PKA) plays a significant role in upregulation of VGSCs in strongly metastatic rat prostate cancer Mat-LyLu cells expressing Nav1.7. Here, we investigated the possible role of PKA in VGSC regulation and its functional consequences in strongly metastatic human breast cancer (BCa) MDA-MB-231 cells, where the neonatal splice form of Nav1.5 (nNav1.5) is the predominant VGSC present. Treatment with the PKA activator forskolin for 24h increased mRNA and PM protein levels of nNav1.5, without changing the total VGSC protein level. Opposite effects were obtained by application of the PKA inhibitor KT5720 or the highly specific VGSC blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX), the latter implying activity-dependent upregulation. We tested the possibility, therefore, that the activity dependence of VGSC (nNav1.5) expression involved PKA. Indeed, TTX pretreatment reduced the level of phosphorylated PKA and eliminated basal and PKA-stimulated cellular migration. These data suggested that activity-dependent positive feedback mediated by PKA plays an important role in the functional expression of nNav1.5 in BCa, and in turn, this enhances the cells' metastatic potential.

  13. Rewiring mitogen-activated protein kinase cascade by positive feedback confers potato blight resistance.

    PubMed

    Yamamizo, Chihiro; Kuchimura, Kazuo; Kobayashi, Akira; Katou, Shinpei; Kawakita, Kazuhito; Jones, Jonathan D G; Doke, Noriyuki; Yoshioka, Hirofumi

    2006-02-01

    Late blight, caused by the notorious pathogen Phytophthora infestans, is a devastating disease of potato (Solanum tuberosum) and tomato (Solanum lycopersicum), and during the 1840s caused the Irish potato famine and over one million fatalities. Currently, grown potato cultivars lack adequate blight tolerance. Earlier cultivars bred for resistance used disease resistance genes that confer immunity only to some strains of the pathogen harboring corresponding avirulence gene. Specific resistance gene-mediated immunity and chemical controls are rapidly overcome in the field when new pathogen races arise through mutation, recombination, or migration from elsewhere. A mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade plays a pivotal role in plant innate immunity. Here we show that the transgenic potato plants that carry a constitutively active form of MAPK kinase driven by a pathogen-inducible promoter of potato showed high resistance to early blight pathogen Alternaria solani as well as P. infestans. The pathogen attack provoked defense-related MAPK activation followed by induction of NADPH oxidase gene expression, which is implicated in reactive oxygen species production, and resulted in hypersensitive response-like phenotype. We propose that enhancing disease resistance through altered regulation of plant defense mechanisms should be more durable and publicly acceptable than engineering overexpression of antimicrobial proteins.

  14. Water Vapor Feedback and Links to Mechanisms of Recent Tropical Climate Variations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, F. R.; Miller, Tim L.

    2008-01-01

    Recent variations of tropical climate on interannual to near-decadal scales have provided a useful target for studying feedback processes. A strong warm/cold ENSO couplet (e.g. 1997-2000) along with several subsequent weaker events are prominent interannual signals that are part of an apparent longer term strengthening of the Walker circulation during the mid to late1990 s with some weakening thereafter. Decadal scale changes in tropical SST structure during the 1990s are accompanied by focusing of precipitation over the Indo-Pacific warm pool and an increase in tropical ocean evaporation of order 1.0 %/decade. Here we use a number of diverse satellite measurements to explore connections between upper-tropospheric humidity (UTH) variations on these time scales and changes in other water and energy fluxes. Precipitation (GPCP, TRMM), turbulent fluxes (OAFlux), and radiative fluxes (ERBE / CERES, SRB) are use to analyze vertically-integrated divergence of moist static energy, divMSE, and its dry and moist components. Strong signatures of MSE flux transport linking ascending and descending regions of tropical circulations are found. Relative strengths of these transports compared to radiative flux changes are interpreted as a measure of efficiency in the overall process of heat rejection during episodes of warm or cold SST forcing. In conjunction with the diagnosed energy transports we explore frequency distributions of upper-tropospheric humidity as inferred from SSM/T-2 and AMSU-B passive microwave measurements. Relating these variations to SST changes suggests positive water vapor feedback, but at a level reduced from constant relative humidity.

  15. Investigating feedback mechanisms between stress and grain-size: preliminary findings from finite-element modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cross, A. J.; Prior, D. J.; Ellis, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    It is widely accepted that changes in stress and grain size can induce a switch between grain-size insensitive (GSI) and sensitive (GSS) creep mechanisms. Under steady-state conditions, grains evolve to an equilibrium size in the boundary region between GSS and GSI, described by the paleopiezometer for a given material. Under these conditions, significant rheological weakening is not expected, as grain size reduction processes are balanced by grain growth processes. However, it has been shown that the stress field surrounding faults varies through the seismic cycle, with both rapid loading and unloading of stress possible in the co- and post-seismic stages. We propose that these changes in stress in the region of the brittle-ductile transition zone may be sufficient to force a deviation from the GSI-GSS boundary and thereby cause a change in grain size and creep mechanism prior to system re-equilibration. Here we present preliminary findings from numerical modelling of stress and grain size changes in response to loading of mechanical inhomogeneities. Our results are attained using a grain-size evolution (GSE) subroutine incorporated into the SULEC finite-element code developed by Susan Ellis and Susanne Buiter, which utilises an iterative approach of solving for spatial and temporal changes in differential stress, grain size and active creep mechanism. Preliminary models demonstrate that stress changes in response to the opening of a fracture in a flowing medium can be significant enough to cause a switch from GSI to GSS creep. These results are significant in the context of understanding spatial variations and feedback between stress, grain size and deformation mechanisms through the seismic cycle.

  16. Neural Mechanisms of Positive Mood Induced Modulation of Reality Monitoring

    PubMed Central

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Gill, Jeevit; Slattery, Patrick; Shastri, Aditi; Mathalon, Daniel H.; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the neural mechanisms of mood induced modulation of cognition, specifically, on reality monitoring abilities. Reality monitoring is the ability to accurately distinguish the source of self-generated information from externally-presented contextual information. When participants were in a positive mood, compared to a neutral mood, they significantly improved their source memory identification abilities, particularly for self-generated information. However, being in a negative mood had no effect on reality monitoring abilities. Additionally, when participants were in a positive mood state, they showed activation in several regions that predisposed them to perform better at reality monitoring. Specifically, positive mood induced activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was associated with improvements in subsequent identification of self-generated information, and positive mood induced activation within the striatum (putamen) facilitated better identification of externally-presented information. These findings indicate that regions within mPFC, PCC and striatum are sensitive to positive mood-cognition enhancing effects that enable participants to be better prepared for subsequent reality monitoring decision-making. PMID:27895571

  17. A circuit mechanism for differentiating positive and negative associations.

    PubMed

    Namburi, Praneeth; Beyeler, Anna; Yorozu, Suzuko; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G; Halbert, Sarah A; Wichmann, Romy; Holden, Stephanie S; Mertens, Kim L; Anahtar, Melodi; Felix-Ortiz, Ada C; Wickersham, Ian R; Gray, Jesse M; Tye, Kay M

    2015-04-30

    The ability to differentiate stimuli predicting positive or negative outcomes is critical for survival, and perturbations of emotional processing underlie many psychiatric disease states. Synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) mediates the acquisition of associative memories, both positive and negative. Different populations of BLA neurons may encode fearful or rewarding associations, but the identifying features of these populations and the synaptic mechanisms of differentiating positive and negative emotional valence have remained unknown. Here we show that BLA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc projectors) or the centromedial amygdala (CeM projectors) undergo opposing synaptic changes following fear or reward conditioning. We find that photostimulation of NAc projectors supports positive reinforcement while photostimulation of CeM projectors mediates negative reinforcement. Photoinhibition of CeM projectors impairs fear conditioning and enhances reward conditioning. We characterize these functionally distinct neuronal populations by comparing their electrophysiological, morphological and genetic features. Overall, we provide a mechanistic explanation for the representation of positive and negative associations within the amygdala.

  18. A Circuit Mechanism for Differentiating Positive and Negative Associations

    PubMed Central

    Namburi, Praneeth; Beyeler, Anna; Yorozu, Suzuko; Calhoon, Gwendolyn G.; Halbert, Sarah A.; Wichmann, Romy; Holden, Stephanie S.; Mertens, Kim L.; Anahtar, Melodi; Felix-Ortiz, Ada C.; Wickersham, Ian R.; Gray, Jesse M.; Tye, Kay M.

    2015-01-01

    The ability to differentiate stimuli predicting positive or negative outcomes is critical for survival, and perturbations of emotional processing underlie many psychiatric disease states. Synaptic plasticity in the basolateral amygdala complex (BLA) mediates the acquisition of associative memories, both positive1,2 and negative3–7. Different populations of BLA neurons may encode fearful or rewarding associations8–10, but the identifying features of these populations and the synaptic mechanisms of differentiating positive and negative emotional valence have remained an enigma. Here, we show that BLA neurons projecting to the nucleus accumbens (NAc projectors) or the centromedial amygdala (CeM projectors) underwent opposing synaptic changes following fear or reward conditioning. We found that photostimulation of NAc projectors supports positive reinforcement while photostimulation of CeM projectors mediates negative reinforcement. Photoinhibition of CeM projectors impaired fear conditioning and enhanced reward conditioning. We then characterized these functionally-distinct neuronal populations by comparing their electrophysiological, morphological and genetic features. We provide a mechanistic explanation for the representation of positive and negative associations within the amygdala. PMID:25925480

  19. Neural Mechanisms of Positive Mood Induced Modulation of Reality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Subramaniam, Karuna; Gill, Jeevit; Slattery, Patrick; Shastri, Aditi; Mathalon, Daniel H; Nagarajan, Srikantan; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the neural mechanisms of mood induced modulation of cognition, specifically, on reality monitoring abilities. Reality monitoring is the ability to accurately distinguish the source of self-generated information from externally-presented contextual information. When participants were in a positive mood, compared to a neutral mood, they significantly improved their source memory identification abilities, particularly for self-generated information. However, being in a negative mood had no effect on reality monitoring abilities. Additionally, when participants were in a positive mood state, they showed activation in several regions that predisposed them to perform better at reality monitoring. Specifically, positive mood induced activity within the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PCC) was associated with improvements in subsequent identification of self-generated information, and positive mood induced activation within the striatum (putamen) facilitated better identification of externally-presented information. These findings indicate that regions within mPFC, PCC and striatum are sensitive to positive mood-cognition enhancing effects that enable participants to be better prepared for subsequent reality monitoring decision-making.

  20. Positive feedback of crop residue incorporation on dissolved organic carbon contents under anaerobic conditions in temperate rice paddy soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Said-Pullicino, Daniel; Sodano, Marcella; Bertora, Chiara; Lerda, Cristina; Sacco, Dario; Celi, Luisella

    2016-04-01

    Rice paddy soils are generally characterized by large concentrations and fluxes of DOC in comparison to other ecosystems. Our recent studies have shown that the combination of relatively high pore-water DOC concentrations under anoxic soil conditions (>10-20 mg C l-1) and important percolation fluxes of water during field flooding may contribute significant organic C inputs into the subsoil (18-51 g C m-2) over the cropping season. Crop residues incorporated into the soil after harvest represent the main input of organic C into paddy soils, returning about 200-300 g C m-2 y-1 in single-cropped rice paddies. The anaerobic decomposition of these residues may supply important amounts of DOC to soil pore waters. Moreover, the supply of electron donors with the input of residue-derived labile OM may further increase DOC contents by stimulating the microbially-catalyzed reductive dissolution of Fe and Mn oxyhydroxides under anoxic conditions, and release of DOC previously stabilized on the mineral matrix (i.e. positive feedback). This could have important implications on organic C inputs into the subsoil as well as substrate availability for methane production. We therefore hypothesized that crop residue management practices that influence the amount of labile organic matter present in the soil at the time of field flooding may strongly influence soil solution DOC concentrations as well as the positive feedback on the release of soil-derived DOC. We tested this hypothesis at field-scale by evaluating variations in the contents and quality of DOC above and beneath the plough pan over the cropping season as a function of crop residue management practices involving: tillage and crop residue incorporation in spring (SPR), tillage and crop residue incorporation in spring, dry seeding and 1 month delayed flooding (DRY), tillage and crop residue incorporation in autumn (AUT), and straw removal after harvest and tillage in spring (REM). Moreover, we linked changes in DOC

  1. Nonlinear state feedback controller design for underactuated mechanical system: a modified block backstepping approach.

    PubMed

    Rudra, Shubhobrata; Barai, Ranjit Kumar; Maitra, Madhubanti

    2014-03-01

    This paper presents the formulation of a novel block-backstepping based control algorithm to address the stabilization problem for a generalized nonlinear underactuated mechanical system. For the convenience of compact design, first, the state model of the underactuated system has been converted into the block-strict feedback form. Next, we have incorporated backstepping control action to derive the expression of the control input for the generic nonlinear underactuated system. The proposed block backstepping technique has further been enriched by incorporating an integral action additionally for enhancing the steady state performance of the overall system. Asymptotic stability of the overall system has been analyzed using Lyapunov stability criteria. Subsequently, the stability of the zero dynamics has also been analyzed to ensure the global asymptotic stability of the entire nonlinear system at its desired equilibrium point. The proposed control algorithm has been applied for the stabilization of a benchmarked underactuated mechanical system to verify the effectiveness of the proposed control law in real-time environment.

  2. Interaction between Allee effects caused by organism-environment feedback and by other ecological mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Wanxiong; Song, Weixin

    2017-01-01

    Understanding Allee effect has crucial importance for ecological conservation and management because it is strongly related to population extinction. Due to various ecological mechanisms accounting for Allee effect, it is necessary to study the influence of multiple Allee effects on the dynamics and persistence of population. We here focus on organism-environment feedback which can incur strong, weak, and fatal Allee effect (AE-by-OEF), and further examine their interaction with the Allee effects caused by other ecological mechanisms (AE-by-OM). The results show that multiple Allee effects largely increase the extinction risk of population either due to the enlargement of Allee threshold or the change of inherent characteristic of Allee effect, and such an increase will be enhanced dramatically with increasing the strength of individual Allee effects. Our simulations explicitly considering spatial structure also demonstrate that local interaction among habitat patches can greatly mitigate such superimposed Allee effects as well as individual Allee effect. This implies that spatially structurized habitat could play an important role in ecological conservation and management. PMID:28333974

  3. Cargo-dependent degradation of ESCRT-I as a feedback mechanism to modulate endosomal sorting.

    PubMed

    Malerød, Lene; Pedersen, Nina Marie; Sem Wegner, Catherine Elisabeth; Lobert, Viola Hélène; Leithe, Edward; Brech, Andreas; Rivedal, Edgar; Liestøl, Knut; Stenmark, Harald

    2011-09-01

    Ligand-mediated lysosomal degradation of growth factor receptors, mediated by the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT) machinery, is a mechanism that attenuates the cellular response to growth factors. In this article, we present a novel regulatory mechanism that involves ligand-mediated degradation of a key component of the sorting machinery itself. We have investigated the endosomal localization of subunits of the four ESCRTs-Hrs (ESCRT-0), Tsg101 (ESCRT-I), EAP30/Vps22 (ESCRT-II) and charged multivesicular body protein 3/Vps24 (ESCRT-III). All the components were detected on the limiting membrane of multivesicular endosomes (MVEs). Surprisingly, however, Tsg101 and other ESCRT-I subunits were also detected within intraluminal vesicles (ILVs) of MVEs. Tsg101 was sequestered along with cargo during endosomal sorting into ILVs and further degraded in lysosomes. Importantly, ESCRT-mediated downregulation of two distinct cargoes, epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and connexin43, mutually made cells refractory to degradation of the other cargo. Our observations indicate that the degradation of a key ESCRT component along with cargo represents a novel feedback control of endosomal sorting by preventing collateral degradation of cell surface receptors following stimulation of one specific pathway.

  4. [Feedback control mechanisms of plant cell expansion]. Progress report, [June 1989--June 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Cosgrove, D.J.

    1992-12-31

    We have generated considerable evidence for the significance of wall stress relaxation in the control of plant growth and found that several agents (gibberellin, light, genetic loci for dwarf stature) influence growth rate via alteration of wall relaxation. We have refined our methods for measuring wall relaxation and, moreover, have found that wall relaxation properties bear only a distance relationship to wall mechanical properties. We have garnered novel insights into the nature of cell expansion mechanisms by analyzing spontaneous fluctuations of plant growth rate in seedlings. These experiments involved the application of mathematical techniques for analyzing growth rate fluctuations and the development of new instrumentation for measuring and forcing plant growth in a controlled fashion. These studies conclude that growth rate fluctuations generated by the plant as consequence of a feedback control system. This conclusion has important implications for the nature of wall loosening processes and demands a different framework for thinking about growth control. It also implies the existence of a growth rate sensor.

  5. Mechanisms and Feedbacks Causing Changes in Upper Stratospheric Ozone in the 21st Century

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oman, Luke; Waugh, D. W.; Kawa, S. R.; Stolarski, R. S.; Douglass, A. R.; Newman, P. A.

    2009-01-01

    Stratospheric ozone is expected to increase during the 21st century as the abundance of halogenated ozone-depleting substances decrease to 1960 values. However, climate change will likely alter this "recovery" of stratospheric ozone by changing stratospheric temperatures, circulation, and abundance of reactive chemical species. Here we quantity the contribution of different mechanisms to changes in upper stratospheric ozone from 1960 to 2100 in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry-Climate Model (GEOS CCM), using multiple linear regression analysis applied to simulations using either Alb or A2 greenhouse gas (GHG) scenarios. In both these scenarios upper stratospheric ozone has a secular increase over the 21st century. For the simulation using the Alb GHG scenario, this increase is determined by the decrease in halogen amounts and the greenhouse gas induced cooling, with roughly equal contributions from each mechanism. There is a larger cooling in the simulation using the A2 GHG scenario, but also enhanced loss from higher NOy and HOx concentrations, which nearly offsets the increase due to cooler temperatures. The resulting ozone evolutions are similar in the A2 and Alb simulations. The response of ozone due to feedbacks from temperature and HOx changes, related to changing halogen concentrations, are also quantified using simulations with fixed halogen concentrations.

  6. The inflammatory/cancer-related IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and maintains the active state of breast myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Hendrayani, Siti-Fauziah; Al-Harbi, Bothaina; Al-Ansari, Mysoon M.; Silva, Gabriela; Aboussekhra, Abdelilah

    2016-01-01

    The IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop links inflammation to cancer and maintains cells at a transformed state. Similarly, cancer-associated myofibroblats remains active even in absence of cancer cells. However, the molecular basis of this sustained active state remains elusive. We have shown here that breast cancer cells and IL-6 persistently activate breast stromal fibroblasts through the stimulation of the positive IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB feedback loop. Transient neutralization of IL-6 in culture inhibited this signaling circuit and reverted myofibrobalsts to a normalized state, suggesting the implication of the IL-6 autocrine feedback loop as well. Importantly, the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB pro-inflammatory circuit was also active in cancer-associated fibroblasts isolated from breast cancer patients. Transient inhibition of STAT3 by specific siRNA in active fibroblasts persistently reduced the level of the RNA binding protein AUF1, blocked the loop and normalized these cells. Moreover, we present clear evidence that AUF1 is also part of this positive feedback loop. Interestingly, treatment of breast myofibroblasts with caffeine, which has been previously shown to persistently inhibit active breast stromal fibroblasts, blocked the positive feedback loop through potent and sustained inhibition of STAT3, AKT, lin28B and AUF1. These results indicate that the IL-6/STAT3/NF-κB positive feedback loop includes AUF1 and is responsible for the sustained active status of cancer-associated fibroblasts. We have also shown that normalizing myofibroblasts, which could be of great therapeutic value, is possible through the inhibition of this procarcinogenic circuit. PMID:27248826

  7. The Long Noncoding RNA NEAT1 Exerts Antihantaviral Effects by Acting as Positive Feedback for RIG-I Signaling.

    PubMed

    Ma, Hongwei; Han, Peijun; Ye, Wei; Chen, Hesong; Zheng, Xuyang; Cheng, Linfeng; Zhang, Liang; Yu, Lan; Wu, Xing'an; Xu, Zhikai; Lei, Yingfeng; Zhang, Fanglin

    2017-05-01

    Hantavirus infection, which causes zoonotic diseases with a high mortality rate in humans, has long been a global public health concern. Over the past decades, accumulating evidence suggests that long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key regulatory roles in innate immunity. However, the involvement of host lncRNAs in hantaviral control remains uncharacterized. In this study, we identified the lncRNA NEAT1 as a vital antiviral modulator. NEAT1 was dramatically upregulated after Hantaan virus (HTNV) infection, whereas its downregulation in vitro or in vivo delayed host innate immune responses and aggravated HTNV replication. Ectopic expression of NEAT1 enhanced beta interferon (IFN-β) production and suppressed HTNV infection. Further investigation suggested that NEAT1 served as positive feedback for RIG-I signaling. HTNV infection activated NEAT1 transcription through the RIG-I-IRF7 pathway, whereas NEAT1 removed the transcriptional inhibitory effects of the splicing factor proline- and glutamine-rich protein (SFPQ) by relocating SFPQ to paraspeckles, thus promoting the expression of RIG-I and DDX60. RIG-I and DDX60 had synergic effects on IFN production. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that NEAT1 modulates the innate immune response against HTNV infection, providing another layer of information about the role of lncRNAs in controlling viral infections.IMPORTANCE Hantaviruses have attracted worldwide attention as archetypal emerging pathogens. Recently, increasing evidence has highlighted long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) as key regulators of innate immunity; however, their roles in hantavirus infection remain unknown. In the present work, a new unexplored function of lncRNA NEAT1 in controlling HTNV replication was found. NEAT1 promoted interferon (IFN) responses by acting as positive feedback for RIG-I signaling. This lncRNA was induced by HTNV through the RIG-I-IRF7 pathway in a time- and dose-dependent manner and promoted HTNV-induced IFN production by

  8. Cushing Syndrome Due to ACTH-Secreting Pheochromocytoma, Aggravated by Glucocorticoid-Driven Positive-Feedback Loop

    PubMed Central

    Sakuma, Ikki; Higuchi, Seiichiro; Fujimoto, Masanori; Takiguchi, Tomoko; Nakayama, Akitoshi; Tamura, Ai; Kohno, Takashi; Komai, Eri; Shiga, Akina; Nagano, Hidekazu; Hashimoto, Naoko; Suzuki, Sawako; Mayama, Takafumi; Koide, Hisashi; Ono, Katsuhiko; Sasano, Hironobu; Tatsuno, Ichiro; Yokote, Koutaro

    2016-01-01

    Context: Pheochromocytoma is a catecholamine-producing tumor that originates from adrenal chromaffin cells and is capable of secreting various hormones, including ACTH. Case Description: A 56-year-old female presented with Cushingoid appearance and diabetic ketoacidosis. Endocrinological examinations demonstrated ectopic ACTH production with hypercortisolemia and excess urinary cortisol accompanied by elevated plasma and urine catecholamines. Computed tomography revealed a large left adrenal tumor with bilateral adrenal enlargement. Metaiodobenzylguanidine scintigraphy revealed abnormal accumulation in the tumor, which was eventually diagnosed as pheochromocytoma with ectopic ACTH secretion with subsequent manifestation of Cushing's syndrome. Ectopic ACTH secretion and catecholamine production were blocked by metyrapone treatment, whereas dexamethasone paradoxically increased ACTH secretion. Left adrenalectomy resulted in complete remission of Cushing's syndrome and pheochromocytoma. In Vitro Studies: Immunohistological analysis revealed that the tumor contained two functionally distinct chromaffin-like cell types. The majority of tumor cells stained positive for tyrosine hydroxylase (TH), whereas a minor population of ACTH-positive tumor cells was negative for TH. Furthermore, gene expression and in vitro functional analyses using primary tumor tissue cultures demonstrated that dexamethasone facilitated ACTH as well as catecholamine secretion with parallel induction of proopiomelanocortin (POMC), TH, and phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase mRNA, supporting a glucocorticoid-dependent positive-feedback loop of ACTH secretion in vivo. DNA methylation analysis revealed that the POMC promoter of this tumor, particularly the E2F binding site, was hypomethylated. Conclusion: We present a case of ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with pheochromocytoma. ACTH up-regulation with paradoxical response to glucocorticoid, possibly through the hypomethylation of the POMC

  9. Treatment with recombinant lubricin attenuates osteoarthritis by positive feedback loop between articular cartilage and subchondral bone in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Zhuang; Xu, Changpeng; Li, Xue; Song, Jinqi; Yu, Bin

    2015-05-01

    Osteoarthritis (OA) is a most commonly multifactorial degenerative joint disease along with the aging population, particularly in postmenopausal women. During the onset of OA, articular cartilage and subchondral bone act in concert as a functional unit. This present study is to investigate the effects of early or late treatment with recombinant lubricin on the onset of osteoarthritis (OA) in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. We found that both early and late recombinant lubricin treatments attenuated the onset of OA by positive feedback loop between articular cartilage and subchondral bone, although late treatment contributed to a lesser effect compared with early treatment. Specifically, treatment with recombinant lubricin protected articular cartilage from degeneration, demonstrated by lower proteoglycan loss, lower OARSI scores, less calcification cartilage zone and reduced immunostaining for collagen X (Col X) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-13) but increased the expression of lubricin, in comparison with vehicle-treated OVX rat group. Further, chondroprotective effects of lubricin normalized bone remodeling in subchondral bone underneath. It's suggested that treatment with recombinant lubricin inhibited the elevation of TRAP and Osterix positive cells in OVX rats and led to the normalization of subchondral bone microarchitectures with the suppression of subsidence of bone volume ratio (BV/TV) and trabecular thickness (Tb.Th) and the increase of trabecular separation (Tb.Sp) in vehicle-treated OVX rats. What's more, the normalization of subchondral bone in turn attenuated the articular cartilage erosion by inhibiting vascular invasion from subchondral bone to calcified cartilage zone, exemplified by inhibiting the elevation of CD31 positive cells in calcified cartilage and angiography in subchondral bone. Together, these results shed light that both early and late recombinant lubricin treatments attenuate the onset of OA by balancing the interplay between articular

  10. Reward and Visual Feedback Relative to the Performance and Mechanical Efficiency of High School Girls in the Standing Broad Jump.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zebas, Carole J.

    This study focuses on changes occurring in selected mechanical components of high school girls performing the standing broad jump, and collects data pertaining to the effects of monetary reward and videotape feedback upon the following components: (a) distance jumped, (b) maximum angle of knee flexion, (c) maximum angle of hip flexion, (d) hip…

  11. Reproducibility of The Abdominal and Chest Wall Position by Voluntary Breath-Hold Technique Using a Laser-Based Monitoring and Visual Feedback System

    SciTech Connect

    Nakamura, Katsumasa . E-mail: nakam@radiol.med.kyushu-u.ac.jp; Shioyama, Yoshiyuki; Nomoto, Satoru; Ohga, Saiji; Toba, Takashi; Yoshitake, Tadamasa; Anai, Shigeo; Terashima, Hiromi; Honda, Hiroshi

    2007-05-01

    Purpose: The voluntary breath-hold (BH) technique is a simple method to control the respiration-related motion of a tumor during irradiation. However, the abdominal and chest wall position may not be accurately reproduced using the BH technique. The purpose of this study was to examine whether visual feedback can reduce the fluctuation in wall motion during BH using a new respiratory monitoring device. Methods and Materials: We developed a laser-based BH monitoring and visual feedback system. For this study, five healthy volunteers were enrolled. The volunteers, practicing abdominal breathing, performed shallow end-expiration BH (SEBH), shallow end-inspiration BH (SIBH), and deep end-inspiration BH (DIBH) with or without visual feedback. The abdominal and chest wall positions were measured at 80-ms intervals during BHs. Results: The fluctuation in the chest wall position was smaller than that of the abdominal wall position. The reproducibility of the wall position was improved by visual feedback. With a monitoring device, visual feedback reduced the mean deviation of the abdominal wall from 2.1 {+-} 1.3 mm to 1.5 {+-} 0.5 mm, 2.5 {+-} 1.9 mm to 1.1 {+-} 0.4 mm, and 6.6 {+-} 2.4 mm to 2.6 {+-} 1.4 mm in SEBH, SIBH, and DIBH, respectively. Conclusions: Volunteers can perform the BH maneuver in a highly reproducible fashion when informed about the position of the wall, although in the case of DIBH, the deviation in the wall position remained substantial.

  12. REDBACK: an Open-Source Highly Scalable Simulation Tool for Rock Mechanics with Dissipative Feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poulet, T.; Veveakis, M.; Paesold, M.; Regenauer-Lieb, K.

    2014-12-01

    Multiphysics modelling has become an indispensable tool for geoscientists to simulate the complex behaviours observed in their various fields of study where multiple processes are involved, including thermal, hydraulic, mechanical and chemical (THMC) laws. This modelling activity involves simulations that are computationally expensive and its soaring uptake is tightly linked to the increasing availability of supercomputing power and easy access to powerful nonlinear solvers such as PETSc (http://www.mcs.anl.gov/petsc/). The Multiphysics Object-Oriented Simulation Environment (MOOSE) is a finite-element, multiphysics framework (http://mooseframework.org) that can harness such computational power and allow scientists to develop easily some tightly-coupled fully implicit multiphysics simulations that run automatically in parallel on large clusters. This open-source framework provides a powerful tool to collaborate on numerical modelling activities and we are contributing to its development with REDBACK (https://github.com/pou036/redback), a module for Rock mEchanics with Dissipative feedBACKs. REDBACK builds on the tensor mechanics finite strain implementation available in MOOSE to provide a THMC simulator where the energetic formulation highlights the importance of all dissipative terms in the coupled system of equations. We show first applications of fully coupled dehydration reactions triggering episodic fluid transfer through shear zones (Alevizos et al, 2014). The dimensionless approach used allows focusing on the critical underlying variables which are driving the resulting behaviours observed and this tool is specifically designed to study material instabilities underpinning geological features like faulting, folding, boudinage, shearing, fracturing, etc. REDBACK provides a collaborative and educational tool which captures the physical and mathematical understanding of such material instabilities and provides an easy way to apply this knowledge to realistic

  13. A Mechanism for Stimulating AGN Feedback by Lifting Gas in Massive Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNamara, B. R.; Russell, H. R.; Nulsen, P. E. J.; Hogan, M. T.; Fabian, A. C.; Pulido, F.; Edge, A. C.

    2016-10-01

    Observation shows that nebular emission, molecular gas, and young stars in giant galaxies are associated with rising X-ray bubbles inflated by radio jets launched from nuclear black holes. We propose a model where molecular clouds condense from low-entropy gas caught in the updraft of rising X-ray bubbles. The low-entropy gas becomes thermally unstable when it is lifted to an altitude where its cooling time is shorter than the time required to fall to its equilibrium location in the galaxy, i.e., {t}{{c}}/{t}{{I}}≲ 1. The infall speed of a cloud is bounded by the lesser of its free-fall and terminal speeds, so that the infall time here can exceed the free-fall time by a significant factor. This mechanism is motivated by Atacama Large Millimeter Array observations revealing molecular clouds lying in the wakes of rising X-ray bubbles with velocities well below their free-fall speeds. Our mechanism would provide cold gas needed to fuel a feedback loop while stabilizing the atmosphere on larger scales. The observed cooling time threshold of ∼ 5× {10}8 {yr}—the clear-cut signature of thermal instability and the onset of nebular emission and star formation—may result from the limited ability of radio bubbles to lift low-entropy gas to altitudes where thermal instabilities can ensue. Outflowing molecular clouds are unlikely to escape, but instead return to the central galaxy in a circulating flow. We contrast our mechanism to precipitation models where the minimum value of {t}{{c}}/{t}{{ff}}≲ 10 triggers thermal instability, which we find to be inconsistent with observation.

  14. A positive feedback strategy for enhanced chemotherapy based on ROS-triggered self-accelerating drug release nanosystem.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing-Jing; Lei, Qi; Peng, Meng-Yun; Zheng, Di-Wei; Chen, Yi-Xuan; Zhang, Xian-Zheng

    2017-06-01

    Here, a positive feedback strategy was utilized to amplify the concentration of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and a ROS-triggered self-accelerating drug release nanosystem (defined as T/D@RSMSNs) was demonstrated for enhanced tumor chemotherapy. The mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSNs) based nanocarriers were gated by β-cyclodextrin (β-CD) through the ROS-cleavable thioketal (TK) linker to encapsulate the anticancer drug doxorubicin hydrochloride (DOX) and ROS producing agent α-tocopheryl succinate (α-TOS), whose surface was further anchored with adamantane conjugated poly(ethylene glycol) chain (AD-PEG) via host-guest interaction. It was found that in human breast cancer (MCF-7) cells, T/D@RSMSNs could not only release DOX and α-TOS initiatively, but also lead to increased concentration of intracellular ROS, which could be used as new trigger to cut away TK linkage and then in turn facilitate the further release of DOX for enhanced chemotherapy. Both in vitro and in vivo experiments demonstrated that T/D@RSMSNs exhibited more significant antitumor activity in the human breast cancer than the traditional single-DOX loaded ROS-responsive nanocarrier. This novel ROS-triggered self-accelerating drug release nanosystem with remarkably improved therapeutic effects could provide a general strategy to branch out the applications of existing ROS-responsive drug delivery systems (DDSs).

  15. INSM1 increases N-myc stability and oncogenesis via a positive-feedback loop in neuroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chiachen; Breslin, Mary B; Lan, Michael S

    2015-11-03

    Insulinoma associated-1 (IA-1/INSM1) gene is exclusively expressed during early embryonic development, but has been found to be re-expressed at high levels in neuroendocrine tumors including neuroblastoma. Using over-expression and knockdown experiments in neuroblastoma cells, we showed that INSM1 is critical for cell proliferation, BME-coated invasion, and soft agar colony formation. Here, we identified INSM1 as a novel target gene activated by N-myc in N-myc amplified neuroblastoma cells. The Sonic hedgehog signaling pathway induced INSM1 by increasing N-myc expression. INSM1 activated PI3K/AKT/GSK3β pathways to suppress N-myc phosphorylation (Thr-58) and inhibited degradation of N-myc. Inversely, N-myc protein bound to the E2-box region of the INSM1 promoter and activated INSM1 expression. The invasion assay and the xenograft nude mouse tumor model revealed that the INSM1 factor facilitated growth and oncogenesis of neuroblastoma. The current data supports our hypothesis that a positive-feedback loop of sonic hedgehog signaling induced INSM1 through N-myc and INSM1 enhanced N-myc stability contributing to the transformation of human neuroblastoma.

  16. Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI): A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Poslawsky, Irina E; Naber, Fabiënne Ba; Bakermans-Kranenburg, Marian J; van Daalen, Emma; van Engeland, Herman; van IJzendoorn, Marinus H

    2015-07-01

    In a randomized controlled trial, we evaluated the early intervention program Video-feedback Intervention to promote Positive Parenting adapted to Autism (VIPP-AUTI) with 78 primary caregivers and their child (16-61 months) with Autism Spectrum Disorder. VIPP-AUTI is a brief attachment-based intervention program, focusing on improving parent-child interaction and reducing the child's individual Autism Spectrum Disorder-related symptomatology in five home visits. VIPP-AUTI, as compared with usual care, demonstrated efficacy in reducing parental intrusiveness. Moreover, parents who received VIPP-AUTI showed increased feelings of self-efficacy in child rearing. No significant group differences were found on other aspects of parent-child interaction or on child play behavior. At 3-months follow-up, intervention effects were found on child-initiated joint attention skills, not mediated by intervention effects on parenting. Implementation of VIPP-AUTI in clinical practice is facilitated by the use of a detailed manual and a relatively brief training of interveners.

  17. Positive feedback loop between introductions of non-native marine species and cultivation of oysters in Europe.

    PubMed

    Mineur, Frederic; Le Roux, Auguste; Maggs, Christine A; Verlaque, Marc

    2014-12-01

    With globalization, agriculture and aquaculture activities are increasingly affected by diseases that are spread through movement of crops and stock. Such movements are also associated with the introduction of non-native species via hitchhiking individual organisms. The oyster industry, one of the most important forms of marine aquaculture, embodies these issues. In Europe disease outbreaks affecting cultivated populations of the naturalized oyster Crassostrea gigas caused a major disruption of production in the late 1960s and early 1970s. Mitigation procedures involved massive imports of stock from the species' native range in the northwestern Pacific from 1971 to 1977. We assessed the role stock imports played in the introduction of non-native marine species (including pathogens) from the northwestern Pacific to Europe through a methodological and critical appraisal of record data. The discovery rate of non-native species (a proxy for the introduction rate) from 1966 to 2012 suggests a continuous vector activity over the entire period. Disease outbreaks that have been affecting oyster production since 2008 may be a result of imports from the northwestern Pacific, and such imports are again being considered as an answer to the crisis. Although successful as a remedy in the short and medium terms, such translocations may bring new diseases that may trigger yet more imports (self-reinforcing or positive feedback loop) and lead to the introduction of more hitchhikers. Although there is a legal framework to prevent or reduce these introductions, existing procedures should be improved.

  18. Ecological consequences of body size decline in harvested fish species: positive feedback loops in trophic interactions amplify human impact.

    PubMed

    Audzijonyte, Asta; Kuparinen, Anna; Gorton, Rebecca; Fulton, Elizabeth A

    2013-04-23

    Humans are changing marine ecosystems worldwide, both directly through fishing and indirectly through climate change. One of the little explored outcomes of human-induced change involves the decreasing body sizes of fishes. We use a marine ecosystem model to explore how a slow (less than 0.1% per year) decrease in the length of five harvested species could affect species interactions, biomasses and yields. We find that even small decreases in fish sizes are amplified by positive feedback loops in the ecosystem and can lead to major changes in natural mortality. For some species, a total of 4 per cent decrease in length-at-age over 50 years resulted in 50 per cent increase in predation mortality. However, the magnitude and direction in predation mortality changes differed among species and one shrinking species even experienced reduced predation pressure. Nevertheless, 50 years of gradual decrease in body size resulted in 1-35% decrease in biomasses and catches of all shrinking species. Therefore, fisheries management practices that ignore contemporary life-history changes are likely to overestimate long-term yields and can lead to overfishing.

  19. Mining Specific and General Features in Both Positive and Negative Relevance Feedback. QUT E-Discovery Lab at the TREC󈧍 Relevance Feedback Track

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    relevance feedback algo- rithm. Four methods, εMap [1], MapA , P10A, and StatAP [2], were used in the track to measure the performance of Phase 2 runs...εMap and StatAP were applied to the runs us- ing the testing set of only ClueWeb09 Category-B, whereas MapA and P10A were applied to those using the...whole ClueWeb09 English set. Because our experiments were based on only ClueWeb09 Category-B, measuring our per- formance by MapA and P10A might not

  20. The small GTPase HRas shapes local PI3K signals through positive feedback and regulates persistent membrane extension in migrating fibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Thevathasan, Jervis Vermal; Tan, Elisabeth; Zheng, Hui; Lin, Yu-Chun; Li, Yang; Inoue, Takanari; Fivaz, Marc

    2013-01-01

    Self-amplification of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is believed to regulate asymmetric membrane extension and cell migration, but the molecular organization of the underlying feedback circuit is elusive. Here we use an inducible approach to synthetically activate PI3K and interrogate the feedback circuitry governing self-enhancement of 3′-phosphoinositide (3-PI) signals in NIH3T3 fibroblasts. Synthetic activation of PI3K initially leads to uniform production of 3-PIs at the plasma membrane, followed by the appearance of asymmetric and highly amplified 3-PI signals. A detailed spatiotemporal analysis shows that local self-amplifying 3-PI signals drive rapid membrane extension with remarkable directional persistence and initiate a robust migratory response. This positive feedback loop is critically dependent on the small GTPase HRas. Silencing of HRas abrogates local amplification of 3-PI signals upon synthetic PI3K activation and results in short-lived protrusion events that do not support cell migration. Finally, our data indicate that this feedback circuit is likely to operate during platelet-derived growth factor–induced random cell migration. We conclude that positive feedback between PI3K and HRas is essential for fibroblasts to spontaneously self-organize and generate a productive migratory response in the absence of spatial cues. PMID:23676667

  1. Mechanism of substrate recognition and insight into feedback inhibition of homocitrate synthase from Thermus thermophilus.

    PubMed

    Okada, Takuya; Tomita, Takeo; Wulandari, Asri P; Kuzuyama, Tomohisa; Nishiyama, Makoto

    2010-02-05

    Homocitrate synthase (HCS) catalyzes aldol-type condensation of acetyl coenzyme A (acetyl-CoA) and alpha-ketoglutarate (alpha-KG) to synthesize homocitrate (HC), which is the first and committed step in the lysine biosynthetic pathway through alpha-aminoadipate. As known in most enzymes catalyzing the first reactions in amino acid biosynthetic pathways, HCS is regulated via feedback inhibition by the end product, lysine. Here, we determined the crystal structures of HCS from Thermus thermophilus complexed with alpha-KG, HC, or lysine. In the HC complex, the C1-carboxyl group of HC, which is derived from acetyl-CoA, is hydrogen-bonded with His-292* from another subunit (indicated by the asterisk), indicating direct involvement of this residue in the catalytic mechanism of HCS. The crystal structure of HCS complexed with lysine showed that lysine is bound to the active site with rearrangement of amino acid residues in the substrate-binding site, which accounts for the competitive inhibition by lysine with alpha-KG. Comparison between the structures suggests that His-72, which is conserved in lysine-sensitive HCSs and binds the C5-carboxyl group of alpha-KG, serves as a switch for the conformational change. Replacement of His-72 by leucine made HCS resistant to lysine inhibition, demonstrating the regulatory role of this conserved residue.

  2. Tunable organic distributed feedback dye laser device excited through Förster mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsutsumi, Naoto; Hinode, Taiki

    2017-03-01

    Tunable organic distributed feedback (DFB) dye laser performances are re-investigated and characterized. The slab-type waveguide DFB device consists of air/active layer/glass substrate. Active layer consisted of tris(8-quinolinolato)aluminum (Alq3), 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) dye, and polystyrene (PS) matrix. Effective energy transfer from Alq3 to DCM through Förster mechanism enhances the laser emission. Slope efficiency in the range of 4.9 and 10% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.10-0.15 mJ cm-2 (lower threshold), which is due to the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) and lasing. Typical slope efficiency for lasing in the range of 2.0 and 3.0% is observed at pump energy region higher than 0.25-0.30 mJ cm-2 (higher threshold). The tuning wavelength for the laser emission is ranged from 620 to 645 nm depending on the ASE region.

  3. IFNγ Regulates Activated Vδ2+ T Cells through a Feedback Mechanism Mediated by Mesenchymal Stem Cells

    PubMed Central

    Fechter, Karoline; Dorronsoro, Akaitz; Jakobsson, Emma; Ferrin, Izaskun; Lang, Valérie; Sepulveda, Pilar; Pennington, Daniel J.; Trigueros, César

    2017-01-01

    γδ T cells play a role in a wide range of diseases such as autoimmunity and cancer. The majority of circulating human γδ T lymphocytes express a Vγ9Vδ2+ (Vδ2+) T cell receptor (TCR) and following activation release pro-inflammatory cytokines. In this study, we show that IFNγ, produced by Vδ2+ cells, activates mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-mediated immunosupression, which in turn exerts a negative feedback mechanism on γδ T cell function ranging from cytokine production to proliferation. Importantly, this modulatory effect is limited to a short period of time (<24 hours) post-T cell activation, after which MSCs can no longer exert their immunoregulatory capacity. Using genetically modified MSCs with the IFNγ receptor 1 constitutively silenced, we demonstrate that IFNγ is essential to this process. Activated γδ T cells induce expression of several factors by MSCs that participate in the depletion of amino acids. In particular, we show that indolamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO), an enzyme involved in L-tryptophan degradation, is responsible for MSC-mediated immunosuppression of Vδ2+ T cells. Thus, our data demonstrate that γδ T cell responses can be immuno-modulated by different signals derived from MSC. PMID:28076364

  4. The viscosity effect on marine particle flux: A climate relevant feedback mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taucher, J.; Bach, L. T.; Riebesell, U.; Oschlies, A.

    2014-04-01

    Oceanic uptake and long-term storage of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) are strongly driven by the marine "biological pump," i.e., sinking of biotically fixed inorganic carbon and nutrients from the surface into the deep ocean (Sarmiento and Bender; Volk and Hoffert). Sinking velocity of marine particles depends on seawater viscosity, which is strongly controlled by temperature (Sharqawy et al.). Consequently, marine particle flux is accelerated as ocean temperatures increase under global warming (Bach et al.). Here we show that this previously overlooked "viscosity effect" could have profound impacts on marine biogeochemical cycling and carbon uptake over the next centuries to millennia. In our global warming simulation, the viscosity effect accelerates particle sinking by up to 25%, thereby effectively reducing the portion of organic matter that is respired in the surface ocean. Accordingly, the biological carbon pump's efficiency increases, enhancing the sequestration of atmospheric CO2 into the ocean. This effect becomes particularly important on longer time scales when warming reaches the ocean interior. At the end of our simulation (4000 A.D.), oceanic carbon uptake is 17% higher, atmospheric CO2 concentration is 180 ppm lower, and the increase in global average surface temperature is 8% weaker when considering the viscosity effect. Consequently, the viscosity effect could act as a long-term negative feedback mechanism in the global climate system.

  5. Mechanisms controlling the SST air-sea heat flux feedback and its dependence on spatial scale

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hausmann, Ute; Czaja, Arnaud; Marshall, John

    2017-02-01

    The turbulent air-sea heat flux feedback (α, in {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}) is a major contributor to setting the damping timescale of sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies. In this study we compare the spatial distribution and magnitude of α in the North Atlantic and the Southern Ocean, as estimated from the ERA-Interim reanalysis dataset. The comparison is rationalized in terms of an upper bound on the heat flux feedback, associated with "fast" atmospheric export of temperature and moisture anomalies away from the marine boundary layer, and a lower bound associated with "slow" export. It is found that regions of cold surface waters (≤10 ° C) are best described as approaching the slow export limit. This conclusion is not only valid at the synoptic scale resolved by the reanalysis data, but also on basin scales. In particular, it applies to the heat flux feedback acting as circumpolar SST anomaly scales are approached in the Southern Ocean, with feedbacks of ≤10 {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}. In contrast, the magnitude of the heat flux feedback is close to that expected from the fast export limit over the Gulf Stream and its recirculation with values on the order of ≈40 {W m}^{-2} { K}^{-1}. Further analysis suggests that this high value reflects a compensation between a moderate thermodynamic adjustment of the boundary layer, which tends to weaken the heat flux feedback, and an enhancement of the surface winds over warm SST anomalies, which tend to enhance the feedback.

  6. Feedback of mechanical effectiveness induces adaptations in motor modules during cycling

    PubMed Central

    De Marchis, Cristiano; Schmid, Maurizio; Bibbo, Daniele; Castronovo, Anna Margherita; D'Alessio, Tommaso; Conforto, Silvia

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies have reported evidence that the motor system may rely on a modular organization, even if this behavior has yet to be confirmed during motor adaptation. The aim of the present study is to investigate the modular motor control mechanisms underlying the execution of pedaling by untrained subjects in different biomechanical conditions. We use the muscle synergies framework to characterize the muscle coordination of 11 subjects pedaling under two different conditions. The first one consists of a pedaling exercise with a strategy freely chosen by the subjects (Preferred Pedaling Technique, PPT), while the second condition constrains the gesture by means of a real time visual feedback of mechanical effectiveness (Effective Pedaling Technique, EPT). Pedal forces, recorded using a pair of instrumented pedals, were used to calculate the Index of Effectiveness (IE). EMG signals were recorded from eight muscles of the dominant leg and Non-negative Matrix Factorization (NMF) was applied for the extraction of muscle synergies. All the synergy vectors, extracted cycle by cycle for each subject, were pooled across subjects and conditions and underwent a 2-dimensional Sammon's non-linear mapping. Seven representative clusters were identified on the Sammon's projection, and the corresponding eight-dimensional synergy vectors were used to reconstruct the repertoire of muscle activation for all subjects and all pedaling conditions (VAF > 0.8 for each individual muscle pattern). Only 5 out of the 7 identified modules were used by the subjects during the PPT pedaling condition, while 2 additional modules were found specific for the pedaling condition EPT. The temporal recruitment of three identified modules was highly correlated with IE. The structure of the identified modules was found similar to that extracted in other studies of human walking, partly confirming the existence of shared and task specific muscle synergies, and providing further evidence on the modularity

  7. Predictable 'meta-mechanisms' emerge from feedbacks between transpiration and plant growth and cannot be simply deduced from short-term mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Tardieu, François; Parent, Boris

    2016-08-29

    Growth under water deficit is controlled by short-term mechanisms but, because of numerous feedbacks, the combination of these mechanisms over time often results in outputs that cannot be deduced from the simple inspection of individual mechanisms. It can be analysed with dynamic models in which causal relationships between variables are considered at each time-step, allowing calculation of outputs that are routed back to inputs for the next time-step and that can change the system itself. We first review physiological mechanisms involved in seven feedbacks of transpiration on plant growth, involving changes in tissue hydraulic conductance, stomatal conductance, plant architecture and underlying factors such as hormones or aquaporins. The combination of these mechanisms over time can result in non-straightforward conclusions as shown by examples of simulation outputs: 'over production of abscisic acid (ABA) can cause a lower concentration of ABA in the xylem sap ', 'decreasing root hydraulic conductance when evaporative demand is maximum can improve plant performance' and 'rapid root growth can decrease yield'. Systems of equations simulating feedbacks over numerous time-steps result in logical and reproducible emergent properties that can be viewed as 'meta-mechanisms' at plant level, which have similar roles as mechanisms at cell level.

  8. Studying citizen science through adaptive management and learning feedbacks as mechanisms for improving conservation.

    PubMed

    Jordan, Rebecca; Gray, Steven; Sorensen, Amanda; Newman, Greg; Mellor, David; Newman, Greg; Hmelo-Silver, Cindy; LaDeau, Shannon; Biehler, Dawn; Crall, Alycia

    2016-06-01

    Citizen science has generated a growing interest among scientists and community groups, and citizen science programs have been created specifically for conservation. We examined collaborative science, a highly interactive form of citizen science, which we developed within a theoretically informed framework. In this essay, we focused on 2 aspects of our framework: social learning and adaptive management. Social learning, in contrast to individual-based learning, stresses collaborative and generative insight making and is well-suited for adaptive management. Adaptive-management integrates feedback loops that are informed by what is learned and is guided by iterative decision making. Participants engaged in citizen science are able to add to what they are learning through primary data collection, which can result in the real-time information that is often necessary for conservation. Our work is particularly timely because research publications consistently report a lack of established frameworks and evaluation plans to address the extent of conservation outcomes in citizen science. To illustrate how our framework supports conservation through citizen science, we examined how 2 programs enacted our collaborative science framework. Further, we inspected preliminary conservation outcomes of our case-study programs. These programs, despite their recent implementation, are demonstrating promise with regard to positive conservation outcomes. To date, they are independently earning funds to support research, earning buy-in from local partners to engage in experimentation, and, in the absence of leading scientists, are collecting data to test ideas. We argue that this success is due to citizen scientists being organized around local issues and engaging in iterative, collaborative, and adaptive learning.

  9. Distal regulatory element of the STAT1 gene potentially mediates positive feedback control of STAT1 expression.

    PubMed

    Yuasa, Katsutoshi; Hijikata, Takao

    2016-01-01

    We previously identified a distal regulatory element located approximately 5.5-kb upstream of the signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gene, thereafter designating it as 5.5-kb upstream regulatory region (5.5URR). In this study, we investigated the functional roles of 5.5URR in the transcriptional regulation of STAT1 gene. A chromosome conformation capture assay indicated physical interaction of 5.5URR with the STAT1 core promoter. In luciferase reporter assays, 5.5URR-combined STAT1 core promoter exhibited significant increase in reporter activity enhanced by forced STAT1 expression or interferon (IFN) treatment, but STAT1 core promoter alone did not. The 5.5URR contained IFN-stimulated response element and GAS sites, which bound STAT1 complexes in electrophoretic mobility shift assays. Consistently, chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assays of HEK293 cells with Halo-tagged STAT1 expression indicated the association of Halo-tagged STAT1 with 5.5URR. ChIP assays with IFN treatment demonstrated that IFNs promoted the recruitment of Halo-tagged STAT1 to 5.5URR. Forced STAT1 expression or IFN treatment increased the expression of endogenous STAT1 and other IFN signaling pathway components, such as STAT2, IRF9 and IRF1, besides IFN-responsive genes. Collectively, the results suggest that 5.5URR may provide a regulatory platform for positive feedback control of STAT1 expression possibly to amplify or sustain the intracellular IFN signals.

  10. MECHANISM OF INHIBITION OF TUBULOGLOMERULAR FEEDBACK (TGF) BY CARBON MONOXIDE AND cGMP

    PubMed Central

    Ren, YiLin; D’Ambrosio, Martin A.; Garvin, Jeffrey L.; Wang, Hong; Carretero, Oscar A.

    2013-01-01

    Tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF) is a mechanism that senses NaCl in the macula densa (MD) and causes constriction of the afferent arteriole (Af-Art). Carbon monoxide (CO), either endogenous or exogenous, inhibits TGF at least in part via cGMP. We hypothesize that CO in the MD, acting via both cGMP-dependent and - independent mechanisms, attenuates TGF by acting downstream from depolarization and Ca entry into the MD cells. In vitro, microdissected rabbit Af-Arts and their MD were simultaneously perfused and TGF was measured as the decrease in Af-Art diameter. MD depolarization was induced with ionophores, while adding the CO-releasing molecule CORM-3 to the MD perfusate at non-toxic concentrations. CORM-3 blunted depolarization-induced TGF at 50 μM, from 3.6±0.4 to 2.5±0.4 μm (P<0.01), and abolished it at 100 μM, to 0.1±0.1 μm (P<0.001, n=6). When cGMP generation was blocked by guanylyl cyclase inhibitor LY-83583 added to the MD, CORM-3 no longer affected depolarization-induced TGF at 50 μM (2.9±0.4 vs. 3.0±0.4 μm), but partially inhibited TGF at 100 μM (to 1.3±0.2 μm, P<0.05, n=9). Experiments using ETYA and indomethacin suggest arachidonic acid metabolites do not mediate the cGMP-independent effect of CO. We then added the calcium ionophore A23187 to the macula densa, which caused TGF (4.1±0.6 μM); A23187-induced TGF was inhibited by CORM-3 at 50 μM (1.9±0.6 μM, P<0.01) and 100 μM (0.2±0.5 μM, P<0.001, n=6). We conclude that CO inhibits TGF acting downstream from depolarization and calcium entry, acting via cGMP at low concentrations, but additional mechanisms of action may be involved at higher concentrations. PMID:23648700

  11. Positive Feedback Loops for Factor V and Factor VII Activation Supply Sensitivity to Local Surface Tissue Factor Density During Blood Coagulation

    PubMed Central

    Balandina, A.N.; Shibeko, A.M.; Kireev, D.A.; Novikova, A.A.; Shmirev, I.I.; Panteleev, M.A.; Ataullakhanov, F.I.

    2011-01-01

    Blood coagulation is triggered not only by surface tissue factor (TF) density but also by surface TF distribution. We investigated recognition of surface TF distribution patterns during blood coagulation and identified the underlying molecular mechanisms. For these investigations, we employed 1), an in vitro reaction-diffusion experimental model of coagulation; and 2), numerical simulations using a mathematical model of coagulation in a three-dimensional space. When TF was uniformly immobilized over the activating surface, the clotting initiation time in normal plasma increased from 4 min to >120 min, with a decrease in TF density from 100 to 0.7 pmol/m2. In contrast, surface-immobilized fibroblasts initiated clotting within 3–7 min, independently of fibroblast quantity and despite a change in average surface TF density from 0.5 to 130 pmol/m2. Experiments using factor V-, VII-, and VIII-deficient plasma and computer simulations demonstrated that different responses to these two TF distributions are caused by two positive feedback loops in the blood coagulation network: activation of the TF–VII complex by factor Xa, and activation of factor V by thrombin. This finding suggests a new role for these reactions: to supply sensitivity to local TF density during blood coagulation. PMID:22004734

  12. Cyclooxygenase-2 in tumor-associated macrophages promotes breast cancer cell survival by triggering a positive-feedback loop between macrophages and cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Hongzhong; Yang, Bing; Huang, Jing; Lin, Yong; Xiang, Tingxiu; Wan, Jingyuan; Li, Hongyuan; Chouaib, Salem; Ren, Guosheng

    2015-10-06

    Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in cancer cell survival, however, the mechanism of which remains elusive. In this study, we found that COX-2 was abundantly expressed in breast TAMs, which was correlated to poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Ectopic over-expression of COX-2 in TAMs enhanced breast cancer cell survival both in vitro and in vivo. COX-2 in TAMs was determined to be essential for the induction and maintenance of M2-phenotype macrophage polarity. COX-2(+) TAMs promoted breast cancer cell proliferation and survival by increasing Bcl-2 and P-gp and decreasing Bax in cancer cells. Furthermore, COX-2 in TAMs induced the expression of COX-2 in breast cancer cells, which in turn promoted M2 macrophage polarization. Inhibiting PI3K/Akt pathway in cancer cells suppressed COX-2(+) TAMs-induced cancer cell survival. These findings suggest that COX-2, functions as a key cancer promoting factor by triggering a positive-feedback loop between macrophages and cancer cells, which could be exploited for breast cancer prevention and therapy.

  13. FoxM1 promotes breast tumorigenesis by activating PDGF-A and forming a positive feedback loop with the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yu, Guanzhen; Zhou, Aidong; Xue, Jianfei; Huang, Chen; Zhang, Xia; Kang, Shin-Hyuk; Chiu, Wen-Tai; Tan, Christina; Xie, Keping; Wang, Jiejun; Huang, Suyun

    2015-05-10

    The autocrine platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)/PDGF receptor (PDGFR) signaling pathway promotes breast cancer tumorigenesis, but the mechanisms for its dysregulation in breast cancer are largely unknown. In the study, we identified PDGF-A as a novel transcriptional target of FoxM1. FoxM1 directly binds to two sites in the promoter of PDGF-A and activates its transcription. Mutation of these FoxM1-binding sites diminished PDGF-A promoter activity. Increased FoxM1 resulted in the upregulation of PDGF-A, which led to activation of the AKT pathway and increased breast cancer cell proliferation and tumorigenesis, whereas knockdown of FoxM1 does the opposite. Blocking AKT activation with a phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT inhibitor decreased FoxM1-induced cell proliferation. Moreover, PDGF/AKT pathway upregulates the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Knockdown of PDGF-A or blockade of AKT activation inhibited the expression of FoxM1 in breast cancer cells. Furthermore, expression of FoxM1 significantly correlated with the expression of PDGF-A and the activated AKT signaling pathway in human breast cancer specimens. Our study demonstrates a novel positive regulatory feedback loop between FoxM1 and the PDGF/AKT signaling pathway; this loop contributes to breast cancer cell growth and tumorigenesis.

  14. A novel hypoxia-induced miR-147a regulates cell proliferation through a positive feedback loop of stabilizing HIF-1α

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fan; Zhang, Haoxiang; Xu, Naihan; Huang, Nunu; Tian, Caiming; Ye, Anlin; Hu, Guangnan; He, Jie; Zhang, Yaou

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hypoxia is a general event in solid tumor growth. Therefore, induced cellular responses by hypoxia are important for tumorigenesis and tumor growth. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have recently emerged as important regulators of hypoxia induced cellular responses. Here we report that miR-147a is a novel and crucial hypoxia induced miRNA. HIF-1α up-regulates the expression of miR-147a, and miR-147a in turn stabilizes and accumulates HIF-1α protein via directly targeting HIF-3α, a dominant negative regulator of HIF-1α. Subsequent studies in xenograft mouse model reveal that miR-147a is capable of inhibiting tumor growth. Collectively, these data demonstrate a positive feedback loop between HIF-1α, miR-147a and HIF-3α, which provide a new insight into the mechanism of miR-147a induced cell proliferation arrest under hypoxia. PMID:27260617

  15. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 and cyclin D1 compose a positive feedback loop contributing to tumor growth in gastric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Hayakawa, Yoku; Hirata, Yoshihiro; Nakagawa, Hayato; Sakamoto, Kei; Hikiba, Yohko; Kinoshita, Hiroto; Nakata, Wachiko; Takahashi, Ryota; Tateishi, Keisuke; Tada, Motohisa; Akanuma, Masao; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Takeda, Kohsuke; Ichijo, Hidenori; Omata, Masao; Maeda, Shin; Koike, Kazuhiko

    2011-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways regulate multiple cellular functions and are highly active in many types of human cancers. Apoptosis signal-regulating kinase 1 (ASK1) is an upstream MAPK involved in apoptosis, inflammation, and carcinogenesis. This study investigated the role of ASK1 in the development of gastric cancer. In human gastric cancer specimens, we observed increased ASK1 expression, compared to nontumor epithelium. Using a chemically induced murine gastric tumorigenesis model, we observed increased tumor ASK1 expression, and ASK1 knockout mice had both fewer and smaller tumors than wild-type (WT) mice. ASK1 siRNA inhibited cell proliferation through the accumulation of cells in G1 phase of the cell cycle, and reduced cyclin D1 expression in gastric cancer cells, whereas these effects were uncommon in other cancer cells. ASK1 overexpression induced the transcription of cyclin D1, through AP-1 activation, and ASK1 levels were regulated by cyclin D1, via the Rb–E2F pathway. Exogenous ASK1 induced cyclin D1 expression, followed by elevated expression of endogenous ASK1. These results indicate an autoregulatory mechanism of ASK1 in the development of gastric cancer. Targeting this positive feedback loop, ASK1 may present a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of advanced gastric cancer. PMID:21187402

  16. Proteasome inhibitor-induced apoptosis is mediated by positive feedback amplification of PKCδ proteolytic activation and mitochondrial translocation

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Faneng; Kanthasamy, Arthi; Song, Chunjuan; Yang, Yongjie; Anantharam, Vellareddy; Kanthasamy, Anumantha G

    2008-01-01

    Emerging evidence implicates impaired protein degradation by the ubiquitin proteasome system (UPS) in Parkinson's disease; however cellular mechanisms underlying dopaminergic degeneration during proteasomal dysfunction are yet to be characterized. In the present study, we identified that the novel PKC isoform PKCδ plays a central role in mediating apoptotic cell death following UPS dysfunction in dopaminergic neuronal cells. Inhibition of proteasome function by MG-132 in dopaminergic neuronal cell model (N27 cells) rapidly depolarized mitochondria independent of ROS generation to activate the apoptotic cascade involving cytochrome c release, and caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation. PKCδ was a key downstream effector of caspase-3 because the kinase was proteolytically cleaved by caspase-3 following exposure to proteasome inhibitors MG-132 or lactacystin, resulting in a persistent increase in the kinase activity. Notably MG-132 treatment resulted in translocation of proteolytically cleaved PKCδ fragments to mitochondria in a time-dependent fashion, and the PKCδ inhibition effectively blocked the activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, indicating that the accumulation of the PKCδ catalytic fragment in the mitochondrial fraction possibly amplifies mitochondria-mediated apoptosis. Overexpression of the kinase active catalytic fragment of PKCδ (PKCδ-CF) but not the regulatory fragment (RF), or mitochondria-targeted expression of PKCδ-CF triggers caspase-3 activation and apoptosis. Furthermore, inhibition of PKCδ proteolytic cleavage by a caspase-3 cleavage-resistant mutant (PKCδ-CRM) or suppression of PKCδ expression by siRNA significantly attenuated MG-132-induced caspase-9 and -3 activation and DNA fragmentation. Collectively, these results demonstrate that proteolytically activated PKCδ has a significant feedback regulatory role in amplification of the mitochondria-mediated apoptotic cascade during proteasome dysfunction in dopaminergic neuronal cells. PMID

  17. Magnetohydrodynamic simulations of mechanical stellar feedback in a sheet-like molecular cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wareing, C. J.; Pittard, J. M.; Falle, S. A. E. G.

    2017-03-01

    We have used the adaptive-mesh-refinement hydrodynamic code, MG, to perform 3D magnetohydrodynamic simulations with self-gravity of stellar feedback in a sheet-like molecular cloud formed through the action of the thermal instability. We simulate the interaction of the mechanical energy input from a 15 star and a 40 M⊙ star into a 100 pc-diameter 17 000 M⊙ cloud with a corrugated sheet morphology that in projection appears filamentary. The stellar winds are introduced using appropriate Geneva stellar evolution models. In the 15 M⊙ star case, the wind forms a narrow bipolar cavity with minimal effect on the parent cloud. In the 40 M⊙ star case, the more powerful stellar wind creates a large cylindrical cavity through the centre of the cloud. After 12.5 and 4.97 Myr, respectively, the massive stars explode as supernovae (SNe). In the 15 M⊙ star case, the SN material and energy is primarily deposited into the molecular cloud surroundings over ∼105 yr before the SN remnant escapes the cloud. In the 40 M⊙ star case, a significant fraction of the SN material and energy rapidly escapes the molecular cloud along the wind cavity in a few tens of kiloyears. Both SN events compress the molecular cloud material around them to higher densities (so may trigger further star formation), and strengthen the magnetic field, typically by factors of 2-3 but up to a factor of 10. Our simulations are relevant to observations of bubbles in flattened ring-like molecular clouds and bipolar H II regions.

  18. The role of feedback mechanisms in historic channel changes of the lower Rio Grande in the Big Bend region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dean, David J.; Schmidt, John C.

    2011-03-01

    Over the last century, large-scale water development of the upper Rio Grande in the U.S. and Mexico, and of the Rio Conchos in Mexico, has resulted in progressive channel narrowing of the lower Rio Grande in the Big Bend region. We used methods operating at multiple spatial and temporal scales to analyze the rate, magnitude, and processes responsible for channel narrowing. These methods included: hydrologic analysis of historic stream gage data, analysis of notes of measured discharges, historic oblique and aerial photograph analysis, and stratigraphic and dendrogeomorphic analysis of inset floodplain deposits. Our analyses indicate that frequent large floods between 1900 and the mid-1940s acted as a negative feedback mechanism and maintained a wide, sandy, multi-threaded river. Declines in mean and peak flow in the mid-1940s resulted in progressive channel narrowing. Channel narrowing has been temporarily interrupted by occasional large floods that widened the channel, however, channel narrowing has always resumed. After large floods in 1990 and 1991, the active channel width of the lower Rio Grande has narrowed by 36-52%. Narrowing has occurred by the vertical accretion of fine-grained deposits on top of sand and gravel bars, inset within natural levees. Channel narrowing by vertical accretion occurred simultaneously with a rapid invasion of non-native riparian vegetation ( Tamarix spp., Arundo donax) which created a positive feedback and exacerbated the processes of channel narrowing and vertical accretion. In two floodplain trenches, we measured 2.75 and 3.5 m of vertical accretion between 1993 and 2008. In some localities, nearly 90% of bare, active channel bars were converted to vegetated floodplain during the same period. Upward shifts of stage-discharge relations occurred resulting in over-bank flooding at lower discharges, and continued vertical accretion despite a progressive reduction in stream flow. Thus, although the magnitude of the average annual

  19. Appearance and Disappearance of Quantum Correlations in Measurement-Based Feedback Control of a Mechanical Oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudhir, V.; Wilson, D. J.; Schilling, R.; Schütz, H.; Fedorov, S. A.; Ghadimi, A. H.; Nunnenkamp, A.; Kippenberg, T. J.

    2017-01-01

    Quantum correlations between imprecision and backaction are a hallmark of continuous linear measurements. Here, we study how measurement-based feedback can be used to improve the visibility of quantum correlations due to the interaction of a laser field with a nanomechanical oscillator. Backaction imparted by the meter laser, due to radiation-pressure quantum fluctuations, gives rise to correlations between its phase and amplitude quadratures. These quantum correlations are observed in the experiment both as squeezing of the meter field fluctuations below the vacuum level in a homodyne measurement and as sideband asymmetry in a heterodyne measurement, demonstrating the common origin of both phenomena. We show that quantum feedback, i.e., feedback that suppresses measurement backaction, can be used to increase the visibility of the sideband asymmetry ratio. In contrast, by operating the feedback loop in the regime of noise squashing, where the in-loop photocurrent variance is reduced below the vacuum level, the visibility of the sideband asymmetry is reduced. This is due to backaction arising from vacuum noise in the homodyne detector. These experiments demonstrate the possibility, as well as the fundamental limits, of measurement-based feedback as a tool to manipulate quantum correlations.

  20. The cotton MYB108 forms a positive feedback regulation loop with CML11 and participates in the defense response against Verticillium dahliae infection

    PubMed Central

    Cheng, Huan-Qing; Han, Li-Bo; Yang, Chun-Lin; Wu, Xiao-Min; Zhong, Nai-Qin; Wu, Jia-He; Wang, Fu-Xin; Xia, Gui-Xian

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence indicates that plant MYB transcription factors participate in defense against pathogen attack, but their regulatory targets and related signaling processes remain largely unknown. Here, we identified a defense-related MYB gene (GhMYB108) from upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) and characterized its functional mechanism. Expression of GhMYB108 in cotton plants was induced by Verticillium dahliae infection and responded to the application of defense signaling molecules, including salicylic acid, jasmonic acid, and ethylene. Knockdown of GhMYB108 expression led to increased susceptibility of cotton plants to V. dahliae, while ecotopic overexpression of GhMYB108 in Arabidopsis thaliana conferred enhanced tolerance to the pathogen. Further analysis demonstrated that GhMYB108 interacted with the calmodulin-like protein GhCML11, and the two proteins form a positive feedback loop to enhance the transcription of GhCML11 in a calcium-dependent manner. Verticillium dahliae infection stimulated Ca2+ influx into the cytosol in cotton root cells, but this response was disrupted in both GhCML11-silenced plants and GhMYB108-silenced plants in which expression of several calcium signaling-related genes was down-regulated. Taken together, these results indicate that GhMYB108 acts as a positive regulator in defense against V. dahliae infection by interacting with GhCML11. Furthermore, the data also revealed the important roles and synergetic regulation of MYB transcription factor, Ca2+, and calmodulin in plant immune responses. PMID:26873979

  1. Modelling Robust Feedback Control Mechanisms That Ensure Reliable Coordination of Histone Gene Expression with DNA Replication

    PubMed Central

    Corrigall, Holly; Ebenhöh, Oliver; Müller, Berndt

    2016-01-01

    Histone proteins are key elements in the packing of eukaryotic DNA into chromosomes. A little understood control system ensures that histone gene expression is balanced with DNA replication so that histone proteins are produced in appropriate amounts. Disturbing or disrupting this system affects genome stability and gene expression, and has detrimental consequences for human development and health. It has been proposed that feedback control involving histone proteins contributes to this regulation and there is evidence implicating cell cycle checkpoint molecules activated when DNA synthesis is impaired in this control. We have developed mathematical models that incorporate these control modes in the form of inhibitory feedback of histone gene expression from free histone proteins, and alternatively a direct link that couples histone RNA synthesis to DNA synthesis. Using our experimental evidence and related published data we provide a simplified description of histone protein synthesis during S phase. Both models reproduce the coordination of histone gene expression with DNA replication during S phase and the down-regulation of histone RNA when DNA synthesis is interrupted, but only the model incorporating histone protein feedback control was able to effectively simulate the coordinate expression of a simplified histone gene family. Our combined theoretical and experimental approach supports the hypothesis that the regulation of histone gene expression involves feedback control. PMID:27798685

  2. Developing an Undergraduate Assessment Test: A Mechanism for Faculty Feedback about Retention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Thomas J.; Strandholm, Karen; Dziekan, Julie

    2010-01-01

    A regional business school chose to self develop an assessment test of the fundamental concepts of the undergraduate business core. Above and beyond the demands of AACSB accreditation, faculty identified feedback from such a test as an essential precursor to changing both overall curriculum and individual class content. The authors describe the…

  3. Positive or negative? The impact of X-ray feedback on the formation of direct collapse black hole seeds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Regan, John A.; Johansson, Peter H.; Wise, John H.

    2016-09-01

    A nearby source of Lyman-Werner (LW) photons is thought to be a central component in dissociating H2 and allowing for the formation of a direct collapse black hole seed. Nearby sources are also expected to produce copious amounts of hydrogen ionizing photons and X-ray photons. We study here the feedback effects of the X-ray photons by including a spectrum due to high-mass X-ray binaries on top of a galaxy with a stellar spectrum. We explicitly trace photon packages emerging from the nearby source and track the radiative and chemical effects of the multifrequency source (Ephoton = 0.76 eV → 7500 eV). We find that X-rays have a strongly negative feedback effect, compared to a stellar only source, when the radiative source is placed at a separation greater than ≳ 1 kpc. The X-rays heat the low and medium density gas in the envelope surrounding the collapsing halo suppressing the mass inflow. The result is a smaller enclosed mass compared to the stellar only case. However, for separations of ≲ 1 kpc, the feedback effects of the X-rays becomes somewhat neutral. The enhanced LW intensity at close separations dissociates more H2 and this gas is heated due to stellar photons alone, the addition of X-rays is then not significant. This distance dependence of X-ray feedback suggests that a Goldilocks zone exists close to a forming galaxy where X-ray photons have a much smaller negative feedback effect and ideal conditions exist for creating massive black hole seeds.

  4. Neural mechanism of oculomotor horizontal velocity-to- position temporal integration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aksay, Emre R. F.

    Storage of briefly presented information in ``working'' memory correlates with persistent firing in the brain. Persistent activity in response to transient stimulation is a form of neural temporal integration. Here, the mechanism of temporal integration was explored in the oculomotor velocity-to-position neural integrator (VPNI), where persistent activity is used to maintain eye position and fixation. Extracellular and intracellular electrophysiology, single-cell dye- labeling, and pharmacological inactivation were performed in awake behaving goldfish while monitoring eye motion with the scleral search-coil method. Neurons identified within a compact subnucleus in the medulla designated as Area I are part of the VPNI for horizontal eye movements. Neurons fired tonically during fixations, with tonic rate higher for lateral eye positions and no discharge below a threshold position value. Dye-labeled somata were localized in a 350 micron extent of the inferior reticular formation. Axons either projected ipsilaterally to abducens motoneurons, or crossed the midline and projected toward the contralateral Area I and abducens. Bilateral inactivation of Area I induced inability to maintain eccentric gaze. During intracellular recording, step changes in eye position and firing rate were accompanied by steps in underlying membrane potential. Steps remained when neurons were hyperpolarized below action potential threshold. Perturbation with brief intracellular current pulses only induced transient changes in firing rate and potential. Membrane potential fluctuations were greater during more depolarized steps. These results suggest that steps are generated by synaptic input changes rather than intrinsic properties like membrane multistability. Spiking of unilateral pairs was positively correlated with 0-10 ms lag. Bilateral pairs were negatively correlated with 0-10 ms lag. These results are consistent with excitatory connections between unilateral pairs and inhibitory

  5. Caging Mechanism for a drag-free satellite position sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hacker, R.; Mathiesen, J.; Debra, D. B.

    1976-01-01

    A disturbance compensation system for satellites based on the drag-free concept was mechanized and flown, using a spherical proof mass and a cam-guided caging mechanism. The caging mechanism controls the location of the proof mass for testing and constrains it during launch. Design requirements, design details, and hardware are described.

  6. Stochasticity and bifurcations in a reduced model with interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of CREB1 and CREB2 stimulated by 5-HT.

    PubMed

    Hao, Lijie; Yang, Zhuoqin; Bi, Yuanhong

    2016-04-01

    The cyclic AMP (cAMP)-response element-binding protein (CREB) family of transcription factors is crucial in regulating gene expression required for long-term memory (LTM) formation. Upon exposure of sensory neurons to the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT), CREB1 is activated via activation of the protein kinase A (PKA) intracellular signaling pathways, and CREB2 as a transcriptional repressor is relieved possibly via phosphorylation of CREB2 by mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Song et al. [18] proposed a minimal model with only interlinked positive and negative feedback loops of transcriptional regulation by the activator CREB1 and the repressor CREB2. Without considering feedbacks between the CREB proteins, Pettigrew et al. [8] developed a computational model characterizing complex dynamics of biochemical pathways downstream of 5-HT receptors. In this work, to describe more simply the biochemical pathways and gene regulation underlying 5-HT-induced LTM, we add the important extracellular sensitizing stimulus 5-HT as well as the product Ap-uch into the Song's minimal model. We also strive to examine dynamical properties of the gene regulatory network under the changing concentration of the stimulus, [5-HT], cooperating with the varying positive feedback strength in inducing a high state of CREB1 for the establishment of long-term memory. Different dynamics including monostability, bistability and multistability due to coexistence of stable steady states and oscillations is investigated by means of codimension-2 bifurcation analysis. At the different positive feedback strengths, comparative analysis of deterministic and stochastic dynamics reveals that codimension-1 bifurcation with respect to [5-HT] as the parameter can predict diverse stochastic behaviors resulted from the finite number of molecules, and the number of CREB1 molecules more and more preferentially resides near the high steady state with increasing [5-HT], which contributes to long

  7. Feedback valence affects auditory perceptual learning independently of feedback probability.

    PubMed

    Amitay, Sygal; Moore, David R; Molloy, Katharine; Halliday, Lorna F

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that negative feedback is more effective in driving learning than positive feedback. We investigated the effect on learning of providing varying amounts of negative and positive feedback while listeners attempted to discriminate between three identical tones; an impossible task that nevertheless produces robust learning. Four feedback conditions were compared during training: 90% positive feedback or 10% negative feedback informed the participants that they were doing equally well, while 10% positive or 90% negative feedback informed them they were doing equally badly. In all conditions the feedback was random in relation to the listeners' responses (because the task was to discriminate three identical tones), yet both the valence (negative vs. positive) and the probability of feedback (10% vs. 90%) affected learning. Feedback that informed listeners they were doing badly resulted in better post-training performance than feedback that informed them they were doing well, independent of valence. In addition, positive feedback during training resulted in better post-training performance than negative feedback, but only positive feedback indicating listeners were doing badly on the task resulted in learning. As we have previously speculated, feedback that better reflected the difficulty of the task was more effective in driving learning than feedback that suggested performance was better than it should have been given perceived task difficulty. But contrary to expectations, positive feedback was more effective than negative feedback in driving learning. Feedback thus had two separable effects on learning: feedback valence affected motivation on a subjectively difficult task, and learning occurred only when feedback probability reflected the subjective difficulty. To optimize learning, training programs need to take into consideration both feedback valence and probability.

  8. Downregulation of COMMD1 by miR-205 promotes a positive feedback loop for amplifying inflammatory- and stemness-associated properties of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Yeh, D-W; Chen, Y-S; Lai, C-Y; Liu, Y-L; Lu, C-H; Lo, J-F; Chen, L; Hsu, L-C; Luo, Y; Xiang, R; Chuang, T-H

    2016-05-01

    Sustained activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) in cancer cells has been shown to promote inflammation, expansion of cancer stem cell (CSC) population, and tumor development. In contrast, recent studies reveal that CSCs exhibit increased inflammation due to constitutive NF-κB activation; however, the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. In the present study, the analysis of microarray data revealed upregulation of NF-κB-regulated pro-inflammatory genes and downregulation of copper metabolism MURR1 domain-containing 1 (COMMD1) during the enrichment for stemness in SAS head and neck squamous-cell carcinoma (HNSCC) cells. The 3'-UTR of COMMD1 mRNA contains microRNA (miR)-205 target site. Parallel studies with HNSCC and NSCLC cells indicated that miR-205 is upregulated upon NF-κB activation and suppresses COMMD1 expression in stemness-enriched cancer cells. COMMD1 negatively regulates the inflammatory responses induced by TLR agonists, IL-1β, and TNF-α by targeting RelA for degradation. The shRNA-mediated downregulation of COMMD1 in cancer cells enhanced inflammatory response, generating favorable conditions for macrophage recruitment. In addition, genes associated with stemness were also upregulated in these cells, which exhibited increased potential for anchorage-independent growth. Furthermore, COMMD1 downregulation promoted in vivo tumorigenesis and tumor growth, and tumors derived from COMMD1-knockdown cells displayed elevated level of NF-κB activation, increased expression of inflammatory- and stemness-associated genes, and contain expanded population of tumor-associated leukocytes and stemness-enriched cancer cells. These results suggest that COMMD1 downregulation by miR-205 promotes tumor development by modulating a positive feedback loop that amplifies inflammatory- and stemness-associated properties of cancer cells.

  9. Positive feedback regulation between gamma-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor signaling and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) release in developing neurons.

    PubMed

    Porcher, Christophe; Hatchett, Caroline; Longbottom, Rebecca E; McAinch, Kristina; Sihra, Talvinder S; Moss, Stephen J; Thomson, Alex M; Jovanovic, Jasmina N

    2011-06-17

    During the early development of the nervous system, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated signaling parallels the neurotrophin/tropomyosin-related kinase (Trk)-dependent signaling in controlling a number of processes from cell proliferation and migration, via dendritic and axonal outgrowth, to synapse formation and plasticity. Here we present the first evidence that these two signaling systems regulate each other through a complex positive feedback mechanism. We first demonstrate that GABA(A)R activation leads to an increase in the cell surface expression of these receptors in cultured embryonic cerebrocortical neurons, specifically at the stage when this activity causes depolarization of the plasma membrane and Ca(2+) influx through L-type voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. We further demonstrate that GABA(A)R activity triggers release of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which, in turn by activating TrkB receptors, mediates the observed increase in cell surface expression of GABA(A)Rs. This BDNF/TrkB-dependent increase in surface levels of GABA(A)Rs requires the activity of phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) and protein kinase C (PKC) and does not involve the extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 activity. The increase in GABA(A)R surface levels occurs due to an inhibition of the receptor endocytosis by BDNF, whereas the receptor reinsertion into the plasma membrane remains unaltered. Thus, GABA(A)R activity is a potent regulator of the BDNF release during neuronal development, and at the same time, it is strongly enhanced by the activity of the BDNF/TrkB/PI3K/PKC signaling pathway.

  10. HGF/Met and FOXM1 form a positive feedback loop and render pancreatic cancer cells resistance to Met inhibition and aggressive phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Cui, J; Xia, T; Xie, D; Gao, Y; Jia, Z; Wei, D; Wang, L; Huang, S; Quan, M; Xie, K

    2016-09-08

    Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/Met signaling has critical roles in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) development and progression and is considered a potential therapeutic target for this disease. However, the mechanism of aberrant activation of HGF/Met signaling and resistance to Met inhibition in PDA remains unclear. The mechanistic role of cross talk between Forkhead box M1 (FOXM1) and HGF/Met signaling in promotion of PDA growth and resistance to Met inhibition was examined using cell culture, molecular biology and mouse models; and the relevance of our experimental and mechanistic findings were validated using human PDA tissues. Met was markedly overexpressed in both PDA cell lines and pancreatic tumor specimens, and the expression of Met correlated directly with that of FOXM1 in human tumor specimens. Mechanistically, FOXM1 bound to the promoter region of the Met gene and transcriptionally increased the expression of Met. Increased expression of FOXM1 enhanced the activation of HGF/Met signaling and its downstream pathways, including retrovirus-associated DNA sequences/extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2, phosphoinositide 3-kinase/AKT and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3. Furthermore, activation of HGF/Met signaling increased the expression and transcriptional activity of FOXM1, and the cross talk between FOXM1 and HGF/Met signaling promoted PDA growth and resistance to Met inhibition. Collectively, our findings identified a positive feedback loop formed by FOXM1 and HGF/Met and revealed that this loop is a potentially effective therapeutic target for PDA.

  11. Modeling the relativistic runaway electron avalanche and the feedback mechanism with GEANT4.

    PubMed

    Skeltved, Alexander Broberg; Østgaard, Nikolai; Carlson, Brant; Gjesteland, Thomas; Celestin, Sebastien

    2014-11-01

    This paper presents the first study that uses the GEometry ANd Tracking 4 (GEANT4) toolkit to do quantitative comparisons with other modeling results related to the production of terrestrial gamma ray flashes and high-energy particle emission from thunderstorms. We will study the relativistic runaway electron avalanche (RREA) and the relativistic feedback process, as well as the production of bremsstrahlung photons from runaway electrons. The Monte Carlo simulations take into account the effects of electron ionization, electron by electron (Møller), and electron by positron (Bhabha) scattering as well as the bremsstrahlung process and pair production, in the 250 eV to 100 GeV energy range. Our results indicate that the multiplication of electrons during the development of RREAs and under the influence of feedback are consistent with previous estimates. This is important to validate GEANT4 as a tool to model RREAs and feedback in homogeneous electric fields. We also determine the ratio of bremsstrahlung photons to energetic electrons Nγ /Ne . We then show that the ratio has a dependence on the electric field, which can be expressed by the avalanche time τ(E) and the bremsstrahlung coefficient α(ε). In addition, we present comparisons of GEANT4 simulations performed with a "standard" and a "low-energy" physics list both validated in the 1 keV to 100 GeV energy range. This comparison shows that the choice of physics list used in GEANT4 simulations has a significant effect on the results.

  12. In Silico Modeling of Itk Activation Kinetics in Thymocytes Suggests Competing Positive and Negative IP4 Mediated Feedbacks Increase Robustness

    PubMed Central

    Mukherjee, Sayak; Rigaud, Stephanie; Seok, Sang-Cheol; Fu, Guo; Prochenka, Agnieszka; Dworkin, Michael; Gascoigne, Nicholas R. J.; Vieland, Veronica J.; Sauer, Karsten; Das, Jayajit

    2013-01-01

    The inositol-phosphate messenger inositol(1,3,4,5)tetrakisphosphate (IP4) is essential for thymocyte positive selection by regulating plasma-membrane association of the protein tyrosine kinase Itk downstream of the T cell receptor (TCR). IP4 can act as a soluble analog of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) membrane lipid product phosphatidylinositol(3,4,5)trisphosphate (PIP3). PIP3 recruits signaling proteins such as Itk to cellular membranes by binding to PH and other domains. In thymocytes, low-dose IP4 binding to the Itk PH domain surprisingly promoted and high-dose IP4 inhibited PIP3 binding of Itk PH domains. However, the mechanisms that underlie the regulation of membrane recruitment of Itk by IP4 and PIP3 remain unclear. The distinct Itk PH domain ability to oligomerize is consistent with a cooperative-allosteric mode of IP4 action. However, other possibilities cannot be ruled out due to difficulties in quantitatively measuring the interactions between Itk, IP4 and PIP3, and in generating non-oligomerizing Itk PH domain mutants. This has hindered a full mechanistic understanding of how IP4 controls Itk function. By combining experimentally measured kinetics of PLCγ1 phosphorylation by Itk with in silico modeling of multiple Itk signaling circuits and a maximum entropy (MaxEnt) based computational approach, we show that those in silico models which are most robust against variations of protein and lipid expression levels and kinetic rates at the single cell level share a cooperative-allosteric mode of Itk regulation by IP4 involving oligomeric Itk PH domains at the plasma membrane. This identifies MaxEnt as an excellent tool for quantifying robustness for complex TCR signaling circuits and provides testable predictions to further elucidate a controversial mechanism of PIP3 signaling. PMID:24066087

  13. Characterization of the dominant structural vibration of hearing aid receivers: Towards the moderation of mechanical feedback in hearing aids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varanda, Brenno R.

    Presented are the results from the experimental, analytical, and computational analyses accomplished to characterize the mechanical vibration of hearing aid receivers, a key electro-acoustic component of hearing aids. The function of a receiver in a hearing aid is to provide an amplified sound signal into the ear canal. Unfortunately, as the receiver produces sound, it also undergoes vibration which can be transmitted through the hearing aid package to the microphones, resulting in undesirable feedback oscillations. To gain more knowledge and control on the source of these feedback oscillations, a dynamic rigid body model of the receiver is proposed. The rigid body model captures the essential dynamic features of the receiver. The model is represented by two hinged rigid bodies, under an equal and opposite dynamic moment load, and connected to each other by a torsional spring and damper. The mechanical coupling ratio between the two rigid bodies is proved to be acoustically independent. A method is introduced to estimate the parameters for the proposed model using experimental data. An equivalent finite element analysis model is established and tested against a known and characterized mechanical attachment. The simulated model successfully predicts the structural dynamic response showing excellent agreement between the finite element analysis and measured results.

  14. Reduced responsiveness of kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback associated with age-related disappearance of LH surge in middle-age female rats.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Misawa Niki; Matsumoto, Kiyoshi; Matsui, Hisanori; Seki, Nobuyuki; Matsumoto, Hirokazu; Ishikawa, Kaori; Chatani, Fumio; Watanabe, Gen; Taya, Kazuyoshi

    2013-11-01

    Age-related disappearance of the LH surge is one of major biomarkers of reproductive aging in female rats. Kisspeptin neurons in the hypothalamic anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) are proposed as the critical regulator of the preovulatory LH surge in response to estrogenic positive feedback. Here we investigated the possible involvement of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons in the disappearance of the LH surge in middle-age rats. Middle-age rats exhibiting persistent estrus (M-PE) did not show an LH surge although neither Kiss1 mRNA nor peptide in the AVPV was differentially expressed when compared to young rats exhibiting normal estrous cycles (YN). M-PE released LH in response to exogenous kisspeptin in a similar dose-dependent manner as YN, suggesting that their GnRH neurons still maintained responsiveness to kisspeptin. To investigate the estrogenic positive feedback effect on kisspeptin neurons in the AVPV, rats were ovariectomized and supplemented with estradiol (OVX+E2). We performed in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry for Kiss1 mRNA and cFos, respectively, and found that M-PE exhibited a significantly lower percentage of Kiss1 mRNA positive neurons with cFos immunoreactivity, although the total number of kisspeptin neurons was not different from that in cyclic rats. Furthermore, OVX+E2 M-PE did not show the surge-like LH release under high estradiol administration while YN did. Thus our current study suggests that the reduced responsiveness of the AVPV kisspeptin neurons to estrogenic positive feedback presumably results in the decrease in kisspeptin secretion from neurons and eventually causes the age-related disappearance of the LH surge in middle age female rats.

  15. Proprioception assessment in subjects with idiopathic loss of shoulder range of motion: joint position sense and a novel proprioceptive feedback index.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jing-Lan; Chen, Shiauyee; Jan, Mei-Hwa; Lin, Yeong-Fwu; Lin, Jiu-jenq

    2008-09-01

    We examined the effects of elevation range and plane on shoulder joint proprioception in subjects with idiopathic loss of shoulder range of motion (ROM). Joint position sense (JPS) and a novel proprioceptive feedback index (PFI), including difference magnitude and the similarity index, were used to assess proprioception. Twelve subjects (eight male, four female) with involved stiff shoulders and normal opposite shoulders were recruited from a university hospital. Subjects attempted to repeat six target positions. Target positions consisted of arm elevation in three planes (frontal, scapular, and sagittal planes) and two ranges (end/mid range). Six trials of each target position were used to determine acceptable trials for stabilization of the data, less than 5% of the cumulative mean values for at least three successive trials. The data stabilized at the sixth repetition. Compared to control shoulders, involved shoulders had enhanced proprioception during end range movements (p < 0.05). The magnitude of the repositioning error and difference magnitude decreased (1.6 degrees -3.5 degrees for repositioning error and 22.2 degrees -62.1 degrees for difference magnitude), whereas similarity index improved at end range movements compared to mid range movements (p < 0.05) in involved stiff shoulders. Results of JPS and PFI suggest that both capsuloligamentous and musculotendinous mechanoreceptors play an important role in proprioception feedback during active movements in subjects with idiopathic loss of shoulder ROM.

  16. Mechanism of phytohormone involvement in feedback regulation of cotton leaf senescence induced by potassium deficiency

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Xiaoli

    2012-01-01

    To elucidate the phytohormonal basis of the feedback regulation of leaf senescence induced by potassium (K) deficiency in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.), two cultivars contrasting in sensitivity to K deficiency were self- and reciprocally grafted hypocotyl-to-hypocotyl, using standard grafting (one scion grafted onto one rootstock), Y grafting (two scions grafted onto one rootstock), and inverted Y grafting (one scion grafted onto two rootstocks) at the seedling stage. K deficiency (0.03mM for standard and Y grafting, and 0.01mM for inverted Y grafting) increased the root abscisic acid (ABA) concentration by 1.6- to 3.1-fold and xylem ABA delivery rates by 1.8- to 4.6-fold. The K deficiency also decreased the delivery rates of xylem cytokinins [CKs; including the zeatin riboside (ZR) and isopentenyl adenosine (iPA) type] by 29–65% and leaf CK concentration by 16–57%. The leaf ABA concentration and xylem ABA deliveries were consistently greater in CCRI41 (more sensitive to K deficiency) than in SCRC22 (less sensitive to K deficiency) scions under K deficiency, and ZR- and iPA-type levels were consistently lower in the former than in the latter, irrespective of rootstock cultivar or grafting type, indicating that cotton shoot influences the levels of ABA and CKs in leaves and xylem sap. Because the scions had little influence on phytohormone levels in the roots (rootstocks) of all three types of grafts and rootstock xylem sap (collected below the graft union) of Y and inverted Y grafts, it appears that the site for basipetal feedback signal(s) involved in the regulation of xylem phytohormones is the hypocotyl of cotton seedlings. Also, the target of this feedback signal(s) is more likely to be the changes in xylem phytohormones within tissues of the hypocotyl rather than the export of phytohormones from the roots. PMID:22962680

  17. Audio Feedback -- Better Feedback?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkel, Susanne; Mello, Luciane V.

    2014-01-01

    National Student Survey (NSS) results show that many students are dissatisfied with the amount and quality of feedback they get for their work. This study reports on two case studies in which we tried to address these issues by introducing audio feedback to one undergraduate (UG) and one postgraduate (PG) class, respectively. In case study one…

  18. A Positive Feedback Loop Links Opposing Functions of P-TEFb/Cdk9 and Histone H2B Ubiquitylation to Regulate Transcript Elongation in Fission Yeast

    PubMed Central

    Jacques, Pierre-Étienne; Pagé, Viviane; Nagy, Stephen; Racine, Ariane; St. Amour, Courtney V.; Zhang, Chao; Shokat, Kevan M.; Schwer, Beate; Robert, François; Fisher, Robert P.; Tanny, Jason C.

    2012-01-01

    Transcript elongation by RNA polymerase II (RNAPII) is accompanied by conserved patterns of histone modification. Whereas histone modifications have established roles in transcription initiation, their functions during elongation are not understood. Mono-ubiquitylation of histone H2B (H2Bub1) plays a key role in coordinating co-transcriptional histone modification by promoting site-specific methylation of histone H3. H2Bub1 also regulates gene expression through an unidentified, methylation-independent mechanism. Here we reveal bidirectional communication between H2Bub1 and Cdk9, the ortholog of metazoan positive transcription elongation factor b (P-TEFb), in the fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Chemical and classical genetic analyses indicate that lowering Cdk9 activity or preventing phosphorylation of its substrate, the transcription processivity factor Spt5, reduces H2Bub1 in vivo. Conversely, mutations in the H2Bub1 pathway impair Cdk9 recruitment to chromatin and decrease Spt5 phosphorylation. Moreover, an Spt5 phosphorylation-site mutation, combined with deletion of the histone H3 Lys4 methyltransferase Set1, phenocopies morphologic and growth defects due to H2Bub1 loss, suggesting independent, partially redundant roles for Cdk9 and Set1 downstream of H2Bub1. Surprisingly, mutation of the histone H2B ubiquitin-acceptor residue relaxes the Cdk9 activity requirement in vivo, and cdk9 mutations suppress cell-morphology defects in H2Bub1-deficient strains. Genome-wide analyses by chromatin immunoprecipitation also demonstrate opposing effects of Cdk9 and H2Bub1 on distribution of transcribing RNAPII. Therefore, whereas mutual dependence of H2Bub1 and Spt5 phosphorylation indicates positive feedback, mutual suppression by cdk9 and H2Bub1-pathway mutations suggests antagonistic functions that must be kept in balance to regulate elongation. Loss of H2Bub1 disrupts that balance and leads to deranged gene expression and aberrant cell morphologies, revealing a

  19. The interleukin-6 and noradrenaline mediated inflammation-stress feedback mechanism is dysregulated in metabolic syndrome: Effect of exercise

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a metabolic disorder associated with obesity, type-II diabetes, and "low grade inflammation", with the concomitant increased risk of cardiovascular events. Removal of the inflammatory mediator signals is a promising strategy to protect against insulin resistance, obesity, and other problems associated with MS such as cardiovascular disease. The aim of the present investigation was to determine the "inflammatory and stress status" in an experimental model of MS, and to evaluate the effect of a program of habitual exercise and the resulting training-induced adaptation to the effects of a single bout of acute exercise. Methods Obese Zucker rats (fa/fa) were used as the experimental model of MS, and lean Zucker rats (Fa/fa) were used for reference values. The habitual exercise (performed by the obese rats) consisted of treadmill running: 5 days/week for 14 weeks, at 35 cm/s for 35 min in the last month. The acute exercise consisted of a single session of 25-35 min at 35 cm/s. Circulating concentrations of IL-6 (a cytokine that regulates the inflammatory and metabolic responses), CRP (a systemic inflammatory marker), and corticosterone (CTC) (the main glucocorticoid in rats) were determined by ELISA, and that of noradrenaline (NA) was determined by HPLC. Glucose was determined by standard methods. Results The genetically obese animals showed higher circulating levels of glucose, IL-6, PCR, and NA compared with the control lean animals. The habitual exercise program increased the concentration of IL-6, PCR, NA, and glucose, but decreased that of CTC. Acute exercise increased IL-6, CRP, and NA in the sedentary obese animals, but not in the trained obese animals. CTC was increased after the acute exercise in the trained animals only. Conclusion Animals with MS present a dysregulation in the feedback mechanism between IL-6 and NA which can contribute to the systemic low-grade inflammation and/or hyperglycaemia of MS. An inappropriate

  20. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature-high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40.

    PubMed

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-04-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature-high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63(pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40(pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper's response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper's response to RSI and HTHH.

  1. Pepper CabZIP63 acts as a positive regulator during Ralstonia solanacearum or high temperature–high humidity challenge in a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Lei; Liu, Zhiqin; Yang, Sheng; Yang, Tong; Liang, Jiaqi; Wen, Jiayu; Liu, Yanyan; Li, Jiazhi; Shi, Lanping; Tang, Qian; Shi, Wei; Hu, Jiong; Liu, Cailing; Zhang, Yangwen; Lin, Wei; Wang, Rongzhang; Yu, Huanxin; Mou, Shaoliang; Hussain, Ansar; Cheng, Wei; Cai, Hanyang; He, Li; Guan, Deyi; Wu, Yang; He, Shuilin

    2016-01-01

    CaWRKY40 is known to act as a positive regulator in the response of pepper (Capsicum annuum) to Ralstonia solanacearum inoculation (RSI) or high temperature–high humidity (HTHH), but the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Herein, we report that CabZIP63, a pepper bZIP family member, participates in this process by regulating the expression of CaWRKY40. CabZIP63 was found to localize in the nuclei, be up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, bind to promoters of both CabZIP63 (pCabZIP63) and CaWRKY40 (pCaWRKY40), and activate pCabZIP63- and pCaWRKY40-driven β-glucuronidase expression in a C- or G-box-dependent manner. Silencing of CabZIP63 by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) in pepper plants significantly attenuated their resistance to RSI and tolerance to HTHH, accompanied by down-regulation of immunity- or thermotolerance-associated CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1, and CaHSP24. Hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and expression of the tested immunity- and thermotolerance-associated marker genes were induced by transient overexpression (TOE) of CabZIP63, but decreased by that of CabZIP63-SRDX. Additionally, binding of CabZIP63 to pCaWRKY40 was up-regulated by RSI or HTHH, and the transcript level of CaWRKY40 and binding of CaWRKY40 to the promoters of CaPR1, CaNPR1, CaDEF1 and CaHSP24 were up-regulated by TOE of CabZIP63. On the other hand, CabZIP63 was also up-regulated transcriptionally by TOE of CaWRKY40. The data suggest collectively that CabZIP63 directly or indirectly regulates the expression of CaWRKY40 at both the transcriptional and post-transcriptional level, forming a positive feedback loop with CaWRKY40 during pepper’s response to RSI or HTHH. Altogether, our data will help to elucidate the underlying mechanism of crosstalk between pepper’s response to RSI and HTHH. PMID:26936828

  2. The role of mRNA and protein stability in the function of coupled positive and negative feedback systems in eukaryotic cells

    PubMed Central

    Moss Bendtsen, Kristian; Jensen, Mogens H.; Krishna, Sandeep; Semsey, Szabolcs

    2015-01-01

    Oscillators and switches are important elements of regulation in biological systems. These are composed of coupling negative feedback loops, which cause oscillations when delayed, and positive feedback loops, which lead to memory formation. Here, we examine the behavior of a coupled feedback system, the Negative Autoregulated Frustrated bistability motif (NAF). This motif is a combination of two previously explored motifs, the frustrated bistability motif (FBM) and the negative auto regulation motif (NAR), which both can produce oscillations. The NAF motif was previously suggested to govern long term memory formation in animals, and was used as a synthetic oscillator in bacteria. We build a mathematical model to analyze the dynamics of the NAF motif. We show analytically that the NAF motif requires an asymmetry in the strengths of activation and repression links in order to produce oscillations. We show that the effect of time delays in eukaryotic cells, originating from mRNA export and protein import, are negligible in this system. Based on the reported protein and mRNA half-lives in eukaryotic cells, we find that even though the NAF motif possesses the ability for oscillations, it mostly promotes constant protein expression at the biologically relevant parameter regimes. PMID:26365394

  3. Three-dimensional MHD Magnetic Reconnection Simulations with a Finite Guide Field: Proposal of the Shock-evoking Positive-feedback Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shuoyang; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2015-09-01

    Using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic model, we simulate the magnetic reconnection in a single current sheet. We assume a finite guide field, a random perturbation on the velocity field, and uniform resistivity. Our model enhances the reconnection rate relative to the classical Sweet-Parker model in the same configuration. The efficiency of magnetic energy conversion is increased by interactions between the multiple tearing layers coexisting in the global current sheet. This interaction, which forms a positive-feedback system, arises from coupling of the inflow and outflow regions in different layers across the current sheet. The coupling accelerates the elementary reconnection events, thereby enhancing the global reconnection rate. The reconnection establishes flux tubes along each tearing layer. Slow-mode shocks gradually form along the outer boundaries of these tubes, further accelerating the magnetic energy conversion. Such a positive-feedback system is absent in two-dimensional simulations, 3D reconnection without a guide field, and reconnection under a single perturbation mode. We refer to our model as the “shock-evoking positive-feedback” model.

  4. THREE-DIMENSIONAL MHD MAGNETIC RECONNECTION SIMULATIONS WITH A FINITE GUIDE FIELD: PROPOSAL OF THE SHOCK-EVOKING POSITIVE-FEEDBACK MODEL

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Shuoyang; Yokoyama, Takaaki; Isobe, Hiroaki

    2015-09-20

    Using a three-dimensional (3D) magnetohydrodynamic model, we simulate the magnetic reconnection in a single current sheet. We assume a finite guide field, a random perturbation on the velocity field, and uniform resistivity. Our model enhances the reconnection rate relative to the classical Sweet–Parker model in the same configuration. The efficiency of magnetic energy conversion is increased by interactions between the multiple tearing layers coexisting in the global current sheet. This interaction, which forms a positive-feedback system, arises from coupling of the inflow and outflow regions in different layers across the current sheet. The coupling accelerates the elementary reconnection events, thereby enhancing the global reconnection rate. The reconnection establishes flux tubes along each tearing layer. Slow-mode shocks gradually form along the outer boundaries of these tubes, further accelerating the magnetic energy conversion. Such a positive-feedback system is absent in two-dimensional simulations, 3D reconnection without a guide field, and reconnection under a single perturbation mode. We refer to our model as the “shock-evoking positive-feedback” model.

  5. Phytotoxicity of salt and plant salt uptake: Modeling ecohydrological feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauer-Gottwein, Peter; Rasmussen, Nikolaj F.; Feificova, Dagmar; Trapp, Stefan

    2008-04-01

    A new model of phytotoxicity of salt and plant salt uptake is presented and is coupled to an existing three-dimensional groundwater simulation model. The implementation of phytotoxicity and salt uptake relationships is based on experimental findings from willow trees grown in hydroponic solution. The data confirm an s-shaped phytotoxicity relationship as found in previous studies. Uptake data were explained assuming steady state salt concentration in plant roots, passive salt transport into the roots, and active enzymatic removal of salt from plant roots. On the one hand, transpiration strongly depends on groundwater salinity (phytotoxicity); on the other hand, transpiration significantly changes the groundwater salinity (uptake). This feedback loop generates interesting dynamic phenomena in hydrological systems that are dominated by transpiration and are influenced by significant salinity gradients. Generic simulations are performed for the Okavango island system and are shown to reproduce essential phenomena observed in nature.

  6. The Effectiveness of Feedback for Changing Student Teachers' Humanistic Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walencik, Vincent J.; Tuckman, Bruce W.

    This study investigated effects of dissonance and positive reinforcement as feedback mechanisms for altering the humanistic behavior of student teachers. The subjects were undergraduate education majors who were enrolled in a student teaching program. The student teachers were observed twice by their pupils using the Tuckman Teacher Feedback Form.…

  7. CCL2/EGF positive feedback loop between cancer cells and macrophages promotes cell migration and invasion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hui-min; Yang, Jie-gang; Ren, Jian-Gang; He, Ke-fei; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yi-Fang

    2016-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) represents the most frequent malignancy in the head and neck region, and the survival rate has not been improved significantly over the past three decades. It has been reported the infiltrated macrophages contribute to the malignant progression of HNSCC. However, the crosstalk between macrophages and cancer cells remains poorly understood. In the present study, we explored interactions between monocytes/macrophages and HNSCC cells by establishing the direct co-culture system, and found that the crosstalk promoted the migration and invasion of cancer cells by enhancing the invadopodia formation through a CCL2/EGF positive feedback loop. Our results demonstrated HNSCC cells educated monocytes into M2-like macrophages by releasing C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2, or MCP-1). And the M2-like macrophages secreted epithelial growth factor (EGF), which increased the motility of HNSCC cells by enhancing the invadopodia formation. These subcellular pseudopodia degraded extracellular matrix (ECM), facilitating tumor local invasion and distant metastasis. Moreover, EGF up-regulated CCL2 expression in HNSCC cells, which recruited monocytes and turned them into M2-like macrophages, thus forming a positive feedback paracrine loop. Finally, we reported that curcumin, a powerful natural drug, suppressed the production of EGF and CCL2 in macrophages and cancer cells, respectively, blocking the feedback loop and suppressing the migration and invasion of HNSCC cells. These results shed light on the possibilities and approaches based on targeting the crosstalk between cancer cells and monocytes/macrophages in HNSCC for potential cancer therapy. PMID:27888616

  8. Multi-Scale Influences of Climate, Spatial Pattern, and Positive Feedback on 20th Century Tree Establishment at Upper Treeline in the Rocky Mountains, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, G. P.

    2009-12-01

    The influences of 20th century climate, spatial pattern of tree establishment, and positive feedback were assessed to gain a more holistic understanding of how broad scale abiotic and local scale biotic components interact to govern upper treeline ecotonal dynamics along a latitudinal gradient (ca. 35°N-45°N) in the Rocky Mountains. Study sites (n = 22) were in the Bighorn, Medicine Bow, Front Range, and Sangre de Cristo mountain ranges. Dendroecological techniques were used for a broad scale analysis of climate at treeline. Five-year age-structure classes were compared with identical five-year bins of 20th century climate data using Spearman’s rank correlation and regime shift analysis. Local scale biotic interactions capable of ameliorating broad scale climate inputs through positive feedback were examined by using Ripley’s K to determine the spatial patterns of tree establishment above timberline. Significant correlations (p < 0.01) between tree establishment and climate were confined to the Front Range, where a positive correlation exists with summer (June-Aug) and cool season (Nov-Apr) temperature range (Tmax-Tmin). Additionally, trees in the Front Range are almost exclusively situated in a random spatial pattern above timberline (4/5 sites). Random spatial patterns imply that positive feedback is of minimal importance and that trees are more closely aligned with broad scale changes in abiotic conditions. This tight coupling between climate and treeline vegetation in the Front Range helps explain synchronous ecological (tree establishment) and climate regime shifts (temperature) during the early 1950s. Similar to the Front Range, a majority of trees at upper treeline in the Bighorn Mountains are in a random spatial pattern, but their existence appears to be dependent on shelter availability in the lee of boulders. This contingency helps explain the lag time between a regime shift to more favorable temperatures and subsequent peaks in tree establishment

  9. Convection and the Soil-Moisture Precipitation Feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schar, C.; Froidevaux, P.; Keller, M.; Schlemmer, L.; Langhans, W.; Schmidli, J.

    2014-12-01

    The soil moisture - precipitation (SMP) feedback is of key importance for climate and climate change. A positive SMP feedback tends to amplify the hydrological response to external forcings (and thereby fosters precipitation and drought extremes), while a negative SMP feedback tends to moderate the influence of external forcings (and thereby stabilizes the hydrological cycle). The sign of the SMP feedback is poorly constrained by the current literature. Theoretical, modeling and observational studies partly disagree, and have suggested both negative and positive feedback loops. Can wet soil anomalies indeed result in either an increase or a decrease of precipitation (positive or negative SMP feedback, respectively)? Here we investigate the local SMP feedback using real-case and idealized convection-resolving simulations. An idealized simulation strategy is developed, which is able to replicate both signs of the feedback loop, depending on the environmental parameters. The mechanism relies on horizontal soil moisture variations, which may develop and intensify spontaneously. The positive expression of the feedback is associated with the initiation of convection over dry soil patches, but the convective cells then propagate over wet patches, where they strengthen and preferentially precipitate. The negative feedback may occur when the wind profile is too weak to support the propagation of convective features from dry to wet areas. Precipitation is then generally weaker and falls preferentially over dry patches. The results highlight the role of the mid-tropospheric flow in determining the sign of the feedback. A key element of the positive feedback is the exploitation of both low convective inhibition (CIN) over dry patches (for the initiation of convection), and high CAPE over wet patches (for the generation of precipitation). The results of this study will also be discussed in relation to climate change scenarios that exhibit large biases in surface temperature and

  10. An Adapting Auditory-motor Feedback Loop Can Contribute to Generating Vocal Repetition

    PubMed Central

    Brainard, Michael S.; Jin, Dezhe Z.

    2015-01-01

    Consecutive repetition of actions is common in behavioral sequences. Although integration of sensory feedback with internal motor programs is important for sequence generation, if and how feedback contributes to repetitive actions is poorly understood. Here we study how auditory feedback contributes to generating repetitive syllable sequences in songbirds. We propose that auditory signals provide positive feedback to ongoing motor commands, but this influence decays as feedback weakens from response adaptation during syllable repetitions. Computational models show that this mechanism explains repeat distributions observed in Bengalese finch song. We experimentally confirmed two predictions of this mechanism in Bengalese finches: removal of auditory feedback by deafening reduces syllable repetitions; and neural responses to auditory playback of repeated syllable sequences gradually adapt in sensory-motor nucleus HVC. Together, our results implicate a positive auditory-feedback loop with adaptation in generating repetitive vocalizations, and suggest sensory adaptation is important for feedback control of motor sequences. PMID:26448054

  11. Getting into position: the catalytic mechanisms of protein ubiquitylation.

    PubMed Central

    Passmore, Lori A; Barford, David

    2004-01-01

    The role of protein ubiquitylation in the control of diverse cellular pathways has recently gained widespread attention. Ubiquitylation not only directs the targeted destruction of tagged proteins by the 26 S proteasome, but it also modulates protein activities, protein-protein interactions and subcellular localization. An understanding of the components involved in protein ubiquitylation (E1s, E2s and E3s) is essential to understand how specificity and regulation are conferred upon these pathways. Much of what we know about the catalytic mechanisms of protein ubiquitylation comes from structural studies of the proteins involved in this process. Indeed, structures of ubiquitin-activating enzymes (E1s) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzymes (E2s) have provided insight into their mechanistic details. E3s (ubiquitin ligases) contain most of the substrate specificity and regulatory elements required for protein ubiquitylation. Although several E3 structures are available, the specific mechanistic role of E3s is still unclear. This review will discuss the different types of ubiquitin signals and how they are generated. Recent advances in the field of protein ubiquitylation will be examined, including the mechanisms of E1, E2 and E3. In particular, we discuss the complexity of molecular recognition required to impose selectivity on substrate selection and topology of poly-ubiquitin chains. PMID:14998368

  12. The Arabidopsis NAC transcription factor NTL4 participates in a positive feedback loop that induces programmed cell death under heat stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sangmin; Lee, Hyo-Jun; Huh, Sung Un; Paek, Kyung-Hee; Ha, Jun-Ho; Park, Chung-Mo

    2014-10-01

    Programmed cell death (PCD) is an integral component of plant development and adaptation under adverse environmental conditions. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are one of the most important players that trigger PCD in plants, and ROS-generating machinery is activated in plant cells undergoing PCD. The membrane-bound NAC transcription factor NTL4 has recently been proven to facilitate ROS production in response to drought stress in Arabidopsis. In this work, we show that NTL4 participates in a positive feedback loop that bursts ROS accumulation to modulate PCD under heat stress conditions. Heat stress induces NTL4 gene transcription and NTL4 protein processing. The level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) was elevated in 35S:4ΔC transgenic plants that overexpress a transcriptionally active nuclear NTL4 form but significantly reduced in NTL4-deficient ntl4 mutants under heat stress conditions. In addition, heat stress-induced cell death was accelerated in the 35S:4ΔC transgenic plants but decreased in the ntl4 mutants. Notably, H2O2 triggers NTL4 gene transcription and NTL4 protein processing under heat stress conditions. On the basis of these findings, we conclude that NTL4 modulates PCD through a ROS-mediated positive feedback control under heat stress conditions, possibly providing an adaptation strategy by which plants ensure their survival under extreme heat stress conditions.

  13. Evidence Favoring a Positive Feedback Loop for Physiologic Auto Upregulation of hnRNP-E1 during Prolonged Folate Deficiency in Human Placental Cells.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ying-Sheng; Khan, Rehana A; Xiao, Suhong; Hansen, Deborah K; Stabler, Sally P; Kusumanchi, Praveen; Jayaram, Hiremagalur N; Antony, Aśok C

    2017-04-01

    and folate receptors in cultured human cells and tumor xenografts, and more selectively in various fetal tissues of folate-deficient dams.Conclusions: This novel positive feedback loop amplifies hnRNP-E1 during prolonged folate deficiency and thereby maximizes upregulation of folate receptors in order to restore folate homeostasis toward normalcy in placental cells. It will also functionally impact several other mRNAs of the nutrition-sensitive, folate-responsive posttranscriptional RNA operon that is orchestrated by homocysteinylated hnRNP-E1.

  14. Positive feedback of NR2B-containing NMDA receptor activity is the initial step toward visual imprinting: a model for juvenile learning.

    PubMed

    Nakamori, Tomoharu; Sato, Katsushige; Kinoshita, Masae; Kanamatsu, Tomoyuki; Sakagami, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Kohichi; Ohki-Hamazaki, Hiroko

    2015-01-01

    Imprinting in chicks is a good model for elucidating the processes underlying neural plasticity changes during juvenile learning. We recently reported that neural activation of a telencephalic region, the core region of the hyperpallium densocellulare (HDCo), was critical for success of visual imprinting, and that N-Methyl-D-aspartic (NMDA) receptors containing the NR2B subunit (NR2B/NR1) in this region were essential for imprinting. Using electrophysiological and multiple-site optical imaging techniques with acute brain slices, we found that long-term potentiation (LTP) and enhancement of NR2B/NR1 currents in HDCo neurons were induced in imprinted chicks. Enhancement of NR2B/NR1 currents as well as an increase in surface NR2B expression occurred even following a brief training that was too weak to induce LTP or imprinting behavior. This means that NR2B/NR1 activation is the initial step of learning, well before the activation of alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionate receptors which induces LTP. We also showed that knockdown of NR2B/NR1 inhibited imprinting, and inversely, increasing the surface NR2B expression by treatment with a casein kinase 2 inhibitor successfully reduced training time required for imprinting. These results suggest that imprinting stimuli activate post-synaptic NR2B/NR1 in HDCo cells, increase NR2B/NR1 signaling through up-regulation of its expression, and induce LTP and memory acquisition. The study investigated the neural mechanism underlying juvenile learning. In the initial stage of chick imprinting, NMDA receptors containing the NMDA receptor subunit 2B (NR2B) are activated, surface expression of NR2B/NR1 (NMDA receptor subunit 1) is up-regulated, and consequently long-term potentiation is induced in the telencephalic neurons. We suggest that the positive feedback in the NR2B/NR1 activation is a unique process of juvenile learning, exhibiting rapid memory acquisition.

  15. ApoA-I induces S1P release from endothelial cells through ABCA1 and SR-BI in a positive feedback manner.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing; Ren, Kun; Suo, Rong; Xiong, Sheng-Lin; Zhang, Qing-Hai; Mo, Zhong-Cheng; Tang, Zhen-Li; Jiang, Yue; Peng, Xiao-Shan; Yi, Guang-Hui

    2016-12-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), which has emerged as a pivotal signaling mediator that participates in the regulation of multiple cellular processes, is derived from various cells, including vascular endothelial cells. S1P accumulates in lipoproteins, especially HDL, and the majority of free plasma S1P is bound to HDL. We hypothesized that HDL-associated S1P is released through mechanisms associated with the HDL maturation process. ApoA-I, a major HDL apolipoprotein, is a critical factor for nascent HDL formation and lipid trafficking via ABCA1. Moreover, apoA-I is capable of promoting bidirectional lipid movement through SR-BI. In the present study, we confirmed that apoA-I can facilitate the production and release of S1P by HUVECs. Furthermore, we demonstrated that ERK1/2 and SphK activation induced by apoA-I is involved in the release of S1P from HUVECs. Inhibitor and siRNA experiments showed that ABCA1 and SR-BI are required for S1P release and ERK1/2 phosphorylation induced by apoA-I. However, the effects triggered by apoA-I were not suppressed by inhibiting ABCA1/JAK2 or the SR-BI/Src pathway. S1P released due to apoA-I activation can stimulate the (ERK1/2)/SphK1 pathway through S1PR (S1P receptor) 1/3. These results indicated that apoA-I not only promotes S1P release through ABCA1 and SR-BI but also indirectly activates the (ERK1/2)/SphK1 pathway by releasing S1P to trigger their receptors. In conclusion, we suggest that release of S1P induced by apoA-I from endothelial cells through ABCA1 and SR-BI is a self-positive-feedback process: apoA-I-(ABCA1 and SR-BI)-(S1P release)-S1PR-ERK1/2-SphK1-(S1P production)-(more S1P release induced by apoA-I).

  16. Neural mechanisms underlying nicotine addiction: acute positive reinforcement and withdrawal.

    PubMed

    Watkins, S S; Koob, G F; Markou, A

    2000-02-01

    The neurobiology of nicotine addiction is reviewed within the context of neurobiological and behavioral theories postulated for other drugs of abuse. The roles of various neurotransmitter systems, including acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and opioid peptides in acute nicotine reinforcement and withdrawal from chronic administration are examined followed by a discussion of potential neuroadaptations within these neurochemical systems that may lead to the development of nicotine dependence. The link between nicotine administration, depression and schizophrenia are also discussed. Finally, a theoretical model of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying acute nicotine withdrawal and protracted abstinence involves alterations within dopaminergic, serotonergic, and stress systems that are hypothesized to contribute to the negative affective state associated with nicotine abstinence.

  17. Protein kinase Calpha activation by RET: evidence for a negative feedback mechanism controlling RET tyrosine kinase.

    PubMed

    Andreozzi, Francesco; Melillo, Rosa Marina; Carlomagno, Francesca; Oriente, Francesco; Miele, Claudia; Fiory, Francesca; Santopietro, Stefania; Castellone, Maria Domenica; Beguinot, Francesco; Santoro, Massimo; Formisano, Pietro

    2003-05-15

    We have studied the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in signaling of the RET tyrosine kinase receptor. By using a chimeric receptor (E/R) in which RET kinase can be tightly controlled by the addition of epidermal growth factor (EGF), we have found that RET triggering induces a strong increase of PKCalpha, PKCdelta and PKCzeta activity and that PKCalpha, not PKCdelta and PKCzeta, forms a ligand-dependent protein complex with E/R. We have identified tyrosine 1062 in the RET carboxyl-terminal tail as the docking site for PKCalpha. Block of PKC activity by bisindolylmaleimide or chronic phorbol esters treatment decreased EGF-induced serine/threonine phosphorylation of E/R, while it caused a similarly sized increase of EGF-induced E/R tyrosine kinase activity and mitogenic signaling. Conversely, acute phorbol esters treatment, which promotes PKC activity, increased the levels of E/R serine/threonine phosphorylation and significantly decreased its phosphotyrosine content. A threefold reduction of tyrosine phosphorylation levels of the constitutively active RET/MEN2A oncoprotein was observed upon coexpression with PKCalpha. We conclude that RET binds to and activates PKCalpha. PKCalpha, in turn, causes RET phosphorylation and downregulates RET tyrosine kinase and downstream signaling, thus functioning as a negative feedback loop to modulate RET activity.

  18. Plant-soil feedbacks and soil sickness: from mechanisms to application in agriculture.

    PubMed

    Huang, Li-Feng; Song, Liu-Xia; Xia, Xiao-Jian; Mao, Wei-Hua; Shi, Kai; Zhou, Yan-Hong; Yu, Jing-Quan

    2013-02-01

    Negative plant-soil feedbacks play an important role in soil sickness, which is one of the factors limiting the sustainable development of intensive agriculture. Various factors, such as the buildup of pests in the soil, disorder in physico-chemical soil properties, autotoxicity, and other unknown factors may contribute to soil sickness. A range of autotoxins have been identified, and these exhibit their allelopathic potential by influencing cell division, water and ion uptake, dark respiration, ATP synthesis, redox homeostasis, gene expression, and defense responses. Meanwhile, there are great interspecific and intraspecific differences in the uptake and accumulation of autotoxins, which contribute to the specific differences in growth in response to different autotoxins. Importantly, the autotoxins also influence soil microbes and vice versa, leading to an increased or decreased degree of soil sickness. In many cases, autotoxins may enhance soilborne diseases by predisposing the roots to infection by soilborne pathogens through a direct biochemical and physiological effect. Some approaches, such as screening for low autotoxic potential and disease-resistant genotypes, proper rotation and intercropping, proper soil and plant residue management, adoption of resistant plant species as rootstocks, introduction of beneficial microbes, physical removal of phytotoxins, and soil sterilization, are proposed. We discuss the challenges that we are facing and possible approaches to these.

  19. Warm Eocene climate enhanced petroleum generation from Cretaceous source rocks: A potential climate feedback mechanism?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, K. F.; Funnell, R. H.

    2012-02-01

    Earth surface temperatures, including in the deep sea increased by 5-10°C from the late Paleocene ca. 58 Myr ago to the Early Eocene Climatic Optimum (EECO) centered at about 51 Myr ago. A large (˜2.5‰) drop in δ13C of carbonate spans much of this interval. This suggests a long-term increase in the net flux of 13C-depleted carbon to the ocean and atmosphere that is difficult to explain by changes in surficial carbon cycling alone. We reveal a relationship between surface temperature increase and increased petroleum generation in sedimentary basins operating on 100 kyr to Myr time scales. We propose that early Eocene warming has led to a synchronization of periods of maximum petroleum generation and enhanced generation in otherwise unproductive basins through extension of the volume of source rock within the oil and gas window across hundreds of sedimentary basins globally. Modelling the thermal evolution of four sedimentary basins in the southwest Pacific predicted an up to 50% increase in petroleum generation that would have significantly increased leakage of light hydrocarbons and oil degeneration products into the atmosphere. Extrapolating our modelling results to hundreds of sedimentary basins worldwide suggests that globally increased leakage could have caused a climate feedback effect, driving or enhancing early Eocene climate warming.

  20. A 3-SYNAPSE POSITIVE FEEDBACK LOOP REGULATES THE EXCITABILITY OF AN INTERNEURON CRITICAL FOR SENSITIZATION IN THE LEECH

    PubMed Central

    Crisp, Kevin M.; Muller, Kenneth J.

    2007-01-01

    Sensitization of reflexive shortening in the leech has been linked to serotonin (5-HT)-induced changes in the excitability of a single interneuron, the S cell. This neuron is necessary for sensitization and complete dishabituation of reflexive shortening, during which it contributes to the sensory-motor reflex. The S cell does not contain 5-HT, which is released primarily from the Retzius (R) cells, whose firing enhances S-cell excitability. Here we show that the S cell excites the R cells, mainly via a fast disynaptic pathway in which the first synapse is the electrical junction between the S cell and the coupling interneurons, and the second synapse is a glutamatergic synapse of the coupling interneurons onto the R cells. The S cell-triggered excitatory postsynaptic potential in the R cell diminishes and nearly disappears in elevated concentrations of divalent cations because the coupling interneurons become inexcitable under these conditions. Serotonin released from the R cells feeds back upon the S cell and increases its excitability by activating a 5-HT7-like receptor; 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MeOT; 10 μM) mimics the effects of 5-HT on S cell excitability, and effects of both 5-HT and 5-MeOT are blocked by pimozide (10 μM) and SB-269970 (5 μM). This feedback loop may be critical for the full expression of sensitization of reflexive shortening. PMID:16571760

  1. CGILS: Results from the First Phase of an International Project to Understand the Physical Mechanisms of Low Cloud Feedbacks in Single Column Models

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Minghua; Bretherton, Christopher S.; Blossey, Peter; Austin, Phillip A.; Bacmeister, J.; Bony, Sandrine; Brient, Florent; Cheedela, Suvarchal K.; Cheng, Anning; Del Genio, Anthony D.; De Roode, Stephan R.; Endo , Satoshi; Franklin, Charmaine N.; Golaz, Jean-Christophe; Hannay, Cecile; Heus, Thijs; Isotta, Francesco A.; Jean-Louis, Dufresne; Kang, In-Sik; Kawai, Hideaki; Koehler, M.; Larson, Vincent E.; Liu, Yangang; Lock, Adrian; Lohmann, U.; Khairoutdinov, Marat; Molod, Andrea M.; Neggers, Roel; Rasch, Philip J.; Sandu, Irina; Senkbeil, Ryan; Siebesma, A. P.; Siegenthaler-Le Drian, Colombe; Stevens, Bjorn; Suarez, Max; Xu, Kuan-Man; Von Salzen, Knut; Webb, Mark; Wolf, Audrey; Zhao, M.

    2013-12-26

    Large Eddy Models (LES) and Single Column Models (SCM) are used in a surrogate climate change 101 to investigate the physical mechanism of low cloud feedbacks in climate models. Enhanced surface-102 driven boundary layer turbulence and shallow convection in a warmer climate are found to be 103 dominant mechanisms in SCMs.

  2. The Role of Possible Feedback Mechanisms in the Effects of Altered Gravity on Formation and Function of Gravireceptors of Mollusks and Fish

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kondrachuk, Alexander V.; Boyle, Richard D.

    2005-01-01

    The variety of the effects of altered gravity (AG) on development and function of gravireceptors cannot be explained by simple feedback mechanism that correlates gravity level and weight of test mass. The reaction of organisms to the change of gravity depends on the phase of their development. To predict this reaction we need to know the details of the mechanisms of gravireceptor formation

  3. Mechanism of Positive Allosteric Modulators Acting on AMPA Receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Jin,R.; Clark, S.; Weeks, A.; Dudman, J.; Gouaux, E.; Partin, K.

    2005-01-01

    Ligand-gated ion channels involved in the modulation of synaptic strength are the AMPA, kainate, and NMDA glutamate receptors. Small molecules that potentiate AMPA receptor currents relieve cognitive deficits caused by neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease and show promise in the treatment of depression. Previously, there has been limited understanding of the molecular mechanism of action for AMPA receptor potentiators. Here we present cocrystal structures of the glutamate receptor GluR2 S1S2 ligand-binding domain in complex with aniracetam [1-(4-methoxybenzoyl)-2-pyrrolidinone] or CX614 (pyrrolidino-1, 3-oxazino benzo-1, 4-dioxan-10-one), two AMPA receptor potentiators that preferentially slow AMPA receptor deactivation. Both potentiators bind within the dimer interface of the nondesensitized receptor at a common site located on the twofold axis of molecular symmetry. Importantly, the potentiator binding site is adjacent to the 'hinge' in the ligand-binding core 'clamshell' that undergoes conformational rearrangement after glutamate binding. Using rapid solution exchange, patch-clamp electrophysiology experiments, we show that point mutations of residues that interact with potentiators in the cocrystal disrupt potentiator function. We suggest that the potentiators slow deactivation by stabilizing the clamshell in its closed-cleft, glutamate-bound conformation.

  4. Positioning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conone, Ruth M.

    The key to positioning is the creation of a clear benefit image in the consumer's mind. One positioning strategy is creating in the prospect's mind a position that takes into consideration the company's or agency's strengths and weaknesses as well as those of its competitors. Another strategy is to gain entry into a position ladder owned by…

  5. On The Molecular Mechanism Of Positive Novolac Resists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jian-Ping; Kwei, T. K.; Reiser, Arnost

    1989-08-01

    A molecular mechanism for the dissolution of novolac is proposed, based on the idea of a critical degree of deprotonation as being the condition for the transfer of polymer into solution. The rate at which the critical deprotonation condition is achieved is controlled by the supply of developer into a thin penetration zone, and depends in particular on the rate of diffusion of the base cations which are the developer component with the lowest mobility. The penetration zone contains phenolate ions and ion-bound water, but it retains the structure of a rigid polymer membrane, as evidenced by the diffusion coefficient of cations in the pene;tration zone which is several orders of magnitude slower than in an open gel of the same material. When the critical degree of deprotonation is reached, the membrane structure unravels and all subsequent events, chain rearrangement and transfer into solution, occur rapidly. The supralinear dependence of dissolution rate on base concentration and the effect of the size of the base cation are plausibly interpreted by the model. The diffusion of developer components is assumed to occur preferentially via hydrophilic sites in the polymer matrix. These sites define a diffusion path which acts like a hydrophilic diffusion channel. Suitably designed hydrophobic molecules can block some of the channels and in this way alter the dissolution rate. They reduce in effect the diffusion crossect ion of the material. Hydrophilic additives, on the other hand, introduce additional channels into the system and promote dissolution. The concept of diffusion channels appears to provide a unified interpretation for a number of common observations.

  6. EGF-Induced VEGF Exerts a PI3K-Dependent Positive Feedback on ERK and AKT through VEGFR2 in Hematological In Vitro Models

    PubMed Central

    Kassem, Nouhad; Badran, Bassam; El-Zein, Nabil

    2016-01-01

    EGFR and VEGFR pathways play major roles in solid tumor growth and progression, however, little is known about these pathways in haematological tumors. This study investigated the crosstalk between EGFR and VEGFR2 signaling in two hematological in vitro models: THP1, a human monocytic leukemia, and Raji, a Burkitt’s lymphoma, cell lines. Results showed that both cell lines express EGFR and VEGFR2 and responded to EGF stimulation by activating EGFR, triggering VEGF production and phosphorylating ERK, AKT, and p38 very early, with a peak of expression at 10–20min. Blocking EGFR using Tyrphostin resulted in inhibiting EGFR induced activation of ERK, AKT, and p38. In addition, EGF stimulation caused a significant and immediate increase, within 1min, in pVEGFR2 in both cell lines, which peaked at ~5–10 min after treatment. Selective inhibition of VEGFR2 by DMH4, anti-VEGFR2 antibody or siRNA diminished EGF-induced pAKT and pERK, indicating a positive feedback exerted by EGFR-induced VEGF. Similarly, the specific PI3K inhibitor LY294002, suppressed AKT and ERK phosphorylation showing that VEGF feedback is PI3K-dependent. On the other hand, phosphorylation of p38, initiated by EGFR and independent of VEGF feedback, was diminished using PLC inhibitor U73122. Moreover, measurement of intracellular [Ca2+] and ROS following VEGFR2 inhibition and EGF treatment proved that VEGFR2 is not implicated in EGF-induced Ca2+ release whereas it boosts EGF-induced ROS production. Furthermore, a significant decrease in pAKT, pERK and p-p38 was shown following the addition of the ROS inhibitor NAC. These results contribute to the understanding of the crosstalk between EGFR and VEGFR in haematological malignancies and their possible combined blockade in therapy. PMID:27806094

  7. Feedback & Objectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterworth, James R.

    1975-01-01

    Industrial objectives, if they are employee oriented, produce feedback, and the motivation derived from the feedback helps reduce turnover. Feedback is the power to clarify objectives, to stimulate communication, and to motivate people. (Author/MW)

  8. RHIC 10 Hz global orbit feedback system

    SciTech Connect

    Michnoff, R.; Arnold, L.; Carboni, L.; Cerniglia, P; Curcio, A.; DeSanto, L.; Folz, C.; Ho, C.; Hoff, L.; Hulsart, R.; Karl, R.; Luo, Y.; Liu, C.; MacKay, W.; Mahler, G.; Meng, W.; Mernick, K.; Minty, M.; Montag, C.; Olsen, R.; Piacentino, J.; Popken, P.; Przybylinski, R.; Ptitsyn, V.; Ritter, J.; Schoenfeld, R.; Thieberger, P.; Tuozzolo, J.; Weston, A.; White, J.; Ziminski, P.; Zimmerman, P.

    2011-03-28

    Vibrations of the cryogenic triplet magnets at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) are suspected to be causing the horizontal beam perturbations observed at frequencies around 10 Hz. Several solutions to counteract the effect have been considered in the past, including a local beam feedback system at each of the two experimental areas, reinforcing the magnet base support assembly, and a mechanical servo feedback system. However, the local feedback system was insufficient because perturbation amplitudes outside the experimental areas were still problematic, and the mechanical solutions are very expensive. A global 10 Hz orbit feedback system consisting of 36 beam position monitors (BPMs) and 12 small dedicated dipole corrector magnets in each of the two 3.8 km circumference counter-rotating rings has been developed and commissioned in February 2011. A description of the system architecture and results with beam will be discussed.

  9. Experimental investigation of an aeroacoustic feedback mechanism on a two-dimensional side mirror model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, M. J.; Würz, W.; Krämer, E.

    2017-01-01

    The tonal self-noise emission of a two-dimensional blunt-body side mirror model is investigated experimentally in order to characterize the underlying source mechanism. The two-dimensional side mirror design is closely related to an automotive side mirror model1

  10. Herbivory and Stoichiometric Feedbacks to Primary Production.

    PubMed

    Krumins, Jennifer Adams; Krumins, Valdis; Forgoston, Eric; Billings, Lora; van der Putten, Wim H

    2015-01-01

    Established theory addresses the idea that herbivory can have positive feedbacks on nutrient flow to plants. Positive feedbacks likely emerge from a greater availability of organic carbon that primes the soil by supporting nutrient turnover through consumer and especially microbially-mediated metabolism in the detrital pool. We developed an entirely novel stoichiometric model that demonstrates the mechanism of a positive feedback. In particular, we show that sloppy or partial feeding by herbivores increases detrital carbon and nitrogen allowing for greater nitrogen mineralization and nutritive feedback to plants. The model consists of differential equations coupling flows among pools of: plants, herbivores, detrital carbon and nitrogen, and inorganic nitrogen. We test the effects of different levels of herbivore grazing completion and of the stoichiometric quality (carbon to nitrogen ratio, C:N) of the host plant. Our model analyses show that partial feeding and plant C:N interact because when herbivores are sloppy and plant biomass is diverted to the detrital pool, more mineral nitrogen is available to plants because of the stoichiometric difference between the organisms in the detrital pool and the herbivore. This model helps to identify how herbivory may feedback positively on primary production, and it mechanistically connects direct and indirect feedbacks from soil to plant production.

  11. Venus' surface temperature controlled by a coupled mechanism of chemical and albedo feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hashimoto, G. L.; Abe, Y.

    1997-07-01

    The abundance of Venus' CO_2 atmosphere was suggested to be controlled or buffered by carbonation reaction on the surface (carbonate buffer), since the Venus' surface condition is so close to the equilibria over the calcite-quartz-wollastonite assemblage (CO_2(gas) + CaSiO_3 = SiO_2 + CaCO_3). However, Bullock and Grinspoon [1996] and Hashimoto et al. [1997] pointed out that the atmosphere buffered by a carbonation reaction is not stable. Then, which mechanism control the Venus' atmosphere? Here we propose an alternative idea of regulating Venus' climate. Our new mechanism regulates the surface temperature to the present value for a given amount of CO_2 in the atmosphere. This mechanism may be considered just opposite to the carbonate buffer, which tries to regulate the surface pressure for a given surface temperature. We construct a coupled model of the cloud albedo and the chemical interaction between the atmosphere and surface rocks. Our model shows that the coupled effect of chemical reaction and albedo buffers the surface temperature change against variation in the solar constant and atmospheric CO_2 abundance. Our model shows that Venus' surface temperature is kept to be about 735 K throughout the Venus' history.

  12. Microvision system (MVS): a 3D computer graphic-based microrobot telemanipulation and position feedback by vision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sulzmann, Armin; Breguet, Jean-Marc; Jacot, Jacques

    1995-12-01

    The aim of our project is to control the position in 3D-space of a micro robot with sub micron accuracy and manipulate Microsystems aided by a real time 3D computer graphics (virtual reality). As Microsystems and micro structures become smaller, it is necessary to build a micro robot ((mu) -robot) capable of manipulating these systems and structures with a precision of 1 micrometers or even higher. These movements have to be controlled and guided. The first part of our project was to develop a real time 3D computer graphics (virtual reality) environment man-machine interface to guide the newly developed robot similar to the environment we built in a macroscopic robotics. Secondly we want to evaluate measurement techniques to verify its position in the region of interest (workspace). A new type of microrobot has been developed for our purposed. Its simple and compact design is believed to be of promise in the microrobotics field. Stepping motion allows speed up to 4 mm/s. Resolution smaller than 10 nm is achievable. We also focus on the vision system and on the virtual reality interface of the complex system. Basically the user interacts with the virtual 3D microscope and sees the (mu) -robot as if he is looking through a real microscope. He is able to simulate the assembly of the missing parts, e.g. parts of the micrometer, beforehand in order to verify the assembly manipulation steps such assembly of the missing parts, e.g. parts of a micromotor, beforehand in order to verify the assembly manipulation steps such as measuring, moving the table to the right position or performing the manipulation. Micro manipulation is form of a teleoperation is then performed by the robot-unit and the position is controlled by vision. First results have shown, that a guided manipulations with submicronics absolute accuracy can be achieved. Key idea of this approach is to use the intuitiveness of immersed vision to perform robotics tasks in an environment where human has only access

  13. Non-linear states of a positive or negative refraction index material in a cavity with feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mártin, D. A.; Hoyuelos, M.

    2010-06-01

    We study a system composed by a cavity with plane mirrors containing a positive or negative refraction index material with third order effective electric and magnetic non-linearities. The aim of the work is to present a general picture of possible non-linear states in terms of the relevant parameters of the system. The parameters are the ones that appear in a reduced description that has the form of the Lugiato-Lefever equation. This equation is obtained from two coupled non-linear Schrödinger equations for the electric and magnetic field amplitudes.

  14. Spatially explicit simulation of hydrologically controlled carbon and nitrogen cycles and associated feedback mechanisms in a boreal ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govind, Ajit; Chen, Jing Ming; Ju, Weimin

    2009-06-01

    Ecosystem models that simulate biogeochemical processes usually ignore hydrological controls that govern them. It is quite possible that topographically driven water fluxes significantly influence the spatial distribution of C sources and sinks because of their large contribution to the local water balance. To investigate this, we simulated biogeochemical processes along with the associated feedback mechanisms in a boreal ecosystem using a spatially explicit hydroecological model, boreal ecosystem productivity simulator (BEPS)-TerrainLab V2.0, that has a tight coupling of ecophysiological, hydrological, and biogeochemical processes. First, the simulated dynamics of snowpack, soil temperature, net ecosystem productivity (NEP), and total ecosystem respiration (TER) were validated with high-frequency measurements for 2 years. The model was able to explain 80% of the variability in NEP and 84% of the variability in TER. Further, we investigated the influence of topographically driven subsurface base flow on soil C and N cycling and on the spatiotemporal patterns of C sources and sinks using three hydrological modeling scenarios that differed in hydrological conceptualizations. In general, the scenarios that had nonexplicit hydrological representation overestimated NEP, as opposed to the scenario that had an explicit (realistic) representation. The key processes controlling the NEP differences were attributed to the combined effects of variations in photosynthesis (due to changes in stomatal conductance and nitrogen (N) availability), heterotrophic respiration, and autotrophic respiration, all of which occur simultaneously affecting NEP. Feedback relationships were also found to exacerbate the differences. We identified six types of NEP differences (biases), of which the most commonly found was due to an underestimation of the existing C sources, highlighting the vulnerability of regional-scale ecosystem models that ignore hydrological processes.

  15. The vicious cycle towards violence: focus on the negative feedback mechanisms of brain serotonin neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Sietse F; Caramaschi, Doretta; Natarajan, Deepa; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2009-01-01

    Violence can be defined as a form of escalated aggressive behavior that is expressed out of context and out of inhibitory control, and apparently has lost its adaptive function in social communication. Little is known about the social and environmental factors as well as the underlying neurobiological mechanisms involved in the shift of normal adaptive aggression into violence. In an effort to model the harmful acts of aggression and violence in humans, we recently (re)developed an animal model that is focused on engendering uncontrolled forms of maladaptive aggressive behavior in laboratory-bred feral rats and mice. We show that certain (8-12%) constitutionally aggressive individuals gradually develop, over the course of repetitive exposures to victorious social conflicts, escalated (short-latency, high-frequency and ferocious attacks), persistent (lack of attack inhibition by defeat/submission signals and perseverance of the aggressive attack-biting bout), indiscriminating (attacking female and anesthetized male intruders) and injurious (enhanced vulnerable-body region attacks and inflicted wounding) forms of offensive aggression. Based on the neurobiological results obtained using this model, a revised view is presented on the key role of central serotonergic (auto)regulatory mechanisms in this transition of normal aggression into violence.

  16. Prestin is an anion transporter dispensable for mechanical feedback amplification in Drosophila hearing.

    PubMed

    Kavlie, Ryan G; Fritz, Janice L; Nies, Florian; Göpfert, Martin C; Oliver, Dominik; Albert, Joerg T; Eberl, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    In mammals, the membrane-based protein Prestin confers unique electromotile properties to cochlear outer hair cells, which contribute to the cochlear amplifier. Like mammals, the ears of insects, such as those of Drosophila melanogaster, mechanically amplify sound stimuli and have also been reported to express Prestin homologs. To determine whether the D. melanogaster Prestin homolog (dpres) is required for auditory amplification, we generated and analyzed dpres mutant flies. We found that dpres is robustly expressed in the fly's antennal ear. However, dpres mutant flies show normal auditory nerve responses, and intact non-linear amplification. Thus we conclude that, in D. melanogaster, auditory amplification is independent of Prestin. This finding resonates with prior phylogenetic analyses, which suggest that the derived motor function of mammalian Prestin replaced, or amended, an ancestral transport function. Indeed, we show that dpres encodes a functional anion transporter. Interestingly, the acquired new motor function in the phylogenetic lineage leading to birds and mammals coincides with loss of the mechanotransducer channel NompC (=TRPN1), which has been shown to be required for auditory amplification in flies. The advent of Prestin (or loss of NompC, respectively) may thus mark an evolutionary transition from a transducer-based to a Prestin-based mechanism of auditory amplification.

  17. Functional coupling as a basic mechanism of feedback regulation of cardiac energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Saks, V A; Kuznetsov, A V; Vendelin, M; Guerrero, K; Kay, L; Seppet, E K

    2004-01-01

    In this review we analyze the concepts and the experimental data on the mechanisms of the regulation of energy metabolism in muscle cells. Muscular energetics is based on the force-length relationship, which in the whole heart is expressed as a Frank-Starling law, by which the alterations of left ventricle diastolic volume change linearly both the cardiac work and oxygen consumption. The second basic characteristics of the heart is the metabolic stability--almost constant levels of high energy phosphates, ATP and phosphocreatine, which are practically independent of the workload and the rate of oxygen consumption, in contrast to the fast-twitch skeletal muscle with no metabolic stability and rapid fatigue. Analysis of the literature shows that an increase in the rate of oxygen consumption by order of magnitude, due to Frank-Starling law, is observed without any significant changes in the intracellular calcium transients. Therefore, parallel activation of contraction and mitochondrial respiration by calcium ions may play only a minor role in regulation of respiration in the cells. The effective regulation of the respiration under the effect of Frank-Starling law and metabolic stability of the heart are explained by the mechanisms of functional coupling within supramolecular complexes in mitochondria, and at the subcellular level within the intracellular energetic units. Such a complex structural and functional organisation of heart energy metabolism can be described quantitatively by mathematical models.

  18. APEX-CHAMP+ high-J CO observations of low-mass young stellar objects. IV. Mechanical and radiative feedback

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yıldız, U. A.; Kristensen, L. E.; van Dishoeck, E. F.; Hogerheijde, M. R.; Karska, A.; Belloche, A.; Endo, A.; Frieswijk, W.; Güsten, R.; van Kempen, T. A.; Leurini, S.; Nagy, Z.; Pérez-Beaupuits, J. P.; Risacher, C.; van der Marel, N.; van Weeren, R. J.; Wyrowski, F.

    2015-04-01

    Context. During the embedded stage of star formation, bipolar molecular outflows and UV radiation from the protostar are important feedback processes. Both processes reflect the accretion onto the forming star and affect subsequent collapse or fragmentation of the cloud. Aims: Our aim is to quantify the feedback, mechanical and radiative, for a large sample of low-mass sources in a consistent manner. The outflow activity is compared to radiative feedback in the form of UV heating by the accreting protostar to search for correlations and evolutionary trends. Methods: Large-scale maps of 26 young stellar objects, which are part of the Herschel WISH key program are obtained using the CHAMP+ instrument on the Atacama Pathfinder EXperiment (12CO and 13CO 6-5; Eup ~ 100 K), and the HARP-B instrument on the James Clerk Maxwell Telescope (12CO and 13CO 3-2; Eup ~ 30 K). The maps have high spatial resolution, particularly the CO 6-5 maps taken with a 9″ beam, resolving the morphology of the outflows. The maps are used to determine outflow parameters and the results are compared with higher-J CO lines obtained with Herschel. Envelope models are used to quantify the amount of UV-heated gas and its temperature from 13CO 6-5 observations. Results: All sources in our sample show outflow activity, with the spatial extent decreasing from the Class 0 to the Class I stage. Consistent with previous studies, the outflow force, FCO, is larger for Class 0 sources than for Class I sources, even if their luminosities are comparable. The outflowing gas typically extends to much greater distances than the power-law envelope and therefore influences the surrounding cloud material directly. Comparison of the CO 6-5 results with HIFI H2O and PACS high-J CO lines, both tracing currently shocked gas, shows that the two components are linked, even though the transitions do not probe the same gas. The link does not extend down to CO 3-2. The conclusion is that CO 6-5 depends on the shock

  19. Human stance on a sinusoidally translating platform: balance control by feedforward and feedback mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dietz, V; Trippel, M; Ibrahim, I K; Berger, W

    1993-01-01

    With subjects standing on a treadmill moving sinusoidally backward and forward, recordings of electromyographic (EMG) leg and trunk muscle activity, head and joint movements and platform torque were made with the subjects' eyes open or closed. The sinusoidal frequency was changed, stepwise and randomly, between 0.5, 0.3 and 0.25 Hz. The amplitude of the deflection was constant at +/- 12 cm. During an adapted sinus cycle, the maximum leg muscle EMG activity was recorded in the tibialis anterior around the posterior turning point and in the gastrocnemius around the anterior turning point in the treadmill cycle. This activity was associated with a forward inclination of the body around the posterior point and a straightening of the body at the anterior point. Both the degree of body inclination and the corresponding EMG activity were dependent upon the sinusoidal frequency. The programmed adjustment of the body inclination was such that the result of inertial and gravitational forces acting on the body coincided with the axis of the body at the posterior turning point. At the anterior point, the adjustment was achieved mainly by strong activation of the leg extensors. The latencies of the compensatory muscle responses to a change in treadmill frequency were significantly shorter at the posterior point for the gastrocnemius than for the tibialis anterior, and at the anterior point for the tibialis anterior than for the gastrocnemius. No correlated changes were seen in the corresponding head and joint movements. The difference in latency can best be attributed to the different body postures during the sinusoid. Early activation of the gastrocnemius is required due to the forward-directed impulse to the inclined body at the posterior point, and of the tibialis anterior muscle due to the backward-directed impulse to the erect body at the anterior point. It is suggested that afferent input from extensor load receptors provides information about the position of the body

  20. The role of thermo-mechanical feedback in the generation of shear zones in the lithosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duretz, Thibault; Schmalholz, Stefan M.; Podladchikov, Yuri Y.

    2014-05-01

    The collision between continental plates results in the development of orogenic belts. Ongoing collision is responsible for the localisation of deformation and the development of shear zones. The presence of shear zones is well documented within orogens and their importance for the exhumation of high-grade (HG) metamorphic rocks is well accepted; their role in the formation of HG units is however debated. State of the art geodynamic modelling of continental collision is often used to model the genesis and exhumation of HG rocks. Nevertheless, it is a common approach to model collision by predefining shear zones and/or by employing constitutive models that can introduce mesh dependency. Mesh size dependency leads to difficult comparison between physical models and natural data since pressure and temperature cannot be accurately computed within the modelled shear zones. In this contribution, we employ thermo-mechanical modelling to study the formation of shear zones in the lithosphere. Our approach takes into account the coupling between momentum and energy balance by including viscous dissipation and temperature/stress dependant viscosity. We show that this methodology allows for the spontaneous development of shear zones around a cylindrical weak heterogeneity. Systematic simulations showed that this approach produces mesh-insensitive results. The modelled shear zones are hence characterised by a finite-width, which is independent on the numerical mesh resolution. Additional test were performed to constrain the physical parameters that control shear band thicknesses, the results highlight the role of thermal transport properties rather than the initial heterogeneity dimensions. Moreover, we demonstrate that these results can be achieved by using two different numerical methods, which are both popular methods in the geodynamic modelling community (Lagrangian finite elements and Eulerian-Lagrangian finite differences). Such models may therefore be reliably used to

  1. MLK3 is part of a feedback mechanism that regulates different cellular responses to reactive oxygen species.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ho-Sung; Hwang, Chae Young; Shin, Sung-Young; Kwon, Ki-Sun; Cho, Kwang-Hyun

    2014-06-03

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) influence diverse cellular processes, including proliferation and apoptosis. Both endogenous and exogenous ROS activate signaling through mitogen-activated proteins kinase (MAPK) pathways, including those involving extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs) or c-Jun N-terminal kinases (JNKs). Whereas low concentrations of ROS generally stimulate proliferation, high concentrations result in cell death. We found that low concentrations of ROS induced activating phosphorylation of ERKs, whereas high concentrations of ROS induced activating phosphorylation of JNKs. Mixed lineage kinase 3 (MLK3, also known as MAP3K11) directly phosphorylates JNKs and may control activation of ERKs. Mathematical modeling of MAPK networks revealed a positive feedback loop involving MLK3 that determined the relative phosphorylation of ERKs and JNKs by ROS. Cells exposed to an MLK3 inhibitor or cells in which MLK3 was knocked down showed increased activation of ERKs and decreased activation of JNKs and were resistant to cell death when exposed to high concentrations of ROS. Thus, the data indicated that MLK3 is a critical factor controlling the activity of kinase networks that control the cellular responses to different concentrations of ROS.

  2. Accurate mean-field modeling of the Barkhausen noise power in ferromagnetic materials, using a positive-feedback theory of ferromagnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, R. G.

    2015-07-01

    A mean-field positive-feedback (PFB) theory of ferromagnetism is used to explain the origin of Barkhausen noise (BN) and to show why it is most pronounced in the irreversible regions of the hysteresis loop. By incorporating the ABBM-Sablik model of BN into the PFB theory, we obtain analytical solutions that simultaneously describe both the major hysteresis loop and, by calculating separate expressions for the differential susceptibility in the irreversible and reversible regions, the BN power response at all points of the loop. The PFB theory depends on summing components of the applied field, in particular, the non-monotonic field-magnetization relationship characterizing hysteresis, associated with physical processes occurring in the material. The resulting physical model is then validated by detailed comparisons with measured single-peak BN data in three different steels. It also agrees with the well-known influence of a demagnetizing field on the position and shape of these peaks. The results could form the basis of a physics-based method for modeling and understanding the significance of the observed single-peak (and in multi-constituent materials, multi-peak) BN envelope responses seen in contemporary applications of BN, such as quality control in manufacturing, non-destructive testing, and monitoring the microstructural state of ferromagnetic materials.

  3. The correlation between subordinate fish eye colour and received attacks: a negative social feedback mechanism for the reduction of aggression during the formation of dominance hierarchies.

    PubMed

    Miyai, Caio A; Carretero Sanches, Fábio H; Costa, Tânia M; Colpo, Karine Delevati; Volpato, Gilson L; Barreto, Rodrigo E

    2011-12-01

    Eye darkening has been linked to social status in fish. The subordinate's eyes darken, while the eyes of the dominant fish become pale. Although this phenomenon has been described in salmonid fishes and in the African cichlid Nile tilapia Oreochromis niloticus, it is unclear whether eye darkening correlates with a reduction in aggressive behaviour. Thus, we evaluated the link between social status and eye darkening. We evaluated whether the eye colours of subordinate fish correlate with the frequency of received attacks in a neotropical fish, the pearl cichlid Geophagus brasiliensis. We paired pearl cichlids and quantified both the aggressive behaviour and the eye darkening of each fish. As has been described for Nile tilapia and Atlantic salmon, a clear-cut hierarchical relationship formed, where dominance and subordination were associated with pale and dark eye colours, respectively. Initially, eye colour darkening was positively correlated with the frequency of received attacks; however, a negative association occurred following eye darkening, in which the intensity of aggressive interactions decreased. Thus, fish that initially received a high number of attacks signalled subordination more rapidly and intensely (rapid and dramatic eye darkening), thereby inducing a negative social feedback mechanism that led to reduced aggression.

  4. Nonlinear feedback control of multiple robot arms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarn, T. J.; Yun, X.; Bejczy, A. K.

    1987-01-01

    Multiple coordinated robot arms are modeled by considering the arms: (1) as closed kinematic chains, and (2) as a force constrained mechanical system working on the same object simultaneously. In both formulations a new dynamic control method is discussed. It is based on a feedback linearization and simultaneous output decoupling technique. Applying a nonlinear feedback and a nonlinear coordinate transformation, the complicated model of the multiple robot arms in either formulation is converted into a linear and output decoupled system. The linear system control theory and optimal control theory are used to design robust controllers in the task space. The first formulation has the advantage of automatically handling the coordination and load distribution among the robot arms. In the second formulation, by choosing a general output equation, researchers can superimpose the position and velocity error feedback with the force-torque error feedback in the task space simultaneously.

  5. Coevolution of topography, soils, and vegetation in upland landscapes: Using cinder cones to elucidate ecohydrogeomorphic feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGuire, L.; Pelletier, J. D.; Rasmussen, C.

    2013-12-01

    observed asymmetries in hillslope morphology are not present initially, but appear to develop over time as a result of differences in post-emplacement processes that may be attributed to aspect-induced microclimatic effects on long-term sediment transport rates. Results provide additional constraints on the timing and magnitude of feedback mechanisms among topography, biomass, and soil development as well as improve our understanding of cinder cone evolution within different climates.

  6. Effects of neuron-specific estrogen receptor (ER) α and ERβ deletion on the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in adult female mice.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Rachel Y; Porteous, Robert; Chambon, Pierre; Abrahám, István; Herbison, Allan E

    2014-04-01

    The negative feedback mechanism through which 17β-estradiol (E2) acts to suppress the activity of the GnRH neurons remains unclear. Using inducible and cell-specific genetic mouse models, we examined the estrogen receptor (ER) isoforms expressed by neurons that mediate acute estrogen negative feedback. Adult female mutant mice in which ERα was deleted from all neurons in the neonatal period failed to exhibit estrous cycles or negative feedback. Adult mutant female mice with neonatal neuronal ERβ deletion exhibited normal estrous cycles, but a failure of E2 to suppress LH secretion was seen in ovariectomized mice. Mutant mice with a GnRH neuron-selective deletion of ERβ exhibited normal cycles and negative feedback, suggesting no critical role for ERβ in GnRH neurons in acute negative feedback. To examine the adult roles of neurons expressing ERα, an inducible tamoxifen-based Cre-LoxP approach was used to ablate ERα from neurons that express calmodulin kinase IIα in adults. This resulted in mice with no estrous cycles, a normal increase in LH after ovariectomy, but an inability of E2 to suppress LH secretion. Finally, acute administration of ERα- and ERβ-selective agonists to adult ovariectomized wild-type mice revealed that activation of ERα suppressed LH secretion, whereas ERβ agonists had no effect. This study highlights the differences in adult reproductive phenotypes that result from neonatal vs adult ablation of ERα in the brain. Together, these experiments expand previous global knockout studies by demonstrating that neurons expressing ERα are essential and probably sufficient for the acute estrogen negative feedback mechanism in female mice.

  7. The CaM Kinase CMK-1 Mediates a Negative Feedback Mechanism Coupling the C. elegans Glutamate Receptor GLR-1 with Its Own Transcription.

    PubMed

    Moss, Benjamin J; Park, Lidia; Dahlberg, Caroline L; Juo, Peter

    2016-07-01

    Regulation of synaptic AMPA receptor levels is a major mechanism underlying homeostatic synaptic scaling. While in vitro studies have implicated several molecules in synaptic scaling, the in vivo mechanisms linking chronic changes in synaptic activity to alterations in AMPA receptor expression are not well understood. Here we use a genetic approach in C. elegans to dissect a negative feedback pathway coupling levels of the AMPA receptor GLR-1 with its own transcription. GLR-1 trafficking mutants with decreased synaptic receptors in the ventral nerve cord (VNC) exhibit compensatory increases in glr-1 mRNA, which can be attributed to increased glr-1 transcription. Glutamatergic transmission mutants lacking presynaptic eat-4/VGLUT or postsynaptic glr-1, exhibit compensatory increases in glr-1 transcription, suggesting that loss of GLR-1 activity is sufficient to trigger the feedback pathway. Direct and specific inhibition of GLR-1-expressing neurons using a chemical genetic silencing approach also results in increased glr-1 transcription. Conversely, expression of a constitutively active version of GLR-1 results in decreased glr-1 transcription, suggesting that bidirectional changes in GLR-1 signaling results in reciprocal alterations in glr-1 transcription. We identify the CMK-1/CaMK signaling axis as a mediator of the glr-1 transcriptional feedback mechanism. Loss-of-function mutations in the upstream kinase ckk-1/CaMKK, the CaM kinase cmk-1/CaMK, or a downstream transcription factor crh-1/CREB, result in increased glr-1 transcription, suggesting that the CMK-1 signaling pathway functions to repress glr-1 transcription. Genetic double mutant analyses suggest that CMK-1 signaling is required for the glr-1 transcriptional feedback pathway. Furthermore, alterations in GLR-1 signaling that trigger the feedback mechanism also regulate the nucleocytoplasmic distribution of CMK-1, and activated, nuclear-localized CMK-1 blocks the feedback pathway. We propose a model in

  8. Positive feedback regulation of agonist-stimulated endothelial Ca2+ dynamics by KCa3.1 channels in mouse mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Qian, Xun; Francis, Michael; Köhler, Ralf; Solodushko, Viktoriya; Lin, Mike; Taylor, Mark S.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Intermediate and small conductance KCa channels IK1 (KCa3.1) and SK3 (KCa2.3) are primary targets of endothelial Ca2+ signals in the arterial vasculature and their ablation results in increased arterial tone and hypertension. Activation of IK1 channels by local Ca2+ transients from internal stores or plasma membrane channels promotes arterial hyperpolarization and vasodilation. Here, we assess arteries from genetically altered IK1 knockout mice (IK1−/−) to determine whether IK1 channels exert a positive feedback influence on endothelial Ca2+ dynamics. Approach and Results Using confocal imaging and custom data analysis software we found that while the occurrence of basal endothelial Ca2+ dynamics was not different between IK1−/− and wild-type (WT) mice (p > 0.05), the frequency of acetylcholine (ACh 2 µM)-stimulated Ca2+ dynamics was greatly depressed in IK1−/− endothelium (515 ± 153 vs. 1860 ± 319 events; p < 0.01). In IK1−/−/SK3T/T mice, ancillary suppression (+Dox) or overexpression (−Dox) of SK3 channels had little additional impact on the occurrence of events under basal or ACh-stimulated conditions. SK3 overexpression did, however, restore the depressed event amplitudes. Removal of extracellular Ca2+ reduced ACh-induced Ca2+ dynamics to the same level in WT and IK1−/− arteries. Blockade of IK1 and SK3 with the combination of charybdotoxin (0.1 µM) and apamin (0.5 µM) or TRPV4 channels with HC-067047 (1 µM) reduced ACh Ca2+ dynamics in WT arteries to the level of IK1−/−/SK3T/T+Dox arteries. These drug effects were not additive. Conclusions IK1, and to some extent SK3 channels, exert a substantial positive feedback influence on endothelial Ca2+ dynamics. PMID:24177326

  9. Reliability breakthrough: An antenna deployment/positioning mechanism with electrical and mechanical redundancy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olson, M. C.; Briggs, L. W.; Pentecost, J. B.

    1979-01-01

    An Antenna Positioner Mechanism (APM) was developed for deployment of an antenna reflector and for fine granularity closed loop tracking of the antenna in response to RF beacon error signals. By utilizing permanent magnet stepper motors, spur gearheads, irreversible single threat worm/wheel assemblies and a miter gear differential, full electrical and mechanical redundancy was realized. Two versions of this design were generated: one is a weight-optimized design with a clutch for overload protection and one is a more rugged unit without a clutch.

  10. Mechanisms of action of newer antibiotics for Gram-positive pathogens.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Robert Ew

    2005-04-01

    Certain Gram-positive bacteria, including meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, vancomycin-resistant enterococci, and quinolone-resistant Streptococcus pneumoniae have achieved the status of "superbugs", in that there are few or no antibiotics available for therapy against these pathogens. Only a few classes of novel antibiotics have been introduced in the past 40 years, and all since 1999, including the streptogramin combination quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), the oxazolidinone linezolid, and the lipopeptide daptomycin. This review discusses the mechanisms of antibiotic action against Gram-positive pathogens, and resistance counter-mechanisms developed by Gram-positive bacteria, with emphasis on the newer agents.

  11. SIRTF/IRS cryogenic grating drive mechanism (ARC second positioning at 4 K)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubitschek, Michael J.

    1991-01-01

    The requirements, design, and test results of a grating drive mechanism for the Infrared Spectrograph (IRS) science instrument on the proposed superfluid helium-cooled Space Infrared Telescope Facility (SIRTF) are described. The IRS grating drive mechanism, tested in the fall of 1989, satisfied all performance requirements in vacuum at 4 K. Measured mechanism performance included: 1.4 arc sec root-mean-square (rms) error positioning resolution; 2.2 arc sec rms position repeatability error, less than 10 millijoules/deg dissipated power; and 170 deg angular range of travel. Mechanisms that precisely position optical elements at very low cryogenic temperatures (at/below 4 K) are vital to the operating success of a number of proposed infrared scientific instruments like those in SIRTF.

  12. In the Blink of an Eye: Relating Positive-Feedback Sensitivity to Striatal Dopamine D2-Like Receptors through Blink Rate

    PubMed Central

    Groman, Stephanie M.; James, Alex S.; Seu, Emanuele; Tran, Steven; Clark, Taylor A.; Harpster, Sandra N.; Crawford, Maverick; Burtner, Joanna Lee; Feiler, Karen; Roth, Robert H.; Elsworth, John D.; London, Edythe D.

    2014-01-01

    For >30 years, positron emission tomography (PET) has proven to be a powerful approach for measuring aspects of dopaminergic transmission in the living human brain; this technique has revealed important relationships between dopamine D2-like receptors and dimensions of normal behavior, such as human impulsivity, and psychopathology, particularly behavioral addictions. Nevertheless, PET is an indirect estimate that lacks cellular and functional resolution and, in some cases, is not entirely pharmacologically specific. To identify the relationships between PET estimates of D2-like receptor availability and direct in vitro measures of receptor number, affinity, and function, we conducted neuroimaging and behavioral and molecular pharmacological assessments in a group of adult male vervet monkeys. Data gathered from these studies indicate that variation in D2-like receptor PET measurements is related to reversal-learning performance and sensitivity to positive feedback and is associated with in vitro estimates of the density of functional dopamine D2-like receptors. Furthermore, we report that a simple behavioral measure, eyeblink rate, reveals novel and crucial links between neuroimaging assessments and in vitro measures of dopamine D2 receptors. PMID:25339755

  13. An HP1 isoform-specific feedback mechanism regulates Suv39h1 activity under stress conditions.

    PubMed

    Raurell-Vila, Helena; Bosch-Presegue, Laia; Gonzalez, Jessica; Kane-Goldsmith, Noriko; Casal, Carmen; Brown, Jeremy P; Marazuela-Duque, Anna; Singh, Prim B; Serrano, Lourdes; Vaquero, Alejandro

    2017-02-01

    The presence of H3K9me3 and heterochromatin protein 1 (HP1) are hallmarks of heterochromatin conserved in eukaryotes. The spreading and maintenance of H3K9me3 is effected by the functional interplay between the H3K9me3-specific histone methyltransferase Suv39h1 and HP1. This interplay is complex in mammals because the three HP1 isoforms, HP1α, β, and γ, are thought to play a redundant role in Suv39h1-dependent deposition of H3K9me3 in pericentric heterochromatin (PCH). Here, we demonstrate that despite this redundancy, HP1α and, to a lesser extent, HP1γ have a closer functional link to Suv39h1, compared to HP1β. HP1α and γ preferentially interact in vivo with Suv39h1, regulate its dynamics in heterochromatin, and increase Suv39h1 protein stability through an inhibition of MDM2-dependent Suv39h1-K87 polyubiquitination. The reverse is also observed, where Suv39h1 increases HP1α stability compared HP1β and γ. The interplay between Suv39h1 and HP1 isoforms appears to be relevant under genotoxic stress. Specifically, loss of HP1α and γ isoforms inhibits the upregulation of Suv39h1 and H3K9me3 that is observed under stress conditions. Reciprocally, Suv39h1 deficiency abrogates stress-dependent upregulation of HP1α and γ, and enhances HP1β levels. Our work defines a specific role for HP1 isoforms in regulating Suv39h1 function under stress via a feedback mechanism that likely regulates heterochromatin formation.

  14. Wide range force feedback for catheter insertion mechanism for use in minimally invasive mitral valve repair surgery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmadi, Roozbeh; Sokhanvar, Saeed; Packirisamy, Muthukumaran; Dargahi, Javad

    2009-02-01

    Mitral valve regurgitation (MR) is a condition in which heart's mitral valve does not close tightly, which allows blood to leak back into the left atrium. Restoring the dimension of the mitral-valve annulus by percutaneous intervention surgery is a common choice to treat MR. Currently, this kind of open heart annuloplasty surgery is being performed through sternotomy with cardiomyopathy bypass. In order to reduce trauma to the patient and also to eliminate bypass surgery, robotic assisted minimally invasive surgery (MIS) procedure, which requires small keyhole incisions, has a great potential. To perform this surgery through MIS procedure, an accurate computer controlled catheter with wide-range force feedback capabilities is required. There are three types of tissues at the site of operation: mitral leaflet, mitral annulus and left atrium. The maximum allowable applied force to these three types of tissue is totally different. For instance, leaflet tissue is the most sensitive one with the lowest allowable force capacity. For this application, therefore, a wide-range force sensing is highly required. Most of the sensors that have been developed for use in MIS applications have a limited range of sensing. Therefore, they need to be calibrated for different types of tissue. The present work, reports on the design, modeling and simulation of a novel wide-range optical force sensor for measurement of contact pressure between catheter tip and heart tissue. The proposed sensor offers a wide input range with a high resolution and sensitivity over this range. Using Micro-Electro-Mechanical-Systems (MEMS) technology, this sensor can be microfabricated and integrated with commercially available catheters.

  15. Short-term retention effect of rehabilitation using head position-based electrotactile feedback to the tongue: influence of vestibular loss and old-age.

    PubMed

    Ghulyan-Bedikian, Vénéra; Paolino, Michel; Paolino, Fabien

    2013-09-01

    Our objective was to evaluate whether the severity of vestibular loss and old-age (>65) affect a patient's ability to benefit from training using head-position based, tongue-placed electrotactile feedback. Seventy-one chronic dizzy patients, who had reached a plateau with their conventional rehabilitation, followed six 1-h training sessions during 4 consecutive days (once on days 1 and 4, twice on days 2 and 3). They presented bilateral vestibular areflexia (BVA), bilateral vestibular losses (BVL), unilateral vestibular areflexia or unilateral vestibular losses and were divided into two age-subgroups (≤65 and >65). Posturographic assessments were performed without the device, 4h before and after the training. Patients were tested with eyes opened and eyes closed (EC) on static and dynamic (passively tilting) platforms. The studied posturographic scores improved significantly, especially under test conditions restricting either visual or somatosensory input. This 4-h retention effect was greater in older compared to younger patients and was proportional to the degree of vestibular loss, patients with increased vestibular losses showing greater improvements. In bilateral patients, who constantly fell under dynamic-EC condition at the baseline, the therapy effect was expressed by disappearance of falls in BVL and significant prolongation in time-to-fall in BVA subgroups. Globally, our data showed that short training with head-position based, tongue-placed electrotactile biofeedback improves balance in chronic vestibulopathic patients some 16.74% beyond that achieved with standard balance physiotherapy. Further studies with longer use of this biofeedback are needed to investigate whether this approach could have long-lasting retention effect on balance and quality of life.

  16. Cross-Species Antiviral Activity of Goose Interferons against Duck Plague Virus Is Related to Its Positive Self-Feedback Regulation and Subsequent Interferon Stimulated Genes Induction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Hao; Chen, Shun; Zhou, Qin; Wei, Yunan; Wang, Mingshu; Jia, Renyong; Zhu, Dekang; Liu, Mafeng; Liu, Fei; Yang, Qiao; Wu, Ying; Sun, Kunfeng; Chen, Xiaoyue; Cheng, Anchun

    2016-01-01

    Interferons are a group of antiviral cytokines acting as the first line of defense in the antiviral immunity. Here, we describe the antiviral activity of goose type I interferon (IFNα) and type II interferon (IFNγ) against duck plague virus (DPV). Recombinant goose IFNα and IFNγ proteins of approximately 20 kDa and 18 kDa, respectively, were expressed. Following DPV-enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) infection of duck embryo fibroblast cells (DEFs) with IFNα and IFNγ pre-treatment, the number of viral gene copies decreased more than 100-fold, with viral titers dropping approximately 100-fold. Compared to the control, DPV-EGFP cell positivity was decreased by goose IFNα and IFNγ at 36 hpi (3.89%; 0.79%) and 48 hpi (17.05%; 5.58%). In accordance with interferon-stimulated genes being the “workhorse” of IFN activity, the expression of duck myxovirus resistance (Mx) and oligoadenylate synthetases-like (OASL) was significantly upregulated (p < 0.001) by IFN treatment for 24 h. Interestingly, duck cells and goose cells showed a similar trend of increased ISG expression after goose IFNα and IFNγ pretreatment. Another interesting observation is that the positive feedback regulation of type I IFN and type II IFN by goose IFNα and IFNγ was confirmed in waterfowl for the first time. These results suggest that the antiviral activities of goose IFNα and IFNγ can likely be attributed to the potency with which downstream genes are induced by interferon. These findings will contribute to our understanding of the functional significance of the interferon antiviral system in aquatic birds and to the development of interferon-based prophylactic and therapeutic approaches against viral disease. PMID:27438848

  17. Increasing Induction-Level Teachers' Positive-to-Negative Communication Ratio and Use of Behavior-Specific Praise through E-Mailed Performance Feedback and Its Effect on Students' Task Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rathel, Jeanna M.; Drasgow, Erik; Brown, William H.; Marshall, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of e-mailed specific performance feedback that included progress monitoring graphs on induction-level teachers' ratios of positive-to-negative communication behaviors and their use of behavior-specific praise in classrooms for students with emotional and behavioral disorders, mild intellectual…

  18. The lapse-rate feedback leads to polar temperature amplification.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grand Graversen, Rune; Langen, Peter; Mauritsen, Thorsten

    2014-05-01

    The atmospheric temperature will change in response to a radiative forcing of the climate system, but the temperature change may not be constant with height in the atmosphere. The dependence of the temperature change on hight gives rise to the lapse-rate feedback. In a warmer climate, the saturated mixing ratio of water vapour increases more at lower than at upper levels in the troposphere. Therefore due to enhanced latent heat release, the atmosphere tends to warm more in the upper than in the lower troposphere in regions where strong convection is present, such as at tropical latitudes. This results in enhanced radiation back to space, and in a more efficient cooling of the Earth system. This is contributing to a negative lapse-rate feedback. The opposite situation prevails at the high latitudes where stable stratification conditions in the lower troposphere result in a larger warming of the surface-near atmosphere than of the upper troposphere. This is contributing to a positive lapse-rate feedback. Hence the lapse-rate feedback is assumed to be negative at low, and positive at high latitudes. Here we explore the lapse-rate feedback and its effect on the climate system using a slab-ocean climate model, the Community Climate System Model version 4. By locking the temperature change throughout the troposphere to that at the surface in calls to the radiation code, the lapse-rate feedback is suppressed on-line in the model. Doubling-of-CO2 experiments where the lapse-rate feedback is suppressed are compared with experiments where it is retained. In a similar way the surface-albedo feedback is suppressed by keeping the surface albedo fixed in the entire model system. On the basis of model versions where either one or both of the feedbacks are suppressed, we are able to separate the effect of the surface-albedo and lapse-rate feedback. For instance we can estimate the contribution to the polar temperature amplification due to each of the feedbacks. The results show

  19. Feedback has a positive effect on cognitive function during total sleep deprivation if there is sufficient time for it to be effectively processed.

    PubMed

    Roach, Gregory D; Lamond, Nicole; Dawson, Drew

    2016-01-01

    This study examined whether the provision of feedback and the interval between successive stimuli interact to affect performance on a serial simple reaction time test during sleep deprivation. Sixteen participants (9 female, 7 male, aged 18-27 yr) completed four versions of the 5-min psychomotor vigilance task for a handheld personal digital assistant (PalmPVT) every 2 h during 28 h of sustained wakefulness. The four versions differed in terms of whether or not they provided feedback immediately after each response, and whether the inter-stimulus intervals (ISIs) were long (2-10 s) or short (1-5 s). Cognitive function was assessed using reciprocal response time and percentage of responses that were lapses (i.e., had a response time ≥ 500 ms). Data were analysed using repeated measures ANOVA with three within-subjects factors: test session, feedback, and ISI. For both measures, the only significant interaction was between feedback and ISI. Cognitive function was enhanced by feedback when the ISIs were long because it provided motivation. Cognitive function was not affected by feedback when the ISIs were short because there was insufficient time to both attend to the feedback and prepare for the subsequent stimulus.

  20. Feedbacks in human-landscape systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chin, Anne

    2015-04-01

    As human interactions with Earth systems intensify in the "Anthropocene", understanding the complex relationships among human activity, landscape change, and societal responses to those changes is increasingly important. Interdisciplinary research centered on the theme of "feedbacks" in human-landscape systems serves as a promising focus for unraveling these interactions. Deciphering interacting human-landscape feedbacks extends our traditional approach of considering humans as unidirectional drivers of change. Enormous challenges exist, however, in quantifying impact-feedback loops in landscapes with significant human alterations. This paper illustrates an example of human-landscape interactions following a wildfire in Colorado (USA) that elicited feedback responses. After the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire, concerns for heightened flood potential and debris flows associated with post-fire hydrologic changes prompted local landowners to construct tall fences at the base of a burned watershed. These actions changed the sediment transport regime and promoted further landscape change and human responses in a positive feedback cycle. The interactions ultimately increase flood and sediment hazards, rather than dampening the effects of fire. A simple agent-based model, capable of integrating social and hydro-geomorphological data, demonstrates how such interacting impacts and feedbacks could be simulated. Challenges for fully capturing human-landscape feedback interactions include the identification of diffuse and subtle feedbacks at a range of scales, the availability of data linking impact with response, the identification of multiple thresholds that trigger feedback mechanisms, and the varied metrics and data needed to represent both the physical and human systems. By collaborating with social scientists with expertise in the human causes of landscape change, as well as the human responses to those changes, geoscientists could more fully recognize and anticipate the coupled

  1. Designing Genetic Feedback Controllers.

    PubMed

    Harris, Andreas W K; Dolan, James A; Kelly, Ciarán L; Anderson, James; Papachristodoulou, Antonis

    2015-08-01

    By incorporating feedback around systems we wish to manipulate, it is possible to improve their performance and robustness properties to meet pre-specified design objectives. For decades control engineers have been successfully implementing feedback controllers for complex mechanical and electrical systems such as aircraft and sports cars. Natural biological systems use feedback extensively for regulation and adaptation but apart from the most basic designs, there is no systematic framework for designing feedback controllers in Synthetic Biology. In this paper we describe how classical approaches from linear control theory can be used to close the loop. This includes the design of genetic circuits using feedback control and the presentation of a biological phase lag controller.

  2. Evidence of fast nonlinear feedback in EBR-II rod-drop measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1987-01-01

    Feedback reactivities determine the time dependence of a reactor during and after a transient initiating event. Recent analysis of control-rod drops in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) has indicated that some relatively fast feedback may exist that cannot be accounted for by the linear feedback mechanisms. The magnitude of the positive insertion appears dependent on the amount of inserted reactivity and the run configuration. This phenomenon may be caused by a small, but rapid, change in core dimensions.

  3. A Positive Feedback Loop between Glial Cells Missing 1 and Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (hCG) Regulates Placental hCGβ Expression and Cell Differentiation.

    PubMed

    Cheong, Mei-Leng; Wang, Liang-Jie; Chuang, Pei-Yun; Chang, Ching-Wen; Lee, Yun-Shien; Lo, Hsiao-Fan; Tsai, Ming-Song; Chen, Hungwen

    2016-01-01

    Human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) is composed of a common α subunit and a placenta-specific β subunit. Importantly, hCG is highly expressed in the differentiated and multinucleated syncytiotrophoblast, which is formed via trophoblast cell fusion and stimulated by cyclic AMP (cAMP). Although the ubiquitous activating protein 2 (AP2) transcription factors TFAP2A and TFAP2C may regulate hCGβ expression, it remains unclear how cAMP stimulates placenta-specific hCGβ gene expression and trophoblastic differentiation. Here we demonstrated that the placental transcription factor glial cells missing 1 (GCM1) binds to a highly conserved promoter region in all six hCGβ paralogues by chromatin immunoprecipitation-on-chip (ChIP-chip) analyses. We further showed that cAMP stimulates GCM1 and the CBP coactivator to activate the hCGβ promoter through a GCM1-binding site (GBS1), which also constitutes a previously identified AP2 site. Given that TFAP2C may compete with GCM1 for GBS1, cAMP enhances the association between the hCGβ promoter and GCM1 but not TFAP2C. Indeed, the hCG-cAMP-protein kinase A (PKA) signaling pathway also stimulates Ser269 and Ser275 phosphorylation of GCM1, which recruits CBP to mediate GCM1 acetylation and stabilization. Consequently, hCG stimulates the expression of GCM1 target genes, including the fusogenic protein syncytin-1, to promote placental cell fusion. Our study reveals a positive feedback loop between GCM1 and hCG regulating placental hCGβ expression and cell differentiation.

  4. API2-MALT1 fusion protein induces transcriptional activation of the API2 gene through NF-{kappa}B binding elements: Evidence for a positive feed-back loop pathway resulting in unremitting NF-{kappa}B activation

    SciTech Connect

    Hosokawa, Yoshitaka . E-mail: yhosokaw@aichi-cc.jp; Suzuki, Hiroko; Nakagawa, Masao; Lee, Tae H.; Seto, Masao

    2005-08-19

    t(11;18)(q21;q21) is a characteristic as well as the most frequent chromosomal translocation in mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) type lymphoma, and this translocation results in a fusion transcript, API2-MALT1. Although API2-MALT1 has been shown to enforce activation of NF-{kappa}B signaling, the transcriptional target genes of this fusion protein remains to be identified. Our analyses of the API2-MALT transfectants suggested that one of the target genes may be the apoptotic inhibitor API2 gene. Luciferase reporter assays with deletion and mutational constructs of the API2 promoter and electrophoretic mobility shift assays established that API2-MALT1 induces transcriptional activation of the API2 gene through two NF-{kappa}B binding elements. Moreover, supershift experiments indicated that these elements are recognized by the NF-{kappa}B p50/p65 heterodimer. Taken together, our results strongly indicated that API2-MALT1 possesses a novel mechanism of self-activation by up-regulating its own expression in t(11;18)(q21;q21)-carrying MALT lymphomas, highlighting a positive feedback-loop pathway resulting in unremitting NF-{kappa}B activation.

  5. Positive feedback between strain localization and fluid flow at the ductile-brittle transition leading to Pb-Zn-Fe-Cu-Ag ore deposits in Lavrion (Greece)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheffer, Christophe; Tarantola, Alexandre; Vanderhaeghe, Olivier

    2016-04-01

    fluid-rock interactions including organic matter present in the whole-rock during ore precipitation. These features show the positive feedback between localization of ductile-brittle deformation-recrystallization, fluid circulation and ore deposition. Accordingly, during orogenic gravitational collapse, the activation of mylonitic-cataclastic low-angle detachments, controlled at first order by temperature, are, at second order, influenced by lithologic heterogeneities that are determinant at localizing fluid circulation, allowing thus a multi-localization of the DBT and ore deposition.

  6. Spin First vs. Position First instructional approaches to teaching introductory quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sadaghiani, Homeyra

    2017-01-01

    As part of ongoing research in teaching and learning quantum mechanics, we are investigating student learning of basic introductory quantum concepts in two different paradigms. In one paradigm, students are introduced to the postulates of quantum mechanics by discrete bases of Spin-half (Spin First) before being introduced to Schrödinger's equation. In the second paradigm, continuous bases of position probability wave functions (Position First) are the context within which students first encounter quantum mechanical phenomena. In this paper, we compare student learning of basic introductory quantum ideas in two sections of a sophomore level modern physics course at Cal Poly Pomona that were taught using these two approaches by means of their performances on a research-based concept posttest. Based on our results, the students who were taught using Spin First outperformed their peers in Position First group with average score of 53 +/- 3% vs. 34 +/- 5% in Quantum Mechanics Concept Assessment (QMCA), suggesting that the Spin First approach might improve some aspects of student learning of quantum mechanics. NSF 1626482.

  7. GTP cyclohydrolase I inhibition by the prototypic inhibitor 2, 4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine. Mechanisms and unanticipated role of GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Xie, L; Smith, J A; Gross, S S

    1998-08-14

    2,4-Diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) is considered to be a selective and direct-acting inhibitor of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH), the first and rate-limiting enzyme in the pathway for synthesis of tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). Accordingly, DAHP has been widely employed to distinguish whether de novo BH4 synthesis is required in a given biological system. Although it has been assumed that DAHP inhibits GTPCH by direct competition with substrate GTP, this has never been formally demonstrated. In view of apparent structural homology between DAHP and BH4, we questioned whether DAHP may mimic BH4 in its inhibition of GTPCH by an indirect mechanism, involving interaction with a recently cloned 9.5-kDa protein termed GTPCH Feedback Regulatory Protein (GFRP). We show by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction that GFRP mRNA is constitutively expressed in rat aortic smooth muscle cells and further induced by treatment with immunostimulants. Moreover, functional GFRP is expressed and immunostimulant-induced BH4 accumulates in sufficient quantity to trigger feedback inhibition of GTPCH. Studies with DAHP reveal that GFRP is also essential to achieve potent inhibition of GTPCH. Indeed, DAHP inhibits GTPCH by dual mechanisms. At a relatively low concentration, DAHP emulates BH4 and engages the GFRP-dependent feedback inhibitory system; at higher concentrations, DAHP competes directly for binding with GTP substrate. This knowledge predicts that DAHP would preferably target GTPCH in tissues with abundant GFRP.

  8. Studies on the Mechanism of Heterochromatic Position Effect at the Rosy Locus of DROSOPHILA MELANOGASTER

    PubMed Central

    Rushlow, C. A.; Bender, W.; Chovnick, A.

    1984-01-01

    Experiments are described that extend the characterization of position effect variants of the rosy locus and test possible mechanisms of heterochromatic position effect.—Rosy position effect variants exhibit a variegated phenotype with respect to xanthine dehydrogenase activity in malpighian tubules.—The breakpoints of the position effect mutations are located on the DNA map of the rosy region outside of the rosy locus DNA; ryps1136 is located in the DNA of the l(3)S12 gene immediately proximal to rosy, whereas ryps1149 is located some 15 kb distal to rosy in the pic locus.—Southern blot experiments are described that test and reject the notion that heterochromatic position effect results from underreplication of the position-affected gene. Rather, the results of Northern blots serve to direct attention to position effect as a defect in transcription.—Histone region deletion heterozygosity and butyrate-feeding experiments failed to exhibit specific suppression of position effect at the rosy locus. PMID:6149972

  9. A study on using image serving technology for high precision mechanical positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chuen-Horng; Hsiao, Muh-Don; Lai, Kuo-Jung

    2016-12-01

    This paper focused on using image server technology for high precision mechanical positioning. Rapid and precise positioning systems depend on the correct positions of CCD (Charge Coupled Device) video cameras, as well as on pattern matching modes. This study deals with four different positions captured by an automatic detection system employing a CCD video camera. According to a variety of hybrid image registration systems, this study proposes an entire set of methods for achieving optimal hybrid pattern matching. First, the four different position detections captured by the CCD video camera in low-resolution were examined. Next, the original position detection was carried out in high-resolution, in order to derive a precise set of CCD video camera positions. The fiducial mark (FM) was then divided into two types in the optimal option for pattern matching: the "fiducial mark" and "non-fiducial mark", which were then used for sampling. The automatic detection method is able to achieve the first pattern matching detection for recognized images. Unrecognized images or images that cannot have an FM were subjected to fine pattern matching detection. When it is not possible to find more than one FM after the proposed detection method, this suggests that the position of the CCD video camera should be reset. In this paper, the results of the experiment regarding the CCD camera precision location and the segmentation of fiducial patterns or insignificant fiducial patterns can detect and segment more unique areas and areas with unique features.

  10. The effect of crank position and backrest inclination on shoulder load and mechanical efficiency during handcycling.

    PubMed

    Arnet, U; van Drongelen, S; Schlüssel, M; Lay, V; van der Woude, L H V; Veeger, H E J

    2014-04-01

    Handbikes come in different models and setups, but only limited knowledge is available on the handbike-user interface. The aim of this study was to identify optimal handbike setups, assuming that in such a setup mechanical efficiency is high, while shoulder load is low. Thirteen subjects with a spinal cord injury (paraplegia) performed handcycling with different handbike setups at constant power output: four crank positions (two distances, two heights) and four backrest inclinations. The O2-consumption, kinetics, and kinematics were measured to calculate mechanical efficiency and shoulder load (glenohumeral contact force, net shoulder moments, and rotator cuff force). The analysis showed that more upright backrest positions resulted in lower shoulder load compared with the most reclined position [glenohumeral contact force (260 vs 335 N), supraspinatus (14.4% vs 18.2%), and infraspinatus force (5.4% vs 9.8%)], while there was no difference in efficiency. Except for a reduction in subscapularis force at the distant position, no differences in shoulder load or efficiency were found between crank positions. Recreational handbike users, who want to improve their physical capacity in a shoulder-friendly way, should set up their handbike with a more upright backrest position and a distant crank placement.

  11. Cloud-radiation interactions - Effects of cirrus optical thickness feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Somerville, Richard C. J.; Iacobellis, Sam

    1987-01-01

    The paper is concerned with a cloud-radiation feedback mechanism which may be an important component of the climate changes expected from increased atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide and other trace greenhouse gases. A major result of the study is that cirrus cloud optical thickness feedbacks may indeed tend to increase the surface warming due to trace gas increases. However, the positive feedback from cirrus appears to be generally weaker than the negative effects due to lower clouds. The results just confirm those of earlier research indicating that the net effect of cloud optical thickness feedbacks may be a negative feedback which may substantially (by a factor of about 2) reduce the surface warming due to the doubling of CO2, even in the presence of cirrus clouds.

  12. Global desertification: Drivers and feedbacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Odorico, Paolo; Bhattachan, Abinash; Davis, Kyle F.; Ravi, Sujith; Runyan, Christiane W.

    2013-01-01

    Desertification is a change in soil properties, vegetation or climate, which results in a persistent loss of ecosystem services that are fundamental to sustaining life. Desertification affects large dryland areas around the world and is a major cause of stress in human societies. Here we review recent research on the drivers, feedbacks, and impacts of desertification. A multidisciplinary approach to understanding the drivers and feedbacks of global desertification is motivated by our increasing need to improve global food production and to sustainably manage ecosystems in the context of climate change. Classic desertification theories look at this process as a transition between stable states in bistable ecosystem dynamics. Climate change (i.e., aridification) and land use dynamics are the major drivers of an ecosystem shift to a “desertified” (or “degraded”) state. This shift is typically sustained by positive feedbacks, which stabilize the system in the new state. Desertification feedbacks may involve land degradation processes (e.g., nutrient loss or salinization), changes in rainfall regime resulting from land-atmosphere interactions (e.g., precipitation recycling, dust emissions), or changes in plant community composition (e.g., shrub encroachment, decrease in vegetation cover). We analyze each of these feedback mechanisms and discuss their possible enhancement by interactions with socio-economic drivers. Large scale effects of desertification include the emigration of “environmental refugees” displaced from degraded areas, climatic changes, and the alteration of global biogeochemical cycles resulting from the emission and long-range transport of fine mineral dust. Recent research has identified some possible early warning signs of desertification, which can be used as indicators of resilience loss and imminent shift to desert-like conditions. We conclude with a brief discussion on some desertification control strategies implemented in different

  13. Cytoplasmic flows as signatures for the mechanics of mitotic spindle positioning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazockdast, Ehssan; Rahimian, Abtin; Needleman, Daniel; Shelley, Michael

    2015-11-01

    The proper positioning of the mitotic spindle is crucial for asymmetric cell division and generating cell diversity during development. We use dynamic simulations to study the cytoplasmic flows generated by three possible active forcing mechanisms involved in positioning of the mitotic spindle in the first cell division of C.elegans embryo namely cortical pulling, cortical pushing, and cytoplasmic pulling mechanisms. The numerical platform we have developed for simulating cytoskeletal assemblies is the first to incorporate the interactions between the fibers and other intracellular bodies with the cytoplasmic fluid, while also accounting for their polymerization, and interactions with motor proteins. The hydrodynamic interactions are computed using boundary integral methods in Stokes flow coupled with highly efficient fast summation techniques that reduce the computational cost to scale linearly with the number of fibers and other bodies. We show that although all three force transduction mechanisms predict proper positioning and orientation of the mitotic spindle, each model produces a different signature in its induced cytoplasmic flow and MT conformation. We suggest that cytoplasmic flows and MT conformation can be used to differentiate between these mechanisms.

  14. A Study of Mechanical Vibration Signal Transmission Using Position Modulated Optical Pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Ikuo; Oro, Kyoichi; Seikai, Shigeyuki

    A novel vibration sensing scheme using a technique of converting the vibration into position modulated optical pulses is described. The laser light whose wavelength changes at a cycle of several kHz is launched into a fiber and passes through an optical filter whose center wavelength is changed in proportion to the mechanical vibration with frequency lower than kHz. The output signal from the filter becomes time position modulated optical pulses because the laser light passes only when the both wavelengths coincide. The basic operation of the scheme is experimentally confirmed using a 5-km transmission line.

  15. Keratinocyte-derived IL-24 plays a role in the positive feedback regulation of epidermal inflammation in response to environmental and endogenous toxic stressors

    SciTech Connect

    Jin, Sun Hee; Choi, Dalwoong; Chun, Young-Jin; Noh, Minsoo

    2014-10-15

    Keratinocytes are the major cellular components of human epidermis and play a key role in the modulating cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. In human chronic skin diseases, the common skin inflammatory phenotypes like skin barrier disruption and epidermal hyperplasia are manifested in epidermal keratinocytes by interactions with T helper (Th) cells. To find a common gene expression signature of human keratinocytes in chronic skin diseases, we performed a whole genome microarray analysis on normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHKs) treated with IFNγ, IL-4, IL-17A or IL-22, major cytokines from Th1, Th2, Th17 or Th22 cells, respectively. The microarray results showed that the four genes, IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19 and filaggrin, had common expression profiles in NHKs exposed to Th cell cytokines. In addition, the acute phase pro-inflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-6 and TNFα, also change the gene transcriptional profile of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin in NHKs as those of Th cytokines. Therefore, the signature gene set, consisting of IL-24, PDZK1IP1, H19, and filaggrin, provides essential insights for understanding the process of cutaneous inflammation and toxic responses. We demonstrate that environmental toxic stressors, such as chemical irritants and ultraviolet irradiation stimulate the production of IL-24 in NHKs. IL-24 stimulates the JAK1-STAT3 and MAPK pathways in NHKs, and promotes the secretion of pro-inflammatory mediators IL-8, PGE2, and MMP-1. These results suggest that keratinocyte-derived IL-24 participates in the positive feedback regulation of epidermal inflammation in response to both endogenous and environmental toxic stressors. - Highlights: • Cutaneous inflammatory gene signature consists of PDZK1IP1, IL-24, H19 and filaggrin. • Pro-inflammatory cytokines increase IL-24 production in human keratinocytes. • Environmental toxic stressors increase IL-24 production in human keratinocytes. • IL-24 stimulates human keratinocytes to

  16. Thermal-chemical-mechanical feedback during fluid-rock interactions: Implications for chemical transport and scales of equilibria in the crust

    SciTech Connect

    Dutrow, Barbara

    2008-08-13

    Our research evaluates the hypothesis that feedback amongst thermal-chemical-mechanical processes operative in fluid-rock systems alters the fluid flow dynamics of the system which, in turn, affects chemical transport and temporal and spatial scales of equilibria, thus impacting the resultant mineral textural development of rocks. Our methods include computational experimentation and detailed analyses of fluid-infiltrated rocks from well-characterized terranes. This work focuses on metamorphic rocks and hydrothermal systems where minerals and their textures are utilized to evaluate pressure (P), temperature (T), and time (t) paths in the evolution of mountain belts and ore deposits, and to interpret tectonic events and the timing of these events. Our work on coupled processes also extends to other areas where subsurface flow and transport in porous media have consequences such as oil and gas movement, geothermal system development, transport of contaminants, nuclear waste disposal, and other systems rich in fluid-rock reactions. Fluid-rock systems are widespread in the geologic record. Correctly deciphering the products resulting from such systems is important to interpreting a number of geologic phenomena. These systems are characterized by complex interactions involving time-dependent, non-linear processes in heterogeneous materials. While many of these interactions have been studied in isolation, they are more appropriately analyzed in the context of a system with feedback. When one process impacts another process, time and space scales as well as the overall outcome of the interaction can be dramatically altered. Our goals to test this hypothesis are: to develop and incorporate algorithms into our 3D heat and mass transport code to allow the effects of feedback to be investigated numerically, to analyze fluid infiltrated rocks from a variety of terranes at differing P-T conditions, to identify subtle features of the infiltration of fluids and/or feedback, and

  17. A positive feedback loop between HER2 and ADAM12 in human head and neck cancer cells increases migration and invasion.

    PubMed

    Rao, V H; Kandel, A; Lynch, D; Pena, Z; Marwaha, N; Deng, C; Watson, P; Hansen, L A

    2012-06-07

    Increased activation of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) family members such as HER2/Erbb2 can result in more aggressive disease, resistance to chemotherapy and reduced survival of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) patients. In order to identify mechanisms through which these receptor tyrosine kinases accelerate tumor progression, the regulation of metalloprotease expression by EGFR family members was investigated in 11 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cell lines. HER2 expression was significantly correlated with ADAM12 (A Disintegrin And Metalloprotease 12) expression in these cell lines and was co-expressed in human head and neck cancers. Inhibition of HER2 or EGFR decreased ADAM12 transcripts whereas HER2 transfection upregulated ADAM12 expression. To understand the molecular mechanisms underlying HER2 regulation of ADAM12, we investigated the signaling pathways directing ADAM12 production in SCC cells. Inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol-3-kinase or mammalian target of rapamycin decreased ADAM12 transcripts in HER2-expressing SCC cells, whereas transfection with AKT increased ADAM12 mRNA. Experiments utilizing ADAM12 transfection or siRNA targeting of ADAM12 revealed that the protease increased both the migration and invasiveness of oral SCC cells. Surprisingly, ADAM12 also increased HER2 message, protein levels and activity through an Ets1-dependent mechanism. Collectively, these results reveal a novel positive activation loop between ADAM12 and HER2 that may contribute to HNSCC progression.

  18. Toward Understanding the Catalytic Mechanism of Human Paraoxonase 1: Site-Specific Mutagenesis at Position 192

    PubMed Central

    Aggarwal, Geetika; Prajapati, Rameshwar; Tripathy, Rajan K.; Bajaj, Priyanka; Iyengar, A. R. Satvik; Sangamwar, Abhay T.; Pande, Abhay H.

    2016-01-01

    Human paraoxonase 1 (h-PON1) is a serum enzyme that can hydrolyze a variety of substrates. The enzyme exhibits anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, anti-atherogenic, anti-diabetic, anti-microbial and organophosphate-hydrolyzing activities. Thus, h-PON1 is a strong candidate for the development of therapeutic intervention against a variety conditions in human. However, the crystal structure of h-PON1 is not solved and the molecular details of how the enzyme hydrolyzes different substrates are not clear yet. Understanding the catalytic mechanism(s) of h-PON1 is important in developing the enzyme for therapeutic use. Literature suggests that R/Q polymorphism at position 192 in h-PON1 dramatically modulates the substrate specificity of the enzyme. In order to understand the role of the amino acid residue at position 192 of h-PON1 in its various hydrolytic activities, site-specific mutagenesis at position 192 was done in this study. The mutant enzymes were produced using Escherichia coli expression system and their hydrolytic activities were compared against a panel of substrates. Molecular dynamics simulation studies were employed on selected recombinant h-PON1 (rh-PON1) mutants to understand the effect of amino acid substitutions at position 192 on the structural features of the active site of the enzyme. Our results suggest that, depending on the type of substrate, presence of a particular amino acid residue at position 192 differentially alters the micro-environment of the active site of the enzyme resulting in the engagement of different subsets of amino acid residues in the binding and the processing of substrates. The result advances our understanding of the catalytic mechanism of h-PON1. PMID:26829396

  19. Actin-based mechanisms for light-dependent intracellular positioning of nuclei and chloroplasts in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Kosei; Takagi, Shingo

    2010-08-01

    The plant organelles, chloroplast and nucleus, change their position in response to light. In Arabidopsis thaliana leaf cells, chloroplasts and nuclei are distributed along the inner periclinal wall in darkness. In strong blue light, they become positioned along the anticlinal wall, while in weak blue light, only chloroplasts are accumulated along the inner and outer periclinal walls. Blue-light dependent positioning of both organelles is mediated by the blue-light receptor phototropin and controlled by the actin cytoskeleton. Interestingly, however, it seems that chloroplast movement requires short, fine actin filaments organized at the chloroplast edge, whereas nuclear movement does cytoplasmic, thick actin bundles intimately associated with the nucleus. Although there are many similarities between photo-relocation movements of chloroplasts and nuclei, plant cells appear to have evolved distinct mechanisms to regulate actin organization required for driving the movements of these organelles.

  20. Crystal structures of Thermotoga maritima reverse gyrase: inferences for the mechanism of positive DNA supercoiling

    PubMed Central

    Rudolph, Markus G.; del Toro Duany, Yoandris; Jungblut, Stefan P.; Ganguly, Agneyo; Klostermeier, Dagmar

    2013-01-01

    Reverse gyrase is an ATP-dependent topoisomerase that is unique to hyperthermophilic archaea and eubacteria. The only reverse gyrase structure determined to date has revealed the arrangement of the N-terminal helicase domain and the C-terminal topoisomerase domain that intimately cooperate to generate the unique function of positive DNA supercoiling. Although the structure has elicited hypotheses as to how supercoiling may be achieved, it lacks structural elements important for supercoiling and the molecular mechanism of positive supercoiling is still not clear. We present five structures of authentic Thermotoga maritima reverse gyrase that reveal a first view of two interacting zinc fingers that are crucial for positive DNA supercoiling. The so-called latch domain, which connects the helicase and the topoisomerase domains is required for their functional cooperation and presents a novel fold. Structural comparison defines mobile regions in parts of the helicase domain, including a helical insert and the latch that are likely important for DNA binding during catalysis. We show that the latch, the helical insert and the zinc fingers contribute to the binding of DNA to reverse gyrase and are uniquely placed within the reverse gyrase structure to bind and guide DNA during strand passage. A possible mechanism for positive supercoiling by reverse gyrases is presented. PMID:23209025

  1. [Long-term effects of home mechanical ventilation with positive pressure using a nasal mask].

    PubMed

    Escarrabill, J; Estopà, R; Robert, D; Casolivé, V; Manresa, F

    1991-10-05

    Home mechanical ventilation (HMV) is an efficient alternative in the treatment of patients with chronic respiratory failure secondary to restrictive mechanical disorders (neuromuscular disease, such as Duchenne's disease, thorax deformities due to kyphoscoliosis or tuberculosis sequelae). The case of a patient with severe kyphoscoliosis in the phase of chronic respiratory failure (PaO2 34 mmHg and PaCO2 61 mmHg, breathing ambient air) is presented in which, following the failure of negative pressure mechanical ventilation ("poncho"), positive pressure ventilation was tested with a silicon made-to-measure nasal mask as the access via. Adaptation to HMV was good with the patient using the ventilation nightly. Following 12 months of treatment the patient is able to carry out everyday activities and arterial gasometry breathing ambient air is PaO2 77 mmHg and PaCO2 43 mmHg.

  2. Feedback Sandwiches Affect Perceptions but Not Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parkes, Jay; Abercrombie, Sara; McCarty, Teresita

    2013-01-01

    The feedback sandwich technique-make positive comments; provide critique; end with positive comments-is commonly recommended to feedback givers despite scant evidence of its efficacy. These two studies (N = 20; N = 350) of written peer feedback with third-year medical students on clinical patient note-writing assignments indicate that students…

  3. A sharp-switching device with free surface and buried gates based on band modulation and feedback mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solaro, Y.; Fonteneau, P.; Legrand, C. A.; Fenouillet-Beranger, C.; Ferrari, P.; Cristoloveanu, S.

    2016-02-01

    We propose and demonstrate experimentally a band-modulation device with extremely sharp switching capability. The Z3-FET (Zero gate, Zero swing and Zero impact ionization) has no top gate, is processed with FDSOI CMOS technology, and makes use of two adjacent buried ground planes acting as back gates. The buried gates emulate respectively N+ and P+ regions in the undoped body, forming a virtual thyristor-like NPNP structure with feedback operation. Vertical output IA-VA and transfer IA-VG characteristics over more than 8 decades of current are measured with relatively low gate and drain bias (<3 V).

  4. Positive coping styles and perigenual ACC volume: two related mechanisms for conferring resilience?

    PubMed

    Holz, Nathalie E; Boecker, Regina; Jennen-Steinmetz, Christine; Buchmann, Arlette F; Blomeyer, Dorothea; Baumeister, Sarah; Plichta, Michael M; Esser, Günter; Schmidt, Martin; Meyer-Lindenberg, Andreas; Banaschewski, Tobias; Brandeis, Daniel; Laucht, Manfred

    2016-05-01

    Stress exposure has been linked to increased rates of depression and anxiety in adults, particularly in females, and has been associated with maladaptive changes in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), which is an important brain structure involved in internalizing disorders. Coping styles are important mediators of the stress reaction by establishing homeostasis, and may thus confer resilience to stress-related psychopathology. Anatomical scans were acquired in 181 healthy participants at age 25 years. Positive coping styles were determined using a self-report questionnaire (German Stress Coping Questionnaire, SVF78) at age 22 years. Adult anxiety and depression symptoms were assessed at ages 22, 23 and 25 years with the Young Adult Self-Report. Information on previous internalizing diagnoses was obtained by diagnostic interview (2-19 years). Positive coping styles were associated with increased ACC volume. ACC volume and positive coping styles predicted anxiety and depression in a sex-dependent manner with increased positive coping and ACC volume being related to lower levels of psychopathology in females, but not in males. These results remained significant when controlled for previous internalizing diagnoses. These findings indicate that positive coping styles and ACC volume are two linked mechanisms, which may serve as protective factors against internalizing disorders.

  5. The effect of motivation and positive affect on ego depletion: Replenishment versus release mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ze; Li, Jian; Zhang, Bo; Li, Ye; Zhang, Houcan

    2015-11-12

    In this study, 2 experiments were conducted to investigate whether motivation and positive affect can alleviate ego depletion and to elucidate their possible mechanisms. In Experiment 1, a crossing-out-letter task was adapted to reach an ego depletion state for Chinese participants. Participants were then randomly assigned to the extrinsic motivation group, the positive affect group or the depletion control group. After the experimental treatment, a dumbbell task was used to measure participants' remaining self-regulatory resources. The results showed that participants in the motivation and positive affect groups performed better on the dumbbell task than participants in the depletion control group. Experiment 2 was similar to Experiment 1 except that participants were asked to perform an additional unexpected dumbbell task after a neutral video following the above procedure. The results of Experiment 1 were replicated; however, participants' performance on the additional dumbbell task differed. The positive affect group performed better than the depletion control group, indicating an increase in self-regulatory resources and thus supporting the replenishment effect of positive affect. No significant difference was found between the motivation group and the depletion control group.

  6. Mechatronic Scanning System with Integrated Micro Electro Mechanical System Position Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stavrov, Vladimir; Chakarov, Dimitar; Shulev, Assen; Tsveov, Mihail

    2016-06-01

    In this paper, a study of a mechatronic scanning system for application in the microbiology, microelectronics research, chemistry, etc. is presented. Integrated silicon micro electro mechanical system (MEMS) position sensor is used for monitoring the displacement of the scanning system. The utilized silicon MEMS sensors with sidewall embedded piezoresistors possess a number of key advantages such as high sensitivity, low noise and extremely low temperature dependence. Design of 2D scanning system with a travel range of 22 × 22 μm2 has been presented in present work. This system includes a Compliant Transmission Mechanism, (CTM) designed as a complex elastic mechanism, comprising four parallelograms. Computer aided desigh (CAD) model and finite element analysis (FEA) of the Compliant Transmission Mechanism mechanisms have been carried out. A prototype of the scanning system is fabricated, based on CAD model. An experimental set-up of an optical system and a correlation technique for digital image processing have been used for testing the scanning system prototype. Results of the experimental investigations of the prototyped scanning system are also presented.

  7. A Positive Feedback Loop between HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN Modulates Long-Term Acquired Thermotolerance Illustrating Diverse Heat Stress Responses in Rice Varieties1[W][OPEN

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Meng-yi; Chai, Kuo-hsing; Ko, Swee-suak; Kuang, Lin-yun; Lur, Huu-Sheng; Charng, Yee-yung

    2014-01-01

    Heat stress is an important factor that has a negative impact on rice (Oryza sativa) production. To alleviate this problem, it is necessary to extensively understand the genetic basis of heat tolerance and adaptability to heat stress in rice. Here, we report the molecular mechanism underlying heat acclimation memory that confers long-term acquired thermotolerance (LAT) in this monocot plant. Our results showed that a positive feedback loop formed by two heat-inducible genes, HEAT SHOCK PROTEIN101 (HSP101) and HEAT STRESS-ASSOCIATED 32-KD PROTEIN (HSA32), at the posttranscriptional level prolongs the effect of heat acclimation in rice seedlings. The interplay between HSP101 and HSA32 also affects basal thermotolerance of rice seeds. These findings are similar to those reported for the dicot plant Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), suggesting a conserved function in plant heat stress response. Comparison between two rice cultivars, japonica Nipponbare and indica N22 showed opposite performance in basal thermotolerance and LAT assays. ‘N22’ seedlings have a higher basal thermotolerance level than cv Nipponbare and vice versa at the LAT level, indicating that these two types of thermotolerance can be decoupled. The HSP101 and HSA32 protein levels were substantially higher in cv Nipponbare than in cv N22 after a long recovery following heat acclimation treatment, at least partly explaining the difference in the LAT phenotype. Our results point out the complexity of thermotolerance diversity in rice cultivars, which may need to be taken into consideration when breeding for heat tolerance for different climate scenarios. PMID:24520156

  8. Feedback: Now with Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Quataert, Eliot; Faucher-Giguere, Claude-Andre; Keres, Dusan; Wetzel, Andrew R.; Murray, Norman W.

    2017-01-01

    The most fundamental unsolved problems in galaxy formation revolve around "feedback" from massive stars and black holes. In the last few years, a new generation of theoretical models have emerged which combine new numerical methods and physics in an attempt to realistically model the diverse physics of the interstellar medium, star formation, and feedback from super-massive black holes and massive stars (winds, jets, SNe, and radiation). These mechanisms lead to 'self-regulated' galaxy and star formation, in which global correlations such as the Schmidt-Kennicutt law, the inefficiency of star formation, and the stellar mass function -- emerge naturally. Within galaxies, feedback regulates the structure of the interstellar medium, and many observed properties of the ISM, star formation, and galaxies can be understood as a fundamental consequence of super-sonic turbulence in a rapidly cooling, self-gravitating medium. But feedback also produces galactic super-winds that can dramatically alter the cosmological evolution of galaxies, change the nature of dark matter cores and ‘cusps’, and re-structure the circum-galactic and inter-galactic medium. These winds depend non-linearly on multiple feedback mechanisms in a way that explains why they have been so difficult to model in previous "sub-grid" approaches. This resolves long-standing problems in understanding even apparently "simple" galaxy properties like the mass-metallicity relation. Finally, I'll discuss where feedback fails, and where either additional, exotic physics, or new, previously-dismissed feedback mechanisms, may be needed to explain observations.

  9. Cryogenic Optical Position Encoders for Mechanisms in the JWST Optical Telescope Element Simulator (OSIM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Anderjaska, Thomas; Badger, James (Inventor); Capon, Tom; Davis, CLinton; Dicks, Brent (Inventor); Eichhorn, William; Garza, Mario; Guishard, Corina; Haghani, Shadan; Hakun, Claef; Haney, Paul; Happs, David (Inventor); Hovmand, Lars; Kadari, Madhu; Kirk, Jeffrey; Nyquist, Richard (Inventor); Robinson, F. David; Sullivan, Joseph (Inventor); Wilson, Erin

    2013-01-01

    The JWST Optical Telescope Element Simulator (OSIM) is a configurable, cryogenic, optical stimulus for high fidelity ground characterization and calibration of JWST's flight instruments. OSIM and its associated Beam Image Analyzer (BIA) contain several ultra-precise, cryogenic mechanisms that enable OSIM to project point sources into the instruments according to the same optical prescription as the flight telescope images stars - correct in focal surface position and chief ray angle. OSIM's and BIA's fifteen axes of mechanisms navigate according to redundant, cryogenic, absolute, optical encoders - 32 in all operating at or below 100 K. OSIM's encoder subsystem, the engineering challenges met in its development, and the encoders' sub-micron and sub-arcsecond performance are discussed.

  10. Fast feedback for linear colliders

    SciTech Connect

    Hendrickson, L.; Adolphsen, C.; Allison, S.; Gromme, T.; Grossberg, P.; Himel, T.; Krauter, K.; MacKenzie, R.; Minty, M.; Sass, R.

    1995-05-01

    A fast feedback system provides beam stabilization for the SLC. As the SLC is in some sense a prototype for future linear colliders, this system may be a prototype for future feedbacks. The SLC provides a good base of experience for feedback requirements and capabilities as well as a testing ground for performance characteristics. The feedback system controls a wide variety of machine parameters throughout the SLC and associated experiments, including regulation of beam position, angle, energy, intensity and timing parameters. The design and applications of the system are described, in addition to results of recent performance studies.

  11. Fast Feedback in Classroom Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmett, Katrina; Klaassen, Kees; Eijkelhof, Harrie

    2009-01-01

    In this article we describe one application of the fast feedback method (see Berg 2003 "Aust. Sci. Teach. J." 28-34) in secondary mechanics education. Two teachers tried out a particular sequence twice, in consecutive years, once with and once without the use of fast feedback. We found the method to be successful, and the data that we obtained…

  12. d-Amino Acid Position Influences the Anticancer Activity of Galaxamide Analogs: An Apoptotic Mechanism Study

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Defa; Yu, Siming; Zhong, Shenghui; Zhao, Bingxin; Qiu, Shaoling; Chen, Jianwei; Lunagariya, Jignesh; Liao, Xiaojian; Xu, Shihai

    2017-01-01

    Galaxamide, an extract from Galaxaura filamentosa, is a cyclic pentapeptide containing five l-leucines. Due to the particular cyclic structure and the excellent anticancer activity, synthesis of Galaxamide and its analogs and their subsequent bio-applications have attracted great attention. In the present work, we synthesized six Galaxamide analogs by replacing one of the l-leucines with phenylalanine and varying the d-amino acid position. The anticancer effect of the synthesized Galaxamide analogs was tested against four in vitro human cancer cell lines, human hepatocellular cells (HepG2), human breast cancer cell (MCF-7), human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-435) and a human cervical carcinoma cell line (Hela). Results showed that Galaxamide analogs with different d-amino acid positions displayed distinct anticancer potential. The Galaxamide analog containing d-amino acid at position 5 (Analog-6) presented the strongest anticancer activity. The mechanism study revealed that Analog-6 could cause the early apoptosis of HepG2 cells by inhibiting their growth in the sub-G1 stage of the cell cycle and induce the chromatin condensation and fragmentation, which can be seen as 68% of HepG2 cells inhibited in the sub-G1 stage. Moreover, a mitochondria-mediated pathway was found to be involved in the apoptotic process of Analog-6 on HepG2 cells. PMID:28287429

  13. d-Amino Acid Position Influences the Anticancer Activity of Galaxamide Analogs: An Apoptotic Mechanism Study.

    PubMed

    Bai, Defa; Yu, Siming; Zhong, Shenghui; Zhao, Bingxin; Qiu, Shaoling; Chen, Jianwei; Lunagariya, Jignesh; Liao, Xiaojian; Xu, Shihai

    2017-03-10

    Galaxamide, an extract from Galaxaura filamentosa, is a cyclic pentapeptide containing five l-leucines. Due to the particular cyclic structure and the excellent anticancer activity, synthesis of Galaxamide and its analogs and their subsequent bio-applications have attracted great attention. In the present work, we synthesized six Galaxamide analogs by replacing one of the l-leucines with phenylalanine and varying the d-amino acid position. The anticancer effect of the synthesized Galaxamide analogs was tested against four in vitro human cancer cell lines, human hepatocellular cells (HepG₂), human breast cancer cell (MCF-7), human breast adenocarcinoma cells (MDA-MB-435) and a human cervical carcinoma cell line (Hela). Results showed that Galaxamide analogs with different d-amino acid positions displayed distinct anticancer potential. The Galaxamide analog containing d-amino acid at position 5 (Analog-6) presented the strongest anticancer activity. The mechanism study revealed that Analog-6 could cause the early apoptosis of HepG₂ cells by inhibiting their growth in the sub-G1 stage of the cell cycle and induce the chromatin condensation and fragmentation, which can be seen as 68% of HepG₂ cells inhibited in the sub-G1 stage. Moreover, a mitochondria-mediated pathway was found to be involved in the apoptotic process of Analog-6 on HepG₂ cells.

  14. Using DNA mechanics to predict intrinsic and extrinsic nucleosome positioning signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morozov, Alexandre

    2008-03-01

    In eukaryotic genomes, nucleosomes function to compact DNA and to regulate access to it both by simple physical occlusion and by providing the substrate for numerous covalent epigenetic tags. While nucleosome positions in vitro are determined by sequence alone, in vivo competition with other DNA-binding factors and action of chromatin remodeling enzymes play a role that needs to be quantified. We developed a biophysical, DNA mechanics-based model for the sequence dependence of DNA bending energies, and validated it against a collection of in vitro free energies of nucleosome formation and a nucleosome crystal structure; we also successfully designed both strong and poor histone binding sequences ab initio. For in vivo data from S.cerevisiae, the strongest positioning signal came from the competition with other factors rather than intrinsic nucleosome sequence preferences. Based on sequence alone, our model predicts that functional transcription factor binding sites tend to be covered by nucleosomes, yet are uncovered in vivo because functional sites cluster within a single nucleosome footprint and thus make transcription factors bind cooperatively. Similarly a weak enhancement of nucleosome binding in the TATA region becomes a strong depletion when the TATA-binding protein is included, in quantitative agreement with experiment. Our model distinguishes multiple ways in which genomic sequence influences nucleosome positions, and thus provides alternative explanations for several genome-wide experimental findings. In the future our approach will be used to rationally alter gene expression levels in model systems through redesign of nucleosome occupancy profiles.

  15. Implementation and Tuning of an Optical Tweezers Force-Clamp Feedback System.

    PubMed

    Bugiel, Michael; Jannasch, Anita; Schäffer, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Feedback systems can be used to control the value of a system variable. In optical tweezers, active feedback is often implemented to either keep the position or tension applied to a single biomolecule constant. Here, we describe the implementation of the latter: an optical force-clamp setup that can be used to study the motion of processive molecular motors under a constant load. We describe the basics of a software-implemented proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, how to tune it, and how to determine its optimal feedback rate. Limitations, possible feed-forward applications, and extensions into two- and three-dimensional optical force clamps are discussed. The feedback is ultimately limited by thermal fluctuations and the compliance of the involved molecules. To investigate a particular mechanical process, understanding the basics and limitations of the feedback system will be helpful for choosing the proper feedback hardware, for optimizing the system parameters, and for the design of the experiment.

  16. MAS promoter regulation: a role for Sry and tyrosine nitration of the KRAB domain of ZNF274 as a feedback mechanism.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Jeremy W; Rauscher, Frank J; Peng, Hongzhuang; Liu, Yuanjie; Araujo, Fabiano C; Watanabe, Ingrid; Reis, Fernando M; Milsted, Amy

    2014-05-01

    The ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2)/Ang-(1-7) [angiotensin-(1-7)]/MAS axis of the RAS (renin-angiotensin system) has emerged as a pathway of interest in treating both cardiovascular disorders and cancer. The MAS protein is known to bind to and be activated by Ang-(1-7); however, the mechanisms of this activation are just starting to be understood. Although there are strong biochemical data regarding the regulation and activation of the AT1R (angiotensin II type 1 receptor) and the AT2R (angiotensin II type 2 receptor), with models of how AngII (angiotensin II) binds each receptor, fewer studies have characterized MAS. In the present study, we characterize the MAS promoter and provide a potential feedback mechanism that could compensate for MAS degradation following activation by Ang-(1-7). Analysis of ENCODE data for the MAS promoter revealed potential epigenetic control by KRAB (Krüppel-associated box)/KAP-1 (KRAB-associated protein-1). A proximal promoter construct for the MAS gene was repressed by the SOX [SRY (sex-determining region on the Y chromosome) box] proteins SRY, SOX2, SOX3 and SOX14, of which SRY is known to interact with the KRAB domain. The KRAB-KAP-1 complex can be tyrosine-nitrated, causing the dissociation of the KAP-1 protein and thus a potential loss of epigenetic control. Activation of MAS can lead to an increase in nitric oxide, suggesting a feedback mechanism for MAS on its own promoter. The results of the present study provide a more complete view of MAS regulation and, for the first time, suggest biochemical outcomes for nitration of the KRAB domain.

  17. Iodothyronine deiodinase gene analysis of the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas reveals possible conservation of thyroid hormone feedback regulation mechanism in mollusks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wen; Xu, Fei; Qu, Tao; Li, Li; Que, Huayong; Zhang, Guofan

    2015-07-01

    Iodothyronine deiodinase catalyzes the initiation and termination of thyroid hormones (THs) effects, and plays a central role in the regulation of thyroid hormone level in vertebrates. In non-chordate invertebrates, only one deiodinase has been identified in the scallop Chlamys farreri. Here, two deiodinases were cloned in the Pacific oyster Crassostrea gigas ( CgDx and CgDy). The characteristic in-frame TGA codons and selenocysteine insertion sequence elements in the oyster deiodinase cDNAs supported the activity of them. Furthermore, seven orthologs of deiodinases were found by a tblastn search in the mollusk Lottia gigantea and the annelid Capitella teleta. A phylogenetic analysis revealed that the deiodinase gene originated from an common ancestor and a clade-specific gene duplication occurred independently during the differentiation of the mollusk, annelid, and vertebrate lineages. The distinct spatiotemporal expression patterns implied functional divergence of the two deiodinases. The expression of CgDx and CgDy was influenced by L-thyroxine T4, and putative thyroid hormone responsive elements were found in their promoters, which suggested that the oyster deiodinases were feedback regulated by TH. Epinephrine stimulated the expression level of CgDx and CgDy, suggesting an interaction effect between different hormones. This study provides the first evidence for the existence of a conserved TH feedback regulation mechanism in mollusks, providing insights into TH evolution.

  18. The mechanism of potent GTP cyclohydrolase I inhibition by 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine: requirement of the GTP cyclohydrolase I feedback regulatory protein.

    PubMed

    Kolinsky, Monica A; Gross, Steven S

    2004-09-24

    Inhibition of GTP cyclohydrolase I (GTPCH) has been used as a selective tool to assess the role of de novo synthesis of (6R)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-L-biopterin (BH4) in a biological system. Toward this end, 2,4-diamino-6-hydroxypyrimidine (DAHP) has been used as the prototypical GTPCH inhibitor. Using a novel real-time kinetic microplate assay for GTPCH activity and purified prokaryote-expressed recombinant proteins, we show that potent inhibition by DAHP is not the result of a direct interaction with GTPCH. Rather, inhibition by DAHP in phosphate buffer occurs via an indirect mechanism that requires the presence of GTPCH feedback regulatory protein (GFRP). Notably, GFRP was previously discovered as the essential factor that reconstitutes inhibition of pure recombinant GTPCH by the pathway end product BH4. Thus, DAHP inhibits GTPCH by engaging the endogenous feedback inhibitory system. We further demonstrate that L-Phe fully reverses the inhibition of GTPCH by DAHP/GFRP, which is also a feature in common with inhibition by BH4/GFRP. These findings suggest that DAHP is not an indiscriminate inhibitor of GTPCH in biological systems; instead, it is predicted to preferentially attenuate GTPCH activity in cells that most abundantly express GFRP and/or contain the lowest levels of L-Phe.

  19. Mechanical strain can switch the sign of quantum capacitance from positive to negative.

    PubMed

    Hanlumyuang, Yuranan; Li, Xiaobao; Sharma, Pradeep

    2014-11-14

    Quantum capacitance is a fundamental quantity that can directly reveal many-body interactions among electrons and is expected to play a critical role in nanoelectronics. One of the many tantalizing recent physical revelations about quantum capacitance is that it can possess a negative value, hence allowing for the possibility of enhancing the overall capacitance in some particular material systems beyond the scaling predicted by classical electrostatics. Using detailed quantum mechanical simulations, we found an intriguing result that mechanical strains can tune both signs and values of quantum capacitance. We used a small coaxially gated carbon nanotube as a paradigmatical capacitor system and showed that, for the range of mechanical strain considered, quantum capacitance can be adjusted from very large positive to very large negative values (in the order of plus/minus hundreds of attofarads), compared to the corresponding classical geometric value (0.31035 aF). This finding opens novel avenues in designing quantum capacitance for applications in nanosensors, energy storage, and nanoelectronics.

  20. Managing uncertainty in soil carbon feedbacks to climate change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradford, Mark A.; Wieder, William R.; Bonan, Gordon B.; Fierer, Noah; Raymond, Peter A.; Crowther, Thomas W.

    2016-08-01

    Planetary warming may be exacerbated if it accelerates loss of soil carbon to the atmosphere. This carbon-cycle-climate feedback is included in climate projections. Yet, despite ancillary data supporting a positive feedback, there is limited evidence for soil carbon loss under warming. The low confidence engendered in feedback projections is reduced further by the common representation in models of an outdated knowledge of soil carbon turnover. 'Model-knowledge integration' -- representing in models an advanced understanding of soil carbon stabilization -- is the first step to build confidence. This will inform experiments that further increase confidence by resolving competing mechanisms that most influence projected soil-carbon stocks. Improving feedback projections is an imperative for establishing greenhouse gas emission targets that limit climate change.

  1. Vav1 regulates T cell activation through a feedback mechanism and crosstalk between the T cell receptor and CD28

    PubMed Central

    Helou, Ynes A.; Petrashen, Anna P.; Salomon, Arthur R.

    2015-01-01

    Vavl, a Rac/Rho guanine nucleotide exchange factor and a critical component of the T cell receptor (TCR) signaling cascade, is rapidly tyrosine phosphorylated in response to T cell activation. Vav1 has established roles in proliferation, cytokine secretion, Ca2+ responses, and actin cytoskeleton regulation, however, its function in the regulation of phosphorylation of TCR components, including the ζ chain, the CD3 δ, ε, γ chains, and the associated kinases Lck, and ZAP-70 is not well established. To obtain a more comprehensive picture of the role of Vav1 in receptor proximal signaling, we performed a wide-scale characterization of Vav1-dependent tyrosine phosphorylation events using quantitative phosphoproteomic analysis of Vav1-deficient T cells across a time course of TCR stimulation. Importantly, this study revealed a new function for Vav1 in the negative feedback regulation of the phosphorylation of immunoreceptor tyrosine-based activation motifs within the ζ chains, CD3 δ, ε, γ chains, as well as activation sites on the critical T cell tyrosine kinases Itk, Lck, and ZAP-70. Our study also uncovered a previously unappreciated role for Vav1 in crosstalk between the CD28 and TCR signaling pathways. PMID:26043137

  2. Mechanistic, mathematical model to predict the dynamics of tissue genesis in bone defects via mechanical feedback and mediation of biochemical factors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Shannon R; Saidel, Gerald M; Knothe, Ulf; Knothe Tate, Melissa L

    2014-06-01

    The link between mechanics and biology in the generation and the adaptation of bone has been well studied in context of skeletal development and fracture healing. Yet, the prediction of tissue genesis within - and the spatiotemporal healing of - postnatal defects, necessitates a quantitative evaluation of mechano-biological interactions using experimental and clinical parameters. To address this current gap in knowledge, this study aims to develop a mechanistic mathematical model of tissue genesis using bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) to represent of a class of factors that may coordinate bone healing. Specifically, we developed a mechanistic, mathematical model to predict the dynamics of tissue genesis by periosteal progenitor cells within a long bone defect surrounded by periosteum and stabilized via an intramedullary nail. The emergent material properties and mechanical environment associated with nascent tissue genesis influence the strain stimulus sensed by progenitor cells within the periosteum. Using a mechanical finite element model, periosteal surface strains are predicted as a function of emergent, nascent tissue properties. Strains are then input to a mechanistic mathematical model, where mechanical regulation of BMP-2 production mediates rates of cellular proliferation, differentiation and tissue production, to predict healing outcomes. A parametric approach enables the spatial and temporal prediction of endochondral tissue regeneration, assessed as areas of cartilage and mineralized bone, as functions of radial distance from the periosteum and time. Comparing model results to histological outcomes from two previous studies of periosteum-mediated bone regeneration in a common ovine model, it was shown that mechanistic models incorporating mechanical feedback successfully predict patterns (spatial) and trends (temporal) of bone tissue regeneration. The novel model framework presented here integrates a mechanistic feedback system based on the

  3. The feedback-related negativity is modulated by feedback probability in observational learning.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Stefan; Thoma, Patrizia; Daum, Irene; Bellebaum, Christian

    2011-12-01

    The feedback-related negativity (FRN), an event-related potentials (ERPs) component reflecting activity of the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), has been shown to be modulated by feedback expectancy following active choices in feedback-based learning tasks. A general reduction of FRN amplitude has been described in observational feedback learning, raising the question whether FRN amplitude is modulated in a similar way in this type of learning. The present study investigated whether the FRN and the P300 - a second ERP component related to feedback processing - are modulated by feedback probability in observational learning. Thirty-two subjects participated in the experiment. They observed a virtual person choosing between two symbols and receiving positive or negative feedback. Learning about stimulus-specific feedback probabilities was assessed in active test trials without feedback. In addition, the bias to learn from positive or negative feedback and - in a subsample of 17 subjects - empathy scores were obtained. General FRN and P300 modulations by feedback probability were found across all subjects. Only for the FRN in learners, an interaction between probability and valence was observed. Larger FRN amplitudes for negative relative to positive feedback only emerged for the lowest outcome probability. The results show that feedback expectancy modulates FRN amplitude also in observational learning, suggesting a similar ACC function as in active learning. On the other hand, the modulation is only seen for very low feedback expectancy, which suggests that brain regions other than those of the reward system contribute to feedback processing in an observation setting.

  4. Children's reasoning about evaluative feedback.

    PubMed

    Heyman, Gail D; Fu, Genyue; Sweet, Monica A; Lee, Kang

    2009-11-01

    Children's reasoning about the willingness of peers to convey accurate positive and negative performance feedback to others was investigated among a total of 179 6- to 11-year-olds from the USA and China. In Study 1, which was conducted in the USA only, participants responded that peers would be more likely to provide positive feedback than negative feedback, and this tendency was strongest among the younger children. In Study 2, the expectation that peers would preferentially disclose positive feedback was replicated among children from the USA, and was also seen among younger but not older children from China. Participants in all groups took the relationship between communication partners into account when predicting whether peers would express evaluative feedback. Results of open-ended responses suggested cross-cultural differences, including a greater emphasis by Chinese children on the implications of evaluative feedback for future performance, and reference by some older Chinese children to the possibility that positive feedback might make the recipient 'too proud'.

  5. Primary motor cortex and fast feedback responses to mechanical perturbations: a primer on what we know now and some suggestions on what we should find out next

    PubMed Central

    Pruszynski, J. Andrew

    2014-01-01

    Many researchers have drawn a clear distinction between fast feedback responses to mechanical perturbations (e.g., stretch responses) and voluntary control processes. But this simple distinction is difficult to reconcile with growing evidence that long-latency stretch responses share most of the defining capabilities of voluntary control. My general view—and I believe a growing consensus—is that the functional similarities between long-latency stretch responses and voluntary control processes can be readily understood based on their shared neural circuitry, especially a transcortical pathway through primary motor cortex. Here I provide a very brief and selective account of the human and monkey studies linking a transcortical pathway through primary motor cortex to the generation and functional sophistication of the long-latency stretch response. I then lay out some of the notable issues that are ready to be answered. PMID:25309359

  6. Qualitative tissue differentiation by analysing the intensity ratios of atomic emission lines using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS): prospects for a feedback mechanism for surgical laser systems.

    PubMed

    Kanawade, Rajesh; Mahari, Fanuel; Klämpfl, Florian; Rohde, Maximilian; Knipfer, Christian; Tangermann-Gerk, Katja; Adler, Werner; Schmidt, Michael; Stelzle, Florian

    2015-01-01

    The research work presented in this paper focuses on qualitative tissue differentiation by monitoring the intensity ratios of atomic emissions using 'Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy' (LIBS) on the plasma plume created during laser tissue ablation. The background of this study is to establish a real time feedback control mechanism for clinical laser surgery systems during the laser ablation process. Ex-vivo domestic pig tissue samples (muscle, fat, nerve and skin) were used in this experiment. Atomic emission intensity ratios were analyzed to find a characteristic spectral line for each tissue. The results showed characteristic elemental emission intensity ratios for the respective tissues. The spectral lines and intensity ratios of these specific elements varied among the different tissue types. The main goal of this study is to qualitatively and precisely identify different tissue types for tissue specific laser surgery.

  7. Myostatin signaling through Smad2, Smad3 and Smad4 is regulated by the inhibitory Smad7 by a negative feedback mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiangyang; Topouzis, Stavros; Liang, Li-Fang; Stotish, Ronald L

    2004-06-21

    As a member of the TGF-beta superfamily, myostatin is a specific negative regulator of skeletal muscle mass. To identify the downstream components in the myostatin signal transduction pathway, we used a luciferase reporter assay to elucidate myostatin-induced activity. The myostatin-induced transcription requires the participation of regulatory Smads (Smad2/3) and Co-Smads (Smad4). Conversely, inhibitory Smad7, but not Smad6, dramatically reduces the myostatin-induced transcription. This Smad7 inhibition is enhanced by co-expression of Smurf1. We have also shown that Smad7 expression is stimulated by myostatin via the interaction between Smad2, Smad3, Smad4 and the SBE (Smad binding element) in the Smad7 promoter. These results suggest that the myostatin signal transduction pathway is regulated by Smad7 through a negative feedback mechanism.

  8. Solutions to position-dependent mass quantum mechanics for a new class of hyperbolic potentials

    SciTech Connect

    Christiansen, H. R.; Cunha, M. S.

    2013-12-15

    We analytically solve the position-dependent mass (PDM) 1D Schrödinger equation for a new class of hyperbolic potentials V{sub q}{sup p}(x)=−V{sub 0}(sinh{sup p}x/cosh{sup q}x), p=−2,0,⋯q [see C. A. Downing, J. Math. Phys. 54, 072101 (2013)] among several hyperbolic single- and double-wells. For a solitonic mass distribution, m(x)=m{sub 0} sech{sup 2}(x), we obtain exact analytic solutions to the resulting differential equations. For several members of the class, the quantum mechanical problems map into confluent Heun differential equations. The PDM Poschl-Teller potential is considered and exactly solved as a particular case.

  9. An epidermis-driven mechanism positions and scales stem cell niches in plants

    PubMed Central

    Gruel, Jérémy; Landrein, Benoit; Tarr, Paul; Schuster, Christoph; Refahi, Yassin; Sampathkumar, Arun; Hamant, Olivier; Meyerowitz, Elliot M.; Jönsson, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    How molecular patterning scales to organ size is highly debated in developmental biology. We explore this question for the characteristic gene expression domains of the plant stem cell niche residing in the shoot apical meristem. We show that a combination of signals originating from the epidermal cell layer can correctly pattern the key gene expression domains and notably leads to adaptive scaling of these domains to the size of the tissue. Using live imaging, we experimentally confirm this prediction. The identified mechanism is also sufficient to explain de novo stem cell niches in emerging flowers. Our findings suggest that the deformation of the tissue transposes meristem geometry into an instructive scaling and positional input for the apical plant stem cell niche. PMID:27152324

  10. The Art of Giving Online Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leibold, Nancyruth; Schwarz, Laura Marie

    2015-01-01

    The cultivation of providing online feedback that is positive, effective, and enhances the learning experience is a valuable educator skill. Acquisition of the art of providing feedback is through education, practice, and faculty development. This article provides information about the best practices for delivering online feedback to learners. An…

  11. Mechanical characteristics of ultra-long horizontal nanocantilevers grown by real-time feedback control on focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Dengji; Warisawa, Shin'ichi; Ishihara, Sunao; Kometani, Reo

    2015-12-01

    Focused-ion-beam chemical vapour deposition (FIB-CVD) has been repeatedly proved to be a useful tool for the growth of three-dimensional (3D) micro- and nano-structures. The strategy of real-time feedback control on FIB-CVD was previously proposed and experimentally demonstrated to be effective for growing ultra-long horizontal nanocantilevers. To fabricate various nanoelectromechanical systems that consist of such types of nanocantilever structures, the mechanical characteristics of ultra-long horizontal nanocantilevers should be investigated. In this study, nanocantilevers with an overhang length of up to 35 μm were grown by using a 30 kV Ga+ FIB, a beam current of 0.50 pA and phenanthrene (C14H10) as the gas source to deposit a diamond-like carbon structure. The Young’s modulus of each nanocantilever was measured by bending the nanocantilever with a nanopillar whose Young’s modulus was known. The average density of each nanocantilever was calculated from the Young’s modulus and the measured resonant frequency. We found that the mechanical characteristics of each nanocantilever depended on the length of the nanocantilever if the strategy of real-time feedback control was applied in fabrication. The Young’s moduli and the averaged densities of the nanocantilevers with a length of 11 to 34 μm were found to be 86 to 254 GPa and 1950 to 5750 kg m-3, respectively. With the increase of the overhang length, the Young’s modulus and the average density were found to gradually increase.

  12. Climate forcings and feedbacks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, James

    1993-01-01

    Global temperature has increased significantly during the past century. Understanding the causes of observed global temperature change is impossible in the absence of adequate monitoring of changes in global climate forcings and radiative feedbacks. Climate forcings are changes imposed on the planet's energy balance, such as change of incoming sunlight or a human-induced change of surface properties due to deforestation. Radiative feedbacks are radiative changes induced by climate change, such as alteration of cloud properties or the extent of sea ice. Monitoring of global climate forcings and feedbacks, if sufficiently precise and long-term, can provide a very strong constraint on interpretation of observed temperature change. Such monitoring is essential to eliminate uncertainties about the relative importance of various climate change mechanisms including tropospheric sulfate aerosols from burning of coal and oil smoke from slash and burn agriculture, changes of solar irradiance changes of several greenhouse gases, and many other mechanisms. The considerable variability of observed temperature, together with evidence that a substantial portion of this variability is unforced indicates that observations of climate forcings and feedbacks must be continued for decades. Since the climate system responds to the time integral of the forcing, a further requirement is that the observations be carried out continuously. However, precise observations of forcings and feedbacks will also be able to provide valuable conclusions on shorter time scales. For example, knowledge of the climate forcing by increasing CFC's relative to the forcing by changing ozone is important to policymakers, as is information on the forcing by CO2 relative to the forcing by sulfate aerosols. It will also be possible to obtain valuable tests of climate models on short time scales, if there is precise monitoring of all forcings and feedbacks during and after events such as a large volcanic eruption

  13. Using RFID Positioning Technology to Construct an Automatic Rehabilitation Scheduling Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ching-Sheng; Hung, Lun-Ping; Yen, Neil Y

    2016-01-01

    Accurately and efficiently identifying the location of patients during the course of rehabilitation is an important issue. Wireless transmission technology can reach this goal. Tracking technologies such as RFID (Radio frequency identification) can support process improvement and improve efficiencies of rehabilitation. There are few published models or methods to solve the problem of positioning and apply this technology in the rehabilitation center. We propose a mechanism to enhance the accuracy of positioning technology and provide information about turns and obstacles on the path; and user-centered services based on location-aware to enhanced quality care in rehabilitation environment. This paper outlines the requirements and the role of RFID in assisting rehabilitation environment. A prototype RFID hospital support tool is established. It is designed to provide assistance for monitoring rehabilitation patients. It can simultaneously calculate the rehabilitant's location and the duration of treatment, and automatically record the rehabilitation course of the rehabilitant, so as to improve the management efficiency of the rehabilitation program.

  14. A one-dimensional statistical mechanics model for nucleosome positioning on genomic DNA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tesoro, S.; Ali, I.; Morozov, A. N.; Sulaiman, N.; Marenduzzo, D.

    2016-02-01

    The first level of folding of DNA in eukaryotes is provided by the so-called ‘10 nm chromatin fibre’, where DNA wraps around histone proteins (∼10 nm in size) to form nucleosomes, which go on to create a zig-zagging bead-on-a-string structure. In this work we present a one-dimensional statistical mechanics model to study nucleosome positioning within one such 10 nm fibre. We focus on the case of genomic sheep DNA, and we start from effective potentials valid at infinite dilution and determined from high-resolution in vitro salt dialysis experiments. We study positioning within a polynucleosome chain, and compare the results for genomic DNA to that obtained in the simplest case of homogeneous DNA, where the problem can be mapped to a Tonks gas [1]. First, we consider the simple, analytically solvable, case where nucleosomes are assumed to be point-like. Then, we perform numerical simulations to gauge the effect of their finite size on the nucleosomal distribution probabilities. Finally we compare nucleosome distributions and simulated nuclease digestion patterns for the two cases (homogeneous and sheep DNA), thereby providing testable predictions of the effect of sequence on experimentally observable quantities in experiments on polynucleosome chromatin fibres reconstituted in vitro.

  15. Positive fragile X microsatellite associations point to a common mechanism