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Sample records for positive sentinel lymph

  1. Features Predicting Sentinel Lymph Node Positivity in Merkel Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Schwartz, Jennifer L.; Griffith, Kent A.; Lowe, Lori; Wong, Sandra L.; McLean, Scott A.; Fullen, Douglas R.; Lao, Christopher D.; Hayman, James A.; Bradford, Carol R.; Rees, Riley S.; Johnson, Timothy M.; Bichakjian, Christopher K.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a relatively rare, potentially aggressive cutaneous malignancy. We examined the clinical and histologic features of primary MCC that may correlate with the probability of a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN). Methods Ninety-five patients with MCC who underwent SLN biopsy at the University of Michigan were identified. SLN biopsy was performed on 97 primary tumors, and an SLN was identified in 93 instances. These were reviewed for clinical and histologic features and associated SLN positivity. Univariate associations between these characteristics and a positive SLN were tested for by using either the χ2 or the Fisher's exact test. A backward elimination algorithm was used to help create a best multiple variable model to explain a positive SLN. Results SLN positivity was significantly associated with the clinical size of the lesion, greatest horizontal histologic dimension, tumor thickness, mitotic rate, and histologic growth pattern. Two competing multivariate models were generated to predict a positive SLN. The histologic growth pattern was present in both models and combined with either tumor thickness or mitotic rate. Conclusion Increasing clinical size, increasing tumor thickness, increasing mitotic rate, and infiltrative tumor growth pattern were significantly associated with a greater likelihood of a positive SLN. By using the growth pattern and tumor thickness model, no subgroup of patients was predicted to have a lower than 15% to 20% likelihood of a positive SLN. This suggests that all patients presenting with MCC without clinical evidence of regional lymph node disease should be considered for SLN biopsy. PMID:21300936

  2. Additional non-sentinel lymph node metastases in early oral cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Den Toom, Inne J; Bloemena, Elisabeth; van Weert, Stijn; Karagozoglu, K Hakki; Hoekstra, Otto S; de Bree, Remco

    2017-02-01

    To determine risk factors for additional non-sentinel lymph node metastases in neck dissection specimens of patients with early stage oral cancer and a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A retrospective analysis of 36 previously untreated SLNB positive patients in our institution and investigation of currently available literature of positive SLNB patients in early stage oral cancer was done. Degree of metastatic involvement [classified as isolated tumor cells (ITC), micro- and macrometastasis] of the sentinel lymph node (SLN), the status of other SLNs, and additional non-SLN metastases in neck dissection specimens were analyzed. Of 27 studies, comprising 511 patients with positive SLNs, the pooled prevalence of non-SLN metastasis in patients with positive SLNs was 31 %. Non-SLN metastases were detected (available from 9 studies) in 13, 20, and 40 % of patients with ITC, micro-, and macrometastasis in the SLN, respectively. The probability of non-SLN metastasis seems to be higher in the case of more than one positive SLN (29 vs. 24 %), the absence of negative SLNs (40 vs. 19 %), and a positive SLN ratio of more than 50 % (38 vs. 19 %). Additional non-SLN metastases were found in 31 % of neck dissections following positive SLNB. The presence of multiple positive SLNs, the absence of negative SLNs, and a positive SLN ratio of more than 50 % may be predictive factors for non-SLN metastases. Classification of SLNs into ITC, micro-, and macrometastasis in the future SLNB studies is important to answer the question if treatment of the neck is always needed after positive SLNB.

  3. Prediction of additional lymph node involvement in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Pohlodek, K; Bozikova, S; Meciarova, I; Mucha, V; Bartova, M; Ondrias, F

    2016-01-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has traditionally been the principal method for evaluating axillary lymph node status in breast cancer patients. In the past decades sentinel lymph nodes biopsy after lymphatic mapping has been used to stage the disease. The majority of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) positive patients do not have additional metastases in non-sentinel nodes (non-SLN) after additional ALND. These patients are exposed to the morbidity of ALND without any benefit from additional axillary clearence. In the present study we would like to asses the criteria for selecting those patients, who have high risk for non-SLN metastases in the axilla in cases of positive SLN. In this retrospective analysis, clinical and pathologic data from 163 patients who underwent SLN biopsy followed by ALND were collected. Following clinical and pathological characteristics were analyzed to predict the likehood of non-SLN metastases: age, staging, histologic type and grading of the tumors, hormonal receptor status, HER-2 receptor status and Ki-67 protein, angioinvasion, metastases in SLN and non-SLN. Relative frequencies of individual characteristics between sample groups were statistically tested by Chi-square test at significance level p=0.5, when sample sizes in groups were small (≤5) by Fisher´s exact test. Metastasis in SLN were present in 67 (41%) of patients, 48 patients (29,4%) had metastasis also in non-SLN. The ratio between non-SLN positive / non-SLN negative lymph nodes in patients with positive SLN increases with the stage of the disease, the difference between values for the pT1c and pT2 stadium was statistically significant (p = 0.0296). The same applies to grading, but the differences were not significant (p>0.05). We could not find significant differences for angioinvasion of the tumor, probably for small number of patients with angioinvasion (p>0.05).Only the stage of the tumor was shown to be significant in predicting the metastasis in non-SLN in our

  4. Impact of Completion Lymph Node Dissection on Patients with Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Lee, David Y; Lau, Briana J; Huynh, Kelly T; Flaherty, Devin C; Lee, Ji-Hey; Stern, Stacey L; Day, Steve J O'; Foshag, Leland J; Faries, Mark B

    2016-01-01

    Background The need for complete lymph node dissection (CLND) in patients with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is an important unanswered clinical question. Study Design Patients diagnosed with positive SNB at a melanoma referral center from 1991 to 2013 were studied. Outcomes of patients who underwent CLND were compared to those who did not undergo immediate CLND (observation group, OBS). Results There were 471 patients who had positive SNB; 375 (79.6%) in the CLND group and 96 (20.4%) in the OBS group. The groups were similar except that the CLND group was younger and had more sentinel nodes removed. Five-year nodal recurrence free survival was significantly better in the CLND group compared to the OBS group (93.1% vs 84.4%, p= 0.005). However, the 5- (66.4% vs 55.2%) and 10- year (59.5% vs 45.0%) distant metastasis free survival was not significantly different (p= 0.061). The CLND group's melanoma specific survival (MSS) was superior to the OBS group; 5 year MSS was (73.7 vs 65.5%) and10 year MSS- (66.8 vs 48.3%, p=0.015). On multivariate analysis, CLND was associated with improved MSS (HR 0.60, 95% CI 0.40-0.89, p= 0.011) and lower nodal recurrence (HR 0.46, 95% CI 0.24-0.86, p=0.016). Increased Breslow thickness, older age, ulceration, and trunk melanoma were all associated with worse outcomes. On subgroup analysis, following factors were associated with better outcomes from CLND- male gender, non-ulcerated primary, intermediate thickness, Clark level IV or lower extremity tumors. Conclusions Treatment of positive SNB with CLND was associated with improved MSS and nodal recurrence rate. Follow up beyond 5 years was needed to see a significant difference in MSS. PMID:27236435

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy reveals a positive popliteal node in clear cell sarcoma.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Shibata, Shinichi; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the tendons and aponeuroses is an aggressive, rare soft tissue tumor with frequent metastases to regional lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, which has dramatically changed the management of melanoma, was used for clear cell sarcoma for an evaluation of popliteal and groin lymph node status. Although all isosulfan blue-stained groin lymph nodes were negative for malignancy, a popliteal lymph node was positive. Adjuvant 50 Gy of radiotherapy to the popliteal node might have been effective for local control for one year.

  6. Assessment of an existing and modified model for predicting non sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients with positive sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M; Darwazeh, G; El-Ghanem, M; Hamdan, B; Sughayer, M

    2013-01-01

    The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) breast nomogram has been validated in different populations. In this study, the nomogram was validated for the first time in a Middle East population sample. Although our sample was found to have significant differences from the dataset from which the model was derived, the nomogram proved to be accurate in predicting non sentinel axillary lymph node metastasis. An attempt to use the proportions of involved sentinel lymph nodes instead of absolute numbers of positive and negative sentinel lymph nodes, yet using the same online calculator to predict the probability of non sentinel axillary lymph node metastasis, improved the accuracy, specificity, negative predictive value, and false negative rate. Axillary clearance is the standard of care in patients with invasive breast cancer and positive sentinel lymph node biopsy. However, in 40-60% of patients, the sentinel lymph nodes are the only involved lymph nodes in the axilla. The Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) breast nomogram serves to identify a subgroup of patients with low risk of non sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastasis, in whom axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) could be spared, and thereby, preventing the unwarranted associated morbidity. The MSKCC nomogram was applied on 91 patients who met the criteria. A modified predictive model was developed by substituting proportions of positive and negative SLN for their absolute numbers. The accuracy was assessed by calculating the area under the receiver-operator characteristic (ROC) curve. The MSKCC nomogram achieved an area under the ROC curve of 0.76. The area under the curve for the modified predictive model was 0.81. The specificity, negative predictive value, and false negative were 30%, 71%, 20% (MSKCC model) and 55%, 84%, 17% (modified model) at 20% predicted probability cut-off values. Although differences existed in characteristics of our breast cancer population, and in the methods of

  7. Outcome following sentinel lymph node biopsy-guided decisions in breast cancer patients with conversion from positive to negative axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Young-Joon; Han, Wonshik; Park, Soojin; You, Ji Young; Yi, Ha Woo; Park, Sungmin; Nam, Sanggeun; Kim, Joo Heung; Yun, Keong Won; Kim, Hee Jeong; Ahn, Sei Hyun; Park, Seho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Lee, Eun Sook; Noh, Dong-Young; Lee, Jong Won

    2017-08-01

    Many breast cancer patients with positive axillary lymph nodes achieve complete node remission after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy in this situation is uncertain. This study evaluated the outcomes of sentinel biopsy-guided decisions in patients who had conversion of axillary nodes from clinically positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy. We reviewed the records of 1247 patients from five hospitals in Korea who had breast cancer with clinically axillary lymph node-positive status and negative conversion after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, between 2005 and 2012. Patients who underwent axillary operations with sentinel biopsy-guided decisions (Group A) were compared with patients who underwent complete axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy (Group B). Axillary node recurrence and distant recurrence-free survival were compared. There were 428 cases in Group A and 819 in Group B. Kaplan-Meier analysis showed that recurrence-free survivals were not significantly different between Groups A and B (4-year axillary recurrence-free survival: 97.8 vs. 99.0%; p = 0.148). Multivariate analysis also indicated the two groups had no significant difference in axillary and distant recurrence-free survival. For breast cancer patients who had clinical conversion of axillary lymph nodes from positive to negative following neoadjuvant chemotherapy, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary surgery, and axillary lymph node dissection without sentinel lymph node biopsy had similar rates of recurrence. Thus, sentinel biopsy-guided axillary operation in breast cancer patients who have clinically axillary lymph node positive to negative conversion following neoadjuvant chemotherapy is a useful strategy.

  8. Predictive Factors for Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in the Case of Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Two or Fewer Nodes in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Toshikawa, Chie; Koyama, Yu; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Moro, Kazuki; Tsuchida, Junko; Hasegawa, Miki; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Manba, Naoko; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-Ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-08-01

    In breast cancer, recent clinical trials have shown that sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone without axillary lymph node dissection results in excellent prognosis if there is sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in two or fewer nodes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopathological factors in case of SLN metastasis in two or fewer nodes in breast cancer. Patients who underwent SLNB for invasive breast cancer and were found to have positive SLN in two or fewer nodes were evaluated. The associations between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopahological factors were examined. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. A total of 358 patients were enrolled during the study period and all of these patients were female and 54 patients had SLN metastasis (15%). Positive SLN in two or fewer nodes was identified in 44 patients (81.5%). Among these patients, 17 (38.6%) were found to have non-SLN metastasis. Non-SLN metastasis was associated with invasive tumor size (P = 0.015) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.035). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P = 0.011) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.019) remained significant independent predictors of non-SLN metastasis, and that an invasive tumor size cut-off point of 28 mm was useful for dividing patients with positive SLN in two or fewer nodes into non-SLN-positive and non-SLN-negative groups. Non-SLN metastasis was found in more than 30% of patients with SLN metastasis present in two or fewer nodes. Large tumor size and the presence of lymphatic involvement were significantly associated with non-SLN metastasis.

  9. Predictive Factors for Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in the Case of Positive Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Two or Fewer Nodes in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Toshikawa, Chie; Koyama, Yu; Nagahashi, Masayuki; Tatsuda, Kumiko; Moro, Kazuki; Tsuchida, Junko; Hasegawa, Miki; Niwano, Toshiyuki; Manba, Naoko; Ikarashi, Mayuko; Kameyama, Hitoshi; Kobayashi, Takashi; Kosugi, Shin-ichi; Wakai, Toshifumi

    2015-01-01

    Background In breast cancer, recent clinical trials have shown that sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) alone without axillary lymph node dissection results in excellent prognosis if there is sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in two or fewer nodes. The aim of the present study was to investigate the association between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopathological factors in case of SLN metastasis in two or fewer nodes in breast cancer. Methods Patients who underwent SLNB for invasive breast cancer and were found to have positive SLN in two or fewer nodes were evaluated. The associations between non-SLN metastasis and clinicopahological factors were examined. Statistical analyses were performed using the Mann-Whitney and Chi-square tests, with statistical significance set at P < 0.05. Results A total of 358 patients were enrolled during the study period and all of these patients were female and 54 patients had SLN metastasis (15%). Positive SLN in two or fewer nodes was identified in 44 patients (81.5%). Among these patients, 17 (38.6%) were found to have non-SLN metastasis. Non-SLN metastasis was associated with invasive tumor size (P = 0.015) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.035). Multivariate analysis showed that tumor size (P = 0.011) and lymphatic involvement (P = 0.019) remained significant independent predictors of non-SLN metastasis, and that an invasive tumor size cut-off point of 28 mm was useful for dividing patients with positive SLN in two or fewer nodes into non-SLN-positive and non-SLN-negative groups. Conclusions Non-SLN metastasis was found in more than 30% of patients with SLN metastasis present in two or fewer nodes. Large tumor size and the presence of lymphatic involvement were significantly associated with non-SLN metastasis. PMID:26124908

  10. Predictive Factors for Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Patients With Positive Sentinel Lymph Nodes After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy: Nomogram for Predicting Nonsentinel Lymph Node Metastasis.

    PubMed

    Ryu, Jai Min; Lee, Se Kyung; Kim, Ji Young; Yu, Jonghan; Kim, Seok Won; Lee, Jeong Eon; Han, Se Hwan; Jung, Yong Sik; Nam, Seok Jin

    2017-04-06

    Axillary lymph node (ALN) status is an important prognostic factor for breast cancer patients. With increasing numbers of patients undergoing neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), issues concerning sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC have emerged. We analyzed the clinicopathologic features and developed a nomogram to predict the possibility of nonsentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases in patients with positive SLNs after NAC. A retrospective medical record review was performed of 140 patients who had had clinically positive ALNs at presentation, had a positive SLN after NAC on subsequent SLNB, and undergone axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) from 2008 to 2014. On multivariate stepwise logistic regression analysis, pathologic T stage, lymphovascular invasion, SLN metastasis size, and number of positive SLN metastases were independent predictors for NSLN metastases (P < .05). The NAC nomogram was based on these 4 variables. A receiver operating characteristic curve was plotted, and the area under the curve (AUC) was 0.791 for the NAC nomogram. In the internal validation of performance, the AUCs for the training and test sets were 0.801 and 0.760, respectively. The nomogram was validated in an external patient cohort, with an AUC of 0.705. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram was developed to predict the likelihood of additional positive NSLNs. The Samsung Medical Center NAC nomogram could provide information to surgeons regarding whether to perform additional ALND when the permanent biopsy revealed positive findings, although the intraoperative SLNB findings were negative. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Characterization of the Microenvironment in Positive and Negative Sentinel Lymph Nodes from Melanoma Patients

    PubMed Central

    Messaoudene, Meriem; Périer, Aurélie; Fregni, Giulia; Neves, Emmanuelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Cremer, Isabelle; Chanal, Johan; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Deschamps, Lydia; Marinho, Eduardo; Larousserie, Frederique; Maubec, Eve; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Caignard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Melanomas are aggressive skin tumors characterized by high metastatic potential. Our previous results indicate that Natural Killer (NK) cells may control growth of melanoma. The main defect of blood NK cells was a decreased expression of activating NCR1/NKp46 receptor and a positive correlation of NKp46 expression with disease outcome in stage IV melanoma patients was found. In addition, in stage III melanoma patients, we identified a new subset of mature NK cells in macro-metastatic Lymph nodes (LN). In the present studies, we evaluated the numbers of NK cells infiltrating primary cutaneous melanoma and analyzed immune cell subsets in a series of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). First, we show that NKp46+ NK cells infiltrate primary cutaneous melanoma. Their numbers were related to age of patients and not to Breslow thickness. Then, a series of patients with tumor-negative or -positive sentinel lymph nodes matched for Breslow thickness of the cutaneous melanoma was constituted. We investigated the distribution of macrophages (CD68), endothelial cells, NK cells, granzyme B positive (GrzB+) cells and CD8+ T cells in the SLN. Negative SLN (SLN-) were characterized by frequent adipose involution and follicular hyperplasia compared to positive SLN (SLN+). High densities of macrophages and endothelial cells (CD34), prominent in SLN+, infiltrate SLN and may reflect a tumor favorable microenvironment. Few but similar numbers of NK and GrzB+ cells were found in SLN- and SLN+: NK cells and GrzB+ cells were not correlated. Numerous CD8+ T cells infiltrated SLN with a trend for higher numbers in SLN-. Moreover, CD8+ T cells and GrzB+ cells correlated in SLN- not in SLN+. We also observed that the numbers of CD8+ T cells negatively correlated with endothelial cells in SLN-. The numbers of NK, GrzB+ or CD8+ T cells had no significant impact on overall survival. However, we found that the 5 year-relapse rate was higher in SLN with higher numbers of NK cells. PMID:26218530

  12. Characterization of the Microenvironment in Positive and Negative Sentinel Lymph Nodes from Melanoma Patients.

    PubMed

    Messaoudene, Meriem; Périer, Aurélie; Fregni, Giulia; Neves, Emmanuelle; Zitvogel, Laurence; Cremer, Isabelle; Chanal, Johan; Sastre-Garau, Xavier; Deschamps, Lydia; Marinho, Eduardo; Larousserie, Frederique; Maubec, Eve; Avril, Marie-Françoise; Caignard, Anne

    2015-01-01

    Melanomas are aggressive skin tumors characterized by high metastatic potential. Our previous results indicate that Natural Killer (NK) cells may control growth of melanoma. The main defect of blood NK cells was a decreased expression of activating NCR1/NKp46 receptor and a positive correlation of NKp46 expression with disease outcome in stage IV melanoma patients was found. In addition, in stage III melanoma patients, we identified a new subset of mature NK cells in macro-metastatic Lymph nodes (LN). In the present studies, we evaluated the numbers of NK cells infiltrating primary cutaneous melanoma and analyzed immune cell subsets in a series of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN). First, we show that NKp46+ NK cells infiltrate primary cutaneous melanoma. Their numbers were related to age of patients and not to Breslow thickness. Then, a series of patients with tumor-negative or -positive sentinel lymph nodes matched for Breslow thickness of the cutaneous melanoma was constituted. We investigated the distribution of macrophages (CD68), endothelial cells, NK cells, granzyme B positive (GrzB+) cells and CD8+ T cells in the SLN. Negative SLN (SLN-) were characterized by frequent adipose involution and follicular hyperplasia compared to positive SLN (SLN+). High densities of macrophages and endothelial cells (CD34), prominent in SLN+, infiltrate SLN and may reflect a tumor favorable microenvironment. Few but similar numbers of NK and GrzB+ cells were found in SLN- and SLN+: NK cells and GrzB+ cells were not correlated. Numerous CD8+ T cells infiltrated SLN with a trend for higher numbers in SLN-. Moreover, CD8+ T cells and GrzB+ cells correlated in SLN- not in SLN+. We also observed that the numbers of CD8+ T cells negatively correlated with endothelial cells in SLN-. The numbers of NK, GrzB+ or CD8+ T cells had no significant impact on overall survival. However, we found that the 5 year-relapse rate was higher in SLN with higher numbers of NK cells.

  13. New models and online calculator for predicting non-sentinel lymph node status in sentinel lymph node positive breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Kohrt, Holbrook E; Olshen, Richard A; Bermas, Honnie R; Goodson, William H; Wood, Douglas J; Henry, Solomon; Rouse, Robert V; Bailey, Lisa; Philben, Vicki J; Dirbas, Frederick M; Dunn, Jocelyn J; Johnson, Denise L; Wapnir, Irene L; Carlson, Robert W; Stockdale, Frank E; Hansen, Nora M; Jeffrey, Stefanie S

    2008-01-01

    Background Current practice is to perform a completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for breast cancer patients with tumor-involved sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs), although fewer than half will have non-sentinel node (NSLN) metastasis. Our goal was to develop new models to quantify the risk of NSLN metastasis in SLN-positive patients and to compare predictive capabilities to another widely used model. Methods We constructed three models to predict NSLN status: recursive partitioning with receiver operating characteristic curves (RP-ROC), boosted Classification and Regression Trees (CART), and multivariate logistic regression (MLR) informed by CART. Data were compiled from a multicenter Northern California and Oregon database of 784 patients who prospectively underwent SLN biopsy and completion ALND. We compared the predictive abilities of our best model and the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Breast Cancer Nomogram (Nomogram) in our dataset and an independent dataset from Northwestern University. Results 285 patients had positive SLNs, of which 213 had known angiolymphatic invasion status and 171 had complete pathologic data including hormone receptor status. 264 (93%) patients had limited SLN disease (micrometastasis, 70%, or isolated tumor cells, 23%). 101 (35%) of all SLN-positive patients had tumor-involved NSLNs. Three variables (tumor size, angiolymphatic invasion, and SLN metastasis size) predicted risk in all our models. RP-ROC and boosted CART stratified patients into four risk levels. MLR informed by CART was most accurate. Using two composite predictors calculated from three variables, MLR informed by CART was more accurate than the Nomogram computed using eight predictors. In our dataset, area under ROC curve (AUC) was 0.83/0.85 for MLR (n = 213/n = 171) and 0.77 for Nomogram (n = 171). When applied to an independent dataset (n = 77), AUC was 0.74 for our model and 0.62 for Nomogram. The composite predictors in our model were the product of angiolymphatic

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    MedlinePlus

    ... round organs that are part of the body’s lymphatic system . They are found widely throughout the body and ... lymph vessels and lymph nodes. Anatomy of the lymphatic system, showing the lymph vessels and lymph organs, including ...

  15. Observational study of axilla treatment for breast cancer patients with 1-3 positive micrometastases or macrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Oba, Mari S; Imoto, Shigeru; Toh, Uhi; Wada, Noriaki; Kawada, Masaya; Kitada, Masahiro; Masuda, Norikazu; Taguchi, Tetsuya; Minami, Shigeki; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Sakamoto, Junichi; Morita, Satoshi

    2014-09-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is a standard procedure in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. It has eliminated unnecessary axillary lymph node dissection in more than half of the early breast cancers. However, one of the unresolved issues in sentinel node biopsy is how to manage axilla surgery for sentinel node-positive patients and clinically node-negative patients. To evaluate the outcome of no axillary lymph node dissection in sentinel node-positive breast cancer, a prospective cohort study registering early breast cancer patients with positive sentinel nodes has been conducted (UMIN 000011782). Patients with 1-3 positive micrometastases or macrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes are eligible for the study. The primary endpoint is the recurrence rate of regional lymph nodes in patients treated with sentinel node biopsy. Patients treated with sentinel node biopsy followed by axillary lymph node dissection are also registered simultaneously to compare the prognosis. The propensity score matching is used to make the distributions of baseline risk factors comparable. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  16. [SENTINEL LYMPH NODES DISSECTION IN GYNECOLOGICAL MALIGNANCIES].

    PubMed

    Naaman, Yael; Goldenhersh, Limor; Ben-Arie, Alon

    2017-02-01

    During the last decade sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has become an essential part of primary surgical treatment in a number of malignancies including breast cancer, melanoma and head-and-neck malignancies. Dye or radioactive substances are injected at the primary tumor site, followed by pre-operative and intra-operative mapping. During surgery only positive lymph nodes are being dissected instead of a complete dissection of the lymphatic basin. The advantages of sentinel lymph nodes dissection are reducing the side effects of extensive lymph nodes dissection, while maintaining high detection rates and sensitivity in identifying cases with lymphatic tumor spread. In the past years, the use of sentinel lymph nodes biopsy has also been incorporated in the treatment of gynecological malignancies. In vulvar cancer, it has been shown that sentinel lymph nodes biopsy is correlated with the same survival and recurrence rates as full groin lymph nodes dissection, while substantially lowering complications and especially morbid lymphedema. Preliminary experience in cervical cancer and carcinoma of the endometrium also displays the feasibility and liability of this method. Yet, there are still several controversies regarding the optimal detection method, site of injection and its oncological safety. In this article we present a review of the current literature on this evolving field.

  17. [Analysis of predictive tools for further axillary involvement in patients with sentinel-lymph-node-positive, small (< or =15 mm) invasive breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor; Bori, Rita; Sejben, István; Boross, Gábor; Maráz, Róbert; Svébis, Mihály; Rajtár, Mária; Tekle Wolde, Eliza; Ambrózay, Eva

    2009-11-29

    Small breast cancers often require different treatment than larger ones. The frequency and predictability of further nodal involvement was evaluated in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes and breast cancers < or =15 mm by means of 8 different predictive tools. Of 506 patients with such small tumors 138 with positive sentinel nodes underwent axillary dissection and 39 of these had non-sentinel node involvement too. The Stanford nomogram and the micrometastatic nomogram were the predictive tools identifying a small group of patients with low probability of further axillary involvement that might not require completion axillary lymph node dissection. Our data also suggest that the Tenon score can separate subsets of patients with a low and a higher risk of non-sentinel node metastasis. Predictive tools based on multivariate models can help in omitting completion axillary dissection in patients with low risk of non-sentinel lymph node metastasis based on their small tumor size.

  18. Updated Nomogram Incorporating Percentage of Positive Cores to Predict Probability of Lymph Node Invasion in Prostate Cancer Patients Undergoing Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Alexander; Kneib, Thomas; Wasylow, Clara; Reinhardt, Lena; Henke, Rolf-Peter; Engels, Svenja; Gerullis, Holger; Wawroschek, Friedhelm

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: To update the first sentinel nomogram predicting the presence of lymph node invasion (LNI) in prostate cancer patients undergoing sentinel lymph node dissection (sPLND), taking into account the percentage of positive cores. Patients and Methods: Analysis included 1,870 prostate cancer patients who underwent radioisotope-guided sPLND and retropubic radical prostatectomy. Prostate-specific antigen (PSA), clinical T category, primary and secondary biopsy Gleason grade, and percentage of positive cores were included in univariate and multivariate logistic regression models predicting LNI, and constituted the basis for the regression coefficient-based nomogram. Bootstrapping was applied to generate 95% confidence intervals for predicted probabilities. The area under the receiver operator characteristic curve (AUC) was obtained to quantify accuracy. Results: Median PSA was 7.68 ng/ml (interquartile range (IQR) 5.5-12.3). The number of lymph nodes removed was 10 (IQR 7-13). Overall, 352 patients (18.8%) had LNI. All preoperative prostate cancer characteristics differed significantly between LNI-positive and LNI-negative patients (P<0.001). In univariate accuracy analyses, the proportion of positive cores was the foremost predictor of LNI (AUC, 77%) followed by PSA (71.1%), clinical T category (69.9%), and primary and secondary Gleason grade (66.6% and 61.3%, respectively). For multivariate logistic regression models, all parameters were independent predictors of LNI (P<0.001). The nomogram exhibited a high predictive accuracy (AUC, 83.5%). Conclusion: The first update of the only available sentinel nomogram predicting LNI in prostate cancer patients demonstrates even better predictive accuracy and improved calibration. As an additional factor, the percentage of positive cores represents the leading predictor of LNI. This updated sentinel model should be externally validated and compared with results of extended PLND-based nomograms. PMID:28928857

  19. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma: A Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-08-01

    -Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. -To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. -Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. -The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin-stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non-sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment.

  20. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma A Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Context Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been established as the new standard of care for axillary staging in most patients with invasive breast carcinoma. Historically, all patients with a positive sentinel lymph node biopsy result underwent axillary lymph node dissection. Recent trials show that axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in women with clinically node negative, T1 or T2 invasive breast cancer treated with breast-conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy. This change in practice also has implications on the pathologic examination and reporting of sentinel lymph nodes. Objective To review recent clinical and pathologic studies of sentinel lymph nodes and explore how these findings influence the pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes. Data Sources Sources were published articles from peer-reviewed journals in PubMed (US National Library of Medicine) and published guidelines from the American Joint Committee on Cancer, the Union for International Cancer Control, the American Society of Clinical Oncology, and the National Comprehensive Cancer Network. Conclusions The main goal of sentinel lymph node examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2 mm). Grossly sectioning sentinel lymph nodes at 2-mm intervals and evaluation of one hematoxylin-eosin–stained section from each block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation. Axillary lymph node dissection can be safely omitted in clinically node-negative patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, as well as in a selected group of patients with limited sentinel lymph node involvement. The pathologic features of the primary carcinoma and its sentinel lymph node metastases contribute to estimate the extent of non–sentinel lymph node involvement. This information is important to decide on further axillary treatment. PMID:27472237

  1. Accuracy of the non-sentinel node risk score (N-SNORE) in patients with cutaneous melanoma and positive sentinel lymph nodes: a retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Feldmann, R; Fink, A M; Jurecka, W; Rappersberger, K; Steiner, A

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel node (SLN) biopsy in patients with melanoma permits identification of those at risk for further metastases in non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN). However, a mere 20% of SLN-positive patients have metastases in NSLN. Therefore we need criteria to predict NSLN-positivity. A new score system known as the non-sentinel risk score, (N-SNORE) based on five clinical and pathological characteristics (gender, regression in primary melanoma, proportion of SNs containing melanoma, perinodal lymphatic invasion, and SN tumor burden), was first published in 2010. In this study, the accuracy of N-SNORE was validated in melanoma patients with positive SLN. A total of 106 melanoma patients with positive SLN, who had undergone complete lymph node dissection (CLND) subsequently, were included in the study. The N-SNORE was calculated in all patients, and the risk was compared to the frequency of NSLN metastases. Statistical analysis of the data was performed. Thirteen patients were at very low risk for NSN metastasis (score 0), 63 patients at low risk (score 1-3), 19 at intermediate risk (score 4-5), 6 at high risk (score 6-7), and 5 at very high risk (score >8). NSLN positivity rates for these 5 risk groups were 7.7%, 18.2%, 21.1%, 33.3%, and 80%, respectively. According to Fisher's exact test, the contingency coefficient was .322; the p-value was .025. An increasing N-SNORE was clearly correlated with a higher risk of NSLN positivity. Based on the p-value and the contingency coefficient, the overall accuracy of the N-SNORE was proven on statistical calculation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alsaif, Abdulaziz A.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To report our experience in sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in early breast cancer. Methods: This is a retrospective study conducted at King Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia between January 2005 and December 2014. There were 120 patients who underwent SLNB with frozen section examination. Data collected included the characteristics of patients, index tumor, and sentinel node (SN), SLNB results, axillary recurrence rate and SLNB morbidity. Results: There were 120 patients who had 123 cancers. Sentinel node was identified in 117 patients having 120 tumors (97.6% success rate). No SN was found intraoperatively in 3 patients. Frozen section results showed that 95 patients were SN negative, those patients had no immediate axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), whereas 25 patients were SN positive and subsequently had immediate ALND. Upon further examination of the 95 negative SN’s by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E) and immunohistochemical staining for doubtful H&E cases, 10 turned out to have micrometastases (6 had delayed ALND and 4 had no further axillary surgery). Median follow up of patients was 35.5 months and the mean was 38.8 months. There was one axillary recurrence observed in the SN negative group. The morbidity of SLNB was minimal. Conclusion: The obtainable results from our local experience in SLNB in breast cancer, concur with that seen in published similar literature in particular the axillary failure rate. Sentinel lymph node biopsy resulted in minimal morbidity. PMID:26318461

  3. Radiation field design and regional control in sentinel lymph node-positive breast cancer patients with omission of axillary dissection.

    PubMed

    Setton, Jeremy; Cody, Hiram; Tan, Lee; Morrow, Monica; Hudis, Clifford; Catalano, Jeffrey; McCormick, Beryl; Powell, Simon; Ho, Alice

    2012-04-15

    Randomized data suggest that axillary clearance is not necessary in select, clinically lymph node-negative women with positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsies (SLNBs) who undergo breast-conserving surgery or receive whole-breast radiotherapy and systemic therapy. The additional value of axillary radiotherapy in these patients is unknown. The authors identified 326 patients with positive SLNBs who underwent breast-conserving surgery without axillary lymph node dissection from 1997 to 2009. SLN tumor deposits measured ≤0.2 mm in 58% of patients, 0.3 to 2.0 mm in 35% of patients, and >2 mm in 7% Patients. Ninety-three percent of patients received adjuvant radiotherapy. Radiation fields were categorized as standard tangents, high tangents, comprehensive (tangents plus supraclavicular), or partial breast to reflect coverage of the axilla. Standard tangents included both prone and supine positions. Regional failure was defined as recurrence in the ipsilateral supraclavicular, axillary, or internal mammary lymph nodes. The median follow-up was 55 months (range, 1-158 months). The 4-year rates of regional control, local control, disease-free survival, and overall survival were 99%, 98%, 95%, and 91%, respectively. Three patients had regional recurrences. Two of those patients received adjuvant radiotherapy with standard supine tangents, and 1 patient did not receive radiotherapy. No regional recurrences occurred among 66 patients who received radiotherapy in the prone position. Regional control was high (99% at 4 years) in patients who had low-volume SLN disease who did not undergo axillary dissection, regardless of whether the axilla was irradiated. Whole-breast radiation alone, including in the prone position, is sufficient treatment after breast-conserving surgery for select patients with tumor-containing SLNs who omit axillary dissection. Copyright © 2011 American Cancer Society.

  4. Clinicopathologic features predicting involvement of non- sentinel axillary lymph nodes in Iranian women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Moosavi, Seyed Alireza; Abdirad, Afshin; Omranipour, Ramesh; Hadji, Maryam; Razavi, Amirnader Emami; Najafi, Massoome

    2014-01-01

    Almost half of the breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes have no additional disease in the remaining axillary lymph nodes. This group of patients do not benefit from complete axillary lymph node dissection. This study was designed to assess the clinicopathologic factors that predict non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in Iranian breast cancer patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes. The records of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy, between 2003 and 2012, were reviewed. Patients with at least one positive sentinel lymph node who underwent completion axillary lymph node dissection were enrolled in the present study. Demographic and clinicopathologic characteristics including age, primary tumor size, histological and nuclear grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and number of harvested lymph nodes, were evaluated. The data of 167 patients were analyzed. A total of 92 (55.1%) had non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. Univariate analysis of data revealed that age, primary tumor size, histological grade, lymphovascular invasion, perineural invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio, were associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. After logistic regression analysis, age (OR=0.13; 95% CI, 0.02-0.8), primary tumor size (OR=7.7; 95% CI, 1.4-42.2), lymphovascular invasion (OR=19.4; 95% CI, 1.4- 268.6), extracapsular invasion (OR=13.3; 95% CI, 2.3-76), and the number of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes ratio (OR=20.2; 95% CI, 3.4-121.9), were significantly associated with non-sentinel lymph node metastasis. According to this study, age, primary tumor size, lymphovascular invasion, extracapsular invasion, and the ratio of positive sentinel lymph nodes to the total number of harvested sentinel lymph nodes, were found to be independent predictors of

  5. Predicting non-sentinel lymph node status after positive sentinel biopsy in breast cancer: what model performs the best in a Czech population?

    PubMed

    Coufal, Oldrich; Pavlík, Tomás; Fabian, Pavel; Bori, Rita; Boross, Gábor; Sejben, István; Maráz, Róbert; Koca, Jaroslav; Krejcí, Eva; Horáková, Iva; Foltinová, Vendula; Vrtelová, Pavlína; Chrenko, Vojtech; Eliza Tekle, Wolde; Rajtár, Mária; Svébis, Mihály; Fait, Vuk; Cserni, Gábor

    2009-12-01

    Several models have previously been proposed to predict the probability of non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) metastases after a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to assess the accuracy of two previously published nomograms (MSKCC, Stanford) and to develop an alternative model with the best predictive accuracy in a Czech population. In the basic population of 330 SLN-positive patients from the Czech Republic, the accuracy of the MSKCC and the Stanford nomograms was tested by the area under the receiver operating characteristics curve (AUC). A new model (MOU nomogram) was proposed according to the results of multivariate analysis of relevant clinicopathologic variables. The new model was validated in an independent test population from Hungary (383 patients). In the basic population, six of 27 patients with isolated tumor cells (ITC) in the SLN harbored additional NSLN metastases. The AUCs of the MSKCC and Stanford nomograms were 0.68 and 0.66, respectively; for the MOU nomogram it reached 0.76. In the test population, the AUC of the MOU nomogram was similar to that of the basic population (0.74). The presence of only ITC in SLN does not preclude further nodal involvement. Additional variables are beneficial when considering the probability of NSLN metastases. In the basic population, the previously published nomograms (MSKCC and Stanford) showed only limited accuracy. The developed MOU nomogram proved more suitable for the basic population, such as for another independent population from a mid-European country.

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with extramammary Paget's disease.

    PubMed

    Hatta, Naohito; Morita, Reiji; Yamada, Mizuki; Echigo, Takeshi; Hirano, Takashi; Takehara, Kazuhiko; Ichiyanagi, Kenji; Yokoyama, Kunihiko

    2004-10-01

    Patients with invasive extramammary Paget's disease appear to have a risk of regional lymph node metastasis. Despite the poor prognosis for patients with lymph node metastasis, management of extramammary Paget's disease without clinical evidence of involved nodes is controversial. To evaluate the usefulness of sentinel lymph node biopsy, patients with extramammary Paget's disease underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy using preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative patent blue dye injection with a handheld gamma-detecting probe. Thirteen patients with primary genital extramammary Paget's disease were included in the study. Sentinel nodes identified were excised and examined by hematoxylin and eosin staining. All sentinel lymph nodes were also subjected to immunohistochemical staining for carcinoembryonic antigen, MUC1, cytokeratin 7, and gross cystic disease fluid protein-15. A total of 23 nodes were removed successfully. Tumor cells were detected in 4 nodes from four patients by hematoxylin and eosin staining. No additional lymph nodes were positive by immunohistochemistry. Three of the four sentinel-node-positive patients developed distant metastases. All nine patients without node involvement were free from disease during the follow-up period. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was safe and feasible method and may have an important role in the management of extramammary Paget's disease with clinically N0 status. To establish the optimal management of inguinal lymph nodes in extramammary Paget's disease, additional studies in large number of patients are needed.

  7. Contrast enhanced ultrasound of sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Cui, XinWu; Ignee, Andre; Nielsen, Michael Bachmann; Schreiber-Dietrich, Dagmar; De Molo, Chiara; Pirri, Clara; Jedrzejczyk, Maciej; Christoph, Dietrich F

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes are the first lymph nodes in the region that receive lymphatic drainage from a primary tumor. The detection or exclusion of sentinel lymph node micrometastases is critical in the staging of cancer, especially breast cancer and melanoma because it directly affects patient's prognosis and surgical management. Currently, intraoperative sentinel lymph node biopsies using blue dye and radioisotopes are the method of choice for the detection of sentinel lymph node with high identification rate. In contrast, conventional ultrasound is not capable of detecting sentinel lymph nodes in most cases. Contrast enhanced ultrasound with contrast specific imaging modes has been used for the evaluation and diagnostic work-up of peripherally located suspected lymphadenopathy. The method allows for real-time analysis of all vascular phases and the visualization of intranodal focal "avascular" areas that represent necrosis or deposits of neoplastic cells. In recent years, a number of animal and human studies showed that contrast enhanced ultrasound can be also used for the detection of sentinel lymph node, and may become a potential application in clinical routine. Several contrast agents have been used in those studies, including albumin solution, hydroxyethylated starch, SonoVue(®), Sonazoid(®) and Definity(®). This review summarizes the current knowledge about the use of ultrasound techniques in detection and evaluation of sentinel lymph node.

  8. Clinical significance of microscopic melanoma metastases in the nonhottest sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Luo, Su; Lobo, Alice Z C; Tanabe, Kenneth K; Muzikansky, Alona; Durazzo, Tyler; Sober, Arthur; Tsao, Hensin; Cosimi, A Benedict; Lawrence, Donald P; Duncan, Lyn M

    2015-05-01

    A practice gap exists in the surgical removal of sentinel lymph nodes, from removal of only the most radioactive (hottest) lymph node to removal of all lymph nodes with radioactivity greater than 10% of the hottest lymph node. To determine the clinical significance of melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes that are not the hottest sentinel node and to determine the risk for disease progression based on sentinel lymph node status and primary tumor characteristics. Consecutive patients with cutaneous melanoma with sentinel lymph nodes resected from January 5, 2004, to June 30, 2008, with a mean follow-up of 59 months, at Massachusetts General Hospital were included in this retrospective review. The last year of follow-up was 2012. The operative protocol led to resection of all sentinel lymph nodes with radioactivity greater than 10% of the hottest lymph node. The number of lymph nodes removed, technetium-99m counts for each sentinel lymph node, presence or absence of sentinel lymph node metastases, primary tumor characteristics, disease progression, and melanoma-specific survival were recorded. Microscopic melanoma metastases in the hottest and nonhottest sentinel lymph nodes and factors that correlate with disease progression and mortality. A total of 1575 sentinel lymph nodes were analyzed in 475 patients. Ninety-one patients (19%) had positive sentinel lymph nodes. Of these, 72 (79%) had metastases in the hottest sentinel lymph node. Of 19 cases with tumor present, but not in the hottest sentinel lymph node, counts ranged from 26% to 97% of the hottest node. Progression occurred in 43% of patients with sentinel node metastasis, regardless of whether the hottest lymph node was positive. In patients with negative sentinel lymph nodes, 11% developed metastases beyond the sentinel lymph node basin and 3.4% recurred in the basin. Mitogenicity of the primary tumor was associated with mortality (odds ratio, 2.435; 95% CI, 1.351-4.391; P < .001). Removing only the hottest

  9. Axillary Irradiation as an Imperative Alternative to Axillary Dissection in Clinically Lymph Node-Negative but Sentinel Node-Positive Breast Cancer Patients?

    PubMed

    Nitsche, Mirko; Hermann, Robert

    2011-10-01

    At the moment, positive sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) of the axilla is followed by axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) as standard of care. Recent data proves that omitting ALND after positive SLND in clinically lymph node-negative early stage breast cancer patients is feasible with low recurrence rates. The well known effect of radiotherapy to destroy occult tumor cells highly contributes to these results as a large extent of level I and II lymph nodes are unavoidably included in standard tangential radiation treatment fields. Reviewing the up to date published data on axillary lymph node treatment with radiotherapy, we hypothesize that full dosage coverage of level I and II of the axilla in early stage breast cancer will improve outcome and should be further evaluated.

  10. Most frequent location of the sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Lo, Chiao; Lee, Po-Chu; Yen, Ruoh-Fang; Huang, Chiun-Sheng

    2014-07-01

    Inappropriate skin incisions can make sentinel lymph node dissection difficult. A knowledge of the most common locations of the hotspot in the axilla helps in planning the incision. This information also helps to locate the lymph node preoperatively by ultrasound. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the most common location of the sentinel lymph node in the axilla. From January 2006 to December 2010, 974 consecutive patients who underwent sentinel lymph node dissection guided by (99m)Tc-sulfur colloid were included and the position of the hotspot in the axilla was recorded prospectively. The location of the hottest spot on the skin of the axilla was categorized into seven areas divided by five landmarks. In 98.4% of our patients, the hotspot detected on the axilla skin before sentinel lymph node dissection was located in the area demarcated by the four landmarks of the hairline, a line tangential to and 2 cm below the center of the hairline, the lateral border of the pectoralis major muscle, and the mid-axillary line. The area between these four landmarks is the most frequent location of the sentinel lymph node identified using the radioisotope method. We suggest that this area should be carefully evaluated preoperatively by ultrasound for appropriate surgical planning. A skin incision in this area is also recommended when sentinel lymph node dissection is guided by blue dye. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Clinico-pathological features of patients with melanoma and positive sentinel lymph node biopsy: a single institution experience.

    PubMed

    Homolak, Damir; Šitum, Mirna; Čupić, Hrvoje

    2015-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an established method for the assessment of tumor aggressiveness in patients with primary cutaneous melanoma (PCM). To improve the criteria for the selection of SLNB candidates, the aim of our study was to determine clinico-pathohistological parameters that can serve as predictors of metastatic progression. We retrospectively evaluated all available clinico-pathohistological parameters in 844 patients with PCM diagnosed between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010. SLNB was conducted in 484 (57.3%) patients, 122 (14.5%) of whom had a positive node. The association between predictors and SLNB outcomes (positive SLNB and metastatic development) was tested using logistic regression analysis. The main predictors of positive SLNB were Breslow thickness (adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=1.22; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.11-1.33), Clark levels (AOR=1.78; 95% CI=1.31-2.40), ulceration (AOR=3.1; 95% CI=1.65-5.81), microsatellitosis, gender, and tumor localization. The predictors of metastatic spread were Breslow thickness (AOR=1,69; 95% CI=1.51-1.89), Clark level (AOR=3.59; 95% CI=2.79-4.62), nodular type of melanoma (AOR=8.21; 95% CI=1.70-39.53), ulceration, mitotic rate, microsatellitosis, gender, and tumor localization. It seems that these parameters should be taken into consideration when selecting patients for SLNB since tumor thickness is not a sufficient predictor of SLNB outcome, particularly in case of very thin lesions.

  12. [Predictive factors for non-sentinel lymph nodes affection in breast carcinoma--outcomes of a Czech multicenter study of sentinel lymph nodes].

    PubMed

    St'astný, K; Cervinka, V; Siller, J; Havlícek, K; Gatek, J; Vachtová, M; Zedníková, I; Narsanská, A; Sůvová, B; Treska, V; Kubala, O; Prokop, J; Ostruszka, P; Dostalík, J; Hornychová, H; Hovorková, E; Ryska, A; Hácová, M; Rothröckel, P; Vázan, P; Velecký, J; Hes, O; Michal, M; Horácek, J; Buzrla, P; Cegan, M; Tomanová, R; Dvorácková, J; Záhora, J

    2011-06-01

    The aim of the study was to assess positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes in patients with macro, micro and submicrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes and find predictive factors of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. Study was conducted at the Department of Surgery in Pardubice, Pilsen, Ostrava and Zlín. Sentinel lymph nodes were assessed based on standards of Czech Pathological Society. Detection of sentinel lymph nodes was performed based on radionavigation or combination of radionavigation and blue dye method. In group N1 (macrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 50% (45 from 90 patients). In group N1 Mi (micrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 26.7% (16 from 60 patients). In group NO I+ (sub-micrometastases) there was found positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in 6.7% (1 from 15 patients). Predictive factors were size of metastasis, number of positive sentinel lymph nodes and grading. Size of tumor was not found to be a predictive factor of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. High positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes in pacients with macro and micrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes advocates to perform axillary lymph nodes dissection. Due to small number of patients with submicrometastases it is not possible to assess if axillary dissection is necessary or not. Predictive factors of positivity of nonsentinel lymph nodes are size of metastasis in sentinel lymph nodes, number of positive sentinel lymph nodes and grading. Size of tumor was not found to be a predictive factor due to small tumors in the study. In spite of this it is necessary to consider it like a predictive factor of positivity nonsentinel lymph nodes. In patients with macro and micrometastases it is necessary to perform axillary dissection. In patients with submicrometastases in sentinel lymph nodes it is necessary to consider predictive factors.

  13. Factors associated with involvement of four or more axillary nodes for sentinel lymph node-positive patients

    SciTech Connect

    Katz, Angela . E-mail: abkatz@partners.org; Niemierko, Andrzej; Gage, Irene; Evans, Sheila; Shaffer, Margaret; Smith, Frederick P.; Taghian, Alphonse; Magnant, Colette

    2006-05-01

    Purpose: Sentinel lymph node-positive (SLN+) patients who are unlikely to have 4 or more involved axillary nodes might be treated with less extensive regional nodal radiation. The purpose of this study was to define possible predictors of having 4 or more involved axillary nodes. Methods and Materials: The records of 224 patients with breast cancer and 1 to 3 involved SLNs, who underwent completion axillary dissection without neoadjuvant chemotherapy or hormonal therapy were reviewed. Factors associated with the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes (SLNs plus non-SLNs) were evaluated by Pearson chi-square test of association and by simple and multiple logistic-regression analysis. Results: Of 224 patients, 42 had involvement of 4 or more axillary nodes. On univariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was positively associated with increased tumor size, lobular histology, lymphovascular space invasion (LVSI), increased number of involved SLNs, decreased number of uninvolved SLNs, and increased size of SLN metastasis. On multivariate analysis, the presence of 4 or more involved axillary nodes was associated with LVSI, increased number of involved SLNs, increased size of SLN metastasis, and lobular histology. Conclusions: Patients with 1 or more involved SLN, LVSI, or SLN macrometastasis should be treated to the supraclavicular fossa/axillary apex if they do not undergo completion axillary dissection. Other SLN+ patients might be adequately treated with less extensive radiation fields.

  14. A retrospective, multicenter analysis of the predictive value of mitotic rate for sentinel lymph node (SLN) positivity in thin melanomas.

    PubMed

    Wat, Heidi; Senthilselvan, Ambikaipakan; Salopek, Thomas G

    2016-01-01

    There is a paucity of studies to substantiate whether the presence of a single mitosis justifies sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy (SLNB) in thin melanomas. We sought to determine if mitotic rate is associated with SLNB outcome when taking into account other prognostic factors. All cases of melanoma that underwent SLNB in the province of Alberta, Canada, between 2007 and 2013 were reviewed through a provincial tumor database. A total of 1072 patients fulfilled inclusion criteria. When analyzing all melanomas regardless of thickness, mitotic rate was a good predictor of SLN status. When stratified by Breslow thickness, only intermediate melanomas (1.01-2.0 mm) demonstrated a significant relationship between mitotic rate and positive SLN status (P = .010). For melanomas 1 mm or smaller, mitotic rate was not associated with SLN status. A statistically significant interaction was identified between Breslow thickness and mitotic rate such that for decreasing Breslow depth, the effect of mitotic rate on SLNB status diminished (P = .028). The study was retrospective in nature. There is underlying variability in mitotic rate reporting methods over time, and between different dermatopathologists. Mitotic rate does not have unequivocal utility in predicting SLNB status in thin melanomas. There is a significant interaction between mitotic rate and Breslow depth, such that the predictive value of mitotic rate on SLN positivity may be dependent on Breslow thickness. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. The surgical treatment of a melanoma patient with macroscopic metastasis in peri and retrocaval lymph nodes and with a positive sentinel lymph node in the groin.

    PubMed

    Giudice, Giuseppe; Robusto, Fabio; Nacchiero, Eleonora

    2016-02-04

    The extension of iliac-obturator dissection in melanoma patient with metastatic sentinel node of the groin is very debated. More recent studies - in accord with guidelines for urogenital cancers - suggest the extension to pelvic lymph nodes. At present, however, anatomical limits and indications to pelvic dissection are not defined in melanoma patients with metastatic lymph nodes of groin. A 46-year-old man affected by nodular cutaneous melanoma (Breslow-thickness 10 mm, Clark-level V) on the anterior-medial surface of the right leg underwent sentinel node biopsy of groin. Three macro-metastatic sentinel lymph nodes were removed in right inguinal field and, after 2 weeks, an ipsi-lateral inguinal lymphadenectomy with an extended pelvic dissection was performed. During the surgery, we reported the presence of macrometastases also in retro/peri caval lymph nodes. As a result of these findings, we decided to perform the super-extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Overall we removed 56 lymph nodes with 9 peri-caval and 2 retro-caval macro metastatic lymph nodes. After a period of 49 months, the patients came to our attention with multiple scrotal metastases. The imagining restaging of the patient was already negative for other melanoma localizations. Currently there are no guidelines about indications and anatomical limits of iliac-obturator extension in melanoma patients. The extended pelvic dissection is the gold-standard procedure used in urogenital carcinomas. In case of finding of macro-metastases during the surgical procedure, the approach to follow is even more uncertain. We perform a super-extended pelvic dissection with a good prognosis for the patient. Caval-metastasis, Extended-pelvic-lymphadenectomy, Metastatic-melanoma.

  16. Practice Patterns of Radiation Field Design for Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Early-Stage Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Azghadi, Soheila; Daly, Megan; Mayadev, Jyoti

    2016-10-01

    Recent randomized trials have led to decreased use of completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in early-stage breast cancer patients with a positive sentinel lymph node (SLN), causing controversy surrounding radiotherapy coverage of the axilla. We investigated the practice variation among radiation oncologists for regional nodal coverage for clinicopathologic scenarios and evaluated axillary field design decision-making processes. A customized, web-based questionnaire was e-mailed to 983 community (n = 617) and academic (n = 366) radiation oncologists with a breast cancer subspecialty practicing in the United States. The survey consisted of 18 multiple-choice questions evaluating general clinical preferences surrounding radiation therapy (RT) field design for patients with early-stage breast cancer and a positive SLN. Seven case scenarios were developed to investigate the field design in the setting of specific clinical and pathologic risk factors. Nodal coverage was classified as standard tangents (STs), high tangents (HTs), STs and a supraclavicular field (SCF), or STs and full axillary coverage (AX). A total of 145 evaluable responses were collected, with a response rate of 15.0%. Of the respondents, 12 (8.3%) reported using completion ALND for patients with 1 to 3 positive SLNs without extracapsular extension (ECE) and 66 (45.5%) performed ALND with 1 to 3 positive SLNs with ECE. For micrometastatic SLNs, with no lymphovascular system invasion, 115 (87.1%) used STs or HTs. The use of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) influenced RT field design for patients with a positive SLN without ECE, with 64 (48.5%) using STs and SCF or STs and AX treatment without NAC and 94 (70.7%) using SCF and AX after NAC. With macrometastatic SLN involvement, most respondents preferred SCF (45.27%) and AX (45.66%). In contrast, for micrometastatic involvement, HTs (43.61%) were frequently chosen. Forty (27.8%) reported using online predictive nomograms to predict further

  17. Patterns of recurrence in patients with melanoma and histologically negative but RT-PCR-positive sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Goydos, James S; Patel, Kapal N; Shih, Weichung Joe; Lu, Shou-En; Yudd, Anthony P; Kempf, Jack S; Bancila, Edita; Germino, F Joseph

    2003-02-01

    We studied the patterns of recurrence of patients with only reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) evidence of regional nodal spread to see whether or not proposed treatment interventions are likely to be effective. One hundred seventy-five patients who underwent selective lymphadenectomy for clinical stage I and II melanomas were included in this analysis. We preserved a portion of each sentinel lymph node (SLN) in liquid nitrogen in the operating room and performed RT-PCR on the specimens to detect the melanoma/melanocyte-specific marker tyrosinase. We then compared the pattern of recurrence (regional dermal metastases, regional nodal recurrence, or distant metastatic spread) of the patients with histologically positive SLNs to that of patients who had histologically negative SLNs. The mean followup time of the 175 patients was 33.83 months (SD = 15.94, median = 34.17, maximum = 62.95, minimum = 6.21). Thirty-four patients had at least one histologically positive SLN, and 17 of these patients had a recurrence (50%). Of the 141 patients that had histologically negative SLNs, 73 had SLNs that were also negative for tyrosinase by RT-PCR, and none of these patients had a recurrence. Of the 68 patients that had histologically negative but RT-PCR-positive SLNs, 14 had a recurrence (20.6%). Because the pattern of recurrence of patients with only RT-PCR evidence of melanoma in SLNs was identical to that in patients who had histologically evident melanoma in the SLN and underwent subsequent completion lymphadenectomy, we conclude that completion lymphadenectomy might be ineffective in decreasing the recurrence rate of patients with only RT-PCR evidence of melanoma in SLNs.

  18. Predicting Likelihood of Having Four or More Positive Nodes in Patient With Sentinel Lymph Node-Positive Breast Cancer: A Nomogram Validation Study

    SciTech Connect

    Unal, Bulent; Gur, Akif Serhat; Beriwal, Sushil; Tang Gong; Johnson, Ronald; Ahrendt, Gretchen; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Soran, Atilla

    2009-11-15

    Purpose: Katz suggested a nomogram for predicting having four or more positive nodes in sentinel lymph node (SLN)-positive breast cancer patients. The findings from this formula might influence adjuvant radiotherapy decisions. Our goal was to validate the accuracy of the Katz nomogram. Methods and Materials: We reviewed the records of 309 patients with breast cancer who had undergone completion axillary lymph node dissection. The factors associated with the likelihood of having four or more positive axillary nodes were evaluated in patients with one to three positive SLNs. The nomogram developed by Katz was applied to our data set. The area under the curve of the corresponding receiver operating characteristics curve was calculated for the nomogram. Results: Of the 309 patients, 80 (25.9%) had four or more positive axillary lymph nodes. On multivariate analysis, the number of positive SLNs (p < .0001), overall metastasis size (p = .019), primary tumor size (p = .0001), and extracapsular extension (p = .01) were significant factors predicting for four or more positive nodes. For patients with <5% probability, 90.3% had fewer than four positive nodes and 9.7% had four or more positive nodes. The negative predictive value was 91.7%, and sensitivity was 80%. The nomogram was accurate and discriminating (area under the curve, .801). Conclusion: The probability of four or more involved nodes is significantly greater in patients who have an increased number of positive SLNs, increased overall metastasis size, increased tumor size, and extracapsular extension. The Katz nomogram was validated in our patients. This nomogram will be helpful to clinicians making adjuvant treatment recommendations to their patients.

  19. Axillary Staging After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Breast Cancer: A Pilot Study Combining Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy with Radioactive Seed Localization of Pre-treatment Positive Axillary Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Diego, Emilia J; McAuliffe, Priscilla F; Soran, Atilla; McGuire, Kandace P; Johnson, Ronald R; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Ahrendt, Gretchen M

    2016-05-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) downstages axillary disease in 55 % of node-positive (N1) breast cancer. The feasibility and accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after NAC for percutaneous biopsy-proven N1 patients who are clinically node negative (cN0) by physical examination after NAC is under investigation. ACOSOG Z1071 reported a false-negative rate of <10 % if ≥3 nodes are removed with dual tracer, including excision of the biopsy-proven positive lymph node (BxLN). We report our experience using radioactive seed localization (RSL) to retrieve the BxLN with SLNB (RSL/SLNB) for cN0 patients after NAC. We performed a retrospective review of a single-institution, prospectively maintained registry for the years 2013 to 2014. Patients with BxLN who received NAC and had RSL/SLNB were identified. All BxLNs were marked with a radiopaque clip before NAC to facilitate RSL. Thirty patients with BxLN before NAC were cN0 after NAC and underwent RSL/SLNB. Median age was 55 years. Disease stage was IIA-IIIB. Twenty-nine of 30 had ductal cancer (12 triple negative and 16 HER-2 positive). One to 11 nodes were retrieved. Twenty-nine of 30 BxLN were successfully localized with RSL. Note was made of the BxLN-containing isotope and/or dye in 22 of 30. Nineteen patients had no residual axillary disease; 11 had persistent disease. All who remained node positive had disease in the BxLN. RSL/SLNB is a promising approach for axillary staging after NAC in patients whose disease becomes cN0. The status of the BxLN after NAC predicted nodal status, suggesting that localization of the BxLN may be more accurate than SLNB alone for staging the axilla in the cN0 patient after NAC.

  20. Surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Faries, Mark B; Morton, Donald L

    2007-12-01

    In patients with melanoma, surgery is pivotal not only for the primary tumor but also for regional and often distant metastases. The minimally invasive technique of sentinel node (SN) biopsy has become standard for detection of occult regional node metastasis in patients with intermediate-thickness primary melanoma; in these patients it has a central role in determining prognosis and a significant impact on survival when biopsy results are positive. Its role in thin melanoma remains under evaluation. The regional tumor-draining SN also is a useful model for studies of melanoma-induced immunosuppression. Although completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for patients with SN metastasis, results of ongoing phase III trials will indicate whether SN biopsy without further lymph node surgery is adequate therapy for certain patients with minimal regional node disease.

  1. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma: is there a correlation of preoperative lymphatic mapping with sentinel lymph nodes harvested?

    PubMed

    Hudak, Kristen Ann; Hudak, Kevin E; Dzwierzynski, William W

    2015-04-01

    Nodal status is the most significant prognostic factor in melanoma. No study has examined the relationship between lymphoscintigraphy, γ probe counts, harvested nodes, and nodal status. Two-hundred sixty two patients were identified who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma between 2001 and 2010. Clinicopathologic and treatment information was collected. The number of lymph nodes and basins demonstrated on lymphoscintigraphy was compared to those at surgery. γ Probe counts were compared. Median age was 54.5 years (range, 18-90 years) with 52.3% male. Average Breslow depth was 2.0 (1.9) mm; 99.6% of lymphoscintigraphy studies identified at least 1 basin, 80% showed only 1 (range, 0-4). Lymphoscintigraphy identified on average 1.5 (0.9) sentinel nodes and 31% with secondary node. Surgery excised on average 2.6 (1.4) nodes involving 1.2 (0.5) basins; 17.6% had a positive sentinel lymph node. There was no difference in the sum or average of γ counts between positive and negative sentinel lymph node groups (P = 0.2, P = 0.5). When comparing lymphoscintigraphy and surgical excision, the correlation of lymphatic basins was r = 0.67 and of lymph node numbers was r = 0.33. Lymphoscintigraphy should be used to identify the proper lymphatic basins for a sentinel node procedure, however, the removal of nodes must continue until the background count is less than 10%. The correlation of lymph node number identified on lymphoscintigraphy to surgical excision is weak. γ Probe counts cannot be used to differentiate positive from negative nodes and the positive lymph node is not always the hottest node.

  2. Probabilistic issues with sentinel lymph nodes in malignant melanoma.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, Robin T

    2015-09-01

    To address issues of probability for sentinel lymph node results in melanoma and provide details about the probabilistic nature of the numbers of sentinel nodes as well as to address how these issues relate to tumor thickness and patient outcomes. Analysis of the probability of observing sentinel node metastases uses the discrete exponential probability distribution to address the number of observed positive sentinel nodes. In addition, mathematical functions derived from survival analysis are used. Data are then chosen from the literature to illustrate the approach and to derive results. Observations about the numbers of positive and negative sentinel nodes closely follow discrete exponential probability distributions, and the relationship between the probability of a positive sentinel node and tumor thickness follows closely a function derived from survival analysis. Sentinel node results relate to tumor thickness as well as to the total number of nodes harvested but fall short of identifying all those who eventually develop metastatic melanoma. Probability analyses provide useful insight into the success and failure of the sentinel node biopsy procedure in patients with melanoma. Copyright© by the American Society for Clinical Pathology.

  3. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: predictors of axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    Postacı, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararbaş, Ulkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatkın, Nuket; Akpınar, Göksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

    2013-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Retrospective clinical study. In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice.

  4. Immune cell profile of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with malignant melanoma - FOXP3+ cell density in cases with positive sentinel node status is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome.

    PubMed

    Mohos, Anita; Sebestyén, Tímea; Liszkay, Gabriella; Plótár, Vanda; Horváth, Szabolcs; Gaudi, István; Ladányi, Andrea

    2013-02-18

    Besides being a preferential site of early metastasis, the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is also a privileged site of T-cell priming, and may thus be an appropriate target for investigating cell types involved in antitumor immune reactions. In this retrospective study we determined the prevalence of OX40+ activated T lymphocytes, FOXP3+ (forkhead box P3) regulatory T cells, DC-LAMP+ (dendritic cell-lysosomal associated membrane protein) mature dendritic cells (DCs) and CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs by immunohistochemistry in 100 SLNs from 60 melanoma patients. Density values of each cell type in SLNs were compared to those in non-sentinel nodes obtained from block dissections (n = 37), and analyzed with regard to associations with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcome. Sentinel nodes showed elevated amount of all cell types studied in comparison to non-sentinel nodes. Metastatic SLNs had higher density of OX40+ lymphocytes compared to tumor-negative nodes, while no significant difference was observed in the case of the other cell types studied. In patients with positive sentinel node status, high amount of FOXP3+ cells in SLNs was associated with shorter progression-free (P = 0.0011) and overall survival (P = 0.0014), while no significant correlation was found in the case of sentinel-negative patients. The density of OX40+, CD123+ or DC-LAMP+ cells did not show significant association with the outcome of the disease. Taken together, our results are compatible with the hypothesis of functional competence of sentinel lymph nodes based on the prevalence of the studied immune cells. The density of FOXP3+ lymphocytes showed association with progression and survival in patients with positive SLN status, while the other immune markers studied did not prove of prognostic importance. These results, together with our previous findings on the prognostic value of activated T cells and mature DCs infiltrating primary melanomas, suggest that immune activation

  5. Immune cell profile of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with malignant melanoma – FOXP3+ cell density in cases with positive sentinel node status is associated with unfavorable clinical outcome

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Besides being a preferential site of early metastasis, the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is also a privileged site of T-cell priming, and may thus be an appropriate target for investigating cell types involved in antitumor immune reactions. Methods In this retrospective study we determined the prevalence of OX40+ activated T lymphocytes, FOXP3+ (forkhead box P3) regulatory T cells, DC-LAMP+ (dendritic cell-lysosomal associated membrane protein) mature dendritic cells (DCs) and CD123+ plasmacytoid DCs by immunohistochemistry in 100 SLNs from 60 melanoma patients. Density values of each cell type in SLNs were compared to those in non-sentinel nodes obtained from block dissections (n = 37), and analyzed with regard to associations with clinicopathological parameters and disease outcome. Results Sentinel nodes showed elevated amount of all cell types studied in comparison to non-sentinel nodes. Metastatic SLNs had higher density of OX40+ lymphocytes compared to tumor-negative nodes, while no significant difference was observed in the case of the other cell types studied. In patients with positive sentinel node status, high amount of FOXP3+ cells in SLNs was associated with shorter progression-free (P = 0.0011) and overall survival (P = 0.0014), while no significant correlation was found in the case of sentinel-negative patients. The density of OX40+, CD123+ or DC-LAMP+ cells did not show significant association with the outcome of the disease. Conclusions Taken together, our results are compatible with the hypothesis of functional competence of sentinel lymph nodes based on the prevalence of the studied immune cells. The density of FOXP3+ lymphocytes showed association with progression and survival in patients with positive SLN status, while the other immune markers studied did not prove of prognostic importance. These results, together with our previous findings on the prognostic value of activated T cells and mature DCs infiltrating primary

  6. Unexpected locations of sentinel lymph nodes in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    How, Jeffrey; Boldeanu, Irina; Lau, Susie; Salvador, Shannon; How, Emily; Gotlieb, Raphael; Abitbol, Jeremie; Halder, Ajay; Amajoud, Zainab; Probst, Stephan; Brin, Sonya; Gotlieb, Walter

    2017-10-01

    To evaluate the anatomical location of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) following intra-operative cervical injection in endometrial cancer. All consecutive patients with endometrial cancer undergoing sentinel lymph node mapping were included in this prospective study following intra-operative cervical injection of tracers. Areas of SLN detection distribution were mapped. Among 436 patients undergoing SLN mapping, there were 1095 SLNs removed, and 7.9% of these SLNs found in 13.1% of patients, were detected in areas not routinely harvested during a standard lymph node dissection. These included the internal iliac vein, parametrial, and pre-sacral areas. The SLN was the only positive node in 46.1% (15/36) of cases with successful mapping and completion lymphadenectomy, including 3 cases where the sentinel node in the atypical location was the only node with metastatic disease. SLN mapping using intra-operative cervical injection is capable to map out areas not typically included in a standard lymphadenectomy. The sentinel node is the most relevant lymph node to analyze and may enable to discover metastatic disease in unusual areas. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Ribero, Simone; Sportoletti Baduel, Eugenio; Osella-Abate, Simona; Dika, Emi; Quaglino, Pietro; Picciotto, Franco; Macripò, Giuseppe; Bataille, Veronique

    2017-08-01

    The management of melanoma is constantly evolving. New therapies and surgical advances have changed the landscape over the last years. Since being introduced by Dr Donald Morton, the role of sentinel lymph node has been debated. In many melanoma centers, sentinel node biopsy is not a standard of care for melanoma above 1 mm in thickness. The results of the MSLT-II Trial are not available for a while and in the meantime, this procedure is offered as a prognostic indicator as it has been shown to be very useful for assessing risk of relapse. The biology of lymph node spread in melanoma is a complex field and there are many factors which influence it such as age, melanoma body site, thickness but other factors such as regression, ulceration and gender need further evaluation. In this review, we address the clinical value of sentinel lymph node biopsy and how its indication has changed over the years especially recently with the setup of many adjuvant trials which are offered to stage 3 melanomas.

  8. Sentinel lymph node biopsy indications and controversies in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Wiatrek, Rebecca; Kruper, Laura

    2011-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard of care for early breast cancer. Its use in breast cancer has been evaluated in several randomized controlled trials and validated in multiple prospective studies. Additionally, it has been verified that SLNB has decreased morbidity when compared to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The technique used to perform sentinel lymph node mapping was also evaluated in multiple studies and the accuracy rate increases when radiocolloid and blue dye are used in combination. As SLNB became more accepted, contraindications were delineated and are still debated. Patients who have clinically positive lymph nodes or core biopsy-proven positive lymph nodes should not have SLNB, but should have an ALND as their staging procedure. The safety of SLNB in pregnant patients is not fully established. However, patients with multifocal or multicentric breast cancer and patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy are considered candidates for SLNB. However, the details of which specific neoadjuvant patients should have SLNB are currently being evaluated in a randomized controlled trial. Patients with ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) benefit from SLNB when mastectomy is planned and when there is a high clinical suspicion of invasion. With the advent of SLNB, pathologic review of breast cancer lymph nodes has evolved. The significance of occult metastasis in SLNB patients is currently being debated. Additionally, the most controversial subject with regards to SLNB is determining which patients with positive SLNs benefit from further axillary dissection.

  9. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: Predictors of Axillary and Non-Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement

    PubMed Central

    Postacı, Hakan; Zengel, Baha; Yararbaş, Ülkem; Uslu, Adam; Eliyatkın, Nuket; Akpınar, Göksever; Cengiz, Fevzi; Durusoy, Raika

    2013-01-01

    Background: Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a standard method for the evaluation of axillary status in patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancers. Aims: To determine the prognostic significance of primary tumour-related clinico-histopathological factors on axillary and non-sentinel lymph node involvement of patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy. Study design: Retrospective clinical study. Methods: In the present study, 157 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 151 consecutive patients with early stage breast cancer between June 2008 and December 2011. Results: Successful lymphatic mapping was obtained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). The incidence of larger tumour size (2.543±1.21 vs. 1.974±1.04), lymphatic vessel invasion (70.6% vs. 29.4%), blood vessel invasion (84.2% vs. 15.8%), and invasive lobular carcinoma subtype (72.7% vs. 27.3%) were statistically significantly higher in patients with positive SLNs. Logistic stepwise regression analysis disclosed tumour size (odds ratio: 1.51, p=0.0021) and lymphatic vessel invasion (odds ratio: 4.68, p=0.001) as significant primary tumour-related prognostic determinants of SLN metastasis. Conclusion: A close relationship was identified between tumour size and lymphatic vessel invasion of the primary tumour and axillary lymph node involvement. However, the positive predictive value of these two independent variables is low and there is no compelling evidence to recommend their use in routine clinical practice. PMID:25207151

  10. Frequency of level II and III axillary nodes metastases in patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma: a multi-institutional study in Japan.

    PubMed

    Tsutsumida, Arata; Takahashi, Akira; Namikawa, Kenjiro; Yamazaki, Naoya; Uhara, Hisashi; Teramoto, Yukiko; Takenouchi, Tatsuya; Fukushima, Satoshi; Yokota, Kenji; Uehara, Jiro; Matsushita, Shigeto; Shibayama, Yoshitsugu; Hatta, Naohito; Masui, Yuri; Uchi, Hiroshi; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Ogata, Dai

    2016-08-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) has been recommended to include levels I-III for melanoma patients who have evidence of metastasis in the axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN). The extent of the subsequent axillary dissection is in debate. The objective of this study was to determine the frequency of metastasis of level III nodes in addition to that of level II nodes in this setting. A multi-institutional retrospective study was undertaken in 14 melanoma treatment centers in Japan. Between 2007 and 2012, 69 patients with involved axillary SLNs underwent a subsequent ALND and 55 underwent level I and II dissections. Level III metastatic nodes, which is our primary endpoint, were seen in only 1 patient (1.5 %). The level II metastatic rate was 4.4 %. Our study sample size was small, but melanoma patients with positive SLN rarely had level III disease, suggesting that level III dissection may be unnecessary. We also found that level II metastasis was not so frequent. More evidence is needed to standardize the extent of ALND and to identify the patients who would have the most benefit with undergoing level II dissection for positive axillary SLNs.

  11. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer: A Clinical Review and Update.

    PubMed

    Zahoor, Sheikh; Haji, Altaf; Battoo, Azhar; Qurieshi, Mariya; Mir, Wahid; Shah, Mudasir

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a standard staging tool in the surgical management of breast cancer. The positive impact of sentinel lymph node biopsy on postoperative negative outcomes in breast cancer patients, without compromising the oncological outcomes, is its major advantage. It has evolved over the last few decades and has proven its utility beyond early breast cancer. Its applicability and efficacy in patients with clinically positive axilla who have had a complete clinical response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy is being aggressively evaluated at present. This article discusses how sentinel lymph node biopsy has evolved and is becoming a useful tool in new clinical scenarios of breast cancer management.

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of Liver

    PubMed Central

    Wada, Hideyuki; Hyun, Hoon; Vargas, Christina; Genega, Elizabeth M.; Gravier, Julien; Gioux, Sylvain; Frangioni, John V.; Choi, Hak Soo

    2015-01-01

    Background Although the sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) hypothesis has been applied to many tissues and organs, liver has remained unstudied. At present, it is unclear whether hepatic SLNs even exist. If so, they could alter management in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma and other hepatic malignancies by minimizing the extent of surgery while still providing precise nodal staging. We investigated whether invisible yet tissue-penetrating near-infrared (NIR) fluorescent light can provide simultaneous identification of both the sentinel lymph node (SLN) and all other regional lymph nodes (RLN) in the liver. Method In twenty five Yorkshire pigs, we determined whether SLNs exist in liver, and compared the effectiveness of two clinically available NIR fluorophores, methylene blue (MB) and indocyanine green (ICG), and two novel NIR fluorophores previously described by our group, ESNF14 and ZW800-3C, for SLN and RLN mapping. Results ESNF14 showed the highest signal-to-background ratio (SBR) and longest retention time in SLNs, without leakage to second-tier lymph nodes. ICG had apparent leakage to second-tier nodes, while ZW800-3C suffered from poor migration after intraparenchymal injection. However, when injected intravenously, ZW800-3C was able to highlight all RLNs in liver over a 4–6 h period. Simultaneous dual channel imaging of SLN (ESNF14) and RLN (ZW800-3C) permitted unambiguous identification and image-guided resection of SLNs and RLNs in liver. Conclusion The NIR imaging technology enables real-time intraoperative identification of SLNs and RLNs in the liver of swine. If these results are confirmed in patients, new strategies for the surgical management of intrahepatic malignancies should be possible. PMID:25968620

  13. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed. Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized. The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results. The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal

  14. Sentinel Lymph Node Evaluation in Women with Cervical Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Holman, Laura L.; Levenback, Charles F.; Frumovitz, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Lymph node status is the most important prognosticator of survival among women with early stage cervical cancer. This means that many cervical cancer patients will undergo pelvic lymphadenectomy as part of their treatment. Unfortunately, this procedure is associated with significant morbidity. Utilizing the sentinel lymph node technique for women with cervical cancer has the potential to decrease this morbidity. Multiple studies have suggested that sentinel lymph node mapping in these patients is feasible with excellent detection rates and sensitivity. This review examines the current body of literature regarding sentinel lymph node biopsy among women with cervical cancer. PMID:24407177

  15. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review.

    PubMed

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and bilateral detection than methylene blue.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Nodes Mapping in Cervical Cancer a Comprehensive Review

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Yasser

    2017-01-01

    Objective A comprehensive literature search for more recent studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping in the surveillance of cervical cancer to assess if sentinel lymph node mapping has sensitivity and specificity for evaluation of the disease; assessment of posttreatment response and disease recurrence in cervical cancer. Materials and Methods The literature review has been constructed on a step wise study design that includes 5 major steps. This includes search for relevant publications in various available databases, application of inclusion and exclusion criteria for the selection of relevant publications, assessment of quality of the studies included, extraction of the relevant data and coherent synthesis of the data. Results The search yielded numerous studies pertaining to sentinel lymph node mapping, especially on the recent trends, comparison between various modalities and evaluation of the technique. Evaluation studies have appraised high sensitivity, high negative predictive values and low false-negative rate for metastasis detection using sentinel lymph node mapping. Comparative studies have established that of all the modalities for sentinel lymph node mapping, indocyanine green sentinel lymph node mapping has higher overall and bilateral detection rates. Corroboration of the deductions of these studies further establishes that the sentinel node detection rate and sensitivity are strongly correlated to the method or technique of mapping and the history of preoperative neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Conclusions The review takes us to the strong conclusion that sentinel lymph node mapping is an ideal technique for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in cervical cancer patients with excellent detection rates and high sensitivity. The review also takes us to the supposition that a routine clinical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes is feasible and a real-time florescence mapping with indocyanine green dye gives better statistically significant overall and

  17. Inguinal sentinel lymph node biopsy for staging anal cancer.

    PubMed

    Péley, G; Farkas, E; Sinkovics, I; Kovács, T; Keresztes, S; Orosz, Z; Köves, I

    2002-01-01

    The optimal treatment of clinically negative inguinal lymph nodes in patients with primary anal cancer has not yet been clearly defined. The presence of metastases in the inguinal lymph nodes is an adverse prognostic factor for anal cancer. In the present study the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for staging anal cancer was investigated. From September 1999 to March 2002, 8 patients with biopsy proven primary anal cancer underwent lymphoscintigraphy and dual-agent guided inguinal SLNB for nodal staging before starting multimodality treatment. Inguinal SLNB was successful in all 8 patients (13 groins). A total of 20 hot and blue SLNs (mean 1,5 (1-2) per groins) were removed. In 2 patients (25%) the SLN was positive for metastasis. Lymphoscintigraphy followed by dual-agent guided inguinal SLNB is technically feasible for staging patients with primary anal cancer. The detection of metastases in the removed sentinel lymph node(s) may alter the treatment and thus may improve the locoregional control and overall survival of these patients.

  18. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with no preoperative evidence of lymph node metastasis.

    PubMed

    González, Óscar; Zafon, Carles; Caubet, Enric; García-Burillo, Amparo; Serres, Xavier; Fort, José Manuel; Mesa, Jordi; Castell, Joan; Roca, Isabel; Ramón Y Cajal, Santiago; Iglesias, Carmela

    2017-10-01

    Lymphadenectomy is recommended during surgery for papillary thyroid carcinoma when there is evidence of cervical lymph node metastasis (therapeutic) or in high-risk patients (prophylactic) such as those with T3 and T4 tumors of the TNM classification. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy may improve preoperative diagnosis of nodal metastases. To analyze the results of selective sentinel lymph node biopsy in a group of patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no evidence of nodal involvement before surgery. A retrospective, single-center study in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma and no clinical evidence of lymph node involvement who underwent surgery between 2011 and 2013. The sentinel node was identified by scintigraphy. When the sentinel node was positive, the affected compartment was removed, and when sentinel node was negative, central lymph node dissection was performed. Forty-three patients, 34 females, with a mean age of 52.3 (±17) years, were enrolled. Forty-six (27%) of the 170 SNs resected from 24 (55.8%) patients were positive for metastasis. In addition, 94 (15.6%) out of the 612 lymph nodes removed in the lymphadenectomies were positive for metastases. Twelve of the 30 (40%) low risk patients (cT1N0 and cT2N0) changed their stage to pN1, whereas 12 of 13 (92%) high risk patients (cT3N0 and cT4N0) changed to pN1 stage. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy changes the stage of more than 50% of patients from cN0 to pN1. This confirms the need for lymph node resection in T3 and T4 tumors, but reveals the presence of lymph node metastases in 40% of T1-T2 tumors. Copyright © 2017 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection After Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy in Patients with Node-Positive Breast Cancer at Diagnosis: Practice Patterns of American Society of Breast Surgeons Members.

    PubMed

    Caudle, Abigail S; Bedrosian, Isabelle; Milton, Denái R; DeSnyder, Sarah M; Kuerer, Henry M; Hunt, Kelly K; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A

    2017-08-01

    The accuracy of sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) in clinically node-positive patients who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been investigated in clinical trials. This survey was designed to assess familiarity and impact of these trial findings into practice. American Society of Breast Surgeons members were invited by e-mail to complete an anonymous online survey. A total of 642 members responded (21% of 3090 eligible members). Results were summarized as proportions based on the number of responses to each question. Respondents indicated knowledge of the Z1071 (86%), SENTINA (57%), and SN-FNAC (39%) trials. The published false negative rates (FNR) of the trials were correctly reported by 53% (336/638) of respondents. Before the trials, 45% (285/636) offered SLND compared with 85% (543/638) after the trials. In the 556 respondents who reported knowledge of at least one trial, 310 (56%) currently offer SLND to >50% of patients, 175 (31%) offer to <50%, and 70 (13%) routinely perform axillary lymph node dissection. Respondents who reported knowledge of the trials but did not change their practice to incorporate SLND (n = 67) cited concerns over lack of outcome data (64%), worries about FNR (42%), lack of resources (34%), or objections from radiation oncologists (25%), medical oncologists (18%), or other surgeons (8%). The publication of trials evaluating SLND in clinically node-positive patients has resulted in changes in practice. Concerns over the FNR and lack of outcome data limit incorporation of SLND into practice by some surgeons.

  20. Clinical utilities and biological characteristics of melanoma sentinel lymph nodes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Dale; Thomas, Daniel C; Zager, Jonathan S; Pockaj, Barbara; White, Richard L; Leong, Stanley PL

    2016-01-01

    An estimated 73870 people will be diagnosed with melanoma in the United States in 2015, resulting in 9940 deaths. The majority of patients with cutaneous melanomas are cured with wide local excision. However, current evidence supports the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) given the 15%-20% of patients who harbor regional node metastasis. More importantly, the presence or absence of nodal micrometastases has been found to be the most important prognostic factor in early-stage melanoma, particularly in intermediate thickness melanoma. This review examines the development of SLNB for melanoma as a means to determine a patient’s nodal status, the efficacy of SLNB in patients with melanoma, and the biology of melanoma metastatic to sentinel lymph nodes. Prospective randomized trials have guided the development of practice guidelines for use of SLNB for melanoma and have shown the prognostic value of SLNB. Given the rapidly advancing molecular and surgical technologies, the technical aspects of diagnosis, identification, and management of regional lymph nodes in melanoma continues to evolve and to improve. Additionally, there is ongoing research examining both the role of SLNB for specific clinical scenarios and the ways to identify patients who may benefit from completion lymphadenectomy for a positive SLN. Until further data provides sufficient evidence to alter national consensus-based guidelines, SLNB with completion lymphadenectomy remains the standard of care for clinically node-negative patients found to have a positive SLN. PMID:27081640

  1. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part I.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy for melanoma was introduced in the early 1990s as a minimally invasive method of identifying and pathologically staging regional lymph node basins in patients with clinical stage I/II melanoma. Numerous large trials have demonstrated that sentinel lymph node evaluation has utility in improving accuracy of prognostication and for risk stratifying patients into appropriate groups for clinical trials. However, there remains a great deal of controversy regarding the therapeutic role of removal of the remainder of locoregional lymph nodes should metastatic cells be identified in the sentinel node. This CME article will outline a brief history of the sentinel node concept before reviewing updates in surgical technique, histopathologic evaluation of nodal tissue, and cost effectiveness of sentinel node biopsy. After completing this learning activity, participants should be able to describe the concept of sentinel lymph node biopsy, to discuss the risks and benefits associated with this procedure, and to summarize the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in management of patients with melanoma. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Nonmelanoma Skin Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Matthey-Giè, Marie-Laure; Boubaker, Ariane; Letovanec, Igor; Demartines, Nicolas; Matter, Maurice

    2013-01-01

    The management of lymph nodes in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients is currently still debated. Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC), squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), pigmented epithelioid melanocytoma (PEM), and other rare skin neoplasms have a well-known risk to spread to regional lymph nodes. The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) could be a promising procedure to assess this risk in clinically N0 patients. Metastatic SNs have been observed in 4.5–28% SCC (according to risk factors), in 9–42% MCC, and in 14–57% PEM. We observed overall 30.8% positive SNs in 13 consecutive patients operated for high-risk nonmelanoma skin cancer between 2002 and 2011 in our institution. These high rates support recommendation to implement SLNB for nonmelanoma skin cancer especially for SCC patients. Completion lymph node dissection following positive SNs is also a matter of discussion especially in PEM. It must be remembered that a definitive survival benefit of SLNB in melanoma patients has not been proven yet. However, because of its low morbidity when compared to empiric elective lymph node dissection or radiation therapy of lymphatic basins, SLNB has allowed sparing a lot of morbidity and could therefore be used in nonmelanoma skin cancer patients, even though a significant impact on survival has not been demonstrated. PMID:23476781

  3. Immune response in melanoma: an in-depth analysis of the primary tumor and corresponding sentinel lymph node

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Michelle W.; Medicherla, Ratna C.; Qian, Meng; de Miera, Eleazar Vega-Saenz; Friedman, Erica B.; Berman, Russell S.; Shapiro, Richard L.; Pavlick, Anna C.; Ott, Patrick A.; Bhardwaj, Nina; Shao, Yongzhao; Osman, Iman; Darvishian, Farbod

    2013-01-01

    The sentinel lymph node is the initial site of metastasis. Down-regulation of anti-tumor immunity plays a role in nodal progression. Our objective was to investigate the relationship between immune modulation and sentinel lymph node positivity, correlating it with outcome in melanoma patients. Lymph node/primary tissues from melanoma patients prospectively accrued and followed at New York University Medical Center were evaluated for the presence of regulatory T-cells (Foxp3+) and dendritic cells (conventional: CD11c+, mature: CD86+) using immunohistochemistry. Primary melanoma immune cell profiles from sentinel lymph node-positive/-negative patients were compared. Logistic regression models inclusive of standard-of-care/immunologic primary tumor characteristics were constructed to predict the risk of sentinel lymph node positivity. Immunological responses in the positive sentinel lymph node were also compared to those in the negative non-sentinel node from the same nodal basin and matched negative sentinel lymph node. Decreased immune response was defined as increased regulatory T-cells or decreased dendritic cells. Associations between the expression of these immune modulators, clinicopathologic variables, and clinical outcome were evaluated using univariate/multivariate analyses. Primary tumor conventional dendritic cells and regression were protective against sentinel lymph node metastasis (odds ratio=0.714, 0.067; P=0.0099, 0.0816, respectively). Anti-tumor immunity was down-regulated in the positive sentinel lymph node with an increase in regulatory T-cells compared to the negative non-sentinel node from the same nodal basin (P=0.0005) and matched negative sentinel lymph node (P=0.0002). The positive sentinel lymph node also had decreased numbers of conventional dendritic cells compared to the negative sentinel lymph node (P<0.0001). Adding sentinel lymph node regulatory T-cell expression improved the discriminative power of a recurrence risk assessment model

  4. Sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal: early experience.

    PubMed

    Damin, Daniel C; Rosito, Mario A; Gus, Pedro; Spiro, Bernardo L; Amaral, Beatriz B; Meurer, Luise; Cartel, Andre; Schwartsmann, Gilberto

    2003-08-01

    This study was conducted to assess the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal. Between February 2001 and November 2002, 14 patients with epidermoid carcinoma of the anal canal and no clinical evidence of inguinal involvement were prospectively enrolled in the study. The sentinel lymph node procedure consisted of a combination of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with technetium 99m dextran 500 injected around the tumor and intraoperative detection of the sentinel node with a gamma probe. Patent blue V dye was also injected at the periphery of the tumor to facilitate direct identification of the blue-stained lymph node. After removal, the sentinel node was studied by hematoxylin and eosin staining and immunohistochemistry for pancytokeratins (antigen A1 and A3). Detection and removal of sentinel lymph nodes was possible in all patients. There was no correlation between tumor size and pattern of lymphatic drainage to the groin. Tumors located in the midline of the anal canal gave rise to bilateral sentinel nodes in eight of nine cases. In total, 23 sentinel lymph nodes were removed. One patient (7.1 percent) had a node identified as positive for metastatic carcinoma on immunohistochemical staining. Surgical complications were minimal. The standardized technique was safe and highly effective in sampling inguinal sentinel lymph nodes in carcinoma of the anal canal. It also proved to be useful as an instrument to detect micrometastatic deposits in clinically normal nodes. Our early results suggest the sentinel lymph node procedure may have a role in guiding a more selective approach for patients with anal cancer. Additional studies in a larger patient population to determine the sensitivity and specificity of this method are warranted.

  5. Importance of sentinel lymph nodes in colorectal cancer: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Köksal, Hande; Bostanci, Hasan; Mentes, B Bülent

    2007-01-01

    Accurate identification of lymph nodes involved in metastases is vitally important for predicting survival, and it facilitates decision making with regard to adjuvant therapy. The study described here, which was undertaken to evaluate the role of sentinel lymph node mapping in refining the staging of colorectal cancer, was performed prospectively in 19 patients with colorectal cancer who underwent surgery from January to July 2005. Sentinel lymph node sampling was performed during each operation with isosulfan blue dye. Additional immunohistochemical staining was performed only if the sentinel nodes were negative for metastasis. In 18 of 19 patients, at least 1 sentinel node was identified. In 5 of 18 patients, sentinel nodes were positive for metastasis, and in 3 of 5, the sentinel node was the only node containing metastasis that was detected by immunohistochemical staining. In 3 patients, metastases in nonsentinel lymph nodes were detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining; these were determined to be false-negative results. Upstaging associated with sentinel lymph node mapping may reveal disease that might otherwise remain undetected by conventional methods. Patients who are upstaged may benefit from adjuvant therapies that have been shown to improve survival.

  6. [Intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph nodes in lung cancer].

    PubMed

    Akopov, A L; Papayan, G V; Chistyakov, I V

    2015-01-01

    An analysis of the scientific data was made. It was used the literature devoted to the intraoperative visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes in patients with lung cancer. Correct detection of such lymph nodes with following pathologic investigation allowed limiting the volume of lympho-dissection in a number of patients. There is the possibility of maximal in-depth study of the sentinel lymph nodes by purposeful application of most sensible pathologic and molecular methods for detection their micrometastatic lesions. At the same time the treatment strategy and prognosis could be determined. The authors present the results of an application of dye techniques, radioactive preparation and fluorescence imaging for sentinel lymph node detection. Advantages and disadvantages of the methods are shown in the article. There are validated the prospects of technical development, study of information value of new applications and the most perspective method of fluorescence indocyanine green visualization by lymph outflow.

  7. Photoacoustic image-guided needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Akers, Walter J.; Maslov, Konstantin; Song, Liang; Jankovic, Ladislav; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Achilefu, Samuel; Wang, Lihong V.

    2011-03-01

    We have implemented a hand-held photoacoustic and ultrasound probe for image-guided needle biopsy using a modified clinical ultrasound array system. Pulsed laser light was delivered via bifurcated optical fiber bundles integrated with the hand-held ultrasound probe. We photoacoustically guided needle insertion into rat sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following accumulation of indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic image contrast of the needle was achieved. After intradermal injection of ICG in the left forepaw, deeply positioned SLNs (beneath 2-cm thick chicken breast) were easily indentified in vivo and in real time. Further, we confirmed ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes with in vivo and ex vivo fluorescence imaging. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this hand-held photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of SLNs for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  8. Intraoperative Frozen Section Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Carcinoma: Single-Institution Indian Experience.

    PubMed

    Somashekhar, S P; Naikoo, Zahoor Ahmed; Zaveri, Shabber S; Holla, Soumya; Chandra, Suresh; Mishra, Suniti; Parameswaran, R V

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is an established way of predicting axillary nodal metastasis in early breast cancer. Intraoperative frozen sections (FS) of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) can be used to detect metastatic disease, allowing immediate axillary lymph node dissection. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of intraoperative frozen sections in evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in cases of breast cancer. Between March 2006 and August 2010, a total of 164 patients with clinically node-negative operable breast cancer were subjected to sentinel lymph node biopsy of axillary lymph nodes using preoperative peritumoral injection of radioactive colloid and methylene blue. Intraoperative identification of sentinel nodes was done using a handheld gamma probe and identification of blue-stained nodes. The nodes were sent for frozen section examination. The results of frozen section were compared with the final histopathology. Out of the 164 cases, metastases were detected in SLN by frozen section in 38 cases. There were three false-negative cases (all showing micrometastasis on final histopathology). FS had sensitivity of 92.6 %, specificity of 100 %, and overall accuracy of 98.1 %. The positive predictive value was 100 %, and the negative predictive value was 97.6 %. FS for diagnosis of metastasis of SLNs is reliable. Patients with negative SLNs by the FS diagnosis can avoid reoperation for axillary lymph node dissection. However, FS may fail to detect micrometastases, especially in cases with small tumors.

  9. The importance of tattoo pigment in sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Soran, Atilla; Menekse, Ebru; Kanbour-Shakir, Amal; Tane, Kaori; Diego, Emilia; Bonaventura, Marguerite; Johnson, Ronald

    2017-07-06

    The presence of pigment in axillary lymph nodes (LN) secondary to migration of tattoo ink can imitate the appearance of a blue sentinel lymph node (SLN) on visual inspection, causing the operator to either miss the true SLN or excise more than is needed. We present patients with tattoos ipsilateral to an early stage breast cancer who underwent a SLN biopsy. Patients were retrospectively reviewed from medical records and clinicopathologic data was collected. A total of 52 LNs were retrieved from 15 patients for sentinel mapping and 29 of them had tattoo pigmentation on pathologic evaluation. Of those 29 SLNs, 2 of them (6.9%) were pigmented, but did not contain either blue dye or Tc-99m (pseudopigmented SLN). Two (3.8%) SLNs were positive for metastasis; both of these had either blue dye or Tc99m uptake, and 1 demonstrated tattoo pigment in the node. In this cohort of patients with ipsilateral tattoos, removed more LNs lead to unnecessary excision which may important for increasing the risk of arm morbidity from SLN biopsy. However, the presence of tattoo pigment did not interfere with understaging for axillary mapping and it did not effect of pathological identification of SLNs positivity.

  10. Popliteal lymphadenectomy on sentinel lymph node melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Barrasa Shaw, Antonio; Sancho Merle, Francisca; Fuster Diana, Carlos; Campos Máñez, Jorge; Vázquez Albadalejo, Carlos

    2006-03-01

    Popliteal lymph node dissection is a procedure that surgeons rarely perform and, therefore, scarcely represented in bibliography. In this paper we present the case of a patient with melanoma metastasis to popliteal sentinel lymph nodes showing the surgical procedure and discussing some epidemiological and technical issues.

  11. Histologic pattern of Merkel cell carcinoma sentinel lymph node metastasis improves stratification of Stage III patients

    PubMed Central

    Ko, Jennifer S; Prieto, Victor G; Elson, Paul; Vilain, Ricardo E; Pulitzer, Melissa; Scolyer, Richard A; Reynolds, Jordan P; Piliang, Melissa; Ernstoff, Marc S; Gastman, Brian; Billings, Steven D

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is used to stage Merkel cell carcinoma, but its prognostic value has been questioned. Furthermore, predictors of outcome in sentinel lymph node positive Merkel cell carcinoma patients are poorly defined. In breast carcinoma, isolated immunohistochemically positive tumor cells have no impact, but in melanoma they are considered significant. The significance of sentinel lymph node metastasis tumor burden (including isolated tumor cells) and pattern of involvement in Merkel cell carcinoma are unknown. In this study, 64 Merkel cell carcinomas involving sentinel lymph nodes and corresponding immunohistochemical stains were reviewed and clinicopathologic predictors of outcome were sought. Five metastatic patterns were identified: 1, sheet-like (n=38, 59%); 2, non-solid parafollicular (n=4, 6%); 3, sinusoidal, (n=11, 17%); 4, perivascular hilar (n=1, 2%) and 5, rare scattered parenchymal cells (n=10, 16%). At the time of follow-up, 30/63 (48%) patients had died with 21(33%) attributable to Merkel cell carcinoma. Patients with pattern 1 metastases had poorer overall survival compared with patients with patterns 2–5 metastases (p=0.03), with 22/30 (73%) deaths occurring in pattern 1 patients. 3 (10%) deaths occurred in patients showing pattern 5, all of whom were immunosuppressed. 4 (13%) deaths occurred in pattern 3 patients and 1 (3%) death occurred in a pattern 2 patient. In multivariable analysis, the number of positive sentinel lymph node (1 or 2 versus >2, p<.0001), age (<70 versus ≥70, p=.01), sentinel lymph node metastasis pattern (patterns 2–5 versus 1, p=.02), and immune status (immunocompetent versus suppressed, p=.03) were independent predictors of outcome, and could be used to stratify Stage III patients into 3 groups with markedly different outcomes. In Merkel cell carcinoma, the pattern of sentinel lymph node involvement provides important prognostic information and utilizing this data with other clinicopathologic features

  12. Predictors of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer-radioactivity and Ki-67.

    PubMed

    Thangarajah, Fabinshy; Malter, Wolfram; Hamacher, Stefanie; Schmidt, Matthias; Krämer, Stefan; Mallmann, Peter; Kirn, Verena

    2016-12-01

    Since the introduction of the sentinel node technique for breast cancer in the 1990s patient's morbidity was reduced. Tracer uptake is known to be dependent from lymph node integrity and activity of macrophages. The aim of this study was to assess whether radioactivity of the tracer can predict sentinel lymph node metastases. Furthermore, a potential association with Ki-67 index was examined. Non-invasive prediction of lymph node metastases could lead to a further decrease of morbidity. We retrospectively analyzed patients with primary breast cancer who underwent surgery at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology in the University Hospital of Cologne between 2012 and 2013. Injection of radioactive tracer was done a day before surgery in the department of Nuclear Medicine. Clinical data and radioactivity of the sentinel node measured the day before and intraoperatively were abstracted from patient's files. Of 246 patients, 64 patients had at least one, five patients had two and one patient had three positive sentinel lymph nodes. Occurrence of sentinel lymph node metastases was not associated with preoperative tracer activity (p = 0,319), intraoperative tracer activity of first sentinel node (p = 0,086) or with loss of tracer activity until operation (p = 0,909). There was no correlation between preoperative Ki-67 index and occurrence of lymph node metastases (p = 0,403). In our cohort, there was no correlation between radioactivity and sentinel node metastases. Tracer uptake might not only be influenced by lymph node metastases and does not predict metastatic lymph node involvement. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and melanoma: 2010 update Part II.

    PubMed

    Stebbins, William G; Garibyan, Lilit; Sober, Arthur J

    2010-05-01

    This article will discuss the evidence for and against the therapeutic efficacy of early removal of potentially affected lymph nodes, morbidity associated with sentinel lymph node biopsy and completion lymphadenectomy, current guidelines regarding patient selection for sentinel lymph node biopsy, and the remaining questions that ongoing clinical trials are attempting to answer. The Sunbelt Melanoma Trial and the Multicenter Selective Lymphadenectomy Trials I and II will be discussed in detail. At the completion of this learning activity, participants should be able to discuss the data regarding early surgical removal of lymph nodes and its effect on the overall survival of melanoma patients, be able to discuss the potential benefits and morbidity associated with complete lymph node dissection, and to summarize the ongoing trials aimed at addressing the question of therapeutic value of early surgical treatment of regional lymph nodes that may contain micrometastases. Copyright 2010 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Prognostic relevance of an epigenetic biomarker panel in sentinel lymph nodes from colon cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Lind, Guro E; Guriby, Marianne; Ahlquist, Terje; Hussain, Israr; Jeanmougin, Marine; Søreide, Kjetil; Kørner, Hartwig; Lothe, Ragnhild A; Nordgård, Oddmund

    2017-01-01

    Patients with early colorectal cancer (stages I-II) generally have a good prognosis, but a subgroup of 15-20% experiences relapse and eventually die of disease. Occult metastases have been suggested as a marker for increased risk of recurrence in patients with node-negative disease. Using a previously identified, highly accurate epigenetic biomarker panel for early detection of colorectal tumors, we aimed at evaluating the prognostic value of occult metastases in sentinel lymph nodes of colon cancer patients. The biomarker panel was analyzed by quantitative methylation-specific PCR in primary tumors and 783 sentinel lymph nodes from 201 patients. The panel status in sentinel lymph nodes showed a strong association with lymph node stage (P = 8.2E-17). Compared with routine lymph node diagnostics, the biomarker panel had a sensitivity of 79% (31/39). Interestingly, among 162 patients with negative lymph nodes from routine diagnostics, 13 (8%) were positive for the biomarker panel. Colon cancer patients with high sentinel lymph node methylation had an inferior prognosis (5-year overall survival P = 3.0E-4; time to recurrence P = 3.1E-4), although not significant. The same trend was observed in multivariate analyses (P = 1.4E-1 and P = 6.7E-2, respectively). Occult sentinel lymph node metastases were not detected in early stage (I-II) colon cancer patients who experienced relapse. Colon cancer patients with high sentinel lymph node methylation of the analyzed epigenetic biomarker panel had an inferior prognosis, although not significant in multivariate analyses. Occult metastases in TNM stage II patients that experienced relapse were not detected.

  15. National equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node in animal model.

    PubMed

    Santos, Paula Cristina Fada dos; Santos, Ivan Dunshee de Abranches Oliveira; Nahas, Fábio Xerfan; Oliveira Filho, Renato Santos de; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2009-01-01

    To investigate a national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection in the identification of sentinel lymph node. Thirty young adult male rats were used. After anesthetized, animals were divided into two groups of 15 animals each. Animals from group A received dextram 500 - Tc99 radiopharmaceutical and patent blue V and those from group B received only patent blue V to map the lymphatic drainage. The presence of radiation in the background area, in the area of injection and of the ex vivo sentinel lymph node of group A were measured. After the exeresis, each lymph node in group A and in group B was mixed forming a new random sequence and the radioactive reading of each lymph node was carried out, using both pieces of equipment. The hottest sentinel lymph node was identified by the national equipment when radiation was measured in the area of limphatic drainage after the Dextran 500 was injected. Also, the ex vivo sentinel lymph node. The national equipment has also detected radiation in the lymph nodes that had not received radiopharmaceutical, leading to false positive, checked by the application of Mann-Whitney tests and Student's paired t-tests. The Cronbach alpha has shown high internal consistency of data 0.9416. The national equipment of intraoperatory gamma detection identifies the LS and showed false positives LS and needs improvement.

  16. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Early Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Kühn, Thorsten

    2011-01-01

    The role of axillary surgery for the treatment of primary breast cancer is in a process of constant change. During the last decade, axillary dissection with removal of at least 10 lymph nodes (ALD) was replaced by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) as a staging procedure. Since then, the indication for SLNB rapidly expanded. Today's surgical strategies aim to minimize the rate of patients with a negative axillary status who undergo ALD. For some subgroups of patients, the indication for SLNB (e.g. multicentric disease, large tumors) or its implication for treatment planning (micrometastatic involvement, neoadjuvant chemotherapy) is being discussed. Although the indication for ALD is almost entirely restricted to patients with positive axillary lymph nodes today, the therapeutic effect of completion ALD is more and more questioned. On the other hand, the diagnostic value of ALD in node-positive patients is discussed. This article reflects today's standards in axillary surgery and discusses open issues on the diagnostic and therapeutic role of SLNB and ALD in the treatment of early breast cancer.

  17. [Relevance of the sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast multifocal and multicentric cancer].

    PubMed

    Mosbah, R; Raimond, E; Pelissier, A; Hocedez, C; Graesslin, O

    2015-05-01

    The sentinel lymph node biopsy is a gold standard in the management of breast cancer. Its role in multifocal or multicentric tumors is still evolving. The aim of this study is to assess the feasibility and pertinence of sentinel lymph node biopsy in multifocal and multicentric tumors based on a systematic review of literature. A systematic review was conducted searching in the following electronic databases PubMed using "sentinel lymph node biopsy", "breast cancer", "multifocal tumor", "multicentric tumor" and "multiple tumor" as keywords. We included original articles published between 2000 and 2014, both French and English, studying feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy in invasive breast cancer, multicentric and/or multifocal tumors. The first end point was success rate and false negative rate. Twenty-six articles were included in this literature review, with 2212 cases (782 multifocal, 737 multicentric and 693 multiple tumors). Percentage of tumors whose stage was higher than stage T2 ranged from 0 to 86.3%. Success rate average was 83.1%. False negative average was 8.2%. False negative rate was less than 10% in 15 articles. Mean of sentinel lymph node biopsy was 2 (1-9). The average rate of sentinel lymph node positive was 50.6%. Axillary recurrence rate was 0.5%. Despite the methodological biases of the studies included in this review of literature, the false negative rate of sentinel node biopsy in multifocal and multicentric breast cancers are less than 10% with a low rate of axillary recurrence. Despite the lack of randomized study, this procedure can be routinely performed in accordance with rigorous technical process. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  18. Cost analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Menchón, T; Sánchez-Pedreño, P; Martínez-Escribano, J; Corbalán-Vélez, R; Martínez-Barba, E

    2015-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the most useful tool for node staging in melanoma. SLNB facilitates selective dissection of lymph nodes, that is, the performance of lymphadenectomy only in patients with sentinel nodes positive for metastasis. Our aim was to assess the cost of SLNB, given that this procedure has become the standard of care for patients with melanoma and must be performed whenever patients are to be enrolled in clinical trials. Furthermore, the literature on the economic impact of SLNB in Spain is scarce. From 2007 to 2010, we prospectively collected data for 100 patients undergoing SLNB followed by transhilar bivalving and multiple-level sectioning of the node for histology. Our estimation of the cost of the technique was based on official pricing and fee schedules for the Spanish region of Murcia. The rate of node-positive cases in our series was 20%, and the mean number of nodes biopsied was 1.96; 44% of the patients in the series had thin melanomas. The total cost was estimated at between €9486.57 and €10471.29. Histopathology accounted for a considerable portion of the cost (€5769.36). The cost of SLNB is high, consistent with amounts described for a US setting. Optimal use of SLNB will come with the increasingly appropriate selection of patients who should undergo the procedure and the standardization of a protocol for histopathologic evaluation that is both sensitive and easy to perform. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  19. [Anaphylactic shock after injection of patent blue for sentinel lymph node biopsy].

    PubMed

    van der Horst, J C; de Bock, M J; Klinkenbijl, J H

    2001-10-27

    After being diagnosed with a melanoma, an 18-year-old woman developed anaphylactic shock following an intracutaneous injection of patent blue during a sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure. Intracutaneous allergy tests revealed positive reactions with patent blue (Bleu patenté V 'Guerbet') as well as with several anaesthetics and morphine. It was concluded that patent blue was the most probable causative agent for the anaphylactic reaction and that the possibility of such a reaction should be taken into consideration during sentinel node procedures. After a few days the operation was completed under epidural anaesthesia with technetium Tc 99m sulphur colloid being used to detect the sentinel node.

  20. Meta-analysis of predictive factors for non-sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer patients with a positive SLN.

    PubMed

    van la Parra, R F D; Peer, P G M; Ernst, M F; Bosscha, K

    2011-04-01

    A meta-analysis was performed to identify the clinicopathological variables most predictive of non-sentinel node (NSN) metastases when the sentinel node is positive. A Medline search was conducted that ultimately identified 56 candidate studies. Original data were abstracted from each study and used to calculate odds ratios. The random-effects model was used to combine odds ratios to determine the strength of the associations. The 8 individual characteristics found to be significantly associated with the highest likelihood (odds ratio >2) of NSN metastases are SLN metastases >2mm in size, extracapsular extension in the SLN, >1 positive SLN, ≤1 negative SLN, tumour size >2cm, ratio of positive sentinel nodes >50% and lymphovascular invasion in the primary tumour. The histological method of detection, which is associated with the size of metastases, had a correspondingly high odds ratio. We identified 8 factors predictive of NSN metastases that should be recorded and evaluated routinely in SLN databases. These factors should be included in a predictive model that is generally applicable among different populations. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Sentinel lymph node biopsy followed by delayed mastectomy and reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Brady, Bridget; Fant, Jerri; Jones, Ronald; Grant, Michael; Andrews, Valerie; Livingston, Sheryl; Kuhn, Joseph

    2003-02-01

    The role of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy with total mastectomy is evolving. In patients who desire mastectomy with immediate reconstruction, the final pathologic results of the SLN may create unique problems. Specifically, if the SLN is found to be positive on final pathology, the reconstructed patient would generally require a potentially difficult re-operation on the remaining axillary nodes. The purpose of this study was to review the results of patients who underwent an initial SNL biopsy followed by a planned mastectomy and reconstruction. A chart review of patients who underwent staged SLN biopsy with subsequent definitive procedure between 1997 and 2001 was conducted. These were evaluated with regard to type of tumor, status of sentinel node, and design of subsequent operation. There were 40 patients who underwent an initial SLN biopsy followed by a staged mastectomy with reconstruction. Tumors included high-grade carcinoma in situ (n = 4), infiltrating ductal carcinoma (n = 28), invasive lobular carcinoma (n = 4), mucinous carcinoma (n = 1), adenoid cystic carcinoma (n = 1), and mixed ductal and lobular carcinoma (n = 2). Tissue biopsy was obtained by either open (n = 9) or needle (n = 31) technique. Twenty-five patients had a negative SLN biopsy and a delayed total mastectomy with immediate reconstruction. Positive SLNs were identified in 15 patients (37%). Eight patients had macroscopic nodal metastases and underwent a delayed modified radical mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. Seven patients had microscopic nodal metastases and 3 declined further axillary dissection. They proceeded with total mastectomy and immediate reconstruction. These data suggest that a substantial proportion of patients treated with SLN biopsy, simple mastectomy, and reconstruction will have positive sentinel lymph nodes. Thus, the ideal approach for patients who wish to have reconstruction should involve an initial SLN biopsy as a separate procedure. If the SLN is benign

  2. [Utility and advantages of single tracer subareolar injection in sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Armas, Fayna; Hernández, María Jesús; Vega, Víctor; Gutiérrez, Isabel; Jiménez, Concepción; Pavcovich, Marta; Báez, Beatriz; Pérez-Correa, Pedro; Núñez, Valentín

    2005-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a reliable technique for determining axillary status in patients with early breast cancer. This technique is a minimally invasive procedure that can avoid the use of lymphadenectomy in patients without axillary involvement. We present a validation study of SLN biopsy with subareolar injection of 99mTc-nanocolloids. We studied 100 patients with early breast cancer (T1 and T2) over a 2-year period. All patients underwent deep subareolar-injection of 99mTc-nanocoloid for localization of the sentinel node. Images were obtained and when the sentinel node was seen, it was marked on the skin. All patients underwent tumor excision and radioguided SLN biopsy followed by complete lymphadenectomy. Histopathological analysis of sentinel nodes was performed by hematoxylin-eosin and immunohistochemistry with cytokeratins. The sentinel node was identified in all patients, and a mean of 1.95 sentinel nodes per patient were found. Lymphatic metastases in the sentinel node were found in 44 patients and in 15 of these tumoral spread was also found in the remaining axillary nodes. In the 56 remaining patients the sentinel node was free of metastasis, but in two of them a non-sentinel node was found to be positive (4.5% false negative rate). Sensitivity was 95.7% (44/46), specificity was 100% (54/54), the positive predictive value was 100% and the negative predictive value was 96.4% (54/56). SLN biopsy is an accurate alternative to complete axillary lymph node dissection in patients with early-stage breast cancer. This technique improves the staging of these patients and decreases the morbidity associated with lymphadenectomy. The advantages of subareolar injection are that a single injection site is required, the tumor does not have to be located by other techniques, it allows rapid visualization of the sentinel node and avoids the "shine through phenomenon" when the tumor is located near the axilla.

  3. Interval sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma: a digital pathology analysis of Ki67 expression and microvascular density.

    PubMed

    Marinaccio, Christian; Giudice, Giuseppe; Nacchiero, Eleonora; Robusto, Fabio; Opinto, Giuseppina; Lastilla, Gaetano; Maiorano, Eugenio; Ribatti, Domenico

    2016-08-01

    The presence of interval sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma is documented in several studies, but controversies still exist about the management of these lymph nodes. In this study, an immunohistochemical evaluation of tumor cell proliferation and neo-angiogenesis has been performed with the aim of establishing a correlation between these two parameters between positive and negative interval sentinel lymph nodes. This retrospective study reviewed data of 23 patients diagnosed with melanoma. Bioptic specimens of interval sentinel lymph node were retrieved, and immunohistochemical reactions on tissue sections were performed using Ki67 as a marker of proliferation and CD31 as a blood vessel marker for the study of angiogenesis. The entire stained tissue sections for each case were digitized using Aperio Scanscope Cs whole-slide scanning platform and stored as high-resolution images. Image analysis was carried out on three selected fields of equal area using IHC Nuclear and Microvessel analysis algorithms to determine positive Ki67 nuclei and vessel number. Patients were divided into positive and negative interval sentinel lymph node groups, and the positive interval sentinel lymph node group was further divided into interval positive with micrometastasis and interval positive with macrometastasis subgroups. The analysis revealed a significant difference between positive and negative interval sentinel lymph nodes in the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei and mean vessel number suggestive of an increased cellular proliferation and angiogenesis in positive interval sentinel lymph nodes. Further analysis in the interval positive lymph node group showed a significant difference between micro- and macrometastasis subgroups in the percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei and mean vessel number. Percentage of Ki67-positive nuclei was increased in the macrometastasis subgroup, while mean vessel number was increased in the micrometastasis subgroup. The results of this study suggest

  4. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging for Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes and Lymphatic Vessels during Open Prostatectomy using Indocyanine Green.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Keiji; Miura, Tetsuya; Sakai, Iori; Kiyosue, Akiko; Yamashita, Masuo

    2015-08-01

    We investigated the feasibility and validity of intraoperative fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes and lymphatic vessels during open prostatectomy. Indocyanine green was injected into the prostate under transrectal ultrasound guidance just before surgery. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging was performed using a near-infrared camera system in 66 consecutive patients with clinically localized prostate cancer after a 10-patient pilot test to optimize indocyanine green dosing, observation timing and injection method. Lymphatic vessels were visualized and followed to identify the sentinel lymph nodes. Confirmatory pelvic lymph node dissection including all fluorescent nodes and open radical prostatectomy were performed in all patients. Lymphatic vessels were successfully visualized in 65 patients (98%) and sentinel lymph nodes in 64 patients (97%). Sentinel lymph nodes were located in the obturator fossa, internal and external iliac regions, and rarely in the common iliac and presacral regions. A median of 4 sentinel lymph nodes per patient was detected. Three lymphatic pathways, the paravesical, internal and lateral routes, were identified. Pathological examination revealed metastases to 9 sentinel lymph nodes in 6 patients (9%). All pathologically positive lymph nodes were detected as sentinel lymph nodes using this imaging. No adverse reactions due to the use of indocyanine green were observed. Intraoperative fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green during open prostatectomy enables the detection of lymphatic vessels and sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity. This novel method is technically feasible, safe and easy to apply with minimal additional operative time. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Successful live cell harvest from bisected sentinel lymph nodes research report.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Bruce; Cook, Martin G; John, R Justin; Powell, Barry W E M; Pandha, Hardev; Dalgleish, Angus G

    2004-08-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes provide an excellent opportunity to study early immune responses to cancer. However, harvesting live cells has not previously been possible, because it conflicts with the need to preserve tissue for histological interpretation. This study used scrape cytology on 26 sentinel and 8 non-sentinel nodes, harvested from 17 stage I/II melanoma patients undergoing sentinel node biopsy. Numbers of viable cells harvested before and after cryopreservation were measured and the effect on subsequent histology assessed. The mean number of cells harvested from 26 sentinel nodes was 7.06 x 10(6) (range 0.1-32.2), with a mean viability of 99.5% (range 87-100, lower 95% CI 98.5%). Furthermore, counts and viabilities were well maintained after cryopreservation. Flow cytometry confirmed CD3+, CD20+ and lineage-1-/HLA-DR+ subpopulations, consistent with T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes and dendritic cells, respectively. Importantly, there was no discernible change in histological detail and the proportion of positive sentinel nodes remained unchanged. This technique will allow more functional and quantitative approaches to sentinel lymph node research.

  6. Intraoperative Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    camera and probe. Sentinel Node 2004, submitted. CONCLUSION User experience suggests that a field of view (FOV) less than 5" x 5" would not be useful in...SLN localization especially for breast cancer cases. Preliminary analysis of acquired data and user experience suggest a 5" x 5" FOV has some

  7. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer - Effects on Disease Prognosis and Therapeutic Protocols - A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Stojanoski, Sinisa; Ristevska, Nevena; Pop-Gjorcheva, Daniela; Antevski, Borce; Petrushevska, Gordana

    2015-03-15

    The main prognostic factor in early staged breast cancer is the axillary lymph node metastatic affection. Sentinel lymph node biopsy, as a staging modality, significantly decreases surgical morbidity. The status of internal mammary lymph nodes gains an increased predictive role in grading breast carcinomas and modulation of postoperative therapeutic protocols. If positive, almost always are associated with worse disease outcome. Nevertheless, the clinical significance of internal mammary lymph node micrometastases has not been up to date precisely defined. To present a case of female patient clinically diagnosed as T1, N0, M0 (clinical TNM) ductal breast carcinoma with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Dual method of scintigraphic sentinel lymph node detection using 99mTc-SENTI-SCINT and blue dye injection, intraoperative gamma probe detection, radioguided surgery and intraoperative ex tempore biopsy were used. We present a case of clinically T1, N0, M0 ductal breast cancer with scintigraphic detection of internal mammary and axillary sentinel lymph nodes. Intraoperative ex tempore biopsy revealed micrometastases in the internal mammary node and no metastatic involvement of the axillary sentinel lymph node. Detection of internal mammary lymph node metastases improves N (nodal) grading of breast cancer by selecting a high risk subgroup of patients that require adjuvant hormone therapy, chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy.

  8. Molecular biomarkers screened by next-generation RNA sequencing for non-sentinel lymph node status prediction in breast cancer patients with metastatic sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Liang, Feng; Qu, Hongzhu; Lin, Qiang; Yang, Yadong; Ruan, Xiuyan; Zhang, Bo; Liu, Yi; Yu, Chengze; Zhang, Hongyan; Fang, Xiangdong; Hao, Xiaopeng

    2015-08-28

    Non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) status prediction with molecular biomarkers may make some sentinel lymph node (SLN) positive breast cancer patients avoid the axillary lymph node dissection, but the available markers remain limited. SLN positive patients with and without NSLN invasion were selected, and genes differentially expressed or fused in SLN metastasis were screened by next-generation RNA sequencing. Six candidates (all ER/PR+, HER2-, Ki-67 <20%) with metastatic SLNs selected from 305 patients were equally categorized as NSLN negative and positive. We identified 103 specifically expressed genes in the NSLN negative group and 47 in the NSLN positive group. Among them, FABP1 (negative group) and CYP2A13 (positive group) were the only 2 protein-encoding genes with expression levels in the 8th to 10th deciles. Using a false discovery rate threshold of <0.05, 62 up-regulated genes and 98 down-regulated genes were discovered in the NSLN positive group. Furthermore, 10 gene fusions were identified in this group with the most frequently fused gene being IGLL5. The biomarkers screened in present study may broaden our understanding of the mechanisms of breast cancer metastasis to the lymph nodes and contribute to the axillary surgery selection for SLN positive patients.

  9. Application of carbon nanoparticles in laparoscopic sentinel lymph node detection in patients with early-stage cervical cancer

    PubMed Central

    Yao, De-Sheng; Pan, Zhong-Mian; Yao, Yao

    2017-01-01

    Objective To investigate the value of carbon nanoparticles in identifying sentinel lymph nodes in early-stage cervical cancer. Methods From January 2014 to January 2016, 40 patients with cervical cancer stage IA2–IIA, based on the International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics (FIGO) 2009 criteria, were included in this study. The normal cervix around the tumor was injected with a total of 1 mL of carbon nanoparticles (CNP)at 3 and 9 o'clock. All patients then underwent laparoscopic pelvic lymph node dissection and radical hysterectomy. The black-dyed sentinel lymph nodes were removed for routine pathological examination and immunohistochemical staining. Results Among the 40 patients, 38 patients had at least one sentinel lymph node (SLN). The detection rate was 95% (38/40). One hundred seventy-three SLNs were detected with an average of 3.9 SLNs per side. 25 positive lymph nodes, which included 21 positive SLNs, were detected in 8 (20%) patients. Sentinel lymph nodes were localized in the obturator (47.97%), internal lilac (13.87%), external lilac (26.59%), parametrial (1.16%), and common iliac (8.67%) regions. The sensitivity of the SLN detection was 100% (5/5), the accuracy was 97.37% (37/38), and the negative predictive value was 100. 0% and the false negative rate was 0%. Conclusions Sentinel lymph nodes can be used to accurately predict the pathological state of pelvic lymph nodes in early cervical cancer. The detection rates and accuracy of sentinel lymph node were high. Carbon nanoparticles can be used to trace the sentinel lymph node in early cervical cancer. PMID:28873443

  10. Hot or not? The 10% rule in sentinel lymph node biopsy for malignant melanoma revisited.

    PubMed

    Murphy, A D; Britten, A; Powell, B

    2014-03-01

    The surgeon needs a practical rule to follow when deciding whether to excise a lymph node during sentinel node biopsy (SLNB). The "10% rule" dictates that all nodes with a radiation count of greater than 10% of the hottest node and all blue nodes should be removed, and this study observes the effects of following this rule in SLNB in melanoma. We reviewed the records of 665 patients with primary melanoma who underwent sentinel lymph node over a 5-year period (2007-2011). 2064 nodes were identified in 898 nodal basins in 665 patients. 141 (21%) patients had at least one positive sentinel node. 105 positive nodal basins were identified in which more than one sentinel node was removed. In 18 of these, a less radioactive node was positive for tumour when the most radioactive node was negative. Of 175 positive nodes 157 (90%) contained blue dye staining. For cases in which the positive sentinel node was not the hottest node, the positive node had apparent blue dye staining in all 18 cases (100%), and was the second hottest node in the basin. In this series removing just the hottest node and all blue nodes would not have missed a single positive basin and would have resulted in a 38% reduction in the number of nodes removed compared to those taken following the 10% rule, without changing the staging in any patient. Copyright © 2013 British Association of Plastic, Reconstructive and Aesthetic Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. [The number of removed axillary sentinel lymph nodes and its impact on the diagnostic accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Zapletal, O; Coufal, O; Selingerová, I; Krsička, P; Vrtělová, P

    2013-01-01

    The number of lymph nodes removed during the sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer usually ranges from 1 to 3. In some cases, multiple nodes are identified and removed, which could be associated with increased risk of postoperative morbidity. The objective of the study was to assess the number of sentinel lymph nodes removed in patients treated in our hospital, to analyze factors that may influence the amount of the removed nodes, and to find if there is an upper threshold number of lymph nodes that should be removed without sacrificing the diagnostic accuracy of the sentinel lymph node biopsy. Clinical data of four hundred and forty (440) breast cancer patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy in Masaryk Memorial Cancer Institute during the year 2011 were retrospectively collected and analyzed. The number of sentinel lymph nodes ranged from 0 to 9 (average 1.7, median 1). The number of sentinel lymph nodes was significantly influenced by the age of the patient, the operating surgeon and the laterality of the surgery. In 275 cases the sentinel lymph nodes were negative, in the other cases macrometastases (n = 101), micrometastases (n = 46) or isolated tumor cells (n = 17) were found. In all the cases, but one, the staging of the axilla was determined by the status of the first three sentinel lymph nodes removed. Only in one case the first detected macrometastasis was present in the fifth node. In the vast majority of cases, the first three sentinel lymph nodes are sufficient to accurately assess the axillary status. However, with respect to the described case of first detected metastasis in the fifth node, to the present literary data and to the variability of clinical situations, we generally recommend to remove all lymph nodes meeting the criteria of the surgical definition of sentinel lymph node.

  12. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Shan; Li, Hui-Juan; Cong, Bin-Bin; Sun, Xiao; Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Chun-Jian; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-11-08

    With the improvement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the proportion of pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast and axillary lymph node (ALN) is increasing. The evaluation of pCR does not include the status of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN). This study is to evaluate the roles of both axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (ASLNB) and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) in breast cancer patients after NAC. There were 74 patients enrolled into this study. IM-SLNB was performed on patients with radioactive internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN). Patients (n = 8) with cN0 and ycN0 received ASLNB, and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in cases of positive axillary sentinel lymph node (ASLN). Patients (n = 48) with cN+ but ycN0 received ASLNB and ALND. Patients (n = 18) with ycN+ received ALND without ASLNB. The visualization rate of IM-SLN was 56.8% (42/74). The success rate of IM-SLNB was 97.6% (41/42) and the metastasis rate of IM-SLN was 7.3% (3/41). The success rate of ASLNB was 100% (56/56). The false negative rate (FNR) of ASLNB was 17.2% (5/29). The FNR in patients with 1, 2 and ≥ 3ASLNs examined was 27.3% (3/11), 20.0% (2/10) and 0% (0/8) respectively. ASLNB could be performed on ycN0 after NAC, and ALND should be performed on initially ALN-positive patients. IM-SLNB should be considered after NAC, especially for patients with clinically positive axillary nodes before NAC, which might help make clear of the pathological nodal staging of both ALN and IMLN, improve the definition of nodal pCR, and guide the individual adjuvant regional and systemic therapy.

  13. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Xiao-Shan; Li, Hui-Juan; Cong, Bin-Bin; Sun, Xiao; Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Wang, Chun-Jian; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-01-01

    With the improvement of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC), the proportion of pathological complete response (pCR) in the breast and axillary lymph node (ALN) is increasing. The evaluation of pCR does not include the status of internal mammary lymph node (IMLN). This study is to evaluate the roles of both axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (ASLNB) and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) in breast cancer patients after NAC. There were 74 patients enrolled into this study. IM-SLNB was performed on patients with radioactive internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN). Patients (n = 8) with cN0 and ycN0 received ASLNB, and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) in cases of positive axillary sentinel lymph node (ASLN). Patients (n = 48) with cN+ but ycN0 received ASLNB and ALND. Patients (n = 18) with ycN+ received ALND without ASLNB. The visualization rate of IM-SLN was 56.8% (42/74). The success rate of IM-SLNB was 97.6% (41/42) and the metastasis rate of IM-SLN was 7.3% (3/41). The success rate of ASLNB was 100% (56/56). The false negative rate (FNR) of ASLNB was 17.2% (5/29). The FNR in patients with 1, 2 and ≥ 3ASLNs examined was 27.3% (3/11), 20.0% (2/10) and 0% (0/8) respectively. ASLNB could be performed on ycN0 after NAC, and ALND should be performed on initially ALN-positive patients. IM-SLNB should be considered after NAC, especially for patients with clinically positive axillary nodes before NAC, which might help make clear of the pathological nodal staging of both ALN and IMLN, improve the definition of nodal pCR, and guide the individual adjuvant regional and systemic therapy. PMID:27738336

  14. Efficacy of Methylene Blue in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Altan; Mayir, Burhan; Demirbakan, Kenan; Oygür, Nezihi

    2014-01-01

    Objective Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the recommended approach in the evaluation of axilla during breast cancer surgery. In this study, results of patients who underwent methylene blue sentinel lymph node biopsy were evaluated. Materials and Methods The study included 32 female patients with T1 and T2 tumors. 5 ml of 1% methylene blue was injected into the peritumoral area or around the cavity. The axillary sentinel lymph node was found and removed, and then axillary dissection was performed. The sentinel lymph node and axillary dissection specimen were histopathologically examined and the results were compared. Results The sentinel lymph node was found in 30 (94%) patients. Lymph node metastasis was not observed in 17 patients in both the sentinel lymph node and axilla. Two patients had metastasis in the axilla although this was not detected in sentinel lymph node. Eleven patients had metastasis both in the sentinel lymph node and in the axilla. The accuracy rate was 93%, and the false negativity rate was identified as 15%. Conclusion Sentinel lymph node biopsy by methylene blue is a method that can be applied with high accuracy. Methylene blue can be considered as an alternative to isosulphane blue in sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  15. Intraoperative Injection of Technetium-99m Sulfur Colloid for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Breast Cancer Patients: A Single Institution Experience

    PubMed Central

    Berrocal, Julian; Saperstein, Lawrence; Grube, Baiba; Horowitz, Nina R.; Chagpar, Anees B.

    2017-01-01

    Background. Most institutions require a patient undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy to go through nuclear medicine prior to surgery to be injected with radioisotope. This study describes the long-term results using intraoperative injection of radioisotope. Methods. Since late 2002, all patients undergoing a sentinel lymph node biopsy at the Yale-New Haven Breast Center underwent intraoperative injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid. Endpoints included number of sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes obtained and number of positive sentinel and nonsentinel lymph nodes. Results. At least one sentinel lymph node was obtained in 2,333 out of 2,338 cases of sentinel node biopsy for an identification rate of 99.8%. The median number of sentinel nodes found was 2 and the mean was 2.33 (range: 1–15). There were 512 cases (21.9%) in which a sentinel node was positive for metastatic carcinoma. Of the patients with a positive sentinel lymph node who underwent axillary dissection, there were 242 cases (54.2%) with no additional positive nonsentinel lymph nodes. Advantages of intraoperative injection included increased comfort for the patient and simplification of scheduling. There were no radiation related complications. Conclusion. Intraoperative injection of technetium-99m sulfur colloid is convenient, effective, safe, and comfortable for the patient. PMID:28492062

  16. Sentinel lymph nodes and breast carcinoma: which micrometastases are clinically significant?

    PubMed

    Weaver, Donald L

    2003-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is changing surgical management of breast cancer and pathologic evaluation of lymph nodes. Although it has long been known that lymph nodes contain occult metastases, pathologists have not generally pursued their identification. Compared with level I-II axillary dissection, the reduced number of sentinel lymph nodes has made additional evaluation more attractive; however, the consequences of increased detection of micrometastases has not been fully explored or appreciated. National data suggest that the composition of traditional TNM stage groupings is changing, with a recent increase in node-positive, stage II breast cancer, most likely the result of increased pathologic scrutiny. Clinical management of this new group of stage II patients is complicated by the lack of a historic prognostic comparison group because many of these patients would have been classified as stage I, node-negative in the past. Early outcome data in sentinel lymph node biopsy suggest no adverse outcome for patients with metastases no larger than 2.0 mm, a finding aligned with the current definition of micrometastasis. When sentinel lymph nodes are sliced at 2.0-mm intervals and totally embedded, the probability of identifying all metastases >2.0 mm is high. Using reasonable sampling strategies, minute metastases have a nearly equal chance of being missed or detected. New staging guidelines have established a lower limit for micrometastases and defined metastases no larger than 0.2 mm as isolated tumor cells or tumor cell clusters; nodes with isolated tumor cells will be classified as node negative (pN0) for stage grouping. Rigorous strategies designed to reliably detect single cells or small cell clusters in sentinel nodes remain time-intensive and cost prohibitive.

  17. Acral lentiginous melanoma: who benefits from sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    PubMed

    Ito, Takamichi; Wada, Maiko; Nagae, Konosuke; Nakano-Nakamura, Misa; Nakahara, Takeshi; Hagihara, Akihito; Furue, Masutaka; Uchi, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    There are significant clinicopathological, genetic, and biological differences between acral lentiginous melanoma (ALM) and other types of melanoma. We sought to investigate the use of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for patients with ALM. This was a retrospective review of 116 patients with primary ALM. Melanoma-specific and disease-free survival were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method, together with multivariate analyses using the Cox proportional hazards regression model. All patients were Japanese (48 male and 68 female). Metastases in SLN were noted in 13 of 84 patients who underwent SLN biopsy. No patients with thin ALM (≤1 mm) and only 2 patients with nonulcerated ALM had tumor-positive SLN. Patients with positive SLN had significantly shorter melanoma-specific survival (5-year survival rate, 37.5% vs 84.3%; P < .0001) and disease-free survival (5-year survival, 37.5% vs 77.9%; P = .0024). Among patients with thick (>1 mm) ALM, the influence of SLN positivity on melanoma-specific survival was increased (5-year survival, 22.7% vs 80.8%; P = .0005). This was a retrospective study and had a small sample size. SLN biopsy should be considered for patients with thick or ulcerated ALM. For patients with thin or nonulcerated ones, it may be of limited importance. Copyright © 2014 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Sentinel lymph node mapping in melanoma of the ear.

    PubMed

    Wey, P D; De La Cruz, C; Goydos, J S; Choi, M L; Borah, G L

    1998-05-01

    Primary nodal drainage basins in melanoma of the head and neck are often unpredictable. The ear is a notorious example of an anatomic site with ambiguous patterns of lymphatic drainage. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy has recently emerged as one modality to assist in identifying clinically relevant nodes. We propose that the addition of intraoperative lymph node mapping techniques that utilize radioactive tracers ("intraoperative lymphoscintigraphy") can increase the accuracy of identifying sentinel nodes and help to determine which patients may benefit from a complete neck dissection. This report demonstrates the ambiguity in identifying drainage patterns in melanoma of the ear and offers a reliable method of sentinel lymph node mapping. This report also addresses current issues regarding treatment protocols of patients with micrometastatic disease in the periauricular region.

  19. Lymphatic drainage patterns of oral maxillary tumors: Approachable locations of sentinel lymph nodes mainly at the cervical neck level.

    PubMed

    Boeve, Koos; Schepman, Kees-Pieter; Vegt, Bert van der; Schuuring, Ed; Roodenburg, Jan L; Brouwers, Adrienne H; Witjes, Max J

    2017-03-01

    There is debate if the lymphatic drainage pattern of oral maxillary cancer is to the retropharyngeal lymph nodes or to the cervical lymph nodes. Insight in drainage patterns is important for the indication for neck treatment. The purpose of this study was to identify the lymphatic drainage pattern of oral maxillary cancer via preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. Eleven consecutive patients with oral maxillary cancer treated in our center between December 1, 2012, and April 22, 2016 were studied. Sentinel lymph nodes identified by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy after injection of (99m) Tc-nanocolloid and by intraoperative detection using a γ-probe, were surgically removed and histopathologically examined. In 10 patients, sentinel lymph nodes were detected and harvested at cervical levels I, II, or III in the neck. In 2 patients, a parapharyngeal sentinel lymph node was detected. One of the harvested sentinel lymph nodes (1/19) was tumor positive. This study suggests the likelihood of 73% of exclusively cervical level I to III sentinel lymph nodes in oral maxillary cancer. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 486-491, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Sentinel lymph node mapping with indocyanine green in vaginal cancer.

    PubMed

    Lee, In Ok; Lee, Jung Yun; Kim, Sunghoon; Kim, Sang Wun; Kim, Young Tae; Nam, Eun Ji

    2017-07-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is being adapted to gynecologic cancer. Higher SLN mapping rates were reported with indocyanine green (ICG) compared to other dyes. The aim of this film is to share our experience of SLN mapping with ICG in vaginal cancer. A 40 year-old woman was diagnosed with squamous cell vaginal cancer. About 1.5 cm-sized tumor was located on the posterior vaginal fornix. Preoperatively she was assumed to be stage I vaginal cancer. Beginning of surgery, we performed SLN mapping by ICG injection into 3- and 9-o'clock positions of the vaginal tumor. Concentrated in 1.25 mg/mL, 1 mL of ICG solution was injected into deep stroma and another 1 mL submucosally in both sides. Bilateral SLN identification and lymphadenectomy were done. Afterward, laparoscopic Type C1 Querleu-Morrow radical hysterectomy with vaginectomy was done. A fluorescence endoscope produced by KARL STORZ (Tuttlingen, Germany) was used for ICG detection. To our knowledge, this is the first film report performing SLN mapping with ICG in vaginal cancer. The mapping was successful and we were able to recognize SLN of vaginal cancer. SLNs were located in the bilateral obturator fossa. According to the pathologic diagnosis, the mass size was 15 mm and invasion depth was 1 mm. Subvaginal tissue involvement and pelvic wall extension were absent. Resection margin of the vagina was free from carcinoma. No lymph node metastasis was reported including the bilateral SLNs. For vaginal cancer, SLN mapping can be applied by injecting ICG into the bilateral sides of the vaginal tumor.

  1. Discordance between number of scintigraphic and perioperatively identified sentinel lymph nodes and axillary tumour recurrence.

    PubMed

    Volders, J H; van la Parra, R F D; Bavelaar-Croon, C D L; Barneveld, P C; Ernst, M F; Bosscha, K; De Roos, W K

    2014-04-01

    In breast cancer, sentinel node biopsy is considered the standard method to assess the lymph node status of the axilla. Preoperative identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) is performed by injecting a radioactive tracer, followed by lymphoscintigraphy. In some patients there is a discrepancy between the number of lymphoscintigraphically identified sentinel nodes and the number of nodes found during surgery. We hypothesized that the inability to find peroperatively all the lymphoscintigraphically identified sentinel nodes, might lead to an increase in axillary recurrence because of positive SLNs not being removed. Patients who underwent sentinel node biopsy between January 2000 and July 2010 were identified from a prospectively collected database. The number of lymphoscintigraphically and peroperatively identified sentinel nodes were reviewed and compared. Axillary recurrences were scored. 1368 patients underwent a SLN biopsy. Median follow up was 58.5 months (range 12-157). Patient and tumour characteristics showed no significant differences. In 139 patients (10.2%) the number of radioactive nodes found during surgery was less than preoperative scanning (group 1) and in 89.8% (N = 1229) there were equal or more peroperative nodes identified than seen lymphoscintigraphically (group 2). In group 1, 0/139 patients (0%) developed an axillary recurrence and in the second group this was 25/1229 (2.0%) respectively. No significant difference between groups regarding axillary recurrence, sentinel node status and distant metastasis was found. Axillary recurrence rate is not influenced by the inability to remove all sentinel nodes during surgery that have been identified preoperatively by scintigraphy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: review on various methodological approaches.

    PubMed

    Zengel, Baha; Yararbas, Ulkem; Sirinocak, Ahmet; Ozkok, Guliz; Denecli, Ali Galip; Postaci, Hakan; Uslu, Adam

    2013-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been accepted as a standard procedure for early stage breast cancer. In this retrospective analysis, the results obtained with different methodological approaches using radiocolloid with or without blue dye were examined. A total of 158 sentinel lymph node biopsies were performed in 152 patients. Group A (85 patients) underwent lymphatic mapping using a combination of periareolar intradermal radiocolloid and subareolar blue dye injections. Group B (73 patients) underwent only periareolar intradermal radiocolloid injection. One large tin colloid and two small radiocolloids (nanocolloid of serum albumin -NC- and colloidal rhenium sulphide -CS-) were used. Successful lymphatic mapping was attained in 157 of 158 procedures (99.4%). Radiocolloids localized sentinel lymph nodes in 99.4% and blue dye in 75.3% of the cases. The number of sentinel lymph nodes removed was greater in nanocolloid and colloidal rhenium sulphide groups (P ≤0.05). Among 60 metastatic sentinel lymph nodes, frozen section analysis using hematoxylin and eosin staining failed to detect 1 macro- and 10 micrometastasis. Radiocolloid uptake was higher in sentinel lymph nodes accumulating blue dye (1643 ± 3216 counts/10 sec vs 526 ± 1284 counts/10 sec, P <0.001). Higher count rates were obtained by using larger sized colloids (median and interquartile range: tin colloid, 2050 and 4548; nanocolloid, 835 and 1799; colloidal rhenium sulphide, 996 and 2079; P = 0.01). Only 2 extra-axillary sentinel lymph nodes were visualized using periareolar intradermal injection modality. Radiocolloids were more successful than blue dye in sentinel lymph node detection. More sentinel lymph nodes were harvested with small colloids, but different sized radiocolloids were similarly successful. Sentinel lymph nodes having higher radiocolloid uptake tended to accumulate blue dye more frequently. Sentinel lymph nodes manifested higher count rates when a larger colloid was used. Frozen section

  3. Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrew P. Goodwin CONTRACTING ORGANIZATION: University of California...Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-1-0215   5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6...capacity for imaging and surgical labeling of sentinel lymph nodes . Second, the training plan sought to improve the PI’s scientific development

  4. Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-03-01

    February 2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Multifunctional Polymer Microbubbles for Advanced Sentinel Lymph Node Imaging and Mapping 5b...dye loading capacity for imaging and surgical labeling of sentinel lymph nodes . Second, the training plan seeks to improve the PI’s scientific... node for breast cancer patients. Current sentinel lymph node identification techniques have significant background signal at the injection site and

  5. Characteristics of magnetic probes for identifying sentinel lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Ookubo, Tetsu; Inoue, Yusuke; Kim, Dongmin; Ohsaki, Hiroyuki; Mashiko, Yusuke; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2013-01-01

    The identification of the sentinel lymph nodes that cause tumor metastasis is important in breast cancer therapy. The detection of magnetic fluid accumulating in the lymph nodes using a magnetic probe allows surgeons to identify the lymph nodes. In this study, we carried out numerical simulations and experiments to investigate the sensitivity and basic characteristics of a magnetic probe consisting of a permanent magnet and a small magnetic sensor. The measured magnetic flux density arising from the magnetic fluid agreed well with the numerical results. In addition, the results helped realize an appropriate probe configuration for achieving high sensitivity to magnetic fluid. A prototype probe detected magnetic fluid located 30 mm from the probe head.

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous head and neck malignancies.

    PubMed

    Dwojak, Sunshine; Emerick, Kevin S

    2015-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is a procedure that can provide critical information regarding pathologic lymph node status and accurate regional staging. This is very important for developing treatment plans and providing prognostic guidance for cutaneous malignancies. The head and neck (HN) region is unique from other body sites due to its complex lymphatic drainage pathways, multiple lymph node basins, proximity of important cranial nerves and potential for contralateral or bilateral drainage. These unique aspects of the HN previously created some uncertainty about the use of SLNB in the HN. This review will discuss the current reliable status of HN SLNB and provide a guide for its current application in cutaneous malignancy of the HN.

  7. Contraindications of sentinel lymph node biopsy: Áre there any really?

    PubMed Central

    Filippakis, George M; Zografos, George

    2007-01-01

    Background One of the most exciting and talked about new surgical techniques in breast cancer surgery is the sentinel lymph node biopsy. It is an alternative procedure to standard axillary lymph node dissection, which makes possible less invasive surgery and side effects for patients with early breast cancer that wouldn't benefit further from axillary lymph node clearance. Sentinel lymph node biopsy helps to accurately evaluate the status of the axilla and the extent of disease, but also determines appropriate adjuvant treatment and long-term follow-up. However, like all surgical procedures, the sentinel lymph node biopsy is not appropriate for each and every patient. Methods In this article we review the absolute and relative contraindications of the procedure in respect to clinically positive axilla, neoadjuvant therapy, tumor size, multicentric and multifocal disease, in situ carcinoma, pregnancy, age, body-mass index, allergies to dye and/or radio colloid and prior breast and/or axillary surgery. Results Certain conditions involving host factors and tumor biologic characteristics may have a negative impact on the success rate and accuracy of the procedure. The overall fraction of patients unsuitable or with multiple risk factors that may compromise the success of the sentinel lymph node biopsy, is very small. Nevertheless, these patients need to be successfully identified, appropriately advised and cautioned, and so do the surgeons that perform the procedure. Conclusion When performed by an experienced multi-disciplinary team, the SLNB is a highly effective and accurate alternative to standard level I and II axillary clearance in the vast majority of patients with early breast cancer. PMID:17261174

  8. Indocyanine green-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy for periocular tumors.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Tal J; Perry, Julian D; Korn, Jason M; Costin, Bryan R; Gastman, Brian R; Singh, Arun D

    2014-01-01

    To compare the accuracy of indocyanine green (ICG)-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy to sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with technetium-99m in eyelid and in conjunctival malignancies. Review of a consecutive series of adult patients undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy for eyelid and conjunctival malignancies between 2009 and 2013. Only patients undergoing both ICG-guided and technetium-99m-guided sentinel lymph node biopsies were included. Five patients were identified: 3 women and 2 men. Four had conjunctival melanoma and 1 had eyelid melanoma. ICG aided in localization and confirmation of the sentinel nodes identified by technetium-99m, and all sentinel lymph nodes identified by technetium-99m were identified by ICG. All patients who underwent both sentinel lymph node modalities had negative lymph node biopsies for micrometastasis, but metastatic disease eventually developed in 1 patient. No safety concerns were identified with the use of ICG in the ocular adnexal region. For certain periocular malignancies, ICG-guided sentinel lymph node biopsy safely identifies sentinel lymph nodes intraoperatively possibly to a similar extent compared with technetium-99m-guided methods.

  9. Pathological assessment of tumor biopsy specimen and surgical sentinel lymph node dissection in patients with melanoma.

    PubMed

    Nodiţi, Gheorghe; Nica, Cristian C; Petrescu, Horaţiu Pompiliu; Ivan, Codruţ; Crăiniceanu, Zorin Petrişor; Bratu, Tiberiu; Dema, Alis

    2014-01-01

    Actual trends of cutaneous malignant melanoma show a faster increase then other forms of cancer. Early detection and diagnosis, and accurate pathologic interpretation of the biopsy specimen is extremely important for the treatment and prognosis of clinically localized melanoma. The surgical approach to cutaneous melanoma patients with clinically uninvolved regional lymph nodes remains controversial. A retrospective study of melanoma cases was conducted in the "Casa Austria" Department of Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery, Emergency County Hospital, Timisoara, Romania. We have analyzed the medical records of 21 patients that underwent surgical treatment for different stages of melanoma in the period 2008-2012. For histopathological diagnosis of melanoma and the sentinel lymph node(s) status, tissular fragments were routinely processed. For the difficult cases, additional immunohistochemical investigation was done. A positive family history was noted in two cases. The presence of different sizes and localization of pigmented nevi was found in 38% of the cases. Different types of melanoma like superficial spreading melanoma, nodular melanoma or lentigo malignant melanoma and acral lentiginous melanoma was described. The surgical treatment consisted in all cases in wide excision of the primary tumor and prophylactic dissection of sentinel lymph node after lymphoscintigraphy examination. A positive biopsy of the sentinel lymph node was noted in 4.9% of the cases. The surgical treatment combining the wide excision of the primary tumor with respect to safe oncological limits with the prophylactic dissection of sentinel lymph node after lymphoscintigraphy examination had the confirmation done by the pathologic interpretation of the biopsy specimen showing that all the patients had a Breslow index more than 1.5 mm.

  10. Tumor PD-L1 expression, immune cell correlates and PD-1+ lymphocytes in sentinel lymph node melanoma metastases.

    PubMed

    Kakavand, Hojabr; Vilain, Ricardo E; Wilmott, James S; Burke, Hazel; Yearley, Jennifer H; Thompson, John F; Hersey, Peter; Long, Georgina V; Scolyer, Richard A

    2015-12-01

    Melanoma patients with sentinel lymph node metastases have variable 5-year survival rates (39-70%). The prognostic significance of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes in sentinel lymph node metastases from such patients is currently unknown. Anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors have significantly improved clinical outcome in unresectable AJCC stage IIIC/IV metastatic melanoma patients, and are being trialed in the adjuvant setting in advanced stage disease, however, their role in early stage (sentinel lymph node positive) metastatic disease remains unclear. The aims of this study were to characterize, in sentinel lymph nodes, the subpopulations of lymphocytes that interact with metastatic melanoma cells and analyze their associations with outcome, and to determine tumor PD-L1 expression as this may provide a rational scientific basis for the administration of adjuvant anti-PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in sentinel lymph node positive metastatic melanoma patients. Sentinel lymph nodes containing metastatic melanoma from 60 treatment-naive patients were analyzed for CD3, CD4, CD8, FOXP3, PD-1, and PD-L1 using immunohistochemistry on serial sections. The results were correlated with clinicopathologic features and outcome. Positive correlations between recurrence-free/overall survival with the number of CD3+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (hazard ratio=0.36 (0.17-0.76), P=0.005; hazard ratio=0.29 (0.14-0.61), P=0.0005, respectively), the number of CD4+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (hazard ratio=0.34 (0.15-0.77), P=0.007; hazard ratio=0.32 (0.14-0.74), P=0.005, respectively), and the number of CD8+ tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (hazard ratio =0.42 (0.21-0.85), P=0.013; hazard ratio =0.32 (0.19-0.78), P=0.006, respectively) were observed. There was also a negative correlation with the number of peritumoral PD-1+ lymphocytes (hazard ratio=2.67 (1.17-6.13), P=0.016; hazard ratio=2.74 (1.14-6.76), P=0.019, respectively). Tumoral PD-L1 expression was present in 26 cases (43%) but did not

  11. Sentinel lymph node mapping in minimally invasive surgery: Role of imaging with color-segmented fluorescence (CSF).

    PubMed

    Lopez Labrousse, Maite I; Frumovitz, Michael; Guadalupe Patrono, M; Ramirez, Pedro T

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node mapping, alone or in combination with pelvic lymphadenectomy, is considered a standard approach in staging of patients with cervical or endometrial cancer [1-3]. The goal of this video is to demonstrate the use of indocyanine green (ICG) and color-segmented fluorescence when performing lymphatic mapping in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Injection of ICG is performed in two cervical sites using 1mL (0.5mL superficial and deep, respectively) at the 3 and 9 o'clock position. Sentinel lymph nodes are identified intraoperatively using the Pinpoint near-infrared imaging system (Novadaq, Ontario, CA). Color-segmented fluorescence is used to image different levels of ICG uptake demonstrating higher levels of perfusion. A color key on the side of the monitor shows the colors that coordinate with different levels of ICG uptake. Color-segmented fluorescence may help surgeons identify true sentinel nodes from fatty tissue that, although absorbing fluorescent dye, does not contain true nodal tissue. It is not intended to differentiate the primary sentinel node from secondary sentinel nodes. The key ranges from low levels of ICG uptake (gray) to the highest rate of ICG uptake (red). Bilateral sentinel lymph nodes are identified along the external iliac vessels using both standard and color-segmented fluorescence. No evidence of disease was noted after ultra-staging was performed in each of the sentinel nodes. Use of ICG in sentinel lymph node mapping allows for high bilateral detection rates. Color-segmented fluorescence may increase accuracy of sentinel lymph node identification over standard fluorescent imaging. The following are the supplementary data related to this article. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Indocyanine green detects sentinel lymph nodes in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jun; Huang, Linping; Wang, Ning; Chen, Ping

    2017-04-01

    Objective To explore the clinical value of indocyanine green (ICG) for the fluorescence-guided detection of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) during sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients with early breast cancer. Methods This retrospective study included female patients with breast cancer. Patients were administered methylene blue and ICG using standard techniques. All SLNs that were collected during surgery were submitted for pathological examination. SLNs were defined as those that were either fluorescent, blue, fluorescent and blue or palpably suspicious. Surgical complications, axillary recurrence, distant metastasis and overall survival rates were observed postoperatively. Results A total of 60 patients were enrolled in the study. The fluorescence detection rate of SLNs was 100% ( n = 177), with a mean of 2.95 SLNs per patient. The methylene blue staining rate was 88.3% ( n = 106), with a mean of 1.77 SLNs per patient. Pathological assessment of intraoperative frozen specimens revealed SLN metastases in 10 patients, who immediately underwent axillary lymph node dissection. No patient had axillary recurrence or distant metastases, with a survival rate of 100%. Patients who underwent SLNB showed good appearance in the axillary wound, with no limited shoulder joint abduction and upper limb oedema. Conclusion Fluorescence-guided SLNB has several advantages and is suitable for clinical application.

  13. Can Breast Cancer Biopsy Influence Sentinel Lymph Node Status?

    PubMed

    Giuliani, Michela; Patrolecco, Federica; Rella, Rossella; Di Giovanni, Silvia Eleonora; Infante, Amato; Rinaldi, Pierluigi; Romani, Maurizio; Mulè, Antonino; Arciuolo, Damiano; Belli, Paolo; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2016-12-01

    We evaluated whether the needle size could influence metastasis occurrence in the axillary sentinel lymph node (SLN) in ultrasound-guided core needle biopsy (US-CNB) of breast cancer (BC). The data from all patients with breast lesions who had undergone US-CNB at our institution from January 2011 to January 2015 were retrospectively reviewed. A total of 377 BC cases were included using the following criteria: (1) percutaneous biopsy-proven invasive BC; and (2) SLN dissection with histopathologic examination. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to the needle size used: 14 gauge versus 16 or 18 gauge. SLN metastasis classification followed the 7th American Joint Committee on Cancer (2010) TNM pathologic staging factors: macrometastases, micrometastases, isolated tumor cells, or negative. Only macrometastases and micrometastases were considered positive, and the positive and negative rates were calculated for the overall population and for both needle size groups. Of the 377 BC cases, 268 US-CNB procedures were performed using a 14-gauge needle and 109 with a 16- or 18-gauge needle, respectively. The negative rate was significantly related statistically with the needle size, with a greater prevalence in the 14-gauge group on both extemporaneous analysis (P = .019) and definitive analysis (P = .002). The macrometastasis rate was 17% (63 of 377) for the 14-gauge and 3% (12 of 377) for the 16- and 18-gauge needles, respectively. Our preliminary results have suggested that use of a large needle size in CNB does not influence SLN status; thus, preoperative breast biopsy can be considered a safe procedure in the diagnosis of malignant breast lesions. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Aberrant drainage of sentinel lymph nodes in colon cancer and its impact on staging and extent of operation.

    PubMed

    Saha, Sukamal; Johnston, Gregory; Korant, Alpesh; Shaik, Mohammed; Kanaan, Mohammed; Johnston, Rebecca; Ganatra, Balvant; Kaushal, Sunil; Desai, Dilip; Mannam, Sreenivas

    2013-03-01

    The role of aberrant lymphatic drainage in changing operations for patients undergoing sentinel lymph node mapping in colon cancer has not been described on a large scale. Patients with colon cancer underwent sentinel lymph node mapping and standard oncologic resection. Aberrant lymphatic drainage was identified outside the standard resection margin, requiring change of the extent of operation. Objectives were to identify the frequency of aberrant lymphatic drainage leading to changes of operation and staging. Among 192 patients undergoing standard oncologic resection, 42 (22%) had extended surgery because of aberrant lymphatic drainage. Nodal positivity was higher in patients undergoing change of operation, at 62% compared with 43% of those undergoing only standard oncologic resection. In 19 of 192 patients (10%), positive sentinel nodes were found in aberrant locations. Sentinel node mapping in patients with colon cancer detects aberrant drainage in 22% of patients, changing the extent of operation. Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. Novel Handheld Magnetometer Probe Based on Magnetic Tunnelling Junction Sensors for Intraoperative Sentinel Lymph Node Identification

    PubMed Central

    Cousins, A.; Balalis, G. L.; Thompson, S. K.; Forero Morales, D.; Mohtar, A.; Wedding, A. B.; Thierry, B.

    2015-01-01

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required. PMID:26038833

  16. Novel handheld magnetometer probe based on magnetic tunnelling junction sensors for intraoperative sentinel lymph node identification.

    PubMed

    Cousins, A; Balalis, G L; Thompson, S K; Forero Morales, D; Mohtar, A; Wedding, A B; Thierry, B

    2015-06-03

    Using magnetic tunnelling junction sensors, a novel magnetometer probe for the identification of the sentinel lymph node using magnetic tracers was developed. Probe performance was characterised in vitro and validated in a preclinical swine model. Compared to conventional gamma probes, the magnetometer probe showed excellent spatial resolution of 4.0 mm, and the potential to detect as few as 5 μg of magnetic tracer. Due to the high sensitivity of the magnetometer, all first-tier nodes were identified in the preclinical experiments, and there were no instances of false positive or false negative detection. Furthermore, these preliminary data encourage the application of the magnetometer probe for use in more complex lymphatic environments, such as in gastrointestinal cancers, where the sentinel node is often in close proximity to other non-sentinel nodes, and high spatial resolution detection is required.

  17. Detection of parasternal metastatic lymph nodes by sentinel lymph node methods in a patient with recurrence in the conserved breast.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, Toshinari; Fujita, Takashi; Hayashi, Hironori; Ando, Yoshiaki; Hato, Yukari; Horio, Akiyo; Toyoshima, Chieko; Yamada, Mai; Iwata, Hiroji

    2014-03-01

    We herein report a case of second sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). A 57-year-old woman underwent breast-conserving surgery including axillary clearance at Aichi Cancer Center on October 20, 2003. Recurrent tumor in the conserved breast was diagnosed in March 2006. She received SLNB using radioactive tracer. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy detected 2 parasternal lymph nodes as hot spots. No abnormal lymph nodes were revealed on preoperative computed tomography. Salvage mastectomy was performed along with dissection of the Rotter and infraclavicular lymph nodes and biopsy of the detected parasternal lymph nodes. Micrometastases were discovered in both parasternal lymph nodes detected as sentinel lymph nodes. No more metastases were seen in the other lymph nodes. Reoperative SLNB offers the possibility of detecting metastasis in residual lymph nodes and determining whether chemotherapy should be used.

  18. Sentinel lymph node imaging by a fluorescently labeled DNA tetrahedron.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kyoung-Ran; Lee, Yong-Deok; Lee, Taemin; Kim, Byeong-Su; Kim, Sehoon; Ahn, Dae-Ro

    2013-07-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) are the first lymph nodes which cancer cells reach after traveling through lymphatic vessels from the primary tumor. Evaluating the nodal status is crucial in accurate staging of human cancers and accordingly determines prognosis and the most appropriate treatment. The commonly used methods for SLN identification in clinics are based on employment of a colloid of radionuclide or injection of a small dye. Although these methods have certainly contributed to improve surgical practice, new imaging materials are still required to overcome drawbacks of the techniques such as inconvenience of handling radioactive materials and short retention time of small dyes in SLNs. Here, we prepare a fluorescence-labeled DNA tetrahedron and perform SLN imaging by using the DNA nanoconstruct. With a successful identification of SLNs by the DNA nanoconstruct, we suggest that DNA tetrahedron hold great promises for clinical applications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in paediatric melanoma. A case series.

    PubMed

    Sánchez Aguilar, M; Álvarez Pérez, R M; García Gómez, F J; Fernández Ortega, P; Borrego Dorado, I

    2015-01-01

    The incidence of melanoma in children is uncommon, being particularly rare in children under 10 years-old. However, this disease is increasing by a mean of 2% per year. As in adults, the lymph node status is the most important prognostic factor, crucial to performing the selective sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). We report 3 cases of paediatric patients of 3, 4 and 8 years-old, in which SLNB was performed for malignant melanoma. Paediatric age implies greater technical difficulty to the scintigraphy scan due to poor patient cooperation, with mild sedation required in some cases, and only being able to acquire planar images in other cases. SPECT/CT was only performed in the oldest patient. In our cases, SLNB was useful for selecting the least invasive surgery in order to reduce morbidity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Internal Mammary Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy With Modified Injection Technique: High Visualization Rate and Accurate Staging.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Peng-Fei; Cong, Bin-Bin; Zhao, Rong-Rong; Yang, Guo-Ren; Liu, Yan-Bing; Chen, Peng; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2015-10-01

    Although the 2009 American Joint Committee on Cancer incorporated the internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) concept, there has been little change in surgical practice patterns because of the low visualization rate of internal mammary sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) with the traditional radiotracer injection technique. In this study, various injection techniques were evaluated in term of the IMSLN visualization rate, and the impact of IM-SLNB on the diagnostic and prognostic value were analyzed.Clinically, axillary lymph nodes (ALN) negative patients (n = 407) were divided into group A (traditional peritumoral intraparenchymal injection) and group B (modified periareolar intraparenchymal injection). Group B was then separated into group B1 (low volume) and group B2 (high volume) according to the injection volume. Clinically, ALN-positive patients (n = 63) were managed as group B2. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed for patients with IMSLN visualized.The IMSLN visualization rate was significantly higher in group B than that in group A (71.1% versus 15.5%, P < 0.001), whereas the axillary sentinel lymph nodes were reliably identified in both groups (98.9% versus 98.3%, P = 0.712). With high injection volume, group B2 was found to have higher IMSLN visualization rate than group B1 (75.1% versus 45.8%, P < 0.001). The IMSLN metastasis rate was only 8.1% (12/149) in clinically ALN-negative patients with successful IM-SLNB, and adjuvant treatment was altered in a small proportion. The IMSLN visualization rate was 69.8% (44/63) in clinically ALN-positive patients with the IMSLN metastasis rate up to 20.5% (9/44), and individual radiotherapy strategy could be guided with the IM-SLNB results.The modified injection technique (periareolar intraparenchymal, high volume, and ultrasound guidance) significantly improved the IMSLN visualization rate, making the routine IM-SLNB possible in daily practice. Internal mammary

  1. Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-01

    Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Andrea L. Cheville, M.D...5a. CONTRACT NUMBER Assessment of Risk Reduction for Lymphedema Following Sentinel Lymph Noded Guided Surgery for Primary Breast Cancer 5b...14. ABSTRACT Lymphedema is a common complication of primary breast cancer therapy. It is a chronic, insidiously progressive, and potentially

  2. Arm lymphoscintigraphy after axillary lymph node dissection or sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Sarri, Almir José; Dias, Rogério; Laurienzo, Carla Elaine; Gonçalves, Mônica Carboni Pereira; Dias, Daniel Spadoto; Moriguchi, Sonia Marta

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Compare the lymphatic flow in the arm after breast cancer surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) versus sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using lymphos-cintigraphy (LS). Patients and methods A cross-sectional study with 39 women >18 years who underwent surgical treatment for unilateral breast cancer and manipulation of the axillary lymph node chain through either ALND or SLNB, with subsequent comparison of the lymphatic flow of the arm by LS. The variables analyzed were the area reached by the lymphatic flow in the upper limb and the sites and number of lymph nodes identified in the ALND or SLNB groups visualized in the three phases of LS acquisition (immediate dynamic and static images, delayed scan images). For all analyses, the level of significance was set at 5%. Results There was a significant difference between the ALND and SLNB groups, with predominant visualization of lymphatic flow and/or lymph nodes in the arm and axilla (P=0.01) and extra-axillary lymph nodes (P<0.01) in the ALND group. There was no significant difference in the total number of lymph nodes identified between the two groups. However, there was a significant difference in the distribution of lymph nodes in these groups. The cubital lymph node was more often visualized in the immediate dynamic images in the ALND group (P=0.004), while the axillary lymph nodes were more often identified in the delayed scan images of the SLNB group (P<0.01). The deltopectoral lymph node was only identified in the ALND group, but with no significant difference. Conclusion The lymphatic flow from the axilla was redirected to alternative extra-axillary routes in the ALND group. PMID:28331338

  3. [Magnetic Sentinel Lymph Node Detection in Prostate Cancer after intraprostatic Injection of Superparamagnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles].

    PubMed

    Winter, Alexander; Engels, Svenja; Kowald, Tobias; Paulo, Tina Susanne; Gerullis, Holger; Chavan, Ajay; Wawroschek, Friedhelm

    2017-04-01

    In prostate cancer, reliable information about the lymph node status is of great importance for accurate staging and the optimal planning of treatment. Despite recent advances in imaging, the histological detection of metastases, or pelvic lymphadenectomy (PLND), continues to be the most reliable method for lymph node staging in clinically localised prostate cancer, especially as this procedure enables the detection of small or micrometastases. Radioisotope-guided sentinel PLND (sPLND) demonstrates high sensitivity in the detection of lymph node metastases as well as low morbidity in prostate cancer because of the targeted removal of a relatively small number of lymph nodes. However, radioactive labelling is associated with limitations such as strict legal regulations, the need for a nuclear medicine department and the radioactive exposure of patients and medical staff. In order to take advantage of the targeted sentinel method while avoiding the disadvantages of radioactive labelling, the identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) by means of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (SPIONs) was studied in breast carcinoma, and its non-inferiority compared with the established procedure with (99m)technetium nanocolloid was demonstrated. Just like the radioactive identification of SLNs, this innovative new method for magnetic labelling and the intraoperative identification of SLNs using a hand-held magnetometer were successfully transferred to prostate cancer. Initial studies demonstrated high sensitivity in the detection of lymph node-positive patients. This method offers the additional advantage of being safe and easy to perform for a single urologist. In addition, the visualisation of SPION-marked SLNs through magnetic resonance tomography enables a precise preoperative SLN identification comparable to lymphoscintigraphy in the radioactive approach. Therefore, SLNs can be identified before and during surgical procedures in prostate cancer patients without

  4. The clinical value of hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy to predict metastatic sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Na, Chang Ju; Kim, Jeonghun; Choi, Sehun; Han, Yeon-Hee; Jeong, Hwan-Jeong; Sohn, Myung-Hee; Youn, Hyun Jo; Lim, Seok Tae

    2015-03-01

    Hybrid imaging techniques can provide functional and anatomical information about sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Our aim in this study was to evaluate which imaging parameters on hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy predicted metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in patients with breast cancer. Among 56 patients who underwent conventional sentinel lymphoscintigraphy, 45 patients (age, 53.1 ± 9.5 years) underwent hybrid sentinel lymphoscintigraphy using a single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT)/computed tomography (CT) gamma camera. On hybrid SPECT/CT images, we compared the shape and size (long-to-short axis [L/S] ratio) of the SLN, and SLN/periareolar injection site (S/P) count ratio between metastatic and non-metastatic SLNs. Metastatic involvement of sentinel lymph nodes was confirmed by pathological biopsy. Pathological biopsy revealed that 21 patients (46.7 %) had metastatic SLNs, while 24 (53.3 %) had non-metastatic SLNs. In the 21 patients with metastatic SLNs, the SLN was mostly round (57.1 %) or had an eccentric cortical rim (38.1 %). Of 24 patients with non-metastatic SLNs, 13 patients (54.1 %) had an SLN with a C-shape rim or eccentric cortex. L/S ratio was 2.04 for metastatic SLNs and 2.38 for non-metastatic SLNs. Seven (33 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and 14 (66 %) had T2 primary tumors in the metastatic SLN group. In contrast, 18 (75 %) patients had T1 primary tumors and six (25 %) had T2 tumors in the non-metastatic SLN group. S/P count ratio was significantly lower in the metastatic SLN group than the non-metastatic SLN group for those patients with a T1 primary tumor (p = 0.007). Hybrid SPECT/CT offers the physiologic data of SPECT together with the anatomic data of CT in a single image. This hybrid imaging improved the anatomic localization of SLNs in breast cancer patients and predicted the metastatic involvement of SLNs in the subgroup of breast cancer patients with T1 primary tumors.

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for conjunctival malignant melanoma: surgical techniques

    PubMed Central

    Wainstein, Alberto JA; Drummond-Lage, Ana P; Kansaon, Milhem JM; Bretas, Gustavo O; Almeida, Rodrigo F; Gloria, Ana LF; Figueiredo, Ana RP

    2015-01-01

    Background The purpose of this report is to examine the viability and safety of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and radio guided sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for conjunctival melanoma, and to identify the best technique to perform this procedure. Methods Three patients diagnosed with malignant melanoma of the conjunctiva underwent lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy using a dual technique comprising isosulfan blue dye and technetium Tc 99m sulfur colloid. Each patient was anesthetized and the conjunctival melanoma was excised. SLNs were localized by a gamma probe, identified according to radioactivity and sentinel blue printing, and dissected, along with drainage of the associated lymphatic basins. The SLNs were evaluated by a pathologist using hematoxylin-eosin staining following serial sectioning and immunohistochemistry using a triple melanoma cocktail (S-100, Melan-A, and HMB-45 antigens). Results Two SLNs were stained in the jugular chain during preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in the first patient, two SLNs were identified in the preauricular and submandibular areas in the second patient, and two SLNs were identified in the submandibular and parotid areas in the third patient. All lymph nodes identified by lymphoscintigraphy were dissected and identified at surgery with 100% accuracy in all three patients. All SLNs were histologically and immunohistochemically negative. Patients had good cosmetic and functional results, and maintained their visual acuity and ocular motility. Conclusion Patients with conjunctival melanoma can undergo preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and SLN biopsy safely using radioactive technetium and isosulfan blue dye. PMID:25565762

  6. Sentinel lymph node metastasis in anal melanoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Tien, Huey Y; McMasters, Kelly M; Edwards, Michael J; Chao, Celia

    2002-01-01

    Anal melanoma represents only 1% of all melanomas. Owing to delayed diagnosis and early metastasis, the prognosis is uniformly poor. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has become the preferred method of nodal staging method for cutaneous melanoma. The role of SLN biopsy for staging of anal melanoma remains unclear. We report a 39-yr-old Caucasian woman who presented with a history of chronic hemorrhoidal pain. She noted a pedunculated peri-anal mass associated with bleeding. Upon biopsy, the lesion was found to be a 6-mm thick primary anal melanoma. There was no evidence of metastatic disease on preoperative imaging studies. She underwent wide local excision of the peri-anal site of the primary melanoma and intra-operative lymphatic mapping with both isosulfan blue and filtered technetium sulfur colloid. With the guidance a lymphoscintigram, ipsilateral inguinal sentinel lymphadenectomy identified five nodes, all of which were both "hot" and blue. One node was found to have a 1-mm metastatic deposit. Subsequently, the patient was treated with adjuvant radiation therapy to the primary site as well as to the superficial and deep inguinal nodal basins. She also received four cycles of biochemotherapy. SLN biopsy appears feasible for staging the superficial inguinal lymph nodes in patients with anal melanoma. However, the impact of SLN biopsy, early detection of occult metastasis, and adjuvant systemic and radiation therapy on the long-term survival of patients with anal melanoma is uncertain.

  7. Increased Angiogenesis and Lymphangiogenesis in Metastatic Sentinel Lymph Nodes Is Associated With Nonsentinel Lymph Node Involvement and Distant Metastasis in Patients With Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Pastushenko, Ievgenia; Van den Eynden, Gert G; Vicente-Arregui, Sandra; Prieto-Torres, Lucia; Alvarez-Alegret, Ramiro; Querol, Ignacio; Dirix, Luc Y; Carapeto, Francisco J; Vermeulen, Peter B; Van Laere, Steven J

    2016-05-01

    Lymph node angio- and lymphangio-genesis have been shown to play an important role in the premetastatic niche of sentinel lymph nodes. In the current study we have investigated the association of angio- and lympangio-genesis related parameters in metastatic sentinel lymph nodes of patients with melanoma with the presence of nonsentinel and distant organ metastasis. Peritumoral and intratumoral relative blood and lymphatic vessel areas (evaluated by Chalkley method), blood and lymphatic microvessel densities, and the rates of blood and lymphatic vessel proliferation were assessed in primary tumors and sentinel lymph node metastasis of 44 patients with melanoma using CD34/Ki-67 and D240/Ki-67 immunohistochemical double staining. Primary melanoma exhibited significantly higher rate of lymphatic proliferation compared with its lymph node metastasis (P < 0.05), while lymph node metastasis showed significantly higher rate of blood vessel proliferation (P < 0.05). Using multivariate logistic regression model, the rate of peritumoral lymphatic proliferation was inversely associated with positive nonsentinel lymph node status (P < 0.05), whereas the rate of intratumoral blood vessel proliferation was associated with distant organ metastasis (P < 0.05). Using multivariate Cox regression analysis, the rate of intratumoral blood vessel proliferation was also inversely associated with overall survival of patients with melanoma (P < 0.05).

  8. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Uterine Cervical Cancer Patients: Ready for Clinical Use? A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Palla, Viktoria-Varvara; Karaolanis, Georgios; Moris, Demetrios; Antsaklis, Aristides

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been widely studied in a number of cancer types. As far as cervical cancer is concerned, this technique has already been used, revealing both positive results and several issues to be solved. The debate on the role of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cervical cancer is still open although most of the studies have already revealed its superiority over complete lymphadenectomy and the best handling possible of the emerging practical problems. Further research should be made in order to standardize this method and include it in the clinical routine. PMID:24527233

  9. Decreased identification rate of sentinel lymph node after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Kang, Seok Hyung; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kwon, Youngmee; Kang, Han-Sung; Kang, Jae Hee; Ro, Jungsil; Lee, Eun Sook

    2004-10-01

    We prospectively studied the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy by comparing the identification rate and the false-negative rate (FNR) with the results obtained from the patients without chemotherapy. From October 2001 to March 2003, a total of 284 consecutive patients who underwent SLNB and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) at the Center for Breast Cancer, National Cancer Center were enrolled. Of the 284 patients, 54 underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy prior to operation. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) was mapped by radioactive colloid alone or in combination with blue dye. All SLNs were evaluated by 2 mm serial sections after hematoxylin-eosin staining. The overall SLN identification rate was 91.9% (261/284): 72.2% (39/54) of the patients after chemotherapy and 96.5% (222/230) of the patients without chemotherapy. These results suggest that preoperative chemotherapy significantly affects lymphatic mapping ( p< 0.001). Among the patients with chemotherapy, there were 3 false negatives in 39 successfully mapped tumors, yielding an FNR of 11.1% (3/27), a negative prediction value (NPV) of 80.0% (12/15), and an accuracy of 92.3% (36/39). There were 10 false negatives among 222 successfully detected patients without chemotherapy, yielding an FNR of 9.9% (10/101), an NPV of 92.4% (121/131), and an accuracy of 95.5% (212/222). These results were not statistically different when compared ( p > 0.05). Although the SLN identification rate significantly decreased after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, SLNB could accurately predict axillary status. Thus SLNB can be an alternative to ALND even after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in cases of successful identification of the SLN.

  10. Indocyanine green SPY elite-assisted sentinel lymph node biopsy in cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Korn, Jason M; Tellez-Diaz, Alejandra; Bartz-Kurycki, Marisa; Gastman, Brian

    2014-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the standard of care for intermediate-depth and high-risk thin melanomas. Recently, indocyanine green and near-infrared imaging have been used to aid in sentinel node biopsy. The present study aimed to determine the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy with indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation and to critically evaluate the technique compared with the standard modalities. A retrospective review of 90 consecutive cutaneous melanoma patients who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. Two cohorts were formed: group A, which had sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with blue dye and radioisotope; and group B, which had sentinel lymph node biopsy performed with radioisotope and indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation. The cohorts were compared to assess for differences in localization rates, sensitivity and specificity of sentinel node identification, and length of surgery. The sentinel lymph node localization rate was 79.4 percent using the blue dye method, 98.0 percent using the indocyanine green fluorescence method, and 97.8 percent using the radioisotope/handheld gamma probe method. Indocyanine green fluorescence detected more sentinel lymph nodes than the vital dye method alone (p = 0.020). A trend toward a reduction in length of surgery was noted in the SPY Elite cohort. Sentinel lymph node mapping and localization in cutaneous melanoma with the indocyanine green SPY Elite navigation system is technically feasible and may offer several advantages over current modalities, including higher sensitivity and specificity, decreased number of lymph nodes sampled, decreased operative time, and potentially lower false-negative rates. Diagnostic, II.

  11. Sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer patients using fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There are various methods for detecting sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) using a vital dye is a convenient and safe, intraoperatively preparative method to assess lymph node status. However, the disadvantage of the dye method is that the success rate of sentinel lymph node detection depend on the surgeon's skills and preoperative mapping of the sentinel lymph node is not feasible. Currently, a vital dye, radioisotope, or a combination of both is used to detect sentinel nodes. Many surgeons have reported successful results using either method. In this study we have analyzed breast lymphatic drainage pathways using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging. Methods We examined the lymphatic courses, or lymphatic vessels, in the breast using ICG fluorescence imaging, and applied this method to SLNB in patients who underwent their first operative treatment for breast cancer between May 2006 and April 2008. Fluorescence images were obtained using a charge coupled device camera with a cut filter used as a detector, and light emitting diodes at 760 nm as a light source. When ICG was injected into the subareola and periareola, subcutaneous lymphatic vessels from the areola to the axilla became visible by fluorescence within a few minutes. The sentinel lymph node was then dissected with the help of fluorescence imaging navigation. Results The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 100%. 0 to 4 states of lymphatic drainage pathways from the areola were observed. The number of sentinel nodes was 3.41 on average. Conclusions This method using indocyanine green (ICG) fluorescence imaging may possibly improve the detection rate of sentinel lymph nodes with high sensitivity and compensates for the deficiencies of other methods. The ICG fluorescence imaging technique enables observation of breast lymph vessels running in multiple directions and easily and accurately identification of sentinel lymph nodes. Thus, this technique can

  12. Laparoscopic Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping with Indocyanine Green (Icg) Using Ispies Platform: the Initial Experience in Argentina.

    PubMed

    Di Guilmi, Julian; Darin, Maria Cecilia; Toscano, Maria; Maya, Gustavo

    2017-09-11

    To demonstrate the initial experience in Argentina using the iSpies ICG platform in performing sentinel lymph node mapping in early-stage cervical cancer. Design Step-by-step video and pictures BACKGROUND: Laparoscopic and robotic sentinel lymph node mapping using ICG has been shown to be safe and feasible. However, the use of fluorescent imaging through a minimally invasive approach in developing countries is very limited given the cost restrictions of acquiring the near infrared technology and the fluorescent dyes. A 47-year-old woman presented with a stage IB1 squamous cervical cancer. On physical examination the patient had a 1.5 cm tumor without evidence of parametrial involvement. MRI imaging did not show any evidence of metastatic disease. The patient underwent laparoscopic radical hysterectomy with sentinel lymph node mapping. Once laparoscopic exposure of the pelvic spaces had been performed, a cervical injection of ICG (1 ml superficial and deep) was performed using a spinal needle at 3 and 9 o'clock positions. In performing sentinel lymph node mapping we used the ICG-pulsion (Pulsion Medical Systems, Germany) and the Storz spies near infrared camera. Bilateral sentinel lymph nodes were detected on the left external iliac artery and right obturator space; respectively. Both were confirmed ex-vivo. The total operative time was 170 minutes. No intraoperative or postoperative complications were reported and the patient was discharged 48 hours after surgery. Estimated blood loss was minimal. Sentinel lymph node alone is not standard of care in our institution, therefore bilateral lymphadenectomy was performed. Ultrastaging is routinely performed when a sentinel lymph node is evaluated. Final pathology revealed a tumor confined to the cervix, margins free of tumor, and a total of ten lymph nodes that were negative for any evidence of disease. Disadvantage of this technology when compared to the Pinpoint ICG system is the lack of simultaneous white vision and

  13. Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Breast Carcinoma: An Update on Current Practice

    PubMed Central

    Maguire, Aoife; Brogi, Edi

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has been established as the standard of care for axillary staging in patients with invasive breast carcinoma and clinically negative lymph nodes (cN0). Historically, all patients with a positive SLN underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). The ACOSOG Z0011 trial showed that women with T1-T2 disease and cN0 who undergo breast conserving surgery and whole-breast radiotherapy can safely avoid ALND. The main goal of SLN examination should be to detect all macrometastases (>2mm). Gross sectioning SLNs at 2 mm intervals and microscopic examination of one H&E-stained section from each SLN block is the preferred method of pathologic evaluation of SLNs. The role and timing of SLN biopsy for patients having neoadjuvant chemotherapy is controversial and continues to be explored in clinical trials. SLN biopsies from patients with invasive breast carcinoma who have received neoadjuvant chemotherapy pose particular challenges for pathologists. PMID:26768036

  14. 99mTc-Evans blue dye for mapping contiguous lymph node sequences and discriminating the sentinel lymph node in an ovine model.

    PubMed

    Tsopelas, Chris; Bevington, Elaine; Kollias, James; Shibli, Sabah; Farshid, Gelareh; Coventry, Brendon; Chatterton, Barry E

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the potential of (99m)Tc-Evans blue for discriminating the sentinel lymph node in multitiered lymph node sequences by using an ovine model. (99m)Tc-Evans blue is an agent that has both radioactive and color signals in a single dose. Previous studies in smaller animal models suggested that this agent could have advantages over the dual-injection technique of radiocolloid/blue dye. Doses of (99m)Tc-Evans blue ( approximately 21 MBq) containing Evans blue dye (approximately 4 mg) were administered to the hind limbs or fore limbs of sheep to map the lymphatic drainage patterns, validate its ability to identify the sentinel lymph node, and examine the reproducibility of the technique. The study protocol was repeated with (99m)Tc-antimony trisulfide colloid and Patent Blue V dye. After the operative exposure, lymph nodes were identified with the gamma probe and then excised and analyzed for radioactivity (percentage of injected dose) and blue color. After the administration of (99m)Tc-Evans blue, all lymph nodes harvested (35 of 35) in either short chains or long basins were hot and blue. The sentinel lymph nodes concentrated more radioactivity than the second-tier nodes to the extent of 2:1 to 215:1. For radiocolloid/Patent Blue V, the ratios were lower, at 2:1 to 3:1. (99m)Tc-Evans blue was found to better discriminate the sentinel lymph node than (99m)Tc-antimony trisulfide colloid/Patent Blue V in variable multitier lymph node anatomy, and it is an agent that promises to have positive clinical applications.

  15. Comparative study between ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes and sentinel lymph node histopathology in early-stage breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cardoso-Coelho, Lívio Portela; Borges, Rafael Soares; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Cardoso-Campos-Verdes, Larysse Maira; da Silva-Sampaio, João Paulo; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2017-05-01

    The replacement of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) cytology of axillary lymph nodes is controversial, despite the simplicity and reduced cost of the latter. In the present study, US-guided FNA was performed in 27 patients with early-stage breast cancer for comparison with SNB. Data were analyzed by calculation of sample proportions. Tumor subtypes included invasive ductal carcinoma (85%), invasive lobular carcinoma (7%), and tubular and metaplastic carcinoma (4%). FNA had a sensitivity of 45%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Axillary lymph node cytology obtained by US guided-FNA in patients with breast cancer had a specificity similar to that of sentinel lymph node histopathology in the presence of axillary node metastases. However, when lymph node cytology is negative, it does not exclude the existence of metastatic implants, due to its low sensitivity in comparison to sentinel lymph node histopathology.

  16. Comparative study between ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology of axillary lymph nodes and sentinel lymph node histopathology in early-stage breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso-Coelho, Lívio Portela; Borges, Rafael Soares; Alencar, Airlane Pereira; Cardoso-Campos-Verdes, Larysse Maira; da Silva-Sampaio, João Paulo; Borges, Umbelina Soares; Gebrim, Luiz Henrique; da Silva, Benedito Borges

    2017-01-01

    The replacement of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) by ultrasound-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) cytology of axillary lymph nodes is controversial, despite the simplicity and reduced cost of the latter. In the present study, US-guided FNA was performed in 27 patients with early-stage breast cancer for comparison with SNB. Data were analyzed by calculation of sample proportions. Tumor subtypes included invasive ductal carcinoma (85%), invasive lobular carcinoma (7%), and tubular and metaplastic carcinoma (4%). FNA had a sensitivity of 45%, specificity of 100%, positive predictive value of 100% and a negative predictive value of 73%. Axillary lymph node cytology obtained by US guided-FNA in patients with breast cancer had a specificity similar to that of sentinel lymph node histopathology in the presence of axillary node metastases. However, when lymph node cytology is negative, it does not exclude the existence of metastatic implants, due to its low sensitivity in comparison to sentinel lymph node histopathology. PMID:28521436

  17. Compact intraoperative imaging device for sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yang; Bauer, Adam Q.; Akers, Walter; Sudlow, Gail; Liang, Kexian; Shen, Duanwen; Berezin, Mikhail; Culver, Joseph P.; Achilefu, Samuel

    2011-03-01

    We have developed a novel real-time intraoperative fluorescence imaging device that can detect near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and map sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). In contrast to conventional imaging systems, this device is compact, portable, and battery-operated. It is also wearable and thus allows hands-free operation of clinicians. The system directly displays the fluorescence in its goggle eyepiece, eliminating the need for a remote monitor. Using this device in murine lymphatic mapping, the SLNs stained with indocyanine green (ICG) can be readily detected. Fluorescence-guided SLN resection under the new device was performed with ease. Ex vivo examination of resected tissues also revealed high fluorescence level in the SLNs. Histology further confirmed the lymphatic nature of the resected SLNs.

  18. Nanoparticles in Sentinel Lymph Node Assessment in Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Laura; Charles-Edwards, Geoff; Douek, Michael

    2010-01-01

    The modern management of the axilla in breast cancer relies on surgery for accurate staging of disease and identifying those patients at risk who would benefit from adjuvant chemotherapy. The introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionized axillary surgery, but still involves a surgical procedure with associated morbidity in many patients with no axillary involvement. Nanotechnology encompasses a broad spectrum of scientific specialities, of which nanomedicine is one. The potential use of dual-purpose nanoprobes could enable imaging the axilla simultaneous identification and treatment of metastatic disease. Whilst most applications of nanomedicine are still largely in the laboratory phase, some potential applications are currently undergoing clinical evaluation for translation from the bench to the bedside. This is an exciting new area of research where scientific research may become a reality. PMID:24281206

  19. Mastoscopic sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Boni; Zhang, Hongyan; Li, Xiaorong; Qian, Liyuan; Chen, Xuedong; Wu, Wei; Wen, Yanguang; Zhao, Yujun

    2015-01-01

    Background Previous studies have demonstrated that mastoscopic sentinel lymph node biopsy (MSLNB) has good identification rate (IR) and low false negative rate (FNR). However, few studies have directly compared the surgical performance and peri- and post-operative factors of MSLNB with conventional sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Methodology Sixty patients diagnosed with breast cancer were recruited and randomly assigned to one of the three groups: MSLNB, SLNB and SLNB with lipolysis injection. Peri- and post-operative parameters were compared using general linear models. To examine the effect of age on these parameters, we performed separate analysis stratified by age (≤50 years old vs. >50 years old). Results Patients in the MSLNB group experienced longer surgery and suffered higher surgical cost than patients who underwent conventional SLNB or SLNB with lipolysis injection (p<0.0001). Despite this, they had significantly less blood loss than those who underwent conventional SLNB (22.0±7.0 ml vs.73.5±39.6 ml; p<0.0001). Analysis by age group indicates a similar pattern of difference among the three groups. MSLNB and conventional SLNB have similar IR and FNR. Conclusion As a minimally invasive technique, MSLNB can significantly reduce blood loss while providing similar IR and FNR, indicating that it can be a promising alternative to conventional SLNB. Conclusion Variations in popliteal artery terminal branching pattern occurred in 7.4% to 17.6% of patients. Pre-surgical detection of these variations with MD CTA may help to reduce the risk of iatrogenic arterial injury by enabling a better surgical treatment plan. PMID:28352718

  20. 10 % fluorescein sodium vs 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Ren, Lidong; Liu, Zhao; Liang, Mengdi; Wang, Li; Song, Xingli; Wang, Shui

    2016-11-03

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is well accepted to be a standard procedure in breast cancer surgery with clinically negative lymph nodes. Isosulfan blue is the first dye approved by the USA Food and Drug Administration for the localization of the lymphatic system. Few alternative tracers have been investigated. In this study, we aimed to compare the differences between 10 % fluorescein sodium and 1 % isosulfan blue in breast sentinel lymph node biopsy and to investigate the feasibility of using 10 % fluorescein sodium as a new dye for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy. A total of 30 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into the fluorescein sodium group and the isosulfan blue group (15 rabbits per group). Fluorescein sodium or isosulfan blue was injected subcutaneously into the second pair of mammary areolas. The average fading time of the second lymph nodes in the isosulfan blue group was significantly shorter than that in the fluorescein sodium group. Moreover, the detection rates of SLNs were higher in the fluorescein sodium group than in the isosulfan blue group. No significant differences between the fluorescein sodium group and isosulfan blue group were observed regarding the distances between the detected sentinel lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the distances between the second lymph nodes and second pair of mammary areolas, the number of detected sentinel lymph nodes and second lymph nodes, the average dyeing time of the sentinel and the second lymph nodes, and the average fading time of the second lymph nodes. In summary, we first reported that fluorescein sodium is a potential new tracer for breast sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  1. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound mapping of sentinel lymph nodes in oral tongue cancer-a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Gvetadze, Shalva R; Xiong, Ping; Lv, Mingming; Li, Jun; Hu, Jingzhou; Ilkaev, Konstantin D; Yang, Xin; Sun, Jian

    2017-03-01

    To assess the usefulness of contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) with peritumoral injection of microbubble contrast agent for detecting the sentinel lymph nodes for oral tongue carcinoma. The study was carried out on 12 patients with T1-2cN0 oral tongue cancer. A radical resection of the primary disease was planned; a modified radical supraomohyoid neck dissection was reserved for patients with larger lesions (T2, n = 8). The treatment plan and execution were not influenced by sentinel node mapping outcome. The Sonovue(™) contrast agent (Bracco Imaging, Milan, Italy) was utilized. After detection, the position and radiologic features of the sentinel nodes were recorded. The identification rate of the sentinel nodes was 91.7%; one patient failed to demonstrate any enhanced areas. A total of 15 sentinel nodes were found in the rest of the 11 cases, with a mean of 1.4 nodes for each patient. The sentinel nodes were localized in: Level IA-1 (6.7%) node; Level IB-11 (73.3%) nodes; Level IIA-3 (20.0%) nodes. No contrast-related adverse effects were observed. For oral tongue tumours, CEUS is a feasible and potentially widely available approach of sentinel node mapping. Further clinical research is required to establish the position of CEUS detection of the sentinel nodes in oral cavity cancers.

  2. A prospective investigation of fluorescence imaging to detect sentinel lymph nodes at robotic-assisted endometrial cancer staging.

    PubMed

    Paley, Pamela J; Veljovich, Dan S; Press, Joshua Z; Isacson, Christina; Pizer, Ellen; Shah, Chirag

    2016-07-01

    The accuracy of sentinel lymph node mapping has been shown in endometrial cancer, but studies to date have primarily focused on cohorts at low risk for nodal involvement. In our practice, we acknowledge the lack of benefit of lymphadenectomy in the low-risk subgroup and omit lymph node removal in these patients. Thus, our aim was to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of sentinel node mapping in women at sufficient risk for nodal metastasis warranting lymphadenectomy and in whom the potential benefit of avoiding nodal procurement could be realized. To evaluate the detection rate and accuracy of fluorescence-guided sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer patients undergoing robotic-assisted staging. One hundred twenty-three endometrial cancer patients undergoing sentinel lymph node sentinel node mapping using indocyanine green were prospectively evaluated. Two mL (1.0 mg/mL) of dye were injected into the cervical stroma divided between the 2-3 and 9-10 o'clock positions at the time of uterine manipulator placement. Before hysterectomy, the retroperitoneal spaces were developed and fluorescence imaging was used for sentinel node detection. Identified sentinel nodes were removed and submitted for touch prep intraoperatively, followed by permanent assessment with routine hematoxylin and eosin levels. Patients then underwent hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy, and completion bilateral pelvic and periaortic lymphadenectomy based on intrauterine risk factors determined intraoperatively (tumor size >2 cm, >50% myometrial invasion, and grade 3 histology). Of 123 patients enrolled, at least 1 sentinel node was detected in 119 (96.7%). Ninety-nine patients (80%) had bilateral pelvic or periaortic sentinel nodes detected. A total of 85 patients met criteria warranting completion lymphadenectomy. In 14 patients (16%) periaortic lymphadenectomy was not feasible, and the mean number of pelvic nodes procured was 13 (6-22). Of the 71 patients undergoing

  3. Pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node: what is the best method?

    PubMed

    Treseler, Patrick

    2006-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become an acceptable alternative to complete axillary dissection to determine whether breast cancer has spread to axillary lymph nodes. Yet the best method for pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) remains controversial. For years there has been speculation that micrometastases in axillary lymph nodes were clinically insignificant and thus lymph nodes did not require sectioning at close intervals. Yet essentially all studies, including a recent large prospective study, have found a significantly poorer prognosis associated even with metastases less than 2 mm in size-the most common definition of micrometastasis-suggesting that such small metastases cannot be safely overlooked. The use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) to detect keratin proteins will reveal metastatic breast carcinoma in about 18% of axillary lymph nodes that appear negative on routine stains. The preponderance of evidence to date suggests a significantly poorer prognosis in patients with such occult metastases, although data from large prospective studies are lacking. Molecular techniques such as polymerase chain reaction (PCR) offer even more sensitive methods for detecting occult metastasis in SLNs, although false positives are a particular problem in techniques that do not permit morphologic correlation, and for now they remain a research tool. Intraoperative examination of the SLN permits a completion axillary dissection to be performed during the same procedure if metastatic tumor is found; however, intraoperative techniques such as cytologic examination and frozen section lack sensitivity, and can result in loss of up to 50% of the SLN tissue. A proposal for optimal pathologic examination of the SLN is offered based on the above data.

  4. Technique of sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphatic mapping during laparoscopic colon resection for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Bianchi, PP; Andreoni, B; Rottoli, M; Celotti, S; Chiappa, A; Montorsi, M

    2007-01-01

    Background: The utility of lymph node mapping to improve staging in colon cancer is still under evaluation. Laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer has been validated in multi-centric trials. This study assessed the feasibility and technical aspects of lymph node mapping in laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer. Methods: A total of 42 patients with histologically proven colon cancer were studied from January 2006 to September 2007. Exclusion criteria were: advanced disease (clinical stage III), rectal cancer, previous colon resection and contraindication to laparoscopy. Lymph-nodal status was assessed preoperatively by computed tomography (CT) scan and intra-operatively with the aid of laparoscopic ultrasound. Before resection, 2–3 ml of Patent Blue V dye was injected sub-serosally around the tumour. Coloured lymph nodes were marked as sentinel (SN) with metal clips or suture and laparoscopic colectomy with lymphadenectomy completed as normal. In case of failure of the intra-operative procedure, an ex vivo SN biopsy was performed on the colectomy specimen after resection. Results: A total number of 904 lymph nodes were examined, with a median number of 22 lymph nodes harvested per patient. The SN detection rate was 100%, an ex vivo lymph node mapping was necessary in four patients. Eleven (26.2%) patients had lymph-nodal metastases and in five (45.5%) of these patients, SN was the only positive lymph node. There were two (18.2%) false-negative SN. In three cases (7.1%) with aberrant lymphatic drainage, lymphadenectomy was extended. The accuracy of SN mapping was 95.2% and negative predictive value was 93.9%. Conclusions: Laparoscopic lymphatic mapping and SN removal is feasible in laparoscopic colectomy for colon cancer. The ex vivo technique is useful as a salvage technique in case of failure of the intra-operative procedure. Prospective studies are justified to determine the real accuracy and false-negative rate of the technique. PMID:22275957

  5. Sentinel lymph node biopsy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy in patients with breast cancer: Are the current false negative rates acceptable?

    PubMed

    Patten, D K; Zacharioudakis, K E; Chauhan, H; Cleator, S J; Hadjiminas, D J

    2015-08-01

    The advent of sentinel lymph node biopsy has revolutionised surgical management of axillary nodal disease in patients with breast cancer. Patients undergoing neo-adjuvant chemotherapy for large breast primary tumours may experience complete pathological response on a previously positive sentinel node whilst not eliminating the tumour from the other lymph nodes. Results from 2 large prospective cohort studies investigating sentinel lymph node biopsy after neo-adjuvant chemotherapy demonstrate a combined false negative rate of 12.6-14.2% and identification rate of 80-89% with the minimal acceptable false negative rate and identification rate being set at 10% and 90%, respectively. A false negative rate of 14% would have been classified as unacceptable when compared to the figures obtained by the pioneers of sentinel lymph node biopsy which was 5% or less.

  6. [Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: accurate staging and individualized treatment].

    PubMed

    Qiu, Pengfe; Zhao, Rongrong; Cong, Binbin; Yang, Guoren; Liu, Yanbing; Chen, Peng; Sun, Xiao; Wang, Chunjian; Wang, Yongsheng

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the impact of routinely performed internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) on the staging and treatment, and to analyze the success rate, complications and learning curve. All patients with biopsy-proven breast cancer who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy between 2012 and 2014 were included in a prospective analysis. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) was performed in all patients with IM-SLN visualized on preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and/or detected by intraoperative gamma probe detection. The adjuvant treatment plan was adjusted according to the current guidelines. In a total of 349 patients, 249 patients (71.1%) showed internal mammary drainage. IM-SLNB was performed in 153 patients with internal mammary drainage, with a success rate of IM-SLNB of 97.4% (149/153). Pleural lesion and internal mammary artery bleeding were found in 7.2% and 5.2% patients, respectively. In 8.1% of patients (12/149) the IM-SLN was tumor positive. In the group of patients who underwent IM-SLNB, lymph node staging was changed in 8.1% of patients, and IMLNs radiotherapy was guided by these results, however, systemic treatment was changed in only 0.7% of the patients. IM-SLNB has a high successful rate and good safety. Identification of internal mammary metastases through IM-SLNB may provide more accurate staging and guide the tailored internal mammary radiotherapy. ClinicalTrials. gov, NCT01642511.

  7. [SentiMag--the magnetic detection system of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Coufal, O; Fait, V; Lžičařová, E; Chrenko, V; Žaloudík, J

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of the new detection system of sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer (SentiMag) and to compare its use to the standard method of detection with a radioisotope and a gamma-probe. Twenty breast cancer patients scheduled for sentinel lymph node biopsy underwent standard lymphatic mapping with a radioisotope and also with the Sienna+ tracer. During the surgery, sentinel lymph nodes were identified preferably with the SentiMag system. The gamma-probe was used only at the end of the surgery to verify whether all sentinel lymph nodes had been harvested. The sentinel lymph node was detected in all cases. Both methods agreed in 18 cases, i.e. the lymph node with the highest magnetic value ex vivo was the same node as the one with the highest radioactivity. A metastasis in the sentinel lymph node was found in three patients. It is very likely that with the sole use of the SentiMag system, the results would have been identical to those of using the standard method with a radioisotope and the gamma-probe. The new magnetic detection method of sentinel lymph nodes (SentiMag) is feasible and clinically comparable to the gold standard method of detection with a radioisotope and the gamma-probe in patients with breast cancer. The new method could find its use not only in hospitals where the department of nuclear medicine is not available but in all hospitals performing sentinel lymph node biopsies in breast cancer and possibly other types of cancer.

  8. Comparative Morbidity of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection and the Sentinel Lymph Node Technique

    PubMed Central

    Silberman, Allan W.; McVay, Carie; Cohen, Jason S.; Altura, Jack F.; Brackert, Sandra; Sarna, Gregory P.; Palmer, Daphne; Ko, Albert; Memsic, Leslie

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess our long-term complications from complete axillary lymph node dissection (AXLND) in patients with breast cancer. Summary Background Data: Complete AXLND as part of the surgical therapy for breast cancer has come under increased scrutiny due the use of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy technique to assess the status of the axillary nodes. As the enthusiasm for the SLN technique has increased, our impression has been that the perceived complication rate from AXLND has increased dramatically while the negative aspects of the SLN technique have been underemphasized. Methods: Female patients seen in routine follow-up over a 1-year period were eligible for our retrospective study of the long-term complications from AXLND if they were a minimum of 1 year out from all primary therapy; ie, surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy. All patients had previously undergone either a modified radical mastectomy (MRM) or a segmental mastectomy with axillary dissection and postoperative radiation (SegAx/XRT). All patients had a Level I–III dissection. Objective measurements, including upper and lower arm circumferences and body mass index (BMI), were obtained, and a subjective evaluation from the patients was conducted. Results: Ninety-four patients were eligible for our study; 44 had undergone MRM, and 50 had undergone SegAx/XRT. The average number of nodes removed was 25.6 (standard deviation, 8). Thirty-three percent of the patients had positive nodal disease, 95% of the patients had an upper arm circumference within 2 cm of the unaffected side, and 93.3% had a lower arm circumference within 2 cm of the unaffected side. Subjectively, 90.4% of the patients had either no or minimal arm swelling, and 96.8% of the patients had “good” or “excellent” overall arm function. The most common long-term symptom was numbness involving the upper, inner aspect of the affected arm (25.5%). Conclusions: Our data indicate that a complete AXLND can be performed with

  9. [Presence of intramammary lymph nodes in the preoperative lymphoscintigraphy to locate the sentinel lymph node. Clinical significance].

    PubMed

    Nogareda, Z; Álvarez, A; Perlaza, P; Caparrós, F X; Alonso, I; Paredes, P; Vidal-Sicart, S

    2015-01-01

    The routes of lymphatic drainage from a breast cancer are the axilla (the most frequent) and the extra axillary regions. Among the latter, there are the so-called intrammamary lymph nodes (IMLN). This study has aimed to assess the incidence of IMLNs in our patients and study the evolution of these cases with IMLN in the lymphoscintigraphy. Thirty-eight patients (out of 1725) with IMLN in the pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy were assessed. During the surgical procedure, using a gamma probe, IMLNs were located and excised. After their harvesting, a meticulous surgical field scan was performed. When the axillary sentinel node was positive for metastasis, a complete axillary lymphadenectomy was performed. In those where the axillary sentinel node was negative and IMLN was positive (IMLN+), axillary lymphadenectomy was also performed, except for one case. Thirty-four out of the 38 IMLNs were obtained (89.5%), because no lymphatic tissue was found in pathology analysis in three cases (8%) and in one patient (3%) IMLN was not found during surgery. Ten (26%) metastatic IMLNs were located and the remaining 24 IMLNs cases (63%) were metastasis-free. During the clinical follow-up, one patient with IMLN+ developed hepatic metastases. The remaining 33 patients did not present any recurrence. No follow-up data were available for three patients. IMLN and axillary sentinel node biopsy are recommended when both are depicted in preoperative lymphoscintigraphy. The axilla treatment will only depend on the axillary sentinel node status. Based on the data from other authors and our own experience, avoiding the axillary lymphadenectomy when a metastatic IMLN without axillary involvement seems reasonable. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  10. Rapid immunohistochemistry of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma.

    PubMed

    Eudy, Grant E; Carlson, Grant W; Murray, Douglas R; Waldrop, Sandra M; Lawson, Dianne; Cohen, Cynthia

    2003-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is performed on patients with malignant melanoma (MM) to assess the need for selective complete lymphadenectomy. Melanoma metastasis to regional lymph nodes is an important prognostic indicator in patients with MM. This study assesses the sensitivity and specificity of rapid immunohistochemistry (RIHC) in intraoperative delineation of melanoma metastasis to SLN. RIHC for S-100 protein, HMB45, and a melanoma marker cocktail (melan A, HMB45, and tyrosinase) was performed on 71 SLNs obtained from 28 patients with MM. Frozen sections (6 micro thick) on plus slides were fixed for 2 to 3 minutes in cold acetone and then stored at -70 degrees C. The EnVision kit (Dako, Carpinteria, CA) for rapid immunohistochemistry (RIHC) on frozen tissue sections was used, and the staining technique took 19 minutes. Together with preparation of the frozen sections and fixation in acetone, immunostained slides were available in approximately 25 minutes. Of the 71 SNLs examined, 7 showed melanoma metastasis in permanent sections. RIHC of frozen sections detected metastatic melanoma in 6 SLNs, with a sensitivity of 86% for HMB45 and 71% for S-100 protein and the melanoma cocktail and a specificity of 97% for HMB45 and 100% for S-100 and the melanoma cocktail. We conclude that RIHC for HMB45, S-100 protein, and the melanoma cocktail may help detect melanoma metastasis in SLN intraoperatively, leading to total lymph node dissection and obviating the need for 2 surgical procedures. Section folds and background stain can make interpretation difficult. Intraoperative time constraints require a more rapid technique. A recent consensus group has discouraged frozen-section examination of SLN.

  11. Accuracy of robotic sentinel lymph node detection (RSLND) for patients with endometrial cancer (EC).

    PubMed

    Desai, Pranjal H; Hughes, Patrick; Tobias, Daniel H; Tchabo, Nana; Heller, Paul B; Dise, Craig; Slomovitz, Brian M

    2014-11-01

    Lymphadenectomy as a part of the staging for EC patients is controversial. Sentinel lymph node detection has been introduced to determine which patients would benefit from adjuvant therapy and to limit morbidities associated with a full pelvic nodal dissection. The purpose of this study is to evaluate diagnostic accuracy and detection rate of robotic sentinel lymph node detection (RSLND) as a part of the surgical staging for EC. A retrospective database of all patients who underwent intraoperative lymphatic mapping using cervical injection methylene blue followed by RSLND as a part of their procedure was reviewed. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) was initially examined by routine Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) and ultrastaging by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Between 4/2011 and 6/2013, 120 patients with endometrial cancer underwent RSLND. The median age was 62years (25-87); median BMI was 32 (18-76). Out of 120 patients, only one patient underwent RSLND with fertility preservation; and 119 patients underwent robotic hysterectomy and surgical staging with RSLND. None of the cases was converted to an open procedure. At least 1 SLN was detected in 86% (103/120) of the patients. Bilateral SLNs were detected in 52% (62/120). Positive nodes were identified in 8% (10/120) of the patients. Of those with SLN (+), 50% (5/10) were by ultrastaging (IHC) alone. No patients had positive regional nodes without SLN (+). RSLND using methylene blue cervical injection can identify SLN in most patients with EC. IHC ultrastaging improves the detection of node positive disease when compared to traditional pathological evaluation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sentinel Lymph Node Occult Metastases Have Minimal Survival Effect in Some Breast Cancer Patients

    Cancer.gov

    Detailed examination of sentinel lymph node tissue from breast cancer patients revealed previously unidentified metastases in about 16% of the samples, but the difference in 5-year survival between patients with and without these metastases was very small

  13. In vivo and ex vivo sentinel node mapping does not identify the same lymph nodes in colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Helene Schou; Bennedsen, Astrid Louise Bjørn; Burgdorf, Stefan Kobbelgaard; Eriksen, Jens Ravn; Eiholm, Susanne; Toxværd, Anders; Riis, Lene Buhl; Rosenberg, Jacob; Gögenur, Ismail

    2017-07-01

    Identification of lymph nodes and pathological analysis is crucial for the correct staging of colon cancer. Lymph nodes that drain directly from the tumor area are called "sentinel nodes" and are believed to be the first place for metastasis. The purpose of this study was to perform sentinel node mapping in vivo with indocyanine green and ex vivo with methylene blue in order to evaluate if the sentinel lymph nodes can be identified by both techniques. Patients with colon cancer UICC stage I-III were included from two institutions in Denmark from February 2015 to January 2016. In vivo sentinel node mapping with indocyanine green during laparoscopy and ex vivo sentinel node mapping with methylene blue were performed in all patients. Twenty-nine patients were included. The in vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 19 cases, and ex vivo sentinel node mapping was successful in 13 cases. In seven cases, no sentinel nodes were identified. A total of 51 sentinel nodes were identified, only one of these where identified by both techniques (2.0%). In vivo sentinel node mapping identified 32 sentinel nodes, while 20 sentinel nodes were identified by ex vivo sentinel node mapping. Lymph node metastases were found in 10 patients, and only two had metastases in a sentinel node. Placing a deposit in relation to the tumor by indocyanine green in vivo or of methylene blue ex vivo could only identify sentinel lymph nodes in a small group of patients.

  14. Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinase 9 Expression as Supporting Marker to Cytokeratin 19 mRNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer Patients.

    PubMed

    Murawski, Marek; Woźniak, Marta; Duś-Szachniewicz, Kamila; Kołodziej, Paweł; Rzeszutko, Marta; Ziółkowski, Piotr

    2016-04-21

    One-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) detects and quantifies, with the use of a polymerase chain reaction, the presence of cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes. The main advantage of the OSNA assay is the avoidance of second surgery in case of positive sentinel lymph node diagnosis. The objective of this study was to evaluate the significance of matrix metalloproteinase 9 expression by immunohistochemistry as supporting marker to cytokeratin 19 mRNA in sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients and to relate this expression with clinicopathological data. This study was conducted on fresh sentinel lymph nodes obtained from 40 patients with tumors classified as carcinoma of no special type. The presence of metastatic cells in the slices of lymph nodes was evaluated by immunohistochemistry using antibodies for CK19 and MMP-9. Expression of CK19 and MMP-9 in lymph nodes was also confirmed by means of Western blot analysis. Results indicated that the strongest correlation with CK19 mRNA was displayed by MMP-9, CK19 (by immunohistochemistry, IHC), and nodal metastases (p < 0.001). Higher histological grading also positively correlated with CK19 mRNA, however that correlation was less significant. Since MMP-9 shows very strong correlation with CK19 mRNA in breast carcinoma of no special type metastases, expression of MMP-9 in sentinel lymph nodes should be considered as useful method whenever OSNA analysis is not available.

  15. Histological examination of sentinel lymph nodes: significance of macrometastasis, micrometastasis, and isolated tumor cells.

    PubMed

    Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2015-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has been started in 1990s and has become one of the standard diagnostic procedures used to treat patients with early breast cancer in this century. In Japan, for the microscopic diagnosis of metastasis to sentinel lymph nodes, intraoperative frozen section diagnosis is widely used in combination with subsequent permanent section diagnosis of the residual specimens. Metastatic foci to sentinel lymph nodes have been classified into macrometastasis, micrometastasis, and isolated tumor cells in 2002, and the definition of isolated tumor cells was modified in 2010. Clinical significance of occult sentinel lymph node metastases, being mostly composed of micrometastasis and isolated tumor cells, has been clarified in terms of predictive factors for non-sentinel lymph node metastasis and patient prognosis by large-scale retrospective studies and prospective randomized clinical trials. In the present review, clinical implications of micrometastases and isolated tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes and the methods for pathological examination of SLN metastases employed in these studies were overviewed.

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in endometrial cancer: description of the technique and preliminary results

    PubMed Central

    Kuru, Oğuzhan; Topuz, Samet; Şen, Serhat; İyibozkurt, Cem; Berkman, Sinan

    2011-01-01

    Objective To measure the feasibility of sentinel lymph node technique in endometrial cancer. Material and Methods The study was designed as a prospective non-randomized case-control trial. Between 2010–2011, in Istanbul University, Istanbul Medical Faculty, Gynecologic Oncology department, 26 patients who were preoperatively evaluated as endometrial cancer enrolled in the study. Patients’ detailed informed consent and ethics committee approval were obtained. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection rate was determined as the primary outcome. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and particularly false negative results were determined as secondary outcomes. As a technique of SLN, injection of methylene blue to the subserosal myometrium of the uterine fundus via 5 cc syringe following peritoneal aspiration cytology procedure was obtained. Surgery was made after injection for an average of 5 minutes due to the physiological spread of the blue dye. Then, the standard protocol of hysterectomy was performed and the retroperitoneum was opened to perform lymphadenectomy. The presence of lymph node regions, and presence of a sentinel node was recorded on the trial record form. Positive staining nodes were sent separately for pathological examination. In the course of the study due to insufficient rate of staining, the technique has been changed to cervical and multiple uterine injections. Results As the primary outcome, an SLN positivity rate of 23% in 6 patients with a total of 8 lymph nodes were found. The remarkable finding was that in the first technique, the rate was 1/16 (6%), while the second technique, 5/10 (50%), respectively. The difference is statistically significant (p=0.001). In endometrial cancer stage I and II, secondary outcomes for sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were 23%, 0%, 100%, 43%, respectively. Because there were no metastatic lymph nodes found, false negative rate was 0

  17. Indirect computed tomography lymphangiography with aqueous contrast for evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs with tumors of the head.

    PubMed

    Grimes, Janet A; Secrest, Scott A; Northrup, Nicole C; Saba, Corey F; Schmiedt, Chad W

    2017-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node evaluation is widely used in human medicine to evaluate the first lymph node(s) to which a tumor drains. Sentinel lymph node biopsy allows avoidance of extensive lymphadenectomies in cases where the sentinel lymph node is negative for metastasis, thereby reducing patient morbidity. It has been shown that regional lymph nodes are not always the sentinel lymph node, thus identification and sampling of sentinel lymph nodes allows for more accurate staging, which is critical for treatment and prognostication in dogs with cancer. The objective of this prospective, pilot study was to determine if indirect computed tomography (CT) lymphangiography with aqueous contrast agent would successfully allow identification of sentinel lymph nodes in dogs with masses on the head. Eighteen dogs underwent CT lymphangiography. The sentinel lymph node was successfully identified within 3 min of contrast injection in 16 dogs (89%). Compression of lymphatic vessels from endotracheal tube ties and/or the patient's own body weight delayed or prevented identification of sentinel lymph nodes in two dogs (11%). Computed tomography lymphangiography with aqueous contrast can be used successfully to rapidly identify sentinel lymph nodes in dogs with masses on the head. © 2017 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  18. Evaluation of the Probability of Non-sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Breast Cancer Patients with Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis using Two Different Methods

    PubMed Central

    Başoğlu, İrfan; Çelik, Muhammet Ferhat; Dural, Ahmet Cem; Ünsal, Mustafa Gökhan; Akarsu, Cevher; Baytekin, Halil Fırat; Kapan, Selin; Alış, Halil

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this retrospective clinical study was to evaluate the accuracy and feasibility of two different clinical scales, namely the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) nomogram and Tenon’s axillary scoring system, which were developed for predicting the non-sentinel lymph node (NSLN) status in our breast cancer patients. Material and Methods The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer between January 2010 and November 2013 were reviewed. Those who underwent sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for axillary staging were recruited for the study, and patients who were found to have positive SLNB and thus were subsequently subjected to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were also included. Patients who had neoadjuvant therapy, who had clinically positive axilla, and who had stage 4 disease were excluded. Patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 included those who had negative NSLNs, whereas Group 2 included those who had positive NSLNs. The following data were collected: age, tumor size, histopathological characteristics of the tumor, presence of lymphovascular invasion, presence of multifocality, number of negative and positive NSLNs, size of metastases, histopathological method used to define metastases, and receptor status of the tumor. The score of each patient was calculated according to the MSKCC nomogram and Tenon’s axillary scoring system. Statistical analysis was conducted to investigate the correlation between the scores and the involvement of NSLNs. Results The medical records of patients who were diagnosed with breast cancer and found to have SLNB for axillary staging was reviewed. Finally, 50 patients who had positive SLNB and thus were subsequently subjected to ALND were included in the study. There were 17 and 33 patients in Groups 1 and 2, respectively. Both the MSKCC nomogram and Tenon’s axillary scoring system were demonstrated to be significantly accurate in the prediction of the

  19. Vulvar melanoma: is there a role for sentinel lymph node biopsy?

    PubMed

    de Hullu, Joanne A; Hollema, Harry; Hoekstra, Harald J; Piers, Do A; Mourits, Marian J E; Aalders, Jan G; van der Zee, Ate G J

    2002-01-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the author's recent, preliminary experience with the sentinel lymph node procedure in patients with vulvar melanoma and to compare this experience with treatment and follow-up of patients with vulvar melanomas who were treated previously at their institution. From 1997, sentinel lymph node procedure with the combined technique (99mTechnetium-labeled nanocolloid and Patente Blue-V) was performed as a standard staging procedure for patients with vulvar melanoma with a thickness > 1 mm and no clinically suspicious inguinofemoral lymph nodes. For the current study, clinicopathologic data from all 33 patients with vulvar melanoma who were treated between 1978 and 2000 at the University Hospital Groningen were reviewed and analyzed. From January 1997 until December 2000, identification of sentinel lymph nodes was successful in all nine patients who were referred for treatment of vulvar melanoma. Three patients underwent subsequent complete inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy because of metastatic sentinel lymph nodes. In follow-up, groin recurrences (in-transit metastases) occurred in two of nine patients, both 12 months after primary treatment. Both patients had melanomas with a thickness > 4 mm and previously had negative sentinel lymph nodes. There was a trend toward more frequent groin recurrences in patients after undergoing the sentinel lymph node procedure (2 of 9 patients) compared with 24 historic control patients (0 of 24 patients; P = 0.06). Five of 33 patients developed local recurrences: Two patients had groin recurrences, and 11 patients developed distant metastases. Twelve patients died of vulvar melanoma. Seventeen patients with a median follow-up of 66 months (range, 9-123 months) are currently alive (overall survival rate, 52%). Although the numbers were small, this study showed that the sentinel lymph node procedure is capable of identifying patients who have occult lymph node metastases and who may benefit from

  20. In vivo photoacoustic and ultrasonic mapping of rat sentinel lymph nodes with a modified commercial ultrasound imaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Kim, Chulhong; Pramanik, Manojit; Guo, Zijian; Dean, John; Jankovic, Ladislav; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has become the standard method for axillary staging in breast cancer patients, relying on invasive identification of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) following injection of blue dye and radioactive tracers. While SLNB achieves a low false negative rate (5-10%), it is an invasive procedure requiring ionizing radiation. As an alternative to SLNB, ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration biopsy has been tested clinically. However, ultrasound alone is unable to accurately identify which lymph nodes are sentinel. Therefore, a non-ionizing and noninvasive detection method for accurate SLN mapping is needed. In this study, we successfully imaged methylene blue dye accumulation in vivo in rat axillary lymph nodes using a Phillips iU22 ultrasound imaging system adapted for photoacoustic imaging with an Nd:YAG pumped, tunable dye laser. Photoacoustic images of rat SLNs clearly identify methylene blue dye accumulation within minutes following intradermal dye injection and co-registered photoacoustic/ultrasound images illustrate lymph node position relative to surrounding anatomy. To investigate clinical translation, the imaging depth was extended up to 2.5 cm by adding chicken breast tissue on top of the rat skin surface. These results raise confidence that photoacoustic imaging can be used clinically for accurate, noninvasive SLN mapping.

  1. Lymphoscintigraphic SPECT/CT-Contralateral Axillary Sentinel Lymph Node Drainage in Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koyyalamudi, Ratna T; Rossleigh, Monica Anne

    2017-02-01

    A 58-year-old woman with previous right breast carcinoma treated with lumpectomy, right axillary clearance, chemo-radiotherapy, and adjuvant hormonal therapy underwent a lymphoscintigraphy for a new right breast lesion. On planar images, an alternate route of lymphatic drainage was observed to the right internal mammary chain and the left axilla. A chest SPECT/CT was performed to confirm the location of the sentinel nodes. The patient underwent a right mastectomy and left axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy, which showed no evidence of lymphovascular invasion. Combining planar imaging and SPECT/CT techniques can accurately identify sentinel lymph nodes at their new unpredicted location.

  2. Optimization of Coded Aperture Radioscintigraphy for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Hirofumi; Idoine, John D.; Gioux, Sylvain; Accorsi, Roberto; Slochower, David R.; Lanza, Richard C.; Frangioni, John V.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Radioscintigraphic imaging during sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping could potentially improve localization; however, parallel-hole collimators have certain limitations. In this study, we explored the use of coded aperture (CA) collimators. Procedures Equations were derived for the six major dependent variables of CA collimators (i.e., masks) as a function of the ten major independent variables, and an optimized mask was fabricated. After validation, dual-modality CA and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence SLN mapping was performed in pigs. Results Mask optimization required the judicious balance of competing dependent variables, resulting in sensitivity of 0.35%, XY resolution of 2.0 mm, and Z resolution of 4.2 mm at an 11.5 cm FOV. Findings in pigs suggested that NIR fluorescence imaging and CA radioscintigraphy could be complementary, but present difficult technical challenges. Conclusions This study lays the foundation for using CA collimation for SLN mapping, and also exposes several problems that require further investigation. PMID:21567254

  3. Quantitative Measurement of Melanoma Spread in Sentinel Lymph Nodes and Survival

    PubMed Central

    Ulmer, Anja; Dietz, Klaus; Hodak, Isabelle; Polzer, Bernhard; Scheitler, Sebastian; Yildiz, Murat; Czyz, Zbigniew; Lehnert, Petra; Fehm, Tanja; Hafner, Christian; Schanz, Stefan; Röcken, Martin; Garbe, Claus; Breuninger, Helmut; Fierlbeck, Gerhard; Klein, Christoph A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node spread is a crucial factor in melanoma outcome. We aimed to define the impact of minimal cancer spread and of increasing numbers of disseminated cancer cells on melanoma-specific survival. Methods and Findings We analyzed 1,834 sentinel nodes from 1,027 patients with ultrasound node-negative melanoma who underwent sentinel node biopsy between February 8, 2000, and June 19, 2008, by histopathology including immunohistochemistry and quantitative immunocytology. For immunocytology we recorded the number of disseminated cancer cells (DCCs) per million lymph node cells (DCC density [DCCD]) after disaggregation and immunostaining for the melanocytic marker gp100. None of the control lymph nodes from non-melanoma patients (n = 52) harbored gp100-positive cells. We analyzed gp100-positive cells from melanoma patients by comparative genomic hybridization and found, in 45 of 46 patients tested, gp100-positive cells displaying genomic alterations. At a median follow-up of 49 mo (range 3–123 mo), 138 patients (13.4%) had died from melanoma. Increased DCCD was associated with increased risk for death due to melanoma (univariable analysis; p<0.001; hazard ratio 1.81, 95% CI 1.61–2.01, for a 10-fold increase in DCCD + 1). Even patients with a positive DCCD ≤3 had an increased risk of dying from melanoma compared to patients with DCCD = 0 (p = 0.04; hazard ratio 1.63, 95% CI 1.02–2.58). Upon multivariable testing DCCD was a stronger predictor of death than histopathology. The final model included thickness, DCCD, and ulceration (all p<0.001) as the most relevant prognostic factors, was internally validated by bootstrapping, and provided superior survival prediction compared to the current American Joint Committee on Cancer staging categories. Conclusions Cancer cell dissemination to the sentinel node is a quantitative risk factor for melanoma death. A model based on the combined quantitative effects of DCCD, tumor thickness, and

  4. Financial aspects of sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Severi, S; Gazzoni, E; Pellegrini, A; Sansovini, M; Raulli, G; Corbelli, C; Altini, M; Paganelli, G

    2012-02-01

    At present, early breast cancer is treated with conservative surgery of the primary lesion (BCS) along with axillary staging by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Although the scintigraphic method is standardized, its surgical application is different for patient compliance, work organization, costs, and diagnosis related group (DRG) reimbursements. We compared four surgical protocols presently used in our region: (A) traditional BCS with axillary lymph node dissection (ALND); (B) BCS with SLNB and concomitant ALND for positive sentinel nodes (SN); (C) BCS and SLNB under local anaesthesia with subsequent ALND under general anaesthesia according to the SN result; (D) SLNB under local anaesthesia with subsequent BCS under local anaesthesia for negative SN, or ALND under general anaesthesia for positive SN. For each protocol, patient compliance, use of consumables, resources and time spent by various dedicated professionals, were analyzed. Furthermore, a detailed breakdown of 1-/2-day hospitalization costs was calculated using specific DRGs. We reported a mean costs variation that ranged from 1,634 to 2,221 Euros (protocols C and D). The number of procedures performed and the pathologists' results are the most significant variables affecting the rate of DRG reimbursements, that were the highest for protocol D and the lowest for protocol B. In our experience protocol C is the most suitable in terms of patient compliance, impact of surgical procedures, and work organization, and is granted by an appropriate DRG. We observed that a multidisciplinary approach enhances overall patient care and that a revaluation of DRG reimbursements is opportune.

  5. Lack of standards for the detection of melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes: a survey and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Dekker, John; Duncan, Lyn M

    2013-11-01

    Detection of microscopic melanoma metastases in sentinel lymph nodes drives clinical care; patients without metastases are observed, and patients with metastases are offered completion lymphadenectomy and adjuvant therapy. We sought to determine common elements in currently used analytic platforms for sentinel lymph nodes in melanoma patients. An electronic survey was distributed to 83 cancer centers in North America. Seventeen responses (20%) were received. The number of sentinel lymph node mapping procedures for melanoma ranged from less than 11 to more than 100 patients per year, with 72% of institutions mapping more than 50 melanoma patients a year. Uniform practices included (1) processing all of the lymph node tissue rather than submitting representative sections and (2) use of immunohistochemical stains if no tumor was identified on the hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. Significant variability existed regarding the method of sectioning lymph nodes at grossing and in the histology laboratory; most bisected nodes longitudinally (94%) and performed deeper levels into the block (67%), but these were not uniform practices. S-100 was the most commonly used immunohistochemical stain (78%), followed by Melan-A (56%), MART-1 (50%), HMB-45 (44%), tyrosinase (33%), MiTF (11%), and pan-melanoma (6%). There is a need for a standardized platform for detecting melanoma in sentinel lymph nodes. Current practices by a majority of laboratories and findings in the reported literature support the following: histologic evaluation of all lymph node tissue, use of immunohistochemical stains, bisecting lymph nodes longitudinally, and performing deeper levels into the tissue block.

  6. A multicenter study of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes in early gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Yan, Jun; Zheng, Xiaoling; Liu, Zhangyuanzhu; Yu, Jiang; Deng, Zhenwei; Xue, Fangqing; Zheng, Yu; Chen, Feng; Shi, Hong; Chen, Gang; Lu, Jianping; Cai, Lisheng; Cai, Mingzhi; Xiang, Gao; Hong, Yunfeng; Chen, Wenbo; Li, Guoxin

    2016-04-01

    Lymph node metastasis occurs in approximately 10% of early gastric cancer. Preoperative or intra-operative identification of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer is crucial for surgical planning. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of using carbon nanoparticles to show sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in early gastric cancer. A multicenter study was performed between July 2012 and November 2014. Ninety-one patients with early gastric cancer identified by preoperative endoscopic ultrasonography were recruited. One milliliter carbon nanoparticles suspension, which is approved by Chinese Food and Drug Administration, was endoscopically injected into the submucosal layer at four points around the site of the primary tumor 6-12 h before surgery. Laparoscopic radical resection with D2 lymphadenectomy was performed. SLNs were defined as nodes that were black-dyed by carbon nanoparticles in greater omentum and lesser omentum near gastric cancer. Lymph node status and SLNs accuracy were confirmed by pathological analysis. All patients had black-dyed SLNs lying in greater omentum and/or lesser omentum. SLNs were easily found under laparoscopy. The mean number of SLNs was 4 (range 1-9). Carbon nanoparticles were around cancer in specimen. After pathological analysis, 10 patients (10.99%) had lymph node metastasis in 91 patients with early gastric cancer. SLNs were positive in 9 cases and negative in 82 cases. In pathology, carbon nanoparticles were seen in lymphatic vessels, lymphoid sinus, and macrophages in SLNs. When SLNs were positive, cancer cells were seen in lymph nodes. The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of black-dyed SLNs in early gastric cancers were 90, 100, and 98.9 %, respectively. No patient had any side effects of carbon nanoparticles in this study. It is feasible to use carbon nanoparticles to show SLNs in early gastric cancer. Carbon nanoparticles suspension is safe for submucosal injection.

  7. Primary tumor induces sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Hiroki; Chikamatsu, Kazuaki; Sakakura, Koichi; Miyata, Masanori; Furuya, Nobuhiko; Masuyama, Keisuke

    2010-05-01

    The main factor that affects the prognosis of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is regional lymph node metastases, which usually spreads first to the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Recent studies have demonstrated that tumor cells in several malignancies can induce lymphangiogenesis in SLNs before metastasizing. To elucidate the mechanisms of tumor dissemination of OSCC, we investigated whether primary tumors induce lymphangiogenesis within SLNs in patients with OSCC. The mRNA expression of lymphatic-specific markers, including VEGFR-3, Prox-1, and LYVE-1 in 23 metastasis-negative SLNs obtained from 10 patients with OSCC, was investigated using a quantitative real-time RT-PCR assay, and compared with control lymph nodes from patients with non-cancerous diseases. In addition, VEGF-C and VEGF-D expressions of the primary tumor were examined by immunohistochemistry. In SLNs, there were highly significant correlations between the three lymphatic markers examined. Interestingly, the level of LYVE-1 expression in SLNs, despite the absence of metastasis, was significantly higher than in control lymph nodes. Moreover, SLNs from patients with VEGF-C-positive tumor showed a significantly higher expression of VEGFR-3 than those from patients with VEGF-C-negative tumor. Our findings suggest that in OSCC, the primary tumor actively induces lymphangiogenesis in SLNs prior to the onset of metastases, and where tumor-derived VEGF-C plays an important role.

  8. Novel techniques for sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Muneer; Purushotham, Arnie D; Douek, Michael

    2014-07-01

    The existing standard for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer patients with a clinically and radiologically normal axilla is sentinel lymph node biopsy with a radioisotope and blue dye (dual technique). The dependence on radioisotopes means that uptake of the procedure is limited to only about 60% of eligible patients in developed countries and is negligible elsewhere. We did a systematic review to assess three techniques for sentinel lymph node biopsy that are not radioisotope dependent or that refine the existing method: indocyanine green fluorescence, contrast-enhanced ultrasound using microbubbles, and superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles. Our systematic review suggested that these new methods for sentinel lymph node biopsy have clinical potential but give high levels of false-negative results. We could not identify any technique that challenged the existing standard procedure. Further assessment of these techniques against the standard dual technique in randomised trials is needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Gynecologic Tumours by Planar Scintigraphy and SPECT/CT

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Otakar; Havel, Martin

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Assess the role of planar lymphoscintigraphy and fusion imaging of SPECT/CT in sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection in patients with gynecologic tumours. Material and Methods: Planar scintigraphy and hybrid modality SPECT/CT were performed in 64 consecutive women with gynecologic tumours (mean age 53.6 with range 30-77 years): 36 pts with cervical cancer (Group A), 21 pts with endometrial cancer (Group B), 7 pts with vulvar carcinoma (Group C). Planar and SPECT/CT images were interpreted separately by two nuclear medicine physicians. Efficacy of these two techniques to image SLN were compared. Results: Planar scintigraphy did not image SLN in 7 patients (10.9%), SPECT/CT was negative in 4 patients (6.3%). In 35 (54.7%) patients the number of SLNs captured on SPECT/CT was higher than on planar imaging. Differences in detection of SLN between planar and SPECT/CT imaging in the group of all 64 patients are statistically significant (p<0.05). Three foci of uptake (1.7% from totally visible 177 foci on planar images) in 2 patients interpreted on planar images as hot LNs were found to be false positive non-nodal sites of uptake when further assessed on SPECT/CT. SPECT/CT showed the exact anatomical location of all visualised sentinel nodes. Conclusion: In some patients with gynecologic cancers SPECT/CT improves detection of sentinel lymph nodes. It can image nodes not visible on planar scintigrams, exclude false positive uptake and exactly localise pelvic and paraaortal SLNs. It improves anatomic localization of SLNs. Conflict of interest:None declared. PMID:23486989

  10. Optimization of a gamma imaging probe for axillary sentinel lymph mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgiou, M.; Loudos, G.; Stratos, D.; Papadimitroulas, P.; Liakou, P.; Georgoulias, P.

    2012-09-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping is a technique for assessing whether early-stage invasive breast cancer has metastasized, thus determining prognosis and treatment options. SLN identification is achieved using the blue-dye and radioactive colloids techniques, which are sometimes combined with lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, intra-operative gamma acoustic probes, as well as gamma imaging probes are used during surgery. The purpose of this study is the construction of a gamma probe for sentinel lymph node imaging and its optimization in terms of sensitivity with respect to spatial resolution. The reference probe has small field of view (2.5 × 2.5 cm2) and is based on a position sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT) coupled to a pixellated CsI(Tl) scintillator. Following experimental validation, we simulated the system using the GATE Monte Carlo toolkit (GATE v6.1) and modeled various collimator geometries, in order to evaluate their performance and propose the optimal configuration. The constraints of the proposed gamma imaging probe are i) sensitivity close to 2 cps/kBq and ii) spatial resolution equal to 6 mm at 2 cm source-to-collimator distance and ~ 10 mm at 5 cm. An integrated structure that achieves those requirements is a tungsten collimator with 2 × 2 mm2square holes, 16 mm thickness, 0.15 mm septa, where each CsI(Tl) 2 × 2 × 5 mm3 crystal pixel is placed inside the collimator.

  11. Implications of Sentinel Lymph Node Drainage to Multiple Basins in Head and Neck Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Camille L; Gleisner, Ana; Kwak, Jennifer; Chapman, Brandon; Pearlman, Nathan; Gajdos, Csaba; McCarter, Martin; Kounalakis, Nicole

    2017-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for head and neck melanoma is challenging due to unpredictable drainage. We sought to determine the frequency of drainage to multiple lymphatic basins and asked if this was associated with prognosis in a large, single-center cohort. We queried patients diagnosed with head and neck melanomas who had a SLNB performed from January 1998 to April 2016. Demographic and clinical characteristics were compared using Student's t test, Pearson chi-square analysis, log-rank test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test, and Kaplan-Meier curves. We identified 269 patients with head and neck melanoma that had SLNBs performed in the following locations: 223 neck, 92 parotid/preauricular, 29 occipital/posterior auricular, 1 axilla. There were 68 (25%) patients who had drainage to multiple basins. These patients were similar to those with single basin drainage in age, gender distribution, Breslow depth, and percent with a positive SLNB (all p > 0.05). Fewer patients with drainage to multiple basins had a completion lymph node dissection (CLND, p = 0.03). A trend toward increased 3-year locoregional recurrence was seen for patients with drainage to multiple basins in univariate analysis (27% vs. 18%, p = 0.10) but was lost in multivariate analysis (p = 0.49), possibly because of higher recurrence rates in patients with positive nodes but no CLND (p = 0.02). No difference was detected for distant recurrence or overall survival based on SLN drainage. Head and neck melanoma SLNB drainage to multiple basins is common. Drainage to multiple basins does not seem to be associated with increased sentinel lymph node positivity, locoregional recurrence, distant recurrence, or survival.

  12. Correlation between clinical nodal status and sentinel lymph node biopsy false negative rate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Maiko; Jinno, Hiromitsu; Hayashida, Tetsu; Sakata, Michio; Asakura, Keiko; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2012-12-01

    Neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) is the standard treatment for locally advanced breast cancer. It is now being used to treat operable breast cancer to facilitate breast-conserving surgery, but the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients receiving NAC remains open to considerable debate. We enrolled 96 patients with stage II-III breast cancer who received NAC from January 2001 to July 2010. All patients underwent breast surgery and SLNB, followed immediately by complete axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Sentinel lymph nodes were detected with blue dye and radiocolloid injected intradermally just above the tumor and then evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin and immunohistochemical staining. The overall identification rate for SLNB was 87.5% (84/96); the false negative rate (FNR) was 24.5% (12/49); and the accuracy rate was 85.7% (72/84). The FNR was significantly lower in clinically node-negative patients than in node-positive patients before NAC (5.5% vs. 35.5%; p=0.001). Accuracy was also significantly higher in clinically node-negative patients than in node-positive patients before NAC (97.2% vs. 77.1%; p=0.009). The FNR was 27.3% among 46 clinically node-positive patients before NAC who were clinically node-negative after NAC. Among 12 patients with a complete tumor response (CR), the FNR was 0%, compared with 26.1% for 83 patients with a partial response and stable disease (p=0.404). Although associated with a high FNR after NAC, SLNB would have successfully replaced ALND in clinically node-negative patients before NAC and in patients with a CR after NAC.

  13. [Value of intraoperative frozen section of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer. Retrospective study about 293 patients].

    PubMed

    Hoen, N; Pral, L; Golfier, F

    2016-05-01

    Intraoperative positive frozen section of sentinel axillary lymph node in breast cancer allows the full node dissection at the same time of the breast surgery and the enhancement of adjuvant therapies with no delay. The low frequency of node involvement and the high rate of false-negative, make consider the value of intraoperative frozen section. The aim of this study was to analyze the potential advantage of intraoperative frozen section performed routinely. Retrospective monocentric study of 293 patients, operated on for stage pT1 or pT2 breast cancer with a sentinel node biopsy (SNB). A total of 289 patients had an intraoperative frozen section of the SNB. A sentinel node was identified in 98.6% of the cases. On intraoperative section, sentinel node was negative, positive or was not performed in 252 (86%), 37 (12.6%) and 4 (1.4%) cases respectively. In total, ibtraoperative frozen sections identified 48.7% of the metastatic SNB (37/76). The metastatic lymph node distribution, after final histological analysis, was as follows: 17% macro metastasis, 5.8% micro metastasis and 3% isolated tumor cells. The false-negatives rate was 13.5%. Fifty-eight patients (19.8%) underwent axillary full lymph node dissection: 39 during a primary surgery and 19 during a secondary one. Histological analysis of the lymph nodes was totally negative in 62% of cases. Intraoperative frozen sections benefited to 12.8% of the patients who had their full lymph node dissection at the same surgery. The intraoperative frozen section of SNB benefits to a limited number of patients, due to its high rate of false-negatives. Sensitivity of frozen sections could be lowered if the preoperative axillary ultrasound examination becomes a routine, which would question its value. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  14. Liposome-coated quantum dots targeting the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Maoquan; Zhuo, Shu; Xu, Jiang; Sheng, Qiunan; Hou, Shengke; Wang, Ruifei

    2010-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping with near-infrared (NIR) quantum dot (QDs) have many advantages over traditional methods. However, as an inorganic nanomaterial, QDs have low biocompatibility and low affinity to the lymphatic system. Here, we encapsulated QDs into nanoscale liposomes and then used these liposome-coated QDs for SLN mapping. The results showed that the liposome-coated QDs exhibited core-shell characterization, and their fluorescence emission did not decrease but slightly increased after being continuously excited by a xenon lamp source (150 W) at 488 nm at 37 °C for 1 h. After storing at 4 °C for more than one and half years, the liposome-coated QDs were found to have retained their spherical structure containing a large amount of QDs. When liposome-coated QDs with average size of 55.43 nm were injected intradermally into the paw of a mouse, the SLN was strongly fluorescent within only a few seconds and visualized easily in real time. Moreover, the fluorescence of the QDs trapped in the SLN could be observed for at least 24 h. Compared with the SLN mapping of QDs absent of liposomes and liposome-coated QDs with a larger average size (100.3 and 153.6 nm), more QDs migrated into the SLN when the liposome-coated QDs with smaller average size (55.43 nm) were injected. This technique may make a great contribution to the improvement of the biocompatibility of QDs and the targeting delivery capacity of QDs into the SLN.

  15. Results of optical Monte Carlo simulations of a compact γ camera for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, Dean; Truman, Andrew; Kwok, Harry; Bergman, Alanah

    2001-07-01

    Breast cancer is most often treatable when detected in the early stages, before the primary disease spreads to sentinel lymph nodes in the axilla and supraclavicular region. A sentinel lymph node is the closest adjacent lymph node to receive lymphatic drainage from a primary breast tumour. It is from these nodes that cancer cells metastasise throughout the lymphatic system, spreading the disease. This work details the optical Monte Carlo modelling of an ultra compact, nuclear medicine γ camera that will be used intra-operatively to detect malignant sentinel lymph nodes. This development will improve the identification and localisation of these sentinel nodes, thereby facilitating improved techniques for axillary lymph node dissection, and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  16. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in bladder cancer: Systematic review and technology update

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Michael A.; Noguchi, Jonathan; Lee, Hak J.; Vera, David R.; Kader, A. Karim

    2015-01-01

    A sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node to drain a solid tumor and likely the first place metastasis will travel. SLN biopsy has been well established as a staging tool for melanoma and breast cancer to guide lymph node dissection (LND); its utility in bladder cancer is debated. We performed a systematic search of PubMed for both human and animal studies that looked at SLN detection in cases of urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. We identified a total of nine studies that assessed a variety of imaging techniques to identify SLNs in patients with urothelial carcinoma of the bladder. Eight studies investigated human patients while one looked at animal (dog) models. Seven studies representing 156 patients noted the negative predictive value of the SLN to predict a metastasis free state was 92% (92/100). The SLN biopsy was less accurate in metastatic patients with a positive predictive value of only 77% (43/56) with a false negative range of in individual studies of 0-19%. Clinically, positive nodes routinely do not take up the pharmaceutical agent for SLN. Therefore, SLN biopsy is a promising concept with a 92% negative predictive value; however, the false negative rates are high which may be improved by standardizing populations and indications. Novel technologies are improving the detection of SLN and may provide the surgeon with an improved ability to detect micrometastasis, guide surgery, and reduce patient morbidity. PMID:26166959

  17. In-transit intramammary sentinel lymph nodes from malignant melanoma of the trunk.

    PubMed

    Lyo, Victoria; Jaigirdar, Adnan A; Thummala, Suresh; Morita, Eugene T; Treseler, Patrick A; Kashani-Sabet, Mohammed; Leong, Stanley P L

    2012-01-01

    Our goal was to determine the incidence and outcomes of intramammary in-transit sentinel lymph nodes (IMSLN) from primary malignant melanoma (MM) of the trunk. We hypothesize that regional metastasis to the breast from anterior trunk MM also occurs via the lymphatic system to these intramammary in-transit sentinel lymph nodes. MM is the most common solid tumor metastasis to the breast. The mechanism of intramammary (IM) metastasis is generally attributed to hematogenous rather than lymphatic spread. We retrospectively reviewed medical records from all patients who underwent selective sentinel lymph node dissection at the UCSF Melanoma Center from 1993 to 2008 after the approval of UCSF Committee on Human Research. Of the 1911 cases, we found 614 patients with primary MM located on the trunk, and queried their medical records for in-transit SLN and SLNs in the breast. Data from preoperative lymphoscintigraphy, intraoperative lymphatic mapping, operative notes, and pathology and clinic notes were gathered. Of the 1911 patients with MM, 169 (8.9%) and 420 (22.0%) had anterior and posterior trunk lesions, respectively, and 25 patients (1.3%) with flank lesions (lateral abdominal wall below the rib cage, above the iliac crest). Of the anterior trunk population, 18 patients had in-transit SLNs. The vast majority of these patients (14 of 18, 77.8%) had in-transit IMSLN. Of patients with posterior trunk melanoma, 27 patients had in-transit nodes with 1 patient having IMSLNs. Of patients with flank melanomas, 3 patients had in-transit nodes with 1 patient having IMSLNs. Interestingly, all patients with IMSLNs had primary lesions located inferior to the breasts. Two of the 16 patients with IMSLNs had micrometastasis to IMSLN; 1 patient died and the other currently is disease free 4 years after initial SLND. Four of the 32 patients with non-IM in-transit nodes had micrometastases to these in-transit nodes. Of all patients with trunk melanomas, 4 patients had micrometastases

  18. The predictive value of single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography for sentinel lymph node localization in head and neck cutaneous malignancy.

    PubMed

    Remenschneider, Aaron K; Dilger, Amanda E; Wang, Yingbing; Palmer, Edwin L; Scott, James A; Emerick, Kevin S

    2015-04-01

    Preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes in head and neck cutaneous malignancies can be aided by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT); however, its true predictive value for identifying lymph nodes intraoperatively remains unquantified. This study aims to understand the sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of SPECT/CT in sentinel lymph node biopsy for cutaneous malignancies of the head and neck. Blinded retrospective imaging review with comparison to intraoperative gamma probe confirmed sentinel lymph nodes. A consecutive series of patients with a head and neck cutaneous malignancy underwent preoperative SPECT/CT followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy with a gamma probe. Two nuclear medicine physicians, blinded to clinical data, independently reviewed each SPECT/CT. Activity within radiographically defined nodal basins was recorded and compared to intraoperative gamma probe findings. Sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values were calculated with subgroup stratification by primary tumor site. Ninety-two imaging reads were performed on 47 patients with cutaneous malignancy who underwent SPECT/CT followed by sentinel lymph node biopsy. Overall sensitivity was 73%, specificity 92%, positive predictive value 54%, and negative predictive value 96%. The predictive ability of SPECT/CT to identify the basin or an adjacent basin containing the single hottest node was 92%. SPECT/CT overestimated uptake by an average of one nodal basin. In the head and neck, SPECT/CT has higher reliability for primary lesions of the eyelid, scalp, and cheek. SPECT/CT has high sensitivity, specificity, and negative predictive value, but may overestimate relevant nodal basins in sentinel lymph node biopsy. © 2014 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Breast cancer lymphoscintigraphy: Factors associated with sentinel lymph node non visualization.

    PubMed

    Vaz, S C; Silva, Â; Sousa, R; Ferreira, T C; Esteves, S; Carvalho, I P; Ratão, P; Daniel, A; Salgado, L

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate factors associated with non identification of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in lymphoscintigraphy of breast cancer patients and analyze the relationship with SLN metastases. A single-center, cross-sectional and retrospective study was performed. Forty patients with lymphoscintigraphy without sentinel lymph node identification (negative lymphoscintigraphy - NL) were enrolled. The control group included 184 patients with SLN identification (positive lymphoscintigraphy - PL). Evaluated factors were age, body mass index (BMI), tumor size, histology, localization, preoperative breast lesion hookwire (harpoon) marking and SLN metastases. The statistical analysis was performed with uni- and multivariate logistic regression models and matched-pairs analysis. Age (p=0.036) or having BMI (p=0.047) were the only factors significantly associated with NL. Being ≥60 years with a BMI ≥30 increased the odds of having a NL 2 and 3.8 times, respectively. Marking with hookwire seems to increase the likelihood of NL, but demonstrated statistical significance is lacking (p=0.087). The other tested variables did not affect the examination result. When controlling for age, BMI and marking with the harpoon, a significant association between lymph node metastization and NL was not found (p=0.565). The most important factors related with non identification of SLN in the patients were age, BMI and marking with hook wire. However, only the first two had statistical importance. When these variables were controlled, no association was found between NL and axillary metastases. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  20. Detection of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence may change adjuvant treatment decision in patients with breast cancer recurrence and previous axillary surgery.

    PubMed

    Cordoba, Octavi; Perez-Ceresuela, Francesc; Espinosa-Bravo, Martin; Cortadellas, Tomas; Esgueva, Antonio; Rodriguez-Revuelto, Robert; Peg, Vicente; Reyes, Victoria; Xercavins, Jordi; Rubio, Isabel T

    2014-08-01

    Use of sentinel lymph node dissection in patients with ipsilateral breast cancer recurrence is still controversial. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer recurrence (SLNBR) and whether the positivity had impact in the adjuvant treatment. Between 2008 and 2012 we performed SLNBR in patients with ipsilateral breast tumor recurrence. We included 53 patients in a prospective study. Forty-three patients (81%) had a previous axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) and ten (19%) had a previous sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Identification rate after SLNB was 50% and after ALND was 60.5% (p = 0.4). Nine patients (26%) had a positive SLNBR. Adjuvant systemic treatment was given to all the patients with a positive SLNBR and to 23 (85%) with a negative SLNBR (p = 0.29). Six patients (66%) with positive SLNBR and 4 patients (14%) with negative SLNBR underwent radiation therapy (p < 0.01). As conclusions of our study we conclude that sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast tumor recurrence is feasible and significant differences were found in the use of radiation therapy in patients with a positive SLNBR.

  1. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and tumor histologic grade are associated with surgical detection of the sentinel lymph node.

    PubMed

    Arias Ortega, M; Torres Sousa, M Y; González García, B; Pardo García, R; González López, A; Delgado Portela, M

    2014-01-01

    To study which variables involved in the process of selective sentinel node biopsy (SSNB) influence the intraoperative detection of the sentinel lymph node. This was a prospective cross-sectional study in 210 patients (mean age, 54 years) diagnosed with breast cancer who underwent SSNB. We recorded clinical, radiological, radioisotope administration, surgical, and histological data as well as follow-up data. We did a descriptive analysis of the data and an associative analysis using multivariable regression. Deep injection alone was the most common route of radioisotope administration (72.7%). Most lesions were palpable (57.1%), presented as nodules (67.1%), measured less than 2 cm in diameter (64.8%), were located in the upper outer quadrant (49.1%), were ductal carcinomas (85.7%), were accompanied by infiltration (66.2%), and had a histologic grade of differentiation of ii (44.8%). Preoperative scintigraphy detected the sentinel node in 97.6% of cases and 95.7% were detected during the operation. One axillary relapse was observed. In the associative study, the variables "preoperative lymphoscintigraphy" and "histologic grade of differentiation of the tumor" were significantly associated with the detection of the sentinel lymph node during the operation. The probability of not detecting the sentinel lymph node during the surgical intervention is higher in patients with high histologic grade tumors or in patients in whom preoperative lymphoscintigraphy failed to detect the sentinel node. Copyright © 2012 SERAM. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  2. Detection of micrometastases by flow cytometry in sentinel lymph nodes from patients with renal tumours.

    PubMed

    Hartana, Ciputra Adijaya; Kinn, Johan; Rosenblatt, Robert; Anania, Stefan; Alamdari, Farhood; Glise, Hans; Sherif, Amir; Winqvist, Ola

    2016-10-11

    Stage is an important prognostic factor in renal tumours and dissemination to regional lymph nodes is associated with poor outcomes. Lymph nodes are routinely assessed by immunohistochemistry and microscopic evaluation, a time-consuming process where micrometastases might go undiagnosed. We evaluate an alternative method for detecting metastatic cells in sentinel nodes (SNs) by flow cytometry. A total of 15 nodes from 5 patients diagnosed with renal tumours were analysed by flow cytometry. Staining for the intracellular marker cytokeratin 18 (CK18) with the surface markers carbonic anhydrase IX (CA9) and Cadherin 6 were used in flow cytometry analysis. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) with the addition of known concentrations of cancer cell lines were analysed to investigate the sensitivity of micrometastasis detection. Stability of the assay was marked by low intra-assay variability (coefficient of variance ⩽16%) and low inter-assay variability (R(2)=0.9996-1). Eight nodes in four patients were positive for metastasis; six of them were considered being micrometastatic. These metastases were undetected by routine pathology and the patients were restaged from pN0 to pN1. Flow cytometry is able to detect micrometastases in lymph nodes of renal tumour patients that were undetected under H&E examination.

  3. Preoperative diagnosis of sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis using 3D CT lymphography (CTLG).

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Misako; Morimoto, Masami; Takechi, Hirokazu; Tadokoro, Yukiko; Tangoku, Akira

    2016-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) became a standard procedure for patients with early breast cancer, however, an indication of SLN navigation to metastatic disease may lead to misdiagnosis for staging. Preoperative CTLG with a water-soluble iodinated contrast medium visualizes the correct primary SLNs and its afferent lymphatic channels surrounding detailed anatomy, therefore it can predict LN metastasis by visualizing the lymph vessel obstruction or stain defect of the SLN by tumor. The current study presents the value of CTLG for preoperative prediction for SLN status. A total of 228 patients with Tis-T2 breast cancer who did not receive primary chemotherapy were studied. SLN metastasis was diagnosed according to the following staining patterns of SLNs and afferent lymphatic vessels: stain defect of SLN, obstruction, stagnation, dilation, and detour of the lymphatic vessels by tumor occupation. The diagnosis was compared with the pathological results to evaluate the accuracy of prediction for SLN metastasis using CTLG. Twenty-seven of 228 patients had metastatic SLN pathologically. Twenty-five of these were diagnosed as metastatic preoperatively. The accuracy for metastatic diagnosis using CTLG was 89.0%, sensitivity was 92.6%, and specificity was 88.6%. The positive predictive value was 52.1% and negative predictive value was 98.8%. CTLG can select the candidate with truly node negative cases in early breast cancer patients, because it predicts lymph node metastasis preoperatively from natural status of the lymphographic image. It also might omit the SLN biopsy itself.

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with breast cancer using superparamagnetic iron oxide and a magnetometer.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Mikio; Lefor, Alan T; Hozumi, Yasuo; Kurihara, Katsumi; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Kusakabe, Moriaki

    2013-07-01

    Some hospitals lack facilities for radioisotopes in sentinel node biopsy. A novel method is used with a superparamagnetic tracer and a magnetometer instead of a radioisotope. Thirty patients were included in the study after obtaining IRB approval. Superparamagnetic iron oxide and patent blue dye were injected in the subareolar breast tissue. Following a few minutes of massage to promote migration of the iron tracer and blue dye throughout the lymphatic vessels, the axillary lymph nodes were detected transdermally using a handheld magnetometer and followed by standard axillary dissection in all patients. Of 30 patients evaluated, sentinel lymph nodes were identified in 90% (27/30) using both blue dye and magnetic tracer. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified using the magnetic method in 23/30 (77%) and blue dye in 24/30 (80%). There was one false-negative sentinel node, resulting in an overall sensitivity of 6/7 (86%). This is the first study to use a magnetic tracer to identify sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer. This new technique may alter the role of radioisotopes with further refinement and experience.

  5. Portable gamma camera guidance in sentinel lymph node biopsy: prospective observational study of consecutive cases.

    PubMed

    Peral Rubio, F; de La Riva, P; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Ferrándiz-Pulido, L

    2015-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the most important tool available for node staging in patients with melanoma. To analyze sentinel lymph node detection and dissection with radio guidance from a portable gamma camera. To assess the number of complications attributable to this biopsy technique. Prospective observational study of a consecutive series of patients undergoing radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy. We analyzed agreement between nodes detected by presurgical lymphography, those detected by the gamma camera, and those finally dissected. A total of 29 patients (17 women [62.5%] and 12 men [37.5%]) were enrolled. The mean age was 52.6 years (range, 26-82 years). The sentinel node was dissected from all patients; secondary nodes were dissected from some. In 16 cases (55.2%), there was agreement between the number of nodes detected by lymphography, those detected by the gamma camera, and those finally dissected. The only complications observed were seromas (3.64%). No cases of wound dehiscence, infection, hematoma, or hemorrhage were observed. Portable gamma-camera radio guidance may be of use in improving the detection and dissection of sentinel lymph nodes and may also reduce complications. These goals are essential in a procedure whose purpose is melanoma staging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  6. Gold nanorods tailored as tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy imaged by photothermal optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yeongri; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) have been demonstrated as a scattering imaging agent or therapeutic agent. Because of their narrow window, biocompatibility, and uniform small size for blood circulation, GNRs are well suited to serve as imaging contrast agents. Especially, strong phothothermal (PT) effect is attractive for diagnostic (e.g. sentinel lymph node biopsy) or therapeutic (e.g. PT therapy) purposes. In this paper, we demonstrate GNRs as multipurpose agents with PT-optical coherence tomography (OCT) for imaging sentinel lymph node. The results show that GNRs are promising for imaging contrast enhancement for visualizing the detailed functions of SLN.

  7. Frozen section is superior to imprint cytology for the intra-operative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastasis in Stage I Breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Miki; Tada, Keiichiro; Ikenaga, Motoko; Miyagi, Yumi; Nishimura, Seiichiro; Takahashi, Kaoru; Makita, Masujiro; Iwase, Takuji; Kasumi, Fujio; Koizumi, Mituru

    2006-01-01

    Background A standard intra-operative procedure for assessing sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer patients has not yet been established. Patients and methods One hundred and thirty-eight patients with stage I breast cancer who underwent sentinel node biopsy using both imprint cytology and frozen section were analyzed. Results Seventeen of the 138 patients had sentinel node involvement. Results of imprint cytology included nine false negative cases (sensitivity, 47.1%). In contrast, only two cases of false negatives were found on frozen section (sensitivity, 88.2%). There were two false positive cases identified by imprint cytology (specificity, 98.3%). On the other hand, frozen section had 100% specificity. Conclusion These findings suggest that frozen section is superior to imprint cytology for the intra-operative determination of sentinel lymph node metastasis in stage I breast cancer patients. PMID:16707007

  8. Clinicopathologic analysis of sentinel lymph node mapping in early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Choi, Seung-Hye; Barsky, Sanford H; Chang, Helena R

    2003-01-01

    Axillary nodal status is the most significant prognosticator for predicting survival and guiding adjuvant therapy in breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) represents a minimally invasive procedure with low morbidity for staging axillary nodal status. In this article we review and report our experiences in patients with early breast cancer who underwent SLNB at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center. Between September 1998 and May 2000, a total 83 SLNBs were performed in 81 patients with proven breast cancer and negative axillary examination who elected to have SLNB as the first step of nodal staging. Two patients had bilateral breast cancer. SLNB was localized by using both 99Tc sulfur colloid (83 cases) and isosulfan blue dye (75 cases). Data of these patients were prospectively collected and analyzed. The clinical and pathologic characteristics of women with positive and negative sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) were compared to identify features predictive of SLN metastasis. Of the 83 cases, the SLN was successfully localized in 82 (98.8%). Sixty-three percent of patients had SLNs found in level I only, 18.3% in both level I and II, and 4.9% in level II alone. The vast majority (84.3%) of these cases had T1 breast cancer with an average size of 1.55 cm for the entire series. Twenty-three patients (28%) had positive SLNs, with an average of 1.5 positive SLNs per patient. Fifteen had metastases detected by hematoxylin and eosin staining and 8 had micrometastases detected by immunohistochemistry (IHC) using anticytokeratin antibodies. Ten of the former group agreed to and 2 of the latter group opted for full axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). An average of 17.5 lymph nodes were removed from each ALND procedure. Additional metastases or micrometastases were found in seven patients (in a total of 28 lymph nodes). Three patients with completely negative SLNs experienced additional axillary lymph node removal due to their election of free flap reconstruction

  9. A critical reappraisal of false negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Manca, G; Romanini, A; Rubello, D; Mazzarri, S; Boni, G; Chiacchio, S; Tredici, M; Duce, V; Tardelli, E; Volterrani, D; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Lymphatic mapping and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) have completely changed the clinical management of cutaneous melanoma. This procedure has been accepted worldwide as a recognized method for nodal staging. SLNB is able to accurately determine nodal basin status, providing the most useful prognostic information. However, SLNB is not a perfect diagnostic test. Several large-scale studies have reported a relatively high false-negative rate (5.6-21%), correctly defined as the proportion of false-negative results with respect to the total number of "actual" positive lymph nodes. The main purpose of this review is to address the technical issues that nuclear physicians, surgeons, and pathologists should carefully consider to improve the accuracy of SLNB by minimizing its false-negative rate. In particular, SPECT/CT imaging has demonstrated to be able to identify a greater number of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) than those found by planar lymphoscintigraphy. Furthermore, a unique definition in the international guidelines is missing for the operational identification of SLNs, which may be partly responsible for this relatively high false-negative rate of SLNB. Therefore, it is recommended for the scientific community to agree on the radioactive counting rate threshold so that the surgeon can be better radioguided to detect all the lymph nodes which are most likely to harbor metastases. Another possible source of error may be linked to the examination of the harvested SLNs by conventional histopathological methods. A more careful and extensive SLN analysis (e.g. molecular analysis by RT-PCR) is able to find more positive nodes, so that the false-negative rate is reduced. Older age at diagnosis, deeper lesions, histologic ulceration, head-neck anatomical location of primary lesions are the clinical factors associated with false-negative SLNBs in melanoma patients. There is still much controversy about the clinical significance of a false-negative SLNB on the prognosis

  10. Handheld array-based photoacoustic probe for guiding needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Erpelding, Todd N.; Maslov, Konstantin; Jankovic, Ladislav; Akers, Walter J.; Song, Liang; Achilefu, Samuel; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Pashley, Michael D.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-07-01

    By modifying a clinical ultrasound array system, we develop a novel handheld photoacoustic probe for image-guided needle biopsy. The integration of optical fiber bundles for pulsed laser light delivery enables photoacoustic image-guided insertion of a needle into rat axillary lymph nodes with accumulated indocyanine green (ICG). Strong photoacoustic contrast of the needle is achieved. After subcutaneous injection of the dye in the left forepaw, sentinel lymph nodes are easily detected, in vivo and in real time, beneath 2-cm-thick chicken breast overlaying the axillary region. ICG uptake in axillary lymph nodes is confirmed with fluorescence imaging both in vivo and ex vivo. These results demonstrate the clinical potential of this handheld photoacoustic system for facile identification and needle biopsy of sentinel lymph nodes for cancer staging and metastasis detection in humans.

  11. Tattoo pigment mimicking metastatic malignant melanoma in an axillary sentinel lymph node

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, A; O'Donoghue, G T; Kerin, M

    2010-01-01

    The case of a 37-year-old man with a Clarkes level III, Breslow thickness 1.2 mm superficial spreading melanoma of his forearm is described. Intraoperatively, a black-pigmented ipsilateral axillary sentinel lymph node, highly suspicious for metastatic disease, was harvested. The patient had a faded tattoo in the vicinity of the malignant melanoma. Histological examination of the lymph node demonstrated normal lymphoid tissue and the presence of pigmented macrophages due to tattoo ink. Metastatic malignant melanoma was ruled out. The importance of histological confirmation of an enlarged pigmented node before complete dissection of the regional lymph nodes is discussed. The importance of recording the presence of decorative tattoos is stressed as the tattoo pigment may clinically mimic metastatic disease in those with malignant melanoma undergoing sentinel lymph node biopsy.

  12. Showcase of Intraoperative 3D Imaging of the Sentinel Lymph Node in a Breast Cancer Patient using the New Freehand SPECT Technology.

    PubMed

    Schnelzer, Andreas; Ehlerding, Alexandra; Blümel, Christina; Okur, Asli; Scheidhauer, Klemens; Paepke, Stefan; Kiechle, Marion

    2012-12-01

    After the development of a hand-held intraoperative device for 3D real-time imaging of radioactively labeled sentinel lymph nodes in the human body, we present our first experience with the newest version of the freehand single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) technology in the operating room. The freehand SPECT system combines a gamma probe and an optical infrared positioning system, and provides surgeons with 3D imaging including exact depth information of the radioactive target. This technology was used intraoperatively in a female breast cancer patient to localize the axillary sentinel lymph nodes. The data obtained with freehand SPECT correlate well with conventional lymphoscintigraphy and with data collected using a conventional hand-held probe. By offering fast real-time intraoperative imaging, the new freehand SPECT system might facilitate the detection and removal of the sentinel lymph node(s) in certain situations and can be used for documentation and quality assurance purposes.

  13. Multicentre validation of different predictive tools of non-sentinel lymph node involvement in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cserni, G; Boross, G; Maráz, R; Leidenius, M H K; Meretoja, T J; Heikkila, P S; Regitnig, P; Luschin-Ebengreuth, G; Zgajnar, J; Perhavec, A; Gazic, B; Lázár, G; Takács, T; Vörös, A; Audisio, R A

    2012-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SN) biopsy offers the possibility of selective axillary treatment for breast cancer patients, but there are only limited means for the selective treatment of SN-positive patients. Eight predictive models assessing the risk of non-SN involvement in patients with SN metastasis were tested in a multi-institutional setting. Data of 200 consecutive patients with metastatic SNs and axillary lymph node dissection from each of the 5 participating centres were entered into the selected non-SN metastasis predictive tools. There were significant differences between centres in the distribution of most parameters used in the predictive models, including tumour size, type, grade, oestrogen receptor positivity, rate of lymphovascular invasion, proportion of micrometastatic cases and the presence of extracapsular extension of SN metastasis. There were also significant differences in the proportion of cases classified as having low risk of non-SN metastasis. Despite these differences, there were practically no such differences in the sensitivities, specificities and false reassurance rates of the predictive tools. Each predictive tool used in clinical practice for patient and physician decision on further axillary treatment of SN-positive patients may require individual institutional validation; such validation may reveal different predictive tools to be the best in different institutions.

  14. Simultaneous mapping of pan and sentinel lymph nodes for real-time image-guided surgery.

    PubMed

    Ashitate, Yoshitomo; Hyun, Hoon; Kim, Soon Hee; Lee, Jeong Heon; Henary, Maged; Frangioni, John V; Choi, Hak Soo

    2014-01-01

    The resection of regional lymph nodes in the basin of a primary tumor is of paramount importance in surgical oncology. Although sentinel lymph node mapping is now the standard of care in breast cancer and melanoma, over 20% of patients require a completion lymphadenectomy. Yet, there is currently no technology available that can image all lymph nodes in the body in real time, or assess both the sentinel node and all nodes simultaneously. In this study, we report an optical fluorescence technology that is capable of simultaneous mapping of pan lymph nodes (PLNs) and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in the same subject. We developed near-infrared fluorophores, which have fluorescence emission maxima either at 700 nm or at 800 nm. One was injected intravenously for identification of all regional lymph nodes in a basin, and the other was injected locally for identification of the SLN. Using the dual-channel FLARE intraoperative imaging system, we could identify and resect all PLNs and SLNs simultaneously. The technology we describe enables simultaneous, real-time visualization of both PLNs and SLNs in the same subject.

  15. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) significance in colorectal cancer: methods and results. General report.

    PubMed

    Sfeclan, Maria Cristina; Vîlcea, Ionică Daniel; Barišić, Goran; Mogoantă, Stelian ŞtefăniŢă; Moraru, Emil; Ciorbagiu, Mihai Călin; Vasile, Ion; Vere, Cristin Constantin; Vîlcea, Alina Maria; Mirea, Cecil Sorin

    2015-01-01

    Colorectal cancer appears to be one of the most important malignancies in the world, with a survival rate depending on the TNM stage. The presence of lymph nodes metastasis indicates the necessity of adjuvant chemotherapy but exact classification of the N stage requires at least 12 lymph nodes to be pathologically examined. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is considered to be the closest lymph node to the tumor, bearing the highest risk of malignant cells colonization. The main advantage of the sentinel lymph node mapping in colorectal cancer is identification and separate pathological examination of the nodes carrying the highest risk of metastasis. There are still open questions regarding the best method for sentinel lymph node mapping (in vivo or ex vivo), the factors influencing it, which substance is better for identification and which are the best histological methods and markers to be used. Numerous studies have discussed the quality and applicability of the method, but the importance of the SLN in colorectal carcinoma remains an open issue.

  16. Survival of patients with uterine carcinosarcoma undergoing sentinel lymph node mapping

    PubMed Central

    Schiavone, Maria B.; Zivanovic, Oliver; Zhou, Qin; Leitao, Mario M.; Levine, Douglas A.; Soslow, Robert A.; Alektiar, Kaled M.; Makker, Vicky; Iasonos, Alexia; Abu-Rustum, Nadeem R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the outcome of patients with uterine carcinosarcoma undergoing sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. Methods A prospectively maintained database was reviewed for all women with uterine cancer treated at our institution from 1/1/98–8/31/14. Patients were grouped based on whether they had undergone SLN mapping or routine lymphadenectomy at the time of staging. SLN evaluation was performed according to a standard institutional protocol that incorporates a surgical algorithm and pathologic ultrastaging. Results We identified 136 patients with uterine carcinosarcoma who had undergone lymph node evaluation; 48 had surgical staging with SLN mapping and 88 had routine lymphadenectomy consisting of pelvic and/or paraaortic lymph node dissection. Stage distribution for the SLN group included: stage I, 31(65%); stage II, 1(2%); stage III, 11(23%); stage IV, 5(10%). Stage distribution for the non-SLN group included: stage I, 48(55%); stage II, 4(4%); stage III, 19(22%); stage IV, 17(19%) (p=0.4). Median number of lymph nodes removed was 8 and 20, respectively (p≤0.001). Median number of positive nodes was similar between the groups(p=0.2). Of the 67 patients who had a documented recurrence, 14/20(70%) in the SLN and 34/47(74%) in the non-SLN group demonstrated a distant/multifocal pattern of recurrence. There was no difference in median progression-free survival between the groups (23 vs 23.2 months, respectively; p=0.7). Conclusions Progression-free survival in women with uterine carcinosarcoma undergoing SLN mapping with adjuvant therapy appears similar to that of patients treated prior to the incorporation of the SLN protocol. Additional prospective studies with longer follow-up are necessary to validate these early results. PMID:25994210

  17. Validation of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer women N1-N2 with complete axillary response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Multicentre study in Tarragona.

    PubMed

    Carrera, D; de la Flor, M; Galera, J; Amillano, K; Gomez, M; Izquierdo, V; Aguilar, E; López, S; Martínez, M; Martínez, S; Serra, J M; Pérez, M; Martin, L

    2016-01-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate sentinel lymph node biopsy as a diagnostic test for assessing the presence of residual metastatic axillary lymph nodes after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, replacing the need for a lymphadenectomy in negative selective lymph node biopsy patients. A multicentre, diagnostic validation study was conducted in the province of Tarragona, on women with T1-T3, N1-N2 breast cancer, who presented with a complete axillary response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Study procedures consisted of performing an selective lymph node biopsy followed by lymphadenectomy. A total of 53 women were included in the study. Surgical detection rate was 90.5% (no sentinel node found in 5 patients). Histopathological analysis of the lymphadenectomy showed complete disease regression of axillary nodes in 35.4% (17/48) of the patients, and residual axillary node involvement in 64.6% (31/48) of them. In lymphadenectomy positive patients, 28 had a positive selective lymph node biopsy (true positive), while 3 had a negative selective lymph node biopsy (false negative). Of the 28 true selective lymph node biopsy positives, the sentinel node was the only positive node in 10 cases. All lymphadenectomy negative cases were selective lymph node biopsy negative. These data yield a sensitivity of 93.5%, a false negative rate of 9.7%, and a global test efficiency of 93.7%. Selective lymph node biopsy after chemotherapy in patients with a complete axillary response provides valid and reliable information regarding axillary status after neoadjuvant treatment, and might prevent lymphadenectomy in cases with negative selective lymph node biopsy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Completion of axillary dissection for a positive sentinel node: necessary or not?

    PubMed

    Erb, Kathleen M; Julian, Thomas B

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel node excision has been widely accepted as the initial surgical step for evaluating the axilla for metastatic breast cancer. When the nodes are positive, the standard of care is to complete the axillary node dissection, a more extended procedure that carries an increased risk for morbidity. This article reviews data from sentinel lymph node trials, case series reports of outcomes when axillary node dissection was not performed in the setting of positive sentinel nodes, models for predicting the status of nonsentinel nodes, and the morbidity associated with axillary operations. Despite an approximate 10% false-negative rate, early results indicate that there is a much lower local recurrence rate after sentinel node excision alone and that systemic therapy may sterilize the axilla. In selected patients, it may be appropriate to forgo an axillary node dissection, although there are no randomized clinical trial data to support or refute this suggestion.

  19. Sentinel lymph nodes detection with an imaging system using Patent Blue V dye as fluorescent tracer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Steibel, J.; Chabrier, R.; Rodier, J. F.; Pourroy, G.; Poulet, P.

    2013-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard to detect metastatic invasion from primary breast cancer. This method can help patients avoid full axillary chain dissection, thereby decreasing the risk of morbidity. We propose an alternative to the traditional isotopic method, to detect and map the sentinel lymph nodes. Indeed, Patent Blue V is the most widely used dye in clinical routine for the visual detection of sentinel lymph nodes. A Recent study has shown the possibility of increasing the fluorescence quantum yield of Patent Blue V, when it is bound to human serum albumin. In this study we present a preclinical fluorescence imaging system to detect sentinel lymph nodes labeled with this fluorescent tracer. The setup is composed of a black and white CCD camera and two laser sources. One excitation source with a laser emitting at 635 nm and a second laser at 785 nm to illuminate the region of interest. The prototype is operated via a laptop. Preliminary experiments permitted to determine the device sensitivity in the μmol.L-1 range as regards the detection of PBV fluorescence signals. We also present a preclinical evaluation performed on Lewis rats, during which the fluorescence imaging setup detected the accumulation and fixation of the fluorescent dye on different nodes through the skin.

  20. Sentinel lymph node (sln) in breast cancer. Review of current identification methods.

    PubMed

    Lorek, Andrzej; Boratyn-Nowicka, Agnieszka; Szlachta-Światkowska, Ewa

    The subject of the paper is the review of the current methods for identifying the sentinel lymph node in breast cancer treatment, taking into account the latest techniques and based on the up-to-date analyses of many years of experience in using this method.

  1. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: a comprehensive literature review.

    PubMed

    Salem, Ahmed

    2009-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has emerged as the new standard of care for nodal staging in early-stage breast disease. In the this review, the procedure of SLNB in breast cancer will be examined in greater detail with the aim of understanding techniques that may improve results and of identifying future research questions in this field.

  2. Elastic scattering spectroscopy for detection of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast carcinoma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chicken, D. W.; Lee, A. C.; Johnson, K. S.; Clarke, B.; Falzon, M.; Bigio, I. J.; Bown, S. G.; Keshtgar, M. R. S.

    2005-08-01

    Sentinel node biopsy is the new standard for lymphatic staging of breast carcinoma. Intraoperative detection of sentinel node metastases avoids a second operation for those patients with metastatic lymph nodes. Elastic scattering spectroscopy is an optical technique which is sensitive to cellular and subcellular changes occurring in malignancy. We analyzed 2078 ESS spectra from 324 axillary sentinel nodes from patients with breast carcinoma. ESS was able to detect metastatic lymph nodes with an overall sensitivity of 60% and specificity of 94%, which is comparable to existing pathological techniques. Nodes completely replaced with metastatic tumour were detected with 100% sensitivity, suggesting that further improvement in sensitivity is likely with more intensive optical sampling of the nodes.

  3. Locoregional treatment of early breast cancer with isolated tumor cells or micrometastases on sentinel lymph node biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Agnès; Lambaudie, Eric; Cohen, Monique; Minsat, Mathieu; Bannier, Marie; Resbeut, Michel; Houvenaeghel, Gilles

    2016-01-01

    The advent of sentinel lymph-node technique has led to a shift in lymph-node staging, due to the emergence of new entities namely micrometastases (pN1mi) and isolated tumor cells [pN0(i+)]. The prognostic significance of this low positivity in axillary lymph nodes is currently debated, as is, therefore its management. This article provides updates evidence-based medicine data to take into account for treatment decision-making in this setting, discussing the locoregional treatment in pN0(i+) and pN1mi patients (completion axillary dissection, axillary irradiation with or without regional nodes irradiation, or observation), according to systemic treatment, with the goal to help physicians in their daily practice. PMID:27081647

  4. Prognostic Significance of Cytokeratin 19 and Squamous Cell Cancer Antigen in Histologically Negative Sentinel Lymph Nodes of Cervical Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ren, Jie; Zhou, Zun-Lun; Xu, Shu; Yang, Ying-Jie

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the prognostic value of positive cytokeratin 19 (CK19) and squamous cell cancer antigen (SCCAg) expression in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes after surgery for cervical squamous cell carcinoma. Immunohistochemistry was performed to detect the expression of CK19 and SCCAg using polyclonal antibody on 149 pair of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded cervical squamous cell carcinoma and histologically negative sentinel lymph node tissue samples, and results were compared with data from the prospectively registry of cervical squamous cell carcinoma by univariate and multivariate logistic regression model focusing specifically on recurrence. The survival was assessed by the Kaplan-Meier method and proportional hazards model. Cytokeratin 19 and SCCAg expression in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes were documented in 15.4% (n = 23) and 20.8% (n = 31) patients and were associated with a higher incidence of tumor progression and poorer disease-free survival (DFS, P < 0.05). Multivariate logistic regression analysis demonstrated that CK19 (P = 0.001) and SCCAg (P = 0.001) expression in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging (P = 0.000), and cervical stroma infiltration depth (P = 0.005) were independent predictive factors for recurrence. The proportional hazards model identified CK19 (P = 0.001) and SCCAg (P = 0.005) expression in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes, International Federation of Gynecology and Obstetrics staging (P = 0.003), and cervical stroma infiltration depth (P = 0.005), as independently related to DFS. Using subgroup analysis, we found that the CK19+/SCCAg + subgroup has the poorest prognosis, whereas the CK19-/SCCAg - subgroup has the best prognosis (P = 0.000). Immunohistochemical assessment of both CK19 and SCCAg status in histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes may be a valuable approach for predicting

  5. Label-free 3D optical imaging of microcirculation within sentinel lymph node in vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Yeongri; Zhi, Zhongwei; Wang, Ruikang K.

    2011-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymph node to drain wastes originated from cancerous tissue. There is a need for an in vivo imaging method that can image the intact SLN in order to further our understanding of its normal as well as abnormal functions. We report the use of ultrahigh sensitive optical microangiography (UHS-OMAG) to image functional microvascular and lymphatic vessel networks that innervate the intact lymph node in mice in vivo. The promising results show a potential role of UHS-OMAG in the future understanding and diagnosis of the SLN involvement in cancer development.

  6. Development of a handheld fluorescence imaging camera for intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szyc, Łukasz; Bonifer, Stefanie; Walter, Alfred; Jagemann, Uwe; Grosenick, Dirk; Macdonald, Rainer

    2015-05-01

    We present a compact fluorescence imaging system developed for real-time sentinel lymph node mapping. The device uses two near-infrared wavelengths to record fluorescence and anatomical images with a single charge-coupled device camera. Experiments on lymph node and tissue phantoms confirmed that the amount of dye in superficial lymph nodes can be better estimated due to the absorption correction procedure integrated in our device. Because of the camera head's small size and low weight, all accessible regions of tissue can be reached without the need for any adjustments.

  7. Evaluation of sentinel lymph node size and shape as a predictor of occult metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Langhans, Linnea; Bilde, Anders; Charabi, Birgitte; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; von Buchwald, Christian

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate sentinel lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis in N0 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated by individual sentinel node biopsy (SNB) guided neck dissection. In addition, to evaluate lymph node shape as an indicator of malignancy. A retrospective study based on data from 50 patients with clinically N0 neck and oral squamous cell carcinoma stage T1-2N0M0, SNB and consecutive neck dissection was performed. Excised sentinel nodes were measured in three axes by the surgeons before undergoing histopathological examination. Measured sentinel node axis lengths were compared with the histopathological results. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2008 for Mac, version 12.0. A total of 167 sentinel nodes was excised with a median of 3.3 per patient. Following SNB 18% of the patients was upstaged at the subsequent histopathological examination. This correlates to 7% of the total number of sentinel nodes. The diameters of all three axes were compared for both negative and positive nodes. The positive nodes were not significantly larger. The sensitivity and specificity of lymph node size as a criterion for staging were calculated at several thresholds. There was no tendency that lymph node shape changed towards spherical when positive for metastases. There is a tendency that the risk of metastases and upstaging increases with increasing maximum and partly minimum diameter. However, in this study it was not possible to establish a suitable threshold level with both high sensitivity and specificity based on size and shape. Other features of the lymph node must be considered if an accurate staging of N0 patients is to be performed.

  8. Can SOX-10 or KBA.62 Replace S100 Protein in Immunohistochemical Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes for Metastatic Melanoma?

    PubMed

    Vrotsos, Elena; Alexis, John

    2016-01-01

    Microscopic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma relies, in part, on the use of immunohistochemical analysis to identify minute metastatic deposits that may be overlooked on routine microscopy. At present S100 protein is widely used in this role, in large part for its superior sensitivity; however, interpretation is hampered by the presence of benign S100 protein-positive cellular elements present in every lymph node, leading to reduced specificity and consequent difficulties in interpretation. In recent years, multiple melanocytic markers have emerged that promise superior sensitivity and specificity, including KBA.62 and SOX-10. SOX-10 shows a nuclear pattern of staining. In normal tissue it is expressed in Schwann cells, melanocytes, and myoepithelial cells of salivary, bronchial, and mammary glands. KBA.62 is also specific except for staining of endothelial cells and shows a membranous staining pattern. This study was undertaken to determine whether KBA.62 or SOX-10 could equal (or surpass) the sensitivity of S100 protein while offering superior specificity in the immunohistochemical evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes for metastatic melanoma. In this study we performed immunohistochemical stains for S100 protein, Sox-10, and KBA.62 on 50 lymph nodes with proven metastatic melanoma. SOX-10 detected all cases of metastatic melanoma (50 of 50 cases; 100%) compared with S100 protein (48 of 50 cases; 96%) and KBA.62 (37 of 50 cases; 74%). There was no "background" staining of normal cellular elements with SOX-10 or KBA.62. In contrast, S100 protein was expressed in scattered dendritic interdigitating reticulum cells in the paracortex of lymph nodes, showing cytoplasmic and nuclear positivity, sometimes posing significant difficulty in differentiating benign reticulum cells from single cell metastatic melanoma. Our findings suggest that SOX-10 may be superior to S100 protein for identifying metastatic melanoma in a lymph node. KBA.62 was less

  9. Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node (SLN) versus extensive pelvic dissection for clinically localized prostate carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Caroline; Rousseau, Thierry; Bridji, Boumédiène; Pallardy, Amandine; Lacoste, Jacques; Campion, Loïc; Testard, Aude; Aillet, Geneviève; Mouaden, Ayat; Curtet, Chantal; Kraeber-Bodéré, Françoise

    2012-02-01

    Lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in prostate cancer (PC). The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy by laparoscopy in staging locoregional patients with clinically localized PC. A transrectal ultrasound-guided injection of 0.3 ml/100 MBq (99m)Tc-sulphur rhenium colloid in each prostatic lobe was performed the day before surgery. Detection was performed intraoperatively with a laparoscopic probe (Gamma Sup CLERAD) followed by extensive resection. SLN counts were performed in vivo and confirmed ex vivo. Histological analysis was performed by haematoxylin-phloxine-saffron staining, followed by immunohistochemistry (IHC) if the SLN was free of metastasis. The study included 93 patients with PC at intermediate or high risk of lymph node metastases. The intraoperative detection rate was 93.5% (87/93). Nineteen patients had lymph node metastases, nine only in SLN. The false-negative rate was 10.5% (2/19). The internal iliac region was the primary metastatic site (43.3%). Metastatic sentinel nodes in the common iliac region beyond the ureteral junction were present in 13.3%. Limited or standard lymph node resection would have ignored 73.2 and 56.6% of lymph node metastases, respectively. Laparoscopy is suitable for broad identification of SLN metastasis, and targeted resection of these lymph nodes significantly limits the risk of extended surgical resection whilst maintaining the accuracy of the information.

  10. Touch preparations for the intraoperative evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes after neoadjuvant therapy have high false-negative rates in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Robin M; Shenk, Robert R; Thompson, Cheryl L; Gilmore, Hannah L

    2014-06-01

    The use of a touch preparation for intraoperative sentinel lymph node diagnosis has become a preferred method of many pathologists because of its reported high sensitivity and rapid turnaround time. However, after neoadjuvant chemotherapy many lymph nodes have significant treatment-related changes that may affect the diagnostic accuracy of the intraoperative evaluation. To determine the accuracy of touch preparation for the intraoperative diagnosis of metastatic breast carcinoma in the neoadjuvant setting. We reviewed retrospectively the results of intraoperative evaluations for 148 different sentinel lymph nodes from 63 patients who had undergone neoadjuvant chemotherapy for invasive breast cancer at our institution. The intraoperative touch preparation results were compared with the final pathology reports in conjunction with relevant clinical data. Use of touch preparation for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes intraoperatively after neoadjuvant therapy was associated with a low sensitivity of 38.6% (95% confidence interval [CI], 24.4-54.5) but high specificity of 100% (95% CI, 96.5-100). There was no difference in sensitivity rates between cytopathologists and noncytopathologists in this cohort (P = .40). Patients with invasive lobular carcinoma and those who had a clinically positive axilla before the initiation of neoadjuvant therapy were the most likely to have a false-negative result at surgery. Intraoperative touch preparations should not be used alone for the evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in the setting of neoadjuvant therapy for breast cancer because of low overall sensitivity.

  11. In vivo quantitative evaluation of gold nanocages' kinetics in sentinel lymph nodes by photoacoustic tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cai, Xin; Li, Weiyang; Kim, Chulhong; Yuan, Yuchen; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2012-02-01

    As a new class of sentinel lymph node (SLN) tracers for photoacoustic (PA) imaging, Au nanocages offer the advantages of noninvasiveness, strong optical absorption in the near-infrared region (for deep penetration), and accumulation in higher concentrations than the initial injected solution. By monitoring the amplitude changes of PA signals in an animal model, we quantified the accumulations of nanocages in SLNs over time. Based on this method, we quantitatively evaluated the kinetics of gold nanocages in SLN in terms of concentration, size, and surface modification. We could detect the SLN at an Au nanocage injection concentration of 50 pM and a dose of 100 μL in vivo. This concentration is about 40 times less than the previously reported value. We also investigated the influence of nanocages' size (50 nm and 30 nm in edge length), and the effects of surface modification (with positive, or neutral, or negative surface charges). The results are helpful to develop this AuNC-based PA imaging system for noninvasive lymph node mapping, providing valuable information about metastatic cancer staging.

  12. Evaluation of Breast Sentinel Lymph Node Coverage by Standard Radiation Therapy Fields

    SciTech Connect

    Rabinovitch, Rachel Ballonoff, Ari; Newman, Francis M.S.; Finlayson, Christina

    2008-04-01

    Background: Biopsy of the breast sentinel lymph node (SLN) is now a standard staging procedure for early-stage invasive breast cancer. The anatomic location of the breast SLN and its relationship to standard radiation fields has not been described. Methods and Materials: A retrospective review of radiotherapy treatment planning data sets was performed in patients with breast cancer who had undergone SLN biopsy, and those with a surgical clip at the SLN biopsy site were identified. The location of the clip was evaluated relative to vertebral body level on an anterior-posterior digitally reconstructed radiograph, treated whole-breast tangential radiation fields, and standard axillary fields in 106 data sets meeting these criteria. Results: The breast SLN varied in vertebral body level position, ranging from T2 to T7 but most commonly opposite T4. The SLN clip was located below the base of the clavicle in 90%, and hence would be excluded from standard axillary radiotherapy fields where the inferior border is placed at this level. The clip was within the irradiated whole-breast tangent fields in 78%, beneath the superior-posterior corner multileaf collimators in 12%, and outside the tangent field borders in 10%. Conclusions: Standard axillary fields do not encompass the lymph nodes at highest risk of containing tumor in breast cancer patients. Elimination of the superior-posterior corner MLCs from the tangent field design would result in inclusion of the breast SLN in 90% of patients treated with standard whole-breast irradiation.

  13. Comparison between 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography and Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy for Regional Lymph Nodal Staging in Patients with Melanoma: A Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Mirk, Paoletta; Treglia, Giorgio; Salsano, Marco; Basile, Pietro; Giordano, Alessandro; Bonomo, Lorenzo

    2011-01-01

    Aim. to compare 18F-Fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Methods. We performed a literature review discussing original articles which compared FDG-PET to SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. Results and Conclusions. There is consensus in the literature that FDG-PET cannot replace SLNB for regional lymph nodal staging in patients with melanoma. PMID:22242204

  14. Inappropriate Intra-cervical Injection of Radiotracer for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in a Uterine Cervix Cancer Patient: Importance of Lymphoscintigraphy and Blue Dye Injection.

    PubMed

    Kadkhodayan, Sima; Farahabadi, Elham Hosseini; Yousefi, Zohreh; Hasanzadeh, Malihe; Sadeghi, Ramin

    2014-01-01

    Herein, we report a case of sentinel lymph node mapping in a uterine cervix cancer patient, referring to the nuclear medicine department of our institute. Lymphoscintigraphy images showed inappropriate intra-cervical injection of radiotracer. Blue dye technique was applied for sentinel lymph node mapping, using intra-cervical injection of methylene blue. Two blue/cold sentinel lymph nodes, with no pathological involvement, were intra-operatively identified, and the patient was spared pelvic lymph node dissection. The present case underscores the importance of lymphoscintigraphy imaging in sentinel lymph node mapping and demonstrates the added value of blue dye injection in selected patients. It is suggested that pre-operative lymphoscintigraphy imaging be considered as an integral part of sentinel lymph node mapping in surgical oncology. Detailed results of lymphoscintigraphy images should be provided for surgeons prior to surgery, and in case the sentinel lymph nodes are not visualized, use of blue dye for sentinel node mapping should be encouraged.

  15. Tumor-induced sentinel lymph node lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow precede melanoma metastasis.

    PubMed

    Harrell, Maria I; Iritani, Brian M; Ruddell, Alanna

    2007-02-01

    Lymphangiogenesis is associated with human and murine cancer metastasis, suggesting that lymphatic vessels are important for tumor dissemination. Lymphatic vessel alterations were examined using B16-F10 melanoma cells implanted in syngeneic C57Bl/6 mice, which form tumors metastasizing to draining lymph nodes and subsequently to the lungs. Footpad tumors showed no lymphatic or blood vessel growth; however, the tumor-draining popliteal lymph node featured greatly increased lymphatic sinuses. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis began before melanoma cells reached draining lymph nodes, indicating that primary tumors induce these alterations at a distance. Lymph flow imaging revealed that nanoparticle transit was greatly increased through tumor-draining relative to nondraining lymph nodes. Lymph node lymphatic sinuses and lymph flow were increased in mice implanted with unmarked or with foreign antigen-expressing melanomas, indicating that these effects are not due to foreign antigen expression. However, tumor-derived immune signaling could promote lymph node alterations, as macrophages infiltrated footpad tumors, whereas lymphocytes accumulated in tumor-draining lymph nodes. B lymphocytes are required for lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow through tumor-draining lymph nodes, as these alterations were not observed in mice deficient for B cells. Lymph node lymphangiogenesis and increased lymph flow through tumor-draining lymph nodes may actively promote metastasis via the lymphatics.

  16. Dendronized iron oxide colloids for imaging the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouhannaud, J.; Garofalo, A.; Felder-Flesch, D.; Pourroy, G.

    2015-03-01

    Various methods have been used in medicine for more than one century to explore the lymphatic system. Radioactive colloids (RuS labelled with 99mTc) or/and Vital Blue dye are injected around the primary tumour and detected by means of nuclear probe or visual colour inspection respectively. The simultaneous clinical use of both markers (dye and radionuclide) improves the sensitivity of detection close to 100%. Superparamagnetic iron oxides (SPIOs) are currently receiving much attention as strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel nodes, but also for peroperative detection of sentinel node using hand-held probes. In that context, we present the elaboration of dendronized iron oxide nanoparticles elaborated at the Institute of Physics and Chemistry of Materials of Strasbourg.

  17. Application of novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles to sentinel lymph node identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cousins, Aidan; Howard, Douglas; Henning, Anna M.; Nelson, Melanie R. M.; Tilley, Richard D.; Thierry, Benjamin

    2015-12-01

    Current `gold standard' staging of breast cancer and melanoma relies on accurate in vivo identification of the sentinel lymph node. By replacing conventional tracers (dyes and radiocolloids) with magnetic nanoparticles and using a handheld magnetometer probe for in vivo identification, it is believed the accuracy of sentinel node identification in nonsuperficial cancers can be improved due to increased spatial resolution of magnetometer probes and additional anatomical information afforded by MRI road-mapping. By using novel iron core/iron oxide shell nanoparticles, the sensitivity of sentinel node mapping via MRI can be increased due to an increased magnetic saturation compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. A series of in vitro magnetic phantoms (iron core vs. iron oxide nanoparticles) were prepared to simulate magnetic particle accumulation in the sentinel lymph node. A novel handheld magnetometer probe was used to measure the relative signals of each phantom, and determine if clinical application of iron core particles can improve in vivo detection of the sentinel node compared to traditional iron oxide nanoparticles. The findings indicate that novel iron core nanoparticles above a certain size possess high magnetic saturation, but can also be produced with low coercivity and high susceptibility. While some modification to the design of handheld magnetometer probes may be required for particles with large coercivity, use of iron core particles could improve MRI and magnetometer probe detection sensitivity by up to 330 %.

  18. Evaluation of Dynamic Optical Projection of Acquired Luminescence for Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in Large Animals.

    PubMed

    Ringhausen, Elizabeth; Wang, Tylon; Pitts, Jonathan; Sarder, Pinaki; Akers, Walter J

    2016-12-01

    Open surgery requiring cytoreduction still remains the primary treatment course for many cancers. The extent of resection is vital for the outcome of surgery, greatly affecting patients' follow-up treatment including need for revision surgery in the case of positive margins, choice of chemotherapy, and overall survival. Existing imaging modalities such as computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, and positron emission tomography are useful in the diagnostic stage and long-term monitoring but do not provide the level of temporal or spatial resolution needed for intraoperative surgical guidance. Surgeons must instead rely on visual evaluation and palpation in order to distinguish tumors from surrounding tissues. Fluorescence imaging provides high-resolution, real-time mapping with the use of a contrast agent and can greatly enhance intraoperative imaging. Here we demonstrate an intraoperative, real-time fluorescence imaging system for direct highlighting of target tissues for surgical guidance, optical projection of acquired luminescence (OPAL). Image alignment, accuracy, and resolution was determined in vitro prior to demonstration of feasibility for operating room use in large animal models of sentinel lymph node biopsy. Fluorescence identification of regional lymph nodes after intradermal injection of indocyanine green was performed in pigs with surgical guidance from the OPAL system. Acquired fluorescence images were processed and rapidly reprojected to highlight indocyanine green within the true surgical field. OPAL produced enhanced visualization for resection of lymph nodes at each anatomical location. Results show the optical projection of acquired luminescence system can successfully use fluorescence image capture and projection to provide aligned image data that is invisible to the human eye in the operating room setting. © The Author(s) 2015.

  19. Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) laparoscopic assessment early stage in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Gargiulo, T; Giusti, M; Bottero, A; Leo, L; Brokaj, L; Armellino, F; Palladin, L

    2003-06-01

    The aim of the study was to demonstrate the validity of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection after injection of radioactive isotope and patent blue dye in patients affected by early stage endometrial cancer. The second purpose was to compare radioactive isotope and patent blue dye migration. Between September 2000 and May 2001, 11 patients with endometrial cancer FIGO stage Ib (n=10) and IIa (n=1) underwent laparoscopic SLN detection during laparoscopic assisted vaginal hysterectomy with bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy and pelvic bilateral systematic lymphadenectomy. Radioactive isotope injection was performed 24 ours before surgery and blue dye injection was performed just before surgery in the cervix at 3, 6, 9 and 12 hours. A 350 mm laparoscopic gamma-scintiprobe MR 100 type 11, (99m)Tc setted (Pol.Hi.Tech.), was used intraoperatively for detecting SLN. Seventeen SLN were detected at lymphoscintigraphy (6 bilateral and 5 monolateral). At laparoscopic surgery the same locations were found belonging at internal iliac lymph nodes (the so called "Leveuf-Godard" area, lateral to the inferior vescical artery, ventral to the origin of uterine artery and medial or caudal to the external iliac vein). Fourteen SLN were negative at histological analysis and only 3 positive for micrometastasis (mean SLN sections = 60. All the other pelvic lymph nodes were negative at histological analysis. The same SLN locations detected with g-scintiprobe were observed during laparoscopy after patent blue dye injection. If the sensitivity of the assessment of SLN is confirmed to be 100%, this laparoscopic approach could change the management of early stage endometrial cancer. The clinical validity of this technique must be evaluated prospectively.

  20. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2013-07-01

    The ability to reliably detect sentinel lymph nodes for sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is important in clinical management of patients with metastatic cancers. However, the traditional sentinel lymph node mapping with visible dyes is limited by the penetration depth of light and fast clearance of the dyes. On the other hand, sentinel lymph node mapping with radionucleotide technique has intrinsically low spatial resolution and does not provide anatomic details in the sentinel lymph node mapping procedure. This work reports the development of a dual modality imaging probe with magnetic resonance and near infrared imaging capabilities for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (10 nm core size) conjugated with a near infrared molecule with emission at 830 nm. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in sentinel lymph nodes leads to strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes, while conjugated near infrared molecules provide optical imaging tracking of lymph nodes with a high signal to background ratio. The new magnetic nanoparticle based dual imaging probe exhibits a significant longer lymph node retention time. Near infrared signals from nanoparticle conjugated near infrared dyes last up to 60 min in sentinel lymph node compared to that of 25 min for the free near infrared dyes in a mouse model. Furthermore, axillary lymph nodes, in addition to sentinel lymph nodes, can be also visualized with this probe, given its slow clearance and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this new dual modality imaging probe with the tissue penetration and sensitive detection of sentinel lymph nodes can be applied for preoperative survey of lymph nodes with magnetic resonance imaging and allows intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping using near infrared optical devices.

  1. A dual-modal magnetic nanoparticle probe for preoperative and intraoperative mapping of sentinel lymph nodes by magnetic resonance and near infrared fluorescence imaging

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Zhengyang; Chen, Hongwei; Lipowska, Malgorzata; Wang, Liya; Yu, Qiqi; Yang, Xiaofeng; Tiwari, Diana; Yang, Lily; Mao, Hui

    2016-01-01

    The ability to reliably detect sentinel lymph nodes for sentinel lymph node biopsy and lymphadenectomy is important in clinical management of patients with metastatic cancers. However, the traditional sentinel lymph node mapping with visible dyes is limited by the penetration depth of light and fast clearance of the dyes. On the other hand, sentinel lymph node mapping with radionucleotide technique has intrinsically low spatial resolution and does not provide anatomic details in the sentinel lymph node mapping procedure. This work reports the development of a dual modality imaging probe with magnetic resonance and near infrared imaging capabilities for sentinel lymph node mapping using magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (10 nm core size) conjugated with a near infrared molecule with emission at 830 nm. Accumulation of magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles in sentinel lymph nodes leads to strong T2 weighted magnetic resonance imaging contrast that can be potentially used for preoperative localization of sentinel lymph nodes, while conjugated near infrared molecules provide optical imaging tracking of lymph nodes with a high signal to background ratio. The new magnetic nanoparticle based dual imaging probe exhibits a significant longer lymph node retention time. Near infrared signals from nanoparticle conjugated near infrared dyes last up to 60 min in sentinel lymph node compared to that of 25 min for the free near infrared dyes in a mouse model. Furthermore, axillary lymph nodes, in addition to sentinel lymph nodes, can be also visualized with this probe, given its slow clearance and sufficient sensitivity. Therefore, this new dual modality imaging probe with the tissue penetration and sensitive detection of sentinel lymph nodes can be applied for preoperative survey of lymph nodes with magnetic resonance imaging and allows intraoperative sentinel lymph node mapping using near infrared optical devices. PMID:23812946

  2. Factors associated with false-negative sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Scoggins, Charles R; Martin, Robert C G; Ross, Merrick I; Edwards, Michael J; Reintgen, Douglas S; Urist, Marshall M; Gershenwald, Jeffrey E; Sussman, Jeffrey J; Dirk Noyes, R; Goydos, James S; Beitsch, Peter D; Ariyan, Stephan; Stromberg, Arnold J; Hagendoorn, Lee J; McMasters, Kelly M

    2010-03-01

    Some melanoma patients who undergo sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy will have false-negative (FN) results. We sought to determine the factors and outcomes associated with FN SLN biopsy. Analysis was performed of a prospective multi-institutional study that included patients with melanoma of thickness > 1.0 mm who underwent SLN biopsy. FN results were defined as the proportion of node-positive patients who had a tumor-negative sentinel node biopsy. Kaplan-Meier survival analysis and univariate and multivariate analyses were performed. This analysis included 2,451 patients with median follow-up of 61 months. FN, true-positive (TP), and true-negative (TN) SLN results were found in 59 (10.8%), 486 (19.8%), and 1,906 (77.8%) patients, respectively. On univariate analysis comparing the FN with TP groups, respectively, the following factors were significantly different: age (52.6 vs. 47.6 years, p = 0.004), thickness (mean 2.1 vs. 3.1 mm, p = 0.003), lymphovascular invasion (LVI; 3.7 vs. 13.7%, p = 0.037), and local/in-transit recurrence (LITR; 32.2 vs. 12.4%, p < 0.0001); these factors remained significant on multivariate analysis. Overall 5-year survival was greater in the TN group (86.7%) compared with the TP (62.3%) and FN (51.3%) groups (p < 0.0001); however, there was no significant difference in overall survival comparing the TP and FN groups (p = 0.32). This is the largest study to evaluate FN SLN results in melanoma, with a FN rate of 10.8%. FN results are associated with greater patient age, lower mean thickness, less frequent LVI, and greater risk of LITR. However, survival of patients with FN SLN is not statistically worse than that of patients with TP SLN.

  3. Localization of sentinel lymph node in breast cancer. A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Marrazzo, Antonio; Palumbo, Vincenzo Davide; Marrazzo, Emilia; Taormina, Pietra; Damiano, Giuseppe; Buscemi, Salvatore; Buscemi, Giuseppe; Lo Monte, Attilio Ignazio

    2014-01-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is the standard of care for staging axillary lymph nodes in women with breast cancer and clinically negative nodes. It is associated with reduced arm morbidity, moderated or severe lymphoedema, and a better quality of life in comparison with standard axillary treatment. Unfortunately, skip metastases makes all minimally invasive approaches, such as axillary sampling, unreliable. The aim of the present clinical prospective study is to evaluate the position of SLN in an important number of cases and establish the real incidence of skip metastases in clinically node-negative patients. A cohort of 898 female patients with breast carcinoma was considered, from 2001 to 2008. Once SLN was localized, by means of radio-colloid or blue dye staining, and isolated, a biopsy was performed. Only those positive for metastases were submitted to axillary dissection. Only in nine cases a SLN was not isolated. We had 819 cases of first level SLN (group A) and 69 cases of second level SLN (group B). Considering all of 889 cases, SLN was localized in the second level in 69 patients (7.8%); but if we consider metastatic SLN alone (340 cases), it was in the second level in 23 subjects (6.8%). In total, we had a positive second level SLN in 2.3% of cases (23/889). Second level SLN could be considered only an anomalous lymphatic axillary drainage and it does not linked to particular histological variants of the primitive tumour. In our study, skip metastases were recognized in only 2.6% of cases, therefore, whenever a SLN is not isolated for any reason, the first level sampling represent a viable operative choice. Copyright © 2014 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Induced lymphatic sinus hyperplasia in sentinel lymph nodes by VEGF-C as the earliest premetastatic indicator

    PubMed Central

    LIERSCH, RUEDIGER; HIRAKAWA, SATOSHI; BERDEL, WOLFGANG E.; MESTERS, ROLF M.; DETMAR, MICHAEL

    2012-01-01

    Research on tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis has predominantly focused on alterations and abnormal growth of peritumoral and intratumoral lymphatic vessels. However, recent evidence indicates that lymphangiogenesis of sentinel lymph nodes might also contribute to cancer progression. In clinical oncology, the sentinel lymph nodes play an important role in diagnosis, staging and management of disease. The prognostic value that may be placed in the analysis of various parameters in tumor-free lymph nodes is still under debate. We, therefore, chose to investigate genetically fluorescent MDA-MB-435/green fluorescent protein human cancer cells transfected to overexpress VEGF-C in a nude mouse model and investigated metastasis, lymph node lymphangiogenesis, lymph node angiogenesis and size of sentinel lymph nodes. The nature of MDA-MB-435, identified as a breast cancer cell line for several decades, has recently been reidentified as being from melanoma origin. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C overexpression induced early metastasis and significantly increased the lymphatic vessel area in sentinel lymph nodes even before the tumor metastasis. At early time-points, expansion of the lymphatic network was observed even though no difference of blood vessel area and lymph node size was detected. These results suggest that primary tumors -via secretion of VEGF-C- can induce hyperplasia of the sentinel lymph node lymphatic vessel network and thereby promote their further spread. In cases of tumor-free lymph nodes the increased lymphatic network of sentinel lymph nodes is a very early premetastatic sign and may provide a new prognostic indicator and target for aggressive diseases. PMID:23076721

  5. Induced lymphatic sinus hyperplasia in sentinel lymph nodes by VEGF-C as the earliest premetastatic indicator.

    PubMed

    Liersch, Ruediger; Hirakawa, Satoshi; Berdel, Wolfgang E; Mesters, Rolf M; Detmar, Michael

    2012-12-01

    Research on tumor-induced lymphangiogenesis has predominantly focused on alterations and abnormal growth of peritumoral and intratumoral lymphatic vessels. However, recent evidence indicates that lymphangiogenesis of sentinel lymph nodes might also contribute to cancer progression. In clinical oncology, the sentinel lymph nodes play an important role in diagnosis, staging and management of disease. The prognostic value that may be placed in the analysis of various parameters in tumor-free lymph nodes is still under debate. We, therefore, chose to investigate genetically fluorescent MDA-MB-435/green fluorescent protein human cancer cells transfected to overexpress VEGF-C in a nude mouse model and investigated metastasis, lymph node lymphangiogenesis, lymph node angiogenesis and size of sentinel lymph nodes. The nature of MDA-MB-435, identified as a breast cancer cell line for several decades, has recently been reidentified as being from melanoma origin. Vascular endothelial growth factor-C overexpression induced early metastasis and significantly increased the lymphatic vessel area in sentinel lymph nodes even before the tumor metastasis. At early time-points, expansion of the lymphatic network was observed even though no difference of blood vessel area and lymph node size was detected. These results suggest that primary tumors -via secretion of VEGF-C- can induce hyperplasia of the sentinel lymph node lymphatic vessel network and thereby promote their further spread. In cases of tumor-free lymph nodes the increased lymphatic network of sentinel lymph nodes is a very early premetastatic sign and may provide a new prognostic indicator and target for aggressive diseases.

  6. Secretory breast carcinoma in a 6-year-old girl: mastectomy with sentinel lymph node dissection.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Tutku; Yaman Bajin, İnci; Orhan, Diclehan; Yalçin, Bilgehan; Özgen Kiratli, Pinar; Oğuz, Berna; Karnak, İbrahim

    2015-07-01

    Secretory breast carcinoma (SBC) is a rare type of breast neoplasia that was originally described in children. SBC is an indolent breast tumor with good clinical outcome and rare systemic involvement. Since, majority of studies concerning pediatric SBC have been case reports, it has been difficult to clearly elucidate the characteristics and optimal treatment strategies for SBC in children. Although treatment recommendations vary, surgical excision is the primary mode of treatment. Also, necessity of axillary and/or sentinel lymph node dissection is another matter of discussion in children. We report a 6-year-old girl who was diagnosed as SBC was reported to discuss the use of mastectomy with sentinel lymph node dissection in the treatment of this rare tumor in children.

  7. [A Case of Male Hereditary Breast Cancer Involving a Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy].

    PubMed

    Tokunou, Kazuhisa; Yamamoto, Tatsuhito; Yamamoto, Hisato; Kamei, Ryoji; Kitamura, Yoshinori; Ando, Seiichirou

    2016-11-01

    We report a rare case of male hereditary breast cancer in which a sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed. A 62-yearold man was admitted to our hospital because of a palpable tumor in his right breast. Both his younger sister and daughter had had breast cancer. Genetic testing revealed a morbid mutation in the BRCA2 gene. The tumor was palpated to an elastic hard mass and had a clear border in the right DCE area. We performed a core needle biopsy and diagnosed invasive ductal carcinoma, specifically, cT1cN0cM0, cStage I hereditary breast cancer. The patient underwent mastectomy and a sentinel lymph node biopsy. Nine days later, tamoxifen therapy was initiated. There has been no sign of recurrence during the 9 months after the operation.

  8. Desmoplastic melanoma: a 12-year experience with sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Broer, P N; Walker, M E; Goldberg, C; Buonocore, S; Braddock, D T; Lazova, R; Narayan, D; Ariyan, S

    2013-07-01

    Given the paucity of data regarding nodal involvement in desmoplastic melanoma (DM), we decided to review the incidence of nodal metastasis in our patients with DM to better define guidelines regarding the performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in this specific melanoma subtype. Using a prospectively maintained database, we reviewed all patients who underwent treatment for melanoma at the Yale Melanoma Unit in a twelve-year period (1998-2010), during which 3531 cases were treated. We identified 24 patients (0.7%) diagnosed with DM. These patients' records were studied for clinical and histologic parameters and clinical outcomes. Twenty-two patients from the DM group had SLNB, of which four (18%) were diagnosed with micro-metastasis. These four patients were all treated with completion lymphadenectomy and none had additional positive nodes in the remainder of the nodes. Patients were followed after surgery for a median of 25 months (range 2-60 months). Two patients (9%) developed local recurrence, two (9%) in-transit recurrence, and six (27%) showed distant metastases (three patients were pure DM and three patients showed mixed morphology). Patients with mixed DM had a higher rate of nodal metastasis (25%) vs those with pure DM (14%). Other authors have reported that patients diagnosed with pure DM were less likely to have a positive SLN (0-2%) than those patients with the mixed DM subtype (12-16%). Our findings of higher incidence rates of regional lymph node metastases in both the pure and mixed DM subtypes (14% and 25%) compel us to continue to still recommend that SLNB be considered in patients with both subcategories, pure and mixed DM. Level IV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Predictive factors for sentinel lymph nodes and non-sentinel lymph nodes metastatic involvement: a database study of 1,041 melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Kibrité, Antoine; Milot, Héléne; Douville, Pierre; Gagné, Éric J; Labonté, Sébastien; Friede, Juan; Morin, Francis; Ouellet, Jean-François; Claveau, Joël

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy may identify patients who may need completion lymphadenectomy and adjuvant therapy. Univariate and multivariate analysis were conducted for SLN status in a prospective cohort of 1,041 patients. A biopsy was recommended for melanoma greater than or equal to 1 mm thick or greater than or equal to .75 mm with poor prognostic features. For sentinel node status, mitotic rate is very significant in univariate analysis. In multivariate analysis, Breslow, lymphovascular invasion, and primary site were significant. Breslow thickness greater than or equal to 2 mm and SLN with macroscopic burden greater than or equal to 2 mm are the only statistically significant variables predicting the non-SLN status in multivariate analysis. The data confirm the importance of Breslow, lymphovascular invasion, and body site for SLN status. The cutoff of 2 mm for tumor load in SLN appears to be a simple technique to find the high-risk patients with further lymph node disease. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a prognostic measure in pediatric melanoma☆

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Jina; Sun, Zhifei; Gulack, Brian C.; Adam, Mohamed A.; Mosca, Paul J.; Rice, Henry E.; Tracy, Elisabeth T.

    2016-01-01

    Background/Purpose Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB)-based management has been shown to improve disease-free survival in adult melanoma, but there is scant evidence regarding the utility of SLNB in pediatric melanoma. Methods The 2004–2011 Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database was queried for patients with primary cutaneous melanoma of Breslow depth > 0.75 mm and clinically negative nodes. Pediatric patients, defined as less than 20 years of age, were grouped by whether they underwent SLNB or not. Kaplan–Meier analysis was performed to compare melanoma-specific survival (MSS) in propensity-matched groups. Results 310 pediatric patients met study criteria: 261 (84%) underwent SLNB, while 49 (16%) did not. There was no difference in MSS between matched children who received SLNB and those who did not (p = 0.36). Among children who received SLNB, a positive SLNB was associated with worse MSS compared to a negative SLNB (89% vs. 100% at 84 months, p = 0.04). However, children with a positive SLNB had more favorable survival compared to patients > 20 years of age (88% vs. 66% at 84 months, p = 0.02). Conclusions SLNB does not confer a survival benefit to children with melanoma, but it provides valuable prognostic information regarding MSS. PMID:27041229

  11. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Laser-Assisted Indocyanine Green Dye Lymphangiography in Patients with Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Vikalp; Phillips, Brett T.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a vital component of staging and management of multiple cancers. The current gold standard utilizes technetium 99 (tech99) and a blue dye to detect regional nodes. While the success rate is typically over 90%, these two methods can be inconclusive or inconvenient for both patient and surgeon. We evaluated a new technique using laser-assisted ICG dye lymphangiography to identify SLN. Methods. In this retrospective analysis, we identified patients with melanoma who were candidates for SLN biopsy. In addition to tech99 and methylene blue, patients received a dermal injection of indocyanine green (ICG). The infrared signal was detected with the SPY machine (Novadaq), and nodes positive by any method were excised. Results. A total of 15 patients were evaluated, with 40 SLNs removed. Four patients were found to have nodal metastases on final pathology. 100% of these 4 nodes were identified by ICG, while only 75% (3/4) were positive for tech99 and/or methylene blue. Furthermore, none of the nodes missed by ICG (4/40) had malignant cells. Conclusion. ICG dye lymphangiography is a reasonable alternative for locating SLNs in patients with melanoma. Prospective studies are needed to better ascertain the full functionality of this technique. PMID:24382997

  12. Dermal Melanoma: A Report on Prognosis, Outcomes, and the Utility of Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    DOEPKER, MATTHEW P.; THOMPSON, ZACHARY J.; HARB, JENNIFER N.; MESSINA, JANE L.; PULEO, CHRISTOPHER A.; EGAN, KATHLEEN M.; SARNAIK, AMOD A.; GONZALEZ, RICARDO J.; SONDAK, VERNON K.; ZAGER, JONATHAN S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Historically dermal melanoma (DM) has been labeled as either stage IIIB (in-transit) or stage IV (M1a) disease. We sought to investigate the natural history of DM and the utility and prognostic significance of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). Methods Patients with DM undergoing SLNB at a single center from 1998 to 2009 were identified. Results Eighty-three patients met criteria, 10 (12%) patients had a positive SLNB. Of those, 5 (50%) recurred (all with distant disease). Twenty-one (29%) of the 73 SLNB negative patients recurred and of those, 15 (71%) developed distant metastases, whereas 6 (29%) developed local or regional recurrence, including two false-negative regional nodal recurrences. No in-transit recurrences were recorded. Five-year recurrence-free and disease-specific survival was significantly better for patients with a negative SLNB versus positive SLNB (56.8% vs. 22.2% P =0.02, 81.1% vs. 61.0%, P =0.05, respectively). Conclusion SLNB has prognostic significance for RFS and DSS, and should be utilized in the management of DM based on a >10% yield and low false-negative rate. Our data demonstrate patients with DM do not recur in an in-transit fashion, which along with the survival outcomes suggest the behavior of DM is consistent with primary cutaneous melanoma of similar thickness rather than an isolated in-transit or distant dermal metastasis from a regressed cutaneous primary. PMID:26661407

  13. Impact of immunohistochemistry in sentinel lymph node biopsy in head and neck cancer.

    PubMed

    Chone, Carlos Takahiro; Aniteli, Marcello B; Magalhães, Rodrigo S; Freitas, Leandro L; Altemani, Albina; Ramos, Celso D; Etchebehere, Elba; Crespo, Agricio N

    2013-01-01

    To determine the sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value (NPV) and accuracy of hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining compared to immunohistochemistry (IHC) in sentinel lymph node (SLN) histological analyses of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. The Clinical prospective study was carried out at Tertiary referral university hospital. Patients with oral, lip and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma undergoing elective neck dissection with clinically and radiologically negative necks were included. All patients were submitted to computer tomography scan for the evaluation of lymphatic metastases. The surgical procedure consisted of tumor resection, SLN sampling and elective neck dissection. Negative SLNs via HE were then submitted for IHC analysis of cytokeratin AE1/AE3 and step serial section (SSS). The main outcome measures were the negative predictive value of conventional HE staining techniques in the diagnosis of lymphatic metastases with the SSS/IHC analysis. Of 46 patients undergoing 63 neck procedures, 53 were SLN negative and 10 were positive on HE analysis. Using SSS/IHC analysis of these 53 negative SLNs on HE, two (3.8 %) were found to be positive. For HE, the sensitivity, specificity, NPV and accuracy were 77, 100, 94, and 95 %, respectively. With subsequent analysis with SSS/IHC, these values increased to 92, 100, 98 and 98 %, respectively. SSS/IHC is important in SLN analysis as the false negative rate decreased significantly while increasing the inherent sensitivity of the analyses.

  14. Comparison of 2- and 4-wavelength methods for the optical detection of sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tellier, F.; Simon, H.; Blé, F. X.; Ravelo, R.; Chabrier, R.; Steibel, J.; Rodier, J. F.; Poulet, P.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is the gold standard method to detect a metastatic invasion from the primary breast cancer. This method can avoid patients to be submitted to full axillary chain dissection. In this study we present and compare two near-infrared optical probes for the sentinel lymph node detection, based on the recording of scattered photons. The two setups were developed to improve the detection of the dye injected in clinical routine: the Patent Blue V dye. Herein, we present results regarding clinical ex-vivo detection of sentinel lymph node after different volume injections. We have previously published results obtained with a two-wavelength probe on phantom and animal models. However this first generation device did not completely account for the optical absorption variations from biological tissue. Thus, a second generation probe has been equipped with four wavelengths. The dye concentration computation is then more robust to measurement and tissue property fluctuations. The detection threshold of the second setup was estimated at 8.10-3μmol/L, which is about 37 times lower than the eye visibility threshold. We present here the preliminary results and demonstrate the advantages of using four wavelengths compared to two on phantom suspensions simulating the optical properties of breast tissues.

  15. Sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a critical reappraisal of the internal mammary chain issue.

    PubMed

    Manca, G; Volterrani, D; Mazzarri, S; Duce, V; Svirydenka, A; Giuliano, A; Mariani, G

    2014-06-01

    Although, like the axilla, the internal mammary nodes (IMNs) are a first-echelon nodal drainage site in breast cancer, the importance of their treatment has long been debated. Seminal randomized trials have failed to demonstrate a survival benefit from surgical IMN dissection, and several retrospective studies have shown that IMNs are rarely the first site of recurrence. However, the recent widespread adoption of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has stimulated a critical reappraisal of such early results. Furthermore, the higher proportion of screening-detected cancers, improved imaging and techniques (i.e., lymphoscintigraphy for radioguided SLN biopsy) make it possible to visualize lymphatic drainage to the IMNs. The virtually systematic application of adjuvant systemic and/or loco-regional radiotherapy encourages re-examination of the significance of IMN metastases. Moreover, randomized trials testing the value of postmastectomy irradiation and a meta-analysis of 78 randomized trials have provided high levels of evidence that local-regional tumor control is associated with long-term survival improvements. This benefit was limited to trials that used systemic chemotherapy, which was not routinely administered in the earlier studies. However, the contribution from IMN treatment is unclear. Lymphoscintigraphic studies have shown that a significant proportion of breast cancers have primary drainage to the IMNs, including approximately 30% of medial tumors and 15% of lateral tumors. In the few studies where IMN biopsy was performed, 20% of sentinel IMNs were metastatic. The risk of IMN involvement is higher in patients with medial tumors and positive axillary nodes. IMN metastasis has prognostic significance, as recognized by its inclusion in the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging criteria, and seems to have similar prognostic importance as axillary nodal involvement. Although routine IMN evaluation might be indicated, it has not been routinely performed

  16. Value and Efficacy of Sentinel Lymph Node Diagnostics in Patients With Penile Carcinoma With Nonpalpable Inguinal Lymph Nodes: Five-Year Follow-up.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Ulf; Zuhayra, Maaz; Marx, Marlies; Zhao, Yi; Knüpfer, Stephanie; Colberg, Christian; Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Naumann, Carsten Maik

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been described as a minimally invasive method for lymph node staging in patients with a penile carcinoma and nonpalpable inguinal nodes in national and international guidelines of involved professional societies. However, this method is rarely used. The aim of this study was to validate reliability and morbidity of this method and to discuss radiation exposure of persons involved. Twenty-eight patients with histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes in 47 groins with nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes were included in this study (17 T1(a/b)-, 8 T2- and 3 T3-stages). We recorded prospectively all cases of lymph node recurrence and complications in patients with initially nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes and histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes. False-negative findings and morbidity were calculated as qualitative criteria. Inguinal regions with palpable lymph nodes and/or evidence of metastases were not considered in accordance with the guidelines. During a median follow-up of 68 (4-131) months, we observed one case of bilateral lymph node recurrence and one case of prolonged inguinal lymphorrhea, which could be managed conservatively. Per inguinal region, false-negative rate was 4.25%, and morbidity rate was 2.12%; seen per patient, the rates were both 3.57%. Sentinel lymph node biopsy under use of radioactive tracers is a reliable method of lymph node staging in patients with penile carcinoma and nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. The methodical complexity is justified by high reliability and low radiation exposure for both patient and medical staff and low morbidity rates.

  17. Reliability of sentinel node procedure for lymph node staging in prostate cancer patients at high risk for lymph node involvement.

    PubMed

    Van den Bergh, Laura; Joniau, Steven; Haustermans, Karin; Deroose, Christophe M; Isebaert, Sofie; Oyen, Raymond; Mottaghy, Felix M; Ameye, Filip; Berkers, Joost; Van Poppel, Hendrik; Lerut, Evelyne

    2015-06-01

    To investigate the reliability of a sentinel node (SN) procedure for nodal staging in prostate cancer (PCa) patients at high risk for lymph node (LN) involvement. Seventy-four patients with localized prostate adenocarcinoma, who were clinically node-negative and had a risk of LN involvement of ≥ 10% (Partin tables), were prospectively enrolled. Upon intraprostatic 99mTc-nanocolloid injection, they underwent planar scintigraphy and SPECT imaging. Surgical removal of the SN, located by means of a gamma probe, was completed with a superextended LN dissection (seLND) as a reference and followed by radical prostatectomy. In total, 470 SN (median 6, IQR 3-9) were scintigraphically detected of which 371 (median 4, IQR 2-6) were located by gamma probe and selectively removed during surgery (79%). Histopathology confirmed LN metastases in 37 patients (50%) having 106 affected LN in total (median number per patient 2, IQR 1-4). Twenty-eight patients were node positive (N+) based on the analysis of the resected SN. However, the seLND that was performed as a reference revealed nine additional N+ patients resulting in a sensitivity of 76% (28/37). In total, 15 of 37 patients (41%) had metastases in SN only and could have been spared seLND to remove all affected nodes. We found a relatively low sensitivity when addressing the SN procedure for nodal staging in PCa patients at high risk for LN involvement. Importantly, only less than half of the N+ patients could have been spared a seLND to remove all affected lymphoid tissue.

  18. Multiphoton microscopy as a diagnostic tool for pathological analysis of sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemiere, J.; Douady, J.; Estève, F.; Salameire, D.; Lantuejoul, S.; Lorimier, P.; Ricard, C.; van der Sanden, B.; Vial, J.-C.

    2009-02-01

    Multiphoton microscopy has shown a powerful potential for biomedical in vivo and ex vivo analysis of tissue sections and explants. Studies were carried out on several animal organs such as brain, arteries, lungs, and kidneys. One of the current challenges is to transfer to the clinic the knowledge and the methods previously developed in the labs at the preclinical level. For tumour staging, physicians often remove the lymph nodes that are localized at the proximity of the lesion. In case of breast cancer or melanoma, sentinel lymph node protocol is performed: pathologists randomly realize an extensive sampling of formol fixed nodes. However, the duration of this protocol is important and its reliability is not always satisfactory. The aim of our study was to determine if multiphoton microscopy would enable the fast imaging of lymph nodes on important depths, with or without exogenous staining. Experiments were first conducted on pig lymph nodes in order to test various dyes and to determine an appropriate protocol. The same experiments were then performed on thin slices of human lymph nodes bearing metastatic melanoma cells. We obtained relevant images with both endofluorescence plus second-harmonic generation and xanthene dyes. They show a good contrast between tumour and healthy cells. Furthermore, images of pig lymph nodes were recorded up to 120μm below the surface. This new method could then enable a faster diagnosis with higher efficiency for the patient. Experiments on thicker human lymph nodes are currently underway in order to validate these preliminary results.

  19. Biological Ablation of Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Submucosally Invaded Early Gastrointestinal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Kuroda, Shinji; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Urata, Yasuo; Hoffman, Robert M; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-01-01

    Currently, early gastrointestinal cancers are treated endoscopically, as long as there are no lymph node metastases. However, once a gastrointestinal cancer invades the submucosal layer, the lymph node metastatic rate rises to higher than 10%. Therefore, surgery is still the gold standard to remove regional lymph nodes containing possible metastases. Here, to avoid prophylactic surgery, we propose a less-invasive biological ablation of lymph node metastasis in submucosally invaded gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have established an orthotopic early rectal cancer xenograft model with spontaneous lymph node metastasis by implantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human colon cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the murine rectum. A solution containing telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus was injected into the peritumoral submucosal space, followed by excision of the primary rectal tumors mimicking the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique. Seven days after treatment, GFP signals had completely disappeared indicating that sentinel lymph node metastasis was selectively eradicated. Moreover, biologically treated mice were confirmed to be relapse-free even 4 weeks after treatment. These results indicate that virus-mediated biological ablation selectively targets lymph node metastasis and provides a potential alternative to surgery for submucosal invasive gastrointestinal cancer patients. PMID:25523761

  20. Biological ablation of sentinel lymph node metastasis in submucosally invaded early gastrointestinal cancer.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Satoru; Kishimoto, Hiroyuki; Tazawa, Hiroshi; Hashimoto, Yuuri; Kuroda, Shinji; Nishizaki, Masahiko; Nagasaka, Takeshi; Shirakawa, Yasuhiro; Kagawa, Shunsuke; Urata, Yasuo; Hoffman, Robert M; Fujiwara, Toshiyoshi

    2015-03-01

    Currently, early gastrointestinal cancers are treated endoscopically, as long as there are no lymph node metastases. However, once a gastrointestinal cancer invades the submucosal layer, the lymph node metastatic rate rises to higher than 10%. Therefore, surgery is still the gold standard to remove regional lymph nodes containing possible metastases. Here, to avoid prophylactic surgery, we propose a less-invasive biological ablation of lymph node metastasis in submucosally invaded gastrointestinal cancer patients. We have established an orthotopic early rectal cancer xenograft model with spontaneous lymph node metastasis by implantation of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-labeled human colon cancer cells into the submucosal layer of the murine rectum. A solution containing telomerase-specific oncolytic adenovirus was injected into the peritumoral submucosal space, followed by excision of the primary rectal tumors mimicking the endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) technique. Seven days after treatment, GFP signals had completely disappeared indicating that sentinel lymph node metastasis was selectively eradicated. Moreover, biologically treated mice were confirmed to be relapse-free even 4 weeks after treatment. These results indicate that virus-mediated biological ablation selectively targets lymph node metastasis and provides a potential alternative to surgery for submucosal invasive gastrointestinal cancer patients.

  1. Near infrared imaging to identify sentinel lymph nodes in invasive urinary bladder cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knapp, Deborah W.; Adams, Larry G.; Niles, Jacqueline D.; Lucroy, Michael D.; Ramos-Vara, Jose; Bonney, Patty L.; deGortari, Amalia E.; Frangioni, John V.

    2006-02-01

    Approximately 12,000 people are diagnosed with invasive transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder (InvTCC) each year in the United States. Surgical removal of the bladder (cystectomy) and regional lymph node dissection are considered frontline therapy. Cystectomy causes extensive acute morbidity, and 50% of patients with InvTCC have occult metastases at the time of diagnosis. Better staging procedures for InvTCC are greatly needed. This study was performed to evaluate an intra-operative near infrared fluorescence imaging (NIRF) system (Frangioni laboratory) for identifying sentinel lymph nodes draining InvTCC. NIRF imaging was used to map lymph node drainage from specific quadrants of the urinary bladder in normal dogs and pigs, and to map lymph node drainage from naturally-occurring InvTCC in pet dogs where the disease closely mimics the human condition. Briefly, during surgery NIR fluorophores (human serum albumen-fluorophore complex, or quantum dots) were injected directly into the bladder wall, and fluorescence observed in lymphatics and regional nodes. Conditions studied to optimize the procedure including: type of fluorophore, depth of injection, volume of fluorophore injected, and degree of bladder distention at the time of injection. Optimal imaging occurred with very superficial injection of the fluorophore in the serosal surface of the moderately distended bladder. Considerable variability was noted from dog to dog in the pattern of lymph node drainage. NIR fluorescence was noted in lymph nodes with metastases in dogs with InvTCC. In conclusion, intra-operative NIRF imaging is a promising approach to improve sentinel lymph node mapping in invasive urinary bladder cancer.

  2. Value of Sentinel Lymph Node (SLN) Mapping and Biopsy using Combined Intracervical Radiotracers and Blue Dye Injections for Endometrial Cancer

    PubMed

    Farzaneh, Farah; Moridi, Atefeh; Azizmohammadi, Zahra; Ansari J, Mojtaba; Hosseini, Maryam Sadat; Arab, Maliheh; Ashrafganjoei, Tahereh; Mazaheri, Mina

    2017-02-01

    Background: Lymphadenectomy, as part of the initial surgical staging of patients with endometrial carcinoma, remains a controversial topic in gynecologic oncology. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has become a well-accepted procedure for melanomas and breast cancer; a number of investigators have begun to explore the utility and accuracy of this technique with regard to endometrial cancer. Aim: This study was conducted to evaluate SLN mapping of early stage endometrial cancer with blue dye in conjunction with a radioactive tracer. Subjects and methods: In this prospective cross-sectional study, patients with stage I and II endometrial cancer who were candidates for systemic lymph node dissection during surgery were enrolled, some underwent lymph node mapping and SLN biopsy using combined intra cervical radiotracer and blue dye injections and some applying only an intra cervical radiotracer. SLNs and other lymph nodes were sent for pathological assessment. Sensitivity, specificity, the positive predictive value, and the negative predictive value were calculated as predictive values for the radiotracer and blue dye. Results: Pre-operative lymph node mapping showed SLN in 29 out of 30 patients. Intra operations in 29/30 patients, SLNs were harvested by gamma probe; in 13 out of 19 patients SLNs were detected by blue dye. The median number of SLNs per patient was 3 and the total number of SLNs detected was 81. Four patients had positive pelvic lymph nodes. All of the positive nodes were SLNs. Using this technique (radiotracer and blue dye) an overall detection rate of 96.7%, an NPV of 100%, a sensitivity of 100% and a specificity of 3.85% were achieved. Conclusion: Results of SLN research for endometrial cancer are promising and make feasible the possibility of avoiding unnecessary aggressive surgical procedures in near future by advances in SLN mapping. Creative Commons Attribution License

  3. Secondary sentinel lymph node tracing technique: a new method for tracing lymph nodes in radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, Zong-lin; Jiang, Huai-wu; Song, Min; Xu, Liang; Xia, Dong; Liu, Qing

    2015-11-01

    To explore the feasibility and clinical value of secondary sentinel lymph node (SSLN) tracing technique in radical gastrectomy for advanced gastric cancer (AGC). From January 2009 to June 2011, 247 patients who suffered from gastric angle cancer with metastasis in No. 3 group lymph nodes were divided randomly into groups A and B. Methylthioninium chloride was injected into the peripheral tissue of the metastatic No. 3 group lymph nodes of 138 patients in group A before tumor resections. SSLNs were traced and individual lymphadenectomies were carried out based on the biopsy results of the SSLNs. Standard D2 radical gastrectomies were carried out directly on 109 patients in group B. Postoperative follow-up and survival analysis were carried out for patients in both groups. SSLNs were found in 114 (82.6%) patients in group A. Ninety of those patients (78.9%) demonstrated existing metastasis in SSLNs. According to Kaplan-Meier's method, the postoperative 3-year cumulative survival rates were 63.5% and 47.5%, and the median survival time were 40 and 36 months for the patients of groups A and B, respectively (P<0.05). The SSLN tracing technique is feasible in radical gastrectomy for AGC. It gives surgeons important information about the terminal status of lymph node metastasis and provides some scientific basis for individual lymphadenectomy.

  4. [Long-term results of sentinel node biopsy diagnostics in penile carcinoma : Dynamic sentinel node biopsy in cases with nonpalpable lymph nodes in the groin].

    PubMed

    Naumann, C M; Bothe, K; Munk-Hartig, A-K; van der Horst, C; Massad, H; Lützen, U; Jünemann, K-P; Hamann, M F

    2016-05-01

    Dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) has been recommended in the EAU guidelines for several years as a minimally invasive method for lymph node staging in patients with penile carcinoma and nonpalpable lymph nodes. However, due to the high methodological demands and the primarily unreliable results, this method is rarely used in Germany. The aim of this study was to establish the reliability and morbidity of this method. The frequency of lymph node recurrent disease and complications were prospectively recorded in patients with initially nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes and histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes. Quality criteria were the false negative rate (percentage of lymph node recurrence in negative procedures) and the morbidity rate. Inguinal regions with palpable lymph nodes and/or evidence of metastases were not considered. The study included 37 patients with histologically negative sentinel lymph nodes in 63 groins with nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. There were 21 T1(a/b) stages, 10 T2, and 6 T3 stages. Tumor differentiation was good in 4, moderate in 26, and poor in 7 patients. During a median follow-up of 52 months (range 1-131 months), we observed a bilateral lymph node recurrence in 1 patient and a conservatively managed prolonged lymphorrhea in another patient. Per inguinal region the false-negative rate was 3.2 % and the morbidity rate was 1.6 %; seen per patient the rates were both 2.7 %. DSNB is a reliable method of lymph node staging in patients with penile carcinoma and nonpalpable inguinal lymph nodes. The high degree of reliability in combination with the low morbidity justifies the higher methodical complexity of this method.

  5. Benefits of initial CT staging before sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with head and neck cutaneous melanoma.

    PubMed

    Hafström, Anna; Silfverschiöld, Maria; Persson, Simon S; Kanne, Michelle; Ingvar, Christian; Wahlberg, Peter; Romell, Anton; Greiff, Lennart

    2017-08-21

    The value of CT at the time of diagnosis for patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma clinically asymptomatic for metastatic disease is unclear. A retrospective medical chart review was performed on 198 consecutive patients identified with primary T1b-T4b head and neck melanoma clinically asymptomatic for metastatic disease referred for sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures between 2004 and 2014. Initial CTs identified clinically occult melanoma metastases in 8.1% and advanced second primary tumors in 3.5% of patients. CT findings were false-negative in 1% and false-positive in 6% of patients. Overall survival (OS) for patients with true-positive CT findings was lower than for the other patients (P < .001). CT imaging when staging patients with head and neck melanoma seems to identify more metastases than has been reported for melanoma at other sites. Preoperative CTs decreased the number of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNBs), thus avoiding the stress and cost of this surgical procedure in 12% of patients. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy to select patients for local–regional therapy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Erdahl, Lillian M.; Boughey, Judy C.

    2014-01-01

    Use of sentinel lymph node biopsy for axillary staging of patients with breast cancer treated with neoadjuvant chemotherapy has been widely debated. Questions arise regarding the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy in axillary staging for these patients and its use to determine further local–regional therapy, including surgery and radiation therapy. For patients who are clinically node-negative at presentation, sentinel lymph node biopsy enables accurate staging of the axilla after neoadjuvant chemotherapy, and determination of which patients should go on to further axillary surgery and regional nodal radiation therapy. Importantly, performing axillary staging after completion of chemotherapy, rather than before chemotherapy, enables assessment of response to chemotherapy and the extent of residual disease. This information can assist the planning of adjuvant treatment. Recent data indicate that sentinel node biopsy can also be used to assess disease response after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for patients with clinical N1 disease at presentation. PMID:24683440

  7. Spectral imaging as a potential tool for optical sentinel lymph node biopsies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Sullivan, Jack D.; Hoy, Paul R.; Rutt, Harvey N.

    2011-07-01

    Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy (SLNB) is an increasingly standard procedure to help oncologists accurately stage cancers. It is performed as an alternative to full axillary lymph node dissection in breast cancer patients, reducing the risk of longterm health problems associated with lymph node removal. Intraoperative analysis is currently performed using touchprint cytology, which can introduce significant delay into the procedure. Spectral imaging is forming a multi-plane image where reflected intensities from a number of spectral bands are recorded at each pixel in the spatial plane. We investigate the possibility of using spectral imaging to assess sentinel lymph nodes of breast cancer patients with a view to eventually developing an optical technique that could significantly reduce the time required to perform this procedure. We investigate previously reported spectra of normal and metastatic tissue in the visible and near infrared region, using them as the basis of dummy spectral images. We analyse these images using the spectral angle map (SAM), a tool routinely used in other fields where spectral imaging is prevalent. We simulate random noise in these images in order to determine whether the SAM can discriminate between normal and metastatic pixels as the quality of the images deteriorates. We show that even in cases where noise levels are up to 20% of the maximum signal, the spectral angle map can distinguish healthy pixels from metastatic. We believe that this makes spectral imaging a good candidate for further study in the development of an optical SLNB.

  8. Portable widefield imaging device for ICG-detection of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Govone, Angelo Biasi; Gómez-García, Pablo Aurelio; Carvalho, André Lopes; Capuzzo, Renato de Castro; Magalhães, Daniel Varela; Kurachi, Cristina

    2015-06-01

    Metastasis is one of the major cancer complications, since the malignant cells detach from the primary tumor and reaches other organs or tissues. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first lymphatic structure to be affected by the malignant cells, but its location is still a great challenge for the medical team. This occurs due to the fact that the lymph nodes are located between the muscle fibers, making it visualization difficult. Seeking to aid the surgeon in the detection of the SLN, the present study aims to develop a widefield fluorescence imaging device using the indocyanine green as fluorescence marker. The system is basically composed of a 780nm illumination unit, optical components for 810nm fluorescence detection, two CCD cameras, a laptop, and dedicated software. The illumination unit has 16 diode lasers. A dichroic mirror and bandpass filters select and deliver the excitation light to the interrogated tissue, and select and deliver the fluorescence light to the camera. One camera is responsible for the acquisition of visible light and the other one for the acquisition of the ICG fluorescence. The software developed at the LabVIEW® platform generates a real time merged image where it is possible to observe the fluorescence spots, related to the lymph nodes, superimposed at the image under white light. The system was tested in a mice model, and a first patient with tongue cancer was imaged. Both results showed the potential use of the presented fluorescence imaging system assembled for sentinel lymph node detection.

  9. Update on detection of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aarsvold, John N; Alazraki, Naomi P

    2005-04-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is now the practice of choice for the management of many patients with breast cancer. This was not true in the early 1990s, when the first such procedures were performed and protocols for such were refined often. This was also not true in the first years of the 21st century, when a decade of collective experience and information acquired from numerous clinical investigations dictated additional subtle and not-so-subtle refinements of the procedures. However, it is true today; reports of the latest round of clinical investigations indicate that there are several breast cancer sentinel node procedures that result in successful identification of potential sentinel nodes in nearly all patients who are eligible for such procedures. A significant component of many of these successful sentinel node procedures is a detection and localization protocol that involves radiotracer methodologies, including radiopharmaceutical administration, preoperative nuclear medicine imaging, and intraoperative gamma counting. The present state and roles of nuclear medicine protocols used in breast cancer sentinel lymph node biopsy procedures is reviewed with emphasis on discussion of recent results, unresolved issues, and future considerations. Included are brief reviews of present radiotracer and blue-dye techniques for node localization, including remarks about injection strategies, counting probe technology, and radiation safety. Included also are discussions of on-going investigations of the implications of the presence of micrometastases; of the management value of detection, localization, and excision of extra-axillary nodes such as internal mammary nodes; and of the broad range of recurrence rates presently being reported. Remarks on the present and possible near- and long-term roles for nuclear medicine in the staging of breast cancer patients including comments on positron emission tomography and intraoperative imaging conclude the article.

  10. Indocyanine green fluorescence imaging of lymph nodes during robotic-assisted laparoscopic operation for endometrial cancer. A prospective validation study using a sentinel lymph node surgical algorithm.

    PubMed

    Hagen, Bjørn; Valla, Marit; Aune, Guro; Ravlo, Merethe; Abusland, Anne Britt; Araya, Elisabeth; Sundset, Marit; Tingulstad, Solveig

    2016-12-01

    A sentinel lymph node (SLN) strategy may have particular value in endometrial cancer (EC) because a therapeutic effect of lymphadenectomy per se is unproven. The aim was to evaluate indocyanine green (ICG) and near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence mapping using a surgical algorithm. From November 2012 through December 2015, women with apparently early stage EC underwent robot-assisted laparoscopic hysterectomy including ICG fluorescence SLN mapping following the Memorial Sloane Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) surgical algorithm. Among 108 patients included, ≥1 SLNs was identified in 104 (96%), bilaterally in 84 (78%) and unilaterally in 20 patients (18%). Four patients failed SLN mapping. All SLN-positive patients had pelvic SLNs. Median number of nodes were 4.0 and 6.0 (p<0.001), when SLNs only and SLNs plus non-SLNs were removed, respectively. Lymph node metastases were detected in 17 patients (16%). One patient who failed SLN mapping had a non-SLN metastasis. The remaining 16 patients had metastases in SLNs, 12 in SLNs only and four in both SLNs and non-SLNs. Routine pathology detected 75% of patients with cancer positive SLNs while 25% were based on extended pathology. Lymph node metastases were found among 9% with low-, 11% with intermediate- and 32% with high-risk profiles, respectively. We have reproduced the high total and bilateral SLN mapping using cervical ICG injection and NIR fluorescence. Practical application of the MSKCC algorithm allowed high lymph node metastasis detection in combination with a low extent of lymph node removal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Description of a reproducible anatomically based surgical algorithm for detection of pelvic sentinel lymph nodes in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Persson, Jan; Geppert, Barbara; Lönnerfors, Céline; Bollino, Michele; Måsbäck, Anna

    2017-10-01

    To describe and evaluate a reproducible, anatomically based surgical algorithm, including reinjection of tracer to enhance technical success rate, for detection of pelvic sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in endometrial cancer (EC). A prospective study of 102 consecutive women with high risk EC scheduled for robotic surgery was conducted. Following cervical injection of a fluorescent dye, an algorithm for trans- and retroperitoneal identification of tracer display in the lower and upper paracervical pathways was strictly adhered to. To enhance the technical success rate, this included ipsilateral reinjection of tracer in case of non-display of any lymphatic pathway. The lymphatic pathways were kept intact by opening the avascular planes. To minimize disturbance from leaking dye, removal of SLNs was first performed along the lower paracervical (presacral) pathways followed by the more caudal upper paracervical pathways. In each pathway, the juxtauterine node with an afferent lymph vessel was defined as an SLN. After removal of SLNs, a complete pelvic and, unless contraindicated, infrarenal paraaortic lymph node dissection was performed. The bilateral detection rate including tracer reinjection was 96%. All 24 (23.5%) node positive patients had at least one metastatic SLN. Presacral lymph node metastases were discovered in 33.3% of the node positive patients. One patient (4.2%) had an isolated presacral lymph node metastasis. The described cranial-to-caudal anatomically based surgical SLN algorithm, including a presacral dissection and reinjection of tracer, results in a high SLN detection rate and identified all patients with lymph node metastases. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer patients using surgical navigation system based on fluorescence molecular imaging technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, Chongwei; Kou, Deqiang; Ye, Jinzuo; Mao, Yamin; Qiu, Jingdan; Wang, Jiandong; Yang, Xin; Tian, Jie

    2015-03-01

    Introduction: Precision and personalization treatments are expected to be effective methods for early stage cancer studies. Breast cancer is a major threat to women's health and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an effective method to realize precision and personalized treatment for axillary lymph node (ALN) negative patients. In this study, we developed a surgical navigation system (SNS) based on optical molecular imaging technology for the precise detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in breast cancer patients. This approach helps surgeons in precise positioning during surgery. Methods: The SNS was mainly based on the technology of optical molecular imaging. A novel optical path has been designed in our hardware system and a feature-matching algorithm has been devised to achieve rapid fluorescence and color image registration fusion. Ten in vivo studies of SLN detection in rabbits using indocyanine green (ICG) and blue dye were executed for system evaluation and 8 breast cancer patients accepted the combination method for therapy. Results: The detection rate of the combination method was 100% and an average of 2.6 SLNs was found in all patients. Our results showed that the method of using SNS to detect SLN has the potential to promote its application. Conclusion: The advantage of this system is the real-time tracing of lymph flow in a one-step procedure. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the system for providing accurate location and reliable treatment for surgeons. Our approach delivers valuable information and facilitates more detailed exploration for image-guided surgery research.

  13. Initial results with preoperative tattooing of biopsied axillary lymph nodes and correlation to sentinel lymph nodes in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Choy, Nicole; Lipson, Jafi; Porter, Catherine; Ozawa, Michael; Kieryn, Anne; Pal, Sunita; Kao, Jennifer; Trinh, Long; Wheeler, Amanda; Ikeda, Debra; Jensen, Kristin; Allison, Kimberly; Wapnir, Irene

    2015-02-01

    Pretreatment evaluation of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) and marking of biopsied nodes in patients with newly diagnosed breast cancer is becoming routine practice. We sought to test tattooing of biopsied ALNs with a sterile black carbon suspension (Spot™). The intraoperative success of identifying tattooed ALNs and their concordance to sentinel nodes was determined. Women with suspicious ALNs and newly diagnosed breast cancer underwent palpation and/or ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration or core needle biopsy, followed by injection of 0.1 to 0.5 ml of Spot™ ink into the cortex of ALNs and adjacent soft tissue. Group I underwent surgery first, and group II underwent neoadjuvant therapy followed by surgery. Identification of black pigment and concordance between sentinel and tattooed nodes was evaluated. Twenty-eight patients were tattooed, 16 in group I and 12 in group II. Seventeen cases had evidence of atypia or metastases, 8 (50 %) in group I and 9 (75 %) in group II. Average number of days from tattooing to surgery was 22.9 (group I) and 130 (group II). Black tattoo ink was visualized intraoperatively in all cases, except one case with microscopic black pigment only. Fourteen group I and 10 group II patients had black pigment on histological examination of ALNs. Sentinel nodes corresponded to tattooed nodes in all except one group I patient with a tattooed non-sentinel node. Tattooed nodes are visible intraoperatively, even months later. This approach obviates the need for additional localization procedures during axillary staging.

  14. Computed tomography and radiographic indirect lymphography for visualization of mammary lymphatic vessels and the sentinel lymph node in normal cats.

    PubMed

    Patsikas, Michail N; Papadopoulou, Paraskevi L; Charitanti, Afroditi; Kazakos, George M; Soultani, Christina B; Tziris, Nikolaos E; Tzegas, Sotirios I; Jakovljevic, Samuel; Savas, Ioannis; Stamoulas, Konstantinos G

    2010-01-01

    The potential of computed tomography indirect lymphography (CT-indirect lymphography) and radiographic indirect lymphography to demonstrate the draining lymphatic vessels and sentinel lymph node of normal mammary glands was tested in 31 healthy female cats. The lymphatic drainage of each mammary gland was studied initially by CT-indirect lymphography after intramammary injection of 0.5 ml of iopamidol, followed by images acquired at 1, 5, 15, and 30 min after injection. One day after CT-indirect lymphography, the lymph drainage of the mammary gland was assessed using radiographic in direct lymphography af terintramammary injection of 0.5 ml of ethiodized oil followed by radiographs made at 1, 5, 15, 30, 45, and 60 min after injection. The time between intramammary injection and opacification of the draining mammary lymphatic vessels and the sentinel lymph node, the duration of adequate opacification of the draining mammary lymphatic vessels and of the sentinel lymph node and also the number and course of draining mammary lymphatic vessels and location of sentinel lymph node were compared for CT-indirect lymphography vs. radiographic indirect lymphography in each examined gland. This results suggest that radiographic indirect lymphography is easy to perform and can be used for accurate demonstration of the draining lymphatic pathways of mammary glands in radiographs made at 5-30 min after injection. However, CT-indirect lymphography was able to better demonstrate small lymphatic vessels and accurately define the exact topography of the sentinel lymph node in images acquired at 1 min after injection.

  15. Sentinel lymph node biopsy of the internal mammary chain in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Postma, E L; van Wieringen, S; Hobbelink, M G; Verkooijen, H M; van den Bongard, H J G D; Borel Rinkes, I H M; Witkamp, A J

    2012-07-01

    Routine removal of the internal mammary chain (IMC) sentinel node in breast cancer patients remains a subject of discussion. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of routinely performed IMC sentinel node biopsy on the systemic and locoregional treatments plan. All patients with biopsy proven breast cancer who underwent a sentinel node procedure between 2002 and 2011 were included in a prospective database. In cases of IMC drainage, successful exploration of the IMC (i.e., sentinel node removed) and surgical complications were registered. If the removed sentinel node contained malignant cells we determined if this altered the treatment plan when practising the current guidelines. In total, 119 of the 493 included patients showed IMC drainage on lymphoscintigraphy. Exploration of the IMC was performed in 107 (89 %) patients; in 86/107 (80 %) exploration was successful. In 14/107 patients (13 %) the IMC sentinel node was tumor positive. Macro and micro metastases were found in eight and six patients, respectively. In the group of patients who underwent surgical exploration of the IMC, systemic treatment was changed in none, radiotherapy treatment in 13/107 patients (11 %). Routine sentinel node biopsy of the IMC does not alter the systemic treatment. Radiotherapy treatment is altered in a small proportion of the patients; however, solid scientific evidence for this adjustment is lacking.

  16. Histopathological mapping of metastatic tumor cells in sentinel lymph nodes of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas.

    PubMed

    Denoth, Seraina; Broglie, Martina A; Haerle, Stephan K; Huber, Gerhard F; Haile, Sarah R; Soltermann, Alex; Jochum, Wolfram; Stoeckli, Sandro J

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a reliable technique for accurate determination of the cervical lymph node status in patients with early oral and oropharyngeal cancer but analyses on the distribution pattern of metastatic spread within sentinel lymph nodes are lacking. The localizations of carcinoma deposits were analyzed with a virtual microscope by creating digital images from the microscopic glass slides. Metastatic deposits were not randomly distributed within sentinel lymph nodes but were predominant in the central planes closer to the lymphatic inlet. Initial evaluation of the 4 most central slices achieved a high rate of 90% for the detection of micrometastases and of 80% for the detection of isolated tumor cells (ITCs). Based on the distribution we recommend an initial cut through the hilus and to proceed with the 4 most central 150-µm slices. Complete step sectioning is only required in case of a so far negative result. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Detection of lymph node metastases in pediatric and adolescent/young adult sarcoma: Sentinel lymph node biopsy versus fludeoxyglucose positron emission tomography imaging-A prospective trial.

    PubMed

    Wagner, Lars M; Kremer, Nathalie; Gelfand, Michael J; Sharp, Susan E; Turpin, Brian K; Nagarajan, Rajaram; Tiao, Gregory M; Pressey, Joseph G; Yin, Julie; Dasgupta, Roshni

    2017-01-01

    Lymph node metastases are an important cause of treatment failure for pediatric and adolescent/young adult (AYA) sarcoma patients. Nodal sampling is recommended for certain sarcoma subtypes that have a predilection for lymphatic spread. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) may improve the diagnostic yield of nodal sampling, particularly when single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT-CT) is used to facilitate anatomic localization. Functional imaging with positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET-CT) is increasingly used for sarcoma staging and is a less invasive alternative to SLNB. To assess the utility of these 2 staging methods, this study prospectively compared SLNB plus SPECT-CT with PET-CT for the identification of nodal metastases in pediatric and AYA patients. Twenty-eight pediatric and AYA sarcoma patients underwent SLNB with SPECT-CT. The histological findings of the excised lymph nodes were then correlated with preoperative PET-CT imaging. A median of 2.4 sentinel nodes were sampled per patient. No wound infections or chronic lymphedema occurred. SLNB identified tumors in 7 of the 28 patients (25%), including 3 patients who had normal PET-CT imaging of the nodal basin. In contrast, PET-CT demonstrated hypermetabolic regional nodes in 14 patients, and this resulted in a positive predictive value of only 29%. The sensitivity and specificity of PET-CT for detecting histologically confirmed nodal metastases were only 57% and 52%, respectively. SLNB can safely guide the rational selection of nodes for biopsy in pediatric and AYA sarcoma patients and can identify therapy-changing nodal disease not appreciated with PET-CT. Cancer 2017;155-160. © 2016 American Cancer Society. © 2016 American Cancer Society.

  18. Morbidity comparison of sentinel lymph node biopsy versus conventional axillary lymph node dissection for breast cancer patients: results of the sentinella-GIVOM Italian randomised clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Del Bianco, P; Zavagno, G; Burelli, P; Scalco, G; Barutta, L; Carraro, P; Pietrarota, P; Meneghini, G; Morbin, T; Tacchetti, G; Pecoraro, P; Belardinelli, V; De Salvo, G L

    2008-05-01

    To compare physical morbidity and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) in breast cancer patients who received standard axillary dissection (ALND) or sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), followed by axillary dissection only in the case of sentinel-node positivity, within a randomised clinical trial. Patients with early breast cancer < or =3cm and clinically negative axilla were randomly allocated to ALND or SLNB. All patients underwent physical examination every 6 months in order to assess any arm-related symptoms. A subset of patients completed the SF-36 quality of life questionnaire and the Psychological General Well Being Index (PGWBI) before randomisation, at 6 and 12 months after surgery and yearly thereafter. Results of the first 24 months are reported. Six-hundred and seventy-seven patients were available for analysis: 341 patients randomised to the ALND group and 336 to the SLNB group. Six months after surgery, the SLNB group had significantly less lymph-oedema, movement restrictions, pain and numbness with respect to the ALND group. Lymph-oedema was also significantly reduced at 12 months and numbness remained significantly less frequent in the SLNB arm at all time points. Three-hundred and ten patients participated in the HRQOL assessment. The mean scores of the PGWB questionnaire general index and anxiety domain were significantly better in the SLNB group than in the ALND group but the difference ceased to be significant at 24 months. The SLNB is associated with reduced arm morbidity without evidence of a negative impact on psychological well being. While waiting for long-term results of ongoing randomised clinical trials, the SLNB may be proposed for early stage breast cancer patients after adequate information on the expected advantages and the possible risks.

  19. DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle positioning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Laporta, Rosaria; Longo, Benedetto; Sorotos, Michail; Pagnoni, Marco; Santanelli Di Pompeo, Fabio

    2015-02-01

    Although clinical examination alone or in combination with other techniques is the only ubiquitous method for flap monitoring, it becomes problematic with buried free-tissue transfer. We present a DIEP flap sentinel skin paddle (SSP) positioning algorithm and its reliability is also investigated using a standardized monitoring protocol. All DIEP flaps were monitored with hand-held Doppler examination and clinical observation beginning immediately after surgery in recovery room and continued postoperatively at the ward. Skin paddle (SP) position was preoperatively drawn following mastectomy type incisions; in skin-sparing mastectomies types I-III a small SP (sSP) replaces nipple-areola complex; in skin-sparing mastectomy type IV, SSP is positioned between wise-pattern branches while in type V between medial/lateral branches. In case of nipple-sparing mastectomy SSP is positioned at inframammary fold or in lateral/medial branches of omega/inverted omega incision if used. Three hundred forty-seven DIEP flap breast reconstructions were reviewed and stratified according to SP type into group A including 216 flaps with large SP and group B including 131 flaps with SSP and sSP. Sixteen flaps (4.6%) were taken back for pedicle compromise, 13 of which were salvaged (81.25%), 11 among 13 from group A and 2 among 3 from group B. There was no statistical difference between the groups concerning microvascular complication rate (P = 0.108), and time until take-back (P = 0.521) and flap salvage rate (P = 0.473) resulted independent of SP type. Our results suggest that early detection of perfusion impairment and successful flaps salvage could be achieved using SSP for buried DIEP flap monitoring, without adjunctive expensive monitoring tests.

  20. Could the immune response in the sentinel lymph nodes of gastric cancer patients be the key to tailored surgery?

    PubMed

    Jagric, Tomaz; Gorenjak, M; Goropevsek, A

    2016-09-01

    Precise detection of downstream, nonsentinel lymph node metastases is the key to implementation of the sentinel lymph node concept in gastric cancer. To overcome the problem of complex lymphatic drainage, micrometastases, and skip metastases, we investigated the feasibility of tumor cell detection in sentinel lymph nodes, using flow cytometry as well as studied immune suppression in the sentinel lymph node as a potential marker of downstream lymph node metastases. In 21 patients with gastric cancer, the sentinel lymph nodes extracted during operation subjected to frozen sections and flow cytometry. The tumor cells were defined with the cell surface markers CEACAM and EpCAM. Simultaneously, the cell densities of different subsets of T cells were determined. The sensitivity and specificity of the determination of nodal status with flow cytometry for tumor cell detection was 100% and 63%, respectively, as seen in frozen sections. Correlations with nonsentinel lymph node metastases were seen for CD127(low)CD25(high) and CD45(neg)CD127(low)CD25(high) cell densities, relative proportion of CD45RA(neg)CD127(low)CD25(high) cells, frozen sections results, lymphangial invasion, and tumor size (P ≤ .043 each). Multivariate analysis identified the relative proportions of CD45RA(neg)CD127(low)CD25(high) cells as the only significant predictor for downstream nonsentinel lymph node metastases (P = .028; 95% confidence interval, 1.107-5.780). The predictive value of combined detection of flow cytometry tumor cells and the relative proportion of CD45RA(neg)CD127(low)CD25(high) cells for nodal stage determination was 91%. Combined detection of tumor cells and CD45RA(neg)CD127(low)CD25(high) cells in sentinel lymph nodes with flow cytometry predicts accurately nonsentinel lymph node metastases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Meta-analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy at the time of prophylactic mastectomy of the breast

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Wen-Bin; Liu, Xiao-An; Dai, Jun-Cheng; Wang, Shui

    2011-01-01

    Background Prophylactic mastectomy is performed to decrease the risk of breast cancer in women at high risk for the disease. The benefit of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) at the time of prophylactic mastectomy is controversial, and we performed a meta-analysis of the reported data to assess that benefit. Methods We searched MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library databases from January 1993 to December 2009 for studies on patients who underwent SLNB at the time of prophylactic mastectomy. Two reviewers independently evaluated all the identified papers, and only retrospective studies were included. We used a mixed-effect model to combine data. Results We included 6 studies in this review, comprising a total study population of 1251 patients who underwent 1343 prophylactic mastectomies. Of these 1343 pooled prophylactic mastectomies, the rate of occult invasive cancer (21 cases) was 1.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.1%–2.5%), and the rate of positive SLNs (23 cases) was 1.9% (95% CI 1.2%–2.6%). In all, 36 cases (2.8%, 95% CI 2.0%–3.8%) led to a significant change in surgical management as a result of SLNB at the time of prophylactic mastectomy. In 17 cases, patients with negative SLNs were found to have invasive cancer at the time of prophylactic mastectomy and avoided axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). In 19 cases, patients with positive SLNBs were found not to have invasive cancer at the time of prophylactic mastectomy and needed a subsequent ALND. Of the 23 cases with positive SLNs, about half the patients had locally advanced disease in the contralateral breast. Conclusion Sentinel lymph node biopsy is not suitable for all patients undergoing prophylactic mastectomy, but it may be suitable for patients with contralateral, locally advanced breast cancer. PMID:21651834

  2. [Application value on localization and evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes in early-stage breast cancer with CT lymphography].

    PubMed

    Wang, P G; Tan, H N; Wang, B; Xiao, H J; Gao, J B

    2017-09-19

    Objective: To explore the clinical value of CT lymphography (CT-LG) on the localization and evaluation of sentinel lymph node (SLN) in patients with early-stage breast cancer. Methods: Thirty-six patients with early-stage breast cancer were enrolled in this study from September 2014 to June 2016 in the First Hospital of Zhengzhou University.The diagnoses were confirmed by puncture or local surgical pathology with negative clinical palpation of axillary lymph nodes, and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was planned.The patients received CT-LG examination.The first one or several lymph nodes along the lymph duct draining from the injection site to axilla was/were defined as SLN(s), and the results were compared with the SLNB.Wilcoxon signed ranks test was used to compare the number of SLN detected by CT-LG and SLNB; according to the pathologic results, Student t test or chi-square test was used to compare the differences of the positive SLNs with negative ones. Results: SLNs were successfully identified in all 36 patients, 32 cases (88.9%) had high-quality images (with both SLN and lymphatic vessel visible); 36 SLNs were located by CT-guided wire with a success rate of 100%.A total of 88 SLNs were identified by CT-LG in 36 patients, and 102 SLNs were obtained by SLNB (Z=-2.646, P=0.008). The long-short diameter ratio (L/S) of SLN obtained by SLNB was significantly smaller than that of CT-LG (1.7±0.3 vs 1.9±0.4, t=2.880, P=0.004). Compared with pathology, CT-LG showed 21 positive SLNs and 67 negative SLNs, and the short diameter of positive SLNs was bigger than that of negative ones[(5.9±2.1) vs (4.8±1.8) mm, t=2.235, P=0.028]. Of 67 negative SLNs, 61(91.04%) appeared homogenously contrast agent filling, and 13(61.90%) of the 21 positive SLNs were found filling defect changes, and the differences in filling defect changes between positive and negative SLNs were statistically significant (χ(2)=26.479, P<0.001). Conclusion: CT-LG can accurately locate the SLN for

  3. Tumor Cell Adhesion As a Risk Factor for Sentinel Lymph Node Metastasis in Primary Cutaneous Melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Meves, Alexander; Nikolova, Ekaterina; Heim, Joel B.; Squirewell, Edwin J.; Cappel, Mark A.; Pittelkow, Mark R.; Otley, Clark C.; Behrendt, Nille; Saunte, Ditte M.; Lock-Andersen, Jorgen; Schenck, Louis A.; Weaver, Amy L.; Suman, Vera J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Less than 20% of patients with melanoma who undergo sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy based on American Society of Clinical Oncology/Society of Surgical Oncology recommendations are SLN positive. We present a multi-institutional study to discover new molecular risk factors associated with SLN positivity in thin and intermediate-thickness melanoma. Patients and Methods Gene clusters with functional roles in melanoma metastasis were discovered by next-generation sequencing and validated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction using a discovery set of 73 benign nevi, 76 primary cutaneous melanoma, and 11 in-transit melanoma metastases. We then used polymerase chain reaction to quantify gene expression in a model development cohort of 360 consecutive thin and intermediate-thickness melanomas and a validation cohort of 146 melanomas. Outcome of interest was SLN biopsy metastasis within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis. Logic and logistic regression analyses were used to develop a model for the likelihood of SLN metastasis from molecular, clinical, and histologic variables. Results ITGB3, LAMB1, PLAT, and TP53 expression were associated with SLN metastasis. The predictive ability of a model that included these molecular variables in combination with clinicopathologic variables (patient age, Breslow depth, and tumor ulceration) was significantly greater than a model that only considered clinicopathologic variables and also performed well in the validation cohort (area under the curve, 0.93; 95% CI, 0.87 to 0.97; false-positive and false-negative rates of 22% and 0%, respectively, using a 10% cutoff for predicted SLN metastasis risk). Conclusion The addition of cell adhesion–linked gene expression variables to clinicopathologic variables improves the identification of patients with SLN metastases within 90 days of melanoma diagnosis. PMID:26150443

  4. Fluorescence-Based Molecular Imaging of Porcine Urinary Bladder Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hak J; Barback, Christopher V; Hoh, Carl K; Qin, Zhengtao; Kader, Kareem; Hall, David J; Vera, David R; Kane, Christopher J

    2017-04-01

    The primary objective was to test the ability of a laparoscopic camera system to detect the fluorescent signal emanating from sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) approximately 2 d after injection and imaging of a positron-emitting molecular imaging agent into the submucosa of the porcine urinary bladder. Methods: Three female pigs underwent a submucosal injection of the bladder with fluorescent-tagged tilmanocept, radiolabeled with both (68)Ga and (99m)Tc. One hour after injection, a pelvic PET/CT scan was acquired for preoperative SLN mapping. Approximately 36 h later, robotic SLN mapping was performed using a fluorescence-capable camera system. After identification of the fluorescent lymph nodes, a pelvic lymph node dissection was completed with robotic assistance. All excised nodal packets (n = 36) were assayed for (99m)Tc activity, which established a lymph node as an SLN. (99m)Tc activity was also used to calculate the amount of dye within each lymph node. Results: All of the SLNs defined by the ex vivo γ-well assay of (99m)Tc activity were detected by fluorescence mode imaging. The time between injection and robotic SLN mapping ranged from 32 to 38 h. A total of 5 fluorescent lymph nodes were detected; 2 pigs had 2 fluorescent lymph nodes and 1 pig exhibited a single lymph node. Four of the 5 SLNs exhibited increased SUVs of 12.4-139.0 obtained from PET/CT. The dye content of the injection sites ranged from 371 to 1,441 pmol, which represented 16.5%-64.1% of the injected dose; the amount of dye within the SLNs ranged from 8.5 to 88 pmol, which was equivalent to 0.38%-3.91% of the administered dose. Conclusion: Fluorescent-labeled (68)Ga-tilmanocept allows for PET imaging and real-time intraoperative detection of SLNs during robotic surgery. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  5. [Diagnostic validity of the intraoperative analysis in frozen section of the sentinel lymph node in the surgical management of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Bañuelos-Andrío, Luis; Rodríguez-Caravaca, Gil; Argüelles-Pintos, Miguel; Mitjavilla-Casanovas, Mercedes

    2014-01-01

    The method for intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) evaluation has still not been established in breast cancer staging. This study has evaluated the diagnostic validity and impact of intraoperative analysis using the frozen section (FS) of SLN. We performed a descriptive study of the diagnostic validity of the FS of the SLN in patients with breast cancer and selective sentinel node biopsy (SSNB) from October-2006 to October-2012. The diagnostic validity indexes were evaluated using sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and global value. Gold standard was considered as the final histopathological results of the biopsies. A total of 370 patients were studied. Sensitivity and specificity for detection of metastasis by FS in the SLN were 67% and 100%, respectively. Global diagnostic validity was 95%. There was a correlation between detection of metastasis and tumor size (p<0.05). Twelve of the 15 patients with SLN micro-metastases underwent axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). Metastatic lymph nodes were not found in any of them. Intraoperative FS examination of the SLN is a useful and reliable predictor of axillary lymph node staging in patients with initial stages of breast cancer. FS reduces the need for second interventions, at least for most patients who have breast cancer with identifiable positive SLN and unequivocal evidence of positive lymph node disease. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier España, S.L. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  6. In vivo carbon nanotube-enhanced non-invasive photoacoustic mapping of the sentinel lymph node

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), has become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have successfully imaged the SLN in vivo by PA imaging (793 nm laser source, 5 MHz ultrasonic detector) with high contrast-to-noise ratio (=89) and good resolution (~500 µm). The SWNTs also show a wideband optical absorption, generating PA signals over an excitation wavelength range of 740-820 nm. Thus, by varying the incident light wavelength to the near infrared region, where biological tissues (hemoglobin, tissue pigments, lipids and water) show low light absorption, the imaging depth is maximized. In the future, functionalization of the SWNTs with targeting groups should allow the molecular imaging of breast cancer.

  7. Sentinel lymph node detection and accuracy in vulvar cancer: Experience of a tertiary center in Turkey

    PubMed Central

    Boran, Nurettin; Cırık, Derya Akdağ; Işıkdoğan, Zuhal; Kır, Metin; Turan, Taner; Tulunay, Gökhan; Köse, Mehmet Faruk

    2013-01-01

    Objective To explore the accuracy of sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection in predicting regional lymph node status by using either only Technetium-99m-labelled (Tc-99m) or in combination with a blue dye in patients with squamous cell cancer of vulva. Material and Methods Twenty-one patients who had T1 (≤2 cm) or T2 (>2cm) tumors that did not encroach into the urethra, vagina or anus were included in the study. For the first twelve patients, Tc-99m was used for SLN identification, and the combined technique was used in subsequent patients. Preoperatively, Tc-99m and a blue dye was injected intradermally around the tumor. Following SLN dissection, complete inguinofemoral lymphadenectomy was performed. Results We could detect SLN in all 21 patients (100%) by either Tc-99m or the combined method. SLN was found to be histopathologically negative in 13 groins via Tc-99m and 10 groins via the combined method. Twenty-one of these 23 (91.3%) groin non-SLN were also negative, but in two groins, we detected metastatic non-SLN. Conclusion Although SLN dissection appears promising in vulvar cancer, false negative cases are reported in the literature. Sentinel lymph node dissection without complete lymphadenectomy does not seem appropriate for routine clinical use, since it is known that groin metastasis is fatal. PMID:24592094

  8. Sentinel lymph nodes with isolated tumour cells and micrometastases in breast cancer: clinical relevance and prognostic significance.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Syed Salahuddin; Thike, Aye Aye; Iqbal, Jabed; Yong, Wei Sean; Tan, Benita; Madhukumar, Preetha; Ong, Kong Wee; Ho, Gay Hui; Wong, Chow Yin; Tan, Puay Hoon

    2014-03-01

    We performed a retrospective review to determine the prognostic significance of isolated tumour cells (ITCs) and micrometastases to the sentinel lymph nodes of patients with breast cancer. A total of 1044 patients with a diagnosis of invasive carcinoma of the breast who underwent surgical treatment including the sentinel lymph node biopsy procedure from July 2004 to October 2009 were included in the study. In 710 (68%) patients, no metastasis was seen to the sentinel lymph nodes. ITCs were detected in 22 (2.1%) patients, micrometastasis in 52 (5.0%) and macrometastases in 260 (24.9%). With a median follow-up of 28.8 months, disease recurrence was seen in 38 (3.6%) patients and 15 (1.5%) patients died of disease. No disease recurrence or deaths were recorded in women with ITCs in sentinel lymph nodes. In the micrometastasis group, 2 patients suffered disease recurrence and both died of disease. We conclude that ITCs in the sentinel lymph nodes did not adversely impact disease free and overall survivals. Although only 2 recurrences with subsequent death occurred in the micrometastasis group, it may suggest a propensity for presence of micrometastases to augur a worse outcome, and justifies continued segregation of ITCs from micrometastasis.

  9. Application of immunohistochemistry for detection of metastases in sentinel lymph nodes of non-advanced breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Nowikiewicz, Tomasz; Śrutek, Ewa; Zegarski, Wojciech

    2015-03-01

    Any diagnostic method for detection of occult metastases in sentinel lymph node (SLN) could change postoperative therapeutic management. In this study, we attempted to evaluate the usefulness of immunohistochemical (IHC) studies for histopathological SLN examination and their impact on the diagnosis of metastatic lesions. Analyzed data concerned 1358 breast cancer patients referred for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) between 2004 and 2012 with particular emphasis on broadening the scope of postoperative SLN histopathological assessment to include IHC. Sentinel lymph node involvement was diagnosed in 22.2% of patients. Use of the IHC method facilitated detection of 21.4% of all diagnosed SLN lesions (9.9% of macrometastases, 60.0% of micrometastases, 100% of isolated tumor cells). 61.6% sensitivity and 100% specificity were obtained in the group of patients who underwent intraoperative SLN histopathological examination. Use of immunohistochemistry for diagnostics of sentinel lymph node metastases in patients with breast cancer enables detection of a greater proportion of metastases, thus modifying both surgical (SLN macrometastases) and adjuvant treatment. As compared to pN0 patients and those with a metastasis found in HE staining, in patients with a metastasis in the sentinel lymph node diagnosed in IHC studies, no statistically significant differences were found concerning the long-term results of the implemented treatment.

  10. Sentinel lymph node detection in gynecologic malignancies by a handheld fluorescence camera

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, Ole; Szyc, Lukasz; Muallem, Mustafa Zelal; Ignat, Iulia; Chekerov, Radoslav; Macdonald, Rainer; Sehouli, Jalid; Braicu, Ioana; Grosenick, Dirk

    2017-02-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) as a tracer is a promising technique for mapping the lymphatic system and for detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) during cancer surgery. In our feasibility study we have investigated the application of a custom-made handheld fluorescence camera system for the detection of lymph nodes in gynecological malignancies. It comprises a low cost CCD camera with enhanced NIR sensitivity and two groups of LEDs emitting at wavelengths of 735 nm and 830 nm for interlaced recording of fluorescence and reflectance images of the tissue, respectively. With the help of our system, surgeons can observe fluorescent tissue structures overlaid onto the anatomical image on a monitor in real-time. We applied the camera system for intraoperative lymphatic mapping in 5 patients with vulvar cancer, 5 patients with ovarian cancer, 3 patients with cervical cancer, and 3 patients with endometrial cancer. ICG was injected at four loci around the primary malignant tumor during surgery. After a residence time of typically 15 min fluorescence images were taken in order to visualize the lymph nodes closest to the carcinomas. In cases with vulvar cancer about half of the lymph nodes detected by routinely performed radioactive SLN mapping have shown fluorescence in vivo as well. In the other types of carcinomas several lymph nodes could be detected by fluorescence during laparotomy. We conclude that our low cost camera system has sufficient sensitivity for lymphatic mapping during surgery.

  11. Evaluation of the Metasin assay for intraoperative assessment of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Smith, G J; Hodges, E; Markham, H; Zhang, S; Cutress, R I

    2017-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the preferred surgical technique for staging the axilla in clinically node-negative breast cancer. Accurate intraoperative staging allows for the immediate performance of an axillary clearance in node-positive patients. We assessed the Metasin assay for the intraoperative analysis of SLNs in a prospective evaluation of 250 consecutive patients undergoing intraoperative SLN analysis at the Breast Unit, University Hospital, Southampton, UK. Metasin uses a quantitative reverse transcription PCR to detect two markers of metastasis: cytokeratin 19 (CK19) an epithelial marker and mammaglobin (MGB) a breast specific marker. Metasin results were compared with the results from routine paraffin block histopathology. Metasin was robust, with a failure rate of <1%, and demonstrated excellent accuracy and reproducibility. The average turnaround time for the Metasin assay was 42 min, the largest variable being the number of nodes assayed. A total of 533 SLNs were evaluated with 75 patients testing positive for MGB and/or CK19. Based on the analysis of individual SLNs, the overall concordance between Metasin and histology was 92.3% (sensitivity 88.7%, specificity 92.9%). When adjusted for tissue allocation bias, the concordance was 93.8% (sensitivity 89.8%, specificity 94.6%). In this evaluation, 57/250 patients (23%) proceeded to axillary clearance based on Metasin results and were considered spared a second operative procedure. Metasin has proven to be an accurate, reproducible and reliable laboratory test. The analysis time is acceptable for intraoperative use, and in comparison to routine histology demonstrates acceptable concordance, sensitivity and specificity. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  12. Sentinel node studies in truncal melanoma: does an increased number of draining basins correlate with an increased risk of lymph metastasis?

    PubMed

    Navalkissoor, S; Bailey, P S J; Quigley, A M; Hall, M; Buscombe, J R

    2012-08-10

    To assess whether an association exists between drainage to multiple basins and lymphatic metastasis in patients with truncal melanoma. We retrospectively reviewed 227 patients with primary malignant melanoma between January 2006 and December 2009. All patients received an intradermal injection of (99m)Tc-nanocolloid and lymphoscintigraphy followed by sentinel node biopsy. Pre-staging histology with Breslow thickness from excision biopsy was also obtained. 82/227 (36%) patients with primary truncal melanoma were identified. Nodal histology was positive for metastatic disease in 27/82 (32.9%) patients. Of these 27, 15 had 1 basin of drainage, 7 had 2 basins of drainage and 5 had 3 basins of drainage. Of the 55 node-negative patients, 35 had 1 basin, 18 had 2 basins and 2 had 3 basins of drainage. We found no significant correlation with sentinel node positivity and those that had ≥2 drainage basins. Breslow thickness was available in 65/82(79.2%) patients. Sentinel node biopsy was positive in 6/28 patients who had <1.5 mm thickness, 8/14 who had a 1.5-3.9 mm thickness and 9/23 who had ≥4 mm thickness. There was a significant correlation between Breslow thickness of ≥4 mm and nodal positivity (P = 0.03). This study demonstrates no association between multiple drainage basins and sentinel node histology. Sentinel lymph node status did correlate with Breslow thickness.

  13. Validation study for the hypothesis of internal mammary sentinel lymph node lymphatic drainage in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Cong, Bin-Bin; Qiu, Peng-Fei; Liu, Yan-Bing; Zhao, Tong; Chen, Peng; Cao, Xiao-Shan; Wang, Chun-Jian; Zhang, Zhao-Peng; Sun, Xiao; Yu, Jin-Ming; Wang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-07-05

    According to axilla sentinel lymph node lymphatic drainage pattern, we hypothesized that internal mammary sentinel lymph node (IM-SLN) receives lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area, but also the entire breast parenchyma. Based on the hypothesis a modified radiotracer injection technique was established and could increase the visualization rate of the IM-SLN significantly. To verify the hypothesis, two kinds of tracers were injected at different sites of breast. The radiotracer was injected with the modified technique, and the fluorescence tracer was injected in the peritumoral intra-parenchyma. The location of IM-SLN was identified by preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe. Then, internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy (IM-SLNB) was performed. The fluorescence status of IM-SLN was identified by the fluorescence imaging system. A total of 216 patients were enrolled from September 2013 to July 2015. The overall visualization rate of IM-SLN was 71.8% (155/216). The success rate of IM-SLNB was 97.3% (145/149). The radiotracer and the fluorescence tracer were identified in the same IM-SLN in 127 cases, the correlation and the agreement is significant (Case-base, rs=0.836, P<0.001; Kappa=0.823, P<0.001). Different tracers injected into the different sites of the intra-parenchyma reached the same IM-SLN, which demonstrates the hypothesis that IM-SLN receives the lymphatic drainage from not only the primary tumor area but also the entire breast parenchyma.

  14. Noninvasive photoacoustic sentinel lymph node mapping using Au nanocages as a lymph node tracer in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Kwang Hyun; Kim, Chulhong; Cobley, Claire M.; Xia, Younan; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has been widely performed and become the standard procedure for axillary staging in breast cancer patients. In current SLNB, identification of SLNs is prerequisite, and blue dye and/or radioactive colloids are clinically used for mapping. However, these methods are still intraoperative, and especially radioactive colloids based method is ionizing. As a result, SLNB is generally associated with ill side effects. In this study, we have proposed near-infrared Au nanocages as a new tracer for noninvasive and nonionizing photoacoustic (PA) SLN mapping in a rat model as a step toward clinical applications. Au nanocages have great features: biocompatibility, easy surface modification for biomarker, a tunable surface plasmon resonance (SPR) which allows for peak absorption to be optimized for the laser being used, and capsule-type drug delivery. Au nanocage-enhanced photoacoustic imaging has the potential to be adjunctive to current invasive SLNB for preoperative axillary staging in breast cancer patients.

  15. Single-sided magnetic particle imaging device for the sentinel lymph node biopsy scenario

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sattel, Timo F.; Erbe, M.; Biederer, S.; Knopp, T.; Finas, D.; Diedrich, K.; Lüdtke-Buzug, K.; Borgert, J.; Buzug, T. M.

    2012-03-01

    Beside the original scanner geometry for Magnetic Particle Imaging (MPI) introduced by Gleich et. al. in 2005,1 alternative scanner geometries have been introduced.2-4 In excess of the opportunities in medical application offered by MPI itself, these new scanner geometries permit additional medical application scenarios. Here, the single-sided scanner geometry is implemented as imaging device for supporting the sentinel lymph node biopsy concept. In this contribution, the medical application is outlined, and the geometry of the scanner device is presented together with first simulation results providing information about the achievable image quality.

  16. Sentinel lymph node detection by an optical method using scattered photons

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Franklin; Ravelo, Rasata; Simon, Hervé; Chabrier, Renée; Steibel, Jérôme; Poulet, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    We present a new near infrared optical probe for the sentinel lymph node detection, based on the recording of scattered photons. A two wavelengths setup was developed to improve the detection threshold of an injected dye: the Patent Blue V dye. The method used consists in modulating each laser diode at a given frequency. A Fast Fourier Transform of the recorded signal separates both components. The signal amplitudes are used to compute relative Patent Blue V concentration. Results on the probe using phantoms model and small animal experimentation exhibit a sensitivity threshold of 3.2 µmol/L, which is thirty fold better than the eye visible threshold. PMID:21258517

  17. [Sentinel lymph node detection in breast cancer. Experience of the Institut Curie].

    PubMed

    Nos, C; Fréneaux, P; Clough, K B

    2000-05-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy is a recently developed, minimally invasive technique for staging the axilla in breast cancer. This new procedure of selective lymphadenectomy has been the subject of several studies, and a consensus of opinion is starting to form to define indications and methods of identification concerning the use of this technique. At the Institut Curie since 1996, we have been using the Patenté blue dye technique and from 1998 we have used the combination of blue dye and technetium labeled sulfur colloid. This article summarizes the principales aspect of this technique.

  18. [Development of technologies for sentinel lymph node biopsy in case of breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Mathelin, C; Piqueras, I; Guyonnet, J-L

    2006-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is now routinely used in breast cancer multidisciplinary management. The combined use of blue dye and lymphoscintigraphy gives the best SLN identification rate. Two different types of probes are available for the SLN procedure: semi-conductor probes and scintillator ones. Moreover, to increase the performances of the SLN procedure, intra-operative gamma cameras have recently been developed. The objectives of our review are to describe these materials to highlight their advantages and drawbacks from the point of view of the surgeon and the physicist.

  19. Sentinel lymph node biopsy using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'.

    PubMed

    Nagao, Tomoya; Kinoshita, Takayuki; Hojo, Takashi; Kurihara, Hiroaki; Tsuda, Hitoshi

    2012-08-01

    This is the study which assessed sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) using indigo carmine blue dye and the validity of the '10% rule' and '4 nodes rule'. Patients (302) were performed SNB using the combined radioisotope (RI)/indigo carmine dye method. Excised SLNs were confirmed whether they were stained and numbered in order of RI count and the percentage of radioactivity as compared to the hottest node was calculated. The relationship between histological diagnosis, dyeing and RI count was assessed. All the patients were detected SLN. Positive nodes were identified in 84 (27.8%) patients and were identified up to the third degree of hottest. All the hottest positive nodes were stained by indigo carmine. From the results, removing the three most radioactive SLNs identified all cases of nodal metastasis without complications. These stopping rules were valid and useful under indigo carmine use too.

  20. Silica-coated gold nanoplates as stable photoacoustic contrast agents for sentinel lymph node imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luke, Geoffrey P.; Bashyam, Ashvin; Homan, Kimberly A.; Makhija, Suraj; Chen, Yun-Sheng; Emelianov, Stanislav Y.

    2013-11-01

    A biopsy of the first lymph node to which a tumor drains—the sentinel lymph node (SLN)—is commonly performed to identify micrometastases. Image guidance of the SLN biopsy procedure has the potential to improve its accuracy and decrease its morbidity. We have developed a new stable contrast agent for photoacoustic image-guided SLN biopsy: silica-coated gold nanoplates (Si-AuNPs). The Si-AuNPs exhibit high photothermal stability when exposed to pulsed and continuous wave laser irradiation. This makes them well suited for in vivo photoacoustic imaging. Furthermore, Si-AuNPs are shown to have low cytotoxicity. We tested the Si-AuNPs for SLN mapping in a mouse model where they exhibited a strong, sustained photoacoustic signal. Real-time ultrasound and photoacoustic imaging revealed that the Si-AuNPs quickly drain to the SLN, gradually spreading throughout a large portion of the node.

  1. Transaxillary breast augmentation: two breast cancer patients with successful sentinel lymph node diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Mottura, A Aldo; Del Castillo, René

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, some surgeons have been warned of possible problems with sentinel lymph node diagnosis (SLND) for patients who have undergone transaxillary breast augmentation (TBA), although no scientific studies support this warning. The authors report two additional cases of breast cancer in which the SLND was successfully performed for patients with previous TBA. The surgical anatomy of the axilla, the groups of lymph nodes, and a personal way of performing TBA are described. Five other reports concerning the same issue are thoroughly discussed. Four of these are clinical in vivo reports, and one is a cadaver study. The four in vivo studies and what we are reporting now clearly demonstrate that what was said regarding possible problems in the SLND after TBA was not founded on clinical research and contradicts these five clinical findings.

  2. Sentinel Lymph Nodes in the Rat: Noninvasive Photoacoustic and US Imaging with a Clinical US System1

    PubMed Central

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Kim, Chulhong; Pramanik, Manojit; Jankovic, Ladislav; Maslov, Konstantin; Guo, Zijian; Margenthaler, Julie A.; Pashley, Michael D.; Wang, Lihong V.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate in vivo sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping by using photoacoustic and ultrasonographic (US) imaging with a modified clinical US imaging system. Materials and Methods: Animal protocols were approved by the Animal Studies Committee. Methylene blue dye accumulation in axillary lymph nodes of seven healthy Sprague-Dawley rats was imaged by using a photoacoustic imaging system adapted from a clinical US imaging system. To investigate clinical translation, the imaging depth was extended up to 2.5 cm by adding chicken or turkey breast on top of the rat skin surface. Three-dimensional photoacoustic images were acquired by mechanically scanning the US transducer and light delivery fiber bundle along the elevational direction. Results: Photoacoustic images of rat SLNs clearly help visualization of methylene blue accumulation, whereas coregistered photoacoustic/US images depict lymph node positions relative to surrounding anatomy. Twenty minutes following methylene blue injection, photoacoustic signals from SLN regions increased nearly 33-fold from baseline signals in preinjection images, and mean contrast between SLNs and background tissue was 76.0 ± 23.7 (standard deviation). Methylene blue accumulation in SLNs was confirmed photoacoustically by using the optical absorption spectrum of the dye. Three-dimensional photoacoustic images demonstrate dynamic accumulation of methylene blue in SLNs after traveling through lymph vessels. Conclusion: In vivo photoacoustic and US mapping of SLNs was successfully demonstrated with a modified clinical US scanner. These results raise confidence that photoacoustic and US imaging can be used clinically for accurate, noninvasive imaging of SLNs for axillary lymph node staging in breast cancer patients. © RSNA, 2010 PMID:20574088

  3. Prediction of Extracapsular Invasion at Metastatic Sentinel Nodes and Non-sentinel Lymph Nodal Metastases by FDG-PET in Cases with Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Takaaki; Yajima, Reina; Tatsuki, Hironori; Kuwano, Hiroyuki

    2016-04-01

    We have previously reported that the presence of an extracapsular invasion (ECI) at sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is a strong predictor of non-SLN metastasis in breast cancer. We hypothesized that(18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake by metastatic SLNs reflects invasive disease, or ECI. In this study, we evaluated the association of FDG uptake with ECI on SLNs and the possibility of FDG-positron-emission tomography (PET) assessment of axillary non-SLN metastases. We retrospectively investigated the cases of 156 consecutive patients with primary breast cancer who underwent SLN biopsy and FDG-PET preoperatively. Among 35 patients (22.4%) in whom the presence of SLN metastases was diagnosed, 10 cases (28.6%) had FDG uptake in the axillary lesion. The sensitivity, specificity, overall accuracy, and false-negative rates in the diagnosis of SLN status by FDG-PET were 28.6%, 99.2%, 83.3%, and 71.4%, respectively. The false-positive rate of FDG-PET evaluation was 0.8%. The 35 cases with lymph node metastases were divided into two groups based on the presence of FDG uptake in the axillary lesions. None of the clinicopathological features of the primary tumor were significantly associated with FDG uptake in the axillary lesion. The present analysis revealed that only tumor size of the metastatic lymph node was significantly associated with FDG uptake in the axillary lesion. The two groups were not significantly different in terms of presence of ECI and non-SLN metastasis. Among the 35 cases with SLN metastases, 13 cases (37.1%) had non-SLN metastasis. Only ECI was a predictor of non-SLN involvement. FDG uptake in the axilla was not associated with non-SLN metastasis in this study. In conclusion, FDG-PET evaluation of lymph nodes is not a sufficient indicator of ECI at SLN metastasis or non-SLN metastasis, suggesting that axillary lymph node dissection cannot be avoided. However, since the positive predictive value for SLN metastasis is high, positive FDG uptake in the axillary

  4. Is Sentinel Lymph Node Dissection Necessary in All Patients with Ductal Carcinoma In Situ Undergoing Total Mastectomy?

    PubMed

    Bonev, Valentina; De Paz Villanueva, Carlos Chavez; Solomon, Naveenraj; Senthil, Maheswari; Reeves, Mark E; Garberoglio, Carlos; Lum, Sharon S

    2016-10-01

    When ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS) is found on core needle biopsy, rates of upgrade to invasive cancer of 25 per cent and nodal positivity of 10 per cent have been reported. Sentinel lymph node dissection (SLND) is recommended when mastectomy is performed for DCIS. We investigated the role of SLND in DCIS patients undergoing partial and total mastectomy (TM). During the study period 2004 to 2013, 170 patients with DCIS were identified with a median age of 60 years (range 26-84 years). Of these, 58.2 per cent had partial mastectomy (PM) alone, 10.6 per cent had PM with SLND, and 31.1 per cent had TM with or without contralateral prophylactic mastectomy with SLND. Overall, SLND identified positive nodes in 4.2 per cent of patients. Upgrade to invasive carcinoma on final breast pathology was found in 8.2 per cent of patients overall, including 4.0 per cent of patients undergoing PM alone, 22.2 per cent undergoing PM with SLND, and 11.3 per cent for TM with SLND (P = 0.8). In this study, patients diagnosed with DCIS on core needle biopsy had lower than expected rates of positive sentinel nodes and upgrade to invasive carcinoma. Surgeons and patients should revisit the necessity of SLND in DCIS patients undergoing mastectomy, which could lead to decreased health expenditure, resources, time, morbidity, and emotional impact on patients.

  5. Factors associated with successful bilateral sentinel lymph node mapping in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Tanner, Edward J; Sinno, Abdulrahman K; Stone, Rebecca L; Levinson, Kimberly L; Long, Kara C; Fader, Amanda N

    2015-09-01

    As our understanding of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping for endometrial cancer (EC) evolves, tailoring the technique to individual patients at high risk for failed mapping may result in a higher rate of successful bilateral mapping (SBM). The study objective is to identify patient, tumor, and surgeon factors associated with successful SBM in patients with EC and complex atypical hyperplasia (CAH). From September 2012 to November 2014, women with EC or CAH underwent SLN mapping via cervical injection followed by robot-assisted total laparoscopic hysterectomy (RA-TLH) at a tertiary care academic center. Completion lymphadenectomy and ultrastaging were performed according to an institutional protocol. Patient demographics, tumor and surgeon/intraoperative variables were prospectively collected and analyzed. Univariate and multivariate analyses were performed evaluating factors known or hypothesized to impact the rate of successful lymphatic mapping. RA-TLH and SLN mapping was performed in 111 women; 93 had EC and 18 had CAH. Eighty women had low grade and 31 had high grade disease. Overall, at least one SLN was identified in 85.6% of patients with SBM in 62.2% of patients. Dye choice (indocyanine green versus isosulfan blue), odds ratio (OR: 4.5), body mass index (OR: 0.95), and clinically enlarged lymph nodes (OR: 0.24) were associated with SBM rate on multivariate analyses. The use of indocyanine green dye was particularly beneficial in patients with a body mass index greater than 30. Injection dye, BMI, and clinically enlarged lymph nodes are important considerations when performing sentinel lymph node mapping for EC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Lessons Learned from the Initial 100 Patient Experience with Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping in the Evaluation of Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Fuhrman, George M.; Burch, Ernest G.; Farr, Gist H.; King, Tari A.; Farkas, Emily; Bolton, John S.

    2000-01-01

    The initial reports of sentinel lymph node mapping for breast cancer currently appearing in the surgical literature are demonstrating the practicality and accuracy of the technique to evaluate patients for axillary nodal disease. We reviewed our initial 100 patient experience with sentinel node mapping to evaluate our ability to employ this technique in breast cancer patients. We combined a peritumoral injection of a radioactive substance and blue dye. Each sentinel node was evaluated with frozen section analysis, hematoxylin and eosin staining, and, if still negative, five re-cuts were taken from deeper levels of the node and evaluated for immunohistochemical evidence of cytokeratin staining. Sentinel node(s) were identified in all but two patients with 51% demonstrating metastasis. We have demonstrated the ability to accurately perform sentinel node mapping in the evaluation of our breast cancer patients. This exciting advance should become a standard part of breast cancer surgery. PMID:21765657

  7. Regional Disease Control in Selected Patients with Sentinel Lymph Node Involvement and Omission of Axillary Lymph Node Dissection.

    PubMed

    Cserni, Gábor; Maráz, Róbert

    2015-09-01

    Whether an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is needed for breast cancer patients with minimal sentinel lymph node (SLN) involvement is arguable despite recent data supporting the omission of axillary clearance in these patients. Data on disease recurrence of 111 patients with SLN involvement and no ALND were analysed. Patients with minimal SLN involvement were assessed for their risk of non-SLN metastasis by means of several nomograms. The series included patients with isolated tumour cells (n = 76), micrmetastasis (n = 33) and macrometastasis (n = 2) who were followed for a median of 37 months (range 12-148 months). Six patients died, 3 of disease and 3 of unrelated causes. Eight further patients had breast cancer related events: 1 local breast recurrence and seven distant metastases. No axillary regional recurrence was detected. Disease related events were not associated with the risk of non-SLN metastasis. The presented data suggest that omitting ALND in patients with low volume SLN metastasis may be a safe procedure, and support the observation that systemic disease recurrence may not be associated with axillary recurrence or the risk of NSLN involvement predicted by nomograms.

  8. Value and efficiency of sentinel lymph node diagnostics in patients with penile carcinoma with palpable inguinal lymph nodes as a new multimodal, minimally invasive approach.

    PubMed

    Lützen, Ulf; Zuhayra, Maaz; Marx, Marlies; Zhao, Yi; Colberg, Christian; Knüpfer, Stephanie; Baumann, René; Kähler, Katharina Charlotte; Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Naumann, Carsten Maik

    2016-12-01

    The international guidelines recommend sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for lymph node staging in penile cancer with non-palpable inguinal lymph nodes (LN) but it is not recommended with palpable inguinal LN. The aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability and morbidity of SLNB in combination with an ultrasound-guided resection of suspect inguinal LNs as a new multimodal, minimally invasive staging approach in these patients. We performed SLNB in 26 penile cancer patients with 42 palpable inguinal LNs. Prior to the combined staging procedures the patients underwent an ultrasound examination of the groins as well as planar lymphatic drainage scintigraphy and SPECT/CT scans. During the surgical procedure, the radioactive-labelled sentinel lymph nodes and, in addition, sonographically suspect LNs, were resected under ultrasound guidance. Follow-up screening was done by ultrasound examination of the groins according to the guidelines of the European Association of Urology. Nineteen groins of 42 preoperatively palpable inguinal findings were histologically tumor-positive. SLNB alone showed lymphogenic metastases in 14 groins. Sonography revealed five further metastatic groins, which would not have been detected during SLNB due to a tumor-related blockage of lymphatic drainage or a so-called re-routing of the tracer. During follow-up, none of the 28 groins with tumor-negative LN status showed any LN recurrence in this combined investigation technique. The median follow-up period was 46 (24 to 92) months. Morbidity of this procedure was low at 4.76 % in relation to the number of groins resp. 7.69 % in relation to the number of patients. The results show that this combined procedure is a reliable multimodal diagnostic approach for treatment of penile cancer patients with palpable inguinal LNs. It is associated with low morbidity rates. SLNB alone would lead to a significantly higher false-negative rate in these patients. The encouraging results of this work can

  9. [Methodological issues of sentinel lymph nodes biopsy in patients with breast cancer].

    PubMed

    Kanaev, S V; Novikov, S N; Krivorot'ko, P V; Semiglazov, V F; Zhukova, L A; Krzhivitskiĭ, P I

    2013-01-01

    Radionuclide imaging of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) was performed in 122 breast cancer patients, which before the biopsy of lymph nodes it was performed intratumoral injection of colloidal radiopharmaceuticals (RFP): in 89 patients--nanocolloidal (NC) and in 33--colloidal with particle size from 200 to 1000 nm. After the introduction of NC the SLN image was obtained in 83 of 89 women. (93.3%). After the introduction of large colloids (200-1000 nm or more) SLN visualization in this group was achieved in 27 of 33 patients, i.e., in 81.8% of cases (p < 0.05). Along with the axillary SLN, in 55.8% of cases SLN image was obtained in parasternal area and/or lymph nodes of the second and higher orders in axillary as well as under-and supraclavicular regions. On the contrary while using larger colloids, RFP accumulated only in SLN of axillary region in 85.1%. These differences in the topography of the absorption of various diameters radiocolloids were reliable (p = 0.01). Using the NC RFN compared with colloidal RFP of larger diameter can reliably improve SLN visualization till 98.9% however leads to a concomitant accumulation of RFP in lymph nodes of the second order in 55.8% of patients.

  10. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer: a technical and clinical appraisal.

    PubMed

    Manca, Gianpiero; Tardelli, Elisa; Rubello, Domenico; Gennaro, Marta; Marzola, Maria Cristona; Cook, Gary J; Volterrani, Duccio

    2016-06-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer diagnosed in women worldwide. Regional lymph node status is one of the strongest predictors of long-term prognosis in primary breast cancer. Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has replaced axillary lymph node dissection as the standard surgical procedure for staging clinically tumor-free regional nodes in patients with early-stage breast cancer. SLNB staging considerably reduces surgical morbidity in terms of shoulder dysfunction and lymphedema, without affecting diagnostic accuracy and prognostic information. Clinicians should not recommend axillary lymph node dissection for women with early-stage breast cancer who have tumor-free findings on SLNB because there is no advantage in terms of overall survival and disease-free survival. Starting from the early 1990s, SLNB has increasingly been used in breast cancer management, but its role is still debated under many clinical circumstances. Moreover, there is still a lack of standardization of the basic technical details of the procedure that is likely to be responsible for the variability found in the false-negative rate of the procedure (5.5-16.7%). In this article, we report the aspects of SLNB that are well established, those that are still debated, and the advancements that have taken place over the last 20 years. We have provided an update on the methodology from both a technical and a clinical point of view in the light of the most recent publications.

  11. A handheld SPIO-based sentinel lymph node mapping device using differential magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waanders, S.; Visscher, M.; Wildeboer, R. R.; Oderkerk, T. O. B.; Krooshoop, H. J. G.; ten Haken, B.

    2016-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become a staple tool in the diagnosis of breast cancer. By replacing the morbidity-plagued axillary node clearance with removing only those nodes most likely to contain metastases, it has greatly improved the quality of life of many breast cancer patients. However, due to the use of ionizing radiation emitted by the technetium-based tracer material, the current sentinel lymph node biopsy has serious drawbacks. Most urgently, the reliance on radioisotopes limits the application of this procedure to small parts of the developed world, and it imposes restrictions on patient planning and hospital logistics. Magnetic alternatives have been tested in recent years, but all have their own drawbacks, mostly related to interference from metallic instruments and electromagnetic noise coming from the human body. In this paper, we demonstrate an alternative approach that utilizes the unique nonlinear magnetic properties of superparamagnetic iron oxide nanoparticles to eliminate the drawbacks of both the traditional gamma-radiation centered approach and the novel magnetic techniques pioneered by others. Contrary to many other nonlinear magnetic approaches however, field amplitudes are limited to 5 mT, which enables handheld operation without additional cooling. We show that excellent mass sensitivity can be obtained without the need for external re-balancing of the probe to negate any influences from the human body. Additionally, we show how this approach can be used to suppress artefacts resulting from the presence of metallic instruments, which are a significant dealbreaker when using conventional magnetometry-based approaches.

  12. Clear cell sarcoma (malignant melanoma of soft parts) and sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Picciotto, Franco; Zaccagna, Alessandro; Derosa, Giovanni; Pisacane, Alberto; Puiatti, Paolo; Colombo, Enrico; Dardano, Fabrizio; Ottinetti, Antonio

    2005-01-01

    Clear cell sarcoma of the tendons and aponeuroses is an aggressive, rare soft tissue tumour that occurs predominantly in the extremities of young adults. Although it appears to be histogenetically related to melanoma, its clinical behaviour resembles soft tissue sarcoma. Prognosis is reported to be poor due to the great propensity of regional and distant metastases. The risk of metastases to regional lymph nodes is very high. We describe a case of clear cell sarcoma of the hand and evaluate the feasibility of the sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) technique in this kind of tumour. Up to now, there are no reports that describe the use of SLNB in clear cell sarcoma. The SLNB technique was carried out with success and the sentinel lymphnode was easily identified. Histological examination of the lymphnode allowed identification of metastatic cells and thus provide for radical lymphadenectomy. We maintain that SLNB can be successfully used for this type of tumour although this result should be evaluated and confirmed by larger case studies.

  13. Improvement of the sentinel lymph node detection rate of cervical sentinel lymph node biopsy using real-time fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green in head and neck skin cancer.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Yasuhiro; Fujisawa, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Maruyama, Hiroshi; Furuta, Jun-ichi; Kawachi, Yasuhiro; Otsuka, Fujio

    2013-06-01

    The standard technique using lymphoscintigraphy, blue dye and a gamma probe has established a reliable method for sentinel node biopsy for skin cancer. However, the detection rate of cervical sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) is generally lower than that of inguinal or axillary SLN because of the complexity of lymphatic drainage in the head and neck region and the "shine-through" phenomenon. Recently, indocyanine green fluorescence imaging has been reported as a new method to detect SLN. We hypothesized that fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green in combination with the standard technique would improve the detection rate of cervical sentinel nodes. We performed cervical sentinel node biopsies using the standard technique in 20 basins of 18 patients (group A) and using fluorescence navigation in combination with the standard technique in 12 basins of 16 patients (group B). The mean number of sentinel nodes was two per basin (range, 1-4) in group A and three per basin (range, 1-5) in group B. The detection rate of sentinel nodes was 83% (29/35) in group A and 95% (36/38) in group B. The false-negative rate was 6% (1/18 patients) in group A and 0% in group B. Fluorescence navigation with indocyanine green may improve the cervical sentinel node detection rate. However, greater collection of data regarding the usefulness of cervical sentinel node biopsy using indocyanine green is necessary.

  14. Total tumor load assessed by one-step nucleic acid amplification assay as an intraoperative predictor for non-sentinel lymph node metastasis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nabais, Celso; Figueiredo, Joana; Lopes, Paulina; Martins, Manuela; Araújo, António

    2017-04-01

    This study aimed to determine the relationship between CK19 mRNA copy number in sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) assessed by one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) technique, and non-sentinel lymph nodes (NSLN) metastization in invasive breast cancer. A model using total tumor load (TTL) obtained by OSNA technique was also constructed to evaluate its predictability. We conducted an observational retrospective study including 598 patients with clinically T1-T3 and node negative invasive breast cancer. Of the 88 patients with positive SLN, 58 patients fulfill the inclusion criteria. In the analyzed group 25.86% had at least one positive NSLN in axillary lymph node dissection. Univariate analysis showed that tumor size, TTL and number of SLN macrometastases were predictive factors for NSLN metastases. In multivariate analysis just the TTL was predictive for positive NSLN (OR 2.67; 95% CI 1.06-6.70; P = 0.036). The ROC curve for the model using TTL alone was obtained and an AUC of 0.805 (95% CI 0.69-0.92) was achieved. For TTL >1.9 × 10(5) copies/μL we got 73.3% sensitivity, 74.4% specificity and 88.9% negative predictive value to predict NSLN metastases. When using OSNA technique to evaluate SLN, NSLN metastases can be predicted intraoperatively. This prediction tool could help in decision for axillary lymph node dissection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Is Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Necessary in Patients Undergoing Prophylactic Mastectomy? A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Nagaraja, Vinayak; Edirimanne, Senarath; Eslick, Guy D

    2016-01-01

    The gain by performing sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) during prophylactic mastectomy (PM) is debatable, and we performed a meta-analysis of existing literature to evaluate that the role of SLNB in subjects undergoing PM. A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google Scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. The search identified 11 relevant articles reporting on patients who underwent SLNB at the time of PM. Data were abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). We included 14 studies comprising of 2,708 prophylactic mastectomies. Among 2,708 prophylactic mastectomies, the frequency of occult invasive cancer (51 cases) was 1.8% and the rate of positive SLNs (33 cases) was 1.2%. In 25 invasive cancers at the time of PM were found to have negative SLNs which avoided axillary lymph node dissection (ALND). In seven cases with positive SLNBs were found not to have invasive cancer at the time of PM and needed a subsequent ALND. Most of the patients with positive SLNs had locally advanced disease in the contralateral breast. SLNB may be suitable for patients with ipsilateral, locally advanced breast cancer and is not recommend for all patients undergoing PM.

  16. Decline in Frozen Section Diagnosis for Axillary Sentinel Lymph Nodes as a Result of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 Trial.

    PubMed

    Bishop, Julie Anne; Sun, Jihong; Ajkay, Nicolas; Sanders, Mary Ann G

    2016-08-01

    -Results of the American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z0011 trial showed that patients with early-stage breast cancer and limited sentinel node metastasis treated with breast conservation and systemic therapy did not benefit from axillary lymph node dissection. Subsequently, most pathology departments have likely seen a decrease in frozen section diagnosis of sentinel lymph nodes. -To determine the effect of the Z0011 trial on pathology practice and to examine the utility of intraoperative sentinel lymph node evaluation for this subset of patients. -Pathology reports from cases of primary breast cancer that met Z0011 clinical criteria and were initially treated with lumpectomy and sentinel lymph node biopsy from 2009 to 2015 were collected. Clinicopathologic data were recorded. -Sentinel lymph node biopsies sent for frozen section diagnosis occurred in 22 of 22 cases (100%) in 2009 and 15 of 22 cases (68%) in 2010 during the pre-Z0011 years, and in 3 of 151 cases (2%) collected in 2011 through 2015, considered to be post-Z0011 years. Of the 151 post-Z0011 cases, 28 (19%) had sentinel lymph nodes with metastasis, and 147 (97%) were spared axillary lymph node dissection. -Following Z0011, intraoperative sentinel lymph node evaluation has significantly decreased at our institution. Prior to surgery, all patients had clinically node-negative disease. After sentinel lymph node evaluation, 97% (147 of 151) of the patients were spared axillary lymph node dissection. Therefore, routine frozen section diagnosis for sentinel lymph node biopsies can be avoided in these patients.

  17. Sentinel Lymph Node Detection Using Carbon Nanoparticles in Patients with Early Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jianping; Zeng, Yi; Chen, Xia; Yan, Jun

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Carbon nanoparticles have a strong affinity for the lymphatic system. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of sentinel lymph node biopsy using carbon nanoparticles in early breast cancer and to optimize the application procedure. Methods Firstly, we performed a pilot study to demonstrate the optimized condition using carbon nanoparticles for sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) detection by investigating 36 clinically node negative breast cancer patients. In subsequent prospective study, 83 patients with clinically node negative breast cancer were included to evaluate SLNs using carbon nanoparticles. Another 83 SLNs were detected by using blue dye. SLNs detection parameters were compared between the methods. All patients irrespective of the SLNs status underwent axillary lymph node dissection for verification of axillary node status after the SLN biopsy. Results In pilot study, a 1 ml carbon nanoparticles suspension used 10–15min before surgery was associated with the best detection rate. In subsequent prospective study, with carbon nanoparticles, the identification rate, accuracy, false negative rate was 100%, 96.4%, 11.1%, respectively. The identification rate and accuracy were 88% and 95.5% with 15.8% of false negative rate using blue dye technique. The use of carbon nanoparticles suspension showed significantly superior results in identification rate (p = 0.001) and reduced false-negative results compared with blue dye technique. Conclusion Our study demonstrated feasibility and accuracy of using carbon nanoparticles for SLNs mapping in breast cancer patients. Carbon nanoparticles are useful in SLNs detection in institutions without access to radioisotope. PMID:26296136

  18. Robotic-assisted fluorescence sentinel lymph node mapping using multimodal image guidance in an animal model.

    PubMed

    Liss, Michael A; Stroup, Sean P; Qin, Zhengtao; Hoh, Carl K; Hall, David J; Vera, David R; Kane, Christopher J

    2014-10-01

    To investigate positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) preoperative imaging and intraoperative detection of a fluorescent-labeled receptor-targeted radiopharmaceutical in a prostate cancer animal model. Three male beagle dogs underwent an intraprostatic injection of fluorescent-tagged tilmanocept, radiolabeled with both gallium Ga-68 and technetium Tc-99m. One hour after injection, a pelvic PET/CT scan was performed for preoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. The definition of SLN was a standardized uptake value that exceeded 5% of the lymph node with the highest standardized uptake value. Thirty-six hours later, we performed robotic-assisted SLN dissection using a fluorescence-capable camera system. Fluorescent lymph nodes were clipped, the abdomen was opened, and the pelvic and retroperitoneal nodes were excised. All excised nodal packets were assayed by in vitro nuclear counting and reported as the percentage of injected dose. Preoperative PET/CT imaging identified a median of 3 SLNs per animal. All SLNs (100%) identified by the PET/CT were fluorescent during robotic-assisted lymph node dissection. Of all fluorescent nodes visualized by the camera system, 9 of 12 nodes (75%) satisfied the 5% rule defined by the PET/CT scan. The 2 lymph nodes that did not qualify accumulated <0.002% of the injected dose. Fluorescent-labeled tilmanocept has optimal logistic properties to obtain preoperative PET/CT and subsequent real-time intraoperative confirmation during robotic-assisted SLN dissection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Supine MRI for regional breast radiotherapy: imaging axillary lymph nodes before and after sentinel-node biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Heijst, Tristan C. F.; Eschbach-Zandbergen, Debora; Hoekstra, Nienke; van Asselen, Bram; Lagendijk, Jan J. W.; Verkooijen, Helena M.; Pijnappel, Ruud M.; de Waard, Stephanie N.; Witkamp, Arjen J.; van Dalen, Thijs; Desirée van den Bongard, H. J. G.; Philippens, Marielle E. P.

    2017-08-01

    Regional radiotherapy (RT) is increasingly used in breast cancer treatment. Conventionally, computed tomography (CT) is performed for RT planning. Lymph node (LN) target levels are delineated according to anatomical boundaries. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) could enable individual LN delineation. The purpose was to evaluate the applicability of MRI for LN detection in supine treatment position, before and after sentinel-node biopsy (SNB). Twenty-three female breast cancer patients (cTis-3N0M0) underwent 1.5 T MRI, before and after SNB, in addition to CT. Endurance for MRI was monitored. Axillary levels were delineated. LNs were identified and delineated on MRI from before and after SNB, and on CT, and compared by Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. LN locations and LN-based volumes were related to axillary delineations and associated volumes. Although postoperative effects were visible, LN numbers on postoperative MRI (median 26 LNs) were highly reproducible compared to preoperative MRI when adding excised sentinel nodes, and higher than on CT (median 11, p  <  0.001). LN-based volumes were considerably smaller than respective axillary levels. Supine MRI of LNs is feasible and reproducible before and after SNB. This may lead to more accurate RT target definition compared to CT, with potentially lower toxicity. With the MRI techniques described here, initiation of novel MRI-guided RT strategies aiming at individual LNs could be possible.

  20. Auxiliary diagnosis of lymph node metastasis in early gastric cancer using quantitative evaluation of sentinel node radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Kamiya, Satoshi; Takeuchi, Hiroya; Nakahara, Tadaki; Niihara, Masahiro; Nakamura, Rieko; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Wada, Norihito; Kawakubo, Hirofumi; Saikawa, Yoshiro; Omori, Tai; Murakami, Koji; Kitagawa, Yuko

    2016-10-01

    Sentinel node (SN) mapping using dye and radioisotope (RI) tracer has been reported to be feasible in cases of early gastric cancer. Because accurate diagnosis of micrometastasis is sometimes difficult in the limited time available during surgery, a faster and simpler method of improving the intraoperative diagnostic precision of lymph node metastasis is needed. The amount of tracer deposited in an SN can be determined from its radioactivity; however, the significance of the RI count has not been fully discussed. We investigated the clinical impact of the RI count when used as an adjunct to conventional lymph node dissection when diagnosing lymphatic metastasis in cases of early gastric cancer. From 2008 to 2009, patients with clinically diagnosed T1N0M0 gastric cancers who underwent gastrectomy and SN mapping were enrolled. SNs were examined by intraoperative and postoperative pathology. The RI count was measured for each SN with a handheld gamma probe; the correlation between nodal metastasis and the RI count was assessed. A total of 308 SNs were harvested from 72 patients. Patients with SN metastasis had significantly higher total RI counts than those without SN metastasis (p = 0.007). Among cases with SN metastasis, RI counts were also significantly elevated in metastasis-positive nodes, stations, and basins. In these cases, the most of SNs having the highest RI count in each case had metastasis including isolated tumor cells. In early gastric cancer patients, a high RI count from an SN was correlated with lymph node metastasis. Therefore, RI counting may aid efficient pathological diagnosis and focused lymph node dissection.

  1. What is the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy for gastric cancer? A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Cardoso, Roberta; Bocicariu, Alina; Dixon, Matthew; Yohanathan, Lavanya; Seevaratnam, Rajini; Helyer, Lucy; Law, Calvin; Coburn, Natalie G

    2012-09-01

    In gastric cancer, the utility of sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy has not been established. SLN may be a good predictor of the pathological status of other lymph nodes and thus the necessity for more extensive surgery or lymph node dissection. We aimed to identify and synthesize findings on the performance of SLN biopsies in gastric cancer. Electronic literature searches were conducted using Medline, EMBASE, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials from 1998 to 2009. Titles and abstracts were independently rated for relevance by a minimum of two reviewers. Techniques, detection rates, accuracy, sensitivity, specificity, and false-negative rates (FNRs) were analyzed. Analysis was performed based on the FNR. Twenty-six articles met our inclusion criteria. SLN detection using the dye method (DM) was reviewed in 18 studies, the radiocolloid method (RM) was used in 12 studies, and both dye and radiocolloid methods (DUAL) were used in 5 studies. The DM had an overall calculated FNR of 34.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 21.2, 48.1). The RM had an overall calculated FNR of 18.5% (95% CI 9.1, 28.0). DUAL had an overall calculated FNR of 13.1% (95% CI -0.9, 27.2). Application of the SLN technique may be practical for early gastric cancer. The use of DUAL for identifying SLN may yield a lower FNR than either method alone, although statistical significance was not met.

  2. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in T1/T2 squamous cell carcinomas of the tongue: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Sagheb, Keyvan; Sagheb, Kawe; Rahimi-Nedjat, Roman; Taylor, Kathy; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Walter, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Commonly used staging procedures often cannot predict the absence of cervical metastases (CM) in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the oral cavity. Due to the high incidence of occult CM in numerous N0 cases in the clinic, an elective neck dissection (ND) is performed. The sentinel lymph node biopsy (SNB) is a common concept in the modern surgical therapy of malignancies. The present study evaluates the applicability of this concept for T1/T2-SCC of the tongue. In a prospective clinical study, 10 consecutive patients with T1/T2-SCC of the tongue and cN0 necks, were enrolled. Following sentinel lymph node (SLN) scintigraphy, all patients underwent SNB with a γ-probe and a subsequent ND. SNB specimens were compared with histopathological assessments of surgical specimens from the ND. A total of 5 female and 5 male patients (mean age, 52 years; women, 62 years; men, 42 years), with a median follow-up time of 33.5 months (range, 10-40 months), were treated. All patients presented with detectable SLNs. In 7 cases, the SLN(s) and the residual ND were negative for CM. In 3 cases, the SLN(s) were positive without further CM in the other neck nodes. Furthermore, 1 patient showed additional CMs after 10 months in the contralateral neck and lung metastasis after 18 months, but none at the time of the initial treatment. The concept of an SNB appears to be applicable to the management of the cN0 neck in small SCC of the tongue. The role of SNB in the management of SCC requires further investigation by prospective trials with larger patient numbers.

  3. Validation of the sentinel lymph node biopsy technique in head and neck cancers of the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Radkani, Pejman; Mesko, Thomas W; Paramo, Juan C

    2013-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to present our experience and validate the use of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in patients with head and neck cancers. A retrospective review of a prospectively collected database of patients with a diagnosis of squamous cell carcinomas of the head and neck from 2008 to 2011 was done. The group consisted of a total of 20 patients. The first node(s) highlighted with blue, or identified as radioactive by Tc99-sulfur radioactive colloid, was (were) identified as the SLNs. In the first seven patients, formal modified neck dissection was performed. In the remaining 13 patients, only a SLN biopsy procedure was done. At least one SLN was identified in all 20 patients (100%). Only one patient (5%) had positive nodes. In this case, the SLN was also positive. In the remaining 19 cases, all lymph nodes were negative. After an average of 24 months of follow-up, there have been three local recurrences (15%) but no evidence of distant metastatic disease. SLN mapping in head and neck cancers is a feasible technique with a high identification rate and a low false-negative rate. Although the detection rate of regional metastatic disease compares favorably with published data as well as the disease-free and overall survival, further studies are warranted before considering this technique to be the "gold standard" in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and a negative neck by clinical examination and imaging studies.

  4. Experimental study of 99mTc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernov, V. I.; Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52-77 nm for 99mTc-Al2O3 and 16.7-24.5 nm for 99mTc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of 99mTc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of 99mTc-Al2O3 in the lymph node was significantly higher than 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that 99mTc-Al2O3 and 99mTc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using 99mTc-Al2O3 inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the 99mTc-Al2O3 accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of 99mTc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose. Plateau of 99mTc-Nanocis accumulation in the lymph node (average 2.05%) occurred after 2 hours of the study and remained almost on the same level (in average 2.3%) for 24 hours. Thus, the experimental study of a new domestic

  5. Experimental study of {sup 99m}Tc-aluminum oxide use for sentinel lymph nodes detection

    SciTech Connect

    Chernov, V. I. Sinilkin, I. G.; Zelchan, R. V.; Medvedeva, A. A.; Lyapunov, A. Yu.; Bragina, O. D.; Varlamova, N. V.; Skuridin, V. S.

    2016-08-02

    The purpose of the study was a comparative research in the possibility of using the radiopharmaceuticals {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for visualizing sentinel lymph nodes. The measurement of the sizes of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis colloidal particles was performed in seven series of radiopharmaceuticals. The pharmacokinetics of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was researched on 50 white male rats. The possibility of the use of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis for lymphoscintigraphy was studied in the experiments on 12 white male rats. The average dynamic diameter of the sol particle was 52–77 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and 16.7–24.5 nm for {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis. Radiopharmaceuticals accumulated in the inguinal lymph node in 1 hour after administration; the average uptake of {sup 99}mTc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} was 8.6% in it, and the accumulation of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis was significantly lower—1.8% (p < 0.05). In all study points the average uptake of {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} in the lymph node was significantly higher than {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis accumulation. The results of dynamic scintigraphic studies in rats showed that {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis actively accumulated into the lymphatic system. By using {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} inguinal lymph node was determined in 5 minutes after injection and clearly visualized in all the animals in the 15th minute, when the accumulation became more than 1% of the administered dose. Further observation indicated that the {sup 99m}Tc-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} accumulation reached a plateau in a lymph node (average 10.5%) during 2-hour study and then its accumulation remained practically at the same level, slightly increasing to 12% in 24 hours. In case of {sup 99m}Tc-Nanocis inguinal lymph node was visualized in all animals for 15 min when it was accumulated on the average 1.03% of the administered dose

  6. Intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast carcinoma by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Tian, P; Zhang, W; Zhao, H; Lei, Y; Cui, L; Zhang, Y; Xu, Z

    2015-10-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a routine surgical staging procedure in clinically lymph node-negative breast cancer. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, a technique based on the biochemical composition of the tissue, has previously been found to be capable of differentiating between normal and malignant tissue. The aim of the present study was to explore the intraoperative use of FTIR spectroscopy for rapidly identifying metastatic SLNs, and distinguishing between metastatic and non-metastatic tissue. Freshly removed SLNs from patients with breast cancer were analysed. Samples were measured by FTIR spectroscopy before histopathological diagnosis. The FTIR spectrum of each sample identified ten bands from 2000 to 900 cm(-1) . The peak position, intensity and full width at half maximum of each absorbent band were measured, and the relative intensity ratios calculated. Canonical discriminant analysis was performed to discriminate between metastatic and non-metastatic samples. A total of 149 SLNs were removed from 49 patients. Histopathological examination confirmed 38 metastatic and 111 non-metastatic SLNs. Eighteen of 29 parameters were significantly different between the metastatic and non-metastatic SLNs. Five parameters were selected as independent factors to form discriminant functions. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of this method were 94·7, 90·1 and 91·3 per cent respectively. The accuracy of histological analysis of frozen sections was 100 per cent. FTIR spectroscopy is a promising technique for the real-time diagnosis of SLN metastasis during breast cancer surgery. Surgical relevance Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is a highly accurate predictor of overall axillary status and has become the standard in disease staging in clinically node-negative breast cancer. A rapid and accurate intraoperative assessment of metastatic spread to the SLN provides the necessary information for the surgeon to proceed with immediate axillary

  7. Primary Tumor-Secreted Lymphangiogenic Factors Induce Pre-Metastatic Lymphvascular Niche Formation at Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Wakisaka, Naohiro; Hasegawa, Yasuhisa; Yoshimoto, Seiichi; Miura, Kouki; Shiotani, Akihiro; Yokoyama, Junkichi; Sugasawa, Masashi; Moriyama-Kita, Makiko; Endo, Kazuhira; Yoshizaki, Tomokazu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The objectives of this study were to evaluate the formation of lymphvascular niches in lymph nodes of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and investigate the roles of lymphangiogenic and angiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-A, VEGF-C, and VEGF-D, expressed in the primary tumors. Materials and Methods Forty-four patients with previously untreated clinically late T2 or T3 OSCC of cN0 were evaluated for primary tumors and 166 sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). Primary tumors were immunohistochemically analyzed for expressions of VEGFs. Densities of lymphatic vessels (LVDpodoplanin) and high endothelial venules (HEVD) in the SLNs were also calculated using antibodies for each marker, podoplanin and MECA-79, respectively. Results In 25 patients, all lymph nodes were metastasis-negative, whereas, in 19 patients, metastasis was positive for at least one lymph node (either at SLN, non-SLN, or nodal recurrence). From the analyses of 140 SLNs without metastasis, LVDpodoplanin in 50 SLNs of metastasis-positive cases was significantly higher than that in 90 SLNs of metastasis-negative cases (p = 0.0025). HEVD was not associated with lymph node metastasis. The patients with VEGF-A-High or VEGF-D-High tumors had significantly higher LVDpodoplanin than patients with their Low counterparts (p = 0.0233 and p = 0.0209, respectively). In cases with lymph node metastasis, the VEGF-D-expression score was significantly higher than in those without lymph node metastasis (p = 0.0006). Conclusions These results suggest that lymph node lymphangiogenesis occurs before metastasis in OSCC. VEGF-A and VEGF-D play critical roles in this process. VEGF-D is a potential predictive marker of positive lymph node metastasis in cN0 patients. PMID:26630663

  8. Is axillary lymph node dissection necessary after sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with mastectomy and pathological N1 breast cancer?

    PubMed

    Fu, Yun; Chung, Debra; Cao, Minh-An; Apple, Sophia; Chang, Helena

    2014-12-01

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial reported that axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) did not change the recurrence and overall survival (OS) rates in patients with lumpectomy and one to two positive nodes detected by sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The aim of this study was to determine whether patients with mastectomy and pathological N1 disease found by SLNB could forego ALND. This is a retrospective study of 214 patients diagnosed with primary invasive breast cancer who were treated by mastectomy and lymph node staging surgery (SLNB or ALND) at the Revlon/UCLA Breast Center between January 2002 and December 2010. Patients with pathological N1 disease were separated by their first nodal surgery into SLNB (subgroups: observation, radiation, and additional ALND with or without radiation) and ALND groups (subgroups: ALND with or without radiation). After a median follow-up of 43.6 months, the OS and systemic relapse-free survival (RFS) rate of the radiation group and additional ALND group were significantly better than the observation group (p = 0.031 and 0.046, respectively). Human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) expression was found to predict OS and patients' age, histological grade and HER2 expression predicted systemic recurrence. Compared with the SLNB group, pain (p = 0.021) and lymphedema (p = 0.043) occurred more frequently in the ALND group. Radiation was as effective as ALND in patients with mastectomy and N1 disease for OS and RFS rates, yet radiation after SLNB had fewer side effects than ALND. SLNB followed by radiation could replace ALND in patients with mastectomy and pathological N1 breast cancer identified by SLNB.

  9. Reliability of dynamic sentinel node biopsy combined with ultrasound-guided removal of sonographically suspicious lymph nodes as a diagnostic approach in patients with penile cancer with palpable inguinal lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Carsten Maik; van der Horst, Sibylle; van der Horst, Christof; Kähler, Katharina Charlotte; Seeger, Markus; Osmonov, Daniar; Lützen, Ulf; Jünemann, Klaus-Peter; Franz Hamann, Moritz

    2015-09-01

    Dynamic sentinel node biopsy (DSNB) is considered "unsuitable" in patients with penile cancer and palpable inguinal lymph nodes. The aim of this study was to determine the diagnostic reliability of DSNB combined with ultrasound (US)-guided removal of additional suspicious lymph nodes as a minimally invasive diagnostic approach in these patients. A total of 23 consecutive patients with penile cancer and unilaterally or bilaterally palpable inguinal lymph nodes underwent DSNB according to the 2-day protocol. Before the combined staging procedure, the patients underwent preoperative US of both groins. During surgery, sentinel nodes and additional suspicious lymph nodes as determined by the US examination were removed under US guidance. A complete inguinal lymph node dissection was only performed in patients who had tumor-positive nodes. Follow-up consisted of control visits according to the European Association of Urology guidelines, including US investigation of the groins. The primary tumors were staged as T1, T2, and T3 carcinomas in 12, 8, and 3 patients, respectively. Grading was good, moderate, and poor in 2, 16, and 4 cases, respectively. Tumor grading could not be determined in 1 patient who underwent surgery of the invasive part of the primary tumor elsewhere. Sentinel nodes or nonsentinel nodes or both were positive in 15 of 36 palpatory-positive groins. DSNB alone showed lymphatic spread in 10 inguinal regions. US-guided removal of suspicious nonsentinel nodes revealed 5 further inguinal basins with metastases, which would have been missed by DSNB owing to rerouting or complete blockage of the lymphotropic tracer. So far, no lymph node relapse has been observed in the 12 patients with node-negative disease by this combined diagnostic approach with a median follow-up of 42 (16-84) months. The morbidity (postoperative bleeding and prolonged lymphorrhea) associated with this procedure was minor (6%). The results of this study imply that DSNB combined with US

  10. Radioguided sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Carcoforo, Paolo

    2016-01-01

    Background The ATA guidelines do not recommend prophylactic central compartment neck dissection in patients with T1–T2 papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) with no clinical evidence of lymph node metastasis, however patients’ staging is recommended. Lymph node metastasis may be present also in small PTC, but preoperative ultrasound identifies suspicious cervical lymphadenopathy in 20–30% of patients. The role of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) remain open to debate. It has been shown that the identification rate of SLN in PTC patients is improved using a radiotracer compared to a dye technique. The aim of this systematic review was to evaluate the role of radioguided SLNB (rSLNB) in the treatment of PTC patients. Methods A systematic search was performed in the PubMed and Embase database to identify all original articles regarding the application of rSLNB in PTC patients. The primary outcome was false negative rate (FNR) of the rSLNB; the secondary outcomes were SLN intraoperative identification rate (IIR), site of lymph node metastasis, and persistent disease during follow up. Results Twelve studies were included. Most of PTC patients were T1–T2. The overall SLN IIR, SLN metastatic rate, and FNR were 92.1%, 33.6%, and 25.4%, respectively. Overall, lymph node metastasis were found in the central compartment (23.0%) and in the lateral compartments (10.6%). The persistent disease in patients who underwent SLNB associated to lymph node dissection (LND) in the same compartment of the SLN regardless of the SLN status was 0.6%. Conclusions In all PTC patients, also in T1–T2 stage, due to the high FNR the SLNB performed alone should be abandoned and converted into a technique to guide the lymphadenectomy in a specific neck compartment (i.e., central or lateral) based on the radioactivity, regardless of the SLN status, for better lymph node staging and selection of patients for postoperative radioiodine ablation. PMID:28149805

  11. Measuring surgeon performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer treatment by cumulative sum analysis.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Lindsey; Donald, James C; Olivotto, Ivo A; Lesperance, Mary; van der Westhuizen, Nick; Rusnak, Conrad; Biberdorf, Darren; Ross, Alison; Hayashi, Allen

    2007-05-01

    This study was performed to determine if surgeons' performance of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) for breast cancer varied with time and to devise a method to continuously evaluate that performance. We retrospectively examined the SLNB experience of 13 community surgeons performing 765 SLNBs and 579 concomitant axillary dissections. False-negative rates (FNRs) were assessed for individuals and cohorts defined by caseload. Performance with time was assessed using cumulative sum (CUSUM) analysis. Overall, the SLN identification rate was 94.3%, and FNR was 5.3%. Each surgeon demonstrated variation in identification rate and/or FNR with time. CUSUM analysis provided an effective means to demonstrate when surgeon variation breached performance standards. Surgeon performance of SLNB varied with time, independent of case load. CUSUM may prove to be a useful statistical tool to evaluate performance before adopting stand-alone SLNB.

  12. Sentinel lymph nodes fluorescence detection and imaging using Patent Blue V bound to human serum albumin

    PubMed Central

    Tellier, Franklin; Steibel, Jérôme; Chabrier, Renée; Blé, François Xavier; Tubaldo, Hervé; Rasata, Ravelo; Chambron, Jacques; Duportail, Guy; Simon, Hervé; Rodier, Jean-François; Poulet, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent Blue V (PBV), a dye used clinically for sentinel lymph node detection, was mixed with human serum albumin (HSA). After binding to HSA, the fluorescence quantum yield increased from 5 × 10−4 to 1.7 × 10−2, which was enough to allow fluorescence detection and imaging of its distribution. A detection threshold, evaluated in scattering test objects, lower than 2.5 nmol × L−1 was obtained, using a single-probe setup with a 5-mW incident light power. The detection sensitivity using a fluorescence imaging device was in the µmol × L−1 range, with a noncooled CCD camera. Preclinical evaluation was performed on a rat model and permitted to observe inflamed nodes on all animals. PMID:23024922

  13. Sentinel lymph nodes fluorescence detection and imaging using Patent Blue V bound to human serum albumin.

    PubMed

    Tellier, Franklin; Steibel, Jérôme; Chabrier, Renée; Blé, François Xavier; Tubaldo, Hervé; Rasata, Ravelo; Chambron, Jacques; Duportail, Guy; Simon, Hervé; Rodier, Jean-François; Poulet, Patrick

    2012-09-01

    Patent Blue V (PBV), a dye used clinically for sentinel lymph node detection, was mixed with human serum albumin (HSA). After binding to HSA, the fluorescence quantum yield increased from 5 × 10(-4) to 1.7 × 10(-2), which was enough to allow fluorescence detection and imaging of its distribution. A detection threshold, evaluated in scattering test objects, lower than 2.5 nmol × L(-1) was obtained, using a single-probe setup with a 5-mW incident light power. The detection sensitivity using a fluorescence imaging device was in the µmol × L(-1) range, with a noncooled CCD camera. Preclinical evaluation was performed on a rat model and permitted to observe inflamed nodes on all animals.

  14. Evidence of Th2 polarization of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Grotz, Travis E; Jakub, James W; Mansfield, Aaron S; Goldenstein, Rachel; Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L; Nevala, Wendy K; Leontovich, Alexey A; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2015-01-01

    Melanoma has a propensity for lymphatogenous metastasis. Improved understanding of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) immunological environment may improve outcomes. The immune phenotype of fresh melanoma SLNs (n = 13) were compared to fresh control lymph nodes (n = 13) using flow cytometry. RNA was isolated from CD4+ T cells of the SLN and control lymph node and assessed for Th1/Th2 gene expression pathways using qRT-PCR. In addition, VEGF expression was compared between primary melanoma (n = 6) and benign nevi (n = 6) using immunohistochemistry. Melanoma SLNs had fewer CD8+ T cells compared to controls (9.2% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.0005). The CD8+ T cells within the SLN appeared to have an exhausted phenotype demonstrated by increased PD-1 mRNA expression (2.2% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.004) and a five-fold increase in CTLA-4 mRNA expression. The SLN also contained an increased number of CD14 (22.7% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.009) and CD68 (9.3% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.001) macrophages, and CD20 B cells (31.1% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.008), suggesting chronic inflammation. RT-PCR demonstrated a significant Th2 bias within the SLN. In vitro studies demonstrated a similar Th2 polarization with VEGF treatment of control lymph nodes. The primary melanoma demonstrated strong VEGF expression and an increase in VEGFR1 within the SLN. Melanoma is associated with Th2-mediated “chronic inflammation,” fewer cytotoxic T cells, and an exhausted T cell phenotype within the SLN combined with VEGF overproduction by the primary melanoma. These immunologic changes precede nodal metastasis and suggests consideration of VEGF inhibitors in future immunotherapy studies. PMID:26405583

  15. Evidence of Th2 polarization of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in melanoma.

    PubMed

    Grotz, Travis E; Jakub, James W; Mansfield, Aaron S; Goldenstein, Rachel; Enninga, Elizabeth Ann L; Nevala, Wendy K; Leontovich, Alexey A; Markovic, Svetomir N

    2015-08-01

    Melanoma has a propensity for lymphatogenous metastasis. Improved understanding of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) immunological environment may improve outcomes. The immune phenotype of fresh melanoma SLNs (n = 13) were compared to fresh control lymph nodes (n = 13) using flow cytometry. RNA was isolated from CD4(+) T cells of the SLN and control lymph node and assessed for Th1/Th2 gene expression pathways using qRT-PCR. In addition, VEGF expression was compared between primary melanoma (n = 6) and benign nevi (n = 6) using immunohistochemistry. Melanoma SLNs had fewer CD8(+) T cells compared to controls (9.2% vs. 19.5%, p = 0.0005). The CD8(+) T cells within the SLN appeared to have an exhausted phenotype demonstrated by increased PD-1 mRNA expression (2.2% vs. 0.8%, p = 0.004) and a five-fold increase in CTLA-4 mRNA expression. The SLN also contained an increased number of CD14 (22.7% vs. 7.7%, p = 0.009) and CD68 (9.3% vs. 2.7%, p = 0.001) macrophages, and CD20 B cells (31.1% vs. 20.7%, p = 0.008), suggesting chronic inflammation. RT-PCR demonstrated a significant Th2 bias within the SLN. In vitro studies demonstrated a similar Th2 polarization with VEGF treatment of control lymph nodes. The primary melanoma demonstrated strong VEGF expression and an increase in VEGFR1 within the SLN. Melanoma is associated with Th2-mediated "chronic inflammation," fewer cytotoxic T cells, and an exhausted T cell phenotype within the SLN combined with VEGF overproduction by the primary melanoma. These immunologic changes precede nodal metastasis and suggests consideration of VEGF inhibitors in future immunotherapy studies.

  16. Meta-analysis of sentinel lymph node biopsy in breast cancer using the magnetic technique.

    PubMed

    Zada, A; Peek, M C L; Ahmed, M; Anninga, B; Baker, R; Kusakabe, M; Sekino, M; Klaase, J M; Ten Haken, B; Douek, M

    2016-10-01

    The standard for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), the dual technique (radiolabelled tracer and blue dye), has several drawbacks. A novel magnetic technique without these drawbacks has been evaluated in a number of clinical trials. It uses a magnetic tracer and a handheld magnetometer to identify and excise sentinel lymph nodes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to assess the performance and utility of the magnetic in comparison to the standard technique. MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and the Cochrane online literature databases were used to identify all original articles evaluating the magnetic technique for SLNB published up to April 2016. Studies were included if they were prospectively conducted clinical trials comparing the magnetic with the standard technique for SLNB in patients with breast cancer. Seven studies were included. The magnetic technique was non-inferior to the standard technique (z = 3·87, P < 0·001), at a 2 per cent non-inferiority margin. The mean identification rates for the standard and magnetic techniques were 96·8 (range 94·2-99·0) and 97·1 (94·4-98·0) per cent respectively (risk difference (RD) 0·00, 95 per cent c.i. -0·01 to 0·01; P = 0·690). The total lymph node retrieval was significantly higher with the magnetic compared with the standard technique: 2113 (1·9 per patient) versus 2000 (1·8 per patient) (RD 0·05, 0·03 to 0·06; P = 0·003). False-negative rates were 10·9 (range 6-22) per cent for the standard technique and 8·4 (2-22) per cent for the magnetic technique (RD 0·03, 0·00 to 0·06; P = 0·551). The mean discordance rate was 3·9 (range 1·7-6·9) per cent. The magnetic technique for SLNB is non-inferior to the standard technique, with a high identification rate but with a significantly higher lymph node retrieval rate. © 2016 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Quantitative assessment of visual estimation of the infrared indocyanine green imaging of lymph nodes retrieved at sentinel node navigation surgery for gastric cancer.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Naoto; Nimura, Hiroshi; Fujita, Tetsuji; Yamashita, Shigeo; Mitsumori, Norio; Yanaga, Katsuhiko

    2016-06-01

    Although the infrared indocyanine green (ICG) imaging is an effective method to identify sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) of gastric cancer, its objectivity has not been verified. We studied 563 lymph nodes under infrared light observation from the ICG-positive lymphatic basins of 36 patients who underwent SLN-navigated gastrectomy for clinically node-negative gastric cancer. First, the rate of SLN detection, the number of SLNs and sensitivities were compared between ordinary light observation and infrared light observation. Second, 563 lymph nodes were grouped into ICG-positive and -negative under infrared light observation. The intensities of the region of interest for each lymph node defined as the lymph node on which digital imaging was performed using an imaging-software, and the region of reference defined as its surrounding background, were compared and quantified. In the comparison of ordinary light observation with infrared light observation, the SLN identification rates were 28/36 (78 %) vs. 36/36 (100 %), the mean ± SD (minimum to maximum) number of SLNs was 3.4 ± 3.7 (0-16) vs. 9.2 ± 5.9 (2-25), and the sensitivities were 1/5 (20 %) vs. 5/5 (100 %). The ICG-positive group contained 358 lymph nodes with an intensity of 0.323 ± 1.56 (mean ± SD), and the ICG-negative group contained 205 lymph nodes with an intensity of 0.639 ± 1.93 (mean ± SD), demonstrating a significant difference between these two groups (P < 0.0001). The significant difference in the intensity as measured by an imaging-software between ICG-positive and ICG-negative lymph nodes would erase the concern about the objectivity of the infrared ICG method for SLN-navigated surgery for early gastric cancer.

  18. Axillary and internal mammary sentinel lymph node biopsy in male breast cancer patients: case series and review.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiaoshan; Wang, Chunjian; Liu, Yanbing; Qiu, Pengfei; Cong, Binbin; Wang, Yongsheng

    2015-01-01

    Male breast cancer (MBC) is considered as a rare disease that accounts for less than 1% of all breast cancers, and its treatment has been based on the evidence available from female breast cancer. Axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is now regarded as the standard of care for both female and male patients without clinical and imaging evidence of axillary lymph node metastases, while internal mammary SLNB has rarely been performed. Internal mammary chain metastasis is an independent prognostic predictor. Internal mammary SLNB should be performed to complete nodal staging and guide adjuvant therapy in MBC patients with preoperative lymphoscintigraphic internal mammary chain drainage. We report both axillary and internal mammary SLNB in two cases with MBC. Internal mammary sentinel lymph node did contain metastasis in one case.

  19. Radiolabeled γ-polyglutamic acid complex as a nano-platform for sentinel lymph node imaging.

    PubMed

    Sano, Kohei; Iwamiya, Yuriko; Kurosaki, Tomoaki; Ogawa, Mikako; Magata, Yasuhiro; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Ohshima, Takashi; Maeda, Minoru; Mukai, Takahiro

    2014-11-28

    We established a ternary anionic complex constructed with polyamidoamine dendrimer (4th generation; G4) modified with chelating agents (diethylenetriamine pentaacetic acid (DTPA) derivative), polyethyleneimine (PEI), and γ-polyglutamic acid (PGA) as a safe nano-platform for molecular imaging. We prepared indium-111-labeled DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA, and evaluated the effectiveness as a nuclear imaging probe for sentinel lymph node (LN), the first LN that drains the primary tumor. (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI with strong cationic charge agglutinated with erythrocytes and showed extremely high cytotoxicity. By contrast, the anionic (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA had little agglutination activity with erythrocytes and no cytotoxicity, indicating their high biocompatibility. (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA was highly taken up by macrophage cells (high populations in LNs) comparable to (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI. The uptake mechanisms of (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA were suggested to be both phagocytosis and γ-PGA-specific pathway. Upon administration of each (111)In-labeled nano-platform into rat footpads intradermally, significantly higher radioactivity of (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA was observed in the first draining popliteal LN when compared with that of (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI. Moreover, (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA clearly visualized the sentinel LN with single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) compared with (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI. Thus, (111)In-DTPA-G4/PEI/γ-PGA can be useful as a nano-platform for molecular imaging including sentinel LN imaging. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Clinical Significance of the Axillary Arch in Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The axillary arch is an anomalous muscle that is not infrequently encountered during axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of breast cancer patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate how often the axillary arch is found during SLNB and whether it affects the intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rate. Methods We retrospectively analyzed the correlation between the presence of the axillary arch and the SLN sampling failure rate during SLNB in 1,069 patients who underwent axillary SLNB for invasive breast cancer. Results Of 1,069 patients who underwent SLNB, 79 patients (7.4%) had the axillary arch present. The SLNB failure rate was high when the patient's body mass index was ≥25 (p=0.026), when a single SLN mapping technique was used (p=0.012), and when the axillary arch was present (p<0.001). These three factors were also found to be statistically significant by multivariate analysis, and of these three factors, presence of the axillary arch most significantly increased the SLNB failure rate (hazard ratio, 10.96; 95% confidence interval, 4.42-27.21; p<0.001). Additionally, if the axillary arch was present, the mean operative time of SLNB was 20.8 minutes, compared to 12.5 minutes when the axillary arch was not present (p<0.001). If the axillary arch was present, the SLN was often located in a high axillary region (67%) rather than in a general low axillary location. Conclusion The axillary arch was found to be a significant factor affecting intraoperative SLN failure rate. It is necessary to keep in mind that carefully checking the high axillar region during SLNB in breast cancer patients with the axillary arch is important for reducing SLN sampling failure. PMID:25320622

  1. Clinical significance of the axillary arch in sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Kil, Won Ho; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin

    2014-09-01

    The axillary arch is an anomalous muscle that is not infrequently encountered during axillary sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) of breast cancer patients. In this study, we aimed to investigate how often the axillary arch is found during SLNB and whether it affects the intraoperative sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rate. We retrospectively analyzed the correlation between the presence of the axillary arch and the SLN sampling failure rate during SLNB in 1,069 patients who underwent axillary SLNB for invasive breast cancer. Of 1,069 patients who underwent SLNB, 79 patients (7.4%) had the axillary arch present. The SLNB failure rate was high when the patient's body mass index was ≥25 (p=0.026), when a single SLN mapping technique was used (p=0.012), and when the axillary arch was present (p<0.001). These three factors were also found to be statistically significant by multivariate analysis, and of these three factors, presence of the axillary arch most significantly increased the SLNB failure rate (hazard ratio, 10.96; 95% confidence interval, 4.42-27.21; p<0.001). Additionally, if the axillary arch was present, the mean operative time of SLNB was 20.8 minutes, compared to 12.5 minutes when the axillary arch was not present (p<0.001). If the axillary arch was present, the SLN was often located in a high axillary region (67%) rather than in a general low axillary location. The axillary arch was found to be a significant factor affecting intraoperative SLN failure rate. It is necessary to keep in mind that carefully checking the high axillar region during SLNB in breast cancer patients with the axillary arch is important for reducing SLN sampling failure.

  2. Practical intraoperative pathologic evaluation of sentinel lymph nodes during sentinel node navigation surgery in gastric cancer patients - Proposal of the pathologic protocol for the upcoming SENORITA trial.

    PubMed

    Park, Ji Yeon; Kook, Myeong-Cherl; Eom, Bang Wool; Yoon, Hong Man; Kim, Soo Jin; Rho, Ji Yoon; Kim, Seok-Ki; Kim, Young-Il; Cho, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jong Yeul; Kim, Chan Gyoo; Choi, Il Ju; Kim, Young-Woo; Ryu, Keun Won

    2016-09-01

    Over the last decade, as the number of patients with early gastric cancer increased and the subsequent survival rate improved, there has been a consistent effort to verify the applicability of the sentinel node concept in gastric cancer in a bid to improve postoperative quality of life in these patients. During sentinel node navigation surgery in gastric cancer patients, intraoperative pathologic examination of the retrieved sentinel nodes plays a critical role in determining the extent of surgery, but the optimal method is still under debate. Currently, a multicenter, phase III clinical trial is underway to compare laparoscopic sentinel basin dissection with stomach preserving surgery and standard laparoscopic gastrectomy in terms of oncologic outcomes in patients with clinical stage T1N0 gastric cancer. Herein, the currently available intraoperative pathologic techniques are reviewed and their clinical significance and applicability are appraised based on the published literature. The proper pathologic examination of the sentinel lymph nodes in an upcoming clinical trial (SENORITA trial) is also proposed here based on this review. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Identification and resection of the clipped node decreases the false negative rate of sentinel lymph node surgery in patients presenting with node positive breast cancer (T0-T4, N1-2) who receive neoadjuvant chemotherapy – results from ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Ballman, Karla V.; Le-Petross, Huong T.; McCall, Linda M.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Feliberti, Eric C.; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2015-01-01

    Background The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 trial reported a false negative rate (FNR) of 12.6% with sentinel lymph node (SLN) surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in women presenting with node-positive breast cancer. One proposed method to decrease the FNR is clip placement in the positive node at initial diagnosis with confirmation of clipped node resection at surgery. Methods Z1071 was a multi-institutional trial in which women with clinical T0-4,N1-2,M0 breast cancer underwent SLN surgery and axillary dissection (ALND) after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. In cases with a clip placed in the node, the clip location at surgery (SLN or ALND) was evaluated. Results A clip was placed at initial node biopsy in 203 patients. In the 170 (83.7%) patients with cN1 disease and at least 2 SLNs resected, clip location was confirmed in 141 cases. In 107 (75.9%) patients where the clipped node was within the SLN specimen, the FNR was 6.8% (CI:1.9–16.5%). In 34 (24.1%) cases where the clipped node was in the ALND specimen, the FNR was 19.0% (CI:5.4–41.9%). In cases without a clip placed (n=355) and those where clipped node location was not confirmed at surgery (n=29), the FNR was 13.4% and 14.3%, respectively. Conclusion Clip placement at diagnosis of node-positive disease with removal of the clipped node during SLN surgery reduces the FNR of SLN surgery after neoadjuvant chemotherapy. Clip placement in the biopsy-proven node at diagnosis and evaluation of resected specimens for the clipped node should be considered when performing SLN surgery in this setting. PMID:26649589

  4. Can We Skip Intraoperative Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes? - Nomogram Predicting Involvement of Three or More Axillary Lymph Nodes Before Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Soo Kyung; Kim, Min Kyoon; Kim, Jongjin; Lee, Eunshin; Yoo, Tae-Kyung; Lee, Han-Byoel; Kang, Young Joon; Kim, Jisun; Moon, Hyeong-Gon; Chang, Jung Min; Cho, Nariya; Moon, Woo Kyung; Park, In Ae; Noh, Dong-Young; Han, Wonshik

    2017-01-25

    The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group (ACOSOG) Z0011 trial reported that complete dissection of axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) may not be warranted in women with clinical T1-T2 tumors and one or two involved ALNs who were undergoing lumpectomy plus radiation followed by systemic therapy. The present study was conducted to identify preoperative imaging predictors of ≥3 ALNs. The training set consisted of 1917 patients with clinical T1-T2 and node negative invasive breast cancer. Factors associated with ≥3 involved ALNs were evaluated by logistic regression analysis. The validation set consisted of 378 independent patients. The nomogram was applied prospectively to 512 patients who met the Z0011 criteria. Of the 1917 patients, 204 (10.6%) had ≥3 positive nodes. Multivariate analysis showed that involvement of ≥3 nodes was significantly associated with ultrasonographic and chest CT findings of suspicious ALNs (p<0.001 each). These two imaging criteria, plus patient age, were used to develop a nomogram calculating the probability of involvement of ≥3 ALNs. The areas under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve of the nomogram were 0.852 (95% confidence interval [CI] 0.820-0.883) for the training set and 0.896 (95% CI: 0.836-0.957) for the validation set. Prospective application of the nomogram showed that 60 (11.7%) of 512 patients had scores above the cut-off. Application of the nomogram reduced operation time and cost, with a very low re-operation rate (1.6%). Patients likely to have ≥3 positive ALNs could be identified by preoperative imaging. The nomogram was helpful in selective intraoperative examination of sentinel lymph nodes.

  5. The effect of radiocolloid preference on major parameters in sentinel lymph node biopsy practice in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Yararbas, Ulkem; Argon, A Murat; Yeniay, Levent; Zengel, Baha; Kapkaç, Murat

    2010-10-01

    The possible effects of radiocolloid preference on sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) were investigated. A total of 200 patients with T1-2N0M0 breast cancer were evaluated. The first 100 patients underwent SLNB using (99m)Tc tin colloid (TC) and the next 100 using (99m)Tc nanocolloid (NC). Radiocolloid was injected intradermally at four quadrants of the periareolar region the day before surgery. All patients underwent lymphoscintigraphy 1 h after injection. All nodes having fourfold activity of the background were harvested using gamma probe. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification rate by gamma probe was 98% in each group. The number of SLNs identified by lymphoscintigraphy, gamma probe and pathological evaluation was 1.39 ± 0.7, 1.70 ± 1.0 and 2.23 ± 1.70 in the TC and 2.03 ± 0.94, 2.60 ± 1.36 and 3.05 ± 1.90 in the NC group, respectively (P<.05). Metastatic SLN was found in 24 (24.4%) of 98 patients in the TC group and 41 (41.8%) of 98 patients in the NC group (P=.04). None of the patients showed dispersion to internal mammarian lymph nodes. Lymphatic vessel visualization was observed in eight (8.1%) of 98 TC patients and in 47 (47.9%) of 98 NC patients (P=.000). SLNs were the only metastatic node(s) in 54.1% of TC and 73.1% of NC patients. The periareolar intradermal injection technique gives a high detection rate in the localization of SLNs independently from the choice of the tracer. Mean SLN numbers and lymphatic vessel visualization frequency were significantly higher using a smaller albumin Tc-99m nanocolloid as compared to a stannous fluoride Tc-99m tin colloid. The results of our study support the idea that the influence of increased number of SLNs on positive SLN frequency is critical. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Sentinel lymph node metastases in cancer: causes, detection and their role in disease progression.

    PubMed

    Nathanson, S D; Shah, R; Rosso, K

    2015-02-01

    Malignant tumors of ectodermal or endodermal origin may metastasize to the sentinel lymph node, the first lymph node encountered by tumor cells that enter lymphatics in the organ of origin. This pathway is enabled by the anatomy of the disease and the causes of metastasis are the result of complex interactions that include mechanical forces within the tumor and host tissues, and molecular factors initiated by tumor cell proliferation, elaboration of cytokines and changes in the tumor microenvironment. Mechanical stresses may influence complex biochemical, genetic and other molecular events and enhance the likelihood of metastasis. This paper summarizes our understanding of interacting molecular, anatomical and mechanical processes which facilitate metastasis to SLNs. Our understanding of these interacting events is based on a combination of clinical and basic science research, in vitro and in vivo, including studies in lymphatic embryology, anatomy, micro-anatomy, pathology, physiology, molecular biology and mechanobiology. The presence of metastatic tumor in the SLN is now more accurately identifiable and, based upon prospective clinical trials, paradigm-changing SLN biopsy has become the standard of clinical practice in breast cancer and melanoma.

  7. Variation of sentinel lymphatic channels (SLCs) and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) assessed by contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Wenbin; Li, Cuiying; Gong, Haiyan; Li, Chunlian; Yang, Nianzhao; Zha, Xiaoming; Chen, Lin; Xia, Tiansong; Liu, Xiaoan; Wang, Minghai; Ding, Qiang

    2017-07-10

    The objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of detecting the variation of sentinel lymphatic channels (SLCs) and sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in breast cancer patients using contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS). A total of 46 breast cancer patients were prospectively recruited in the study. All the participants received intradermal and peritumoral injection of microbubbles as contrast agent, and SLCs and SLNs were assessed preoperatively. Blue dye was injected subareolarly and peritumorally during the surgery. The SLNs detected by CEUS and blue dye were sent to the pathology laboratory for histopathological analysis. At least one SLC and SLN were detected by CEUS in all 46 cases. Three types of SLCs were detected, including superficial sentinel lymphatic channels (SSLCs), penetrating sentinel lymphatic channels (PSLCs), and deep sentinel lymphatic channels (DSLCs). Five lymphatic drainage patterns (LDPs) were found, including SSLC, PSLC, SSLC + PSLC, SSLC + DSLC, and SSLC + PSLC + DSLC. Only SSLC was detected on CEUS in 24 cases; only PSLC was detected in 3 cases; both SSLC and PSLC were detected in 8 cases; both SSLC and DSLC were detected in 7 cases; SSLC, PSLC, and DSLC were all detected in the remaining 4 cases. An actual LDP was defined on the combination of CEUS and dissection of the specimen. The accuracy rate of CEUS was 43/46. Interestingly, a bifurcated SLC was found in 8 patients. In 3 patients, a discontinuous SLC and non-enhanced SLN were found by CEUS. Also, no dyed SLNs were detected during the surgery. The axillary lymph nodes turned out tumor involved histologically. CEUS is feasible to assess the variation of SLCs and SLNs preoperatively in breast cancer patients. SLNB is not suggested when a discontinuous SLC and non-enhanced SLN were detected by CEUS.

  8. [Laparoscopic sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection for clinically localized prostate carcinoma: results obtained in the first 70 patients].

    PubMed

    Rousseau, T; Lacoste, J; Pallardy, A; Campion, L; Bridji, B; Mouaden, A; Testard, A; Aillet, G; Le Coguic, G; Potiron, E; Curtet, C; Kraeber-Bodéré, F; Rousseau, C

    2012-01-01

    The lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in prostatic cancer. The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relevance of the sentinel lymph node biopsy by laparoscopy in staging locoregional patients with clinically localized PC. A transrectal ultrasound-guided injection by 0.3 mL/100 MBq (99m)Tc-sulfur rhenium colloid in each prostatic lobe was performed the day before surgery. The detection was realized intraoperatively with a laparoscopic probe (Clerad(®) Gamma Sup) followed by extensive dissection. Counts of SLN were performed in vivo and confirmed ex vivo. The histological analysis was performed by hematoxyline-phloxine-safran staining and followed by immunochemistry if SLN is free. Seventy patients with carcinoma of the prostate at intermediate or high risk of lymph node metastases were included. The intraoperative detection rate was 68/70 (97%). Fourteen patients had lymph node metastases, six only in SLN. The false negative rate was 2/14 (14%). The internal iliac region was the first metastatic site (40.9%). A metastatic sentinel node in common iliac region beyond the ureteral junction was present in 18.2%. A non-negligible sentinel metastatic region was the common iliac area (18.2%). Limited or standard lymph node dissection would have ignored respectively 72.7% and 59% of lymph node metastases. The laparoscopy is adapted to a broad identification of SLN and targeted dissection of these lymph nodes significantly limited the risk of surgical extended dissection while maintaining the accuracy of the information. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Preoperative Lymphoscintigraphy for Breast Cancer Does Not Improve the Ability to Identify Axillary Sentinel Lymph Nodes

    PubMed Central

    McMasters, Kelly M.; Wong, Sandra L.; Tuttle, Todd M.; Carlson, David J.; Brown, C. Matthew; Dirk Noyes, R.; Glaser, Rebecca L.; Vennekotter, Donald J.; Turk, Peter S.; Tate, Peter S.; Sardi, Armando; Edwards, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the role of preoperative lymphoscintigraphy in sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy for breast cancer. Summary Background Data Numerous studies have demonstrated that SLN biopsy can be used to stage axillary lymph nodes for breast cancer. SLN biopsy is performed using injection of radioactive colloid, blue dye, or both. When radioactive colloid is used, a preoperative lymphoscintigram (nuclear medicine scan) is often obtained to ease SLN identification. Whether a preoperative lymphoscintigram adds diagnostic accuracy to offset the additional time and cost required is not clear. Methods After informed consent was obtained, 805 patients were enrolled in the University of Louisville Breast Cancer Sentinel Lymph Node Study, a multiinstitutional study involving 99 surgeons. Patients with clinical stage T1–2, N0 breast cancer were eligible for the study. All patients underwent SLN biopsy, followed by level I/II axillary dissection. Preoperative lymphoscintigraphy was performed at the discretion of the individual surgeon. Biopsy of nonaxillary SLNs was not required in the protocol. Chi-square analysis and analysis of variance were used for statistical comparison. Results Radioactive colloid injection was performed in 588 patients. In 560, peritumoral injection of isosulfan blue dye was also performed. A preoperative lymphoscintigram was obtained in 348 of the 588 patients (59%). The SLN was identified in 221 of 240 patients (92.1%) who did not undergo a preoperative lymphoscintigram, with a false-negative rate of 1.6%. In the 348 patients who underwent a preoperative lymphoscintigram, the SLN was identified in 310 (89.1%), with a false-negative rate of 8.7%. A mean of 2.2 and 2.0 SLNs per patient were removed in the groups without and with a preoperative lymphoscintigram, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference in the SLN identification rate, false-negative rate, or number of SLNs removed when a preoperative lymphoscintigram was

  10. In vivo photoacoustic (PA) mapping of sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) using carbon nanotubes (CNTs) as a contrast agent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pramanik, Manojit; Song, Kwang Hyun; Swierczewska, Magdalena; Green, Danielle; Sitharaman, Balaji; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), a less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection (ALND), is routinely used in clinic for staging breast cancer. In SLNB, lymphatic mapping with radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or blue dye helps identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN), which is most likely to contain metastatic breast cancer. Even though SLNB, using both methylene blue and radioactive tracers, has a high identification rate, it still relies on an invasive surgical procedure, with associated morbidity. In this study, we have demonstrated a non-invasive single-walled carbon nanotube (SWNT)-enhanced photoacoustic (PA) identification of SLN in a rat model. We have used single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) as a photoacoustic contrast agent to map non-invasively the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in a rat model in vivo. We were able to identify the SLN non-invasively with high contrast to noise ratio (~90) and high resolution (~500 μm). Due to the broad photoacoustic spectrum of these nanotubes in the near infrared wavelength window we could easily choose a suitable light wavelength to maximize the imaging depth. Our results suggest that this technology could be a useful clinical tool, allowing clinicians to identify SLNs non-invasively in vivo. In the future, these contrast agents could be functionalized to do molecular photoacoustic imaging.

  11. A dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system for noninvasive sentinel lymph node detection: preliminary clinical results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erpelding, Todd N.; Garcia-Uribe, Alejandro; Krumholz, Arie; Ke, Haixin; Maslov, Konstantin; Appleton, Catherine; Margenthaler, Julie; Wang, Lihong V.

    2014-03-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) has emerged as an accurate, less invasive alternative to axillary lymph node dissection, and it has rapidly become the standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative breast cancer. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) hypothesis states that the pathological status of the axilla can be accurately predicted by determining the status of the first (i.e., sentinel) lymph nodes that drain from the primary tumor. Physicians use radio-labeled sulfur colloid and/or methylene blue dye to identify the SLN, which is most likely to contain metastatic cancer cells. However, the surgical procedure causes morbidity and associated expenses. To overcome these limitations, we developed a dual-modality photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging system to noninvasively detect SLNs based on the accumulation of methylene blue dye. Ultimately, we aim to guide percutaneous needle biopsies and provide a minimally invasive method for axillary staging of breast cancer. The system consists of a tunable dye laser pumped by a Nd:YAG laser, a commercial ultrasound imaging system (Philips iU22), and a multichannel data acquisition system which displays co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound images in real-time. Our clinical results demonstrate that real-time photoacoustic imaging can provide sensitive and specific detection of methylene blue dye in vivo. While preliminary studies have shown that in vivo detection of SLNs by using co-registered photoacoustic and ultrasound imaging is feasible, further investigation is needed to demonstrate robust SLN detection.

  12. Sentinel node studies in truncal melanoma: does an increased number of draining basins correlate with an increased risk of lymph metastasis?

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, P.S.J.; Quigley, A.M.; Hall, M.; Buscombe, J.R.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: To assess whether an association exists between drainage to multiple basins and lymphatic metastasis in patients with truncal melanoma. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 227 patients with primary malignant melanoma between January 2006 and December 2009. All patients received an intradermal injection of 99mTc-nanocolloid and lymphoscintigraphy followed by sentinel node biopsy. Pre-staging histology with Breslow thickness from excision biopsy was also obtained. Results: 82/227 (36%) patients with primary truncal melanoma were identified. Nodal histology was positive for metastatic disease in 27/82 (32.9%) patients. Of these 27, 15 had 1 basin of drainage, 7 had 2 basins of drainage and 5 had 3 basins of drainage. Of the 55 node-negative patients, 35 had 1 basin, 18 had 2 basins and 2 had 3 basins of drainage. We found no significant correlation with sentinel node positivity and those that had ≥2 drainage basins. Breslow thickness was available in 65/82(79.2%) patients. Sentinel node biopsy was positive in 6/28 patients who had <1.5 mm thickness, 8/14 who had a 1.5–3.9 mm thickness and 9/23 who had ≥4 mm thickness. There was a significant correlation between Breslow thickness of ≥4 mm and nodal positivity (P = 0.03). Conclusion: This study demonstrates no association between multiple drainage basins and sentinel node histology. Sentinel lymph node status did correlate with Breslow thickness. PMID:22935212

  13. Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy and Isolated Tumor Cells in Invasive Lobular Versus Ductal Breast Cancer.

    PubMed

    Truin, Wilfred; Roumen, Rudi M; Siesling, Sabine; van der Heiden-van der Loo, Margriet; Lobbezoo, Dorien J; Tjan-Heijnen, Vivianne C; Voogd, Adri C

    2016-08-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy is the standard of care for axillary staging in invasive breast cancer. The introduction of SLN biopsy with an extensive pathology examination, in addition to the introduction of the 2002 TNM classification, led to different axillary classification outcomes. We evaluated the effect of axillary staging procedures and subsequent axillary nodal status in patients with invasive lobular carcinoma (ILC) versus invasive ductal carcinoma (IDC) from 1998 to 2013. The use of SLN biopsy and the nodal status distribution were analyzed in patients with stage T1-T2 ILC and IDC. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the independent effect of histologic type on the probability of the presence of isolated tumor cells (ITCs), micrometastases, and macrometastases. A total of 89,971 women were diagnosed, 10,146 with ILC (11%) and 79,825 with IDC (89%). The patients who had undergone SLN biopsy were more frequently diagnosed with ITCs than were those who had undergone axillary lymph node dissection only (odds ratio, 8.8; 95% confidence interval, 7.0-11.2). In 2013, the proportion of patients with ITCs in the axillary nodes was 8% in those with ILC and 4.4% in those with IDC. Patients with ILC were significantly more likely to have ITCs in their axillary lymph nodes than were patients with IDC (odds ratio, 1.8; 95% confidence interval, 1.6-2.0). With the introduction of SLN biopsy and the renewed 2002 TNM classification, patients with ILC have been more frequently diagnosed with ITCs than have patients with IDC. The clinical consequence of this finding must be established from further research. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a Macromolecular Dual-Modality MR-Optical Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping

    PubMed Central

    Melancon, Marites P.; Wang, Yuetang; Wen, Xiaoxia; Bankson, James A.; Stephens, L. Clifton; Jasser, Samar; Gelovani, Juri G.; Myers, Jeffrey N.; Li, Chun

    2009-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effectiveness of a dual magnetic resonance-near infrared fluorescence optical imaging agent, poly(L-glutamic acid)-DTPA-Gd-NIR813, for both preoperative and intraoperative visualization and characterization of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) in mice. Materials and Methods Poly(L-glutamic acid) was conjugated with DTPA-Gd and NIR813 dye to obtain PG-DTPA-Gd-NIR813. To confirm drainage into the SLNs, this agent was injected subcutaneously into the front paw of nude mice followed by isosulfan blue (n = 6). Furthermore, PG-DTPA-Gd-NIR813 was injected subcutaneously at doses of 0.002 mmol Gd/kg (4.8 nmol eq. NIR813) and 0.02 mmol Gd/kg (48 nmol eq. NIR813) (n = 3/dose). To differentiate metastatic from non-metastatic lymph nodes, nude mice bearing human oral squamous cell carcinoma (DM14) were injected intralingually with 0.02 mmol Gd/kg PG-DTPA-Gd-NIR813 (n=3). Pre- and post-contrast images were taken using 4.7T Bruker MRI scanner and Xenogen optical imaging system. The status of lymph nodes resected under the guidance of optical imaging was confirmed by histologic examinations. Results PG-DTPA-Gd-NIR813 co-localized with isosulfan blue, indicating drainage to the SLN. After subcutaneous injection, axiliary and branchial lymph nodes were clearly visualized with both T1-weighted MR and optical imaging within 3 min of contrast injection, even at the lowest dose tested (0.002 mmol Gd/kg). After intralingual injection in tumor-bearing mice, MR imaging identified 4 of the 6 superficial cervical lymph nodes, whereas NIRF optical imaging identified all 6 cervical nodes. The pattern of contrast enhancement of SLN visualized in MR images showed a characteristic ring-shaped appearance with a central filling defect, possibly resulting from nodal infiltration of metastatic lesions. Histopathologic examination of the SLNs resected under NIRF imaging guidance revealed micrometastases in all 6 SLNs identified by NIRF imaging. Conclusion The dual modality imaging

  15. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography

    PubMed Central

    SHIMA, HIROAKI; KUTOMI, GORO; SATOMI, FUKINO; MAEDA, HIDEKI; TAKAMARU, TOMOKO; KAMESHIMA, HIDEKAZU; OMURA, TOSEI; MORI, MITSURU; HATAKENAKA, MASAMITSU; HASEGAWA, TADASHI; HIRATA, KOICHI

    2014-01-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes. PMID:25289038

  16. Risk of node metastasis of sentinel lymph nodes detected in level II/III of the axilla by single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Shima, Hiroaki; Kutomi, Goro; Satomi, Fukino; Maeda, Hideki; Takamaru, Tomoko; Kameshima, Hidekazu; Omura, Tosei; Mori, Mitsuru; Hatakenaka, Masamitsu; Hasegawa, Tadashi; Hirata, Koichi

    2014-11-01

    In breast cancer, single-photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) shows the exact anatomical location of sentinel nodes (SN). SPECT/CT mainly exposes axilla and partly exposes atypical sites of extra-axillary lymphatic drainage. The mechanism of how the atypical hot nodes are involved in lymphatic metastasis was retrospectively investigated in the present study, particularly at the level II/III region. SPECT/CT was performed in 92 clinical stage 0-IIA breast cancer patients. Sentinel lymph nodes are depicted as hot nodes in SPECT/CT. Patients were divided into two groups: With or without hot node in level II/III on SPECT/CT. The existence of metastasis in level II/III was investigated and the risk factors were identified. A total of 12 patients were sentinel lymph node biopsy metastasis positive and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) was performed. These patients were divided into two groups: With and without SN in level II/III, and nodes in level II/III were pathologically proven. In 11 of the 92 patients, hot nodes were detected in level II/III. There was a significant difference in node metastasis depending on whether there were hot nodes in level II/III (P=0.0319). Multivariate analysis indicated that the hot nodes in level II/III and lymphatic invasion were independent factors associated with node metastasis. There were 12 SN-positive patients followed by ALND. In four of the 12 patients, hot nodes were observed in level II/III. Two of the four patients with hot nodes depicted by SPECT/CT and metastatic nodes were pathologically evident in the same lesion. Therefore, the present study indicated that the hot node in level II/III as depicted by SPECT/CT may be a risk of SN metastasis, including deeper nodes.

  17. Video-assisted breast surgery and sentinel lymph node biopsy guided by three-dimensional computed tomographic lymphography.

    PubMed

    Yamashita, K; Shimizu, K

    2008-02-01

    Video-assisted breast surgery (VABS) is a less invasive and aesthetically better option for benign and malignant breast diseases and for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The authors have performed 150 VABS procedures since December 2001. They have examined the usefulness of three-dimensional computed tomographic (3D-CT) lymphography for detecting sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) precisely, as well as the cosmetic and treatment results of VABS. In this study, VABS was performed with a 2.5-cm skin incision in the axilla or periareola (1 cm in the axilla for SLNB), using a retraction method, for mammary gland resection, SLNB, axillary lymph node dissection, and breast reconstruction under video assistance. On the day before the surgery, 3D-CT lymphography was performed to mark SLN on the skin. Above the tumor and near the areola, 2 ml of Iopamiron 300 was injected subcutaneously. A 16-channnel multidetector-row helical CT scan image was taken after 1 min and reconstructed to produce a 3D image. Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed by the VABS technique using the Visiport. The VABS procedure was performed for 19 benign and 131 malignant diseases, and 115 SLNBs (74 with 3D-CT) were performed. The SLNs were shown precisely by 3D-CT lymphography, as proved by a case of lymph node metastasis, in which accurate relationships between lymph ducts and SLNs were shown. These were classified into four patterns: a single duct to single node (40 cases), multiple ducts to a single node (13 cases), a single duct to multiple nodes (1 case), and multiple ducts to multiple nodes (12 cases). The SLNB procedure can be performed safely by 3D-CT lymphography and less invasively by VABS. The findings show that 3D-CT lymphography is useful for performing precise SLNB using VABS.

  18. Predictors of non-sentinel lymph node (non-SLN) metastasis in patients with sentinel lymph node (SLN) metastasis in endometrial cancer.

    PubMed

    Touhami, Omar; Trinh, Xuan-Bich; Gregoire, Jean; Sebastianelli, Alexandra; Renaud, Marie-Claude; Grondin, Katherine; Plante, Marie

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the risk of metastasis in the remaining non-SLNs when the SLN is positive and to identify the factors that can predict this risk. We reviewed all patients who underwent primary surgery for endometrial carcinoma with lymphadenectomy and SLN mapping (November 2010-November 2013) in our center. SLNs were ultra-staged on final pathology. A total of 268 patients were included. Overall, 43/268 patients (16%) were found to have SLN metastasis: macro-metastasis in 24 patients, micro-metastasis in 7 and ITC in 12. Non-SLN metastases were found in 15 of the 43 patients (34.8%) with positive SLN. Size of the SLN metastasis was the only factor associated with an increased likelihood of non-SLN metastasis (p=0.005). When the size of the SLN metastasis was ≤2mm, the risk of having another positive lymph node was only 5%, conversely, when the size of the SLN metastasis was >2mm, the risk of having another positive lymph node was 60.8% (p<0.0001). Histologic type, grade, depth of myometrial invasion, LVSI, cervical stromal invasion and CA-125 were not predictive. When the SLN is positive, the risk of metastasis in the remaining non-SLNs was 34.8%. Size of the metastasis within the SLN was the only factor that could predict the risk of non-SLN metastasis; 2mm seems to be the cutoff size below which the risk of non-SLN metastasis is low. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Is blue dye still required during sentinel lymph node biopsy for breast cancer?

    PubMed Central

    Peek, Mirjam CL; Kovacs, Tibor; Baker, Rose; Hamed, Hisham; Kothari, Ash; Douek, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Background In early breast cancer, the optimal technique for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the combined technique (radioisotope and Patent Blue V) which achieves high identification rates. Despite this, many centres have decided to stop using blue dye due to blue-dye-related complications (tattoo, anaphylaxis). We evaluated the SLNB identification rate using the combined technique with and without Patent Blue V and the blue-dye-related complication rates. Methods Clinical and histological data were analysed on patients undergoing SLNB between March 2014 and April 2015. SLNB was performed following standard hospital protocols using the combined technique. Results A total of 208 patients underwent SLNB and 160 patients (342 nodes) with complete operation notes were available for final analysis. The identification rate with the combined technique was 98.8% (n = 158/160), with blue dye alone 92.5% (n = 148/160) and with radioisotope alone 97.5% (n = 156/160). A total of 76.9% (263/342) of nodes were radioactive and blue, 15.5% (53/342) only radioactive and 2.3% (8/342) only blue, 5.3% (18/342) were neither radioactive nor blue. No anaphylactic reactions were reported and blue skin staining was reported in six (3.8%) patients. Conclusion The combined technique should continue be the preferred technique for SLNB and should be standardised. Radioisotope alone (but not blue dye alone) has comparable sentinel node identification rates in experienced hands. National guidelines are required to optimise operative documentation. PMID:27729939

  20. Advantages of one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) whole node assay in sentinel lymph node (SLN) analysis in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Santaballa, Ana; De La Cueva, Helena; Salvador, Carmen; García-Martínez, Ana M; Guarín, María J; Lorente, David; Palomar, Laura; Aznar, Ismael; Dobón, Fernando; Bello, Pilar

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to present our first results of sentinel node analysis (SLN) by one step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) in routine clinical practice in our centre and compare them with the results of classic histopathological analysis in a historical cohort from our same institution. 407 patients (total study population) with early breast cancer and no clinical nodal involvement underwent SLN biopsy in our institution. The SLN was analysed by OSNA in 164 biopsies. OSNA results were compared with the conventional histopathology study of 244 patients who had undergone SLN biopsy previously. The characteristics of the patients in both groups were evaluated and a comparison was made of the rate of metastases detected by both methods and of the surgical procedures needed in each group. We also investigated the state of non-sentinel lymph nodes if micrometastases where found in SLN. SLN biopsy result was considered as positive in 45 patients (28%) in the OSNA group and in 58 in the historical group (24%). There was no difference in the rate of macrometastases (16,5% for OSNA, 20% for HE) but we found differences in the rate of micrometastases (11% for OSNA and 3,6% for HE p = 0.0007). Axillary lymphadenectomy (ALND) was performed in 43/45 cases in the OSNA group and in 51/58 of the historical group. In all patients diagnosed by OSNA, ALND was performed during the initial surgical procedure. In the historical cohort ALND was performed during the initial surgical procedure in 41 patients and in a second surgical procedure in 10 patients. Patients from both groups with micrometastases in the SLN had no metastases in other nodes when the ALND was performed. OSNA analysis allows the detection of SLN metastases as precisely as conventional pathology with an increased detection of micrometastases. The OSNA method can reduce the need of a deferred lymphadenectomy.

  1. Magnetic resonance lymphography of sentinel lymph nodes in patients with breast cancer using superparamagnetic iron oxide: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Shiozawa, Mikio; Kobayashi, Shigeru; Sato, Yugo; Maeshima, Hiroyuki; Hozumi, Yasuo; Lefor, Alan T; Kurihara, Katsumi; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu

    2014-07-01

    The sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy technique using superparamagnetic iron oxide (SPIO) as a tracer instead of radioisotopes has been described. To further advance this technique, we evaluated preoperative SPIO-MR sentinel lymphography to facilitate the accurate identification of the lymphatic pathways and primary SLN. A prospective study was performed in ten patients with breast cancer and clinically negative axillary lymph nodes. None of the patients received preoperative chemotherapy. After 1.6 ml of SPIO (ferucarbotran) was injected in the subareolar breast tissue, sentinel axillary lymph nodes were detected by MRI in T2*-weighted gradient echo images and resected using the serial SPIO-SLN biopsy procedure with a handheld magnetometer. In one patient, gadolinium-enhanced MR imaging was performed at the same time as SPIO-MR lymphography, and this patient was excluded from further analysis. In all patients (9/9) SLNs were detected by SPIO-MR sentinel lymphography and successfully identified at surgery. The number of SLNs detected by lymphography (mean 2.7) significantly correlated with SLNs identified at surgery (mean 2.2). One patient had nodal metastases. In one patient, skin color changed to brown at the injection site and resolved spontaneously. There were no severe reactions to the procedure or complications in any patient. This is the first study to evaluate SPIO both as a contrast material in MR sentinel lymphography and as a tracer in SLN biopsy using an integrated method. The acquired three-dimensional imaging demonstrated excellent image quality and usefulness to identify SLN in conjunction with SLN biopsy.

  2. Ring-shaped light illumination ultrasound-modulated optical tomography and its application for sentinel lymph node mapping ex vivo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Chulhong; Song, Kwang Hyun; Maslov, Konstantin; Wang, Lihong V.

    2009-02-01

    We have succeeded in implementing ring-shaped light illumination ultrasound-modulated optical tomography (UOT) in both transmission and reflection modes. These systems used intense acoustic bursts and a charge-coupled device camera-based speckle contrast detection method. By mounting an ultrasound transducer into an optical condenser, we can combine the illuminating light component with the ultrasound transducer. Thus, the UOT system is more clinically applicable than previous orthogonal mode systems. Furthermore, we have successfully imaged an ex vivo methyleneblue-dyed sentinel lymph node (SLN) embedded deeper than 12 mm, the mean depth of human sentinel lymph nodes, in chicken breast tissue. These UOT systems offer several advantages: noninvasiveness, nonionizing radiation, portability, cost-effectiveness, and possibility of combination with ultrasound pulse-echo imaging and photoacoustic imaging. One potential application of the UOT systems is mapping SLNs in axillary staging for breast cancer patients.

  3. How Long Will I Be Blue? Prolonged Skin Staining Following Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy Using Intradermal Patent Blue Dye

    PubMed Central

    Gumus, Metehan; Gumus, Hatice; Jones, Sue E; Jones, Peter A; Sever, Ali R; Weeks, Jennifer

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Blue dye used for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in breast cancer patients may cause prolonged skin discoloration at the site of injection. The aim of this study was to assess the duration of such skin discoloration. Patients and Methods 236 consecutive patients who had undergone breast conserving surgery and SLNB for breast cancer were reviewed prospectively from January 2007 to December 2009. Results Of the 236 patients, 2 had undergone bilateral surgery, and 41 had been examined in consecutive yearly reviews. Blue discoloration remained visible at the injection site after 12, 24, and > 36 months in 36.5, 23.6, and 8.6% of the patients, respectively. Conclusion The use of patent blue for identification of the sentinel lymph node in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery may result in prolonged discoloration of the skin at the injection site. PMID:24415970

  4. Nine years of experience with the sentinel lymph node biopsy in a single Italian center: a retrospective analysis of 1,050 cases.

    PubMed

    Bernardi, Sergio; Bertozzi, Serena; Londero, Ambrogio P; Giacomuzzi, Francesco; Angione, Vito; Dri, Cinzia; Carbone, Arnalda; Petri, Roberto

    2012-04-01

    This study aims to determine the prevalence and predictive factors for recurrence after sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) and for sentinel lymph node positivity by SLNB in our population. We followed up all SLNBs performed between 2002 and 2010 and analyzed data by R (version2.10.1), considering p < 0.05 significant. Among 1,050 patients with SLNB, 23% (245/1050) underwent secondary axillary dissection (CALND). Axillary recurrence prevalence among patients with negative SLNB was 1% (6/805) at a mean follow-up of 54 months (±14), and 1.7% (95% CI 0.2-3.1%) after 6 years of follow-up, as all recurrences developed between the 3rd and the 6th years of follow-up. By multivariate analysis, axillary recurrence results correlated with large tumor size, high number of excised nodes, lymphovascular invasion, high grading, multifocality, Her-2 positivity, intraductal histology, and comedo-like necrosis. Moreover, SLNB positivity results correlated with young age, large tumor size, high number of excised nodes, negative history for second primary malignancies, lymphovascular invasion, and high grading. Cancer characteristics represent important predictive factors for SLNB positivity, as well as for axillary recurrence in patients with negative SLNB, independently, by surgical and nonsurgical treatment. Therefore, cancer biological behavior and the patient's hormonal profile should be evaluated with care to better tailor the follow-up of women with breast cancer.

  5. Management of non-visualization following dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy for squamous cell carcinoma of the penis.

    PubMed

    Sahdev, Varun; Albersen, Maarten; Christodoulidou, Michelle; Parnham, Arie; Malone, Peter; Nigam, Raj; Bomanji, Jamshed; Muneer, Asif

    2017-04-01

    To review the management and clinical outcomes of uni- or bilateral non-visualization of inguinal lymph nodes during dynamic sentinel lymph node biopsy (DSNB) in patients diagnosed with penile cancer and clinically impalpable inguinal lymph nodes (cN0), and to develop an algorithm for the management of patients in which non-visualization occurs. This is a retrospective observational study over a period of 4 years, comprising 166 patients with penile squamous cell carcinoma undergoing DSNB and followed up for a minimum of 6 months. All cases diagnosed with uni- or bilateral non-visualization of sentinel nodes in this cohort were identified from a penile cancer database. The management of the inguinal lymph nodes after non-visualization and the oncological outcomes including local and regional recurrence rates were documented. Out of 166 consecutive patients undergoing DSNB, 20 patients (12%) had unilateral non-visualization after injection of intradermal (99m) Tc. Of these 20 patients, seven underwent repeat DSNB at a later date, with six having successful visualization. One patient had persistent non-visualization and proceeded to a superficial modified inguinal lymphadenectomy (SML). None of these patients experienced recurrence at follow-up. A further seven patients underwent modified SML with on-table frozen-section analysis of the lymph node packet; none of these patients were found to have micrometastatic disease in the inguinal lymph nodes, although one patient developed metastatic inguinal node disease at a later date. Six patients elected to undergo clinical surveillance and have remained disease-free. Patients with impalpable inguinal lymph nodes undergoing DSNB with ≥G2 T1 disease should ideally have bilateral visualization of the sentinel lymph nodes, reflecting the drainage pattern from the primary tumour. In the present series, 12% of patients were found to have unilateral non-visualization after DSNB. Among patients offered a repeat DSNB at a later

  6. Local recurrence and assessment of sentinel lymph node biopsy in deep soft tissue leiomyosarcoma of the extremities

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Leiomyosarcoma of deep soft tissues of the extremities is a rare malignant tumour treated primarily by surgery. The incidence of local recurrence and lymph node metastasis is uncertain and it is not known whether a sentinel lymph node biopsy is indicated in these tumours. Methods A retrospective review of patients treated for extremity deep soft tissue leiomyosarcoma at our institution over a 10-year period was conducted. Patients developing local recurrence or lymph node metastasis were identified. The presence or absence of lymphatics in the primary tumours was assessed by immunohistochemical expression of LYVE-1 and podoplanin. Results 27 patients (mean age 62 years) were included in the study. 15 were female and 12 male. Lymph node metastasis was seen in only two cases (7%); intratumoural lymphatics were identified in the primary tumours of both these cases. Local recurrence occurred in 25.9% of cases despite complete excision and post-operative radiotherapy; the mean time to recurrence was 10.1 months. Conclusion On the basis of this study, we do not advocate sentinel lymph node biopsy in this group of patients except in those cases in which intratumoural lymphatics can be demonstrated. Close follow up is important especially for high grade leiomyosarcomas, particularly in the first year, as these tumours have a high incidence of local recurrence. PMID:22612847

  7. The added value of a portable gamma camera for intraoperative detection of sentinel lymph node in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A case report.

    PubMed

    Mayoral, M; Paredes, P; Sieira, R; Vidal-Sicart, S; Marti, C; Pons, F

    2014-01-01

    The use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is still subject to debate although some studies have reported its feasibility. The main reason for this debate is probably due to the high false-negative rate for floor-of-mouth tumors per se. We report the case of a 54-year-old man with a T1N0 floor-of-mouth squamous cell carcinoma who underwent the sentinel lymph node procedure. Lymphoscintigraphy and SPECT/CT imaging were performed for lymphatic mapping with a conventional gamma camera. Sentinel lymph nodes were identified at right Ib, left IIa and Ia levels. However, these sentinel lymph nodes were difficult to detect intraoperatively with a gamma probe owing to the activity originating from the injection site. The use of a portable gamma camera made it possible to localize and excise all the sentinel lymph nodes. This case demonstrates the usefulness of this tool to improve sentinel lymph node detecting in floor-of-mouth tumors, especially those close to the injection area.

  8. Selective sentinel lymph node biopsy after neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer: results of the GEICAM 2005-07 study.

    PubMed

    Piñero-Madrona, Antonio; Escudero-Barea, María J; Fernández-Robayna, Francisco; Alberro-Adúriz, José A; García-Fernández, Antonio; Vicente-García, Francisco; Dueñas-Rodriguez, Basilio; Lorenzo-Campos, Miguel; Caparrós, Xavier; Cansado-Martínez, María P; Ramos-Boyero, Manuel; Rojo-Blanco, Roberto; Serra-Genís, Constantí

    2015-01-01

    A controversial aspect of breast cancer management is the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in patients requiring neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NCT). This paper discusses the detection rate (DT) and false negatives (FN) of SLNB after NCT to investigate the influence of initial nodal disease and the protocols applied. Prospective observational multicenter study in women with breast cancer, treated with NCT and SLNB post-NCT with subsequent lymphadenectomy. DT and FN rates were calculated, both overall and depending on the initial nodal status or the use of diagnostic protocols pre-SLNB. No differences in DT between initial node-negative cases and positive cases were found (89.8 vs. 84.4%, P=.437). Significant differences were found (94.1 vs. 56.5%, P=0,002) in the negative predictive value, which was lower when there was initial lymph node positivity, and a higher rate of FN, not significant (18.2 vs. 43.5%, P=.252) in the same cases. The axillary study before SLNB and after the NCT, significantly decreased the rate of FN in patients with initial involvement (55.6 vs 12.5, P=0,009). NCT means less DT and a higher rate of FN in subsequent SLNB, especially if there is initial nodal involvement. The use of protocols in axillary evaluation after administering the NCT and before BSGC, decreases the FN rate in these patients. Copyright © 2013 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  9. Intraoperative diagnosis of sentinel lymph node metastases in breast cancer treatment with one-step nucleic acid amplification assay (OSNA)

    PubMed Central

    Szychta, Paweł; Westfal, Bogusław; Maciejczyk, Rafał; Smolarz, Beata; Romanowicz, Hanna; Krawczyk, Tomasz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The aim of the study was to evaluate the clinical usefulness of a one-step nucleic acid amplification assay (OSNA) for intraoperative detection of metastases to sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) in comparison to examination of frozen sections, and to summarize the results of previous studies. Material and methods We enrolled 98 patients aged 58.13 ±10.74 years treated surgically for breast cancer, and 99 biopsies of SLNs were followed by analysis of 105 SLNs. The central 1 mm slice of SLN was used for examination of frozen sections, whereas 2 outer slices of SLNs were analyzed intraoperatively with OSNA. Detection of isolated tumor cells (ITC), micrometastases or macrometastases with OSNA extended surgery to axillary lymph node dissection. Congruency of results was assessed between OSNA and examination of frozen sections. Results One-step nucleic acid amplification assay detected metastases in 29/105 SLNs in surgery of 27/99 breasts, including ITC in 3/29 SLNs, micrometastases in 12/29 and macrometastases in 14/29. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay detected significantly more metastases to SLNs than examination of frozen sections (p < 0.0001). All 8 inconsistent results were positive in OSNA and negative in examination of frozen sections; ITC were identified in 2/8 SLNs and micrometastases in 6/8 SLNs. Sensitivity for OSNA was calculated as 100%, specificity as 90.47%, and κ was 79.16%. Conclusions One-step nucleic acid amplification assay analysis allows rapid and quantitative detection of mRNA CK19 with high specificity and a low rate of false positives. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay is a reliable tool for intraoperative diagnosis of whole SLNs during surgery of breast cancer. One-step nucleic acid amplification assay minimizes the need for secondary surgery and avoids delays in the adjuvant treatment. PMID:27904514

  10. Comparison of three magnetic nanoparticle tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy in an in vivo porcine model

    PubMed Central

    Pouw, Joost J; Ahmed, Muneer; Anninga, Bauke; Schuurman, Kimberley; Pinder, Sarah E; Van Hemelrijck, Mieke; Pankhurst, Quentin A; Douek, Michael; ten Haken, Bennie

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Breast cancer staging with sentinel lymph node biopsy relies on the use of radioisotopes, which limits the availability of the procedure worldwide. The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and a handheld magnetometer provides a radiation-free alternative, which was recently evaluated in two clinical trials. The hydrodynamic particle size of the used magnetic tracer differs substantially from the radioisotope tracer and could therefore benefit from optimization. The aim of this study was to assess the performance of three different-sized magnetic nanoparticle tracers for sentinel lymph node biopsy within an in vivo porcine model. Materials and methods Sentinel lymph node biopsy was performed within a validated porcine model using three magnetic nanoparticle tracers, approved for use in humans (ferumoxytol, with hydrodynamic diameter dH =32 nm; Sienna+®, dH =59 nm; and ferumoxide, dH =111 nm), and a handheld magnetometer. Magnetometer counts (transcutaneous and ex vivo), iron quantification (vibrating sample magnetometry), and histopathological assessments were performed on all ex vivo nodes. Results Transcutaneous “hotspots” were present in 12/12 cases within 30 minutes of injection for the 59 nm tracer, compared to 7/12 for the 32 nm tracer and 8/12 for the 111 nm tracer, at the same time point. Ex vivo magnetometer counts were significantly greater for the 59 nm tracer than for the other tracers. Significantly more nodes per basin were excised for the 32 nm tracer compared to other tracers, indicating poor retention of the 32 nm tracer. Using the 59 nm tracer resulted in a significantly higher iron accumulation compared to the 32 nm tracer. Conclusion The 59 nm tracer demonstrated rapid lymphatic uptake, retention in the first nodes reached, and accumulation in high concentration, making it the most suitable tracer for intraoperative sentinel lymph node localization. PMID:25709445

  11. Sentinel-lymph-node resection compared with conventional axillary-lymph-node dissection in clinically node-negative patients with breast cancer: overall survival findings from the NSABP B-32 randomised phase 3 trial

    PubMed Central

    Krag, David N.; Anderson, Stewart J.; Julian, Thomas B.; Brown, Ann M.; Harlow, Seth P.; Costantino, Joseph P.; Ashikaga, Takamaru; Weaver, Donald L.; Mamounas, Eleftherios P.; Jalovec, Lynne M.; Frazier, Thomas G.; Noyes, R. Dirk; Robidoux, André; Scarth, Hugh M.C.; Wolmark, Norman

    2010-01-01

    Summary Background Sentinel node surgery was designed to minimize side effects of lymph node surgery but still offer outcomes equivalent to axillary dissection. The aims of NSABP Protocol B-32 were to determine whether sentinel node resection in breast cancer patients achieves the same survival and regional control as axillary dissection but with fewer side effects. Methods 5611 women with invasive breast cancer were randomly assigned to sentinel node resection plus axillary dissection (Group 1) or to sentinel node resection alone with axillary dissection only if sentinel nodes were positive (Group 2). Random assignment was done at the NSABP Biostatistical Center and accomplished via using a biased coin minimization approach. Stratification variables were age at entry (≤ 49,≥ 50), clinical tumor size (≤ 2.0 cm, 2.1 – 4 cm, ≥ 4.1 cm), and surgical plan (lumpectomy, mastectomy). Sentinel node resection was done using blue dye and radioactive tracer. As pre-specified in the protocol, analyses of endpoint data were performed according to the randomized group assignments on patients who were assessed at the time of randomization as having pathologically negative sentinel nodes (3989 patients). The endpoint analyses were performed on all such patients who had follow-up information regardless of their eligibility status (3986 patients). The primary endpoint for the study was overall survival. All deaths regardless of cause were included. The mean time on study for the 3986 sentinel node-negative patients with follow-up information was 95.6 months (range: 70.1 – 126.7 months). Findings A total of 309 deaths were reported in the 3986 sentinel node-negative patients with follow-up information. Log-rank comparison of overall survival in Groups 1 and 2 yielded an unadjusted hazard ratio of 1.20 (95% confidence interval [CI]; 0.96 –1.50, P = 0.12). Eight-year Kaplan-Meier estimates for overall survival are 91.8% in Group 1 and 90.3% in Group 2. Treatment

  12. Molecular analysis of melanoma-induced sentinel lymph node immune dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jonathan H; Chen, Yun; Chan, Joseph L; Qian, You-wen; Goydos, James S

    2011-05-01

    Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) of melanoma patients show evidence of tumor-induced immune dysfunction. Our previous works have shown that IL-10 and IFNγ co-regulate indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase (IDO)-expressing immunosuppressive dendritic cells (DCs) in melanoma SLNs. The goal of this study is to examine the relationship between melanoma SLN tumor burden and the degree of SLN immune dysfunction as a model to study tumor-induced immune dysfunction. We hypothesize that SLN tumor burden correlates with the degree of SLN immune dysfunction. Patients undergoing SLN biopsy for clinical stages I and II melanomas were enrolled in the study under an IRB-approved protocol. During the SLN biopsy, non-hot and non-blue portion of the SLN was harvested, flash-frozen in liquid nitrogen, and mRNA was extracted. By using quantitative real-time PCR, gene expressions of cytokines (IL-4, IL-10, IFNγ, TGFβ, GM-CSF) and the surrogates of immunosuppressive regulatory and effector cells (IDO-expressing DCs and Foxp3-expressing T-regs, respectively) were measured and correlated against the SLN tumor burden (MART1) and against each other. The data were log transformed for normalization. Statistical test used Student's t-test and stepwise multivariate regression analysis. Statistical significance was determined at P < 0.05. SLNs of 74 patients were analyzed in this analysis. Ten of seventy-four patients (13.5%) had tumor-positive SLNs. MART1 gene expression showed a significant difference between the SLN (+) and SLN (-) groups (P = 0.04). Among the various cytokines, multivariate analysis showed that only IFNγ gene expression correlated independently with MART1 gene expression (P < 0.0001, r = 0.91). Similar multivariate analyses show that IFNγ (P < 0.0001, r = 0.78), IL-10 (P = 0.0037, r = 0.60), and TGFβ (P < 0.0001, r = 0.95) gene expressions correlated independently with IDO gene expression. IFNγ (P < 0.0001, r = 0.87) and GM-CSF (P = 0.042, r = 0.76) gene

  13. Experimental canine model for sentinel lymph node biopsy in the vulva using technetium and patent blue dye.

    PubMed

    Aquino, José Ulcijara; Pinheiro, Luiz Gonzaga Porto; Vasques, Paulo Henrique Diógenes; Rocha, João Ivo Xavier; Cruz, Diego Alves; Beserra, Hugo Enrique Orsini; Cavalcante, Raissa Vasconcelos

    2012-02-01

    This paper aims to study and define the experimental model of sentinel lymph node biopsy of the vulva in bitches. 0.2 ml of 99mTc phytate was injected intradermally, using a fine gauge insulin needle in the anterior commissure of the vulva. Thirty minutes after 99mTc injection, the inguinal mapping was performed using a gamma probe. After this, 0.5 ml of blue dye (bleu patenté V Guerbet 2.5%) was injected in the same place. After 15 minutes, a 3 cm long inguinal incision was made at point maximum uptake followed by careful dissection, guided by visualization of a bluish afferent lymphatic system that points to the sentinel lymph node (SLN). It was observed that 88% of SLN were identified. It wasn't found a significant difference among the presence or not of sentinel lymph node in the sides, which is an indication of a good consistency. It was observed a high (88%) and significant (χ2=12.89 and p=0.0003) intercession between both methods (blue dye and radiation). The experimental model adopted is feasible, becoming advantageous in applying the association of Patent blue and 99mTc.

  14. Validity of sentinel lymph node (SLN) detection following adjuvant radiochemotherapy (RCT) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC).

    PubMed

    Wagner, A; Kermer, C; Zettinig, G; Lang, S; Schicho, K; Noebauer, I; Kainberger, F; Selzer, E; Leitha, T

    2007-12-01

    The effect of preoperative radio chemotherapy on lymphatic drainage and intraoperative gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node detection has yet not been investigated. In this study, we study 13 patients with SCC. Sentinel lymph node (SLN) imaging of the patients was performed using SPECT-CT. Special care was taken to use identical injection sites for both studies. Imaging comprised planar and SPECT, iterative reconstruction and were viewed with the co-registered CT image. The results were validated by comparison with the histological results of intraoperative gamma probe detection and histology of the completed neck dissection. Identical SLNs were found in 6/13 patients. In 2/13 cases SLN biopsies were false-negative. In 4/13 patients preoperative SLN imaging identified more/additional nodes than the initial imaging, whereas fewer nodes were seen in 3/13 patients. Neither the primary tumor site nor the TNM stage was predictive for changes in the lymphatic drainage pattern. No constant effect of irradiation could be demonstrated. Preoperative radio chemotherapy has an unpredictable influence on the lymphatic drainage pattern in HNSCC. Consequently, the intraoperative gamma probe-guided sentinel lymph node detection after radio chemotherapy does not reveal the SLN of carcinogenesis. Thus, we advise fused functional/anatomical imaging (SPECT-CT) before and after radiochemotherapy if the SLN concept is utilized in HNSCC.

  15. A cut-off of 2150 cytokeratin 19 mRNA copy number in sentinel lymph node may be a powerful predictor of non-sentinel lymph node status in breast cancer patients

    PubMed Central

    Terrenato, Irene; D’Alicandro, Valerio; Casini, Beatrice; Perracchio, Letizia; Rollo, Francesca; De Salvo, Laura; Di Filippo, Simona; Di Filippo, Franco; Pescarmona, Edoardo; Maugeri-Saccà, Marcello; Mottolese, Marcella

    2017-01-01

    Since 2007, one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) has been used as a diagnostic system for sentinel lymph node (SLN) examination in patients with breast cancer. This study aimed to define a new clinical cut-off of CK19 mRNA copy number based on the calculation of the risk that an axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) will be positive. We analyzed 1529 SLNs from 1140 patients with the OSNA assay and 318 patients with positive SLNs for micrometastasis (250 copies) and macrometastasis (5000 copies) underwent ALND. Axillary non–SLNs were routinely examined. ROC curves and Youden’s index were performed in order to identify a new cut-off value. Logistic regression models were performed in order to compare OSNA categorical variables created on the basis of our and traditional cut-off to better identify patients who really need an axillary dissection. 69% and 31% of OSNA positive patients had a negative and positive ALND, respectively. ROC analysis identified a cut-off of 2150 CK19 mRNA copies with 95% sensitivity and 51% specificity. Positive and negative predictive values of this new cut-off were 47% and 96%, respectively. Logistic regression models indicated that the cut-off of 2150 copies better discriminates patients with node negative or positive in comparison with the conventional OSNA cut-off (p<0.0001). This cut-off identifies false positive and false negative cases and true-positive and true negative cases very efficiently, and therefore better identifies which patients really need an ALND and which patients can avoid one. This is why we suggest that the negative cut-off should be raised from 250 to 2150. Furthermore, we propose that for patients with a copy number that ranges between 2150 and 5000, there should be a multidisciplinary discussion concerning the clinical and bio-morphological features of primary breast cancer before any decision is taken on whether to perform an ALND or not. PMID:28187209

  16. Robotic blue-dye sentinel lymph node detection for endometrial cancer - Factors predicting successful mapping.

    PubMed

    Eitan, R; Sabah, G; Krissi, H; Raban, O; Ben-Haroush, A; Goldschmit, C; Levavi, H; Peled, Y

    2015-12-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping has emerged as a viable option for the treatment of patients with endometrial cancer. We report our initial experience with SLN mapping algorithm, and examine the factors predicting successful SLN mapping. We analyzed all data recorded in our institute on robotic blue-dye SLN detection mapping from the time it was first introduced to our department in January 2012-December 2014. Data included patient demographics, SLN allocation, operating room times, and pathology results. During the study period, 74 patients had robotic assisted surgery for endometrial cancer with attempted SLN mapping. SLN was found overall in 46 patients (62.1%). At first, SLN was detected in only 50% of cases, but after performing 30 cases, detection rates rose to 84.6% (OR = 3.34, CI 1.28-8.71; p = 0.003). Univariate analysis showed a higher detection rate with methylene blue than patent blue dye, 74.3% vs. 52.3% (OR = 2.744, 95% CI 1.026-7.344; p = 0.042). In multivariate analysis, high body mass index (BMI) was associated with failed mapping (OR = 0.899; 95% CI 0.808-1.00), as was the presence of lymph-vascular space invasion (LVSI) (OR = 0.126; 95% CI 0.24-0.658) and few cases per surgeon (OR = 1.083, 95% CI 1.032-1.118). Factors related to uterine pathology itself, including tumor histology, grade, method of diagnosis, the presence of an endometrial polyp, and lower uterine segment involvement were not found to be associated with successful mapping. Surgeon experience, BMI and LVSI may affect the success rate of SLN mapping for endometrial cancer. These factors should be investigated further in future studies. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Sentinel lymph node in oesophageal cancer—a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Nagaraja, Vinayak; Cox, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) have been used to predict regional lymph node metastasis in patients with melanoma and breast cancer. However, the validity of the SLN hypothesis is still controversial for oesophageal cancer. We performed this meta-analysis to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of radio-guided SLN mapping for oesophageal cancer. Methods A systematic search was conducted using MEDLINE, PubMed, EMBASE, Current Contents Connect, Cochrane library, Google scholar, Science Direct, and Web of Science. Original data was abstracted from each study and used to calculate a pooled event rates and 95% confidence interval (95% CI). Results The search identified 23 relevant articles. The overall detection rate was 0.93 (95% CI: 0.894-0.950), sensitivity 0.87 (95% CI: 0.811-0.908), negative predictive value 0.77 (95% CI: 0.568-0.890) and the accuracy was 0.88 (95% CI: 0.817-0.921). In the adenocarcinoma cohort, detection rate was 0.98 (95% CI: 0.923-0.992), sensitivity 0.84 (95% CI: 0.743-0.911) and the accuracy was 0.87(95% CI: 0.796-0.913). In the squamous cell carcinoma group, detection rate was 0.89 (95% CI: 00.792-0.943), sensitivity 0.91 (95% CI: 0.754-0.972) and the accuracy was 0.84 (95% CI: 0.732-0.914). Conclusions It is possible to identify and obtain a SLN before neoadjuvant therapy in oesophageal cancer. However, further work is needed to optimize radiocolloid type, refine the technique and develop a quick and accurate way to determine SLN status intraoperatively. This technique has to be further evaluated before it can be applied widely. PMID:24772341

  18. Use of (99m)Tc-Tilmanocept as a Single Agent for Sentinel Lymph Node Identification in Breast Cancer: A Retrospective Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Unkart, Jonathan T; Wallace, Anne M

    2017-09-01

    (99m)Tc-tilmanocept received recent Food and Drug Administration approval for lymphatic mapping in 2013. However, to our knowledge, no prior studies have evaluated the use of (99m)Tc-tilmanocept as a single agent in sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in breast cancer. Methods: We executed this retrospective pilot study to assess the ability of (99m)Tc-tilmanocept to identify sentinel nodes as a single agent in clinically node-negative breast cancer patients. Patients received a single intradermal injection overlying the tumor of either 18.5 MBq (0.5 mCi) of (99m)Tc-tilmanocept on the day of surgery or 74.0 MBq (2.0 mCi) on the day before surgery by a radiologist. Immediate 3-view lymphoscintigraphy was performed. Intraoperatively, SLNs were identified with a portable γ-probe. A node was classified as hot if the count (per second) of the node was more than 3 times the background count. Descriptive statistics are reported. Results: Nineteen patients underwent SLN biopsy with single-agent (99m)Tc-tilmanocept. Immediate lymphoscintigraphy identified at least 1 sentinel node in 13 of 17 patients (76.5%). Intraoperatively, at least 1 (mean, 1.7 ± 0.8; range, 1-3) hot node was identified in all patients. Three patients (15.8%) had 1 disease-positive SLN. Conclusion: In this small, retrospective pilot study, (99m)Tc-tilmanocept performed well as a single agent for intraoperative sentinel node identification in breast cancer. A larger, randomized clinical trial is warranted to compare (99m)Tc-tilmanocept as a single agent with other radiopharmaceuticals for sentinel node identification in breast cancer. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  19. Near-Infrared Fluorescence Sentinel Lymph Node Mapping of the Oral Cavity in Head and Neck Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    van der Vorst, Joost R.; Schaafsma, Boudewijn E.; Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Keereweer, Stijn; Jansen, Jeroen C.; van der Velden, Lilly-Ann; Langeveld, Antonius; Hutteman, Merlijn; Löwik, Clemens; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Frangioni, John V.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Elective neck dissection is frequently performed during surgery in head and neck cancer patients. The sentinel lymph node (SLN) procedure can prevent the morbidity of a neck dissection and improve lymph node staging by fine pathology. Near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence imaging is a promising technique to identify the sentinel lymph node (SLN) intraoperatively. This feasibility study explored the use of indocyanine green adsorbed to human serum albumin (ICG:HSA) for SLN mapping in head and neck cancer patients. Materials and Methods A total of 10 consecutive patients with oral cavity or oropharyngeal cancer and a clinical N0 neck were included. After exposure of the neck, 1.6 mL of ICG:HSA (500 μM) was injected at 4 quadrants around the tumor. During the neck dissection, levels I, II, III and IV were measured for fluorescence using the Mini-FLARE imaging system. Results In all 10 patients, NIR fluorescence imaging enabled visualization of one or more SLNs. A total of 17 SLNs were identified. The mean contrast between the fluorescent signal of the lymph nodes and of the surrounding tissue was 8.7 ± 6.4. In 3 patients, of which 1 was false-negative, lymph node metastases were found. After administration of ICG:HSA, the average number of fluorescent lymph nodes significantly increased over time (P < 0.001). Conclusion This study demonstrated feasibility to detect draining lymph nodes in head and neck cancer patients using NIR fluorescence imaging. However, the fluorescent tracer quickly migrated beyond the SLN to higher tier nodes. PMID:22939692

  20. Intraoperative Fluorescence Imaging for Sentinel Lymph Node Detection: Prospective Clinical Trial to Compare the Usefulness of Indocyanine Green vs Technetium Tc 99m for Identification of Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Stoffels, Ingo; Dissemond, Joachim; Pöppel, Thorsten; Schadendorf, Dirk; Klode, Joachim

    2015-07-01

    The metastatic status of regional lymph nodes is the most relevant prognostic factor in breast cancer, melanoma, and other solid organ tumors with a lymphatic spread. The current gold standard for detection and targeted excision of the sentinel lymph node is preoperative lymphoscintigraphy with technetium Tc 99m. Because of the worldwide shortage of technetium Tc 99m, physicians are looking for nonradioactive dyes for sentinel lymph node labeling. Based on several retrospective studies, the fluorescent dye indocyanine green is considered a possible alternative to technetium Tc 99m. To analyze the feasibility and clinical benefit of intraoperative near infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node excision (SLNE) compared with standard technetium Tc 99m-guided SLNE using malignant melanoma in which SLNE is firmly established. Analysis of a prospective clinical trial at the Skin Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen. Eighty patients with malignant melanoma on the trunk or extremities (upper and lower) who were scheduled to undergo SLNE were included in this study from January 1, 2013, to June 27, 2014. Concordance of preoperative and intraoperative sentinel lymph node detection rates. During the study period, 80 patients were operated on with an additional intraoperative application of a near infrared fluorescent dye. In these 80 surgical procedures, 147 SLNs were excised. Detection of a technetium Tc 99m-marked SLN before surgery was possible in all cases. Intraoperative visualization of the SLN by indocyanine green before skin incision was successful in only 17 of 80 patients (21%). The number of SLNs identified using the near infrared fluorescence technique in the operative site after skin incision and initial tissue preparation was 141 of 147 (96%). Among patients in whom the lymph node basin cannot be predicted correctly (eg, in cutaneous melanoma on the trunk), the use of indocyanine green for SLN detection is severely limited compared with SLNE using standard

  1. Three-dimensional sensitivity mapping of a handheld magnetic probe for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuwahata, Akihiro; Chikaki, Shinichi; Ergin, Aslı; Kaneko, Miki; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    An experimental apparatus for three-dimensional sensitivity mapping of a handheld magnetic probe with a permanent magnet and a Hall sensor was developed. To optimize the shapes and sizes of the magnets, the sensitivity mappings of two types of magnets, column- and cone-type magnets, were evaluated by the experimental apparatus. The longitudinal sensitivities of column and cone types are 8 and 9 mm, respectively, for 5 μL of magnetic nanoparticles. The measured longitudinal sensitivities agree well with the sensitivities calculated by the finite element method. Furthermore, the maximum lateral resolutions of column and cone types are 4.1 and 3.7 mm, respectively. In terms of the directionality, the sensitivities of column and cone types of the angle of 90° with respect to the probe axis fall approximately to 72% and 50% at 6 mm distance from the probe head, indicating that the cone type has high directionality due to its sharp shape. The measurement of sensitivity mapping revealed that the characteristics of the cone-type magnet are superior to that of the column-type magnet for the identification of sentinel lymph nodes.

  2. A magnetic probe equipped with small-tip permanent magnet for sentinel lymph node biopsy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneko, Miki; Ohashi, Kaichi; Chikaki, Shinichi; Kuwahata, Akihiro; Shiozawa, Mikio; Kusakabe, Moriaki; Sekino, Masaki

    2017-05-01

    We previously developed a magnetic probe equipped with a ring-shaped permanent magnet for detecting magnetic nanoparticle tracer accumulating in the sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs). The magnetic probe enables us to identify SLNs objectively, without the risk of radiation exposure, unlike the conventional technique using dye and radioisotope. A technical challenge of the probe is to reduce the tip diameter of magnet to identify smaller SLNs. In this study, we optimized the size of smaller-tip magnet based on numerical analyses using the finite element method and evaluated the expected sensitivity. According to the analysis results, the optimum tip diameter and length of convex-shaped magnet were 16 mm and 12 mm, respectively. The experimental results showed that the sensitivity of the probe with smaller-tip magnet was comparable to the previous one. We successfully developed a smaller tip magnet, maintaining the sensitivity to magnetic nanoparticles. The proposed probe will be capable of identifying the location of SLNs more easily.

  3. Scanning elastic scattering spectroscopy detects metastatic breast cancer in sentinel lymph nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Austwick, Martin R.; Clark, Benjamin; Mosse, Charles A.; Johnson, Kristie; Chicken, D. Wayne; Somasundaram, Santosh K.; Calabro, Katherine W.; Zhu, Ying; Falzon, Mary; Kocjan, Gabrijela; Fearn, Tom; Bown, Stephen G.; Bigio, Irving J.; Keshtgar, Mohammed R. S.

    2010-07-01

    A novel method for rapidly detecting metastatic breast cancer within excised sentinel lymph node(s) of the axilla is presented. Elastic scattering spectroscopy (ESS) is a point-contact technique that collects broadband optical spectra sensitive to absorption and scattering within the tissue. A statistical discrimination algorithm was generated from a training set of nearly 3000 clinical spectra and used to test clinical spectra collected from an independent set of nodes. Freshly excised nodes were bivalved and mounted under a fiber-optic plate. Stepper motors raster-scanned a fiber-optic probe over the plate to interrogate the node's cut surface, creating a 20×20 grid of spectra. These spectra were analyzed to create a map of cancer risk across the node surface. Rules were developed to convert these maps to a prediction for the presence of cancer in the node. Using these analyses, a leave-one-out cross-validation to optimize discrimination parameters on 128 scanned nodes gave a sensitivity of 69% for detection of clinically relevant metastases (71% for macrometastases) and a specificity of 96%, comparable to literature results for touch imprint cytology, a standard technique for intraoperative diagnosis. ESS has the advantage of not requiring a pathologist to review the tissue sample.

  4. Sentinel lymph node biopsy and neoadjuvant chemotherapy in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Benson, John R; Jatoi, Ismail

    2014-03-01

    Patient selection and timing of sentinel lymph node (SLN) in the context of primary chemotherapy continues to evolve; there is some evidence that primary chemotherapy may modify lymphatic drainage patterns and cause differential downstaging between SLNs and non-SLNs. SLN biopsy undertaken prior to chemotherapy will minimize the risk of a false-negative result, may allow more accurate initial staging and provides important information on prognostication which can guide decisions about adjuvant radiotherapy. However, quantification of regional metastatic load is incomplete and some advocate SLN biopsy after primary chemotherapy to take advantage of nodal downstaging and avoidance of axillary dissection in up to 40% of patients. Initial reports on false-negative rates for SLN biopsy after primary chemotherapy in patients who had proven axillary node metastases at presentation based on needle core biopsy were relatively high and a cause for clinical concern. However, more recent data suggest that SLN biopsy is as accurate when performed post- as pre-neochemotherapy and current practice incorporates both approaches.

  5. Sentinel lymph node mapping using near-infrared fluorescent methylene blue.

    PubMed

    Chu, Maoquan; Wan, Yinghan

    2009-04-01

    Methylene blue (MB) is a safe, low cost, and common blue dye remaining a popular choice for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping. However, the blue-dyed SLN in deep animal tissue could be seen only after a surgical management. Here the fluorescence properties of MB were investigated using a fluorescence spectrometer and a wavelength-resolved fluorescence spectral in vivo imaging system, and MB has been demonstrated for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence mapping of SLN. When MB was injected intradermally into the second row breast of a rabbit, the lymphatic flow and axillary SLN could be observed directly through the NIR fluorescence emitted from the MB trapped in the deep tissue, which would eliminate the need for surgical management, and this fluorescence without any radioactivity was retained in the SLN for hours. The node also could be identified synchronously by the blue color and fluorescence of the MB after a surgical management. Using MB NIR fluorescence for SLN mapping may have great advantages over the traditional method.

  6. Predictors of sentinel lymph node status in cutaneous melanoma: a classification and regression tree analysis.

    PubMed

    Tejera-Vaquerizo, A; Martín-Cuevas, P; Gallego, E; Herrera-Acosta, E; Traves, V; Herrera-Ceballos, E; Nagore, E

    2015-04-01

    The main aim of this study was to identify predictors of sentinel lymph node (SN) metastasis in cutaneous melanoma. This was a retrospective cohort study of 818 patients in 2 tertiary-level hospitals. The primary outcome variable was SN involvement. Independent predictors were identified using multiple logistic regression and a classification and regression tree (CART) analysis. Ulceration, tumor thickness, and a high mitotic rate (≥6 mitoses/mm(2)) were independently associated with SN metastasis in the multiple regression analysis. The most important predictor in the CART analysis was Breslow thickness. Absence of an inflammatory infiltrate, patient age, and tumor location were predictive of SN metastasis in patients with tumors thicker than 2mm. In the case of thinner melanomas, the predictors were mitotic rate (>6 mitoses/mm(2)), presence of ulceration, and tumor thickness. Patient age, mitotic rate, and tumor thickness and location were predictive of survival. A high mitotic rate predicts a higher risk of SN involvement and worse survival. CART analysis improves the prediction of regional metastasis, resulting in better clinical management of melanoma patients. It may also help select suitable candidates for inclusion in clinical trials. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and AEDV. All rights reserved.

  7. Near infrared fluorescent chlorophyll nanoscale liposomes for sentinel lymph node mapping.

    PubMed

    Fan, Lina; Wu, Qiang; Chu, Maoquan

    2012-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping using in vivo near infrared fluorescence imaging has attracted great attention during the past few years. Here we report on the early use of poorly water-soluble chlorophyll with near infrared fluorescence extracted from the leaf of Chimonanthus salicifolius, for mouse axillary SLN mapping. To improve the water solubility and SLN targeting of the chlorophyll, we encapsulated the chlorophyll in nanoscale liposomes. The liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites obtained were spherical in shape and had an average diameter of 21.7 ± 6.0 nm. The nanocomposites dispersed well in water, and in aqueous suspension they exhibited brighter near infrared fluorescence than chlorophyll alone. After incubation of the nanocomposites with normal liver cells (QSG-7701) and macrophage cells (Ana-1) for no more than 48 hours, there was no obvious reduction in cell viability. When the nanocomposites were injected intradermally into the paw of a mouse, the axillary SLN was found to be strongly fluorescent and was easily visualized in real time without a requirement for surgery. The intensity of the near infrared fluorescence emitted by the SLN was obviously brighter than that emitted by the SLN of another mouse that had been intradermally injected with chlorophyll alone. Our data show that the liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites could have great potential for clinical SLN mapping due to their lack of toxicity, bright near infrared fluorescence, and small diameter.

  8. Near infrared fluorescent chlorophyll nanoscale liposomes for sentinel lymph node mapping

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Lina; Wu, Qiang; Chu, Maoquan

    2012-01-01

    Background Sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping using in vivo near infrared fluorescence imaging has attracted great attention during the past few years. Here we report on the early use of poorly water-soluble chlorophyll with near infrared fluorescence extracted from the leaf of Chimonanthus salicifolius, for mouse axillary SLN mapping. Methods and results To improve the water solubility and SLN targeting of the chlorophyll, we encapsulated the chlorophyll in nanoscale liposomes. The liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites obtained were spherical in shape and had an average diameter of 21.7 ± 6.0 nm. The nanocomposites dispersed well in water, and in aqueous suspension they exhibited brighter near infrared fluorescence than chlorophyll alone. After incubation of the nanocomposites with normal liver cells (QSG-7701) and macrophage cells (Ana-1) for no more than 48 hours, there was no obvious reduction in cell viability. When the nanocomposites were injected intradermally into the paw of a mouse, the axillary SLN was found to be strongly fluorescent and was easily visualized in real time without a requirement for surgery. The intensity of the near infrared fluorescence emitted by the SLN was obviously brighter than that emitted by the SLN of another mouse that had been intradermally injected with chlorophyll alone. Conclusion Our data show that the liposome-coated chlorophyll nanocomposites could have great potential for clinical SLN mapping due to their lack of toxicity, bright near infrared fluorescence, and small diameter. PMID:22787402

  9. Sentinel lymph node identification using superparamagnetic iron oxide particles versus radioisotope: The French Sentimag feasibility trial.

    PubMed

    Houpeau, Jean-Louis; Chauvet, Marie-Pierre; Guillemin, François; Bendavid-Athias, Cécile; Charitansky, Hélène; Kramar, Andrew; Giard, Sylvia

    2016-04-01

    The French Sentimag feasibility trial evaluated a new method for the localization of breast cancer sentinel lymph node (SLN) using Sienna+®, superparamagnetic iron oxide particles, and Sentimag® detection in comparison to the standard technique (isotopes ± blue dye). We conducted a prospective multicentric paired comparison trial on 115 patients. SLN localization was performed using both the magnetic technique and the standard method. Detection rate and concordance between magnetic and standard tracers were calculated. Post-operative complications were assessed after 30 days. Results are based on 108 patients. SLN identification rate was 98.1% [93.5-99.8] for both methods, 97.2% [92.1-99.4] for Sienna+® and 95.4% [89.5-98.5] for standard technique. A mean of 2.1 SLNs per patient was removed. The concordance rate was 99.0% [94.7-100.0%] per patient and 97.4% [94.1-99.2] per node. Forty-six patients (43.4%) had nodal involvement. Among involved SLNs, concordance rate was 97.7% [88.0-99.9] per patient and 98.1% [90.1-100.0] per node. This new magnetic tracer is a feasible method and a promising alternative to the isotope. It could offer benefits for ambulatory surgery or sites without nuclear medicine departments. J. Surg. Oncol. 2016;113:501-507. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Factors affecting sentinel lymph node identification rate after neoadjuvant chemotherapy for breast cancer patients enrolled in ACOSOG Z1071 (Alliance)

    PubMed Central

    Boughey, Judy C.; Suman, Vera J.; Mittendorf, Elizabeth A.; Ahrendt, Gretchen M.; Wilke, Lee G.; Taback, Bret; Leitch, A. Marilyn; Flippo-Morton, Teresa S.; Kuerer, Henry M.; Bowling, Monet; Hunt, Kelly K.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To evaluate factors affecting sentinel lymph node (SLN) identification after neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) in patients with initial node-positive breast cancer. Summary Background Data SLN surgery is increasingly used for nodal staging after NAC and optimal technique for SLN identification is important. Methods The American College of Surgeons Oncology Group Z1071 prospective trial enrolled clinical T0-4,N1-2,M0 breast cancer patients. Following NAC, SLN surgery and axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) were planned. Multivariate logistic regression modeling assessing factors influencing SLN identification was performed. Results Of 756 patients enrolled, 34 women withdrew, 21 were ineligible, 12 underwent ALND only, and 689 had SLN surgery attempted. At least one SLN was identified in 639 patients (92.7%: 95%CI: 90.5–94.6%). Among factors evaluated, mapping technique was the only factor found to impact SLN identification; with use of blue dye alone increasing the likelihood of failure to identify the SLN relative to using radiolabelled colloid +/− blue dye (p=0.006; OR=3.82 95%CI: 1.47-9.92). The SLN identification rate was 78.6% with blue dye alone; 91.4% with radiolabelled colloid and 93.8% with dual mapping agents. Patient factors (age, BMI), tumor factors (clinical T or N stage), pathologic nodal response to chemotherapy, site of tracer injection and length of chemotherapy treatment did not significantly affect the SLN identification rate. Conclusions The SLN identification rate after NAC was higher when mapping was performed using radiolabelled colloid alone or with blue dye compared to blue dye alone. Optimal tracer use is important to ensure successful identification of SLN(s) after NAC. PMID:25664534

  11. Impact of previous surgery on sentinel lymph node mapping: Hybrid SPECT/CT before and after a unilateral diagnostic breast excision.

    PubMed

    Zetterlund, Linda; Gabrielson, Stefan; Axelsson, Rimma; de Boniface, Jana; Frisell, Jan; Olsson, Annie; Celebioglu, Fuat

    2016-12-01

    Earlier studies have shown conflicting results regarding the accuracy of sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous breast surgery, especially after a surgical biopsy. To compare lymph drainage patterns before and after a diagnostic unilateral surgical biopsy using the exact anatomical localisation of sentinel lymph nodes defined by SPECT/CT. Thirty-seven women planned for unilateral surgical excision of an unsuspicious breast lesion were prospectively examined between September 2011 and January 2015. Hybrid SPECT/CT lymphoscintigraphy of the thorax and neck region with bilateral subareolar injections of (99m)Tc-Nanocoll was performed one week before and six weeks after surgery. The non-operated side served as a control. The primary outcome measure was the concordance between pre- and postoperative number and localisation of sentinel lymph nodes. Sentinel lymph node detection rate with SPECT/CT on operated sides was 91.9 per cent (34 of 37 procedures), to be compared with a detection rate of 93.7 per cent on all non-operated sides (104 of 111 procedures, P = 0.771). Partial or total concordance regarding the localisation and number of sentinel lymph nodes was 85.7 per cent (30 out of 35) on operated and 88.9 per cent (32 out of 36 patients) on non-operated breast sides (P = 0.735). Breast surgery slightly decreased the concordance between pre- and postoperative sentinel lymph nodes, but this finding was not statistically significant. Our results thus support that it is feasible to perform a sentinel lymph node biopsy after previous breast excisional surgery with an acceptable level of safety. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Intraoperative molecular analysis of sentinel lymph nodes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with clinical node negative breast cancer: An institutional study.

    PubMed

    Parada, David; Peña, Karla B; Riu, F Francesc; Aguilar, A Esther; Cohan, Sebastian

    2016-11-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, safe method for determining the axillary lymph node status. However, insufficient evidence exists to support the recommendation of SLNB in patients who have had neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to downsize tumours and allow for breast conservation surgery. The present study aimed to use molecular approaches to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB in patients treated with NAC prior to SLN mapping and surgery. A total of 50 consecutive patients with operable invasive breast carcinomas who had received prior NAC were assessed using the one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) method. The rate of SLN identification was 100%. The OSNA assay showed that 29 patients (58%) were negative for SLN and 21 patients (42%) were positive. In 19 of these 21 patients (90.48%), the SLN was the only positive lymph node. No axillary lymph nodes metastases were observed in patients with isolated tumour cells or with micrometastases. The OSNA assay is a highly sensitive, specific and reproducible diagnostic technique that can be used to analyse SLNs following NAC. The total tumoral load may assist with predicting additional non-SLN metastases.

  13. Intraoperative molecular analysis of sentinel lymph nodes following neoadjuvant chemotherapy in patients with clinical node negative breast cancer: An institutional study

    PubMed Central

    Parada, David; Peña, Karla B.; Riu, F. Francesc; Aguilar, A. Esther; Cohan, Sebastian

    2016-01-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is an accurate, safe method for determining the axillary lymph node status. However, insufficient evidence exists to support the recommendation of SLNB in patients who have had neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) to downsize tumours and allow for breast conservation surgery. The present study aimed to use molecular approaches to evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of SLNB in patients treated with NAC prior to SLN mapping and surgery. A total of 50 consecutive patients with operable invasive breast carcinomas who had received prior NAC were assessed using the one-step nucleic acid amplification (OSNA) method. The rate of SLN identification was 100%. The OSNA assay showed that 29 patients (58%) were negative for SLN and 21 patients (42%) were positive. In 19 of these 21 patients (90.48%), the SLN was the only positive lymph node. No axillary lymph nodes metastases were observed in patients with isolated tumour cells or with micrometastases. The OSNA assay is a highly sensitive, specific and reproducible diagnostic technique that can be used to analyse SLNs following NAC. The total tumoral load may assist with predicting additional non-SLN metastases. PMID:27882235

  14. Minimum acceptable sensitivity of intraoperative gamma probes used for sentinel lymph node detection in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Matheoud, R; Giorgione, R; Valzano, S; Sacchetti, G; Colombo, E; Brambilla, M

    2014-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the suspension level for the sensitivity of an intraoperative scintillation gamma probe in the detection of the sentinel lymph node (SLN) in melanoma patients. Thirty-eight consecutive patients with melanoma were enrolled in the study during a 12-month period and underwent lymphatic scintigraphy after the peritumoral intradermal administration of about 14 MBq of (99m)Tc-nanocolloids. The SLNs were successfully removed during the surgical intervention about 4 h later. To identify and localize the SLN, a scintillation NaI(Tl) collimated probe was used. Predictably, the probe sensitivity decreased as the photopeak energy window was progressively narrowed, from 6.9 ± 0.7 counts per second (cps)/kBq (designated as the 'optimum,' or 'OPT,' sensitivity) to 2.5 ± 0.3 cps/kBq (LOW sensitivity) and to 1.4 ± 0.2 cps/kBq (VLOW sensitivity). Maximum lymph node count rates (cps) were determined for the foregoing energy windows prior to skin incision (PREOPT, PRELOW, PREVLOW, respectively) and in vivo after incision (INVOPT, INVLOW, INVVLOW). Forty-three SLNs were removed with a mean source-to-detector distance of 46 ± 24 mm (min 12 mm, max 92 mm). Four SLNs could not have been detected using PRELOW. This figure would have decreased to 34, with nine undetectable lymph nodes, with PREVLOW. One SLN could not have been identified using INVLOW and four could not have be identified using INVVLOW. In the clinical scenario of SLN detection in melanoma patients, a system sensitivity of 2.5 cps/kBq represents a suspension level, that is, a level under which the equipment must be suspended from clinical use and the poor performance must be investigated. Copyright © 2014 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Molecular Diagnosis for Nodal Metastasis in Endoscopically Managed Cervical Cancer: The Accuracy of the APTIMA Test to Detect High-risk Human Papillomavirus Messenger RNA in Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Christhardt; Le, Xin; Dogan, Nasuh Utku; Pfiffer, Tatiana; Schneider, Achim; Marnitz, Simone; Bertolini, Julia; Favero, Giovanni

    2016-01-01

    To evaluate the feasibility and accuracy of a commercially available test to detect E6/E7 mRNA of 14 subtypes of high-risk HPVs (APTIMA; Hologic, Bedford, MA) in the sentinel lymph nodes of CC patients laparoscopically operated. Prospective pilot study. The study was conducted in the Department of Advanced Operative and Oncologic Gynecology, Asklepios Hospital, Hamburg, Germany. 54 women with HPV-positive CC submitted to laparoscopic sentinel node biopsy alone or sentinel node biopsy followed by systematic pelvic and/or para-aortic endoscopic lymphadenectomy. All removed sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) underwent sample collection by cytobrush for the APTIMA assay before frozen section. Results obtained with the HPV mRNA test were compared with the definitive histopathological analysis of the SLNs and additional lymph nodes removed. A total of 125 SLNs (119 pelvic and 6 paraaortic) were excised with a mean number of 2.3 SLNs per patient. Final histopathologic analysis confirmed nodal metastases in 10 SLNs from 10 different patients (18%). All the histologically confirmed metastatic lymph nodes were also HPV E6/E7 mRNA positive, resulting in a sensitivity of 100%. Four histologically free sentinel nodes were positive for HPV E6/E7 mRNA, resulting in a specificity of 96.4%. The HPV E6/E7 mRNA assay in the SLNs of patients with CC is feasible and highly accurate. The detection of HPV mRNA in 4 women with negative SLNs might denote a shift from microscopic identification of metastasis to the molecular level. The prognostic value of this findings awaits further verification. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  16. Computer-aided detection scheme for sentinel lymph nodes in lymphoscintigrams using symmetrical property around mapped injection point.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Ryohei; Hizukuri, Akiyoshi; Yamamoto, Koji; Nakako, Nobuo; Nagasawa, Naoki; Takeda, Kan

    2012-02-01

    It is difficult to detect sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) around an injection point of radiopharmaceuticals mapped in lymphoscintigrams. The purpose of this study was to develop a computer-aided detection (CAD) scheme for SLNs by a subtraction technique using the symmetrical property in the mapped injection point. Our database consisted of 78 lymphoscintigrams with 86 SLNs. In our CAD scheme, the mapped injection point of radiopharmaceuticals was first segmented from the lymphoscintigram using a gray-level thresholding technique. Lymphoscintigram was then divided into four regions by vertical and horizontal straight lines through the center of the segmented injection point. One of the four divided regions was defined as the target region. The correlation coefficients based on pixel values were calculated between the target region and each of the other three regions. The region with the highest correlation coefficient among three regions was selected as the similar region to the target region. The values of pixels on the target region were subtracted by the values of the corresponding pixels on the similar region. This procedure was repeated until every divided region had been used as target region. SLNs were segmented by applying a gray-level thresholding technique to the subtracted image. With our CAD scheme, sensitivity and the number of false positives were 95.3% (82/86) and 2.51 per image, respectively. Our CAD scheme achieved a high level of detection accuracy, and would have a great potential in assisting physicians to detect SLNs in lymphoscintigrams.

  17. Role of SPECT-CT in sentinel lymph node biopsy in patients diagnosed with head and neck melanoma.

    PubMed

    López-Rodríguez, E; García-Gómez, F J; Álvarez-Pérez, R M; Martínez-Castillo, R; Borrego-Dorado, I; Fernández-Ortega, P; Zulueta-Dorado, T

    2016-01-01

    Assess the role of SPECT-CT in sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy in the accurate anatomical location of the SNL in patients with cutaneous head and neck melanoma. A retrospective study was conducted from February 2010 to June 2013 on 22 consecutive patients with a diagnosis of cutaneous head and neck melanoma (9 female, 13 male), with a mean age of 55 years old and who met the inclusion criteria for SLN biopsy. Patients underwent preoperative scanning after peri-scar injection of (99m)Tc-labeled-nanocolloid. Planar images of the injection-site, whole-body, and SPECT-CT scanning were acquired. Detection rate of SLN reached up to 91% (20/22 patients) by planar lymphoscintigraphy and 95.4% (21/22 patients) by SPECT-CT. SPECT-CT provided an accurate location of SLN in 14/22 patients, enabling to improve the surgical approach (clinical impact: 63.6%). SLN was positive for metastatic cells in 9.1% patients. SPECT-CT provides detailed anatomical SLN location and allows detecting a higher number of SLN than planar lymphoscintigraphy. Routine use of SPECT-CT is recommended in order to optimise the SLN detection and location in patients with head and neck melanoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  18. Pemphigus vulgaris antigen mRNA quantification for the staging of sentinel lymph nodes in head and neck cancer

    PubMed Central

    Solassol, J; Burcia, V; Costes, V; Lacombe, J; Mange, A; Barbotte, E; de Verbizier, D; Cartier, C; Makeieff, M; Crampette, L; Boulle, N; Maudelonde, T; Guerrier, B; Garrel, R

    2009-01-01

    Background: Molecular diagnosis has been proposed to enhance the intra-operative diagnosis of sentinel lymph node (SLN) invasion in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Although cytokeratin (CK) mRNA quantification with real-time reverse transcriptase-PCR (QRT–PCR) has produced encouraging results, the more discriminating markers remain to be identified. Methods: Pemphigus vulgaris antigen (PVA), squamous cell carcinoma antigen (SCCA), and CK17 mRNA were quantified using QRT–PCR, and the results were compared with an extensive histopathological examination of the entire SLNs on 78 SLNs harvested from 22 patients with HNSCC. Results: SCCA and CK17 quantification showed significantly higher mRNA values for macrometastases (MAs) than for either negative or isolated tumour cell (ITC) SLNs (P<0.01). Pemphigus vulgaris antigen allowed the discrimination of all MAs and micrometastases from both negative and ITC SLNs (P<0.001). For the neck staging of patients, considering metastatic vs non-metastatic status, receiver-operating characteristic curve analysis found areas under the curve of 93.8, 97.9, and 100% for CK17, SCCA, and PVA, respectively. With PVA, a cutoff value of 562 copies per 100 ng of cDNA permitted the correct distinction between patients with positive as opposed to negative neck nodes in all cases. Conclusion: PVA seems to be a highly promising marker for accurate intra-operative SLN staging in HNSCC by QRT–PCR. PMID:19997107

  19. Accurate evaluation of axillary sentinel lymph node metastasis using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid in breast cancer: a preliminary clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Matsuzawa, Fumihiko; Omoto, Kiyoka; Einama, Takahiro; Abe, Hironori; Suzuki, Takashi; Hamaguchi, Jun; Kaga, Terumi; Sato, Mami; Oomura, Masako; Takata, Yumiko; Fujibe, Ayako; Takeda, Chie; Tamura, Etsuya; Taketomi, Akinobu; Kyuno, Kenichi

    2015-01-01

    Breast cancer is the most common type of cancer in women. The 5-year survival rate in patients with breast cancer ranges from 74 to 82 %. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has become an alternative to axillary lymph node dissection for nodal staging. We evaluated the detection of the sentinel lymph node and metastasis of the lymph node using contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid. Between December 2013 and May 2014, 32 patients with operable breast cancer were enrolled in this study. We evaluated the detection of axillary sentinel lymph nodes and the evaluation of axillary lymph nodes metastasis using contrast enhanced computed tomography, color Doppler ultrasonography and contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid. All the sentinel lymph nodes were identified, and the sentinel lymph nodes detected by contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid corresponded with those detected by computed tomography lymphography and indigo carmine method. The detection of metastasis based on contrast enhanced computed tomography were sensitivity 20.0 %, specificity 88.2 %, PPV 60.0 %, NPV 55.6 %, accuracy 56.3 %. Based on color Doppler ultrasonography, the results were sensitivity 36.4 %, specificity 95.2 %, PPV 80.0 %, NPV 74.1 %, accuracy 75.0 %. Based on contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid, the results were sensitivity 81.8 %, specificity 95.2 %, PPV 90.0 %, NPV 90.9 %, accuracy 90.6 %. The results suggested that contrast enhanced ultrasonography with Sonazoid was the most accurate among the evaluations of these modalities. In the future, we believe that our method would take the place of conventional sentinel lymph node biopsy for an axillary staging method.

  20. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in melanoma: Our 8-year clinical experience in a single French institute (2002–2009)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Since the introduction of sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB), its use as a standard of care for patients with clinically node-negative cutaneous melanoma remains controversial. We wished to evaluate our experience of SLNB for melanoma. Methods A single center observational cohort of 203 melanoma patients with a primary cutaneous melanoma (tumour thickness > 1 mm) and without clinical evidence of metastasis was investigated from 2002 to 2009. Head and neck melanoma were excluded. SLN was identified following preoperative lymphoscintigraphy and intraoperative gamma probe interrogation. Results The SLN identification rate was 97%. The SLN was tumor positive in 44 patients (22%). Positive SLN was significantly associated with primary tumor thickness and microscopic ulceration. The median follow-up was 39.5 (5–97) months. Disease progression was significantly more frequent in SLN positive patients (32% vs 13%, p = 0.002). Five-year DFS and OS of the entire cohort were 79.6% and 84.6%, respectively, with a statistical significant difference between SLN positive (58.7% and 69.7%) and SLN negative (85% and 90.3%) patients (p = 0.0006 and p = 0.0096 respectively). Postoperative complications after SLNB were observed in 12% of patients. Conclusion Our data confirm previous studies and support the clinical usefulness of SLNB as a reliable and accurate staging method in patients with cutaneous melanoma. However, the benefit of additional CLND in patients with positive SLN remains to be demonstrated. PMID:23228015

  1. Sentinel lymph node dissection in stage I/II melanoma patients: surgical management and clinical follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Macripò, Giuseppe; Quaglino, Pietro; Caliendo, Virginia; Ronco, Anna Maria; Soltani, Shoreh; Giacone, Elena; Pau, Stefano; Fierro, Maria Teresa; Bernengo, Maria Grazia

    2004-04-01

    Selective sentinel lymph node (SLN) dissection is widely used in the management of cutaneous melanoma patients without clinical evidence of nodal metastases. A series of 274 consecutive melanoma patients who underwent melanoma primary excision and SLN mapping at our institutions since 1998, and were thereafter followed up and eventually treated, is reported in this prospective study. The aim was to analyse the parameters associated with a higher risk of occult nodal metastases, to evaluate the clinical outcome of melanoma patients who underwent SLN procedure, and to identify by means of multivariate analysis the prognostic parameters with independent predictive value on disease-free survival (DFS) in node-positive and negative patients. The SLN was tumour-negative in 228 patients (83.2%). A disease progression occurred in 25 (10.9%); among them, 10 patients in whom the initially identified SLN had been negative, developed a clinically and histologically evident positive lymph node in the same basin during follow-up. Five-year DFS and overall survival were 75% and 82%, respectively. In 46 patients (16.8%), the SLN proved to be tumour positive. The percentage of SLN-positive patients varied according to the primary thickness, from 11.8% in patients with Breslow of 2 mm or lower, to 34.7% in patients with Breslow from 2 to 4 mm, up to 55.9% in patients with Breslow greater than 4 mm (P<0.001). Only two patients with Breslow thickness lower than 1 mm had positive SLN biopsy. Five-year DFS and overall survival (OS) were 42 and 69%, respectively, significantly lower than those of negative SLN-patients (P<0.001). Multivariate analyses showed that the parameters with prognostic independent value on DFS were SLN status (micrometastases or macrometastases; P=0.0001), and to a lesser extent, Breslow thickness (P=0.04). In conclusion, our data support the clinical usefulness of SLN dissection as a reliable and accurate staging method in patients with cutaneous melanoma. SLN-positive

  2. Sentinel lymph node mapping with staging lymphadenectomy for patients with endometrial cancer increases the detection of metastasis.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Robert W; Gupta, Sarika; Stavitzski, Nicole M; Zhu, Xiang; Takimoto, Erica L; Gubbi, Ajit; Bigsby, Glenn E; Brudie, Lorna A; Kendrick, James E; Ahmad, Sarfraz

    2016-05-01

    To compare the performance of sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping with staging lymphadenectomy versus staging lymphadenectomy alone for the detection of metastasis and the use of adjuvant therapies in patients with endometrial cancer. All patients with apparent early-stage endometrial cancer (n=780) who underwent robotic-assisted hysterectomy with pelvic±aortic lymphadenectomy from July-2006 to June-2013 were compared [pelvic±aortic lymphadenectomy (n=661) versus SLN-mapped cases with pelvic±aortic lymphadenectomy (n=119)]. Isosulfan-blue and indocyanine-green with near-infrared imaging were used for SLN mapping. Clinico-pathological data, FIGO stage, GOG risk category, and adjuvant therapies were compared. Non-mapped and mapped cases were comparable with respect to BMI, histology, depth-of-invasion, and lympho-vascular space invasion. The mapped group had more pelvic lymph node (LN) harvested compared to non-mapped group (26.4±10.5 vs. 18.8±8.5, p<0.001). Aortic LN yields were identical for both groups (9.0±5.6 vs. 9.0±6.0). The mapped group had more LN metastasis detected (30.3% vs. 14.7%, p<0.001), more stage IIIC (30.2% vs. 14.5%, p<0.001), more GOG high-risk cases (32.8% vs. 21.8%, p=0.013), and received more chemotherapy+radiation (28.6% vs. 16.3%, p<0.003). The SLN was the only metastasis in 18 (50%) mapped cases with positive nodes. The SLN false negative rate was 1/36 (2.8%). Micrometastases or isolated tumor cells were identified in 22/35 (62.9%) SLN metastases. Multivariate analysis demonstrated that SLN mapping imparted a significant effect on the detection of metastatic disease [adjusted OR=3.29, p<0.001]. The performance of SLN mapping with staging lymphadenectomy increased the detection of lymph node metastasis and was associated with more use of adjuvant therapies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy in cutaneous melanoma using a planar calibration phantom filled with Tc-99m pertechnetate solution for body contouring.

    PubMed

    Peştean, Claudiu; Bărbuş, Elena; Piciu, Andra; Larg, Maria Iulia; Sabo, Alexandrina; Moisescu-Goia, Cristina; Piciu, Doina

    2016-01-01

    Melanoma is a disease that has an increasing incidence worldwide. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy is a diagnostic tool that offers important information regarding the localization of the sentinel lymph nodes offering important input data to establish a pertinent and personalized therapeutic strategy. The golden standard in body contouring for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy is to use a planar flood source of Cobalt-57 (Co-57) placed behind the patients, against the gamma camera. The purpose of the study was to determine the performance of the procedure using a flood calibration planar phantom filled with aqueous solution of Technetion-99m (Tc-99m) in comparison with the published data in literature where the gold standard was used. The study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Oncology Institute "Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă" Cluj-Napoca in 95 patients, 31 males and 64 females. The localization of the lesions was grouped by anatomical regions as follows: 23 on lower limbs, 17 on upper limbs, 45 on thorax and 10 on abdomen. The calibration flood phantom containing aqueous solution of Tc-99m pertechnetate was used as planar source to visualize the body contour of the patients for a proper anatomic localization of detected sentinel lymph nodes. The radiopharmaceutical uptake in sentinel lymph nodes has been recorded in serial images following peritumoral injection of 1 ml solution of Tc-99m albumin nanocolloids with an activity of 1 mCi (37 MBq). The used protocol consisted in early acquired planar images within 15 minutes post-injection and delayed images at 2-3 hours and when necessary, additional images at 6-7 hours. The acquisition matrix used was 128×128 pixels for an acquisition time of 5 - 7 minutes. The skin projection of the sentinel lymph nodes was marked on the skin and surgical removal of detected sentinel lymph nodes was performed the next day using a gamma probe for detection and measurements. The sentinel lymph nodes were detected in

  4. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy in cutaneous melanoma using a planar calibration phantom filled with Tc-99m pertechnetate solution for body contouring

    PubMed Central

    PEŞTEAN, CLAUDIU; BĂRBUŞ, ELENA; PICIU, ANDRA; LARG, MARIA IULIA; SABO, ALEXANDRINA; MOISESCU-GOIA, CRISTINA; PICIU, DOINA

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims Melanoma is a disease that has an increasing incidence worldwide. Sentinel lymph node scintigraphy is a diagnostic tool that offers important information regarding the localization of the sentinel lymph nodes offering important input data to establish a pertinent and personalized therapeutic strategy. The golden standard in body contouring for sentinel lymph node scintigraphy is to use a planar flood source of Cobalt-57 (Co-57) placed behind the patients, against the gamma camera. The purpose of the study was to determine the performance of the procedure using a flood calibration planar phantom filled with aqueous solution of Technetion-99m (Tc-99m) in comparison with the published data in literature where the gold standard was used. Methods The study was conducted in the Department of Nuclear Medicine of Oncology Institute “Prof. Dr. Ion Chiricuţă” Cluj-Napoca in 95 patients, 31 males and 64 females. The localization of the lesions was grouped by anatomical regions as follows: 23 on lower limbs, 17 on upper limbs, 45 on thorax and 10 on abdomen. The calibration flood phantom containing aqueous solution of Tc-99m pertechnetate was used as planar source to visualize the body contour of the patients for a proper anatomic localization of detected sentinel lymph nodes. The radiopharmaceutical uptake in sentinel lymph nodes has been recorded in serial images following peritumoral injection of 1 ml solution of Tc-99m albumin nanocolloids with an activity of 1 mCi (37 MBq). The used protocol consisted in early acquired planar images within 15 minutes post-injection and delayed images at 2–3 hours and when necessary, additional images at 6–7 hours. The acquisition matrix used was 128×128 pixels for an acquisition time of 5 – 7 minutes. The skin projection of the sentinel lymph nodes was marked on the skin and surgical removal of detected sentinel lymph nodes was performed the next day using a gamma probe for detection and measurements

  5. Phantom study quantifying the depth performance of a handheld magnetometer for sentinel lymph node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Pouw, Joost J; Bastiaan, Daniel M C; Klaase, Joost M; Ten Haken, Bennie

    2016-07-01

    The use of a magnetic nanoparticle tracer and handheld magnetometer for sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) was recently introduced to overcome drawbacks associated with the use of radioisotope tracers. Unlike the gamma probe, the used magnetometers are not only sensitive to the tracer, but also the diamagnetic human body. This potentially limits the performance of the magnetometer when used clinically. A phantom, mimicking the magnetic and mechanical properties of the human axilla, was constructed. The depth performance of two current generation magnetometers was evaluated in this phantom. LN-phantoms with tracer uptake ranging from 5 to 500μg iron were placed at clinically relevant depths of 2.5, 4 and 5.5cm. Distance-response curves were obtained to quantify the depth performance of the probes. The depth performance of both probes was limited. In the absence of diamagnetic material and forces on the probe (ideal conditions) a LN-phantom with high uptake (500μg iron) could first be detected at 3.75cm distance. In the phantom, only superficially placed LNs (2.5cm) with high uptake (500μg iron) could be detected from the surface. The penetration depth was insufficient to detect LNs with lower uptake, or which were located deeper. The detection distance of the current generation magnetometers is limited, and does not meet the demands formulated by the European Association for Nuclear Medicine for successful transcutaneous SLN localization. Future clinical trials should evaluate whether the limited depth sensitivity is of influence to the clinical outcome of the SLNB procedure. Copyright © 2016 Associazione Italiana di Fisica Medica. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Implementing sentinel lymph node biopsy programs in developing countries: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Keshtgar, Mohammed; Zaknun, John J; Sabih, Durre; Lago, Graciela; Cox, Charles E; Leong, Stanley P L; Mariani, Giuliano

    2011-06-01

    Sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is the accepted standard of care in early-stage breast cancer and cutaneous melanoma. This technology is accurate for nodal staging and determining the prognosis of these patients. There are several randomized controlled trials confirming the accuracy of this technique and confirming its role in reducing morbidity and improving quality of life. It is also gaining increased acceptance in the management of other solid tumors. Despite the established benefits of SLNB as a minimally invasive approach for nodal staging, the procedure is still underutilized in many developing countries. The Human Health Division of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) convened advisory meetings with panels of multidisciplinary experts from different backgrounds with the remit to analyze the difficulties encountered by developing countries in establishing a successful SLNB program. The other remit of the panel was to recommend an effective program based on existing evidence that can be adapted and implemented in developing countries. The experience of some members of the panel in the training for this technique in Asia, Latin America, and Africa provided the insight required for the development of a comprehensive and structured program. The panel included recommendations on the technical aspects of the procedure, as well as a comprehensive training program, including theoretical teaching, practical training in surgical skills, laboratories, and hands-on proctored learning. Particular emphasis was placed on in-built quality assurance requirements to ensure that this powerful staging investigation is implemented with the highest possible standard in the management of cancer patients, with the lowest false negative rate. It is hoped that this article will be a useful resource for our colleagues planning to establish a SLNB program.

  7. Near-infrared fluorescence sentinel lymph node mapping in breast cancer: a multicenter experience

    PubMed Central

    Verbeek, Floris P.R.; Troyan, Susan L.; Mieog, J. Sven D.; Liefers, Gerrit-Jan; Moffitt, Lorissa A.; Rosenberg, Mireille; Hirshfield-Bartek, Judith; Gioux, Sylvain; van de Velde, Cornelis J.H.; Vahrmeijer, Alexander L.; Frangioni, John V.

    2014-01-01

    NIR fluorescence imaging using indocyanine green (ICG) has the potential to improve the SLN procedure by facilitating percutaneous and intraoperative identification of lymphatic channels and SLNs. Previous studies suggested that a dose of 0.62 mg (1.6 ml of 0.5 mM) ICG is optimal for SLN mapping in breast cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence for sentinel lymph node (SLN) mapping in breast cancer patients when used in conjunction with conventional techniques. Study subjects were 95 breast cancer patients planning to undergo SLN procedure at either the Dana-Farber/Harvard Cancer Center (Boston, MA, USA) or the Leiden University Medical Center (Leiden, the Netherlands) between July 2010 and January 2013. Subjects underwent the standard-of-care SLN procedure at each institution using 99Technetium-colloid in all subjects and patent blue in 27 (28%) of the subjects. NIR fluorescence-guided SLN detection was performed using the Mini-FLARE imaging system. SLN identification was successful in 94 of 95 subjects (99%) using NIR fluorescence imaging or a combination of both NIR fluorescence imaging and radioactive guidance. In 2 of 95 subjects, radioactive guidance was necessary for initial in vivo identification of SLNs. In 1 of 95 subjects, NIR fluorescence was necessary for initial in vivo identification of SLNs. A total of 177 SLNs (mean = 1.9, range = 1–5) were resected: 100% NIR fluorescent, 88% radioactive, and 78% (of 40 nodes) blue. In 2 of 95 subjects (2.1%), SLNs containing macrometastases were found only by NIR fluorescence, and in 1 patient this led to upstaging to N1. This study demonstrates the safe and accurate application of NIR fluorescence imaging for the identification of SLNs in breast cancer patients, but calls into question what technique should be used as the gold standard in future studies. PMID:24337507

  8. Reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy is feasible for locally recurrent breast cancer, but is it worthwhile?

    PubMed Central

    Ugras, Stacy; Matsen, Cindy; Eaton, Anne; Stempel, Michelle; Morrow, Monica; Cody, Hiram S.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction reoperative sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) is feasible in patients with local recurrence (LR) of invasive breast cancer, but it remains unclear if this procedure affects either treatment or outcome. Here we ask whether axillary restaging (versus none) at the time of LR affects the rate of subsequent events: axillary failure, non-axillary recurrence, distant metastasis or death. Methods we queried our institutional database to identify patients treated surgically for invasive breast cancer with a negative SLNB (1997–2000) who developed ipsilateral breast or chest wall recurrence as a first event. We excluded those with gross nodal disease at the time of LR. The cumulative incidence of subsequent events was estimated using competing risks methodology. Results of 1527 patients with negative SLN at initial surgery, 83 had an ipsilateral breast (79) or chest wall recurrence (4) with clinically negative regional nodes. 47 (57%) were treated with and 36 (43%) without axillary surgery. Primary tumor characteristics were similar between groups, although time to LR was shorter in the no-axillary-surgery group (median 3.4 versus 6.5 years, p<0.05). All patients in the axillary surgery group and 94% of patients in the no-axillary–surgery group had surgical excision of their LR, and the use of subsequent radiation and systemic therapy was similar between groups. At a median follow-up of 4.2 years from the time of LR, the rates of axillary failure, non-axillary failure, distant metastasis and death were low and did not differ between groups. Conclusions among breast cancer patients with LR and clinically negative nodes, our results question the value of axillary restaging but invite confirmation in larger patient cohorts. Since randomized trials support the value of systemic therapy for all patients with invasive LR, reoperative SLNB, although feasible, may not be necessary. PMID:26644258

  9. Extra-nodal extension of sentinel lymph node metastasis is a marker of poor prognosis in breast cancer patients: A systematic review and an exploratory meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Nottegar, A; Veronese, N; Senthil, M; Roumen, R M; Stubbs, B; Choi, A H; Verheuvel, N C; Solmi, M; Pea, A; Capelli, P; Fassan, M; Sergi, G; Manzato, E; Maruzzo, M; Bagante, F; Koç, M; Eryilmaz, M A; Bria, E; Carbognin, L; Bonetti, F; Barbareschi, M; Luchini, C

    2016-07-01

    Invasive breast cancer is the most common malignancy in women. Its most common site of metastasis is represented by the lymph nodes of axilla, and the sentinel lymph node (SLN) is the first station of nodal metastasis. Axillary SLN biopsy accurately predicts axillary lymph node status and has been accepted as standard of care for nodal staging in breast cancer. To date, the morphologic aspects of SLN metastasis have not been considered by the oncologic staging system. Extranodal extension (ENE) of nodal metastasis, defined as extension of neoplastic cells through the nodal capsule into the peri-nodal adipose tissue, has recently emerged as an important prognostic factor in several types of malignancies. It has also been considered as a possible predictor of non-sentinel node tumor burden in SLN-positive breast cancer patients. We sought out to clarify the prognostic role of ENE in SLN-positive breast cancer patients in terms of overall and disease-free survival by conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis. Among 172 screened articles, 5 were eligible for the meta-analysis; they globally include 624 patients (163 ENE+ and 461 ENE-) with a median follow-up of 58 months. ENE was associated with a higher risk of both mortality (RR = 2.51; 95% CI: 1.66-3.79, p < 0.0001, I(2) = 0%) and recurrence of disease (RR = 2.07, 95% CI: 1.38-3.10, p < 0.0001, I(2) = 0%). These findings recommend the consideration of ENE from the gross sampling to the histopathological evaluation, in perspectives to be validated and included in the oncologic staging.

  10. Quantitative analysis of detected sentinel lymph nodes and the incidence of micrometastases using two different methods of surgical melanoma treatment--pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kaikaris, V; Samsanavicius, D; Maslauskas, K; Rimdeika, R; Ulrich, J; Kuprionis, G; Mickevicius, A; Pundzius, J

    2014-01-01

    The aim of our study was to compare the number of detected sentinel lymph nodes and the incidence of micrometastases between two groups of patients with cutaneous melanoma. 100 patients were divided in to two groups: group V and group D. Group V patients (50) with melanoma underwent a single-stage surgery--radical excision of the tumour with sentinel lymph node biopsy (study group "V"). Group D patients (50) with melanoma underwent two-stage surgery; initially primary diagnostic excision of the tumour (0.5 cm from margins of the lesion) followed by a radical re-excision of the post-operative scar and sentinel lymph node biopsy (study group "D"). Study groups "V" and "D" were tested for homogeneity with regard to age, melanoma thickness, location of melanoma, type of melanoma, and ulceration. The groups were found to be homogenous. The average number of removed sentinel lymph nodes in group "D" was 1.0 more than in group "V" (p < 0.05). The averages were 3.7 and 2.7 respectively with a SD of 1.8. The relationship between the SL node staining and type of surgery was (p < 0.05). 49.6% stained radioactive sentinel lymphnodes at the time of surgery was found in group "V", while 33.9% in group "D". Using two different early-stage cutaneous melanoma management techniques significantly more sentinel lymph nodes (p = 0.006) were detected using the two-stage surgery approach. However, there was no significant difference between the two approaches regarding the number of sentinel lymph nodes with micrometastases that were detected and excised.

  11. An Ultralow-Dose 1-Day Protocol With Activities Lower Than 20 MBq for the Detection of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in Breast Cancer-Experiences After 150 Cases.

    PubMed

    Kolberg, Hans-Christian; Afsah, Shabnam; Kuehn, Thorsten; Winzer, Ute; Akpolat-Basci, Leyla; Stephanou, Miltiades; Wetzig, Sarah; Hoffmann, Oliver; Liedtke, Cornelia

    2017-01-01

    Common protocols for the detection of sentinel lymph nodes in early breast cancer often include the injection of the tracer 1 day before surgery. In order to detect enough activity on the day of surgery, the applied activity in many protocols is as high as several hundred MBq. So far, very few protocols with an activity below 20 MBq have been reported. We developed an ultralow-dose 1-day protocol with a mean activity lower than 20 MBq in order to reduce radiation exposure for patients and staff. Here, we are presenting our experiences in 150 consecutive cases. A total of 150 patients with clinically and sonographically negative axilla and no multicentricity underwent a sentinel lymph node biopsy using an ultralow-dose protocol performed on the day of surgery. No patient received systemic therapy prior to sentinel node biopsy. After peritumoral injection of the tracer Technetium-99m, a lymphoscintigraphy was performed in all cases. Seven minutes before the first cut, we injected 5 mL of blue dye in the region of the areola. In 148 (98.7%) of 150 patients, at least 1 sentinel lymph node could be identified by lymphoscintigraphy; the detection rate during surgery with combined tracers Technetium-99m and blue dye was 100%. The mean applied activity was 17.8 MBq (9-20). A mean number of 1.3 (0-5) sentinel lymph nodes were identified by lymphoscintigraphy and a mean number of 1.8 (1-5) sentinel lymph nodes were removed during sentinel lymph node biopsy. Ultralow-dose 1-day protocols with an activity lower than 20 MBq are a safe alternative to 1-day or 2-day protocols with significantly higher radiation doses in primary surgery for early breast cancer. Using Technetium-99m and blue dye in a dual tracer approach, detection rates of 100% are possible in clinical routine in order to reduce radiation exposure for patients and staff.

  12. Detection and Pathologic Evaluation of Sentinel Lymph Nodes in the VX2 Tumor Model Using a Novel Ultrasound/Near-Infrared Dual-Modality Contrast Agent.

    PubMed

    Qu, Enze; Dai, Zhifei; Liang, Xiaolong; Qian, Yajun; Wang, Shumin; Ke, Hengte; Wang, Jinrui

    2015-07-01

    This study was conducted with the aim of developing a microbubble agent for near-infrared (NIR) fluorescence and ultrasound dual-modality contrast microbubbles applicable to imaging of sentinel lymph nodes in the VX2 rabbit tumor model. Specific ligands of phosphatidylserine (PS) and Cy7 NIR fluorescent dyes with long emission wavelengths (750-900 nm) were conjugated to the surface of ultrasound contrast microbubbles (MBs), termed Cy7 PS MBs. Ultrasound lymphography and NIR fluorescence imaging were performed using subcutaneous injection of Cy7 PS MBs to visualize the sentinel lymph node. Sentinel lymph node detection rates using the patent blue method, ultrasound lymphography and NIR fluorescence imaging were 95%, 79% and 95%, respectively, and sensitivity was 87%, 74% and 92%, respectively. With 2-D ultrasound, the diagnostic sensitivity for detection of sentinel lymph node metastases was 60% and the specificity was 74%, whereas Cy7 PS MB-enhanced ultrasound had a sensitivity of 80% and a specificity of 87%. The results indicate that dual-modality Cy7 PS MBs combined with ultrasound lymphography and NIR fluorescence may be useful in the detection of normal and metastasized sentinel lymph nodes. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of Lymph Node Ultrasound Prior to Sentinel Lymph Node Biopsy in 384 Patients with Melanoma: A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Olmedo, D; Brotons-Seguí, M; Del Toro, C; González, M; Requena, C; Traves, V; Pla, A; Bolumar, I; Moreno-Ramírez, D; Nagore, E

    2017-08-08

    Locoregional lymph node ultrasound is not typically included in guidelines as part of the staging process prior to sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB). The objective of the present study was to make a clinical and economic analysis of lymph node ultrasound prior to SLNB. We performed a retrospective study of 384 patients with clinical stage I-II primary melanoma who underwent locorregional lymph node ultrasound (with or without ultrasound-guided biopsy) prior to SLNB between 2004 and 2015. We evaluated the reliability and cost-effectiveness of the strategy. Use of locorregional lymph node ultrasound avoided SLNB in 23 patients (6%). Ultrasound had a sensitivity of 46% and specificity of 76% for the detection of metastatic lymph nodes that were not clinically palpable. False negatives were significantly more common in patients aged over 60 years and in tumors with a thickness of less than 2mm. The staging process using SLNB and ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy produced an increase of €16.30 in the unit price. Our cost-effectiveness analysis identified the staging protocol with ultrasound and SLNB as the dominant strategy, with a lower cost-effectiveness ratio than the alternative, consisting of SLNB alone (8,095.24 vs. €28,605.00). Ultrasound with ultrasound-guided biopsy for the diagnostic staging of melanoma prior to SLNB is a useful and cost-effective tool. This procedure does not substitute SLNB, though it does allow to avoid SLNB in a not insignificant proportion of patients. Copyright © 2017 AEDV. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer. Could it be avoided by performing a preoperative staging procedure? A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Moscovici, Oana Codrina; Magnoni, Paola; Malerba, Paolo; Chiti, Arturo; Rahal, Daoud; Travaglini, Roberto; Cariboni, Umberto; Alloisio, Marco; Orefice, Sergio

    2012-09-01

    The aim of this pilot trial was to study the feasibility of sentinel node percutaneous preoperative gamma probe-guided biopsy as a valid preoperative method of assessment of nodal status compared to surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy. This prospective study enrolled 10 consecutive patients without evidence of axillary lymph node metastases at preoperative imaging. All patients underwent sentinel node occult lesion localization (SNOLL) using radiotracer intradermic injection that detected a "hot spot" corresponding to the sentinel node in all cases. Gamma probe over the skin detection with subsequent ultrasonographically guided needle biopsy of the sentinel node were performed. The percutaneous needle core histopathological diagnosis was compared to the results of the surgical biopsy. Preoperative sentinel node identification was successful in all patients. The combination of preoperative gamma probe sentinel node detection and ultrasound-guided biopsy could represent a valid alternative to intraoperative sentinel node biopsy in clinically and ultrasonographically negative axillary nodes, resulting in shorter duration of surgery and lower intraoperative risks.

  15. Surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy in early breast cancer. Could it be avoided by performing a preoperative staging procedure? A pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Testori, Alberto; Meroni, Stefano; Moscovici, Oana Codrina; Magnoni, Paola; Malerba, Paolo; Chiti, Arturo; Rahal, Daoud; Travaglini, Roberto; Cariboni, Umberto; Alloisio, Marco; Orefice, Sergio

    2012-01-01

    Summary Background The aim of this pilot trial was to study the feasibility of sentinel node percutaneous preoperative gamma probe-guided biopsy as a valid preoperative method of assessment of nodal status compared to surgical sentinel lymph node biopsy. Material/Methods This prospective study enrolled 10 consecutive patients without evidence of axillary lymph node metastases at preoperative imaging. All patients underwent sentinel node occult lesion localization (SNOLL) using radiotracer intradermic injection that detected a “hot spot” corresponding to the sentinel node in all cases. Gamma probe over the skin detection with subsequent ultrasonographically guided needle biopsy of the sentinel node were performed. The percutaneous needle core histopathological diagnosis was compared to the results of the surgical biopsy. Results Preoperative sentinel node identification was successful in all patients. Conclusions The combination of preoperative gamma probe sentinel node detection and ultrasound-guided biopsy could represent a valid alternative to intraoperative sentinel node biopsy in clinically and ultrasonographically negative axillary nodes, resulting in shorter duration of surgery and lower intraoperative risks. PMID:22936189

  16. Dual-phase F-18 FDG PET-CT in staging and lymphoscintigraphy for detection of sentinel lymph nodes in oral cavity cancers.

    PubMed

    Sürücü, Erdem; Polack, Berna Degirmenci; Demir, Yusuf; Durmuşoğlu, Mehmet; Ekmekçi, Sümeyye; Sarıoğlu, Sülen; Çelik, Ahmet Orhan; Ada, Emel; İkiz, Ahmet Ömer

    2015-01-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the diagnostic role of dual-phase fluor-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) and planar lymphoscintigraphy in patients with oral cavity cancer (OCC). We also investigated the combined impact of F-18 FDG PET-CT and sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in decision making for patients with OCC. Sixteen patients (4 female, 12 male; age range, 29-81 years) were included in this prospective study. F-18 FDG PET-CT [1 (early) and 2 h (delayed) after injection] and planar lymphoscintigraphy (2h before the surgery) were performed for all the patients before surgery. The sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive values in F-18 FDG PET-CT for the early and the delayed scans and tumor/liver uptake (T/L) in the lymph nodes were calculated. Receiver operating characteristic curves were obtained for standardized uptake value (SUV)max and T/L. Histopathological evaluations revealed that 5 patients had metastatic lymph nodes (pN+) whereas 11 patients had benign lymph nodes (pN-). Out of 43 lymph nodes visualized as cN(+) in F-18 FDG PET-CT, 14 were pathologically positive for malignancy, whereas 29 were pathologically benign. There was no statistical difference between the N(+) and N(-) patients in terms of age, depth of primary tumor, and the number of mitoses. However, there was a significant difference between the N(+) and N(-) patients (P=.011) in terms of early and delayed F-18 FDG uptake of primary tumors. There was a statistically significant difference in the value of SUVmax between the early and the delayed scans for the malignant lymph nodes (P=.00). This study indicates that F-18 FDG PET-CT is a reliable method for the correct evaluation of primary tumor and N staging in OCCs. Delayed phase of F-18 FDG imaging may increase primary lesion detectability due to higher FDG uptake in primary tumors compared to the early phase of imaging. F-18 FDG PET-CT might demonstrate skip

  17. A dual-reporter fluorescent imaging approach can be used to estimate sentinel lymph node tumor burden

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tichauer, Kenneth M.; Samkoe, Kimberley S.; Gunn, Jason R.; Govindan, Ramesh; Viswanathan, Aravind; Hoopes, P. Jack; Hasan, Tayyaba; Kaufman, Peter A.; Pogue, Brian W.

    2013-03-01

    The presence of metastatic tumor cells in tumor-draining lymph nodes is an important indicator for cancer staging and therapy. Current clinical approaches of assessing lymph node tumor burden require invasive surgery that can be associated with nerve damage and other complications. In this study, a dual-reporter fluorescence molecular imaging approach, previously validated for quantifying targeted reporter binding in various human tumor xenographs, was assessed as a means of quantifying tumor burden in metastatic disease in mice. The utility of the dual-reporter imaging approach to measure tumor burden in sentinel lymph nodes was investigated in a bioluminescent human breast cancer xenograph model in 18 female nude mice. Once the presence of tumor in the lymph node was confirmed by bioluminescent imaging, fluorescently labeled anti-EGFR antibody and an untargeted antibody (labeled with a different fluorophore) were injected intradermally, proximal to the lymph node, and the uptake of the two reporters was imaged simultaneously with a with a flat-panel fluorescent scanner. Preliminary results demonstrated a statistically significant correlation between the dual-reporter measured tumor burden and the bioluminescent measure of tumor burden.

  18. Validation and limitations of use of a breast cancer nomogram predicting the likelihood of non-sentinel node involvement after positive sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed

    Alran, Séverine; De Rycke, Yann; Fourchotte, Virginie; Charitansky, Hélène; Laki, Fatima; Falcou, Marie Christine; Benamor, Myriam; Freneaux, Paul; Salmon, Rémy Jacques; Sigal-Zafrani, Brigitte

    2007-08-01

    Axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) for patients with positive sentinel lymph nodes (SLNs) is currently under discussion in the literature. The breast cancer nomogram (BCN), an online tool developed by the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC), aims to predict the risk of positive non-SLN in SLN-positive patients. The purpose of this study was to test the accuracy of the nomogram on patients with macrometastatic and micrometastatic SLN-positive biopsy findings. Patient characteristics, tumor pathology, and positive SLN characteristics were collected on 588 consecutive patients who underwent completion ALND. The MSKCC BCN tool was used to calculate risk of metastases for all 588 cases that included a subgroup of the 213 patients with SLN micrometastases. The BCN was performed for positive SLN biopsy findings regardless of the method of metastasis detection. Evaluation of the BCN was performed by the area under the curve method. The BCN applied to all 588 patients achieved an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) of .724 (range, .677-.771) compared with .76 in the MSKCC study. When the tool was applied solely to micrometastases found by hematoxylin and eosin staining and metastases found by immunohistochemistry, the area under the ROC was .538 (range, .423-.653). The MSKCC nomogram has been validated for all the patients having a metastatic SLN at the Institut Curie. However, this model was not reliably predictive for positive non-SLN in cases with micrometastic positive SLN.

  19. Prospective comparison of 3 gamma-probes for sentinel lymph node detection in 200 breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Classe, Jean-Marc; Fiche, Maryse; Rousseau, Caroline; Sagan, Christine; Dravet, François; Pioud, Raphaëlle; Lisbona, Albert; Ferrer, Ludovic; Campion, Loic; Resche, Isabelle; Curtet, Chantal

    2005-03-01

    Previous reports have shown that axillary sentinel lymph node (ASLN) radiodetection allows accurate axillary staging for patients with early breast cancer. Radioguided surgery implies the use of a gamma-probe to count the emitted radioactivity of marked ASLNs. Several gamma-probes are commercially available, each with its own properties. The clinical impact of the type of gamma-probe used for ASLN radiodetection remains to be evaluated. Three commercially available gamma-probes were evaluated: a scintillator with a bismuth germanate crystal (probe A), a semiconductor with a cadmium telluride crystal (probe B), and a semiconductor with a cadmium zinc telluride crystal (probe C). Two hundred patients with early breast cancer were prospectively enrolled to undergo ASLN radiodetection and axillary lymphadenectomy. ASLN mapping consisted of injecting (99m)Tc-sulfur-colloid around the tumor. For each patient, sentinel lymph nodes were counted successively with the 3 probes and the sensitivity of each gamma-probe was determined from ASLN residual activity. The results of detection rates and false-negative rates for each probe were compared. Mean residual ASLN activity was 52 kBq (range, 0.07-189 kBq). Sensitivity was compared among the 3 probes and found to be best for probe A. The detection rate of probe A was significantly better than that of probe B (93% vs. 86%, P = 0.05) but not different from that of probe C (93% vs. 90%). No differences in false-negative rates were observed among the 3 probes. ASLN detection rate depends on the type of gamma-probe used. Because failure to detect the ASLN leads to complete axillary lymphadenectomy, involving local morbidity and other sequelae, the type of gamma-probe must be considered important for sentinel lymph node radiodetection.

  20. Completion axillary lymph node dissection not required for regional control in patients with breast cancer who have micrometastases in a sentinel node.

    PubMed

    Yegiyants, Sara; Romero, Lina M; Haigh, Philip I; DiFronzo, L Andrew

    2010-06-01

    Completion axillary lymph node dissection (ALND) is not required for regional control in patients with metastases in the sentinel lymph node (SLN). Prospective cohort study. Urban teaching hospital. Fifty patients with breast cancer who underwent breast-conserving surgery, had an SLN positive for metastasis, and did not undergo completion ALND. Breast-conserving surgery with SLN biopsy, breast irradiation, and systemic therapy. Locoregional and distant recurrence and survival. The mean patient age was 57 years (range, 29-83 years). The mean tumor size was 1.9 cm (range, 0.4-5 cm). The mean number of positive nodes was 1.3 (median, 1; range, 1-2). Fourteen patients (30%) had macrometastases (>2 mm), and 33 patients (71%) had micrometastases. The mean duration of follow-up was 82 months (median, 79 months; range, 6-142 months). One patient with an SLN micrometastasis (1 of 33; 3%) and 1 patient with an SLN macrometastasis (1 of 14; 7%) developed an axillary recurrence with distant metastasis at 84 months and 28 months, respectively. There was 1 death (2%) not related to breast cancer. Patients with SLN metastases who do not undergo ALND have a low incidence of regional recurrence. Axillary lymph node dissection is not necessary for regional control in patients with micrometastatic disease.

  1. Ultrasound-Guided Fine-Needle Aspiration of Non-palpable and Suspicious Axillary Lymph Nodes with Subsequent Removal after Tattooing: False-Negative Results and Concordance with Sentinel Lymph Nodes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Hwa; Kim, Hye Jung; Jung, Jin Hyang; Park, Ho Yong; Lee, Jeeyeon; Kim, Wan Wook; Park, Ji Young; Cheon, Hyejin; Lee, So Mi; Cho, Seung Hyun; Shin, Kyung Min; Kim, Gab Chul

    2017-11-01

    Ultrasonography-guided fine-needle aspiration (US-guided FNA) for axillary lymph nodes (ALNs) is currently used with various techniques for the initial staging of breast cancer and tagging of ALNs. With the implementation of the tattooing of biopsied ALNs, the rate of false-negative results of US-guided FNA for non-palpable and suspicious ALNs and concordance with sentinel lymph nodes were determined by node-to node analyses. A total of 61 patients with breast cancer had negative results for metastasis on US-guided FNA of their non-palpable and suspicious ALNs. The biopsied ALNs were tattooed with an injection of 1-3 mL Charcotrace (Phebra, Lane Cove West, Australia) ink and removed during sentinel lymph node biopsy or axillary dissection. We determined the rate of false-negative results and concordance with the sentinel lymph nodes by a retrospective review of surgical and pathologic findings. The association of false-negative results with clinical and imaging factors was evaluated using logistic regression. Of the 61 ALNs with negative results for US-guided FNA, 13 (21%) had metastases on final pathology. In 56 of 61 ALNs (92%), tattooed ALNs corresponded to the sentinel lymph nodes. Among the 5 patients (8%) without correspondence, 1 patient (2%) had 2 metastatic ALNs of 1 tattooed node and 1 sentinel lymph node. In multivariate analysis, atypical cells on FNA results (odds ratio = 20.7, p = 0.040) was independently associated with false-negative FNA results. False-negative ALNs after US-guided FNA occur at a rate of 21% and most of the tattooed ALNs showed concordance with sentinel lymph nodes. Copyright © 2017 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Axillary lymph node dose with tangential whole breast radiation in the prone versus supine position: a dosimetric study.

    PubMed

    Leonard, Kara Lynne; Solomon, David; Hepel, Jaroslaw T; Hiatt, Jessica R; Wazer, David E; DiPetrillo, Thomas A

    2012-05-18

    Prone breast positioning reduces skin reaction and heart and lung dose, but may also reduce radiation dose to axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Women with early stage breast cancer treated with whole breast irradiation (WBI) in the prone position were identified. Patients treated in the supine position were matched for treating physician, laterality, and fractionation. Ipsilateral breast, tumor bed, and Level I, II, and III ALNs were contoured according to the RTOG breast atlas. Clips marking surgically removed sentinel lymph nodes (SLN)s were contoured. Treatment plans developed for each patient were retrospectively analyzed. V90% and V95% was calculated for each axillary level. When present, dose to axillary surgical clips was calculated. Treatment plans for 46 women (23 prone and 23 supine) were reviewed. The mean V90% and V95% of ALN Level I was significantly lower for patients treated in the prone position (21% and 14%, respectively) than in the supine position (50% and 37%, respectively) (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Generally, Level II & III ALNs received little dose in either position. Sentinel node biopsy clips were all contained within axillary Level I. The mean V95% of SLN clips was 47% for patients treated in the supine position and 0% for patients treated in the prone position (p < 0.0001). Mean V90% to SLN clips was 96% for women treated in the supine position but only 13% for women treated in the prone position. Standard tangential breast irradiation in the prone position results in substantially reduced dose to the Level I axilla as compared with treatment in the supine position. For women in whom axillary coverage is indicated such as those with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy who do not undergo completion axillary dissection, treatment in the prone position may be inappropriate.

  3. Axillary lymph node dose with tangential whole breast radiation in the prone versus supine position: a dosimetric study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Prone breast positioning reduces skin reaction and heart and lung dose, but may also reduce radiation dose to axillary lymph nodes (ALNs). Methods Women with early stage breast cancer treated with whole breast irradiation (WBI) in the prone position were identified. Patients treated in the supine position were matched for treating physician, laterality, and fractionation. Ipsilateral breast, tumor bed, and Level I, II, and III ALNs were contoured according to the RTOG breast atlas. Clips marking surgically removed sentinel lymph nodes (SLN)s were contoured. Treatment plans developed for each patient were retrospectively analyzed. V90% and V95% was calculated for each axillary level. When present, dose to axillary surgical clips was calculated. Results Treatment plans for 46 women (23 prone and 23 supine) were reviewed. The mean V90% and V95% of ALN Level I was significantly lower for patients treated in the prone position (21% and 14%, respectively) than in the supine position (50% and 37%, respectively) (p < 0.0001 and p < 0.0001, respectively). Generally, Level II & III ALNs received little dose in either position. Sentinel node biopsy clips were all contained within axillary Level I. The mean V95% of SLN clips was 47% for patients treated in the supine position and 0% for patients treated in the prone position (p < 0.0001). Mean V90% to SLN clips was 96% for women treated in the supine position but only 13% for women treated in the prone position. Conclusions Standard tangential breast irradiation in the prone position results in substantially reduced dose to the Level I axilla as compared with treatment in the supine position. For women in whom axillary coverage is indicated such as those with positive sentinel lymph node biopsy who do not undergo completion axillary dissection, treatment in the prone position may be inappropriate. PMID:22607612

  4. TOPICAL REVIEW (Non-targeted) radioactive/fluorescent nanoparticles and their potential in combined pre- and intraoperative imaging during sentinel lymph node resection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buckle, Tessa; Chin, Patrick T. K.; van Leeuwen, Fijs W. B.

    2010-12-01

    One clinical precedent for the use of nanosized imaging agents is the localization of the tumor draining sentinel lymph nodes. In this application, radiocolloids such as 99mTc-NanoColl are currently used to plan the surgical procedure and to provide acoustic guidance during the intervention. Additional injections of dyes are common to provide optical surgical guidance. Bimodal imaging agents, which are both radioactive and fluorescent, have the potential to be used for both surgical planning and intraoperative fluorescence guidance towards the sentinel lymph nodes. This review provides an overview of the radioactive, fluorescent, and size properties of (non-targeted) bimodal nanoparticles, and their (potential) value in sentinel lymph node detection.

  5. Surgical anatomy of the internal thoracic lymph nodes in fresh human cadavers: basis for sentinel node biopsy.

    PubMed