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Sample records for post menopausal women

  1. Why Do Only Some Women Develop Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis?

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    AWARD NUMBER: W81XWH-13-1-0307 TITLE: Why Do Only Some Women Develop Post- Menopausal Osteoporosis ? PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: Marc D...Only Some Women Develop Post-Menopausal Osteoporosis ? 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-13-1-0307 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S...proposed project addresses a novel and potentially important mechanism of osteoporosis which may determine which women suffer the disease. Confirmation

  2. Osteoporosis management in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Christenson, E S; Jiang, X; Kagan, R; Schnatz, P

    2012-06-01

    Osteoporosis is most prevalent in women over the age of 50 as the hormonal influence of estrogen on bone health dissipates with the onset of menopause. The progressive changes in bone structure, quality and density lead to pathological fractures and an increase in morbidity and mortality among menopausal women. This review will examine the 2010 North American Menopause Society (NAMS) position statement and other recent publications to summarize the data and combinations of therapies used to treat women 50 years or older with osteoporosis. To review the latest research and guidelines for osteoporosis management we performed a PubMed search using the parameters Linked to free full text, Humans, Female, Review, English, Middle Age (45-64 years and 45+ years), Age 65+ years, and published in the last five years. Articles were sorted by relevance and hand searching of these articles was done to further increase the yield. While a perfect treatment has yet to be discovered to completely cure this progressive disease, many breakthroughs have been made in order to prevent fractures and improve quality of life. Calcium and vitamin D supplementation are recommended for patients undergoing pharmacological treatment, however, trials looking at their effectiveness have mixed findings. Bisphosphonates are considered the first line therapy in the treatment of osteoporosis and reduce vertebral fractures by 40% to 70% and non-vertebral fractures by 20% to 35%. Calcitonin showed promise during early trials in 2000 with a 33% reduction in fractures but these results have not been replicated and this therapy is now relegated to a second line treatment. Teriparatide is recommended for patients with severe osteoporosis and has been shown to reduce vertebral fractures 65% and non-vertebral fractures 53%. Selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) are another useful therapy resulting in a 55% reduction in vertebral fractures without any documented advantage when looking at non

  3. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia in post-menopausal women: pros.

    PubMed

    Iacovazzo, D; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hyperprolactinemia in women peaks during the 3rd-4th decade and then greatly decreases after the menopause. Apart from the effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin can act directly on bone metabolism. Hyperprolactinemia is a recognized cause of secondary osteoporosis, and treatment with dopamine agonists can lead to improved BMD. Moreover, hyperprolactinemia has been linked to weight gain and insulin resistance, which can be ameliorated following medical treatment. Although relatively rare, prolactinomas can be observed in post-menopausal women and are frequently large and invasive; dopamine agonists appear to be as effective in these patients as in younger women to induce reduction of prolactin levels and tumour shrinkage. Here, we review data potentially favouring medical treatment with dopamine agonists in post-menopausal women diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia.

  4. Cortical porosity exhibits accelerated rate of change in peri- compared with post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Burt, L A; Bhatla, J L; Hanley, D A; Boyd, S K

    2017-01-10

    The rate of change in bone density was not different between peri- and post-menopausal women. Differences in rate of change were observed in bone microarchitecture, specifically cortical porosity (Ct.Po), where peri-menopausal women increased +9% per year compared with the +6% per year for post-menopausal women.

  5. Serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber: differences between pre- and post-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Vijay; Kuo, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women and men. Psyllium, a soluble fiber has been known to reduce serum lipids. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether menopausal status would affect the serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber in women. Methods Eleven post-menopausal and eight pre-menopausal women with serum total cholesterol >200 mg/dL were included in the study. Subjects consumed their habitual diet and 15 g psyllium/d for 6 weeks. Psyllium was incorporated into cookies. Each cookie contained ≈5 g of psyllium fiber. Subjects ate one cookie in each meal. Results With psyllium fiber, total cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (≈5.2%, P < 0.05) in post-menopausal women but not in pre-menopausal women (≈1.3%). Also, there was a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol in post-menopausal women (≈10.2%, P < 0.05). There were no significant changes observed in concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B in both pre- and post-menopausal women with psyllium. Conclusion In this pilot study, post- and pre-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women responded differently to psyllium fiber supplementation. Post-menopausal women would benefit from addition of psyllium to their diets in reducing the risk for heart diseases. The results of this study should be used with caution because the study was based on a small sample size. PMID:18727833

  6. An exploratory comparison of vaginal glycogen and Lactobacillus levels in pre- and post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Mirmonsef, Paria; Modur, Sharada; Burgad, Derick; Gilbert, Douglas; Golub, Elizabeth T.; French, Audrey L.; McCotter, Kerrie; Landay, Alan L.; Spear, Greg T.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Previous studies have suggested that glycogen expression in vaginal epithelium decreases at menopause, resulting in reduced levels of lactobacilli. However, free glycogen in genital fluids and its relationship to Lactobacillus levels has not been compared in pre- and post-menopausal women. Methods 82 cervico-vaginal lavage samples were collected at different phases of the menstrual cycle from 11 pre-menopausal (4 HIV-uninfected and 7 HIV-infected) and 12 post-menopausal (7 HIV-uninfected and 5 HIV-infected) women over a 1–3 month period. Free glycogen was quantified in genital fluid. Lactobacillus levels were quantified by real time PCR. Estrogen and progesterone levels in blood were determined by ELISA. Results Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women. Across all samples, those from post-menopausal women had significantly lower levels of free glycogen than those from pre-menopausal women (median 0.002 vs. 0.065 µg/µl, respectively; p = 0.03). Lactobacillus levels correlated positively with free glycogen in both pre- (Spearman r=0.68, p <0.0001) and post-menopausal women (r=0.60, p <0.002). Samples from pre-menopausal women had higher Lactobacillus levels and a lower vaginal pH (median log=8.1; median pH= 4) than those from post-menopausal women (median log=7.1; median pH=4.6) although these differences were not significant. HIV status had no significant effect on these relationships. Conclusion Free glycogen was detected in both pre- and post-menopausal women and correlated with Lactobacillus in both groups. These results point to the complexity of the relationship between menopause and vaginal microbiota and indicate that more careful studies of the role played by glycogen are warranted. PMID:25535963

  7. Association between Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Depression in Post-Menopausal Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Chi Un; Kim, Mi Ran; Min, Jung Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Chang Uk; Lee, Chul; Paik, In Ho

    2010-01-01

    Post-menopausal women experience variable biological and psychological changes. The effect of reduced levels of estrogen can effect on post-menopausal depression. Estrogen triggers physiological responses by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Two subtypes of ER, ERa and ERb are now known. We investigated the significance of ERa and ERb polymorphisms and post-menopasal depression in this study. Forty three women with post-menopausal depression and 63 post-menopausal women without depression as normal controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to investigate genotypes of ERa and ERb polymorphisms. Genotypes of PvuII and XbaI polymorphism of ERa receptor were significantly different in patients with post-menopausal depression comparing with controls. Genotypes of ERb did not show association with post-menopausal depression. Our study showed that ERa receptor polymorphism had an association with depression in post-menopausal women. It suggests that investigation of ER genes and their functions might be important for understanding pathophysilogical mechanism of post-menopausal depression. PMID:20927313

  8. Reproductive history in relation to plasma hormone levels in healthy post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ness, R B; Buhari, A; Gutai, J; Kuller, L H

    2000-05-29

    We sought to examine the relationship between reproductive history and measures of selected gonadotrophins and steroid hormones among post-menopausal women. Previous studies have suggested that there is a negative correlation between parity and post-menopausal serum estrogens, which may be a mechanism by which pregnancies protect women from the development of breast cancer. We analyzed women who experienced a natural menopause within the Healthy Women Study cohort both 1 and 8 years after menopause. Lifetime reproductive history was obtained and blood was assayed for estrone, estradiol, androstenedione, testosterone, follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH) at 1 year post-menopause and for many of these steroid hormones at 8 years post-menopause. Also at 8 years post-menopause, a hip bone mineral density measure was obtained. Age at menopause related to a modest increase in estrone at 1 year but a decrease in estrone and estradiol at eight years. Adjustment for body mass index (BMI), oral contraceptive use, alcohol use, cigarette smoking, and education had little impact on these findings. There were no other internally consistent relationships between reproductive variables and steroid hormones or hip-bone mineral density. These observations do not support the hypothesis that parity acts to diminish endogenous levels of post-menopausal estrogens.

  9. Muscle strength and quality are associated with severity of menopausal symptoms in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jee-Yon; Lee, Duk-Chul

    2013-09-01

    Menopausal symptoms are common and affect the quality of life of menopausal women. Menopausal symptoms are associated with age-related conditions. Sarcopenia, loss of muscle mass and/or function, is also associated with several age-related conditions, suggesting that the severity of menopausal symptoms may be associated with sarcopenia. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between Kupperman index scores, a measure of menopausal symptom severity, and muscle strength and quality in peri- and post-menopausal women. Cross-sectional study. A total of 148 women participated. Biomarkers of metabolic risk factors were assessed along with muscle mass as measured with Dual-energy X-ray Absorptiometry. Handgrip strength was measured with isometric dynamometry. Muscle quality was calculated as the ratio of strength to muscle mass in upper extremities. Kupperman index scores correlated with the depression scale, handgrip strength, and specific force after adjusting for age and body mass index. Mean handgrip strength and specific force decreased gradually according to menopausal symptom severity. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the fourth handgrip strength and specific force quartiles were associated with the prevalence of severe menopausal symptoms with adjusted odds ratios of 0.14 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.68) and 0.09 (95% confidence interval 0.03-0.47), respectively. Lower handgrip strength was associated with severe menopausal symptoms. Although we could not determine causality, muscle strength and quality during menopause may be related to the severity of menopausal symptoms. Further interventional and experimental studies are required to understand the clinical and pathophysiological significance of our findings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. The Effect of Support Group Method on Quality of Life in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, M; Keshavarz, M; Khoei, ES Merghaati; Hosseini, AF; ESmaeilzadeh, S; Pebdani, M Amiri; Jafarzadeh, H

    2012-01-01

    Background Quality of life in post-menopausal women and menopausal symptoms are closely related concepts. Influence health education policy in order to promote health and adopt a menopause lifestyle requires alternative strategies, including health training programs with community – based interventions. The current study aims to survey the effects of support groups on quality of life of post-menopausal women. Methods: A blind field trial (2010) was conducted at Saadatmandii Clinical Center (Robat Karim, Iran). 110 women were selected randomly divided into test and control groups (consisting of 55 ones). Menopause specific quality of life questionnaire (MENQOL) was used for evaluation of life quality before and three months after intervention; there was no intervention in the control group. Data were analyzed by using SPSS/16. Qualitative variables were analyzed using chi-square tests and quantitative variables were analyzed using Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon test, paired T-test and independent t-test. Results: There was significant difference between vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, sexual aspects and life quality of this group pf women (P<0.001). There was no statistically significant difference in the quality of life of women in control group. Conclusion: According to the results method of support group can lead to improved quality of life for post-menopausal ones and it can be appropriate healthcare policy to promote health and improve life quality of this group of women. PMID:23304680

  11. Relationship between sleep quality and cardiovascular disease risk in Chinese post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chair, Sek Ying; Wang, Qun; Cheng, Ho Yu; Lo, Sally Wai-Sze; Li, Xiao Mei; Wong, Eliza Mi-Ling; Sit, Janet Wing-Hung

    2017-09-11

    Menopause is an inevitable stage affecting every middle-aged woman. China has a large and increasing group of post-menopausal women. Most post-menopausal women suffer from increased risks for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and sleep problems. Previous studies have demonstrated the associations between sleep disorders and increased CVD risks in general population. The current study is to examine the relationship between sleep quality and CVD risks among Chinese post-menopausal women. This study was a sub-study nested in a cross-sectional study that investigated the sleep quality of community-dwelling adults in Xian, Shaanxi Province, China. The Chinese version of the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI) and the Framingham 10-year risk score (FRS) were used to measure sleep quality and CVD risk among 154 Chinese post-menopausal women. Multivariate regression and logistic regression were used to determine the association between sleep quality and CVD risk. The participants (age: 63.65 ± 4.47 years) experienced poor sleep quality (mean score of global PSQI = 8.58) and a 10-year risk of CVD of 12.54%. The CVD risk was significantly associated with sleep duration (β = - 0.18, p = 0.04) and sleep disturbance (β = 0.33, p < 0.001). Women with good sleep quality (PSQI ≤5) were less likely to be at high risk for CVD (FRS > 10%) (odds ratio = 0.51, p = 0.04). Poor sleep quality might increase the CVD risk in post-menopausal women. Interventions to promote the cardiovascular health of Chinese post-menopausal women may need to include sleep promotion strategies.

  12. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p < .001). Prevention of weight gain in pre-menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase. © The Author(s) 2013.

  13. POST-MENOPAUSAL OSTEOPOROSIS

    PubMed Central

    Hogg, C. Alison

    1997-01-01

    Millions of women will be prescribed hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and be told that it will prevent osteoporosis occuring, despite the fact that there is doubt about its long term usefulness. Preventive measures outlined in this article are much more preferable, but need to be directed towards the whole population, not just menopausal women. The prevention of osteoporosis is an important public health issue which needs to be addressed now, not in the next century. This article explores the issues that surround the medicalisation of post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:17987149

  14. Treatment of insomnia with hypnotics resulting in improved sexual functioning in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Eraslan, Defne; Ertekin, Erhan; Ertekin, Banu Aslantaş; Oztürk, Ozgür

    2014-12-01

    This study sought to determine whether trazodone used in hypnotic doses, compared to the hypnotic agent zopiclone, had any specific positive effect on sexual function in non-depressive post-menopausal women with insomnia. Fifty (50) subjects participated in the study. Insomnia and sexual performance were evaluated before and after 4 weeks of hypnotic treatment. At week four, both treatments improved sleep quality to a similar degree. Sexual function also improved significantly with both treatments, with no significant difference between the groups. In post-menopausal women, sexual problems and sleep problems may be related and solving sleep problems may help sexual functioning, independently of depression.

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TUBERCULOSIS AND FEMALE HORMONE LEVELS IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Erbay, Gulru; Senol, Gunes; Anar, Ceyda; Meral, Ali Riza; Tuzel, Ozlem

    2016-01-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is an intracellular infection controlled by T-lymphocyte. After menopause, T-lymphocyte cells counts increase suggesting a possible link between T-lymphocyte cell counts and estrogen and progesterone levels. In this study we compared post-menopausal women with and without TB to determine any differences in estrogen and progesterone levels between the two groups. The study group consisted of 38 post-menapausal women hospitalized for TB at Dr Suat Seren Chest Diseases and Surgery Training and Research Hospital for Tuberculosis, in Izmir, Turkey. The control group consisted of 30 post-menopausal women without TB. Both groups were selected from patients without immunosuppressive diseases or malignancies in whom PPD testing was not contraindicated. The mean progesterone level in the control group was 0.3896 ± 0.2014 ng/ml and in the study group was 0.3607 ± 0.3006 ng/ml (p = 0.638). The mean estrogen level in the control group was 18.9873 ± 6.5332 pg/ml and in the study group was 26.2768 ± 14.3418 pg/ml; the difference was significant (p = 0.007). The body mass index in the study group was significantly (p = 0.034) lower than in the study group. In post-menopausal women, the mean estrogen level was significantly higher in participants with TB than those without TB.

  16. Comparative Analysis of Salivary Alkaline Phosphatase in Post menopausal Women with and without Periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Sophia, Khumukcham; Sudhakar, Uma; Jayakumar, Parvathee; Mathew, Danny

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Alkaline phosphatase is an intracellular destruction enzyme in the periodontium, and it takes part in the normal turnover of the periodontal ligament, alveolar bone, and root cementum formation and maintenance. Aim The aim of this case control study was to evaluate the enzyme Alkaline Phosphatase (ALP) level in saliva of post menopausal women with and without chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods In this study, 40 individuals, satisfying the study inclusion and exclusion criteria, were recruited. They were categorically divided, on the basis of gingival index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level, into two groups: Group I (post menopausal women with a clinically healthy periodontium, n=20); and Group II (post menopausal women with generalized chronic periodontitis, n=20). Clinical parameters assessed were Plaque Index (PI), Gingival Index (GI), Clinical Attachment Level (CAL) and Probing Pocket Depth (PPD). Unstimulated salivary samples were obtained in which the ALP concentration was measured using p-Nitrophenylphosphate, and 2-amino-2-methyl-1-propanol reagents in Beckman and Coulter, AU 480 auto analyser. Mann-Whitney U test was used to find statistical difference with respect to all clinical parameters such as PI, GI, CAL, PPD and salivary ALP levels. Results The mean ALP in saliva was found to be higher in Group II compared to Group I and the difference was statistically significant with the p-value of 0.008. Conclusion A noteworthy increase in the ALP concentration was seen in saliva in our study (Group II) may be due to increased periodontal inflammation in post menopausal women. Thus salivary ALP can be taken as an additional biomarker to early diagnosis, development and progression of periodontitis especially among post menopausal women. PMID:28274061

  17. Relationship between low back pain in post-menopausal women and mineral content of lumbar vertebrae.

    PubMed

    Folman, Yoram; Shabat, Shay; Gepstein, Reuven

    2004-01-01

    Until recently, chronic low back pain in post-menopausal women was commonly attributed to osteoporosis. This opinion has since been challenged on many counts, but controversy persists. The objective of this study was to examine this relationship. In 67 post-menopausal women, the mineral content of the lumbar vertebrae was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and the age-normalized bone mineral index (ANBMI), the Z-score, was determined. Mean ANBMI in 40 subjects who complained of chronic low back pain (Group 1) was compared with mean ANBMI in the 27 who did not (Group 2). Pain intensity and related disability were quantified using standard questionnaires. Their respective correlations with ANBMI index and age at onset of menopause were examined. Correlation coefficients and significance of group differences were examined by appropriate statistical methods. The results showed that the mean ANBMI in Group 1 subjects was 96.5 +/- 16.9%, in Group 2 subjects it was 88.6 +/- 10.0%. Neither pain intensity nor disability was correlated with ANBMI. A weak but significant positive correlation was noted between body mass index and intensity of low back pain (r = 0.37; P < 0.05). The occurrence and severity of chronic low back pain in post-menopausal women, and the disability thereof, appear to be unrelated to the mineral content of lumbar vertebrae.

  18. Do calcium supplements increase serum and urine calcium levels in post-menopausal women?

    PubMed

    Samozai, M N; Kulkarni, A K

    2015-05-01

    The frequent prescription of calcium supplements with vitamin D by health practitioners is a topic of concern globally. The present study was designed to find out whether the calcium supplements with vitamin D really affect serum and urinary calcium levels in post-menopausal women. The age-matched comparative study was performed among postmenopausal women who were already on and those who were not on calcium supplements with vitamin D for a period of time in relation to the estimation of the serum calcium and the urine calcium levels. Sixty healthy postmenopausal women were enrolled, with thirty among them forming the study group (SG) - who were on calcium supplements with vitamin D for a period of a month, three months, and up to twelve months - were studied and compared the results obtained with the age-matched control group (CG) of thirty post-menopausal women who were not on calcium supplements. The serum and the urinary calcium levels were estimated by using appropriate biochemical methods and the data were analysed using relevant statistical methods. The serum calcium levels did not vary significantly in SG in spite of consuming calcium supplements over a period of time, whereas the urinary calcium levels increased progressively (p value < 0.005) in those who have taken calcium supplements for a year compared to those who have taken for a month. Thus, the calcium supplements were of little significance on the serum calcium levels, but have a significant effect on the urinary calcium levels in post-menopausal women.

  19. Memory Decline in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women: The Potential of Mind–Body Medicine to Improve Cognitive Performance

    PubMed Central

    Sliwinski, Jim R; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a frequent complaint during the menopause transition and among post-menopausal women. Changes in memory correspond with diminished estrogen production. Further, many peri- and post-menopausal women report sleep concerns, depression, and hot flashes, and these factors may contribute to cognitive decline. Hormone therapy can increase estrogen but is contraindicated for many women. Mind–body medicine has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep, mood, and hot flashes, among post-menopausal women. Further, mind–body medicine holds potential in addressing symptoms of cognitive decline post-menopause. This study proposes an initial framework for how mind–body interventions may improve cognitive performance and inform future research seeking to identify the common and specific factors associated with mind–body medicine for addressing memory decline in peri- and post-menopausal women. It is our hope that this article will eventually lead to a more holistic and integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits in peri- and post-menopausal women. PMID:25125972

  20. Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_163625.html Post-Menopausal? Give Exercise a Try Study participants were fitter, felt better -- ... Feb. 16, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- After menopause, moderate exercise can help women manage hot flashes, become more ...

  1. Doxycycline effects on serum bone biomarkers in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Golub, L M; Lee, H-M; Stoner, J A; Reinhardt, R A; Sorsa, T; Goren, A D; Payne, J B

    2010-06-01

    We previously demonstrated that subantimicrobial-dose-doxycycline (SDD) treatment of post-menopausal osteopenic women significantly reduced periodontal disease progression, and biomarkers of collagen destruction and bone resorption locally in periodontal pockets, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. We now hypothesize that SDD may also improve biomarkers of bone loss systemically in the same women, consistent with previous studies on tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline) in organ culture and animal models of bone-deficiency disease. 128 post-menopausal osteopenic women with chronic periodontitis randomly received SDD or placebo tablets daily for 2 years adjunctive to periodontal maintenance therapy every 3-4 months. Blood was collected at baseline and at one- and two-year appointments, and sera were analyzed for bone resorption and bone formation/turnover biomarkers. In subsets of the study population, adjunctive SDD significantly reduced serum biomarkers of bone resorption (biomarkers of bone formation were unaffected), consistent with reduced risk of future systemic bone loss in these post-menopausal women not yet on anti-osteoporotic drugs.

  2. Doxycycline Effects on Serum Bone Biomarkers in Post-menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Golub, L.M.; Lee, H.-M.; Stoner, J.A.; Reinhardt, R.A.; Sorsa, T.; Goren, A.D.; Payne, J.B.

    2010-01-01

    We previously demonstrated that subantimicrobial-dose-doxycycline (SDD) treatment of post-menopausal osteopenic women significantly reduced periodontal disease progression, and biomarkers of collagen destruction and bone resorption locally in periodontal pockets, in a double-blind placebo-controlled clinical trial. We now hypothesize that SDD may also improve biomarkers of bone loss systemically in the same women, consistent with previous studies on tetracyclines (e.g., doxycycline) in organ culture and animal models of bone-deficiency disease. 128 post-menopausal osteopenic women with chronic periodontitis randomly received SDD or placebo tablets daily for 2 years adjunctive to periodontal maintenance therapy every 3-4 months. Blood was collected at baseline and at one- and two-year appointments, and sera were analyzed for bone resorption and bone formation/turnover biomarkers. In subsets of the study population, adjunctive SDD significantly reduced serum biomarkers of bone resorption (biomarkers of bone formation were unaffected), consistent with reduced risk of future systemic bone loss in these post-menopausal women not yet on anti-osteoporotic drugs. PMID:20348487

  3. Serum concentrations of selected endogenous estrogen and estrogen metabolites in pre- and post-menopausal Chinese women with osteoarthritis.

    PubMed

    Gao, W; Zeng, C; Cai, D; Liu, B; Li, Y; Wen, X; Chen, Y

    2010-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether serum levels of selected endogenous estrogens and their metabolites are involved in the pathogenesis of osteoarthritis in pre- and post-menopausal women with osteoarthritis. Sixty-four patients with osteoarthritis (OA) of the knee, 48 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the knee, and 48 healthy women were included in this study. Serum concentrations of estradiol and estrogen metabolites, such as 2- hydroxyestrone, 2-hydroxyestradiol, and 16α-hydroxyestrone, were measured by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Our results show that the serum concentrations of free estradiol and total 2-hydroxyestrone were significantly lower in pre-menopausal women with OA compared to the levels detected in the control groups (RA and healthy women). While serum concentrations of free and total estradiol in post-menopausal women with OA was significantly decreased compared to those of the control groups, the level of total 2-hydroxyestradiol significantly increased in postmenopausal women. Furthermore, the total 2-hydroxyestrone concentration positively correlated with the total estradiol level in pre-menopausal women with OA. In addition, the total 2- hydroxyestradiol level positively correlated with free and total estradiol levels in post-menopausal women with OA. In conclusion, estradiol and estrogen metabolites, including 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxyestradiol, were found in the sera of pre- and post-menopausal women with OA. Except for free and total estradiol deficiency, a decreased serum level of total 2- hydroxyestrone in pre-menopausal women and an increased total 2-hydroxyestradiol level in post-menopausal women with OA may also correlate with the pathogenesis of female OA.

  4. Evidence of good prognosis of hepatocellular adenoma in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Klompenhouwer, Anne Julia; Sprengers, Dave; Willemssen, François Etienne Johan Antoine; Gaspersz, Marcia Patricia; Ijzermans, Jan Nicolaas Maria; De Man, Robert Auke

    2016-12-01

    Hepatocellular adenoma (HCA) is a rare benign liver tumor, which typically develops in women in their reproductive phase and is associated with the use of oral contraceptives. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether follow-up of HCA can be safely terminated after the occurrence of menopause. Secondary, we studied the impact of the diagnosis HCA on health-related quality of life (HRQoL). This was a cross-sectional cohort study, including 48 post-menopausal women with HCA. Patients underwent ultrasound examination and the size of HCA was compared to size at the last follow-up imaging (CT, MRI or ultrasound). HRQoL was evaluated by the Liver Disease Symptom Index 2.0 and Short Form 12. Median time since last follow-up was 60.5months. In 44 patients 43.5% of the lesions were undetectable, 32.6% were stable in size and 19.6% became smaller. Mean diameter of HCA was 17.2mm compared to 35.9mm at last follow-up (p<0.001). There was a positive correlation between difference in size and time since last follow-up (p<0.001). No significant effect of HCA subtype on difference in size was found. Regarding HRQoL, study patients scored significantly lower on the mental component summary score compared to the general female Dutch population. HCA diameter became significantly smaller after the occurrence of menopause and as time progresses, this regression increased. This suggests that routine follow-up of HCA <5cm in post-menopausal women after subsequent follow-up is not required. Notably we found that patient's mental HRQoL was inferior to that of the general population. In this study we investigated if hepatocellular adenoma, a benign tumor of the liver that is found mostly in women and is associated with female hormones, regresses in size after the occurrence of menopause in female patients over 50years of age. We made an ultrasound of the liver lesion and found that the average size of the adenomas becomes significantly smaller. This could mean that female patients with

  5. Identifying post-menopausal women at elevated risk for epithelial ovarian cancer

    PubMed Central

    Urban, Nicole; Hawley, Sarah; Janes, Holly; Karlan, Beth Y.; Berg, Christine D.; Drescher, Charles W.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Palomares, Melanie R.; Daly, Mary B.; Wactawski-Wende, Jean; O’Sullivan, Mary J.; Thorpe, Jason; Robinson, Randal D.; Lane, Dorothy; Li, Christopher I.; Anderson, Garnet L.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE We developed and validated a hybrid risk classifier combining serum markers and epidemiologic risk factors to identify post-menopausal women at elevated risk for invasive fallopian tube, primary peritoneal, and ovarian epithelial carcinoma. METHODS To select epidemiologic risk factors for use in the classifier, Cox proportional hazards analyses were conducted using 74,786 Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) Observational Study (OS) participants. To construct a combination classifier, 210 WHI OS cases and 536 matched controls with serum marker measurements were analyzed; validation employed 143 cases and 725 matched controls from the WHI Clinical Trial (CT) with similar data. RESULTS Analyses identified a combination risk classifier composed of two elevated-risk groups: 1) women with CA125 or HE4 exceeding a 98% specificity threshold; and 2) women with intact fallopian tubes, prior use of menopausal hormone therapy for at least two years, and either a first degree relative with breast or ovarian cancer or a personal history of breast cancer. In the WHI OS population, it classified 13% of women as elevated risk, identifying 30% of ovarian cancers diagnosed up to 7.8 years post-enrollment (Hazard Ratio [HR]=2.6, p<0.001). In the WHI CT validation population, it classified 8% of women as elevated risk, identifying 31% of cancers diagnosed within 7 years of enrollment (HR=4.6, p<0.001). CONCLUSION CA125 and HE4 contributed significantly to a risk prediction classifier combining serum markers with epidemiologic risk factors. The hybrid risk classifier may be useful to identify post-menopausal women who would benefit from timely surgical intervention to prevent epithelial ovarian cancer. PMID:26343159

  6. Impact of Estrogen Therapy on Lymphocyte Homeostasis and the Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Flora; Rivera, Andrea; Park, Byung; Messerle-Forbes, Marci; Jensen, Jeffrey T.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET) on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1) young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception); 2) post-menopausal (at least 2 years) women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT) and 3) post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET. Although the numbers of circulating CD4 and CD20 B cells were reduced in the post-menopausal group receiving ET, we also detected a better preservation of naïve B cells, decreased CD4 T cell inflammatory cytokine production, and slightly lower circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Following vaccination, young adult women generated more robust antibody and T cell responses than both post-menopausal groups. Despite similar vaccine responses between the two post-menopausal groups, we observed a direct correlation between plasma 17β estradiol (E2) levels and fold increase in IgG titers within the ET group. These findings suggest that ET affects immune homeostasis and that higher plasma E2 levels may enhance humoral responses in post-menopausal women. PMID:26859566

  7. The effectiveness of conization treatment for post-menopausal women with high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

    PubMed Central

    CHENG, XIAODONG; FENG, YAN; WANG, XINYU; WAN, XIAOYUN; XIE, XING; LU, WEIGUO

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of conization in the diagnosis and treatment of high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN) in post-menopausal women. A total of 101 post-menopausal patients who were diagnosed with high-grade lesion CIN by biopsy and in whom conization was used as the primary treatment were examined and 202 pre-menopausal patients were studied as the controls. Clinical and pathological data including symptoms, cytological examination and HPV DNA test results before and after conization treatment were analyzed. Both the cytological abnormalities (57.9 vs. 58.5%, P=0.260) and the positive rate of the HPV DNA test (89.5 vs. 86.4%, P=0.812) did not show a significant difference between the post- and pre-menopausal group. The rate of satisfactory colposcopy was significantly lower in post-menopausal patients compared with pre-menosausal patients (23.2 vs. 68.9%, P<0.001). Post-menopausal patients presented a significantly lower diagnostic consistency between colpscopy-directed biopsy and conization (46.4 vs. 68.9%, P=0.004), and a significantly higher positive margin rate of conization (20.8 vs. 10.9%, P=0.020). A total of 10 of the 101 post-menopausal and 2 of the 202 pre-menopausal women were diagnosed with invasive cancer by conization and underwent further treatment. In conclusion, these data suggest that conization, as a conservative primary treatment, is not suitable for post-menopausal women with high-grade lesion CIN due to the lower rate of satisfactory colposcopy, lower consistency of diagnosis between colposcopy-directed biopsy and conization, and a higher positive margin of conization. PMID:23251264

  8. Association of LRP5 genotypes with osteoporosis in Tunisian post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Sassi, Rim; Sahli, Hela; Souissi, Chiraz; El Mahmoudi, Hejer; Zouari, Bechir; Ben Ammar ElGaaied, Amel; Sellami, Slaheddine; Ferrari, Serge Livio

    2014-04-30

    Osteoporosis is a highly heritable trait. Among the genes associated with bone mineral density (BMD), the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) has been consistently identified in Caucasians. However LRP5 contribution to osteoporosis in populations of other ethnicities remains poorly known. To determine whether LRP5 polymorphisms Ala1330Val and Val667Met are associated with BMD in North Africans, these genotypes were analyzed in 566 post-menopausal Tunisian women with mean age of 59.5 ± 7 .7 years, of which 59.1% have low bone mass (T-score<-1 at spine or hip). In post-menopausal Tunisian women, 1330Val was weakly associated with reduced BMD T-score at lumbar spine (p=0.047) but not femur neck. Moreover, the TT/TC genotypes tended to be more frequent in women with osteopenia and osteoporosis than in women with normal BMD (p=0.066). Adjusting for body size and other potential confounders, LRP5 genotypes were no longer significantly associated with aBMD at any site. The less common Val667Met polymorphism showed no association with osteoporosis. The Ala1330Val polymorphism is weakly associated with lower lumbar spine bone density and osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopausal Tunisian women. These observations expand our knowledge about the contribution of LRP5 genetic variation to osteoporosis risk in populations of diverse ethnic origin.

  9. Anastrozole Use in Early Stage Breast Cancer of Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Milani, Monica; Jha, Gautam; Potter, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary The majority of breast cancers express the estrogen receptor and depend on estradiol (E2) for their growth. Hormonal therapy aims at depriving estrogen signaling either by using selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERM)—that interfere with the binding of E2 to its receptor (ER)—or aromatase inhibitors (AI)—that block the aromatase-dependent synthesis of E2. While SERMs are recommended for both pre- and post-menopausal patients, AIs are indicated only for post-menopausal patients. For the past 20 years, the SERM tamoxifen has been considered the “gold standard” for the treatment of hormone receptor positive breast cancers. However, tamoxifen’s role is now challenged by third generation AIs, such as anastrozole, which exhibit greater efficacy in the adjuvant setting in several recently reported trials. This review will focus on anastrozole’s mechanism of action, dosing, pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and clinical applications. It will briefly discuss the clinical trials that determined anastrozole’s efficacy in the treatment of advanced breast cancer (ABC) and in the neoadjuvant setting. Finally, it will present the clinical trials that established anastrozole as a frontline agent in the treatment of post-menopausal women with hormone receptor positive early breast cancer. PMID:19794821

  10. Prophylaxis approach to a-symptomatic post-menopausal women: breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Aguas, Fernanda; Martins, Amália; Gomes, Tereza P; de Sousa, Mário; Silva, Daniel P

    2005-11-15

    Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women worldwide. Its frequency increases throughout the female lifespan. Epidemiological research has clearly identified important reproductive risk factors for breast cancer, including age at menarche, age at menopause, age at first-term pregnancy and nulliparity, which provide important clues to the hormonal origin of this disease. The widespread use of exogenous sex steroids as contraceptive agents and as hormonal replacement therapy has been a source of concern and generates discussion about their effects on breast health. Lifestyle changes, exercise or diet could play a role in primary prevention of breast cancer. Regular exercise, ingestion of adequate amounts of fruit and vegetables, limiting alcohol consumption, avoidance of obesity in post-menopausal women, and perhaps the use of olive oil, may all have a protective effect and should be considered by women. There is insufficient scientific evidence of the role played by phyto-oestrogens on breast cancer risk. Other preventive measures that include the use of drugs such as statins or aspirin should not be recommended until we have more information about their effects on the breast. Especially for high-risk women, all the aforementioned measures may be not enough, and chemo-prevention should be considered. The use of selective oestrogen receptor modulators (SERMs) to reduce breast cancer risk is still being evaluated. Tamoxifen was the first SERM approved for the reduction of breast cancer incidence in women at high risk. However its use has limitations, due to significant side effects. Raloxifene has been approved for the prevention and treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis and has provided excellent indications of breast cancer risk reduction, with a more favourable profile than tamoxifen.

  11. The relationship between changes in sitting time and mortality in post-menopausal US women.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Kuk, J L; Ardern, C I

    2016-06-01

    Prolonged sitting is linked to various deleterious health outcomes. The alterability of the sitting time (ST)-health relationship is not fully established however and warrants study within populations susceptible to high ST. We assessed the mortality rates of post-menopausal women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) observational study, a 15-year prospective study of post-menopausal women aged 50-79 years, according to their change in ST between baseline and year six. A total of 77 801 participants had information at both times on which to be cross-classified into the following: (i) high ST at baseline and follow-up; (ii) low ST at baseline and follow-up; (iii) increased ST and (iv) decreased ST. Cox regression was used to assess the relationship between all-cause, CVD and cancer mortality with change in ST. At the end of follow-up, there were 1855 deaths. Compared with high ST maintainers, low ST maintainers had a 51 and 48% lower risk of all-cause and cancer mortality, respectively. Reducing sitting also resulted in a protective rate of 29% for all-cause and 27% for cancer mortality. These results highlight not only the benefit of maintaining minimal ST, but also the utility of decreasing ST in older women, if current levels are high. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. Rice Bran Extract Reduces the Risk of Atherosclerosis in Post-Menopausal Vietnamese Women.

    PubMed

    Nhung, Bui Thi; Tuyen, Le Danh; Linh, Vu Anh; Anh, Nguyen Do Van; Nga, Tran Thuy; Thuc, Vu Thi Minh; Yui, Kei; Ito, Yukihiko; Nakashima, Yuri; Yamamoto, Shigeru

    2016-01-01

    We investigated whether pre-germinated brown rice bran extract containing acylated steryl glucosides (PSG) reduces the risk of atherosclerosis in post-menopausal Vietnamese women. A total of 60 post-menopausal Vietnamese women (45-65 y old) with high LDL cholesterol levels (over 140 mg/dL) were randomly divided into PSG (n=30) and placebo (n=30) groups. The subjects in the PSG group were assigned a daily intake of 6 capsules containing 50 mg PSG, and the subjects in the placebo group were assigned a daily intake of 6 capsules containing corn oil for 6 mo. Before baseline and after month 2, month 4, and month 6 of the intervention, we conducted anthropometric measurements, blood biochemical examinations, a nutrition survey, and physical activity, flow-mediated dilation (FMD), and cardio-ankle vascular index (CAVI) measurements. Serum LDL cholesterol concentrations were significantly reduced from 163.6±25.3 (mg/dL) to 135.9±26.8 (mg/dL) compared to the placebo group (p<0.001). FMD values of the placebo group were significantly reduced from 6.6±5.1 (%) to 4.7±2.6 (%) compared to the PSG group (p<0.05). Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α concentrations in the PSG group were significantly reduced from 19.8±11 (pg/mL) to 10.6±5.5 (pg/mL) compared to the placebo group (p<0.05). The findings suggest that PSG may improve LDL cholesterol, TNF-α levels, and FMD values. PSG might be considered in reducing the risk of atherosclerosis in post-menopausal Vietnamese women with high LDL cholesterol.

  13. Aromatase inhibitors and their future role in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed Central

    Lønning, P. E.

    1998-01-01

    Anastrozole is the first aromatase inhibitor to show a significant survival advantage over megestrol acetate in post-menopausal women with advanced breast cancer. The rationale for extending the use of aromatase inhibitors to the treatment of early breast cancer is based on the efficacy observed in the advanced setting, combined with good tolerability and a convenient dosing regimen. Furthermore, oestrogen deprivation by ovarian ablation (similar to oestrogen antagonism with tamoxifen) is already established as an effective adjuvant treatment in premenopausal women with modality breast cancer. Anastrozole produces a profound suppression of plasma oestrogen levels which is greater than that obtained with earlier aromatase inhibitors (formestane, aminoglutethimide) or megestrol acetate. This could account for the differences in clinical efficacy seen between anastrozole and megestrol acetate. In terms of benefits over other endocrine agents, anastrozole causes significantly less weight gain than megestrol acetate; it does not have the partial agonist activity of tamoxifen, and is unlikely to lead to tumour stimulation in patients resistant to tamoxifen or to exert proliferative effects on the endometrium. The lack of oestrogen agonist activity, however, may possibly have detrimental effects on bone mineral density and blood lipid profile. Current clinical trials are investigating the efficacy and safety of anastrozole in the early breast cancer setting. The results of these trials will help to determine whether anastrozole has any benefits over tamoxifen, the current treatment of choice in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer. PMID:9741783

  14. Metabolic alteration of urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women, and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background To evaluate the metabolic changes in urinary steroids in pre- and post-menopausal women and men with papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC). Methods Quantitative steroid profiling combined with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was used to measure the urinary concentrations of 84 steroids in both pre- (n = 21, age: 36.95 ± 7.19 yr) and post-menopausal female (n = 19, age: 52.79 ± 7.66 yr), and male (n = 16, age: 41.88 ± 8.48 yr) patients with PTC. After comparing the quantitative data of the patients with their corresponding controls (pre-menopause women: n = 24, age: 33.21 ± 10.48 yr, post-menopause women: n = 16, age: 49.67 ± 8.94 yr, male: n = 20, age: 42.75 ± 4.22 yr), the levels of steroids in the patients were normalized to the mean concentration of the controls to exclude gender and menopausal variations. Results Many urinary steroids were up-regulated in all PTC patients compared to the controls. Among them, the levels of three active androgens, androstenedione, androstenediol and 16α-hydroxy DHEA, were significantly higher in the pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. The corticoid levels were increased slightly in the PTC men, while progestins were not altered in the post-menopausal PTC women. Estrogens were up-regulated in all PTC patients but 2-hydroxyestrone and 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol were remarkably changed in both pre-menopausal women and men with PTC. For both menopausal and gender differences, the 2-hydroxylation, 4-hydroxylation, 2-methoxylation, and 4-methoxylation of estrogens and 16α-hydroxylation of DHEA were differentiated between pre- and post-menopausal PTC women (P < 0.001). In particular, the metabolic ratio of 2-hydroxyestrone to 2-hydroxy-17β-estradiol, which could reveal the enzyme activity of 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, showed gender differences in PTC patients (P < 1 × 10-7). Conclusions These results are expected be helpful for better understanding the pathogenic differences in PTC according to gender and

  15. [Effect of aromatherapy massage on abdominal fat and body image in post-menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Kim, Hee Ja

    2007-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to verify the effect of aromatherapy massage on abdominal fat and body image in post-menopausal women. A Non-equivalent control group pre-post test Quasi-experimental design of random assignment was applied. All subjects received one hour of whole body massage as treatment by the same researcher every week for 6 weeks. Participants also massaged their own abdomen two times everyday for 5 days each week for 6 weeks. The two groups used different kinds of oil. The experimental group used 3% grapefruit oil, cypress and three other kinds of oil. The control group used grapeseed oil. Data was collected before and after the treatment using Siemens Somatom Sensation 4, a tape measure and MBSRQ. Data was analyzed by ANCOVA using the SPSS/PC+Win 12 Version. Abdominal subcutaneous fat and waist circumference in the experimental group significantly decreased after aromatherapy massage compared to the control group. Body image in the experimental group was significantly better after aromatherapy massage than in the control group. These results suggest that Aromatherapy massage could be utilized as an effective intervention to reduce abdominal subcutaneous fat, waist circumference, and to improve body image in post-menopausal women.

  16. Sex hormones and adipokines in healthy pre-menopausal, post-menopausal and elderly women, and in age-matched men: data from the Brisighella Heart study.

    PubMed

    Cicero, A F G; Magni, P; Lentini, P; Ruscica, M; Dozio, E; Strollo, F; Borghi, C

    2011-01-01

    Sex hormones and adipokines seem to differently interact in both genders at different ages. To comparatively evaluate the serum level of adipokines and sex hormones in healthy non-pharmacologically treated premenopausal women, post-menopausal women, and elderly women, and in age-matched men. From the historical cohort of the Brisighella Heart Study we selected 199 adult healthy subjects (males: 89; females: 110), aged 62.5±12.4 yr. Men and women included in the age-class subgroups were matched for body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, blood pressure, heart rate, fasting plasma glucose, plasma lipids. Leptin did not differ among various age classes in men, while pre-menopausal women displayed significantly lower serum leptin than post-menopausal women (-6.7 ± 2.2 pg/ml, p=0.036). Post-menopausal women had significantly greater serum leptin when compared with age-matched men (+13.1 ± 2.0 pg/ml, p<0.001); the same was observed for elderly women when compared with elderly men (+11.2 ± 2.3 pg/ml, p<0.001). At any age, women had significantly lower serum testosterone/estrone ratio than age-matched men (p<0.01). Serum DHEAS was inversely proportional to age in both genders. The main predictors of adiponectin level are age in men (p=0.027) and BMI in women (p=0.003). The main predictors of leptin level are BMI and the testosterone/estrone ratio in both sexes (p<0.05). The testosterone/estrone ratio is also the main predictor of ghrelin levels in women (p=0.006). Sex hormones and adipokines show specific interactions in the two genders and in different age-classes in a representative sample of adult healthy subjects.

  17. Vitamin D receptor BsmI polymorphism and osteoporosis risk in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Bizeng; Zhang, Wei; Du, Shengchao

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Many studies have suggested that the vitamin D receptor polymorphism BsmI might be associated with the risk of osteoporosis development in post-menopausal women. However, the results have been inconsistent. The aim of this meta-analysis was to derive a more precise evaluation of the relationship. Material and methods Published literature from PubMed, EMBASE and the CNKI database was searched. Crude odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to assess the strength of any association. Results Ten case-control studies were included with a total of 1,403 osteoporosis cases and 2,144 healthy controls. In the overall analysis, no significant association was found between BsmI polymorphism and osteoporosis risk (BB vs. bb: OR = 0.76, 95% CI = 0.39–1.48; BB vs. Bb: OR = 0.90, 95% CI = 0.71–1.15; dominant model: OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 0.74–1.93; recessive model: OR = 0.83, 95% CI = 0.53–1.30). In the subgroup analysis by ethnicity, the results showed similar result that BsmI polymorphism m had no association with osteoporosis. Conclusions Results from the current meta-analysis suggest that vitamin D receptor BsmI polymorphism may not be a risk factor for osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. PMID:26925115

  18. VDR polymorphisms are associated with bone mineral density in post-menopausal Mayan-Mestizo women.

    PubMed

    Canto-Cetina, Thelma; Cetina Manzanilla, José Antonio; González Herrera, Lizbeth; Rojano-Mejía, David; Coral-Vázquez, Ramón Mauricio; Coronel, Agustín; Canto, Patricia

    2015-01-01

    Osteoporosis is characterized by low bone mineral density (BMD), which is determined by an interaction of genetic, metabolic and environmental factors. To analyse the association between two polymorphisms of VDR as well as their haplotypes with BMD in post-menopausal Maya-Mestizo women. This study comprised 600 post-menopausal Maya-Mestizo women. A structured questionnaire for risk factors was applied and BMD was assessed at the lumbar spine (LS) and total hip (TH) by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. DNA was extracted from blood leukocytes. Two single-nucleotide polymorphisms of VDR (rs731236 and rs2228570) were studied using real-time PCR allelic discrimination for genotyping. Differences between the means of the BMDs according to the genotype were analysed with covariance. Haplotype analysis was conducted. TT genotype of rs731236 of VDR had higher BMD at total hip and femoral neck (FN), and one haplotype formed by the two polymorphisms was associated with only TH-BMD variations. This difference was statistically significant after adjustment for confounders. The genotype of rs2228570 of VDR analysis showed no significant differences with BMD variations. The results showed that the TT genotype of rs731236 of VDR and one haplotype formed by rs731236 and rs2228570 polymorphisms were associated with higher BMD at TH and FN.

  19. Putative relationship between hormonal status and serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in pre- and post- menopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrera-González, María del Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Dueñas, Basilio; Martínez-Ferrol, Julia; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In breast cancer, hormonal changes are rather constant in post-menopausal women since they tend to vary only over long time spans. However, in pre-menopausal women, the development of breast cancer is associated with hormonal physiological variations. The aim of the present work was to analyse the changes in circulating levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in pre- and post-menopausal women that were healthy or with breast cancer, and their connection to serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase (Pcp) activity. We observed significant changes in the hormonal profile in post-menopausal women with breast cancer compared to the control group. In pre-menopausal women, we found significant changes in circulating GnRH levels with respect to the healthy group. Our present results support the existence of neuroendocrine misregulation that could be involved in tumour progression, with Pcp being a potentially new pharmacological target in breast cancer treatments. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Preference for wine is associated with lower hip fracture incidence in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past studies of relationships between alcohol and hip fracture have generally focused on total alcohol consumed and not type of alcohol. Different types of alcohol consist of varying components which may affect risk of hip fracture differentially. This study seeks to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption, with a focus on type of alcohol consumed (e.g. beer, wine, or hard liquor) and hip fracture risk in post-menopausal women. Methods The longitudinal cohort consisted of U.S. post-menopausal women aged 50–79 years enrolled between 1993–1998 in the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trials and Observational Study (N=115,655). Results Women were categorized as non-drinkers, past drinkers, infrequent drinkers and drinkers by preference of alcohol type (i.e. those who preferred wine, beer, hard liquor, or who had no strong preference). Mean alcohol consumption among current drinkers was 3.3 servings per week; this was similar among those who preferred wine, beer and liquor. After adjustment for potential confounders, alcohol preference was strongly correlated with hip fracture risk (p = 0.0167); in particular, women who preferred wine were at lower risk than non-drinkers (OR=0.78; 95% CI 0.64-0.95), past drinkers (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72-1.00), infrequent drinkers (OR=0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.88), hard liquor drinkers (OR=0.87; 95% CI 0.71-1.06), beer drinkers (OR=0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and those with no strong preference (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.89; 95% CI 0.73-1.10). Conclusions Preference of alcohol type was associated with hip fracture; women who preferentially consumed wine had a lower risk of hip fracture compared to non-drinkers, past drinkers, and those with other alcohol preferences. PMID:24053784

  1. Association of LRP5 genotypes with osteoporosis in Tunisian post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Osteoporosis is a highly heritable trait. Among the genes associated with bone mineral density (BMD), the low-density lipoprotein receptor-related protein 5 gene (LRP5) has been consistently identified in Caucasians. However LRP5 contribution to osteoporosis in populations of other ethnicities remains poorly known. Methods To determine whether LRP5 polymorphisms Ala1330Val and Val667Met are associated with BMD in North Africans, these genotypes were analyzed in 566 post-menopausal Tunisian women with mean age of 59.5 ± 7.7 years, of which 59.1% have low bone mass (T-score < −1 at spine or hip). Results In post-menopausal Tunisian women, 1330Val was weakly associated with reduced BMD T-score at lumbar spine (p = 0.047) but not femur neck. Moreover, the TT/TC genotypes tended to be more frequent in women with osteopenia and osteoporosis than in women with normal BMD (p = 0.066). Adjusting for body size and other potential confounders, LRP5 genotypes were no longer significantly associated with aBMD at any site. Conclusions The less common Val667Met polymorphism showed no association with osteoporosis. The Ala1330Val polymorphism is weakly associated with lower lumbar spine bone density and osteopenia/osteoporosis in postmenopausal Tunisian women. These observations expand our knowledge about the contribution of LRP5 genetic variation to osteoporosis risk in populations of diverse ethnic origin. PMID:24885293

  2. Hormone replacement therapy for preventing cardiovascular disease in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Sanchez, Rafael Gabriel; Sanchez Gomez, Luis Maria; Carmona, Loreto; Figuls, Marta Roqué i; Cosp, Xavier Bonfill

    2014-01-01

    Background There is apparently compelling evidence, from observational studies, that hormone replacement therapy (HRT) may have benefits in reducing cardiovascular events in post-menopausal women. However, these observational data are subject to biases and confounding and require support from formally designed randomised controlled trials of the effects of HRT on cardiovascular disease risk. Objectives To assess the effects of HRT for the primary and secondary prevention of cardiovascular diseases in post-menopausal women. Search methods We searched MEDLINE (1998 to December 2002)), EMBASE (1998 to December 2002), the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (CCTR) (Issue 4 2002), the National Research Register (1998 to present), ClinicalTrials.gov (1998 to present), and the database of Spanish Clinical Trials (1998 to present) and reference lists of articles. Selection criteria Randomised controlled trials comparing HRT with controls (placebo or no treatment) with a minimum follow up of 6 months for treating or preventing cardiovascular disease in postmenopausal women with or without cardiovascular disease. Data collection and analysis Three independent reviewers extracted information from the articles, solving discrepancies by consensus. All outcomes studied were dichotomous. Risk ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated for each study and plotted. Random effects meta-analysis was used in efficacy outcomes (cardiovascular events) and fixed-effects meta-analysis in variables regarding side effects (deep venous thrombosis). Main results No protective effect of HRT was seen for any of the cardiovascular outcomes assessed: all cause mortality, cardiovascular death, non-fatal MI, venous thromboemboli or stroke. Higher risks of venous thromboembolic events (Relative risk (RR) 2.15, 95% CI 1.61 to 2.86), pulmonary embolus (RR 2.15, 95% CI 1.41 to 3.28), and stroke (RR 1.44, 95% CI 1.10 to 1.89) was found in those randomised to HRT compared with placebo. No

  3. Anthropometrics, body shape over 12 years and risk of cancer events in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Fagherazzi, Guy; Vilier, Alice; Balkau, Beverley; Clavel-Chapelon, Françoise; Magliano, Dianna J

    2013-08-01

    Studies of anthropometry and cancer have focused on body mass index (BMI). Relations between weight, waist (WC) and hip circumferences (HC), birth length and adult height with cancer are less well studied. Women from the French E3N study, born between 1925 and 1950, were followed biennially from 1995 until 2008. Body shape was classed into four groups based on median WC and HC at baseline. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated by Cox proportional hazards regression models. Over the 12 years of follow-up, 7,247 of 63,798 women developed cancer. As WC increased, we found a trend for decreasing cancer risk in pre-menopausal women, which reversed to an increasing risk in post-menopausal women. This remained unchanged after further adjustment for HC /or height [HR: 0.72 (0.52-1.00) before menopause and 1.17 (1.04-1.31) in the 5th vs. 1st quintile of HC], and were similar after exclusion of breast cancer. We showed that large body shape decreased cancer risk before menopause and increased it after [HR: 0.87 (0.73-1.02) and 1.11 (1.04-1.17), respectively, in women with large waist and hips compared to small waist and hips]. Adult height was associated with an non-significant increase in cancer in pre-menopause and a significant cancer risk in menopause, independent of other anthropometric characteristics [5th vs. 1st quintile [HR: 1.24 (0.98-1.56) and 1.20 (1.10-1.30)], respectively as was long birth length in post-menopausal women [HR: 1.18 (1.07-1.30) compared to medium birth length]. These results suggest independent roles of height and WC on cancer risk, through different pathways.

  4. [Association between cardiovascular risk and lycopene consumption in pre- and post-menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Torresani, María Elena

    2009-06-01

    This work aimed at assessing association between cardiovascular risk (CVR) and lycopene intake in pre- and post-menopausal women, as well as its correlation with LDL-C and HDL-C values and waist circumference (WC). A transversal design of comparison and correlation was carried out for independent samples. A 316 women (40-65 y) sample attending nutritional consultation at a Research Foundation for Endocrino Metabollic Diseases in Buenos Aires city (2005-2007) was randomized according to biological stage (35.8% premenopausal and 64.2% postmenopausal women). CVR was obtained based on Framingham Score and lycopene intake (source food and all lycopene containing food) according to weekly consumption frequency (mg/d and weekly/servings). Association between variables was calculated with the Student Test, Fisher Test and Pearson Correlation Coefficient (alpha significance level: 0.05). At both biological stages and for each CVR category, an inverse relationship was observed with lycopene intake, but only in premenopausal women with low CVR (Category III), lycopene intake was significantly greater than in those women who had moderate CVR (Category II). There was a significant correlation in postmenopausal women between LDL-C values and lycopene intake supplied by source food. However, in both biological stages a significant correlation was found between LDL-C values and all lycopene containing food consumption. No significant correlation was found between lycopene intake, HDL-C values and WC. These findings point out the relevances of a preventive nutritional approach at woman's different biological stages.

  5. Comparison of Gabapentin with Estrogen for treatment of hot flashes in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Allameh, Zahra; Rouholamin, Safoura; Valaie, Sonia

    2013-04-01

    Various non-hormonal agents have been used for the treatment of hot flashes in women with menopause. Some studies have reported that gabapentin appears to be an effective and well-tolerated treatment modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the treatment with gabapentin is effective in reducing hot flash frequency and severity and also to compare gabapentin 100 mg/day, 300 mg/day and conjugated estrogen in this regards. In this comparative clinical trial, 100 post-menopausal women attending outpatient clinics of Isfahan University hospitals were included from April 2008 to February 2009. Participants randomly received gabapentin 300 mg/day, gabapentin 100 mg/day, or conjugated estrogen 0.625 mg/day for 12 weeks. Frequency and severity of hot flashes and adverse effects were compared among the three groups. From all, 16 participants dropped out. There were no significant differences among the groups before intervention in terms of age, body mass index and baseline hot flash frequency and severity. Hot flash diaries were used to record the frequency and severity of hot flashes. After the treatment period, there was a significant decrease in both severity and frequency of hot flashes in all three groups. Post-hoc analyses showed that the frequency and severity of hot flashes were significantly lower in those who received gabapentin 300 mg/day or estrogen 0.625 mg/day compared to those who received gabapentin 100 mg/day. There was not statistically significant difference between those who received gabapentin 300 mg/day and those who received estrogen. Very few adverse effects, mostly gastrointestinal discomfort were observed in both gabapentin groups (8%). Gabapentin 300 mg/day could be useful to relieve hot flashes in women for whom hormone therapy is not suitable or when hot flashes do not respond to other therapies. Further researches are needed to determine the efficacy of gabapentin use for longer periods or at higher doses.

  6. [Diagnostic accuracy of malignancy risk index II in post-menopausal women with adnexal tumours].

    PubMed

    Treviño-Báez, Joaquín Darío; Cantú-Cruz, Javier Alejandro; Medina-Mercado, Javier; Abundis, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the diagnostic evaluation of adnexal tumours is to exclude the possibility of malignancy. The malignancy risk index II identifies patients at high risk for ovarian cancer. The cut-off value is greater than 200. To evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of malignancy risk index II in post-menopausal women with adnexal tumours in relation to the histopathological results. A total of 138 women with an adnexal mass were studied. The malignancy risk index II was determined in all of them. They were divided into two groups according to the histopathology results; 69 patients with benign tumours and 69 patients with malignant tumours. A diagnostic test type analysis was performed with respect to the results of malignancy risk index II ≤ 200 or greater than this. The percentages and 95% confidence intervals were calculated. The accuracy was 81.8% (75.5-88.3), sensitivity 76.8% (66.9-86.7), specificity 87% (79.1-94.9), with a positive predictive value of 85.5% (76.7-94.3), and a negative predictive value of 78.9% (69.7-88.1). The positive likelihood ratio was 590, and the negative likelihood ratio was 0.266. The malignancy risk index II has good performance in the proper classification of post-menopausal women with adnexal masses, both benign and malignant, with an accuracy of 81.8%. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  7. Hypomethylation of Alu Elements in Post-Menopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Jintaridth, Pornrutsami; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn; Preutthipan, Sangchai; Mutirangura, Apiwat

    2013-01-01

    A decrease in genomic methylation commonly occurs in aging cells; however, whether this epigenetic modification leads to age-related phenotypes has not been evaluated. Alu elements are the major interspersed repetitive DNA elements in humans that lose DNA methylation in aging individuals. Alu demethylation in blood cells starts at approximately 40 years of age, and the degree of Alu hypomethylation increases with age. Bone mass is lost with aging, particularly in menopausal women with lower body mass. Consequently, osteoporosis is commonly found in thin postmenopausal women. Here, we correlated the Alu methylation level of blood cells with bone density in 323 postmenopausal women. Alu hypomethylation was associated with advanced age and lower bone mass density, (P<0.05). The association between the Alu methylation level and bone mass was independent of age, body mass, and body fat, with an odds ratio [1]  = 0.4316 (0.2087–0.8927). Individuals of the same age with osteopenia, osteoporosis, and a high body mass index have lower Alu methylation levels (P = 0.0005, 0.003, and ≤0.0001, respectively). Finally, when comparing individuals with the same age and body mass, Alu hypomethylation was observed in individuals with lower bone mass (P<0.0001). In conclusion, there are positive correlations between Alu hypomethylation in blood cells and several age-related phenotypes in bone and body fat. Therefore, reduced global methylation may play a role in the systemic senescence process. Further evaluation of Alu hypomethylation may clarify the epigenetic regulation of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women. PMID:23990903

  8. Assessing the thickness of the vaginal wall and vaginal mucosa in pre-menopausal versus post-menopausal women by transabdominal ultrasound: A feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Balica, Adrian; Wald-Spielman, Daniella; Schertz, Katherine; Egan, Susan; Bachmann, Gloria

    2017-08-01

    As life expectancy increases, the number of women reporting adverse genito-urinary symptoms (genitourinary syndrome of menopause; GSM) from menopause, including vaginal dryness and sexual pain, also will increase. Current objective measurements of vaginal atrophy such as maturation index require vaginal swabs and are invasive; at present, no minimally invasive measurements exist. The purpose of this study was to assess whether total vaginal wall thickness (TVT) and total vaginal mucosa thickness (TMT) as measured by transabdominal ultrasound could qualify as additional objective markers of vaginal wall thinning which could be related to menopausal status. Women presenting for pelvic ultrasound had a transabdominal ultrasound scan performed to measure TVT and TMT at the level of the bladder trigone. In addition, a transvaginal endometrial lining thickness was measured. The ultrasound measurement data from 76 participants showed that there was a significant difference in the mean value for TVT and endometrial lining between pre- and post-menopausal women. The same difference in mean was not observed for TMT. TVT may be a reliable measure of vaginal thinning, which worsens with estrogen decline. These preliminary data also suggest that TMT does not have the same correlation as the TVT measurement. A larger sample is needed to further assess the usefulness and sensitivity of these measures and whether there is clinical and/or research usefulness in obtaining vaginal wall measurements by transabdominal ultrasound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Patient-reported stressful events and coping strategies in post-menopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Browall, M; Kenne Sarenmalm, E; Persson, L-O; Wengström, Y; Gaston-Johansson, F

    2016-03-01

    The objective of this paper was to explore what stressful events post-menopausal women with primary or recurrent breast cancer experience, how bothersome these events were and which coping strategies these women used. Data were collected from 131 patients diagnosed with primary or recurrent breast cancer. The Daily Coping Assessment was used. Thematic analysis was applied to form themes of stressful events. Six types of stressful events were extracted. The most frequently experienced events for women with primary cancer and those with recurrent cancer were 'distressing bodily symptoms'. The most bothersome event among primary cancer was 'everyday concerns' and in the recurrent group, 'distressing psychological reactions'. The most commonly used strategies were 'acceptance', 'distraction' and 'relaxation'. This study shows that women in different parts of the cancer trajectory differ in what they perceive to be stressful events when reporting them in their own words in a diary. The differences have an impact on the subsequent coping strategies they used. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Chronic vulvar pain in a cohort of post-menopausal women: Atrophy or Vulvodynia?

    PubMed Central

    Mitro, Susanna D.; Harlow, Siobán D.; Randolph, John F.; Reed, Barbara D.

    2017-01-01

    Background Although postmenopausal vulvar pain is frequently attributed to vaginal atrophy, such symptoms may be due to vulvodynia, a chronic vulvar pain condition. Given the limited research on vulvodynia in postmenopausal women, the objective of this study was to provide preliminary population-based data on the associations of vaginal symptoms, serum hormone levels and hormone use with chronic vulvar pain in a multiethnic sample of post-menopausal women. Methods We used data from 371 participants at the Michigan site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) who participated in the 13th follow-up visit. Women completed a validated screening instrument for vulvodynia and provided information on additional vaginal symptoms as well as demographic characteristics, and hormone use by questionnaire. Blood samples were obtained to assess hormone levels. We compared women who screened positive for vulvodynia and women with past or short-duration vulvar pain to women without vulvar pain, using Chi-squared and Fisher’s Exact tests. Relative odds ratios and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated using multinomial logistic regression models adjusting for age, body mass index, and race/ethnicity. Results Current chronic vulvar pain consistent with vulvodynia was reported by 4.0 % of women, while 13.7 % reported past but not current chronic vulvar pain or short-duration vulvar pain symptoms. One quarter of women who reported current chronic vulvar pain did not report vaginal dryness. Women with current chronic and with past/short duration vulvar pain symptoms were more likely to have used hormones during the preceding year than women without vulvar pain symptoms (13.3 %, 17.6 %, 2.0 %, respectively; p < .01). Increased relative odds of current vulvar pain symptoms were associated with each log unit decrease in serum dehydroepiandrosterone-sulfate, estradiol and testosterone levels at the previous year’s visit. Conclusion Some women who experience chronic

  11. Effects of a six-month walking intervention on depression in inactive post-menopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Bernard, P; Ninot, G; Bernard, P L; Picot, M C; Jaussent, A; Tallon, G; Blain, H

    2015-01-01

    Physical inactivity and advanced age are associated with risk of depressive disorders. Physical activity can reduce depressive symptoms in older subjects with depressive disorders. We investigated whether a walking intervention program may decrease the occurrence of depressive symptoms in inactive post-menopausal women without depression. A total of 121 participants aged 57-75 years were randomly assigned to a six-month moderate intensity walking intervention (three times a week, 40 minutes per session, supervised and home-based) or to a control group (waiting list). Inactivity was assessed using the Physical Activity Questionnaire for the Elderly. Depression levels were measured pre- and post-intervention with the Beck depression inventory (BDI). Several baseline measures were considered as possible predictors of post-intervention BDI score. Participants in the walking intervention showed a significant decrease in depression as compared with controls. Baseline cognitive-BDI subscore, subjective health status, body mass index and adherence were post-intervention BDI score predictors. A six-month, three-session per week, moderate intensity walking intervention with a minimal 50% adherence rate reduces depression in post-menopausal women at risk for depression due to physical inactivity. This type of walking intervention could be considered as a widely accessible prevention strategy to prevent depressive symptoms in post-menopausal women at risk of depression.

  12. Circulating oxidative stress parameters in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women suffering from breast cancer treated or not with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Sánchez-López, Estefanía; Cueto-Ureña, Cristina; Dueñas, Basilio; Carrera-González, Pilar; Navarro-Cecilia, Joaquín; Mayas, María Dolores; Arias de Saavedra, José M; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Martínez-Martos, José M

    2014-10-01

    We evaluate here the redox status in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women with breast cancer in order to understand the consequences of the hormonal alterations of menopause for the oxidative stress status, its modifications with breast cancer and the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC). To that, serum oxidative stress parameters (total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation), non-enzyme antioxidant defenses (total glutathione, uric acid and bilirubin) and enzyme antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) were measured in healthy women and in women with breast cancer divided according to their menopausal status and that received or not NC. Circulating estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH were also analyzed. We found that menopause itself modifies the redox status of healthy women, being most of these differences also reflected in women with breast cancer. However, several changes occur as a consequence of the disease. Furthermore, NC increases oxidative damage, decreases antioxidant defenses and eliminates the differences found in menopause. We conclude that the normal redox balance is disrupted by breast cancer but is also affected by the hormonal status promoted by menopause. In fact, NC nullifies the differences found between pre- and postmenopausal women in several antioxidant defense systems. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Gabapentin vs. low-dose transdermal estradiol for treating post-menopausal women with moderate to very severe hot flushes.

    PubMed

    Aguirre, Wellington; Chedraui, Peter; Mendoza, Jose; Ruilova, Ivan

    2010-05-01

    Gabapentin (GPT), a widely used drug in neurology, has been proposed as a non-hormonal option for the management of hot flushes in menopausal women with contraindications for estrogen therapy. To compare GPT versus low-dose transdermal estradiol (E(2)) for treating post-menopausal women with moderate to very severe hot flushes. A total of 45 post-menopausal women with moderate to very severe hot flushes were prospectively and single-blinded randomised to receive oral GPT 600 mg/night or transdermal 25 microg/day E(2) per week. Hot flush intensity and frequency were assessed with the Menopause Rating Scale and a numeric scale respectively at baseline and at 1, 4 and 8 weeks. Side effects were also assessed. Hot flush intensity and frequency significantly decreased for both groups at 1, 4 and 8 weeks of treatment as compared to baseline; however, this decrease was statistically more evident for the E(2) group. Although the percentage of hot flush intensity and frequency reduction at the end of the treatment was higher for E2, this was not statistically significant (68.2% vs. 60.6% for intensity and 70.1% vs. 58.9% for frequency, respectively, p > 0.05, NS). Encountered side effects included: drowsiness, dizziness, fatigue (GPT group) and mastodynia, vaginal spotting and a local allergic reaction (E(2) group). Compliance to treatment was 95.6% (GPT group) as compared to 90.9% for the E(2) group. Despite statistical significant differences, from a clinical point of view oral GPT 600 mg was as effective as low-dose transdermal E(2) in controlling moderate to severe hot flushes in post-menopausal women, and should be recommended as an alternative option in those with contraindications to estrogen therapy. More research is warranted in this regard.

  14. Mammographic parenchymal texture as an imaging marker of hormonal activity: a comparative study between pre- and post-menopausal women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daye, Dania; Bobo, Ezra; Baumann, Bethany; Ioannou, Antonios; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture patterns have been shown to be related to breast cancer risk. Yet, little is known about the biological basis underlying this association. Here, we investigate the potential of mammographic parenchymal texture patterns as an inherent phenotypic imaging marker of endogenous hormonal exposure of the breast tissue. Digital mammographic (DM) images in the cranio-caudal (CC) view of the unaffected breast from 138 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Menopause status was used as a surrogate marker of endogenous hormonal activity. Retroareolar 2.5cm2 ROIs were segmented from the post-processed DM images using an automated algorithm. Parenchymal texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, grey-level spatial correlation, and fractal dimension were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance in distinguishing between 72 pre- and 66 post-menopausal women. Logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of each texture feature in predicting menopause status. ROC analysis showed that texture features have inherent capacity to distinguish between pre- and post-menopausal statuses (AUC>0.5, p<0.05). Logistic regression including all texture features yielded an ROC curve with an AUC of 0.76. Addition of age at menarche, ethnicity, contraception use and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) use lead to a modest model improvement (AUC=0.78) while texture features maintained significant contribution (p<0.05). The observed differences in parenchymal texture features between pre- and post- menopausal women suggest that mammographic texture can potentially serve as a surrogate imaging marker of endogenous hormonal activity.

  15. Pharmaceutical care issues encountered by post-menopausal osteoporotic women prescribed bisphosphonates.

    PubMed

    Lai, P S M; Chua, S S; Chan, S P

    2012-10-01

    Pharmacists have been involved in providing comprehensive interventions to osteoporosis patients, but pharmaceutical care issues (PCIs) encountered during such interventions have not been well documented. Therefore, the aim of this study was to document PCIs encountered by post-menopausal osteoporotic women prescribed bisphosphonates. A randomized controlled study was conducted from September 2005-February 2009 in the University Malaya Medical Centre, Malaysia. This main intervention study measured the effects of pharmaceutical care on medication adherence, persistence, quality of life, knowledge and patient satisfaction. However, this manuscript is part of the main intervention study and focuses only on the PCIs encountered. post-menopausal women diagnosed with osteoporosis (T-score≤-2·5/low-trauma fracture) and prescribed weekly alendronate/risedronate. those with metabolic bone disease and could not communicate in English. The PCIs identified were collected via personal interviews or telephone calls, and each participant was followed-up for a period of 2 years. All PCIs were discussed with and confirmed by a physician. Of the 198 participants recruited, 64 (32·3%) experienced adverse effects because of bisphosphonates whereas one participant (0·5%) refused to start bisphosphonates because of fear of adverse effects. Most adverse effects [50 (74·6%)] were reported during the first 3 months of therapy with gastrointestinal problems being the main issue [23 (11·6%)]. Of the nine participants (4·5%) who discontinued bisphosphonates, only three agreed to take another medication. From the 97 PCIs identified, 77 issues could be classified as drug-related problems [according to the Pharmaceutical Care Network Europe Classification v6·2]. There were 87 causes, 178 interventions and 77 outcomes. The main problem and cause of the PCIs encountered were adverse drug events (83·1% and 74·7% respectively), whereas the main intervention provided was patient

  16. Predictors of mental health in post-menopausal women: results from the Australian healthy aging of women study.

    PubMed

    Seib, Charrlotte; Anderson, Debra; Lee, Kathryn; Humphreys, Janice

    2013-12-01

    To examine the extent to which socio-demographics, modifiable lifestyle, and physical health status influence the mental health of post-menopausal Australian women. Cross-sectional data on health status, chronic disease and modifiable lifestyle factors were collected from a random cross-section of 340 women aged 60-70 years, residing in Queensland, Australia. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used to measure the effect of a range of socio-demographic characteristics, modifiable lifestyle factors, and health markers (self-reported physical health, history of chronic illness) on the latent construct of mental health status. Mental health was evaluated using the Medical Outcomes Study Short Form 12 (SF-12(®)) and Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). The model was a good fit for the data (χ(2)=4.582, df=3, p=0.205) suggesting that mental health is negatively correlated with sleep disturbance (β=-0.612, p<0.001), and a history of depression (β=-0.141, p=0.024).While mental health was associated with poor sleep, it was not correlated with most lifestyle factors (BMI, alcohol consumption, or cigarette smoking) or socio-demographics like age, income or employment category and they were removed from the final model. Research suggests that it is important to engage in a range of health promoting behaviors to preserve good health. We found that predictors of current mental health status included sleep disturbance, and past mental health problems, while socio-demographics and modifiable lifestyle had little impact. It may be however, that these factors influenced other variables associated with the mental health of post-menopausal women, and these relationships warrant further investigation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. [Lipid profile modifications in post-menopausal women treated with testosterone gel].

    PubMed

    Fernández-Carvajal, Johanna; Luz-Araujo, Hedy; Guerra-Velázquez, Mery; Reyna-Villasmil, Eduardo; Santos-Bolívar, Joel; Torres-Cepeda, Duly; Mejia-Montilla, Jorly; Reyna-Villasmil, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    To assess lipid profile changes in post-menopausal women treated with testosterone gel. Thirty-six oophorectomized women on estradiol treatment who received transdermal testosterone gel (5mg daily) were enrolled into our study. Cholesterol, triglycerides, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), very low density-lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL-C), and lipoprotein (a) were tested before and after 6 months of treatment. Selected participants had a mean age of 50.9±4.6 years and a body mass index of 30.1±3.8 kg/m(2). Significantly decreased cholesterol levels were found after 6 months of treatment (204.5±35.1 mg/dL before treatment as compared to 183.1±21.9 mg/dL after treatment; p<0.05). A significant reduction was also seen in LDL-C levels after 6 months of treatment with testosterone gel as compared to baseline (130.9±29.7 mg/dL versus 118.5±21.3 mg/dL; p<0.05). No differences were found in triglyceride, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and lipoprotein (a) levels (p=ns). El gel de testosterona, asociado a tratamiento estrogénico en mujeres ooforectomizadas, produce disminución de las concentraciones de colesterol y LDL-C posterior a 6 meses de tratamiento, sin afectar las concentraciones de triglicéridos, HDL-C, VLDL-C y lipoproteína (a)Testosterone gel, associated to estrogen treatment in oophorectomized women, decreased cholesterol and LDL-C levels after 6 months of treatment, without affecting serum triglyceride, HDL-C, VLDL-C, and lipoprotein (a) levels. Copyright © 2011 SEEN. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  18. RESIDENTIAL PROXIMITY TO MAJOR ROADWAYS AND INCIDENT HYPERTENSION IN POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Whitsel, Eric A; Wang, Yi; Coull, Brent A; Hou, Lifang; Margolis, Helene G; Margolis, Karen L; Mu, Lina; Wu, Wen-Chih C; Johnson, Karen C; Allison, Matthew A; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2015-01-01

    Living near major roadways has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, presumably from exposure to elevated levels of traffic-related air and/or noise pollution. This association may potentially be mediated through increased risk of incident hypertension, but results from prior studies are equivocal. Using Cox proportional hazards models we examined residential proximity to major roadways and incident hypertension among 38,360 participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trial cohorts free of hypertension at enrollment and followed for a median of 7.9 years. Adjusting for participant demographics and lifestyle, trial participation, and markers of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the hazard ratios for incident hypertension were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.28), 1.03 (0.95, 1.11), 1.05 (0.99, 1.11), and 1.05 (1.00, 1.10) for participants living ≤50, >50-200, >200-400, and >400-1000 m versus >1000 m from the nearest major roadway, respectively (ptrend=0.013). This association varied substantially by WHI study region with hazard ratios for women living ≤50m from a major roadway of 1.61 (1.18, 2.20) in the West, 1.51 (1.22, 1.87) in the Northeast, 0.89 (0.70, 1.14) in the South, and 0.94 (0.75, 1.19) in the Midwest. In this large, national cohort of post-menopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was associated with incident hypertension in selected regions of the U.S. If causal, these results suggest residential proximity to major roadways, as a marker for air, noise and other traffic-related pollution, may be a risk factor for hypertension. PMID:26282224

  19. Administration of Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) Enhances Visual-Spatial Performance in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Stangl, Bethany; Hirshman, Elliot; Verbalis, Joseph

    2013-01-01

    The current paper examines the effect of administering Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on visual-spatial performance in post-menopausal women (N=24, ages 55-80). The concurrent reduction of serum DHEA levels and visual-spatial performance in this population, coupled with the documented effects of DHEA’s androgenic metabolites on visual-spatial performance, suggest that DHEA administration may enhance visual-spatial performance. The current experiment used a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design in which 50 mg of oral DHEA was administered daily in the drug condition to explore this hypothesis. Performance on the Mental Rotation, Subject-Ordered Pointing, Fragmented Picture Identification, Perceptual Identification, Same-Different Judgment, and Visual Search tasks and serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone, estrone and cortisol were measured in the DHEA and placebo conditions. In contrast to prior experiments using the current methodology that did not demonstrate effects of DHEA administration on episodic and short-term memory tasks, the current experiment demonstrated large beneficial effects of DHEA administration on Mental Rotation, Subject-Ordered Pointing, Fragmented Picture Identification, Perceptual Identification and Same-Different Judgment. Moreover, DHEA administration enhanced serum levels of DHEA, DHEAS, testosterone and estrone, and regression analyses demonstrated that levels of DHEA and its metabolites were positively related to cognitive performance on the visual-spatial tasks in the DHEA condition PMID:21942436

  20. Importance of bioavailable calcium drinking water for the maintenance of bone mass in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Costi, D; Calcaterra, P G; Iori, N; Vourna, S; Nappi, G; Passeri, M

    1999-12-01

    The aim of this research was to establish the importance of calcium intake through mineral water on vertebral bone density in women. To this purpose, we examined 255 women divided into two groups: those regularly drinking a high calcium content mineral water (group A; no.=175) and those using different type of water with a lower calcium content (group B; no.=80). Their dietary daily calcium intake was determined by means of a validated questionnaire (N.I.H. Consensus statement) and vertebral bone density was measured by Dual-Energy X-ray absorptiometry (Unigamma-plus ACN densitometer). Women in group A ingested a significantly higher quantity of calcium in water than women in group B (mean difference 258 mg; 95% confidence limits: 147-370 mg). The average bone density values were slightly but significantly higher in group A as compared to group B (mean+/-SD: 1.044+0,15 vs 1.002+0,14; p=0.03). In addition to age, BMI and menopausal status, calcium intake was a significant predictor of spinal BMD. These 4 variables explained about 35% of the spinal BMD variance. When the analysis was repeated separately for pre- and post-menopausal subjects, calcium remained a significant predictor in post-menopausal women (t=2.28; p=0.02), but not in premenopausal women. These results underline the importance of a lifelong daily calcium intake, resulting by the regular drinking of high bioavailable calcium water, in order to maintain bone mass after the menopause, in comparison to the use of a lower content calcium water.

  1. Influence of exercise training on heart rate variability in post-menopausal women with elevated arterial blood pressure.

    PubMed

    Davy, K P; Willis, W L; Seals, D R

    1997-01-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) has been reported to be an independent risk factor for the development of coronary heart disease in women and has recently been identified as a risk factor for cardiac sudden death and all-cause mortality. We have recently demonstrated that endurance-trained post-menopausal women demonstrate higher levels of HRV than sedentary control subjects. The purpose of the present study was to test the hypothesis that 12 weeks of regular aerobic exercise would increase HRV in sedentary post-menopausal women with elevated arterial blood pressure (BP) (i.e. either high normal BP or stage I hypertension). A secondary aim was to test the hypothesis that the increase in HRV with exercise training, if observed, would be associated with an increase in spontaneous cardiac baroreflex sensitivity (SBRS), an important physiological determinant of HRV. To accomplish these aims, we studied eight sedentary post-menopausal women (age = 54.5 +/- 1.3 years) before and after 12 weeks of aerobic exercise training (3.3 +/- 0.3 days per week at 70% +/- 2% of maximal heart rate for 43 +/- 3 min per day). Maximal oxygen uptake and body weight did not change (P > 0.05) with training, but percentage fat (35.5 +/- 2.6% vs. 34.5 +/- 2.3%, P < 0.05) decreased and treadmill time to exhaustion increased (9.8 +/- 0.5 vs. 11.3 +/- 0.5 min, P < 0.05). Supine resting levels of heart rate, RR interval and the standard deviation of the RR interval (time domain measure of HRV) were unchanged (all P > 0.05) from baseline levels after 12 weeks of aerobic training. Similarly, the high-frequency, low-frequency and total power of HRV (frequency domain measures) were also unchanged from baseline (all P > 0.05). SBRS was also not different before and after aerobic exercise training (10 +/- 2 vs. 13 +/- 3 ms mmHg-1 respectively, P > 0.05). In contrast, systolic and diastolic BP were reduced approximately 8 and approximately 5 mmHg with training (both P < 0.05) respectively. These

  2. Serum pentosidine levels after 3 years of bisphosphonate treatment in post-menopausal osteoporotic women.

    PubMed

    Hashidate, Hiroyuki; Kamimura, Mikio; Ikegami, Shota; Mukaiyama, Keijiro; Uchiyama, Shigeharu; Nakamura, Yukio; Kato, Hiroyuki

    2015-01-01

    The present study measured changes in plasma pentosidine and bone turnover markers in elderly patients with osteoporosis treated using bisphosphonate. The relationship between pentosidine and bone turnover markers and bone mineral density (BMD) was investigated. This study consisted of post-menopausal osteoporotic women who could be treated using bisphosphonate for 3 years were included in the present analysis. The study population consisted of 58 cases, all women, ranging in age from 53 to 86 years (mean, 67.1 years). Bisphosphonate treatment significantly increased BMD of the lumbar spine to 0.914 ± 0.141 g/cm(2) and BMD of the femoral neck to 0.708 ± 0.086 g/cm(2) after 3 years (p < 0.001 versus baseline). The mean BAP level was 27.3 ± 8.3 U/L in patients at baseline. After bisphosphonate treatment, BAP significantly decreased to 18.1 ± 7.2 U/L at 3 years (p < 0.001). Urinary NTX also decreased after bisphosphonate treatment. After 3 years of treatment, urinary NTX significantly decreased from 50.0 ± 19.0 nmol BCE/mmol Cr to 24.6 ± 10.2 nmol BCE/mmol Cr at 3 years (p < 0.001). Serum pentosidine levels were 0.0413 ± 0.0094 μg/mL at baseline and 0.0413 ± 0.0122 μg/mL after 3 years. They were not significantly changed by bisphosphonate treatment. Serum pentosidine levels were not changed by treatment with bisphosphonates. Thus, serum pentosidine may not be suitable as a marker of bone quality after 3 years of bisphosphonate treatment.

  3. Interaction between C-reactive protein and cognitive functions according to APOE gene polymorphism in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Gujski, Mariusz; Pinkas, Jarosław; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Humeniuk, Ewa

    2016-01-01

    Introduction A potential factor increasing the risk of the development of cognitive impairment with age is apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 carrier status. A subsequent factor which may increase the risk of development of cognitive impairment at an older age is the concentration of C-reactive protein (CRP). The objective of the study was to examine the relationship between cognitive functions and the concentration of CRP in post-menopausal women who were carriers of particular apolipoprotein E gene (APOE) polymorphisms. Material and methods A group of 402 women was recruited to the study. The inclusion criteria were: minimum two years after the last menstruation, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) concentration 30 U/ml, no dementi signs on Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA). The computerized battery of the Central Nervous System Vital Signs (CNS VS) test was used to diagnose cognitive functions. APOE genotyping was performed by multiplex PCR. The blood plasma CRP levels were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using Statistica software. Results The level of neurocognitive index (NCI) and cognitive functions in post-menopausal women depends on apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism (p < 0.001) and the concentration of CRP (p < 0.05). A negative correlation was found between CRP and NCI (p = 0.018), and the reaction time (p = 0.008) of women with APOE ε2/ε3. A positive correlation was observed between CRP and visual memory (p = 0.025) in women with APOE ε3/ε3, and verbal memory (p = 0.023) in women with APOE ε3/ε4 or ε4/ε4. Conclusions Apolipoprotein E gene polymorphism may modify the relationship between CRP concentration and cognitive functions in post-menopausal women. PMID:27904515

  4. Serum leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations in post-menopausal women: Is there an association with bone mineral density?

    PubMed

    Mpalaris, V; Anagnostis, P; Anastasilakis, A D; Goulis, D G; Doumas, A; Iakovou, I

    2016-06-01

    Adipokines and ghrelin exert well-documented effects on energy expenditure and glucose metabolism. Experimental data also support a role in bone metabolism, although data from clinical studies are conflicting. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the association of serum concentrations of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin with bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal women. BMD in lumbar spine and femoral neck, and circulating leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin concentrations were measured in 110 healthy post-menopausal women. Patients with secondary causes of osteoporosis were excluded. Osteoporosis was diagnosed in 30 (27%) women and osteopenia in 54 (49%). Serum leptin concentrations were positively correlated with both lumbar spine (r=0.343, p<0.01) and femoral neck BMD (r=0.370, p<0.01). Adiponectin concentrations were negatively associated with BMD at both sites (r=-0.321, p<0.01 and r=-0.448, p<0.01 respectively). No significant correlation between ghrelin concentrations and BMD was found. Osteoporotic women had lower body weight, body mass index (BMI) and leptin concentrations, but higher adiponectin concentrations compared with non-osteoporotic women. In multivariate stepwise regression analysis, the association of adiponectin concentrations with BMD remained significant only for femoral neck, after adjustment for body weight or BMI. An inverse association between adiponectin and femoral neck BMD was found in post-menopausal women, independently of body weight. The positive association between leptin and BMD was dependent on body weight, whereas no effect of ghrelin on BMD was evident. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Prevalence of metabolic syndrome in pre- and post-menopausal women: A prospective study from apex institute of North India

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sandeep; Aggarwal, Neelam; Joshi, Bharti; Suri, Vanita; Badada, Sanjay

    2016-01-01

    Background: The metabolic syndrome (MS) (syndrome X, insulin resistance syndrome) is a constellation of metabolic abnormalities and a complex predisease state that predicts future development of type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease. Menopausal transition and postmenopausal state are considered as a vulnerable period for developing MS, and this increased risk has been attributed to decreasing estrogen levels with an increasing risk of insulin resistance following menopause. Aims and Objectives: This study aimed to determine the prevalence of MS and its components in pre- and post-menopausal women from North India. Methodology: This is a cross-sectional study of 350 women in the age group of 45–55 years attending gynecology clinic in a tertiary center of North India. Details of sociodemographic data, menopausal history, reproductive, and medical profile were obtained. Then, waist circumference, body mass index (BMI), and blood pressure were recorded. A venous blood sample was collected for fasting blood glucose, triglycerides, total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. MS was defined according to the modified National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria. Results: The mean age was 49.09 ± 2.2 years in premenopausal and 49.54 ± 2.8 years in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of MS in the study group was 62.6%. Occurrence of MS was higher in older and obese women. Abnormal waist circumference was the most prevalent component (87%) of MS and in terms of odd ratio, correlation was highest for BMI followed by total cholesterol and waist-hip ratio. Conclusion: We should target obesity and deranged lipid profile by bringing out changes in lifestyle and dietary habits to decrease the higher prevalence of MS and the risk of cardiovascular diseases. PMID:28096640

  6. A randomized controlled study examining the effect of exercise on inflammatory cytokine levels in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tartibian, Bakhtyar; FitzGerald, Leah Z; Azadpour, Noushin; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh

    2015-03-01

    Elevated plasma levels of inflammatory cytokine are associated with body mass index, percent body fat and increased morbidity. Evidence suggests that higher levels of physical activity result in beneficial anti-inflammatory effects compared to a more sedentary lifestyle. Further, reproductive hormones are associated with inflammaotry cytokines. This study examined the effect of a 16-week low-moderate intensity exercise (EX) programme on reproductive hormones and inflammatory cytokines. Twenty-eight healthy, sedentary post-menopausal women were randomly assigned to EX (n = 14) or control (Con, n = 14) groups. The EX group completed low-moderate intensity treadmill training 25-30 min/day, up to 55% of HRmax, 3-4 days/week, for 16-weeks. Con maintained current physical activity level. Baseline and week-16 serum samples evaluated interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, C-reactive protein, estradiol, luteinizing hormone and follicular stimulating hormone. Post-intervention, the EX group showed a significant decrease in interleukin-1 beta, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, estradiol, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone levels compared to baseline values. No significant changes were observed in Con. Significant correlations were observed between IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and reproductive hormones, both before and after the exercise intervention. Findings suggest that a low-moderate intensity EX programme decreases cytokines in relation to reproductive hormones in post-menopausal women. These findings support the role of EX in reducing inflammatory markers and improved reproductive hormones in post-menopausal women. © The Author(s) 2015 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  7. Does menopausal hormone therapy (MHT), exercise or a combination of both, improve pain and function in post-menopausal women with greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS)? A randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Ganderton, Charlotte; Semciw, Adam; Cook, Jill; Pizzari, Tania

    2016-06-16

    Greater trochanteric pain syndrome (GTPS) is pathology in the gluteus medius and minimus tendons and trochanteric bursa that causes debilitating tendon pain and dysfunction, particularly in post-menopausal women. Limited evidence in clinical studies suggests hormone changes after menopause may have a negative effect on tendon. This protocol describes a randomised controlled trial comparing the effectiveness of menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) and exercise therapy in reducing pain and dysfunction associated with GTPS in post-menopausal women. One hundred and sixteen post-menopausal women will be recruited and randomised to receive one of two exercise programs (sham or targeted intervention exercise) and transdermal creams (MHT cream containing oestradiol 50mcg and norethisterone acetate 140mcg or placebo cream). Interventions will be 12-weeks in duration and outcomes will be examined at baseline, 12-weeks and 52-weeks. The primary outcome measure will be the VISA-G questionnaire and secondary outcomes measures will include three hip pain and function questionnaires (Hip dysfunction and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score, Oxford Hip Score, Lateral Hip Pain questionnaire), a global change in symptom questionnaire (using a 15-point Likert scale) and a quality of life measure (AQoL-8D questionnaire). Data will be analysed using the intention to treat principle. This study is the first randomised controlled trial to compare the effectiveness of menopausal hormone therapy therapy alone, and with the combination of exercise therapy, to treat pain and dysfunction associated with GTPS. This study has been pragmatically designed to ensure that the interventions in this study can be integrated into policy and clinical practice if found to be effective in the treatment of GTPS in post-menopausal women. If successful, there is potential for this treatment regimen to be explored in future studies of other persistent tendon conditions in the post-menopausal population. Australian New

  8. Pyometra presenting in conjunction with bowel cancer in a post-menopausal women: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Soleymani majd, Hooman; Watermeyer, Sean; Ismail, Lamiese

    2008-01-01

    This case describes a 71 year old, post-menopausal woman who developed vaginal discharge. This complaint ultimately led to the discovery of bowel cancer in conjunction with a large sterile pyometra. The pyometra was not due to genital malignancy. The most likely conclusion is that the pyometra may have arisen as an inflammatory response to the adjacent bowel pathology. This case report highlights the need for clinicians to consider non-gynaecological cancer as a possible cause for otherwise unexplained pyometra. PMID:18606021

  9. Adult weight gain, fat distribution and mammographic density in Spanish pre- and post-menopausal women (DDM-Spain).

    PubMed

    Pollán, Marina; Lope, Virginia; Miranda-García, Josefa; García, Milagros; Casanova, Francisco; Sánchez-Contador, Carmen; Santamariña, Carmen; Moreo, Pilar; Vidal, Carmen; Peris, Mercé; Moreno, María Pilar; Vázquez-Carrete, José Antonio; Collado, Francisca; Pedraz-Pingarrón, Carmen; Ascunce, Nieves; Salas-Trejo, Dolores; Aragonés, Nuria; Pérez-Gómez, Beatriz; Ruiz-Perales, Francisco

    2012-07-01

    High mammographic density (MD) is a phenotype risk marker for breast cancer. Body mass index (BMI) is inversely associated with MD, with the breast being a fat storage site. We investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution and adult weight gain on MD, taking age, BMI and other confounders into account. Because visceral adiposity and BMI are associated with breast cancer only after menopause, differences in pre- and post-menopausal women were also explored. We recruited 3,584 women aged 45-68 years within the Spanish breast cancer screening network. Demographic, reproductive, family and personal history data were collected by purpose-trained staff, who measured current weight, height, waist and hip circumferences under the same protocol and with the same tools. MD was assessed in the left craniocaudal view using Boyd's Semiquantitative Scale. Association between waist-to-hip ratio, adult weight gain (difference between current weight and self-reported weight at 18 years) and MD was quantified by ordinal logistic regression, with random center-specific intercepts. Models were adjusted for age, BMI, breast size, time since menopause, parity, family history of breast cancer and hormonal replacement therapy use. Natural splines were used to describe the shape of the relationship between these two variables and MD. Waist-to-hip ratio was inversely associated with MD, and the effect was more pronounced in pre-menopausal (OR = 0.53 per 0.1 units; 95 % CI = 0.42-0.66) than in post-menopausal women (OR = 0.73; 95 % CI = 0.65-0.82) (P of heterogeneity = 0.010). In contrast, adult weight gain displayed a positive association with MD, which was similar in both groups (OR = 1.17 per 6 kg; 95 % CI = 1.11-1.23). Women who had gained more than 24 kg displayed higher MD (OR = 2.05; 95 % CI = 1.53-2.73). MD was also evaluated using Wolfe's and Tabár's classifications, with similar results being obtained. Once BMI, fat distribution and other confounders were considered

  10. The theory of modulated hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Teresa S.; Haraldsen, Jason T.

    2012-03-01

    We present a theory that questions the standard of care for pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Through the use of modulated hormones to mimic the natural multiphasic fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone cycles of healthy young women, it can be expected that patients will not only exhibit increased quality of life such as better sleep, well-being, and libido, but also memory improvement and less joint pain. Additionally, this regimen may engage genetic pathways that protect women in youth from breast cancers. We present a mathematical basis for the coupling of the hormone cycles through the use of Gaussian curves that provides the foundation of a new format of hormone replacement in women.

  11. Treatments for post-menopausal osteoporotic women, what's new? How can we manage long-term treatment?

    PubMed

    Herrero, Soledad; Pico, Yolanda

    2016-05-15

    Since the mid-1980s, postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) has been considered a serious public health concern because of the associated fractures. Pharmacological therapies that effectively reduce the number of fractures by improving bone mass have been and are being developed continuously. Most current agents inhibit bone loss by reducing bone resorption, but emerging therapies may increase bone mass by stimulating bone formation. Furthermore, nowadays, the most representative pharmaceuticals have been prescribed long enough to include the reporting of some adverse effects. This review discusses osteoporotic drugs that are approved or are under investigation for the treatment of post-menopausal women (PMW), paying particular attention to long-term treatments.

  12. Strontium ranelate: short- and long-term benefits for post-menopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is a bone-seeking element that has been assessed in post-menopausal osteoporosis in two large double-blind, placebo-controlled studies. This treatment is able to decrease the risk of vertebral fractures, by 41% over 3 yrs, and by 49% within the first year of treatment. This risk of non-vertebral fractures is decreased by 16% and, in patients at high risk for such a fracture, the risk of hip fracture is decreased by 36% over 3 yrs. Recent 5-yr data from these double-blind, placebo-controlled studies show that the anti-fracture efficacy is maintained over time. Treatment efficacy with strontium ranelate has been documented across a wide range of patient profiles: age, number of prevalent vertebral fractures, BMI, as well as family history of osteoporosis and addiction to smoking are not determinants of anti-fracture efficacy. During these clinical trials, safety was good. Its large spectrum of efficacy allows the use of strontium ranelate in the different subgroups of patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:18556647

  13. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  14. Increased intake of selected vegetables, herbs and fruit may reduce bone turnover in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-04-08

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥ 9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (-3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (-0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation.

  15. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  16. Menopause knowledge and attitude among Iranian women

    PubMed Central

    Taherpour, M; Sefidi, F; Afsharinia, S; Hamissi, JH

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The present study was done to assess the effects of training on knowledge and attitude level promotion of post menopause women about menopause. Methods & Material: The research communication included 100 menopausal women aged 45-60 years, who were selected in a stratified manner (according to the economic status: poor, average, and good). The tool used was an examiners-made questionnaire, which contained 3 parts: demographic characteristics, knowledge and attitude measurement. Results: Eleven percent of the studied women had a low knowledge regarding menopause and 1% was good. After training, 27% got a good knowledge and no one remained at the low level. The attitude of 59% of the studied women regarding menopause was positive and 80% got a positive attitude after training. A significant relation was found between knowledge and attitude, before and after training. Conclusion: Despite the fact that the majority of women judge menopause as a positive incident, it seems that paying attention to their training caused the bringing to their knowledge of the natural menopause and having a healthy and jolly life. PMID:28255401

  17. Diagnostic efficacy of panoramic radiography in detection of osteoporosis in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density.

    PubMed

    Bhatnagar, Sunanda; Krishnamurthy, Vasavi; Pagare, Sandeep S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate panoramic radiograph, a commonly taken dental radiograph as a screening tool to detect early osseous changes (normal, mildly or severely eroded) of the mandibular inferior cortex and measure the mandibular cortical width (CW) in post-menopausal women and correlate it with the bone mineral density (BMD) measured by the ultrasound bone sonometer at the mid-shaft tibia region. The study included females between 45 years and 65 years of age in their post-menopausal stage (no menstruation for at least 6-12 months). Mandibular indices (mandibular CW and mandibular cortical shape) were evaluated from panoramic radiographs. The BMD assessment was carried out at the mid-shaft tibia region, exactly half-way between the heel and the knee joint perpendicular to the direction of the bone, using an ultrasound bone sonometer. It is a non-invasive device designed for quantitative measurement of the velocity of ultrasound waves as speed of sound in m/s, capable of measuring bone density at one or more skeletal sites. Using 1994 WHO criteria the study subjects were categorized as Group 1: Normal, Group 2: Osteopenia, Group 3: Osteoporosis. (WHO T score for tibia BMD can be used as a standard). The diagnostic efficacy of the panoramic radiograph in detecting osseous changes in post-menopausal women with low BMD was shown to have 96% specificity and 60% sensitivity with mandibular cortical shape and 58% specificity and 73% sensitivity with mandibular CW measurement. Factorial ANOVA analysis carried out indicated a significant correlation of BMD classification with mandibular cortical shape (F = 29.0, P < 0.001, partial eta squared [η(2)] =0.85), a non-significant correlation with mandibular CW, (F = 1.6, P = 0.23, η(2) = 0.86), and a more significant correlation with combined cortical shape and width (F = 3.3, P < 0.05, η(2) = 0.70). The study concludes that the combined mandibular cortical findings (P < 0.05) and mandibular cortical shape

  18. Breast size, thoracic kyphosis & thoracic spine pain - association & relevance of bra fitting in post-menopausal women: a correlational study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Menopause would seem to exist as a period of accelerated changes for women and their upper torso mechanics. Whether these anthropometric changes reflect changes in pain states remains unclear. Plausible mechanisms of pain exist for the independent and combined effect of increasing breast size and thoracic kyphosis. Bra fit has the potential to change when the anthropometric measures (chest circumference and bust circumference) used to determine bra size change, such as postmenopausally. Identifying an association between breast size, thoracic kyphosis and thoracic spine pain in postmenopausal women and identifying the relevance of bra fit to this association may be of importance to the future management and education of post-menopausal women presenting clinically with thoracic spine pain. Methods A cross-sectional study design. Fifty-one postmenopausal bra-wearing women were recruited. Measures included breast size (Triumph International), thoracic kyphosis (flexible curve), bra fitted (Y/N) and pain (Short Form McGill Pain Questionnaire) and tenderness on palpation (posteroanterior pressure testing). These measures were collected in one session at a physiotherapy clinic. Results The majority of the women in this study were overweight or obese and wearing an incorrect sized bra. Pain was significantly related to breast size, body weight and BMI at mid thoracic levels (T7-8). In contrast self-reported thoracic pain was not correlated with age or index of kyphosis (thoracic kyphosis). Women with thoracic pain were no more likely to have their bra professionally fitted whereas women with a higher BMI and larger breasts were more likely to have their bra professionally fitted. Conclusion The findings of this study show that larger breasts and increased BMI are associated with thoracic pain in postmenopausal women. This is unrelated to thoracic kyphosis. Increasing breast size and how a bra is worn may have biomechanical implications for the loaded thoracic

  19. The ECOS-16 questionnaire for the evaluation of health related quality of life in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Badia, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Lahoz, Raquel; Lizán, Luis; Nogués, Xavier; Iborra, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to validate the questionnaire ECOS-16 (Assessment of health related quality of life in osteoporosis) for the evaluation of health related quality of life (HRQoL) in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods An observational, prospective and multi-centre study was carried out among post-menopausal women with osteoporosis in primary care centres and hospital outpatient clinics. All patients attended 2 visits: at baseline and at 6 months. In addition, the subgroup of outpatients attended another visit a month after the baseline to assess the test-retest reliability. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated in terms of feasibility, validity (content validity and construct validity) and internal consistency in baseline, and in terms of test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change in visit at month and visit at 6 months, respectively. In all visits, ECOS-16, EUROQoL-5D (EQ-5D) and four 7-point items about health status (general health status, back pain, limitation in daily activities and emotional status) were administered, whereas only outpatients were given MINI-OQLQ (Mini Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire), besides all clinical variables; and sociodemographic variables at baseline. Results 316 women were consecutively included, 212 from primary care centres and 104 from hospital outpatient clinics. Feasibility: 94.3% of patients answered all items of the questionnaire. The mean administration time was 12.3 minutes. Validity: factor analysis suggested that the questionnaire was unidimensional. In the multivariate analysis, patients with vertebral fractures, co-morbidity and a lower education level showed to have worse HRQoL. Moderate to high correlations were found between the ECOS-16 score and the other health status questionnaires (0.47–0.82). Reliability: internal consistency (Cronbach's α) was 0.92 and test-retest reliability (ICC) was 0.80. Responsiveness to change: ECOS-16

  20. Comparison of sex hormonal and metabolic profiles between omnivores and vegetarians in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Fex, Annie; Filion, Marie-Eve; Adlercreutz, Herman; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the sex hormonal and metabolic profiles in vegetarians and compare these with the profiles in omnivores. The design of the present study was cross-sectional. The study sample of pre- and post-menopausal women included forty-one omnivores and twenty-one vegetarians. Thereafter we determined: (1) plasma sex hormones, (2) fasting insulin, NEFA as well as apo-A and apo-B, (3) BMI, (4) a dietary profile (3 d dietary records), (5) physical activity and (6) total faecal excretion per 72 h and total urinary excretion per 72 h. Vegetarians showed higher levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), apo-A, total faecal excretion per 72 h and total fibre intake as well as lower levels of apo-B, free oestradiol, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and BMI. Interestingly, after controlling for BMI, significant differences between groups still persisted except for apo-B. Moreover, stepwise regression analysis showed that total fibre intake explained 15.2 % of the variation in SHBG in our cohort, which accounted for the greatest source of unique variance. Results of the present study indicate that pre- and post-menopausal vegetarians present higher concentrations of SHBG, which could be explained, in part, by higher levels of fibre intake. This may explain, at least in part, the lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  1. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... News About Us Contact Us Text size | Print | Menopause Menopause is when a woman's menstrual period stops ... causes Ways to feel better Women's thoughts on menopause "Menopause for me was a welcomed friend. The ...

  2. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: Talking Story About Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multi-ethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawaii describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared to peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause. PMID:24134306

  3. Attitudes and perceptions towards vulvar and vaginal atrophy in Italian post-menopausal women: Evidence from the European REVIVE survey.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Particco, Martire; Biglia, Nicoletta; Cagnacci, Angelo; Di Carlo, Costantino; Luisi, Stefano; Paoletti, Anna Maria

    2016-09-01

    To achieve a deeper understanding of the attitudes and perceptions of Italian post-menopausal women (PMW) regarding vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA). As part of the EU REVIVE study, an online survey was conducted in four European countries; the Italian arm comprised 1000 participants from representative regions of Italy. The perceptions, experiences and needs of Italian PMW in relation to sexual and vaginal health. The most frequent VVA symptom was vaginal dryness (78%). Usually, the severity of symptoms was similar to or worse than when they first appeared. This was particularly true for dyspareunia, the most bothersome symptom (76%). VVA symptoms had a significant impact on Italian participants' ability to achieve pleasurable relations (74%) and spontaneity (70%). Although 75% of participants were still sexually active, their sex drive had been reduced by a third because of VVA. Women expected that doctors would start a discussion of menopausal symptoms and sexual health, but this was rarely the case (11%). Most women had been treated with a vaginal over-the-counter (OTC) product. Women who had discussed their condition with a physician were more likely (68%) to be under treatment for VVA than those who had not (36%). Low compliance was associated with symptom improvement (23%), not having annoying symptoms (22%), and the impossibility if restoring the vagina to normal (14%). Common reasons for treatment dissatisfaction were related to route of administration or discomfort. Lack of efficacy and fear of a hormone effect were perceived as the main limitations for OTC and local estrogen products, respectively. Despite the commonness of VVA and its significant impact on quality of life, the condition remains underdiagnosed in Italy. Discussion of symptoms with doctors influences the diagnosis, and patients' satisfaction with available treatments is not high. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Sodhi, Candy; Parmod, John; Dutta, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group) were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2) were assessed. Results: The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml) as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001). However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92) as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72) and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30). Conclusion: We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females. PMID:26177471

  5. Ferritin and Soluble Transferrin Receptors in Type 2 Diabetic and Non-diabetic Post-menopausal Women in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

    PubMed

    Md Ruhul, A; Sharmin, H; Luthfor, A; Farzana, S; Liaquat, A

    2010-12-01

    This cross-sectional comparative study was aimed at investigating the iron status of a group of post-menopausal women with and without diabetes. Thirty-five post-menopausal women in each group were selected purposively from among patients attending the out-patient department of Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), a specialist hospital, and two of its satellite clinics, all in Dhaka. Patients were enrolled based on their existing records. The subjects were matched on age, menstrual status and fasting status at blood draw. Ferritin, serum soluble transferrin receptors (sTfR) and fasting plasma glucose were measured by standard methods. Dietary information was collected by a specific food frequency questionnaire. No significant difference in plasma ferritin [62.02 ng/ml, (range: 4.68-288.89) vs 54.25 ng/ml (range: 4.58-137.17); p=0.28] was observed between the groups. But a higher level of plasma sTfR was found in diabetic women [(21.12 nmol/l (range: 7.91-39.79) vs 17.63 nmol/l (range: 10.30-110.00); p<0.01]. TFR-F index showed no difference between diabetic and control (p=0.25). Significantly a lower hemoglobin level [10.58±0.67 g/dl vs11.76±1.5 g/dl; p<0.01] was detected in diabetic women. Plasma sTfR (log) did not show any significant association with the dietary parameters and iron indices. No significant association between fasting glucose, ferritin and sTfR was seen except for haemoglobin (r=0.39, p=0.05). Total iron intake recorded was more than the requirement, and was significantly higher in control group [38.11mg/day (range: 19.83-105.63) vs 56.65 mg/day (range: 29.75-109.54); p<0.01)]. More than 97 % of total iron was of plant origin. No differences in heme iron [0.85 mg/day (range: 0.09-4.07) vs. 0.96 mg/day (range: 0.04-4.34), p= 0.17] and vitamin C intake was observed between the groups. Iron indices of non-diabetic women were within the normal range. A higher level of sTfR and a

  6. Effects of Resveratrol on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Cerebrovascular Function in Post-Menopausal Women; A 14-Week Randomised Placebo-Controlled Intervention Trial

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Hamish M.; Howe, Peter R. C.; Wong, Rachel H. X.

    2017-01-01

    We tested whether chronic supplementation with resveratrol (a phytoestrogen) could improve cerebrovascular function, cognition and mood in post-menopausal women. Eighty post-menopausal women aged 45–85 years were randomised to take trans-resveratrol or placebo for 14 weeks and the effects on cognitive performance, cerebral blood flow velocity and pulsatility index (a measure of arterial stiffness) in the middle cerebral artery (using transcranial Doppler ultrasound), and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) to both cognitive testing and hypercapnia were assessed. Mood questionnaires were also administered. Compared to placebo, resveratrol elicited 17% increases in CVR to both hypercapnic (p = 0.010) and cognitive stimuli (p = 0.002). Significant improvements were observed in the performance of cognitive tasks in the domain of verbal memory (p = 0.041) and in overall cognitive performance (p = 0.020), which correlated with the increase in CVR (r = 0.327; p = 0.048). Mood tended to improve in multiple measures, although not significantly. These results indicate that regular consumption of a modest dose of resveratrol can enhance both cerebrovascular function and cognition in post-menopausal women, potentially reducing their heightened risk of accelerated cognitive decline and offering a promising therapeutic treatment for menopause-related cognitive decline. PMID:28054939

  7. Correlation of physical aptitude; functional capacity, corporal balance and quality of life (QoL) among elderly women submitted to a post-menopausal physical activities program.

    PubMed

    de Souza Santos, César Augusto; Dantas, Estélio Enrique Martin; Moreira, Maria Helena Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity from the "Menopause in Form" program on physical aptitude, functional capacity, corporal balance and QoL among elderly women. In addition, correlations among these variables were examined. The present work was a longitudinal study that was quasi-experimental and correlational. A total of 323 elderly women (age: 69.0±5.53 years) participated in this study. Subjects were non-institutionalized, post-menopausal individuals residing at the Elderly Care Center in Belém Municipality (Pará, Brazil) and practiced one activity (i.e., dancing or walking) over a 10-month period. The assessment protocols used were the following: the Fullerton functional fitness test battery (physical aptitude); the activities of daily living (ADL) indices (functional capacity); the Tinetti-scale (corporal balance); and the WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire (QoL). The adopted significance level was p<0.05. Results from the Wilcoxon test demonstrated significant differences for the post-test assessment of functional capacity (Δ%=5.63%; p=0.0001) and general QoL (Δ%=9.19%; p=0.001). These results suggest that the physical activities employed during the "Menopause in Form" program resulted in significant improvements in the functional capacity and QoL of post-menopausal elderly women.

  8. Effects of Resveratrol on Cognitive Performance, Mood and Cerebrovascular Function in Post-Menopausal Women; A 14-Week Randomised Placebo-Controlled Intervention Trial.

    PubMed

    Evans, Hamish M; Howe, Peter R C; Wong, Rachel H X

    2017-01-03

    We tested whether chronic supplementation with resveratrol (a phytoestrogen) could improve cerebrovascular function, cognition and mood in post-menopausal women. Eighty post-menopausal women aged 45-85 years were randomised to take trans-resveratrol or placebo for 14 weeks and the effects on cognitive performance, cerebral blood flow velocity and pulsatility index (a measure of arterial stiffness) in the middle cerebral artery (using transcranial Doppler ultrasound), and cerebrovascular responsiveness (CVR) to both cognitive testing and hypercapnia were assessed. Mood questionnaires were also administered. Compared to placebo, resveratrol elicited 17% increases in CVR to both hypercapnic (p = 0.010) and cognitive stimuli (p = 0.002). Significant improvements were observed in the performance of cognitive tasks in the domain of verbal memory (p = 0.041) and in overall cognitive performance (p = 0.020), which correlated with the increase in CVR (r = 0.327; p = 0.048). Mood tended to improve in multiple measures, although not significantly. These results indicate that regular consumption of a modest dose of resveratrol can enhance both cerebrovascular function and cognition in post-menopausal women, potentially reducing their heightened risk of accelerated cognitive decline and offering a promising therapeutic treatment for menopause-related cognitive decline.

  9. Contribution of physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and cognitive stimulation to cognitive function in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Eskes, Gail A; Longman, Stewart; Brown, Allison D; McMorris, Carly A; Langdon, Kristopher D; Hogan, David B; Poulin, Marc

    2010-01-01

    Studies of the effects of physical fitness on cognition suggest that exercise can improve cognitive abilities in healthy older adults, as well as delay the onset of age-related cognitive decline. The mechanisms for the positive benefit of exercise and how these effects interact with other variables known to influence cognitive function (e.g., involvement in cognitive activities) are less well understood. The current study examined the associations between the physical fitness, cerebrovascular blood flow regulation and involvement in cognitive activities with neuropsychological function in healthy post-menopausal women. Forty-two healthy women between the ages of 55 and 90 were recruited. Physical fitness (V˙O2 max), cerebrovascular reserve (cerebral blood flow during rest and response to an increase in end-tidal (i.e., arterial) PCO2), and cognitive activity (self-reported number and hours of involvement in cognitive activities) were assessed. The association of these variables with neuropsychological performance was examined through linear regression. Physical fitness, cerebrovascular reserve and total number of cognitive activities (but not total hours) were independent predictors of cognitive function, particularly measures of overall cognitive performance, attention and executive function. In addition, prediction of neuropsychological performance was better with multiple variables than each alone. Cognitive function in older adults is associated with multiple factors, including physical fitness, cerebrovascular health and cognitive stimulation. Interestingly, cognitive stimulation effects appear related more to the diversity of activities, rather than the duration of activity. Further examination of these relationships is ongoing in a prospective cohort study.

  10. Vasomotor hot flushes and 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure in normotensive women: A placebo-controlled trial on post-menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Tuomikoski, Pauliina; Haapalahti, Petri; Sarna, Seppo; Ylikorkala, Olavi; Mikkola, Tomi S

    2010-07-01

    Blood pressure (BP) is one of the most powerful determinants of cardiovascular risk in women. This risk may differ between post-menopausal women with and without vasomotor hot flushes, possibly indicating different vascular responses to hormone therapy (HT). Thus, we compared in a clinical trial the effect of HT on ambulatory BP in normotensive, recently post-menopausal women with or without severe hot flushes. A total of 147 women recorded prospectively their hot flushes for 2 weeks; 70 women were symptomatic (>or=7 moderate/severe hot flush episodes/day), whereas 77 women were defined as asymptomatic (Women were treated for 6 months with either transdermal estradiol, oral estradiol with or without medroxyprogesterone acetate, or placebo. In symptomatic women decreases in BPs were seen during estradiol use. In contrast, in asymptomatic women receiving oral but not transdermal estradiol, increases in 24-h and day-time systolic and diastolic BPs were encountered. Hot flushes modify the HT-mediated responses in ambulatory BP. In asymptomatic women oral but not transdermal estradiol show potentially harmful cardiovascular effect by increasing BP. Our results give additional justification to prescribing HT primarily for the treatment of troublesome hot flushes and avoiding HT in women without vasomotor symptoms.

  11. Women's preferences for masculinity in male faces are highest during reproductive age range and lower around puberty and post-menopause.

    PubMed

    Little, Anthony C; Saxton, Tamsin K; Roberts, S Craig; Jones, Benedict C; Debruine, Lisa M; Vukovic, Jovana; Perrett, David I; Feinberg, David R; Chenore, Todd

    2010-07-01

    Masculinity in male faces is thought to be a sign of mate quality and is associated with measures of long-term health. Previous studies have demonstrated that women's masculinity preferences change across the menstrual cycle with women preferring more masculine men during phases of the menstrual cycle where fertility is highest (i.e. the late follicular phase). Given the hormonal correlates of such preferences and that these hormones change across the life span, we tested for differences in female masculinity preferences at different ages. We compared the masculinity preferences of peri-pubescent girls and young adult women (Study 1), circum-menopausal women reporting to either be pre- or post-menopause (Study 2), and a large sample of women across a wide range of ages (Study 3). In all three studies, preferences for masculinity in male faces were highest in women who were at a reproductively active age. Preferences for masculinity were lower when females were peri-pubescent, post-menopausal, or at ages corresponding to these groups. These data support the notion that masculinity in male faces is an important trait for reproductively relevant mate choice decisions. These data also highlight a shift in female visual preferences for men that is associated with important stages of the lifespan. Visual preferences appear to track important hormonal changes associated with age; as women pass puberty their preferences shift towards facial traits associated with mate quality and as women undergo menopause their preferences for such facial traits decrease. Overall, these results demonstrate the important role of reproductive status and support the notion that preferences for male faces are tied to reproductively relevant hormones. Copyright 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Factors associated with estrogen receptors-alpha (ER-alpha) and -beta (ER-beta) and progesterone receptor abundance in obese and non obese pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meza-Muñoz, Dalia Edith; Fajardo, Martha E; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2006-06-01

    There is scarce information about the factors associated with estrogen receptors (ER) at menopause. In 113 volunteers pre- and post-menopausal healthy women, grouped as with and without obesity, estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta, and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in skin punch biopsies obtained from the external gluteal area. In pre-menopausal women, biopsies and a blood sample were performed between days 7 and 14 of the cycle. Serum hormone levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay or radioimmunoassay. After menopause, ER and PR amounts decreased significantly. At pre-menopause, obese women had lower PR levels than non obese (P<.006). In the post-menopausal group, obese women showed higher ER-alpha (P<.03) and ER-beta (P<.02) levels than the non obese group. In the analysis of factors associated with the amount of steroid receptors for the total group, log[ER-alpha], log[ER-beta], and log[PR] were associated with age (P<.002, <.005, and <.004, respectively). The log[ER-alpha] was also associated with log[FSH] (P<.0008); meanwhile, the log[PR] showed a marginal correlation with log[FSH]. In pre-menopausal women no factor associated with any of the three receptors was found. In post-menopausal women log[ER-alpha] was associated with log[estrone] and log[DHEAS] (P<.003 and <.02, respectively). log[PR] was associated with BMI (P<.002), years since menopause (P<.05), and log[DHEAS] (P<.003). We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause. At this stage the amount of receptors depends on several factors such as BMI, years since menopause, and androgen precursors.

  13. Impact of age on aortic wave reflection responses to metaboreflex activation and its relationship with leg lean mass in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Jaime, Salvador J; Johnson, Sarah A; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Campbell, Jeremiah C; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-10-01

    Wave reflection (augmentation pressure [AP] and index [AIx]) is greater in older women than men. Resting AP is a better wave reflection index than AIx in older adults. The negative relationship between wave reflection and lean mass (LM) has been inconsistent. We investigated the impact of age and LM on aortic hemodynamic responses to metaboreflex activation in post-menopausal women. Post-menopausal women, younger and older (n=20 per group) than 60 years, performed 2-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal force followed by 3-min post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI). We measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV) at rest, and aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP), pulse pressure (aPP), AP, AIx, and AIx-adjusted for heart rate (AIx@75) at rest and during PEMI using tonometry. Arm and leg LM were measured by DEXA. Resting cfPWV, aSBP, and aPP were higher, while AIx@75 and leg LM were lower in older than younger women. aSBP and aPP increased similarly during PEMI in both groups. Increases in AP (P<0.05), AIx (P<0.05), and AIx@75 (P<0.01) during PEMI were greater in older than younger women. From these responses, only AP during PEMI was correlated (P<0.05) positively with aSBP and aPP responses, and negatively with leg LM. Resting faPWV, but not cfPWV, was correlated (P<0.01) with AP, aSBP, and aPP during PEMI. Therefore, PEMI induces greater wave reflection responses in older than younger post-menopausal women. Our findings suggest that the increased AP response to PEMI is related to leg arterial stiffness and muscle loss in older women. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Diagnostic performance of general dental practitioners after lecture in identifying post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density by panoramic radiographs.

    PubMed

    Sutthiprapaporn, P; Taguchi, A; Nakamoto, T; Ohtsuka, M; Mallick, P C; Tsuda, M; Kodama, I; Kudo, Y; Suei, Y; Tanimoto, K

    2006-07-01

    Mandibular cortical erosion detected on panoramic radiographs may be useful for identifying post-menopausal women with low skeletal bone mineral density (BMD). The purposes of this study were to calculate the diagnostic performance of general dental practitioners (GDPs) who attended a lecture on identifying post-menopausal women with low BMD from findings on panoramic radiographs and to evaluate the influence of GDPs' age on diagnostic performance. After a 1 h lecture, 111 GDPs were asked to classify the mandibular cortex (normal or eroded) on panoramic radiographs obtained from 100 post-menopausal women who have had skeletal BMD assessment. Low BMD was defined as a BMD T score of -1.0 or less. Diagnostic performance was analysed by comparing two groups classified by mandibular cortex (women with normal cortex and women with any eroded cortex) with those classified by BMD (women with normal BMD and women with low BMD). The mean sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, accuracy and likelihood ratio for a positive risk result were 73.0% (95% confidence interval [CI]; 71.3 to 74.7%), 49.0% (95% CI; 46.4 to 51.5%), 66.9% (95% CI; 66.0 to 67.8%), 57.0% (95% CI; 55.8 to 58.2%), 62.9% (95% CI; 62.1 to 63.7%) and 1.51 (95% CI; 1.44 to 1.58), respectively. GDPs' age did not influence diagnostic performance. Our results suggest that 73.0% of women who had low skeletal BMD can be identified by GDPs after a lecture on the use of panoramic radiographs as an aid in diagnosing low BMD; however, the diagnostic performance may not be influenced by GDPs' age.

  15. Circulating concentrations of vitamin E isomers: Association with bone turnover and arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hampson, G; Edwards, S; Sankaralingam, A; Harrington, D J; Voong, K; Fogelman, I; Frost, M L

    2015-12-01

    The effects of vitamin E on cardiovascular and bone health are conflicting with beneficial and detrimental findings reported. To investigate this further, we carried out a cross-sectional study to determine the relationship between circulating concentrations of the 2 vitamin E isomers, α- and γ-tocopherol (TP) with bone turnover and arterial stiffness. Two hundred and seventy eight post-menopausal women with mean age [SD] 60.9 [6.0] years were studied. Fasting serum α-TP and γ-TP, bone turnover markers; procollagen type 1 amino-terminal propeptide (P1NP) and C-terminal telopeptide of type 1 collagen (CTX), parathyroid hormone (PTH), total cholesterol (TC) and triglycerides (TG) were measured. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) and central augmentation index (AI) as markers of arterial stiffness were also determined. A positive correlation was observed between α-TP and γ-TP (r=0.14, p=0.022). A significant negative association between α-TP and P1NP only was seen in multiple linear regression analysis following adjustment for serum TC and TG (p=0.016). In a full multi-linear regression model, following correction for age, years since menopause, smoking habits, alcohol intake, use of calcium supplements, BMI, PTH, serum calcium, and estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), the association between α-TP and P1NP remained significant (p=0.011). We did not observe any significant association between γ-TP or α-TP/γ-TP ratio with P1NP or CTX. P1NP was significantly lower in subjects with α-TP concentrations of >30 μmol/L (α-TP >30 μmol/L; P1NP: 57.5 [20.7], α-TP<30 μmol/L; P1NP: 65.7 [24.9] μg/L, p=0.005). PWV was significantly associated with α-TP/γ-TP ratio (p=0.04) but not with serum α-TP or γ-TP in a full multi-linear regression model adjusting for serum lipids, age, and blood pressure. The data suggest that high serum concentrations of α-TP may have a negative effect on bone formation. The balance of α-TP and γ-TP may be important in maintaining

  16. Screening for osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez

    Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006

  17. Plasma Metabolic Profiles in Women are Menopause Dependent.

    PubMed

    Ke, Chaofu; Hou, Yan; Zhang, Haiyu; Yang, Kai; Wang, Jingtao; Guo, Bing; Zhang, Fan; Li, Hailong; Zhou, Xiaohua; Li, Ying; Li, Kang

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is an endocrinological transition that greatly affects health and disease susceptibility in middle-aged and elderly women. To gain new insights into the metabolic process of menopause, plasma metabolic profiles in 115 pre- and post-menopausal women were systematically analyzed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in conjunction with univariate and multivariate statistical analysis. Metabolic signatures revealed considerable differences between pre- and post-menopausal women, and clear separations were observed between the groups in partial least-squares discriminant analysis score plots. In total, 28 metabolites were identified as potential metabolite markers for menopause, including up-regulated acylcarnitines, fatty acids, lysophosphatidylcholines, lysophosphatidylethanolamines, and down-regulated pregnanediol-3-glucuronide, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate, p-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and dihydrolipoic acid. These differences highlight that significant alterations occur in fatty acid β-oxidation, phospholipid metabolism, hormone metabolism and amino acid metabolism in post-menopausal women. In conclusion, our plasma metabolomics study provides novel understanding of the metabolic profiles related to menopause, and will be useful for investigating menopause-related diseases and assessing metabolomic confounding factors.

  18. [Isoflavones in menopause women].

    PubMed

    Gris Martínez, José M

    2006-09-09

    Phytoestrogens are composed derivatives of vegetables. The 2 main classes of interest to human health are lignans and isoflavones. Isoflavones exist in at least 15 different chemical forms and their effect on human health has been investigated to some extent (particularly, genistein and daidzein as high levels of these compounds are present in soybean). Isoflavones have similar structure to oestrogen and have the capacity to exert both oestrogenic and anti oestrogenic effects. They may block the effects of oestrogen in some tissues (e. g., the breast and endometrium), but act like an oestrogen in providing possible protection against bone loss and heart disease. Lignans are much more widespread in plant foods but investigation has been limited due to the complexity of measurement. The increasing interest in the use of the soybean and the phytoestrogens derived from the soybean is due to the results published on experimental animal actions, and in human case-control studies. There are many observational and epidemiologists studies that suggest the potential benefit of isoflavones on the menopause symptoms, the cardiovascular system, the osteoporosis and the estrogen dependent cancers, but many open questions exist. We must be very strict with certain observational studies by the possible influences of collateral factors to the isoflavones (exercise, type of diet, etc.), and attribute the beneficial effects may be due to own treatment.

  19. Nonoperative management of atypical endometrial hyperplasia and grade 1 endometrial cancer with the levonorgestrel intrauterine device in medically ill post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Baker, William D; Pierce, Stuart R; Mills, Anne M; Gehrig, Paola A; Duska, Linda R

    2017-07-01

    To assess the endometrial response rates to treatment with the levonorgestrel intrauterine device in post-menopausal women with atypical hyperplasia/endometrial intraepithelial neoplasia and grade 1 endometrioid (AH/EC) endometrial carcinoma who are not surgical candidates. Chart review was undertaken of patients with AH/EC who underwent levonorgestrel intrauterine device insertion by a gynecologic oncologist within two academic health systems between 2002 and 2013. When available, tissue blocks were evaluated with immunohistochemical staining for progesterone receptor expression. A total of 41 patients received treatment for AH/EC with the levonorgestrel intrauterine device. Follow up sufficient to assess response occurred in 36 women (88%). Complete response was documented in 18 of 36 women (50%), no response in 8 patients (22%), partial response in 3 women (8%) and progression of disease in 7 patients (19%). Four of 18 patients with complete response (22%) later experienced relapse of hyperplasia or cancer. Four patients (10%) died during the study period: none had evidence of metastatic disease and 1 of the 4 woman died of perioperative complications following hysterectomy for stage I disease. Patients responding to treatment had significantly lower progesterone receptor expression on post-treatment biopsies. Intrauterine levonorgestrel is a viable treatment option for post-menopausal women with AH/EC who are poor candidates for standard surgical management. The response rate in this series is similar to published reports in premenopausal patients and includes cases of disease recurrence following conversion to benign endometrium. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Dose-response effect of exercise frequency on bone mineral density in post-menopausal, osteopenic women.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, W; von Stengel, S

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term dose-response relationship of exercise frequency on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early post-menopausal women with osteopenia. Based on the 12-year results of the consequently supervised exercise group (EG) of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study, we retrospectively structured two exercise groups according to the overall exercise frequency. Changes in aBMD at lumbar spine and proximal femur as assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique were compared between a low-frequency exercise group (LEF-EG, n = 16) with 1.5-<2 sessions/week and a high-frequency exercise group (HEF-EG, n = 25) with ≥ 2-3.5 sessions/week. Changes in aBMD at the lumbar spine and proximal femur were significantly more favorable in the HEF-EG compared with the LEF-EG; lumbar spine: (mean value ± standard deviation) 1.1 ± 4.7% vs -4.1 ± 3.0%; P = 0.001, ES: d' = 1.26; total hip: -4.4 ± 3.9% vs -6.7 ± 3.5%, P = 0.045, ES: d' = 0.70). BMD results of the LEF-EG did not significantly differ from the data of the non-training control group (lumbar spine: -4.4 ± 5.2%, total hip: -6.9 ± 5.0%). Although this result might not be generalizable across all exercise types and cohorts, it indicates that to impact bone, an overall exercise frequency of at least 2 sessions/week may be crucial, even if exercise is applied with high intensity/impact.

  1. Direct medical costs attributable to peripheral fractures in Canadian post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bessette, L; Jean, S; Lapointe-Garant, M-P; Belzile, E L; Davison, K S; Ste-Marie, L G; Brown, J P

    2012-06-01

    This study determined the cost of treating fractures at osteoporotic sites (except spine fractures) for the year following fracture. While the average cost of treating a hip fracture was the highest of all fractures ($46,664 CAD per fracture), treating other fractures also accounted for significant expenditures ($5,253 to $10,410 CAD per fracture). This study aims to determine the mean direct medical cost of treating fractures at peripheral osteoporotic sites in the year post-fracture (through 2 years post-hip fracture). Health administrative databases from the province of Quebec, Canada were used to estimate the cost of treating peripheral fractures at osteoporotic sites for the year following fracture (through 2 years for hip fractures). Included in costs analyses were physician claims, emergency and outpatient clinic costs, hospitalization costs, and subsequent costs for treatment of complications. A total of 15,827 patients (mean age 72 years) who suffered one fracture at an osteoporotic site had data for analyses. Hip/femur fractures had the highest rate of hospital stays related to fracture (91%) and the highest rate of hospital stays associated with a post-fracture complication (8%). In the year following fracture, the mean (SD) costs (2009 Canadian dollars) of treating acute fractures and post-fracture complications were: hip/femur fracture $46,664 ($43,198), wrist fracture $5,253 ($18,982), and fractures at other peripheral sites $10,410 ($27,641). The average (SD) cost of treating post-fracture complications at the hip/femur in the second year post-fracture was $1,698 ($12,462). Hospitalizations associated with the fracture accounted for 88% of the total cost of fracture treatment. The treatment of hip fractures accounts for a significant proportion of the costs associated with the treatment of peripheral osteoporotic fractures. Interventions to reduce the incidence of fractures, particularly hip fractures, would result in significant cost savings to the

  2. Models of cognitive functions with respect to selected parameters of functional state of the thyroid gland in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Gujski, Mariusz; Pinkas, Jarosław; Witczak, Mariusz; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was the development of models of cognitive functions in a group of post-menopausal women, according to the concentration of the selected laboratory parameters evaluating the functional state of the thyroid gland. The study was conducted during 2012-2014, and covered women aged 50-65 years, minimum two years after the last menstruation, without chronic diseases, cancerous diseases, mental disorders, addiction to drugs or alcohol, and who did not use hormone replacement therapy. At the stage of qualification, a brief MoCA test was performed; 383 women were qualified for the study. Blood was collected for the determination of such parameters as: TSH, TT4, fT4, anti-TPO, anti-Tg, and AB-TSHR. Assessment of cognitive functions was performed using the diagnostic instrument Central Nervous System - Vital Signs (CNS-VS) (Polish version). The results were statistically analysed. The mean age of the women in the study was 56.4 ± 3.4; the mean TSH was 1.91 ± 1.35 mU/L, fT4 14.76 ± 2.34 pmol/L, and TT4 99.12 ± 16.98 nmol/L. Mean values were: 64.74 IU/L for anti-TPO, 100.69 IU/L for anti-Tg, and 1.40 IU/L for AB-TSHR. The examined women obtained the neurocognitive index (NCI) on the level of 84.4 scores, on average. The lowest results were obtained in tests assessing cognitive flexibility (mean 78.64 scores), processing speed (mean 79.25 scores), and executive functions (mean 79.75 scores). In the tests evaluating complex attention, the mean values were 82.24 scores, psychomotor speed - mean 83.42 scores, and reaction time - mean 86.87 scores. The women examined obtained the best results in tests assessing memory (mean 90.15 scores), including verbal (mean 91.22 scores), and visual (mean 93.37 scores). The NCI and cognitive function models were assessed from the aspect of thyroid gland examinations in post-menopausal women. Based on the analyses performed, the following conclusions were drawn: The developed models of cognitive functions indicate a

  3. Lateral back pain identifies prevalent vertebral fractures in post-menopausal women: cross-sectional analysis of a primary care-based cohort.

    PubMed

    Clark, Emma M; Hutchinson, Alison P; McCloskey, Eugene V; Stone, Mike D; Martin, James C; Bhalla, Ashok K; Tobias, Jon H

    2010-03-01

    Vertebral fractures (VFs) are frequently under-recognized, reflecting their lack of diagnostic clinical features. For example, although VFs are associated with back pain, this is also common in the general population. To establish whether back pain can be used to recognize patients with VF, we investigated the site of pain in people with and without VFs using a simple tool. A cohort of 504 post-menopausal women was recruited from primary care in South West UK. Back pain was assessed by self-completion of the Margolis pain diagram, and analysis was modified to assess whether pain was mid-line or lateral. VFs were diagnosed by the algorithm-based qualitative method on radiographs. A cross-sectional analysis was carried out to assess the association between back pain and VFs. Three hundred and twenty-two women (64.1%) reported back pain over the last 12 months. Thirty seven (7.3%) had one or more VFs. In women with back pain, the presence of lateral waist area pain was associated with a 4.5-fold increased risk of VFs [odds ratio (OR) 4.48; 95% CI 2.02, 9.94; P < 0.001]. In post-menopausal women with back pain, the presence of lateral waist pain, as shown on the Margolis pain diagram, may identify women at higher risk of prevalent VF.

  4. Menopausal Experiences of Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, D. S.; Wishart, J. G.; Muir, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the menopause in women with intellectual disabilities (ID) save that its onset is earlier than in the general population, and earlier still in women with Down's syndrome (DS). This study directly explored menopausal experiences in women with ID, both with and without DS, with the aim of identifying levels of…

  5. Menopausal Experiences of Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, D. S.; Wishart, J. G.; Muir, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the menopause in women with intellectual disabilities (ID) save that its onset is earlier than in the general population, and earlier still in women with Down's syndrome (DS). This study directly explored menopausal experiences in women with ID, both with and without DS, with the aim of identifying levels of…

  6. [Clinical evaluation of vertigo in menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Owada, Satoko; Yamamoto, Masahiko; Suzuki, Mitsuya; Yoshida, Tomoe; Nomura, Toshiyuki

    2012-05-01

    Vertigo is one of the usual menopausal symptoms. We have often examined some women under the complaint of vertigo related with the menopause. We diagnosed each disease based on neuro-otological examinations and investigated the characteristics of menopausal-associated vertigo. We studied 413 women aged 40-59 years old who complained of vertigo. There were 73 women with menopause symptoms (14 women introduced from the gynecologist in our medical center, 18 women had undergone treatment at another female clinic, and 41 women visited an otorhinolaryngologist first) compared with 340 women without menopause symptoms. In the menopause group, 41 (56.2%) cases were diagnosed as having benign paroxysmal positional vertigo (BPPV), 13 (17.8%) cases had Meniere's disease, sudden deafness with vertigo accounted 2 cases, one was an acoustic tumor, and so on. The percentage of patients with BPPV was almost same ratio between the menopause group (56.2%) and the non-menopause group (52.9%). The percentage of patients with Meniere's disease was higher markedly in the menopausal group (17.8%). than the non-menopause group (9.7%). Menopausal symptoms are caused not only by hot flashes related to a lack of estrogen but also by psychological factors. The onset of Meniere's disease can also be influenced by psychological factors. As for the diagnosis of Meniere's disease, we supposed the reason for the higher percentage in the menopausal group was its relationship with psychological factors. We could diagnose and treat some menopausal women with vertigo. We believe that joint consultation with a gynecologist and otorhinolaryngologist would be necessary to ensure an optimum quality of life for such patients.

  7. Effect of a mixture of calcium, vitamin D, inulin and soy isoflavones on bone metabolism in post-menopausal women: a retrospective analysis.

    PubMed

    Bevilacqua, Maurizio; Righini, Velella; Certan, Diana; Gandolini, Giorgio; Alemanni, Matteo

    2013-12-01

    Aging might affect the effectiveness of the sole supplementation of calcium and vitamin D in post-menopausal women, due to the development of vitamin D resistance in the gut, which limits calcium absorption. Thus, we wanted to test the efficacy of a mixture of calcium (500 mg), 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D; 300 IU], inulin (3 g) and soy isoflavones (40 mg), to improve calcium absorption in this type of population. It is a retrospective study on otherwise healthy post-menopausal women. The following parameters were evaluated at baseline and after 3 months of supplementation: daily calciuria as an indirect marker of calcium absorption, serum 25(OH)D, parathormone, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1) as a marker of bone anabolism, collagen telopeptide and osteocalcin as markers of bone resorption and bone turnover, respectively. Twenty-eight women (median age 67 years) were included in the analysis. The supplementation markedly increased daily calciuria (+60 %; p = 0.00009), while reducing parathormone levels (-18 %; p = 0.02) and leaving 25(OH)D unaltered. An increase in IGF1 (+16 %; p = 0.01) and a reduction in collagen telopeptide (-17 %; p = 0.04) were observed, too, as well as a modest trend towards osteocalcin reduction, although not significant. These results suggest that the considered mixture improved intestinal calcium absorption and bone metabolism in post-menopausal women. Since the amount of supplemented calcium was relatively low and 25(OH)D levels were unchanged, the observed effects are likely due to the combined contributions of inulin and soy isoflavones.

  8. Stress at the place of work and cognitive functions among women performing intellectual work during peri- and post-menopausal period.

    PubMed

    Gujski, Mariusz; Pinkas, Jarosław; Juńczyk, Tomasz; Pawełczak-Barszczowska, Adrianna; Raczkiewicz, Dorota; Owoc, Alfred; Bojar, Iwona

    2017-10-06

    The analysis of the relationship between stress at work and results of cognitive functions amongst women, at peri- and post-menopausal age, performing intellectual work. The study group included women, aged 45-66 years old, employed as intellectual workers. Research instruments were: the Montreal Cognitive Assessment; computer tests of the CNS Vital Signs; the Subjective Work Characteristics Questionnaire, and a questionnaire designed by the author. The results were statistically analyzed. Nearly a half of respondents experienced high stress at the place of work; 1/3 - on the average level, on a low level - every fifth. The largest number of respondents experienced stress caused by social contacts. Among a half of the women, stress was caused by the lack of awards at work, followed by the lack of support. Slightly fewer of them experienced stress caused by the feeling of psychological load related to the complexity of work or the feeling of uncertainty caused by the organization of work. Every third woman experienced stress due to the sense of responsibility or the lack of control. The smallest number experienced stress caused by physical arduousness, the sense of threat and unpleasant working conditions. The examined women obtained the best results with respect to simple attention, the worst results - with respect to the reaction time. The results concerning the remaining 9 cognitive functions were ranked in the middle of the aforementioned results. The intensity of stress at work and factors which caused this stress, negatively correlated with simple attention of women in the early peri-menopausal period, while positively correlating with the psychomotor and processing speed of women in the late peri-menopausal period. Among the post-menopausal women, negative correlations were observed between the majority of cognitive functions and the intensity of stress at work, and the majority of factors which caused this stress. Cognitive functions of the examined women

  9. Serum steroid hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin concentrations, and urinary hydroxylated estrogen metabolites in post-menopausal women in relation to daidzein-metabolizing phenotypes.

    PubMed

    Frankenfeld, Cara L; McTiernan, Anne; Tworoger, Shelley S; Atkinson, Charlotte; Thomas, Wendy K; Stanczyk, Frank Z; Marcovina, Santica M; Weigle, David S; Weiss, Noel S; Holt, Victoria L; Schwartz, Stephen M; Lampe, Johanna W

    2004-04-01

    Equol and O-desmethylangolensin (O-DMA) are products of bacterial metabolism of daidzein, an isoflavone in soybeans; thus, the presence or absence of equol and/or O-DMA in urine is a marker of particular intestinal bacteria profiles. Plasma hormone concentrations may be lower in pre-menopausal women who harbor the bacteria capable of producing equol (equol producers) compared to women who do not (equol non-producers). We evaluated concentrations of serum hormones, sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), and urinary 2-hydroxyestrone (2-OH E(1)) and 16alpha-hydroxyestrone (16alpha-OH E(1)) in relation to equol-producer and O-DMA-producer phenotypes in 89 post-menopausal women. Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) was 23% greater in O-DMA-producers compared to non-producers (P = 0.04). No significant differences in serum estrogens, androgens, metabolic hormones, or SHBG were observed in relation to either daidzein-metabolizing phenotype. Compared with non-producers within each phenotype, age-adjusted 2-OH E(1):16alpha-OH E(1) was 27% greater (P = 0.06) in equol-producers and 9% greater (P > 0.10) in O-DMA-producers, and 2-OH E(1) concentrations were 24% greater in equol producers (P = 0.07) and 42% greater in O-DMA producers (P = 0.02). No significant differences in 16alpha-OH E(1) were observed in relation to either phenotype. These results suggest that interindividual variability in intestinal bacteria may be related to differences in products of hormone metabolism in post-menopausal women.

  10. Quality of life among post-menopausal women due to oxidative stress boosted by dysthymia and anxiety.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Rodríguez, Martha A; Castrejón-Delgado, Lizett; Zacarías-Flores, Mariano; Arronte-Rosales, Alicia; Mendoza-Núñez, Víctor Manuel

    2017-01-03

    Menopause is the onset of aging in women. During this process, some women experience physical changes that may impact upon their psychological and social status, also affecting their quality of life. Furthermore, several psychological changes following menopause have been shown to act as pro-oxidant, but the association between the psychological status that modify the quality of life and oxidative stress in postmenopausal women is still unclear. The aim of this study was to determinate the relationship between oxidative stress with psychological disturbances, low self-esteem, depressive mood and anxiety, and quality of life in the postmenopausal women. We carried out a cross-sectional study with101 premenopausal and 101 postmenopausal women from Mexico City. As markers of oxidative stress we measured plasma lipoperoxide levels, erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and total antioxidant status. We calculate a stress score as global oxidative stress status, with cut-off values for each parameter; this score range from 0 to 6, representing the severity of markers modifications. All the women were rated using the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory, the Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and the Zung Self-Rating Depression Scales, and the WHO Quality of Life-brief. The postmenopausal women with low quality of life in the WHO Quality of Life-brief and their subscales had higher stress score compared with premenopausal women with high quality of life (p < 0.05). We found a positive correlation among lipoperoxide levels and Zung Self-Rating Anxiety and Zung Self-Rating Depression score (r = 0.226 and r = 0.173, respectively, p < 0.05), and a negative correlation with WHO Quality of Life-brief scores (r = -0.266, p < 0.01) in postmenopausal women. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed that average lipoperoxide levels increase by 0.0007 μmol/L for every 1-point increase in the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory and by 0

  11. Association between bone indices assessed by DXA, HR-pQCT and QCT scans in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Amstrup, Anne Kristine; Jakobsen, Niels Frederik Breum; Moser, Emil; Sikjaer, Tanja; Mosekilde, Leif; Rejnmark, Lars

    2016-11-01

    Quantitative computed tomography (QCT), high-resolution peripheral QCT (HR-pQCT) and dual X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scans are commonly used when assessing bone mass and structure in patients with osteoporosis. Depending on the imaging technique and measuring site, different information on bone quality is obtained. How well these techniques correlate when assessing central as well as distal skeletal sites has not been carefully assessed to date. One hundred and twenty-five post-menopausal women aged 56-82 (mean 63) years were studied using DXA scans (spine, hip, whole body and forearm), including trabecular bone score (TBS), QCT scans (spine and hip) and HR-pQCT scans (distal radius and tibia). Central site measurements of areal bone mineral density (aBMD) by DXA and volumetric BMD (vBMD) by QCT correlated significantly at the hip (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Distal site measurements of density at the radius as assessed by DXA and HR-pQCT were also associated (r = 0.74, p < 0.01). Correlations between distal and central site measurements of the hip and of the tibia and radius showed weak to moderate correlation between vBMD by HR-pQCT and QCT (r = -0.27 to 0.54). TBS correlated with QCT at the lumbar spine (r = 0.35) and to trabecular indices of HR-pQCT at the radius and tibia (r = -0.16 to 0.31, p < 0.01). There was moderate to strong agreement between measuring techniques when assessing the same skeletal site. However, when assessing correlations between central and distal sites, the associations were only weak to moderate. Our data suggest that the various techniques measure different characteristics of the bone, and may therefore be used in addition to rather than as a replacment for imaging in clinical practice.

  12. Effects of isoflavones on breast density in pre- and post-menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, Lee; Madhavan, Giri; Tice, Jeffrey A.; Leinster, Sam J.; Cassidy, Aedín

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Isoflavones from soy and red clover exert modest hormonal effects in women, but the relevance to risk of breast cancer is unclear. The aim of this meta-analysis was to assess the effects of isoflavone-rich foods or supplements on a biomarker of breast cancer risk, women's mammographic density. METHODS Electronic searches were performed on The Cochrane Library, Medline and EMBASE (to June 2009), and reference lists and trial investigators were consulted to identify further studies. Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of isoflavone-rich foods or supplements versus placebo with a duration of at least 6 months were included in our analysis. Inclusion/exclusion, data extraction and validity assessment were carried out independently in duplicate, and meta-analysis used to pool study results. Subgrouping, sensitivity analysis, assessment of heterogeneity and funnel plots were used to interpret the results. RESULTS Eight RCTs (1287 women) compared isoflavones with placebo for between 6 months and 3 years. Meta-analysis suggested no overall effect of dietary isoflavones on breast density in all women combined [mean difference (MD) 0.69%, 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.78 to 2.17] or post-menopausal women (MD −1.10%, 95% CI −3.22 to 1.03). However, there was a modest increase in mammographic density in premenopausal women (MD 1.83%, 95% CI 0.25–3.40) without heterogeneity but this effect was lost in one of three sensitivity analyses. CONCLUSIONS Isoflavone intake does not alter breast density in post-menopausal women, but may cause a small increase in breast density in premenopausal women. Larger, long-term trials are required to determine if these small effects are clinically relevant. PMID:20511398

  13. Migraine in the post-menopausal period is associated with higher levels of mood disorders, disability, and more menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Carturan, Paula; Scorcine, Claudio; Fragoso, Yara Dadalti

    2016-12-01

    To assess the prevalence of headache in post-menopausal women. Women attending gynecology outpatient services in the coastal region of the state of Sao Paulo, Brazil were invited to participate in this study. Only those with non-surgical menopause and no hormone replacement therapy were included. Prevalence and characterization of headaches were assessed, as well as the burden of migraine, traits of anxiety and depression, and menopausal symptomatology. One hundred and three women were included in the study. Migraine affected 14.7% of them. Some previous type of headache was reported by 86.2% of the women, most of whom improved during menopause but still presented with headache attacks. There was a correlation between higher migraine disability and depressive traits. Many women believe that their headaches, particularly migraine, will end after menopause. This is, unfortunately, not the case for many of them.

  14. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Ziomkiewicz, Anna; Sancilio, Amelia; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Klimek, Magdalena; Jasienska, Grazyna; Bribiescas, Richard G

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive effort and maternal survivorship in energy-restricted environments. However, empirical evidence for the positive association between maternal mortality and reproductive effort from energetically challenged human populations are mixed and physiological mechanisms that may underlie this association are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increases in aerobic metabolism during repeated periods of pregnancy and lactation result in increased oxidative stress that may contribute to somatic deterioration, vulnerability to illness, and accelerated aging. We therefore predicted that lifetime gravidity and parity would be related to levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative defence enzymes in post-menopausal women. Our hypothesis was supported by positive linear associations between levels of 8-OHdG, a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage (β = 0.21, p<0.05), levels of antioxidative defence enzyme Cu-Zn SOD (β = 0.25, p<0.05), and number of lifetime pregnancies. Furthermore, independent of age and health status, post-menopausal women with higher gravidity and parity (> = 4 pregnancies per lifetime) had 20% higher levels of 8-OHdG and 60% higher levels of Cu-Zn SOD compared to women with lower gravidity and parity (<4 pregnancies per lifetime). Our results present the first evidence for oxidative stress as a possible cost of reproductive effort in humans.

  15. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sancilio, Amelia; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Klimek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive effort and maternal survivorship in energy-restricted environments. However, empirical evidence for the positive association between maternal mortality and reproductive effort from energetically challenged human populations are mixed and physiological mechanisms that may underlie this association are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increases in aerobic metabolism during repeated periods of pregnancy and lactation result in increased oxidative stress that may contribute to somatic deterioration, vulnerability to illness, and accelerated aging. We therefore predicted that lifetime gravidity and parity would be related to levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative defence enzymes in post-menopausal women. Our hypothesis was supported by positive linear associations between levels of 8-OHdG, a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage (β = 0.21, p<0.05), levels of antioxidative defence enzyme Cu-Zn SOD (β = 0.25, p<0.05), and number of lifetime pregnancies. Furthermore, independent of age and health status, post-menopausal women with higher gravidity and parity (> = 4 pregnancies per lifetime) had 20% higher levels of 8-OHdG and 60% higher levels of Cu-Zn SOD compared to women with lower gravidity and parity (<4 pregnancies per lifetime). Our results present the first evidence for oxidative stress as a possible cost of reproductive effort in humans. PMID:26761206

  16. Intravaginally applied oxytocin improves post-menopausal vaginal atrophy.

    PubMed

    Al-Saqi, Shahla H; Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Jonasson, Aino F

    2015-09-01

    To explore the efficacy of local oxytocin for the treatment of post-menopausal vaginal atrophy. Double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Healthy post-menopausal women in Stockholm, Sweden. Sixty four post-menopausal women between February and June 2012 at the Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge/Sweden. The efficacy of oxytocin for treatment of vaginal atrophy after seven weeks and cytological evaluation. The percentage of superficial cells in the vaginal smears and the maturation values were significantly increased after seven weeks of treatment with vagitocin 400 IU (p = 0.0288 and p = 0.0002, respectively). The vaginal pH decreased significantly after seven weeks of treatment with vagitocin 100 IU (p = 0.02). The scores of vaginal atrophy, according to the histological evaluation, were significantly reduced after administration of vagitocin 100 IU (p = 0.03). The thickness of the endometrium did not differ between the treatment and placebo groups after seven weeks of treatment. The symptom experienced as the most bothersome was significantly reduced after seven weeks of treatment in the women receiving vagitocin 400 IU compared to women in the placebo group (p = 0.0089). Treatment with intravaginally applied oxytocin could be an alternative to local estrogen treatment in women with post-menopausal vaginal atrophy. © The Author(s) 2015.

  17. Clinical characteristics, bone mineral density and non-vertebral osteoporotic fracture outcomes among post-menopausal U.S. South Asian Women.

    PubMed

    Khandelwal, Stutee; Khandewal, Stutee; Chandra, Malini; Lo, Joan C

    2012-12-01

    There is limited data pertaining to osteoporotic fractures among North American women of South Asian (SA) descent. This study examines fracture incidence and risk factors among post-menopausal SA, Chinese and White women undergoing mineral density (BMD) testing within a large healthcare organization in Northern California. Using data from a retrospective study of women aged 50-85 years with femoral neck BMD measured between 1997 and 2003, we identified a subset of women of SA race and an age-matched subgroup of Chinese (1:5) and White (1:10) women and examined rates of incident wrist, humerus and hip fractures up to 10 years following BMD. Clinical and demographic risk factors were identified using health plan databases. Multivariable Cox regression analyses were conducted to examine predictors of incident fractures. The study cohort included 449 SA, 2245 Chinese and 4490 White women, with an average age of 58.4 ± 6.1 years. The prevalence of femoral neck osteoporosis was higher among SA (8.9%) compared to White (6.5%) women and tended to be lower than Chinese (11.9%) women. More SA (7.1%) and White (9.6%) women had prior fracture compared to Chinese women (4.5%) and racial differences in smoking, rheumatoid arthritis, glucocorticoid use and hormone replacement therapy were seen. During a median of 8.4 years follow-up, wrist fracture incidence was similar among SA and White women (286 and 303 per 100,000 person-years, respectively) but significantly lower among Chinese women (130 per 100,000 person-years). In multivariable analyses, lower BMD, prior fracture and White and SA race (compared to Chinese race), were associated with a higher relative rate of wrist fracture. Lower BMD, prior fracture, older age and White but not SA race were also associated with a higher relative rate of non-vertebral (wrist, humerus or hip) fractures. Post-menopausal South Asian women differed from Chinese and White women with respect to prevalence of femoral neck osteoporosis, certain

  18. Prediction of tamoxifen outcome by genetic variation of CYP2D6 in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Brauch, Hiltrud; Schwab, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The question of whether genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 can affect treatment outcome in patients with early post-menopausal oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been a matter of debate over the past few years. In this article we revisit the hypothesis of CYP2D6 being a potential tamoxifen outcome predictor and provide detailed insight into the ongoing controversy that prevented the CYP2D6 marker from being accepted by the scientific and clinical community. We summarize the available pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic evidence and resolve the controversy based on the recognized methodological and statistical issues. The cumulative evidence suggests that genotyping for CYP2D6 is clinically relevant in post-menopausal women. This is important, because the clarification of this issue has the potential to resolve a clinical management question that is relevant to hundreds of thousands of women diagnosed with ER-positive breast cancer each year, who should not be denied effective endocrine therapy. PMID:24033728

  19. Use of digital panoramic radiography as an auxiliary means of low bone mineral density detection in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Valerio, C S; Trindade, A M; Mazzieiro, Ê T; Amaral, T P; Manzi, F R

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To correlate the radiomorphometric indices obtained using digital panoramic radiography (DPR) with bone mineral densities, evaluated by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test, in a population of post-menopausal females to identify patients with asymptomatic low bone mineral densities. Methods: The morphology of the mandibular cortex was evaluated using the mandibular cortical index (MCI) and the inferior mandibular cortex width was evaluated using the mental index (MI) in 64 female patients who had undergone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment. Of these patients, 21 were diagnosed with osteopaenia and 20 with osteoporosis, and 23 were normal. Three new indices for evaluating the inferior mandibular cortex width were designed: the mental posterior index 1 (MPI1), MPI2 and MPI3. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ2 and Kruskal–Wallis tests and the receiver operating characteristic curve. Results: There were significant differences between the normal and lower bone mineral density groups (osteopaenia and osteoporosis) for MCI (p < 0.01). In the osteoporosis group, the MI, MPI1, MPI2 and MPI3 were significantly different from the normal and osteopaenia groups (p < 0.05). The MI, MPI1, MPI2 and MPI3 showed that there is an area in the mandibular cortex, located between the mental foramen and the antegonial region, which is valid for identifying females at high risk for osteoporosis. Conclusions: The MCI, MI, MPI1, MPI2, and MPI3 radiomorphometric indices evaluated using DPR can be used to identify post-menopausal females with low bone densities and to provide adequate medical treatment for them. PMID:24005062

  20. Use of digital panoramic radiography as an auxiliary means of low bone mineral density detection in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Valerio, C S; Trindade, A M; Mazzieiro, E T; Amaral, T P; Manzi, F R

    2013-01-01

    To correlate the radiomorphometric indices obtained using digital panoramic radiography (DPR) with bone mineral densities, evaluated by the dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry test, in a population of post-menopausal females to identify patients with asymptomatic low bone mineral densities. The morphology of the mandibular cortex was evaluated using the mandibular cortical index (MCI) and the inferior mandibular cortex width was evaluated using the mental index (MI) in 64 female patients who had undergone dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry assessment. Of these patients, 21 were diagnosed with osteopaenia and 20 with osteoporosis, and 23 were normal. Three new indices for evaluating the inferior mandibular cortex width were designed: the mental posterior index 1 (MPI1), MPI2 and MPI3. Statistical analyses were performed using the χ(2) and Kruskal-Wallis tests and the receiver operating characteristic curve. There were significant differences between the normal and lower bone mineral density groups (osteopaenia and osteoporosis) for MCI (p < 0.01). In the osteoporosis group, the MI, MPI1, MPI2 and MPI3 were significantly different from the normal and osteopaenia groups (p < 0.05). The MI, MPI1, MPI2 and MPI3 showed that there is an area in the mandibular cortex, located between the mental foramen and the antegonial region, which is valid for identifying females at high risk for osteoporosis. The MCI, MI, MPI1, MPI2, and MPI3 radiomorphometric indices evaluated using DPR can be used to identify post-menopausal females with low bone densities and to provide adequate medical treatment for them.

  1. Clinical characteristics and incidence of first fracture in a consecutive sample of post-menopausal women attending osteoporosis centers: The PROTEO-1 study.

    PubMed

    Isaia, G C; Braga, V; Minisola, S; Bianchi, G; Del Puente, A; Di Matteo, L; Pagano Mariano, G; Latte, V M; D'Amico, F; Bonali, C; D'Amelio, P

    2011-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a highly prevalent disease and fractures are a major cause of disability and morbidity. The purpose of this study was to characterize post-menopausal women attending osteoporosis centers in Italy, to evaluate physician management, and to determine the incidence of first osteoporotic fracture. PROTEO-1 was an observational longitudinal study with a 12-month follow-up. Data were collected from women attending osteoporosis centers. Women without prevalent fracture were eligible to enter the 1-yr follow-up phase: the clinical approach to patients according to their fracture risk profile and the incidence of fracture were recorded. 4269 patients were enrolled in 80 centers in the cross-sectional phase; 34.2% had an osteoporotic fracture at baseline. Patients with prevalent fractures were older and more likely to be treated compared with non-fractured patients. The incidence of vertebral or hip fracture after 1 yr was 3.84%, regardless of the calculated risk factor profile, and was significantly higher in patients with back pain at baseline (4.2%) compared with those without back pain (2.2%; p=0.023). Generally, physicians prescribed more blood exams and drugs to patients at higher risk of fracture. Among fractured patients only 24% were properly treated; the rate of non-responders to treatment was about 4%. In a large, unselected sample of post-menopausal women attending osteoporosis centers, those without previous fracture were at substantial risk of future fracture, regardless of their theoretical low 10-yr fracture risk. The presence of back pain in women without previous fracture warrants close attention.

  2. Effect of Citalopram in Combination with Omega-3 on Depression in Post-menopausal Women: A Triple Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Masoumi, Seyedeh Zahra; Kazemi, Farideh; Rahimi, Alireza; Oshvandi, Khodayar; Soltanian, Alireza; Shobeiri, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Depressive disorder is a common and disabling disorder that causes high rates of morbidity and mortality. Citalopram is an antidepressant drug, of the Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor (SSRI) class that has been used for geriatric depression since a long time ago. Prescription of omega-3 in geriatric depression has been increased recently; because of more favorable profile of their side effects. Some of the studies reported that omega-3 is effective in prevention or treatment of depressive disorders than Citalopram. However, there are contradictory studies too. Aim This study aimed to investigate the effect of a combination of omega-3 and citalopram in the treatment of women with post-menopausal depression. Materials and Methods This triple-blind randomized controlled trial was conducted on 60 women with post-menopausal depression who were referred to the Hamadan Fatemieh Hospital. After the participants completed the DSM-IV questionnaire and depression was confirmed by a psychiatrist, participants were assigned randomly into two-intervention and control groups. The patients in the control group received 20mg citalopram along with a placebo while patients in the intervention group received 20mg citalopram and 1g of omega-3. At baseline and at the end of the first, second, and fourth weeks, all of the participants answered the Beck’s Depression Inventory (BDI). Descriptive statistics and t-test, repeated measures analysis of variance and Bonferroni post-hoc test was used to analyse the data. Results The depression score was 6.1±2.41 in intervention and 25.22±10.04 in control group, four weeks after intervention. A decreasing trend was observed in the mean depression scores of the intervention group during the study. Using repeated measures analysis of variance, a significant difference was observed between the mean depression scores of the two groups at the four measurement time-points (p<0.001). The mean depression scores of the intervention

  3. The change in motivating factors influencing commencement, adherence and retention to a supervised resistance training programme in previously sedentary post-menopausal women: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Viljoen, Janet Erica; Christie, Candice Jo-Anne

    2015-03-12

    Understanding motivators for exercise participation in post-menopausal women may impact retention to exercise programmes and inform intervention trial designs. The purpose of this investigation was to assess self-reported motivational factors influencing adherence and retention to a 24-week progressive resistance training programme. Post-menopausal females (n = 34) were passively recruited to undertake a 24-week progressive resistance training protocol, in small-group sessions, on three non-consecutive days of the week. Attendance was recorded by the researcher. Qualitative reports were sourced from the sample for four phases of the study: pre-study (prior to week 1), recruitment (week 1), during study (weeks 2 - 24), and post-intervention (beyond week 24). Responses were categorised according to ten descriptors: specific health index improvement, education, flexibility of time, social contact, conscience (loyalty to the researcher), wellness, weight management, organisation parameters (pertaining to the study programme) and enjoyment of the exercises. Of the initial sample, 76.5% (n = 26) met the specified ≥80% attendance criterion. The primary findings were that motivation to volunteer for the study was driven by a perceived need for a structured exercise programme (50% of respondents). A commitment to the researcher was the primary motivator for continued adherence to the study for 50% of participants. Social contact with other participants was cited by 60% of the sample as the primary reason for adherence for the full duration of 24 weeks. A desire to maintain the "wellness" derived from the programme was cited by 60% as a reason for continuing an exercise routine post-study. This study identified that routine and supervision initially attract women to exercise programmes, while social cohesion of the group setting contributes to retention over time. Understanding the changing nature of motivating factors may contribute to better overall adherence

  4. Pharmacokinetic Properties of Three Forms of Vaginal Progesterone Administered in Either Single Or Multiple Dose Regimen in Healthy Post-menopausal Chinese Women.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guolan; Chen, Junchun; Hu, Xingjiang; Zhou, Huili; Liu, Jian; Lv, Duo; Wu, Lihua; Shentu, Jianzhong

    2017-01-01

    Objective: A generic vaginal progesterone gel has recently been developed in China. Little is known about its pharmacokinetic properties in Chinese subjects. The purpose of our study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of three forms of vaginal progesterone gel (test formulations at 4 and 8% strength vs. a reference formulation: Crinone 8%) in Chinese healthy post-menopausal women. Methods: This study consisted of two parts study. The part 1 study was a single-center, open-label, 3-period study. Twelve healthy post-menopausal women were to evaluate the safety and pharmacokinetics of 45 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 4%) following single dose and multiple doses administered once every other day (q.o.d.) for six times or once daily (q.d.) for 6 days. The part 2 study was a randomized, open-label, 3-stage crossover study. Twelve post-menopausal women received 90 mg vaginal progesterone gel (Test 8%) or 90 mg Crinone (Reference 8%) following single dose and multiple doses (q.o.d. or q.d.). Plasma concentrations of progesterone were measured up to 72 h by using a validated liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry method. The primary pharmacokinetic parameters, maximum plasma concentration (Cmax) and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) from time zero to last measurable concentration (AUC0-t) and extrapolated to infinity (AUC0-∞) were compared by an analysis of variance using log-transformed data. Results: Totally 24 subjects were enrolled in and completed the study. Following single dose, The geometric mean Cmax values for Test 4%, Test 8%, and Crinone 8% were 6.35, 10.34, 10.45 ng/mL, and their geometric mean AUC0-t (AUC0-∞) were 113.73 (118.00), 169.39 (173.98), and 190.07 (201.13) ng⋅h/mL, respectively. The mean T1/2 values of progesterone were 11.00, 10.92, and 11.40 h, respectively. For 8% test formulation vs. reference, the 90% CIs of the least squares mean test/reference ratios of Cmax, AUC0-t, and AUC0-∞ were 78

  5. Effect of β-cryptoxanthin plus phytosterols on cardiovascular risk and bone turnover markers in post-menopausal women: a randomized crossover trial.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; Lagarda, M J; Garcia-López, F J; Sánchez-Siles, L M; Blanco-Navarro, I; Alegría, A; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Garcia-Llatas, G; Donoso-Navarro, E; Silvestre-Mardomingo, R A; Barberá, R

    2014-10-01

    Post-menopausal women are at higher risk of cardiovascular disease and bone demineralization. Phytosterols (PS) may be used for hypercholesterolemia in some groups and β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cx) displays a unique anabolic effect on bone. Our aim was to assess the changes in cardiovascular and bone turnover markers from the oral intake of β-Cx and PS in post-menopausal women. A randomized, double-blind, crossover study with β-Cx (0.75 mg/day) and PS (1.5 g/day), single and combined, was performed in 38 postmenopausal women. Diet was supplemented with 1 × 250 mL milk-based fruit drink/day for 4 weeks with a wash-out period of 4-weeks in between. Serum β-Cx and PS were determined by UPLC and CG-FID respectively. Outcome variables included markers of bone turnover and cardiovascular risk. Biological effect was assessed by paired t test and generalized estimating equations analysis that included the previous treatment, the order of intervention and the interactions. The intake of beverages containing β-Cx and PS brought about a significant increase in serum levels of β-Cx, β-sitosterol and campesterol. Intervention caused changes in almost all the markers while the order, previous treatment and the interaction did not reach statistical significance. Only the intake of the beverage containing β-Cx plus PS brought about significant decreases in total cholesterol, c-HDL, c-LDL and bone turnover markers. β-Cx improves the cholesterol-lowering effect of PS when supplied simultaneously and this combination may also be beneficial in reducing risk of osteoporosis. ClinicalTrials.gov number NCT01074723. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Survival of dental implants in post-menopausal bisphosphonate users.

    PubMed

    Koka, Sreenivas; Babu, Nivedhitha Malli Suresh; Norell, Aaron

    2010-07-01

    To determine whether post-menopausal women with a history of bisphosphonate use are at greater risk for implant failure or osteonecrosis of the jaw (ONJ) than an age- and gender-matched population with no history of bisphosphonate use. A retrospective chart review and phone interview was conducted of patients seen at the Mayo Clinic who had implants placed after November 2006. Bisphosphonate users were identified by medical chart review. Dental implant survival and ONJ incidence were determined in a total of 82 post-menopausal non-bisphosphonate users and 55 post-menopausal bisphosphonate users using a phone interview. Implant failures were recorded and survival percentages were calculated for comparison. ONJ was not observed consequent to implant placement in any of the bisphosphonate users or non-users. In non-users, 163 out of 166 implants were surviving for a cumulative survival rate of 98.19%. In bisphosphonate users, 120 out of 121 implants were surviving for a cumulative survival rate of 99.17%. Dental implants placed in post-menopausal women have the same survival potential regardless of whether patients have a history of bisphosphonate use. Bisphosphonate users who undergo dental implant surgery are at low risk for osteonecrosis of the jaw and a bisphosphonate "drug holiday" is not indicated in these patients. Copyright 2010 Japan Prosthodontic Society. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Post-menopausal vaginal angiomyofibroblastoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Laiyemo, Raphael; Disu, Stewart; Vijaya, Gopalar; Wise, B

    2005-12-01

    Angiomyofibroblastoma (AMF) is a recently described, rare, benign soft tissue vulvovaginal tumour that occurs mainly but not exclusively in the vulval region of pre-menopausal women (Fletcher et al. in Am J Surg Pathl 16:373; 1992). The first case was diagnosed in 1992. We report a case of a post-menopausal woman with a 2-month history of a rapidly growing painless vaginal tumour and thus drawing the attention of gynaecologist as well as general practitioners to the fact that this rare phenomenon can occur outside the vulva.

  8. Changes of liver enzymes and triglyceride during the menopausal transition in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Matsui, Sumika; Yasui, Toshiyuki; Kasai, Kana; Keyama, Kaoru; Kato, Takeshi; Uemura, Hirokazu; Kuwahara, Akira; Matsuzaki, Toshiya; Irahara, Minoru

    2016-08-01

    We examined detailed changes in liver enzymes as surrogate markers for metabolic syndrome and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) during the menopausal transition and the associations of liver enzymes with lipid profiles related to risk of metabolic syndrome and endocrinological hormones. We divided 393 women into seven stages by menstrual regularity, follicle-stimulating hormone level and years since menopause. Serum levels of alanine aminotranferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), gamma-glutamyltransferase, lipid parameters, glucose, and endocrinological hormones were measured. Both levels of AST and ALT increased towards early post-menopause. AST remained high in late post-menopause but ALT decreased. The AST/ALT ratio decreased towards late menopausal transition and very early post-menopause and increased thereafter. This ratio was negatively correlated with triglyceride. Significant changes in ALT and AST/ALT ratio during the menopausal transition, which were associated with triglyceride, might be involved in the occurrence of metabolic syndrome and NAFLD in Japanese women.

  9. Effect of 1-year dietary supplementation with vitaminized olive oil on markers of bone turnover and oxidative stress in healthy post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mazzanti, Laura; Battino, Maurizio; Nanetti, Laura; Raffaelli, Francesca; Alidori, Alessandro; Sforza, Giulia; Carle, Flavia; Quagliarini, Veronica; Cester, Nelvio; Vignini, Arianna

    2015-11-01

    Osteoporosis represents a serious health problem worldwide associated with an increased risk of fractures and mortality. Nutrition should form part of bone disease prevention strategies, especially in the light of the population ageing and the diet effect on bone health. Thus the study aimed at verifying whether 1 year of oral supplementation with either extra virgin olive oil (VOO) enriched with vitamins D3, K1 and B6 (VitVOO) or VOO used as placebo (PlaVOO) is able to modify some bone turnover and oxidative stress markers. Bone mineral density (BMD) was assessed in 60 healthy post-menopausal women together with the bone vitamin K status by measuring undercarboxylated osteocalcine (ucOC) plasma levels, the ratio between ucOC and carboxylated osteocalcine (UCR) and the relations with oxidative stress markers. After 1 year (T 1), subjects taking VitVOO showed lower ucOC levels than those taking PlaVOO; the same trend was found for UCR. As far as BMD is concerned, a significant increase in T-score at T 1 in VitVOO subjects compared to PlaVOO was found. All oxidative stress markers as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid hydroperoxides and conjugated dienes showed a significant reduction after VitVOO supplementation, whilst plasma total antioxidant capacity values was significantly increased in VitVOO group compared to PlaVOO group at T 1. It might be suggested that the use of VitVOO in the diet of post-menopausal women could represent a proper tool for bone protection and a useful strategy against oxidative stress and related diseases, thus confirming the antioxidant role played by the added vitamins.

  10. The TaqIA RFLP is associated with attenuated intervention-induced body weight loss and increased carbohydrate intake in post-menopausal obese women.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Jameason D; Riou, Marie-Ève; Tesson, Frédérique; Goldfield, Gary S; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Brochu, Martin; Doucet, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Polymorphisms of the dopamine receptor D2 (DRD2) gene have been associated with obesity phenotypes. Our aim was to examine if the genotype of TaqIA Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFPL) was related to an attenuated weight loss response or to changes in energy expenditure (EE) and food preference before and after weight loss. methods: Obese post-menopausal women (age=57.1 ± 4.6 yr, weight=85.4 ± 15.4 kg and BMI=32.8 ± 4.5 kg/m(2)) were genotyped for TaqIA (n=127) by using PCR-RFLP analysis and categorized as possessing at least one copy of the A1 allele (A1(+)) or no copy (A1(-)). Women were randomized into two groups, caloric restriction (CR) and caloric restriction+resistance training (CRRT) and in this study were further classified as follows: A1(+)CR, A1(+)CRRT, A1-(-)CR and (-)A1(-)CRRT. Body composition, total daily EE, physical activity EE, Resting EE (REE), and energy intake were obtained at baseline and post-intervention using DXA, doubly-labeled water, indirect calorimetry, and 3-day dietary records, respectively. Overall, all of the anthropometric variables and REE significantly decreased post-intervention (p<0.001). Women in the CRRT group lost significantly more fat mass (FM) than the CR women (p<0.05). There were significant time by group by allele interactions for attenuated body weight (BW), BMI, and FM loss for A1(+) (vs. A1(-)) in CRRT (p<0.05) and for increased % carbohydrate intake (p<0.01). TaqIA genotype was associated with body weight loss post-intervention; more specifically, carriers of the A1 allele lost significantly less BW and FM than the A1(-) and had increased carbohydrate intake in the CRRT group. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Migraine in menopausal women: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Ripa, Patrizia; Ornello, Raffaele; Degan, Diana; Tiseo, Cindy; Stewart, Janet; Pistoia, Francesca; Carolei, Antonio; Sacco, Simona

    2015-01-01

    Evidence suggests that migraine activity is influenced by hormonal factors, and particularly by estrogen levels, but relatively few studies have investigated the prevalence and characteristics of migraine according to the menopausal status. Overall, population-based studies have shown an improvement of migraine after menopause, with a possible increase in perimenopause. On the contrary, the studies performed on patients referring to headache centers have shown no improvement or even worsening of migraine. Menopause etiology may play a role in migraine evolution during the menopausal period, with migraine improvement more likely occurring after spontaneous rather than after surgical menopause. Postmenopausal hormone replacement therapy has been found to be associated with migraine worsening in observational population-based studies. The effects of several therapeutic regimens on migraine has also been investigated, leading to nonconclusive results. To date, no specific preventive measures are recommended for menopausal women with migraine. There is a need for further research in order to clarify the relationship between migraine and hormonal changes in women, and to quantify the real burden of migraine after the menopause. Hormonal manipulation for the treatment of refractory postmenopausal migraine is still a matter of debate. PMID:26316824

  12. Clinicopathological Spectrum of Endometrial Changes in Peri-menopausal and Post-menopausal Abnormal Uterine Bleeding: A 2 Years Study.

    PubMed

    Damle, Rajshri P; Dravid, N V; Suryawanshi, Kishor H; Gadre, Arundhati S; Bagale, Priya S; Ahire, Neelam

    2013-12-01

    Abnormal uterine bleeding is the Common presenting complaint in Gynaecology Outpatient Department in all age groups. It is due to the anovulatory cycles which are commonly seen in adolescent and peri-menopausal women. Abnormal uterine bleeding is caused by wide variety of organic or non-organic causes. Histopathological examination of endometrial sample remains the gold standard for diagnosis of endometrial pathology. To study the clinicopathological spectrum of endometrium in abnormal uterine bleeding in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal age groups. The study included prospective analysis of 119 cases of endometrial samples in patients of abnormal uterine bleeding above 40 years of age. The specimens were routinely processed and H&E stained slides were studied. Patients were categorized into peri-menopausal (40-49 years) and post-menopausal (> 50 years) age group. A total of 119 specimens of endometrium were analyzed. Maximum number (73.94%) of cases were from peri-menopausal age group. The most common presenting complaint was menorrhagia (48.86%) followed by post-menopausal bleeding (26.05%). In peri-menopausal age group proliferative endometrium (35.22%) was the predominant histopathological pattern followed by endometrial hyperplasia (23.86%). Atrophic endometrium (25.80%) was the most frequent finding followed by endometrial hyperplasia (19.35%) in post-menopausal age group. Three cases of endometrial carcinoma were reported in post-menopausal age group only. A thorough histopathological work up and clinical correlation is mandatory in cases of abnormal uterine bleeding above the age of 40 years to find out organic lesions. Careful screening can detect early cancer of endometrium which has excellent prognosis and it will help in further management.

  13. Correlation between Female Sex Hormones and Electrodiagnostic Parameters and Clinical Function in Post-menopausal Women with Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Azam; Naseri, Mahshid; Namazi, Hamid; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of sex-hormonal changes in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among post-menopausal women through measuring estrogen receptor (ER) expression in their transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and serum estrogen level, as well as determine the correlation between these factors and electrodiagnostic parameters and Boston score. Methods Biopsy samples of TCL were collected from 12 postmenopausal women who had undergone surgery for severe idiopathic CTS; control specimens were collected from 10 postmenopausal women without CTS who had undergone surgery for the other hand pathologies. To determine the distributions of ER in TCL, histological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Serum estrogen level was also measured. Electrodiagnosis and Boston questionnaire were used for CTS severity and determination of the patients' function. Results ER expression in TCL and serum estrogen level were not significantly different in the case group compared to the control group (P = 0.79 and P = 0.88, respectively). Also, there was no correlation between ER expression or serum estrogen level and electrodiagnostic parameters or Boston score. Conclusions Sex hormones cannot still be considered as the etiology of idiopathic CTS in postmenopausal women. The role of other factors such as wrist ratio and narrower outlet in females compared to the males should be considered along with hormonal changes. PMID:27617242

  14. Skin academy: hair, skin, hormones and menopause - current status/knowledge on the management of hair disorders in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Atkin, Stephen; Gieler, Uwe; Grimalt, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is defined by 12 months of amenorrhea after the final menstrual period. The reduction in ovarian hormones and increased androgen levels can manifest as hair and skin disorders. Although hirsutism, unwanted facial hair, alopecia, skin atrophy and slackness of facial skin are common issues encountered by post-menopausal women, these problems receive very little attention relative to other menopausal symptoms. The visibility of these disorders has been shown to cause significant anxiety and may impact on patients' self-esteem and quality of life, particularly given the strong association of hair and skin with a woman's femininity and beauty, which is demonstrated by extensive marketing by the cosmetic industry targeting this population and the large expenditure on these products by menopausal women. The proportion of the female population who are in the post-menopausal age group is rising. Therefore, the prevalence of these dermatological symptoms is likely to increase. Current therapies aim to rectify underlying hormonal imbalances and improve cosmetic appearance. However, there is little evidence to support treatment for these disorders specifically in post-menopausal women. This review discusses the assessment and treatment of both the physiological and psychological aspects of hair and skin disorders pertinent to the growing post-menopausal population.

  15. Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Andany, Nisha; Kennedy, V Logan; Aden, Muna; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Since the implementation of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has been transformed from a life-threatening condition into a chronic disease. As people with HIV are living longer, aging and its associated manifestations have become key priorities as part of HIV care. For women with HIV, menopause is an important part of aging to consider. Women currently represent more than one half of HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Given the vast proportion of women living with HIV who are, and will be, transitioning through age-related life events, the interaction between HIV infection and menopause must be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Menopause is a major clinical event that is universally experienced by women, but affects each individual woman uniquely. This transitional time in women’s lives has various clinical implications including physical and psychological symptoms, and accelerated development and progression of other age-related comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, and bone mineral disease; all of which are potentially heightened by HIV or its treatment. Furthermore, within the context of HIV, there are the additional considerations of HIV acquisition and transmission risk, progression of infection, changes in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics, response, and toxicities. These menopausal manifestations and complications must be managed concurrently with HIV, while keeping in mind the potential influence of menopause on the prognosis of HIV infection itself. This results in additional complexity for clinicians caring for women living with HIV, and highlights the shifting paradigm in HIV care that must accompany this aging and evolving population. PMID:26834498

  16. The Effects of Exercising in Different Natural Environments on Psycho-Physiological Outcomes in Post-Menopausal Women: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Mathew P.; Pahl, Sabine; Ashbullby, Katherine J.; Burton, Francesca; Depledge, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined potential psycho-physiological benefits from exercising in simulated natural environments among a sample of post-menopausal women using a laboratory based protocol. Participants cycled on a stationary exercise bike for 15 min while facing either a blank wall (Control) or while watching one of three videos: Urban (Grey), Countryside (Green), Coast (Blue). Blood pressure, heart rate and affective responses were measured pre-post. Heart rate, affect, perceived exertion and time perception were also measured at 5, 10 and 15 min during exercise. Experience evaluation was measured at the end. Replicating most earlier findings, affective, but not physiological, outcomes were more positive for exercise in the simulated Green and, for the first time, Blue environment, compared to Control. Moreover, only the simulated Blue environment was associated with shorter perceived exercise duration than Control and participants were most willing to repeat exercise in the Blue setting. The current research extended earlier work by exploring the effects of “blue exercise” and by using a demographic with relatively low average levels of physical activity. That this sample of postmenopausal women were most willing to repeat a bout of exercise in a simulated Blue environment may be important for physical activity promotion in this cohort. PMID:26404351

  17. Sleep and sleep disorders in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Guidozzi, F

    2013-04-01

    Sleep disorders in the menopause are common. Although these disorders may be due to the menopause itself and/or the associated vasomotor symptoms, the etiology is multifactorial and includes a number of other associated conditions. They may simply arise as part of the aging process and not be specifically related to the decrease in estrogen levels or, alternatively, because of breathing or limb movement syndromes, depression, anxiety, co-morbid medical diseases, medication, pain and/or psychosocial factors. The most commonly encountered sleep disorders in menopausal women include insomnia, nocturnal breathing disturbances and the associated sleep disorders that accompany the restless leg syndrome, periodic leg movement syndrome, depression and anxiety. This review article addresses sleep and the sleep disorders associated with menopause and briefly the role that hormone therapy may play in alleviating these disorders.

  18. Immune effects of surgical menopause and estrogen replacement therapy in peri-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Selahattin; Godekmerdan, Ahmet; Yilmaz, Bayram

    2004-08-01

    The complex relationship between sex hormones and immune function suggests that sex hormone deficiency and estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) in post-menopausal women may have pleiotropic effects on immune function. For this reason, we aimed to investigate short-term effects of surgical menopause and ERT on immunity profile in peri-menopausal women. Seventeen healthy peri-menopausal women who were to undergo total abdominal hysterectomy and bilateral salpingo-oopherectomy (TAH + BSO) for uterine myoma were enrolled into this study. Three blood samples were collected from each patient: 1-day prior to surgery, 30 days after the operation (before ERT) and 30 days after transdermal ERT. The percentages of peripheral blood lymphocyte subpopulations, serum interleukin-4 (IL-4) and interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) concentrations were determined by flow-cytometry and ELISA, respectively. Following TAH + BSO, the percentage of CD8+ cells was increased ( P < 0.001 ) while the percentage of CD19+ cells, serum IL-4, and IFN-gamma concentration and the ratio of CD4+ to CD8+ cells were decreased ( P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.002, and P < 0.05 respectively). After ERT, this trend reversed and a decrease in the CD8+ cells ( P < 0.001 ), increase in the CD19+ cells percentages ( P < 0.02 ) and increase in serum IFN-gamma concentration ( P < 0.002 ) were observed. Although an increasing trend in the CD4+ to CD8+ ratio occurred by ERT, this was not significant. However, the decrease in the serum IL-4 concentration after TAH + BSO was not reversed by ERT. Hormone deficiency in post-menopausal women may cause an impaired immune response, and ERT can restore this phenomenon. Estrogen seems to have an important role in the regulation of immune function.

  19. Musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in Puebla, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Sievert, Lynnette Leidy; Goode-Null, Susan K

    2005-06-01

    Worldwide, complaints of musculoskeletal pain are more frequent than complaints of hot flashes amongst women of menopausal age. The purpose of this study was to examine musculoskeletal pain among women of menopausal age in the city of Puebla, Mexico. An opportunity sample was recruited from public parks and markets, with representation from all social classes (n=755). Mean age was 50.1 years, and the majority were employed as saleswomen in small businesses. Symptom frequencies were collected by open-ended interviews and with a structured symptom list that queried symptom experience during the two weeks prior to interview. In response to open-ended questions, "dolores de huesos" (bone pain) was volunteered by 47% of respondents as a symptom associated with menopause, second only to hot flashes (53%). From the structured symptom list, 55.8% and 55.6% reported back pain and joint stiffness during the two weeks prior to interview. Women with back pain and joint stiffness were less likely to report being active during their leisure time (p<.01). The results of backwards stepwise logistic regressions indicate that women with back pain were more likely to be older, with less education, a higher BMI, and ate less meat. Women with joint pain were more likely to be post-menopausal, with less education, more children, a higher BMI, and were likely to drink milk and coffee more than once/week but less than once/day. While menopause is not necessarily a risk factor for musculoskeletal pain, it is important to recognize the pervasiveness of this complaint among women of menopausal age.

  20. Caloric restriction, aerobic exercise training and soluble lectin-like oxidized LDL receptor-1 levels in overweight and obese post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brinkley, T E; Wang, X; Kume, N; Mitsuoka, H; Nicklas, B J

    2011-06-01

    Elevated circulating levels of soluble lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor-1 (sLOX-1) have been observed in obese persons and are reduced by weight loss. However, it is not known whether combining caloric restriction (CR) with exercise training is better in reducing sLOX-1 levels than CR alone. We examined whether the addition of aerobic exercise to a weight loss intervention differentially affects sLOX-1 levels in 61 abdominally obese post-menopausal women randomly assigned to a CR only (n = 22), CR+moderate-intensity exercise (n = 22) or CR+vigorous-intensity exercise (n = 17) intervention for 20 weeks. The caloric deficit was ~2800 kcal per week for all groups. The intervention groups were similar at baseline with respect to body weight, body composition, lipids and blood pressure. However, plasma sLOX-1 levels were higher in the CR-only group (99.90 ± 8.23 pg ml(-1)) compared with both the CR+moderate-intensity exercise (69.39 ± 8.23 pg ml(-1), P = 0.01) and the CR+vigorous-intensity exercise (72.83 ± 9.36 pg ml(-1), P = 0.03) groups. All three interventions significantly reduced body weight (~14%), body fat and waist and hip circumferences to a similar degree. These changes were accompanied by a 23% reduction in sLOX-1 levels overall (-19.00 ± 30.08 pg ml(-1), P < 0.0001), which did not differ among intervention groups (P = 0.13). Changes in body weight, body fat and maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2) max) were not correlated with changes in sLOX-1 levels. In multiple regression analyses in all women combined, baseline sLOX-1 levels (β = -0.70 ± 0.06, P < 0.0001), age (β = 0.92 ± 0.43, P = 0.03) and baseline body mass index (BMI) (β = 1.88 ± 0.66, P = 0.006) were independent predictors of the change in sLOX-1 with weight loss. Weight loss interventions of equal energy deficit have similar effects on sLOX-1 levels in overweight and obese post-menopausal women, with the addition of aerobic exercise having no added benefit when

  1. Psychosocial factors associated with perceived psychological health, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in menopausal women and controls.

    PubMed

    Osinowo, H O

    2003-09-01

    The study investigated factors associated with attitude towards sex-role, self-image and marital satisfaction on psychological health status, perception of menopause and sexual satisfaction in climacteric women in Ibadan, Nigeria. 45 female participants were randomly selected from Ibadan. The mean age was 51.42 +/- 8.05 years (range = 36 - 70 years). The mean age for the 13 non-menopausal women was 42.79 +/- 3. 91 years (range = 42 - 47 years) while the mean age for the 32 menopausal women was 5.16 +/- 6.08 years (range = 47 - 70 years). The mean age of the children of the participants was 16.05 +/- 8.09 years (range = 1 - 36 years). A questionnaire having several subsections (consisting of the psychological health status of women in the climacteric, attitude towards sex role, perception of menopause, social support, marital satisfaction, self-image and sexuality scales was used for the assessment. Post-Menopausal women reported better psychological health compared to the pre-menopausal women (t = 1.86, p < .05) but no significant differences in their attitude to sex role. Post menopausal women had more positive attitude to sex (t = 3.15, p < .01) and were more knowledgeable about menopause (t = 2.15, p < .03). Women with conservative/reactionary preference for traditional sex roles reported negative perception of menopause compared to those with liberal attitude toward sex role (t = 1.82, p < 0.05). Menopausal Status, Educational level and social support predicted positive attitude to sex, (F = 3.62, P < .01). Age, self-image and attitude to sex domain of the marital satisfaction scale predicted better psychological health, and marital cordiality predicted better psychological health as measured by GIIQ (R2 = 25, beta = -43, t = -2.38, P < .02). Marital satisfaction significantly predicted better sexuality, (F = 5.47, R square = 0.11, p <0.05). Sources of information on menopause included health institutions, books, doctors, and books/health workers. The study

  2. Prolactin receptor expression and breast cancer: relationships with tumor characteristics among pre- and post-menopausal women in a population-based case-control study from Poland.

    PubMed

    Faupel-Badger, Jessica M; Duggan, Maire A; Sherman, Mark E; Garcia-Closas, Montserrat; Yang, Xiaohong R; Lissowska, Jolanta; Brinton, Louise A; Peplonska, Beata; Vonderhaar, Barbara K; Figueroa, Jonine D

    2014-02-01

    Previous studies have found an association between elevated circulating prolactin levels and increased risk of breast cancer. Prolactin stimulates breast cancer cell proliferation, migration, and survival via binding to the cell-surface prolactin receptor. The association of prolactin receptor expression with breast tumorigenesis remains unclear as studies that have focused on this association have had limited sample size and/or information about tumor characteristics. Here, we examined the association of prolactin expression with tumor characteristics among 736 cases, from a large population-based case-control study of breast cancer conducted in Poland (2000-2003), with detailed risk factor and pathology data. Tumors were centrally reviewed and prepared as tissue microarrays for immunohistochemical analysis of prolactin receptor expression. Association of prolactin receptor expression across strata of tumor characteristics was evaluated using χ (2) analysis and logistic regression. Prolactin receptor expression did not vary by menopausal status; therefore, data from pre- and post-menopausal women were combined in the analyses. Approximately 83 % of breast cancers were categorized as strong prolactin receptor staining. Negative/low prolactin receptor expression was independently associated with poorly differentiated (p = 1.2 × 10(-08)) and larger tumors (p = 0.0005). These associations were independent of estrogen receptor expression. This is the largest study to date in which the association of prolactin receptor expression with tumor characteristics has been evaluated. These data provide new avenues from which to explore the associations of the prolactin/prolactin receptor signaling network with breast tumorigenesis.

  3. Prevalence of unexplained anaemia in Inuit men and Inuit post-menopausal women in Northern Labrador: International Polar Year Inuit Health Survey.

    PubMed

    Jamieson, Jennifer A; Weiler, Hope A; Kuhnlein, Harriet V; Egeland, Grace M

    2016-06-27

    To identify correlates of hemoglobin (Hb) and anaemia unexplained by iron deficiency (UA) in Canadian Inuit adults. A cross-sectional survey assessed diet, demographic information, anthropometry, fasting Hb, ferritin, soluble transferrin receptor (on a subset), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in serum, red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid composition, blood lead, and antibodies to Helicobacter pylori in non-pregnant, Inuit adults (n = 2550), ≥18 years of age from randomly selected households in 36 Inuit communities in Inuvialuit Settlement Region, Nunavut Territory and Nunatsiavut of Northern Labrador, Canada. Hb concentrations were lower and UA prevalence higher in Inuit men after 50 years of age. Rate of anaemia was constant among Inuit women but changed from primarily iron deficiency anaemia pre-menopause, to primarily UA in post-menopause. Low education levels and hs-CRP were associated with increased risk of UA. For Inuit men, % RBC eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and elevated blood lead were also associated with increased risk of UA. Frequency of traditional food intake was positively associated with Hb. Age patterns and regional variation of anaemia suggest that ethnicity-related physiological differences cannot explain anaemia prevalence for Inuit. High RBC EPA status, inflammation and infections, and lower education levels may contribute to the prevalence of anaemia in this population, which is not related to iron status. Thus, traditional lifestyle may protect Inuit from nutritional anaemia but contribute to lower Hb through environmental exposures. The clinical significance of UA for older Inuit adults requires further investigation, as the prevalence represents a moderate public health problem.

  4. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  5. FTO first intron rs1558902 variant and platelets count in white middle-aged women: prague pre- and post-menopausal females (3PMFs) study.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Dlouha, Dana; Lanska, Vera; Stavek, Petr; Pagacova, Libuse; Kralova-Lesna, Ivana; Pitha, Jan

    2013-02-01

    The polymorphisms within the FTO gene play an important role in the genetic determination of body weight and body mass index and have been associated with cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanism is still a matter of debate. The possible effect on the platelet count as a marker of hemocoagulation status as a possible cardiovascular risk factor was suggested in Japanese population. We have analyzed both rs1558902 FTO polymorphism (T > A) and platelet counts in the Prague Pre and Post Menopausal Females (3PMFs) study, including those of 669 women (mean age, 55.7 ± 2.7 years). The frequencies of the FTO genotypes were similar to other populations (TT, 30.4%; TA, 48.1%; and AA, 21.5%). We have not detected a significant association between the FTO rs1558902 variant and platelet counts in white women (TT, 242 ± 55 × 10; TA, 246 ± 67 × 10; and AA, 247 ± 55 × 10; F[2.642] = 0.30, P = 0.75). At least in white persons, platelet count seems not to be a link between the FTO variation and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  6. An investigation of the relationship between systemic bone density and clinical periodontal status in post-menopausal Asian-American women.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Abdel R; Hooper, Deborah A; Vermilyea, Stan G; Mariotti, Angelo; Preshaw, Philip M

    2003-06-01

    The relationship between osteoporosis and periodontal disease is not understood. The aim of this study was to examine the association between bone mineral density (BMD) and periodontal status in a population of Asian-American women. Cross-sectional investigation of the association between systemic BMD and periodontal status. Thirty post-menopausal, dentate, Asian-American women who were screened for osteoporosis and chronic periodontitis. BMD of the os calcis, composed primarily of trabecular bone, was assessed by DEXA scanning. Periodontal assessments included tooth loss, plaque index, probing depths, and clinical attachment levels. Correlation and regression analyses were conducted to determine the strength of associations between BMD and clinical parameters. Statistically significant negative correlations were found between BMD and tooth loss and BMD and clinical attachment loss (p < 0.01). Those with normal BMD had lost, on average, 6.8 teeth, compared to 10.5 teeth in the osteopenic group, and 16.5 teeth in the osteoporotic group (p < 0.001). Decreasing BMD was associated with increased clinical attachment loss and tooth loss that was independent of plaque scores. These data support an association between BMD and periodontal status.

  7. The relationship between inhibitors of the Wnt signalling pathway (Dickkopf-1(DKK1) and sclerostin), bone mineral density, vascular calcification and arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hampson, Geeta; Edwards, Sylvie; Conroy, Soraya; Blake, Glen M; Fogelman, Ignac; Frost, Michelle L

    2013-09-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown an association between bone loss/osteoporosis and vascular calcification (VC). Recent studies have implicated the Wnt signalling pathway in the pathogenesis of VC. We investigated the association between circulating concentrations of Wnt inhibitors; DKK1 and sclerostin with bone mineral density (BMD), abdominal aortic calcification (AAC) and arterial stiffness in post-menopausal women. One hundred and forty six post-menopausal women aged (mean [SD]) 61.5[6.5] years were studied. Sclerostin and DKK1 were measured in serum. BMD was measured at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN), total hip (TH). AAC was detected by Vertebral Fracture Assessment (VFA) imaging and quantified using an 8- and 24- point scoring methods. Arterial stiffness was determined by aortic pulse wave velocity (PWV). A significant positive correlation was observed between sclerostin and BMD at the FN (r = 0.166, p = 0.043) and TH (r = 0.165, p = 0.044). The association remained significant at the FN (p = 0.045) and TH (p = 0.026) following adjustment for confounders. No significant correlation was observed between DKK1 and BMD. In contrast, there was a significant negative correlation between log DKK1 and AAC (24-point score: r = -0.25, p = 0.008 and 8-point score: r = -0.21, p = 0.024). Subjects with AAC score of 1 or less had significantly higher DKK1 (p = 0.01). The association between DKK1 and AAC remained significant following correction for age, blood pressure, cholesterol (24-point score: p = 0.017, 8-point score: p = 0.044). In adjusted linear regression analysis, sclerostin was positively associated with AAC (24-point score: p = 0.048, 8-point score: p = 0.031). Subjects with a PWV>9 m/s had significantly higher sclerostin than those with PWV <9 m/s: 23.8[12.3], vs 29.7 [14] pmol/l, p = 0.03). No association was observed between DKK1 and PWV. The opposite association between AAC and the 2 Wnt signaling inhibitors is of interest and merits further

  8. The effects of postmenopausal hormone therapy on serum estrogen, progesterone and sex hormone binding globulin levels in healthy post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Edlefsen, Kerstin L.; Jackson, Rebecca D.; Prentice, Ross L.; Janssen, Imke; Rajkovic, Aleksandar; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Anderson, Garnet

    2010-01-01

    Objective Differences in disease outcomes between users and non-users of hormone therapy (HT) and between users of estrogen alone (ET) and users of estrogen plus progesterone therapy (EPT) may relate to differences in serum hormone concentrations between these populations. In this study, we examine the response of serum hormone levels in healthy post-menopausal women after one year of HT. Methods A representative sub-sample of 200 healthy adherent participants from the active and placebo groups of the Women's Health Initiative randomized, controlled clinical trials of ET (conjugated equine estrogen 0.625 mg daily) or EPT (ET plus medroxyprogesterone actetate 2.5 mg daily) were selected for determination of selected sex hormone levels at baseline and one year after randomization. Results In participants receiving active ET intervention compared to placebo, estrogenic hormone levels increased from baseline to year 1 by 3.6-fold for total estrone, 2.7-fold for total estradiol, and 1.8-fold for bioavailable and free estradiol concentrations. Serum SHBG concentrations also increased 2.5-fold. In contrast, progesterone levels decreased slightly in women taking exogenous EPT. The response of serum estrogens and SHBG did not differ substantially with the addition of progesterone. In subgroup analyses, hormone response varied by age, ethnicity, BMI, smoking, vasomotor symptoms, and baseline hormone levels. Conclusions These data provide a reference point for the serum hormone response to HT, and demonstrate that response of serum estrogens is similar for ET and EPT. The implications of the slight decrease in serum progesterone levels with EPT therapy are uncertain. Potential treatment interactions for estrogenic hormones were identified, which suggest a larger response to HT in women with low endogenous levels. PMID:20215977

  9. Quality of life in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bianchi, Maria Luisa; Orsini, Maria Rosa; Saraifoger, Silvia; Ortolani, Sergio; Radaelli, Giovanni; Betti, Simonetta

    2005-12-01

    To evaluate the impact of osteoporosis on the patients' quality of life, particularly in the absence of fractures. 100 post-menopausal women (age 50-85)--62 with uncomplicated primary osteoporosis and 38 with primary osteoporosis complicated by vertebral fractures; all already treated--were studied using two validated questionnaires: Qualeffo-41 for quality of life in osteoporosis, and Zung for depression. Data were compared to those of 35 controls of comparable age, affected by a different chronic disease (hypothyroidism). Family history of osteoporosis and T-score of spine were similar in the two subgroups of osteoporotic women. Body mass index, age at menopause and education level were similar in the two subgroups of osteoporotic women and in the control group. The patients affected by osteoporosis perceived it as a disease affecting their personal life with undesirable consequences: chronic pain (66% of women with fractures and 40% of women without fractures), impaired physical ability, reduced social activity, poor well-being (21% of women without fractures) and depressed mood (42% of women irrespective of fractures). Overall, 41% of the women showed a reduced quality of life. On the contrary, in the control group only 11% reported a reduced quality of life. The quality of life of osteoporotic patients should be investigated even before fractures, in order to develop appropriate counselling, support and care interventions to help patients develop efficient strategies for accepting the disease and coping with it.

  10. Mesenchymal stem/stromal cells in post-menopausal endometrium.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, D; Tan, K S; Deane, J; Schwab, K; Cheong, A; Rosamilia, A; Gargett, C E

    2014-09-01

    Does post-menopausal endometrium contain mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (MSC) that have adult stem cell properties and can be prospectively isolated from a biopsy? Perivascular W5C5(+) cells isolated from post-menopausal endometrial biopsies displayed characteristic MSC properties of clonogenicity, multipotency and surface phenotype irrespective of whether the women were or were not pre-treated with estrogen to regenerate the endometrium. Recently MSCs have been identified in human premenopausal endometrium, and can be prospectively isolated using a single marker, W5C5/SUSD2. Endometrial tissue of both the functional and basal layers, from 17 premenopausal (pre-MP) women, 19 post-menopausal (post-MP) women without hormonal treatment and 15 post-menopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy (post-MP+ E2), was collected through a prospective phase IV clinical trial over 2 years. Post-menopausal women <65 years of age were treated with or without E2 for 6-8 weeks prior to tissue collection. Serum E2 levels were determined by estradiol immunoenzymatic assay. Endometrial tissue was obtained from women by biopsy (curettage) just prior to the hysterectomy. The effect of E2 on endometrial thickness and glandular and luminal epithelial height was determined using image analysis. Endometrial tissue was dissociated into single cell suspensions and MSC properties were examined in freshly isolated and short-term cultured, magnetic bead-purified W5C5(+) cells. MSC properties were assessed using clonogenicity, serial cloning, mesodermal differentiation in adipogenic, chondrogenic, osteogenic and myogenic induction culture media, and surface phenotype analysis by flow cytometry. Estrogen receptor α expression in W5C5(+) cells was examined using dual colour immunofluorescence. Vascularity was analysed using CD34 and alpha smooth muscle actin immunostaining and subsequent image analysis. A small population of stromal cells with MSC properties was purified with the W5C5 antibody

  11. The menopause: women's psychology and health care.

    PubMed

    Defey, D; Storch, E; Cardozo, S; Díaz, O; Fernández, G

    1996-05-01

    Menopause has often been described as a time of loss and decay in the lay and medical literature. The present research aims at defining women's perception of themselves and their health care needs in this period of life. Through a community-based sample of women, participative assessments were performed and their conclusions contrasted with the opinions of male and female gynecologists. Though both groups coincided concerning the relevance of loneliness, partnership, beauty and the "empty nest" syndrome, several items showed a marked difference between both groups. Gynecologists tended to perceive women as much more striving for an active sex-life, depressed, lacking projects for the future and worried about their health care than they actually were. Women, instead, stressed the relevance of menopause as a life crisis laden with opportunities for self-accomplishment and positive changes in life-style towards greater autonomy.

  12. Multicentre study of effects of Org OD 14 on endometrium, vaginal cytology and cervical mucus in post-menopausal and oophorectomized women.

    PubMed

    Punnonen, R; Liukko, P; Cortes-Prieto, J; Eydam, F; Milojevic, S; Trévoux, R; Chryssikopoulos, E; Franchi, F; Luisi, M; Kicovic, P M

    1984-04-01

    A multicentre study covering 69 post-menopausal or oophorectomized women was performed to determine whether Org OD 14 [7 alpha, 17 alpha)-17-hydroxy-7-methyl-19-norpregn-5(10)-en-20-yn-3-one) administered orally in a daily dose of 2.5 mg for 90 consecutive days induces endometrial proliferation. The treatment with Org OD 14 was continued in combination with 1 mg/day of lynestrenol from day 91 for 10 days to ascertain whether secretory transformation of the endometrium and subsequent withdrawal bleeding would occur. Endometrial biopsies were obtained before treatment and on day 91. The effects of Org OD 14 on vaginal mucosa and cervical mucus were also evaluated. Org OD 14 did not display any effect on the endometrium in 56 of the study subjects (83.5%). Weak stimulation (initial proliferation) was seen in 11 of the subjects (16.4%) and withdrawal bleeding occurred in only 5 of these after cessation of the combined treatment with lynestrenol. However, moderate 'oestrogenic' effects on vaginal mucosa and cervical mucus were induced in all study subjects.

  13. Maximizing health in menopausal women with disabilities.

    PubMed

    Welner, Sandra L; Simon, James A; Welner, Barbara

    2002-01-01

    There are nearly 30 million women with disabilities in the United States. Of these, more than 16 million are over the age of 50. Years ago, women with disabilities did not commonly live to the age of menopause, and, if they did, they reached this stage of life in a very debilitated condition. Now, women with disabilities are entering their mature years as active members of society who can look forward to productive futures. Because the health needs of women with disabilities might differ from those of other women, special attention should be focused on how physiological changes of perimenopausal and menopausal states affect this population. In addition to functional changes that might affect menopausal women with disabilities, basic health maintenance issues may be adversely affected by environmental factors. Physical barriers can influence compliance with preventive health screening that is essential in aging populations. Treatment options might need to be tailored to the individual. The disabling condition itself may progress, resulting in secondary conditions requiring creative interventions. A comprehensive evaluation and the development of a suitable management plan, which takes into account the multifactorial nature of aging as a disabled woman, are essential in delivering optimal care to this population.

  14. Insomnia in women approaching menopause: Beyond perception.

    PubMed

    Baker, Fiona C; Willoughby, Adrian R; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Colrain, Ian M; de Zambotti, Massimiliano

    2015-10-01

    The menopausal transition is marked by increased prevalence in disturbed sleep and insomnia, present in 40-60% of women, but evidence for a physiological basis for their sleep complaints is lacking. We aimed to quantify sleep disturbance and the underlying contribution of objective hot flashes in 72 women (age range: 43-57 years) who had (38 women), compared to those who had not (34 women), developed clinical insomnia in association with the menopausal transition. Sleep quality was assessed with two weeks of sleep diaries and one laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording. In multiple regression models controlling for menopausal transition stage, menstrual cycle phase, depression symptoms, and presence of objective hot flashes, a diagnosis of insomnia predicted PSG-measured total sleep time (p < 0.01), sleep efficiency (p = 0.01) and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) (p = 0.01). Women with insomnia had, on average, 43.5 min less PSG-measured sleep time (p < 0.001). There was little evidence of cortical EEG hyperarousal in insomniacs apart from elevated beta EEG power during REM sleep. Estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone levels were unrelated to beta EEG power but were associated with the frequency of hot flashes. Insomniacs were more likely to have physiological hot flashes, and the presence of hot flashes predicted the number of PSG-awakenings per hour of sleep (p = 0.03). From diaries, women with insomnia reported more WASO (p = 0.002), more night-to-night variability in WASO (p < 0.002) and more hot flashes (p = 0.012) compared with controls. Women who develop insomnia in the approach to menopause have a measurable sleep deficit, with almost 50% of the sample having less than 6h of sleep. Compromised sleep that develops in the context of the menopausal transition should be addressed, taking into account unique aspects of menopause like hot flashes, to avoid the known negative health consequences associated with insufficient sleep and insomnia in

  15. Menopause.

    PubMed

    Davis, Susan R; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Lumsden, Maryann; Mishra, Gita D; Pal, Lubna; Rees, Margaret; Santoro, Nanette; Simoncini, Tommaso

    2015-04-23

    Menopause is an inevitable component of ageing and encompasses the loss of ovarian reproductive function, either occurring spontaneously or secondary to other conditions. It is not yet possible to accurately predict the onset of menopause, especially early menopause, to give women improved control of their fertility. The decline in ovarian oestrogen production at menopause can cause physical symptoms that may be debilitating, including hot flushes and night sweats, urogenital atrophy, sexual dysfunction, mood changes, bone loss, and metabolic changes that predispose to cardiovascular disease and diabetes. The individual experience of the menopause transition varies widely. Important influential factors include the age at which menopause occurs, personal health and wellbeing, and each woman's environment and culture. Management options range from lifestyle assessment and intervention through to hormonal and non-hormonal pharmacotherapy, each of which has specific benefits and risks. Decisions about therapy for perimenopausal and postmenopausal women depend on symptomatology, health status, immediate and long-term health risks, personal life expectations, and the availability and cost of therapies. More effective and safe therapies for the management of menopausal symptoms need to be developed, particularly for women who have absolute contraindications to hormone therapy. For an illustrated summary of this Primer, visit: http://go.nature.com/BjvJVX.

  16. A Systems Biology Approach Investigating the Effect of Probiotics on the Vaginal Microbiome and Host Responses in a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Seney, Shannon; McMillan, Amy; Vongsa, Rebecca; Koenig, David; Wong, LungFai; Dvoracek, Barbara; Gloor, Gregory B.; Sumarah, Mark; Ford, Brenda; Herman, Dorli; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    A lactobacilli dominated microbiota in most pre and post-menopausal women is an indicator of vaginal health. The objective of this double blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study was to evaluate in 14 post-menopausal women with an intermediate Nugent score, the effect of 3 days of vaginal administration of probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 (2.5×109 CFU each) on the microbiota and host response. The probiotic treatment did not result in an improved Nugent score when compared to when placebo. Analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomics profiling revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was increased following probiotic administration as compared to placebo, which was weakly associated with an increase in lactate levels. A decrease in Atopobium was also observed. Analysis of host responses by microarray showed the probiotics had an immune-modulatory response including effects on pattern recognition receptors such as TLR2 while also affecting epithelial barrier function. This is the first study to use an interactomic approach for the study of vaginal probiotic administration in post-menopausal women. It shows that in some cases multifaceted approaches are required to detect the subtle molecular changes induced by the host to instillation of probiotic strains. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02139839 PMID:25127240

  17. A new treatment for post-menopausal osteoporosis: strontium ranelate.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, R

    2005-01-01

    Strontium ranelate is a new anti-osteoporotic agent which appears to reduce bone resorption by decreasing osteoclast differentiation and activity, and to stimulate bone formation by increasing replication of pre-osteoblast cells, leading to increased matrix synthesis. This review examines both the scientific rationale for its use in post-menopausal osteoporosis and the evidence of its antifracture efficacy. In the placebo-controlled, phase III trial Spinal Osteoporosis Therapeutic Intervention (SOTI) (no.=1442; mean age 69 yr), there was a 41% decrease over 3 yr in the number of patients with new vertebral fracture in the strontium ranelate (2 g/day) group vs placebo (p<0.001), and a 14.4% difference in lumbar bone mineral density (BMD) at 3 yr vs placebo. This reduction in vertebral fracture risk was already detected after 12 months (49% lower risk, p<0.001). The phase III TReatment Of Peripheral OSteoporosis (TROPOS) study assessed the efficacy of strontium ranelate (2 g/day) in preventing non-vertebral fracture in post-menopausal osteoporosis (no.=4932; mean age 77 yr). Strontium ranelate reduced non-vertebral fracture risk by 16% vs placebo (p=0.04) and hip fracture risk by 36% (p=0.031), in osteoporotic patients older than 74 yr. There was a concomitant increase in BMD throughout the study, reaching +8.2% (femoral neck) and +9.8% (total hip) at 3 yr. Strontium ranelate is thus a first-choice treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis as it significantly reduces vertebral, non-vertebral and hip fracture risk in post-menopausal osteoporotic women, as well as having an excellent tolerability profile.

  18. Effectiveness of transcervical hysteroscopic endometrial resection based on the prevention of the recurrence of endometrial polyps in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Lopez, Jesus S; Miguel, Ana Granado-San; Tejerizo-Garcia, Alvaro; Muñoz-Gonzalez, Jose L; Lopez-Gonzalez, Gregorio

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effectiveness the effectiveness of post-polypectomy hysteroscopic endometrial resection in preventing the recurrence of endometrial polyps in post-menopausal patients and analyse the complications and necessity of additional surgery in patients, in addition to their degree of satisfaction. A prospective longitudinal study of post-menopausal patients diagnosed with endometrial polyps was conducted including polypectomy and hysteroscopic endometrial resection following the therapeutic purposes (endometrial polyp removal) and prevention of recurrence of endometrial polyps. We evaluated the general condition and characteristics of the patients, including age, BMI, smoking habits, medical, surgical, and obstetrics history and menstrual status. The results were analysed at several time points, 6, 18, 42 and 60 months by hysteroscopy, including the presence of vaginal bleeding and/or possible intracavitary pathology. A total of 89.5% (n = 355) of our patients had profile factors associated with the increased incidence of endometrial polyps and hyperestrogenism (diabetes mellitus, hypertension and overweight); 89.5% (n = 355) of patients were overweight; 34% had grade I obesity. The surgical procedure was safe, with a 90% (n = 357) success rate without complications, which was higher than the 95-99.5% at the beginning and end time points of the study. Patient acceptance and satisfaction was 90 and 84%, respectively. Endometrial resection proved effective in preventing the recurrence of endometrial polyps. It is a safe and effective method. Post-menopausal bleeding reduces the presence of endometrial polyps. Patients reported satisfaction and acceptance of the procedure.

  19. Is handgrip strength normalized to body weight a useful tool to identify dynapenia and functional incapacity in post-menopausal women?

    PubMed Central

    Dulac, Maude; Boutros, Guy El Hajj; Pion, Charlotte; Barbat-Artigas, Sébastien; Gouspillou, Gilles; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objective To investigate whether handgrip strength normalized to body weight could be a useful clinical tool to identify dynapenia and assess functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Method A total of 136 postmenopausal women were recruited. Body composition (Dual Energy X-ray Absorptiometry [DEXA], Bio-electrical Impedence Analysis [BIA]), grip strength (dynamometer) and functional capacity (senior fitness tests) were evaluated. Dynapenia was established according to a handgrip strength index (handgrip strength divided by body weight (BW) in Kg/KgBW) obtained from a reference population of young women: Type I dynapenic (<0.44 kg/KgBW) and type II dynapenic (<0.35 kg/KgBW). Results The results show a positive correlation between handgrip strength index (in kg/KgBW) and alternate-step test (r=0.30, p<0.001), chair-stand test (r=0.25, p<0.005) and one-leg stance test (r=0.335, p<0.001). The results also showed a significant difference in non-dynapenic compared to type I dynapenic and type II dynapenic for the chair-stand test (Non-dynapenic: 12.0±3.0; Type I: 11.7±2.5; Type II: 10.3±3.0) (p=0.037 and p=0.005, respectively) and the one-leg stance test (Non-dynapenic: 54.2±14.2; Type I: 43.8±21.4; Type II: 35.0±21.8) (p=0.030 and p=0.004, respectively). Finally, a significant difference was observed between type II dynapenic and non-dynapenic for the chair-stand test (p=0.032), but not with type I dynapenic. Conclusion The results showed that handgrip strength was positively correlated with functional capacity. In addition, non-dynapenic women displayed a better functional status when compared to type I and type II dynapenic women. Thus, the determination of the handgrip strength thresholds could be an accessible and affordable clinical tool to identify people at risk of autonomy loss. PMID:27683834

  20. [Increase of PTH in post-menopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Cerdà, D; Peris, P; Monegal, A; Albaladejo, C; Martínez de Osaba, M J; Surís, X; Guañabens, N

    2011-01-01

    Increased parathyroid values (PTH) serum values can be observed in postmenopausal women. However, the clinical repercussion and causes of this finding are poorly understood. This study has aimed to analyze the prevalence and conditions associated to the increased serum PTH levels in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis as well as their clinical characteristics. Post-menopausal women with osteoporosis were included in the study. PTH, 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD), 24-h urinary calcium, glomerular filtration rate (GFR) and calcium intake were evaluated. The prevalence of increased PTH serum values and its relationship with vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency, kidney failure, hypercalciuria and calcium intake deficiency were evaluated, these being conditions that may increase PTH secretion. A total of 204 postmenopausal women with osteoporosis with a mean age of 64 years were included. Increase PTH levels (>65 pg/ml) were observed in 35% and 5 women had primary hyperparathyroidism. Women with increased serum PTH levels were older (67 ± 9 years) were old than those with normal PTH levels (63 ± 11 years) (P=0.03). PTH elevation was associated to calcium intake deficiency (<800 mg/d) in 81% of the women, to a vitamin D deficiency and insufficiency in 55% and 86%, respectively, renal insufficiency in 35% and hypercalciuria in 17% of the patients. These values, however, did not differ when compared with patients with normal PTH serum levels. Serum PTH levels were related to age (r=0.19, P=0.01) but not to 25OHD or GFR values. One third of the post-menopausal women with osteoporosis had elevated PTH levels. This was due to primary hyperparathyroidism in 10%. The prevalence of conditions associated to the increase in PTH (reduced calcium intake, 25-hydroxyvitamin D, renal failure and hypercalciuria) is similar to that observed in women with normal PTH values. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier España, S.L. All rights reserved.

  1. Women's perspectives toward menopause: A phenomenological study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Sevil; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Zaiery, Farid; Khatami, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the attitude and feelings toward menopause among Azeri menopausal women using hermeneutic phenomenology based on Van Manen's approach. A total of 18 menopausal women who were attended in urban health centers of Tabriz, Iran, were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously. Data analysis led to the emergence of five main themes: positive attitude, neutral attitude, negative attitude, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Participants had different feelings and attitude. Acceptance of menopause as a natural process helps women to have a neutral attitude toward menopause.

  2. Plasma levels of HDL subpopulations and remnant lipoproteins predict the extent of angiographically defined disease in post-menopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The association of coronary heart disease (CHD) with subpopulations of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is established in men, but has not been well characterized in women. Plasma HDL subpopulation concentrations, quantified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis...

  3. Maintenance vitamin D3 dosage requirements in Chinese women with post menopausal osteoporosis living in the tropics.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Yogeswari; Hatta, Sharifah F Wan Muhamad; Musa, Nurbazlin; Rahman, Siti Abdul; Ratnasingam, Jeyakantha; Paramasivam, Sharmila Sunita; Lim, Lee Ling; Ibrahim, Luqman; Choong, Karen; Tan, Alexander Tb; Chinna, Karuthan; Chan, Siew Pheng; Vethakkan, Shireene R

    2017-05-01

    Vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) dose required to maintain sufficiency in non- Caucasian women with postmenopausal osteoporosis (PMO) inthe tropics has not been well studied. Some guidelines mandate 800-1000 IU vitamin D/day but the Endocrine Society (US) advocates 1500-2000 IU/day to maintain 25-hydroxyvitamin-D (25(OH)D) concentration at >75 nmol/L. We aimed to establish oral cholecalciferol dose required to maintain 25(OH)D concentration at >75 nmol/L in PMO Chinese Malaysian women, postulating lower dose requirements amongst light-skinned subjects in the tropics. 90 Chinese Malaysian PMO women in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (2°30'N) with baseline serum 25(OH)D levels >=50 nmol/L were recruited. Prior vitamin D supplements were discontinued and subjects randomized to oral cholecalciferol 25,000 IU/4-weekly (Group-A) or 50,000 IU/4-weekly (Group- B) for 16 weeks, administered under direct observation. Serum 25(OH)D, PTH, serum/urinary calcium were measured at baseline, 8 and 16 weeks. Baseline characteristics, including osteoporosis severity, sun exposure (~3 hours/week), and serum 25(OH)D did not differ between treatment arms. After 16 weeks, 91% of women sufficient at baseline, remained sufficient on 25,000 IU/4-weekly compared with 97% on 50,000 IU/4-weekly with mean serum 25(OH)D 108.1±20.4 and 114.7±18.4 SD nmol/L respectively (p=0.273). At trial's end, 39% and 80% of insufficient women at baseline attained sufficiency in Group A and Group B (p=0.057). Neither dose was associated with hyperparathyroidism or toxicity. Despite pretrial vitamin D supplementation and adequate sun exposure, 25.6% Chinese Malaysian PMO women were vitamin D insufficient indicating sunshine alone cannot ensure sufficiency in the tropics. Both ~900 IU/day and ~1800 IU/day cholecalciferol can safely maintain vitamin D sufficiency in >90% of Chinese Malaysian PMO women. Higher doses are required with baseline concentration <75 nmol/L.

  4. Fat-soluble vitamin status in response to non-surgical weight loss in overweight post-menopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Obesity is associated with an increased risk of fat soluble vitamin (FSV) deficiencies. The effect of dietary weight loss on FSV status is uncertain. We measured plasma concentrations of carotenoids, alpha-tocopherol, retinol, phylloquinone, and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) in 112 overweight post-...

  5. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  6. The effect of unilateral and bilateral strength training on the bilateral deficit and lean tissue mass in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Janzen, Cora L; Chilibeck, Philip D; Davison, K Shawn

    2006-06-01

    Some have observed maximal strength of simultaneous bilateral homologous limb contraction is less than the sum of strengths of right and left limbs contracting alone; a phenomenon referred to as the bilateral deficit (BLD). There is controversy on whether there is a BLD for all exercises. We assessed whether a BLD occurs across different exercises (leg press, knee extension, and lat pull-down), whether the BLD could be altered with unilateral or bilateral training, and whether unilateral versus bilateral training was more beneficial for increasing lean tissue mass (LTM). Post-menopausal women (approximately 57 years) were randomized to bilateral (n=14) and unilateral (n=12) training, or non-training control (n=24) groups. Bilateral training involved seven exercises performed with bilateral contractions (two sets, 3 days week-1, 26 weeks). Unilateral training involved the same exercises performed with one limb at a time. A BLD was found for leg press and lat pull-down, but not for knee extension. Bilateral training decreased the BLD; whereas unilateral training had minimal effect on the BLD. The unilateral-training group had a greater increase in lower-body LTM compared to the control group (P<0.05); however, there were no differences between unilateral and bilateral training groups. Both training groups had greater increases in LTM of the upper- and whole-body compared to the control group. We conclude that the BLD is apparent for some exercises (i.e., the leg press and lat pull-down) but not others (i.e., knee extension). Bilateral training reduces the BLD; whereas unilateral training has minimal effect on the BLD.

  7. Acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure and blood coagulation: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2015-12-14

    Recent evidence suggests that Ca supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular events, but the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is uncertain. In a study primarily assessing the effects of various Ca supplements on blood Ca levels, we also investigated the effects of Ca supplements on blood pressure and their acute effects on blood coagulation. We randomised 100 post-menopausal women to 1 g/d of Ca or a placebo containing no Ca. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and every 2 h up to 8 h after their first dose and after 3 months of supplementation. Blood coagulation was measured by thromboelastography (TEG) in a subgroup of participants (n 40) up to 8 h only. Blood pressure declined over 8 h in both the groups, consistent with its normal diurnal rhythm. The reduction in systolic blood pressure was smaller in the Ca group compared with the control group by >5 mmHg between 2 and 6 h (P≤0·02), and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was smaller at 2 h (between-groups difference 4·5 mmHg, P=0·004). Blood coagulability, assessed by TEG, increased from baseline over 8 h in the calcium citrate and control groups. At 4 h, the increase in the coagulation index was greater in the calcium citrate group compared with the control group (P=0·03), which appeared to be due to a greater reduction in the time to clot initiation. These data suggest that Ca supplements may acutely influence blood pressure and blood coagulation. Further investigation of this possibility is required.

  8. Microbial and dietary factors associated with the 8-prenylnaringenin producer phenotype: a dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Bolca, Selin; Possemiers, Sam; Maervoet, Veerle; Huybrechts, Inge; Heyerick, Arne; Vervarcke, Stefaan; Depypere, Herman; De Keukeleire, Denis; Bracke, Marc; De Henauw, Stefaan; Verstraete, Willy; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2007-11-01

    Hop-derived food supplements and beers contain the prenylflavonoids xanthohumol (X), isoxanthohumol (IX) and the very potent phyto-oestrogen (plant-derived oestrogen mimic) 8-prenylnaringenin (8-PN). The weakly oestrogenic IX can be bioactivated via O-demethylation to 8-PN. Since IX usually predominates over 8-PN, human subjects may be exposed to increased doses of 8-PN. A dietary intervention trial with fifty healthy post-menopausal Caucasian women was undertaken. After a 4 d washout period, participants delivered faeces, blank urine and breath samples. Next, they started a 5 d treatment with hop-based supplements that were administered three times per d and on the last day, a 24 h urine sample was collected. A semi-quantitative FFQ was used to estimate fat, fibre, alcohol, caffeine and theobromine intakes. The recoveries of IX, 8-PN and X in the urine were low and considerable inter-individual variations were observed. A five-fold increase in the dosage of IX without change in 8-PN concentration resulted in a significant lower IX recovery and a higher 8-PN recovery. Classification of the subjects into poor (60%), moderate (25%) and strong (15%) 8-PN producers based on either urinary excretion or microbial bioactivation capacity gave comparable results. Recent antibiotic therapy seemed to affect the 8-PN production negatively. A positive trend between methane excretion and 8-PN production was observed. Strong 8-PN producers consumed less alcohol and had a higher theobromine intake. From this study we conclude that in vivo O-demethylation of IX increases the oestrogenic potency of hop-derived products.

  9. Major depression during and after the menopausal transition: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN).

    PubMed

    Bromberger, J T; Kravitz, H M; Chang, Y-F; Cyranowski, J M; Brown, C; Matthews, K A

    2011-09-01

    It is unclear whether risk for major depression during the menopausal transition or immediately thereafter is increased relative to pre-menopause. We aimed to examine whether the odds of experiencing major depression were greater when women were peri- or post-menopausal compared to when they were pre-menopausal, independent of a history of major depression at study entry and annual measures of vasomotor symptoms (VMS), serum levels of, or changes in, estradiol (E2), follicular stimulating hormone (FSH) or testosterone (T) and relevant confounders. Participants included the 221 African American and Caucasian women, aged 42-52 years, who were pre-menopausal at entry into the Pittsburgh site of a community-based study of menopause, the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN). We conducted the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders (SCID) to assess diagnoses of lifetime, annual and current major depression at baseline and at annual follow-ups. Psychosocial and health factors, and blood samples for assay of reproductive hormones, were obtained annually. Women were two to four times more likely to experience a major depressive episode (MDE) when they were peri-menopausal or early post-menopausal. Repeated-measures logistic regression analyses showed that the effect of menopausal status was independent of history of major depression and annually measured upsetting life events, psychotropic medication use, VMS and serum levels of or changes in reproductive hormones. History of major depression was a strong predictor of major depression throughout the study. The risk of major depression is greater for women during and immediately after the menopausal transition than when they are pre-menopausal.

  10. Metabolic aging and predicted longevity: results of a cross-sectional study in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hays, Nicholas P; Bathalon, Gaston P; Meydani, Simin N; Leka, Lynette S; Lipman, Ruth; Roubenoff, Ronenn; Schaefer, Ernst J; Roberts, Susan B

    2002-12-01

    The extent to which general characteristics of metabolic aging contribute to differences in life span among individuals remains uncertain. The objective of this study was to examine the association of age-related physiological and metabolic variables with predicted longevity in postmenopausal women. Subjects were 33 healthy women aged 55-65 years. Total and resting energy expenditure, body temperature, immune function as assessed by a delayed-type hypersensitivity skin test (DTH), lipid profile, and reported dietary intake were measured. There were no significant associations between longevity, energy expenditure, body temperature, lipid profile, or dietary intake. However, there was a significant association of predicted longevity with DTH (partial r=0.44, p=0.023). These results suggest that immune function may predict familial differences in longevity, while energy expenditure, body temperature, lipid profile, and dietary intake are unrelated. Although the small sample size may have limited the ability to detect metabolic effects on longevity in this study, the general approach may be broadly applicable to examinations of metabolic aging in humans.

  11. Menopause in Blackfeet women--a life span perspective.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Susan L

    2003-06-01

    A lifespan perspective, combining quantitative and qualitative approaches, is used to examine factors related to the timing of menopause in Blackfeet women of northern Montana (USA). Cross-sectional survey data demonstrate a median age at menopause using a status quo method of 51.6 years, and a mean age of 47.0 +/- 5.0 years among those women who had already experienced menopause. Age at menopause is inversely associated with age at menarche and having been breastfed, and positively associated with use of contraceptives, household income, and current or recent employment. Household income and age at menarche influence menopause age jointly in multivariate models. These and other patterns are examined in the lives of two women with very divergent ages at menopause. Although these data support an effect of early life influences on shaping reproductive trajectories that culminate in menopause, environmental factors and human agency during adult life may play a modifying role.

  12. Effect of Anticholinergic Use for the Treatment of Overactive Bladder on Cognitive Function in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Elizabeth J.; Crane, Andrea K.; Wells, Ellen C.; Robinson, Barbara L.; Jannelli, Mary L.; Khandelwal, Christine M.; Connolly, AnnaMarie; Parnell, Brent A.; Matthews, Catherine A.; Dumond, Julie B.; Busby-Whitehead, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Background Overactive bladder (OAB) is a common condition affecting the elderly. The mainstay of treatment for OAB is medical therapy with anticholinergics. However, adverse events have been reported with this class of drugs including cognitive changes. Objective To investigate the effect of an anticholinergic medication on cognitive function in postmenopausal women being treated for OAB. Study Design Prospective cohort study conducted from January to December 2010, with 12-week follow-up after medication initiation. Setting Urogynecology clinic at one academic medical center. Patients Women age 55 or older seeking treatment for OAB and opting for anticholinergic therapy were recruited. Intervention Baseline cognitive function was assessed via the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test – Revised Form (HVLT-R) (and its 5 subscales), the Orientation, Memory & Concentration (OMC) short form, and the Mini-Cog evaluation. After initiation of trospium chloride extended release, cognitive function was reassessed at Day 1, Week 1, Week 4 and Week 12. Bladder function was assessed via three condition-specific quality of life questionnaires. Secondary outcomes included change in bladder symptoms, correlation between cognitive and bladder symptoms, and overall medication compliance. Main Outcome Measure Change in HVLT-R score at Week 4 after medication initiation, compared to baseline (pre-medication) score. Results Of 50 women enrolled, 35 completed the assessment. Average age was 70.4 years and 77.1% had previously taken anticholinergic medication for OAB. At enrollment 65.7% had severe overactive bladder and 71.4% had severe urge incontinence. Cognitive function showed an initial decline on Day 1 in HVLT-R total score (p=0.037), HVLT-R Delayed Recognition subscale (p=0.011) and HVLT-R Recognition Bias subscale (p=0.01). At Week 1 the HVLT-R Learning subscale declined from baseline (p=0.029). All HVLT-R scores normalized by Week 4. OMC remained stable throughout. The Mini

  13. Effects of antidepressants and soybean association in depressive menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Estrella, Rose E Nina; Landa, Adriana I; Lafuente, José Vicente; Gargiulo, Pascual A

    2014-01-01

    Depression in menopausal women has been widely described for many years ago and is related to hormonal decrease, mainly estrogens. The use of soy has been proposed as a possible coadjutant alternative to treat menopausal depressive disorder. In the present pilot clinical trial the effect of soybean, antidepressants and the association of soybean with antidepressants was studied in 40 depressive menopausal women for three months. Patients were divided in four groups of 10 women: fluoxetine (10 mg), soybean (100 mg), sertraline (50 mg), and sertraline (50 mg) plus soybean (100 mg). The Hamilton and Zung Depression Scales were used to measure the treatment effects. Values at the beginning and at the end of the study were compared. In all cases a significant difference was observed when the treated groups were compared vs. their untreated situation in both scales (p < 0.001). When a comparison between pre- minus post-treatment Zung scale scores was done, the effect induced by the association of sertraline and soybean was significantly higher than the other groups (p < 0.05). These effects were also seen using the Hamilton scale scores, showing significant differences between the association vs. soybean (p < 0.05) and setraline (p < 0.05) groups, but not vs. fluoxetine group. We conclude that soybean has an antidepressant effect per se, and the association of soybean and antidepressants increases their effects.

  14. Empowerment and coping strategies in menopause women: a review.

    PubMed

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    Menopause is described as a period of psychological difficulties that changes the lifestyle of women in multiple ways. Menopausal women require more information about their physical and psychosocial needs. Empowerment during the menopause can contribute to improving the perception of this stage and the importance of self-care. It is essential to increase women's awareness and adaptation to menopause, using empowerment programs. The aim of this study was to review the empowerment and coping strategies in menopause women. In this review, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases were scanned for relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed, using the combinations of the keywords "empowerment, menopause, coping with" to review relevant literature and higher education journals. Most interventions for menopause women have focused on educational intervention, physical activity/exercise, healthy diet, stress management, healthy behaviors, preventing certain diseases and osteoporosis. Health education intervention strategy is one of the alternative strategies for improving women's attitudes and coping with menopause symptoms, identified as severalof the subcategories of health promotion programs. Empowerment of menopausal women will guarantee their health during the last third of their life. It will also help them benefit from their final years of reproductive life. The results of the present study can pave the way for future research about women's health promotion and empowerment.

  15. Zinc transporter gene expression and glycemic control in post-menopausal women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Chu, Anna; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated often with underlying zinc deficiency and nutritional supplements such as zinc may be of therapeutic benefit in the disease. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial in postmenopausal women (n=48) with Type 2 DM we investigated the effects of supplementation with zinc (40mg/d) and flaxseed oil (FSO; 2g/d) on the gene expression of zinc transporters (ZnT1, ZnT5, ZnT6, ZnT7, ZnT8, Zip1, Zip3, Zip7, and Zip10) and metallothionein (MT-1A, and MT-2A), and markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. No significant effects of zinc or FSO supplementation were observed on glycemic marker concentrations, HOMA-IR or fold change over 12 weeks in zinc transporter and metallothionein gene expression. In multivariate analysis, the change over 12 weeks in serum glucose concentrations (P=0.001) and HOMA-IR (P=0.001) predicted the fold change in Zip10. In secondary analysis, marginal statistical significance was observed with the change in both serum glucose concentrations (P=0.003) and HOMA-IR (P=0.007) being predictive of the fold change in ZnT6. ZnT8 mRNA expression was variable; HbA1c levels were higher (P=0.006) in participants who exhibited ZnT8 expression compared to those who did not. The significant predictive relationships between Zip10, ZnT6, serum glucose and HOMA-IR are preliminary, as is the relationship between HbA1c and ZnT8; nevertheless the observations support an association between Type 2 DM and zinc homeostasis that requires further exploration.

  16. Systematic review of progesterone use by midlife and menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Spark, M Joy; Willis, Jon

    2012-07-01

    Progesterone treatment for menopausal symptoms is still controversial. Progesterone levels fall during menopause transition, therefore some menopausal women may benefit from progesterone therapy. A systematic review was conducted of studies published from 2001 reporting on progesterone use to treat symptoms associated with menopause or postmenopausal women. Fourteen data bases were searched using the search terms progesterone, menopause, aged, female and human; exclusions were breast cancer, animal and contraception. Thirteen studies were selected for inclusion (11 clinical trials, 1 cohort study and 1 qualitative study), evaluating progesterone effects on menopausal symptoms, bone, sleep, skin, cognition, plasma lipids and plaque progression. Most studies were of low methodological quality (GRADE low or very low). Progesterone improved vasomotor symptoms and sleep quality, with minimal risk. Large studies designed to identify confounders, such as hormone levels, menopausal status and metabolism are required to understand the place of progesterone in clinical practice.

  17. Management of menopause in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A J

    2015-10-01

    Increasing breast cancer incidence and decreasing mortality have highlighted the importance of survivorship issues related to breast cancer. A consideration of the issues related to menopause is therefore of great importance to both women and clinicians. Menopause/menopausal symptoms, with significant negative effects on quality of life and potential long-term health impacts, may in women with breast cancer be associated with: (1) natural menopause occurring concurrently with a breast cancer diagnosis; (2) recurrence of menopausal symptoms following cessation of hormone replacement therapy; (3) treatment-induced menopause (chemotherapy, ovarian ablation/suppression) and adjuvant endocrine therapy. A variety of non-hormonal pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been investigated as therapeutic options for menopausal symptoms with mixed results, and ongoing research is required. This review presents a summary of the causes, common problematic symptoms of menopause (vasomotor, genitourinary and sexual dysfunction), and longer-term consequences (cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis) related to menopause. It proposes an evidenced-based multidisciplinary approach to the management of menopause/menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer.

  18. Concern and risk perception of osteoporosis and fracture among post-menopausal Australian women: results from the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW) cohort.

    PubMed

    Barcenilla-Wong, A L; Chen, J S; March, L M

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to identify factors associated with concern and perception of risks of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures and determine whether bone mineral density (BMD) testing influenced concern and risk perception. Study subjects (n = 1,082, age 55-94 years) were female Australian participants of the Global Longitudinal Study of Osteoporosis in Women (GLOW). Self-administered questionnaires were sent annually from 2007 to 2010. Study outcomes included 'concern about osteoporosis', 'perception of getting osteoporosis' and 'perception of fracture risk' compared to similar aged women. The closest post-BMD testing or baseline questionnaires were used for women with and without BMD testing, respectively. Multinomial logistic regression was used for the analysis. BMD testing, prior fracture after age 45, younger age and lower self-reported general health were significantly associated with being 'very' or 'somewhat concerned' about osteoporosis and having a 'much higher' or 'little higher' risk perception of osteoporosis and fractures. A poorer BMD result was associated with higher concern and higher risk perceptions. The presence of comorbidities, having ≥2 falls in the preceding year and maternal osteoporosis were associated with higher concern. Maternal osteoporosis, presence of comorbidities, weight loss of ≥5 kg in the preceding year and low body mass index were associated with higher perceptions of osteoporosis risk. Women's concern and risk perception of osteoporosis and osteoporotic fractures were reasonably well founded. However, increasing age, height loss, smoking and drinking were not associated with concern and perception despite being known osteoporosis risk factors. These factors should be considered in planning for education and awareness raising programmes.

  19. Empowerment and Coping Strategies in Menopause Women: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Menopause is described as a period of psychological difficulties that changes the lifestyle of women in multiple ways. Menopausal women require more information about their physical and psychosocial needs. Empowerment during the menopause can contribute to improving the perception of this stage and the importance of self-care. It is essential to increase women’s awareness and adaptation to menopause, using empowerment programs. The aim of this study was to review the empowerment and coping strategies in menopause women. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases were scanned for relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed, using the combinations of the keywords "empowerment, menopause, coping with" to review relevant literature and higher education journals. Results: Most interventions for menopause women have focused on educational intervention, physical activity/exercise, healthy diet, stress management, healthy behaviors, preventing certain diseases and osteoporosis. Health education intervention strategy is one of the alternative strategies for improving women's attitudes and coping with menopause symptoms, identified as severalof the subcategories of health promotion programs. Conclusions: Empowerment of menopausal women will guarantee their health during the last third of their life. It will also help them benefit from their final years of reproductive life. The results of the present study can pave the way for future research about women’s health promotion and empowerment. PMID:26019897

  20. The effect of Korean pine nut oil on in vitro CCK release, on appetite sensations and on gut hormones in post-menopausal overweight women.

    PubMed

    Pasman, Wilrike J; Heimerikx, Jos; Rubingh, Carina M; van den Berg, Robin; O'Shea, Marianne; Gambelli, Luisa; Hendriks, Henk F J; Einerhand, Alexandra W C; Scott, Corey; Keizer, Hiskias G; Mennen, Louise I

    2008-03-20

    Appetite suppressants may be one strategy in the fight against obesity. This study evaluated whether Korean pine nut free fatty acids (FFA) and triglycerides (TG) work as an appetite suppressant. Korean pine nut FFA were evaluated in STC-1 cell culture for their ability to increase cholecystokinin (CCK-8) secretion vs. several other dietary fatty acids from Italian stone pine nut fatty acids, oleic acid, linoleic acid, alpha-linolenic acid, and capric acid used as a control. At 50 muM concentration, Korean pine nut FFA produced the greatest amount of CCK-8 release (493 pg/ml) relative to the other fatty acids and control (46 pg/ml). A randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind cross-over trial including 18 overweight post-menopausal women was performed. Subjects received capsules with 3 g Korean pine (Pinus koraiensis) nut FFA, 3 g pine nut TG or 3 g placebo (olive oil) in combination with a light breakfast. At 0, 30, 60, 90, 120, 180 and 240 minutes the gut hormones cholecystokinin (CCK-8), glucagon like peptide-1 (GLP-1), peptide YY (PYY) and ghrelin, and appetite sensations were measured. A wash-out period of one week separated each intervention day.CCK-8 was higher 30 min after pine nut FFA and 60 min after pine nut TG when compared to placebo (p < 0.01). GLP-1 was higher 60 min after pine nut FFA compared to placebo (p < 0.01). Over a period of 4 hours the total amount of plasma CCK-8 was 60% higher after pine nut FFA and 22% higher after pine nut TG than after placebo (p < 0.01). For GLP-1 this difference was 25% after pine nut FFA (P < 0.05). Ghrelin and PYY levels were not different between groups. The appetite sensation "prospective food intake" was 36% lower after pine nut FFA relative to placebo (P < 0.05). This study suggests that Korean pine nut may work as an appetite suppressant through an increasing effect on satiety hormones and a reduced prospective food intake.

  1. Breast cancer and post-menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Kenemans, P; Bosman, A

    2003-03-01

    From the introduction of post-menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) there has been great concern that HRT could possibly increase the risk of breast cancer. Prolonged exposure to endogenous oestrogens undeniably increases the risk of breast cancer. Questions that are important and until now only partly answered, are the following. Are oestrogens tumour promoters, as they induce mitosis, lead to proliferation and, therefore, accelerated growth of clinically occult pre-existing tumours? In addition to this, are they genotoxic mutagenic carcinogens, or could they initiate tumours by way of accumulation of incessant DNA-replication damage mechanism? Opinions vary as to the effect of the addition of a progestogen. There is a multitude of different progestogens which could bind with differing affinity to progesterone receptor PR-A or PR-B, and which have different physiological functions via differential gene regulation. The action of a progestogen on the oestrogen-induced cellular mitotic activity could be synergistic or antagonistic (by different pathways: oestrogen receptor downregulation, activating of metabolic pathways within the breast or stimulation of apoptosis)? Over 60 observational studies and two randomized trials provide evidence that the small but significant increase in risk appears with long-term current post-menopausal hormone use. The addition of a progestogen does not decrease the risk as seen with oestrogens alone and might increase the risk further. It is not clear whether there is a difference in risk with sequentially combined versus continuously combined HRT. Many questions nevertheless still remain. Is the risk increase limited to lean women only? What about risk-modifying factors such as alcohol use and a positive family history for breast cancer? Are tumours detected under HRT less aggressive, is there a better prognosis and is the mortality not increased while morbidity is? And is HRT contraindicated for women with a positive family

  2. What do working menopausal women want? A qualitative investigation into women's perspectives on employer and line manager support.

    PubMed

    Hardy, Claire; Griffiths, Amanda; Hunter, Myra S

    2017-07-01

    To explore women's perspectives on what employers and managers should and should not do in relation to women going through the menopause. An online questionnaire was used to collect qualitative data in a cross-sectional study of working women. Three open-ended questions asked peri- and post-menopausal women, aged 45-65 years: (i) what they thought employers could do, or should do, to help menopausal women who may be experiencing difficult menopausal symptoms at work; (ii) how managers should behave; and (iii) how managers should not behave towards women going through the menopause. 137 women responded to the open questions in the survey. An inductive thematic analysis was conducted and three overarching themes emerged. Theme 1 related to employer/manager awareness, specifically to knowledge about the menopause and awareness of how the physical work environment might impact on menopausal women. Theme 2 related to employer/manager communication skills and behaviors, specifically those considered helpful and desired and those considered unhelpful and undesired. Theme 3 described employer actions, involving staff training and raising awareness, and supportive policies such as those relating to sickness absence and flexible working hours. The menopause can be difficult for some women to deal with at work, partly due to the working environment. To our knowledge, this is the first study to explore women's descriptions of how they would like to be treated by employers/managers, and what would be helpful and unhelpful. The results have clear implications for communication about menopause at work and for employer-level policy and practice. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Discourses on menopause--Part II: How do women talk about menopause?

    PubMed

    Hvas, Lotte; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this article is to describe which of the different available discourses women relate to as revealed in the way they talk about menopause. We use a discourse analytic approach, which implies that meaning is ascribed to things according to how we talk about them. Twenty-four menopausal women from Denmark were interviewed. They were selected to cover a broad spectrum of Danish women with different menopausal experiences and social background factors. Seven previously identified discourses could be found in the interviews, though to varying degrees from woman to woman. Nearly all women used terms from the biomedical sphere like 'a period of decline and decay', even if they did not necessarily agree with this view. Also the existential discourse permeated most of the interviews, especially when the conversation turned to the ageing process, femininity and self-development. The way the menopause was talked about almost became kaleidoscopic when images speedily changed from the decrepit osteoporotic woman or a woman with lack of vitality and sex-appeal to a healthy and strong woman with control over her body and self. Since many women contact doctors in relation to menopause, and since the way doctors talk about menopause is influential, doctors should carefully consider which words and images they use in the counselling. The medical way of perceiving menopause is just one of many, and doctors must be aware that there are other different and partially contradicting discourses at play in society and in the women's universes.

  4. Is menopausal status related to women's attitudes toward menopause and aging?

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Ray, Subha

    2017-03-01

    The objective of this study was to explore the relationship between menopausal status and attitudes toward menopause and aging. We identified 1,400 Bengali Hindu women aged 40-55 years (early perimenopausal n = 445; late perimenopausal n = 240; early postmenopausal n = 285; late postmenopausal n = 430) from West Bengal, India. Information on attitudes toward menopause and aging was collected from March 2009 to July 2012 using ten agree/disagree statements, of which three were positive, four were negative, and the rest were neutral. We used only the positive and negative statements in the analyses. The participants were given three response options for each statement: (1) agreed, (2) disagreed, and (3) felt neutral. Agreement with positive statements and disagreement with negative statements were scored as 3. The converse responses were scored as 1. Neutral responses were not scored. Thus, the total attitude score for each participant ranged from 7 to 21. Additionally, data on sociodemographic and reproductive variables, menopausal symptoms, and perceptions toward menopause were also collected. Multivariable analyses (ANCOVA) showed that postmenopausal women had more positive attitudes toward menopause and aging than perimenopausal women. Providing balanced information about menopause and aging might help to foster positive attitudes toward menopause.

  5. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity.

    PubMed

    Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause.

  6. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity

    PubMed Central

    Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause. PMID:26327888

  7. Racial/ethnic differences in hepatic steatosis in a population-based cohort of post-menopausal women: the Michigan Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, C.; Harlow, S. D.; Karvonen-Gutierrez, C. A.; Randolph, J. F.; Helmuth, M.; Kong, S.; Nan, B.; Carlos, R.

    2013-01-01

    Aims The prevalence of hepatic steatosis may differ between post-menopausal African-Americans and non-Hispanic white women and by sex hormone binding globulin level. We examined prevalence of hepatic steatosis by race/ethnicity and associations with sex hormone binding globulin. Methods Participants included post-menopausal women who underwent hepatic ultrasound (n = 345) at the Michigan site of the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation, a population-based study. We examined hepatic steatosis prevalence by race/ethnicity and used logistic regression models to calculate the odds of hepatic steatosis with race/ethnicity and sex hormone binding globulin, after adjustment for age, alcohol use, waist circumference, HDL cholesterol, triglycerides, systolic blood pressure and use of medications reported to lower intrahepatic fat. Results Fewer African-Americans than non-Hispanic white women had hepatic steatosis (23 vs. 36%, P = 0.01). African-Americans had lower triglyceride and LDL cholesterol levels, but higher blood pressure and follicle-stimulating hormone levels (P < 0.05). In the optimal-fitting multivariable models, women in the highest tertile of sex hormone binding globulin (60.2–220.3 nmol/l) had a lower odds of hepatic steatosis (odds ratio 0.43, 95% CI 0.20–0.93) compared with women in the lowest tertile of sex hormone binding globulin (10.5–40.3 nmol/l). There was an interaction between race/ethnicity and medication use whereby non-Hispanic white women using medications had three times higher odds of hepatic steatosis compared with African-Americans not using medications (odds ratio 3.36, 95% CI 1.07–10.58). Interactions between race/ethnicity and other variables, including sex hormone levels, were not significant. Conclusions Hepatic steatosis on ultrasound may be more common in post-menopausal non-Hispanic white women than African-Americans and was associated with lower levels of sex hormone binding globulin. PMID:23659546

  8. Women's decision making at menopause - a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Alfred, Ann; Esterman, Adrian; Farmer, Elizabeth; Pilotto, Louis; Weston, Kathryn

    2006-04-01

    Women are faced with a confusion of information and uncertainty when making decisions at menopause. We conducted four focus groups of 31 women aged 40-64 years, exploring their experience and views about menopause, its management, and decision support needs. Focus group participants saw menopause as a natural progression rather than a medical condition, and decision making about therapies as a personal responsibility. They wanted reliable, agenda free information, and opportunities to discuss personal needs with (preferably female) health professionals. They preferred minimal intervention and found life style strategies helpful. Women's preference to make their own decisions at menopause is frustrated by conflicting information and the perceived marketing agenda of information sources. Women need unbiased, timely, menopause information backed by expert commentary in a range of media to suit their access needs.

  9. Prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms and associated factors across menopause status in Korean women.

    PubMed

    Yim, Gyeyoon; Ahn, Younjhin; Chang, Yoosoo; Ryu, Seungho; Lim, Joong-Yeon; Kang, Danbee; Choi, Eun-Kyung; Ahn, Jiin; Choi, Yuni; Cho, Juhee; Park, Hyun-Young

    2015-10-01

    The present study investigated the prevalence and severity of menopause symptoms experienced by Korean women aged 44 to 56 years and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was performed on 2,201 women aged 44 to 56 years in health checkup centers between November 2012 and March 2013. The 29-item Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire was used to assess vasomotor, psychosocial, physical, and sexual symptoms related to menopause. The guidelines for the classification of reproductive aging stages proposed at the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop were used. Multivariable linear regression analyses were performed to identify factors associated with severity of menopause symptoms. Among participants, 42.6% were premenopausal, 36.7% were perimenopausal, and 20.7% were postmenopausal. Although physical symptoms were the most severe menopause symptoms experienced by premenopausal and perimenopausal women, postmenopausal women reported sexual symptoms as the most bothersome. The mean scores for each domain increased from the premenopausal period through the postmenopausal period (P for trend < 0.001). The regression model revealed that age (for vasomotor and sexual symptoms) and obesity (for vasomotor and physical symptoms) were significantly associated with severity of menopause symptoms (P < 0.05). Physically active women had fewer severe physical symptoms related to menopause than inactive women. Postmenopausal women experience the most severe symptoms. Obesity and physical activity are the main modifiable factors associated with symptom severity. Further studies are needed to examine the effects of physical activity promotion and weight control interventions on preventing menopause symptoms in Korean women.

  10. The circulating concentration and ratio of total and high molecular weight adiponectin in post-menopausal women with and without osteoporosis and its association with body mass index and biochemical markers of bone metabolism.

    PubMed

    Sodi, R; Hazell, M J; Durham, B H; Rees, C; Ranganath, L R; Fraser, W D

    2009-09-01

    There is increasing evidence suggesting that adiponectin plays a role in the regulation of bone metabolism. This was a cross-sectional study of 34 post-menopausal women with and 37 without osteoporosis. All subjects had body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD), total-, high molecular weight (HMW)-adiponectin and their ratio, osteoprotegerin (OPG), a marker of bone resorption (betaCTX) and formation (P1NP) measured. We observed a positive correlation between BMI and BMD (r=0.44, p<0.001). When normalised for BMI, total-, HMW-adiponectin concentrations and HMW/total-adiponectin ratio were significantly lower in obese compared to lean subjects but there was no difference between those with or without osteoporosis. There were significant negative correlations between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and BMI (r=-0.27, p=0.030) and with OPG (r=-0.44, p<0.001). Our data suggests that there is no significant difference in the circulating concentration of fasting early morning total- or HMW-adiponectin in post-menopausal women with or without osteoporosis. The correlation between HMW/total-adiponectin ratio and OPG may indicate that adiponectin could influence bone metabolism by altering osteoblast production of OPG thereby affecting osteoclasts mediated bone resorption.

  11. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  12. Psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms in Brazilian women.

    PubMed

    Barazzetti, Lidiane; Pattussi, Marcos Pascoal; Garcez, Anderson da Silva; Mendes, Karina Giane; Theodoro, Heloísa; Paniz, Vera Maria Vieira; Olinto, Maria Teresa Anselmo

    2016-04-01

    This study investigated the association between minor psychiatric disorders and menopause symptoms and their associated factors. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 615 women aged 40 to 65 years treated in a public menopause and gynecological outpatient clinic in the South Region of Brazil. Minor psychiatric disorders were assessed using the Self-Reporting Questionnaire (SRQ-20) and menopause symptoms using the Menopause Rating Scale. Score for menopause symptoms was categorized into three levels of symptoms: mild, moderate, and severe. Multivariate analyses used ordinal logistic regression. The prevalence of mild, moderate, and severe menopause symptoms was 34.1% (95% CI 30.3-37.9), 29.6% (95% CI 25.8-33.1), and 36.3% (95% CI 32.4-40.0), respectively. The overall prevalence of minor psychiatric disorders was 66.6% (95% CI 62.8-70.3). After adjustment, the odds ratio (OR) of the occurrence of menopause symptoms were approximately eight times higher in women relating minor psychiatric disorders compared with those without such disorders (OR = 7.76; 95% CI 5.27-11.44). The following factors were also associated with the menopause symptoms: women older than 50 years, living with a partner, lower educational level, smokers, larger number of pregnancies, obese, and those using psychotropic and/or postmenopause medication. The minor psychiatric disorders exhibited strong association with the presence of menopause symptoms independently of sociodemographic, behavioral, and reproductive factors, and of use of psychotropic medication.

  13. Age at menopause and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus-infected Thai women.

    PubMed

    Boonyanurak, Pongrak; Bunupuradah, Torsak; Wilawan, Kittisak; Lueanyod, Aksorn; Thongpaeng, Parawee; Chatvong, Duangjai; Sophonphan, Jiratchaya; Saeloo, Siriporn; Ananworanich, Jintanat; Chaithongwongwatthana, Surasith

    2012-07-01

    There are limited data for age at menopause (AM) and menopause-related symptoms in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected Asian women. We investigated AM and menopause-related symptoms in HIV-infected Thai women. HIV-infected Thai women 40 years or older who did not receive any hormone therapy in the 8-week period preceding the study were enrolled. Participants completed the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life survey for their symptoms in the past 30 days. Menopause was defined as having the last menstrual period more than 1 year ago. Multivariate Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was used to identify factors associated with menopause. Two hundred sixty-eight HIV-infected women were enrolled; their median age was 44.6 (41.8-48.7) years, and the ratio of their Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classifications (A:B:C) was 53%:34%:13%; 95% were using highly active antiretroviral therapy. The median (interquartile range [IQR]) CD4 count was 575 (437-758) cells/μL, and 93% had HIV-RNA of less than 1.7log10 copies/mL. Among the 55 women who had reached menopause, the mean (SD) AM was 47.3 (5.1) years. The mean (SD) AM in our study was earlier than the previous report of 49.5 (3.6) years in non-HIV-infected Thai women (difference, -2.2 y; 95% CI, -3.2 to -1.2, P < 0.01). Postmenopausal women had more symptoms, including night sweats (P = 0.03), change in sexual desire (P = 0.01), and avoiding intimacy (P = 0.01), compared with nonpostmenopausal women. No differences in psychosocial or physical domains between groups were found. Factors associated with menopause were Centers for Disease Control and Prevention clinical classification B or C (hazard ratio, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.0-3.03, P = 0.04), and no sexual act in the past month (hazard ratio, 4.9; 95% CI, 1.5-16.0, P = 0.01). No associations of later age of menarche, parity, marital status, educational level, income, body mass index, CD4 count, and HIV-RNA with menopause were found. AM in HIV

  14. Dosing time-dependent effect of raloxifene on plasma plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 concentrations in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hitoshi; Otoda, Toshiki; Ookami, Hitoshi; Nagai, Yukihiro; Inano, Akihiro; Takamura, Toshinari; Ushijima, Kentarou; Hosohata, Keiko; Matsushita, Eiki; Saito, Tetsuo; Kaneko, Shuichi; Fujimura, Akio

    2013-03-01

    Raloxifene, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator commonly used for the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis, affects the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems and consequently increases the risk of venous thromboembolism. Because both the coagulation and fibrinolytic systems exhibit circadian rhythms, the aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of dosing time of raloxifene on markers of coagulation and fibrinolysis, as well as on markers of bone metabolism. Thirty-nine post-menopausal patients with osteoporosis were randomly allocated to two groups: one received 60 mg raloxifene once daily in the morning, whereas the other received 60 mg raloxifene once daily in the evening, for 12 months. In both groups, the activity of coagulation Factors IX and XII was increased significantly after 12 months treatment compared with baseline. The activity of coagulation Factors II and V and levels of markers of bone metabolism (i.e. bone alkaline phosphatase and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b) decreased in both groups. The changes in these markers did not differ between the two groups. In contrast, the plasma concentration of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 increased in the group receiving the morning dose (mean change 40.9%; 95% confidence interval (CI) 9.4, 72.5), but not in the groups receiving the evening dose (mean change -0.3%; 95% CI -31.5, 30.9); these percentage changes differed significantly (P < 0.05). Because an elevated concentration of PAI-1 is known to be associated with the risk of venous thromboembolism, the findings of the present study suggest that the dosing time of raloxifene influences its safety. Further larger-scale studies are needed to determine the clinical usefulness of chronotherapy with raloxifene.

  15. Wrinkle reduction in post-menopausal women consuming a novel oral supplement: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, G; Wainwright, L J; Holland, R; Barrett, K E; Casey, J

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective The maintenance of youthful skin appearance is strongly desired by a large proportion of the world's population. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the effect on skin wrinkling, of a combination of ingredients reported to influence key factors involved in skin ageing, namely inflammation, collagen synthesis and oxidative/UV stress. A supplemented drink was developed containing soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C and vitamin E and given to post-menopausal women with a capsule containing fish oil. Method We have performed a double-blind randomized controlled human clinical study to assess whether this cocktail of dietary ingredients can significantly improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. Results We have shown that this unique combination of micronutrients can significantly reduce the depth of facial wrinkles and that this improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that consumption of a mixture of soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin E and fish oil is able to induce a clinically measureable improvement in the depth of facial wrinkles following long-term use. We have also shown, for the first time with an oral product, that the improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Résumé Objectif Le maintien de l'apparence d'une peau jeune est vivement souhaité par une grande proportion de la population mondiale. L'objectif de la présente étude était donc d'évaluer l'effet sur les rides de la peau, d'une combinaison d'ingrédients rapportés à influer sur les facteurs clés impliqués dans le vieillissement de la peau, à savoir l'inflammation, la synthèse du collagène et le stress oxydatif / UV. Une boisson supplémentée a été élaborée contenant des isoflavones de soja, le lycopène, la vitamine C et la vitamine E et donnée aux femmes ménopausées avec une capsule contenant de l

  16. Effect of autogenic relaxation on depression among menopausal women in rural areas of Thiruvallur District (Tamil Nadu).

    PubMed

    Sujithra, S

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted among 60 menopausal women, 30 each in experimental and control group who met inclusion criteria. The menopausal women were identified in both the groups and level of depression was assessed using Cornell Dysthmia rating scale. Simple random sampling technique by lottery method was used for selecting the sample. Autogenic relaxation was practiced by the menopausal women for four weeks. The findings revealed that in experimental group, after intervention of autogenic relaxation on depression among menopausal women, 23 (76.7%) had mild depression. There was a statistically significant effectiveness in experimental group at the level of p < 0.05. There was a statistically significant association between the effectiveness of autogenic relaxation on depression among menopausal women in the post-experimental group with the type of family at the level of p < 0.05.

  17. Menstrual change during the menopause transition: do women find it problematic?

    PubMed

    Mackey, Sandra

    2009-10-20

    To describe changes in the characteristics of women's menstrual cycles during the menopause transition and to identify whether such changes are perceived by women as being problematic. A cross-sectional descriptive study using a community-based convenience sample of 119 women aged 37-70 years. Participants completed a questionnaire to obtain data on demographic characteristics, menopausal status and changes to menstrual flow, duration, frequency and regularity. There was a common pattern of menstrual change which was of heavier, less frequent, irregular menstruation. Forty one percent of post-menopausal and 40% of women still in the menopause transition stated that, in terms of overall perception, the changes to menstruation experienced during the menopause transition were not problematic or disruptive. When specific change characteristics were examined, significant differences were found in duration of menses (p=0.014) and cycle irregularity (p=0.005) but no significant differences were found on the amount of flow (p=0.125) or frequency of cycles (p=0.142). Increased duration and increased irregularity of occurrence of each period are problematic for women going through the menopause transition, however, increased amount of menstrual flow at each period and increased frequency of cycles are not problematic changes.

  18. [Age of menopause onset in Canary Islands women].

    PubMed

    Sosa Henríquez, M; Navarro Rodríguez, M C; Limiñana Cañal, J M; Wagner Fahlin, A; Guerra Ramos, J M; Nicholas, A R; López Prado, P; Hernández Hernández, D

    1994-01-01

    To establish the age at menopause in the Canary woman. To study the possible influence of habitat, socioeconomical status and other possible factors on it. From an initial population of 742 women, we previously excluded those that were not menopausal at the moment of the study and those that suffered it as a result of a oophorectomy. We included 394 women that had a natural menopause in the study group. The mean age of menopause was 48.6 years old. There were no statistical differences between the natural or urban areas. Neither the age of menarche nor the number of pregnancies had any influence on the age of menopause. Women with high socioeconomical status had the menopause later (50.7 years old) than hose with medium or low socioeconomical status (48.6 and 48.4 years old respectively). Comparing the age of menopause found in our study (48.6 years) with the published in other papers, this is very similar to the age mean reported in other spanish studies but a little lower than the age of menopause established in some occidental countries.

  19. Menopause, only for women? The social construction of menopause as an exclusively female condition.

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, N E

    1997-06-01

    Over the last three decades the menopause has continued to interest the medical profession, the pharmaceutical industry and the mass media. Although there exist many different views on the menopause, there is one common denominator. Menopause is depicted as an exclusively female condition. The medical discourse on menopause seems to exclude men. However, a closer look at the history of the medical sciences reveals that there have been and still are, attempts to classify symptoms of ageing men as male menopause or climacterium. Despite these attempts to put men on the menopausal agenda, most attention is focused on women. How can we understand this almost exclusive focus on female bodies? Why does there exist such an emphasis on the medicalization of the third age of women rather than of men? Maybe we might be inclined to think of a male conspiracy, as has been suggested by feminists: women take the pills, while men cash the bills. We might consider the enormous profits of the pharmaceutical industry. This paper is concerned with finding an alternative explanation for the almost exclusive attention for the female menopause. Based on historical data and more recent discussions in medical journals, the paper shows that the medicalization of the female menopause and the relative silence around the male climacterium can be understood in terms of the social and cultural processes that underly the classification of health problems as specific diseases. The imbalance in medical treatment of climacteric health problems in women and men is not simply rooted in biological sex differences, but can be ascribed to men's attitudes towards health problems and organizational infrastructures of the medical institutions.

  20. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

  1. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

  2. Women's experience of menopause: a systematic review of qualitative evidence.

    PubMed

    Hoga, Luiza; Rodolpho, Juliana; Gonçalves, Bruna; Quirino, Bruna

    2015-09-16

    Evidence shows than an estimated one billion women have experienced menopause worldwide. The experience of menopause is influenced by beliefs and values prevalent in the sociocultural setting, the background of the women, and the ways in which the women approach changes in this phase of life. Independently of the circumstances involved, women experiencing menopause need to have their care needs and corresponding support identified based on their personal and contextual perspectives. Although it is essential to provide appropriate support to women experiencing menopause, no systematic reviews have so far been conducted that focus on menopause experienced by women worldwide. The objective of this review is to identify the best available evidence related to how women experience menopause worldwide. This review considered studies that included menopausal women aged between 40 and 65 years, who have lived the transition from reproductive years through menopause and beyond. This review included only studies whose participants have lived the experience of natural menopause. Women who have had induced menopause, or with premature menopause were excluded from this review. TYPES OF INTERVENTION(S)/PHENOMENA OF INTEREST: This review considered studies that investigate women's experiences of natural menopause under the scope of different social and cultural settings. TYPES OF STUDIES: This review considered studies that have a descriptive and interpretive approach, conducted using qualitative methodology. Qualitative studies that focus on program evaluation were excluded from this review. Qualitative data including, but not limited to, study designs such as phenomenology, grounded theory, ethnography, action research and feminist research were considered for inclusion in this review. TYPES OF OUTCOMES: This review considered studies that include the following outcome measures: all aspects related both directly and indirectly to the experience of menopause, as concretely lived

  3. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... NICHD Research Information Clinical Trials Resources and Publications Menopause: Condition Information Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content What is menopause? Menopause refers to the time in a woman's ...

  4. Association Between Hypertension, Menopause, and Cognition in Women.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Judith M; Cerezo, Gustavo H; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernandez-Pérez, Cristina; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Vicario, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive state in women and its relation to menopause and hypertension (HTN). The authors included 1034 women aged 47.13±15.71 years. The prevalence of HTN was 47.1%, with 67.8% of patients treated and 48.6% controlled. Cognitive impairment was higher among hypertensive menopausal (mini-Boston Naming Test: 7.4±3.1 vs 8.5±2.4, P<.001; Clock-Drawing Test: 5.2±2 vs 5.6±1.6, P<.01). Using logistic regression adjusted by age and education level, statistical differences were found in the results from the mini-Boston Naming Test between menopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.07; P=.021), and no difference between nonmenopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.57; P=.697). The P interaction between both groups was significant (P=.038). The possibility of alteration in cortical functions in menopausal hypertensive woman showed a relative increment of 48% (P=.021). The association between HTN and menopause increases the possibility of compromising the semantic memory by 50%. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence.

    PubMed

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Eis, Sérgio Ragi; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010-2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  6. Association of PvuII and XbaI polymorphisms on estrogen receptor alpha (ESR1) gene to changes into serum lipid profile of post-menopausal women: Effects of aging, body mass index and breast cancer incidence

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Rochette, Neuza Felix; Souza, Letícia Soncini; Tommasi, Bruno Otoni; Pedrosa, Diego França; Fin, Irani do Carmo Francischetto; Vieira, Fernando Luiz Herkenhoff; Graceli, Jones Bernardes; Rangel, Letícia Batista Azevedo; Silva, Ian Victor

    2017-01-01

    Estrogen is a steroidal hormone involved in several physiological functions in the female body including regulation of serum lipid metabolism and breast cancer (BC). Estrogen actions on serum lipids mostly occur through its binding to intracellular Estrogen Receptor alpha (ERalpha) isoform, expressed in most of tissues. This gene (ESR1) exhibit many polymorphic sites (SNPs) located either on translated and non-translated regions that regulate ERalpha protein expression and function. This paper aimed to investigate the association of two intronic SNPs of ESR1 gene, namely c454-397T>C (PvuII) and c454-351A>G (XbaI) to alterations in serum levels of total cholesterol (T-chol), total lipid (TL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL), high density lipoprotein (HDL), and triglycerides (TG) in a cohort of post-menopausal women. In addition, we aimed to associate presence of these SNPs to development of BC along 5 years period. To do so, a group of healthy 499, highly miscigenated, post-menopausal Brazilian women, were carried using PCR-FRLP technique and further confirmed by automatic sequence analysis as well followed through 5 years for BC incidence. Measurements of serum lipid profile by standard commercial methods were carried individually whereas Dual Energy X-ray Absorciometry (DXA) measured Body Mass Indexes (BMI), Fat Mass (FM), Lean Body Mass (LBM), and Body Water Content (BWC). No effects of PvuII SNP on ESR1 gene were observed on patient´s serum T-chol, TL, LDL, HDL, and TG. However, c454-397T>C PvuII SNP is associated to lower body fat and higher levels of lean mass and body water and lower incidence of BC. On the other hand, statistically significant effect of XbaI c454-351A>G SNP on serum TG and TL levels. Patients homozygous for X allele were followed up from 2010–2015. They showed higher incidence of breast cancer (BC) when compared to either heterozygous and any P allele combination. Moreover, the increasing of TG and TL serum concentrations

  7. Women, menopause, and (Ms.)information: communication about the climacteric.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Merry C; Villagran, Melinda Morris; Ragan, Sandra L

    2002-01-01

    This research utilizes a communication perspective to examine the dissemination of information about menopause in terms of women's attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge. Specifically, this study uses a grounded theory approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to explore the communicative processes of misinformation concerning women's lived experiences in relation to the climacteric. Five emergent themes extracted from premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women's discourse are identified and described through qualitative data analysis. Findings suggest that due to a lack of consistent communication, women are generally either unknowledgeable or misinformed about menopause and its related issues. Inaccurate information concerning a health-related experience that all women undergo has negative implications for women, their practitioners, and society. Moreover, a clearer understanding of women's experiences concerning menopause may enhance communication in physician-patient interactions (PPIs).

  8. Yale Study: African-American Women Report More Menopause Symptoms than White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of African-American women in menopause shows that while they experience many of the same symptoms as White women, they report more vasomotor symptoms such as dizziness and bloating, according to a study by a Yale School of Nursing researcher. The women reported symptoms common among White women in menopause--hot flashes, irregular…

  9. Yale Study: African-American Women Report More Menopause Symptoms than White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of African-American women in menopause shows that while they experience many of the same symptoms as White women, they report more vasomotor symptoms such as dizziness and bloating, according to a study by a Yale School of Nursing researcher. The women reported symptoms common among White women in menopause--hot flashes, irregular…

  10. The impact of menopause on work ability in women with severe menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    Geukes, Marije; van Aalst, Mariëlle P; Robroek, Suzan J W; Laven, Joop S E; Oosterhof, Henk

    2016-08-01

    To measure the impact of menopause on work ability in women with severe menopausal symptoms. This cross-sectional study compared the work ability of a sample of otherwise healthy employed Dutch women (n=205) with that of a sample of first-time attendees of a menopause clinic (n=60); both groups were aged 44-60 years. Self-reported questionnaire data assessing work ability (Work Ability Index; WAI) and menopausal symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale; GCS) were used. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine whether women with severe menopausal symptoms were more likely to have low work ability (defined as a score <37.0 points on the WAI) than were women in the reference group, after adjustment for individual and lifestyle factors. Symptomatic women had significantly higher total GCS scores (mean 26.7 vs 14.2, t=10.8, P<0.001) and significantly lower WAI scores (median 32.0 vs 40.0, U=2380, P<0.001) than the reference group. They were 8.4 times more likely to report low work ability than their healthy counterparts: 76.7% versus 30.2% (OR 8.4, 95% CI 4.1-17.2). Over three-quarters of symptomatic menopausal women report serious problems in dealing with the physical and mental demands of their work (recorded here as low work ability); hence these women might be at risk of prolonged sickness absence from work. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Hormone therapy and sleep quality in women around menopause.

    PubMed

    Sarti, Costante Donati; Chiantera, Antonio; Graziottin, Alessandra; Ognisanti, Ferdinando; Sidoli, Cristina; Mincigrucci, Milena; Parazzini, Fabio

    2005-01-01

    To obtain data on sleep quality in women attending menopause clinics in Italy. A cross-sectional study was conducted on the sleep quality of postmenopausal women attending a network of first-level outpatient menopause clinics in Italy for general counseling about menopause or treatment of its symptoms. Eligible for the study were women observed consecutively during the study period with natural or spontaneous menopause. All participating centers enrolled women into the study who had never used hormone therapy (HT) (group 1, 819 women), current users of transdermal estrogens with or without progestins (group 2, 819 women), and current users of oral estrogens with or without progestins (group 3, 790 women). The women were asked about their quality of sleep using the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire, their quality of life using the Short Form-12 questionnaire, and the intensity of hot flushes using a visual analogue scale. Women in groups 2 and 3 tended to report difficulties in sleeping less often than those in group 1. For example, never users of HT more frequently reported sleeping poorly and needed more time to sleep or had problems falling asleep; these differences were significant (P < 0.05). Otherwise, no difference emerged from the Basic Nordic Sleep Questionnaire between women in groups 2 and 3. This study gives support to the suggestion that HT improves the quality of sleep. The effect was similar in women taking oral or transdermal therapy with or without progestins.

  12. Memory functioning at menopause: impact of age in ovariectomized women.

    PubMed

    Nappi, R E; Sinforiani, E; Mauri, M; Bono, G; Polatti, F; Nappi, G

    1999-01-01

    Estrogens are known to act selectively on some components of memory, exerting beneficial effects on cognitive performances. However, there are few data on the long-term effect of the lack of estrogen in postmenopausal women. Therefore, we investigated attentive and verbal memory performances in physiological and surgical menopause, drawing attention to the impact of age at menopause, and we compared a well-known aging and estrogen-dependent index, the entity of bone mass loss to memory functioning. No significant differences were found in the mean scores of attentive and psychomotor performances between physiological and surgical menopause, whereas a lower number of recalled words (recency effect = PS2) was found in surgical menopause (p < 0.001) in comparison to physiological menopause. In addition, both the age at the time of ovariectomy (r = 0.47; p = 0. 014) and the years since surgery (r = -0.64; p = 0.000) correlated to short-term verbal memory performance (PS2) with better scores when surgery occurred later in women's lives. Surgical menopause is able to affect short-term verbal memory more than physiological menopause and seems to represent a critical negative event within the female brain, in particular when it occurs prematurely.

  13. Risk perception in women: a focus on menopause.

    PubMed

    Deeks, Amanda; Zoungas, Sophia; Teede, Helena

    2008-01-01

    To investigate risk perceptions in relation to menopausal experiences, comparing premenopausal women's expectations to actual experiences of menopause, including perceptions of symptoms, fears, risks of future illnesses, and side effects of symptomatic treatments. This was a cohort study using surveys in a random sample of Australians participating in an Australian Health Report series, supported by Pfizer. This article focuses on perceptions about menopause of 710 women. Peri- and postmenopausal women experienced more fatigue, sleeplessness, fluid retention, and bloating than premenopausal women expected to experience. Perimenopausal and postmenopausal women rated menopause as the "first day of the rest of [my] life" significantly more than premenopausal women. All women perceived that menopause had an impact on aging and weight gain, but more premenopausal women feared loss of sexuality (55%), loss of femininity (39%), and the inability to have more children (37%). Perceptions of illnesses differed from actual incidence, with 27% of all women perceiving breast cancer and 11% perceiving heart disease as a health risk, compared with actual female mortality figures of 3% and 41%, respectively. Perceptions of the effects of hormone therapy were inaccurate, with 53% of all women expecting a reduction in hot flushes, 44% expecting that hormone therapy increased breast cancer, and 23% expecting that hormone therapy decreased fractures. This study suggests a difference between perceptions of symptoms, fears, risks of future illnesses, and side effects of symptomatic treatments at menopause and actual experience. Because risk perception influences health-related behaviors, visits to healthcare providers, and treatment decisions and can be modified through education, an understanding of risk perception is clinically important. Further research is needed.

  14. Hormone therapy might be underutilized in women with early menopause.

    PubMed

    Lindh-Åstrand, L; Hoffmann, M; Järvstråt, L; Fredriksson, M; Hammar, M; Spetz Holm, A-C

    2015-04-01

    Are Swedish women age 40-44 years with assumed early menopause 'undertreated' by hormone therapy (HT)? Many women with probable early menopause discontinue their HT after a short period of time. Thus, they fail to complete the recommended replacement up to age 51-52 years, the average age of menopause. Spontaneous early menopause occurs in ∼5% of women age 40-45 years. Regardless of the cause, women who experience hormonal menopause due to bilateral oophorectomy before the median age of spontaneous menopause are at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, neurological disease, osteoporosis, psychiatric illness and even death. The study is descriptive, and epidemiological and was based on the use of national registers of dispensed drug prescriptions (HT) linking registers from the National Board of Health and Welfare and Statistics Sweden from 1 July 2005 until 31 December 2011. The study population consisted of 310 404 women, 40-44 years old on 31 December 2005 who were followed from 1 July 2005 until 31 December 2011. Only 0.9% of women 40-44 years old started HT during the study period. A majority of these women used HT <1 year. We do not know the indications that led to the prescription of HT but assume that early onset of menopause was the main reason. Because of the study design-making a retrospective study of registers-we can only speculate on the reasons for most of the women in this group discontinuing HT. Another limitation of this study is that we have a rather short observation time. However, we have up to now only been able to collect and combine the data since July 2005. As the occurrence of spontaneous early menopause in women age 40-45 is reported to be ∼5%, the fact that <1% of Swedish women age 40-44 are prescribed HT, and can be shown also to have had the medication dispensed at a pharmacy suggests an unexpectedly low treatment rate. Some women with early menopause may have used combined contraceptives as supplementation therapy, but in

  15. PBDE flame retardants, thyroid disease, and menopausal status in U.S. women.

    PubMed

    Allen, Joseph G; Gale, Sara; Zoeller, R Thomas; Spengler, John D; Birnbaum, Linda; McNeely, Eileen

    2016-05-24

    Women have elevated rates of thyroid disease compared to men. Environmental toxicants have been implicated as contributors to this dimorphism, including polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), flame retardant chemicals that disrupt thyroid hormone action. PBDEs have also been implicated in the disruption of estrogenic activity, and estrogen levels regulate thyroid hormones. Post-menopausal women may therefore be particularly vulnerable to PBDE induced thyroid effects, given low estrogen reserves. The objective of this study was to test for an association between serum PBDE concentrations and thyroid disease in women from the United States (U.S.), stratified by menopause status. Serum PBDE concentrations (BDEs 47, 99, 100 and 153) from the National Health and Examination Survey (NHANES) and reports on thyroid problems were available in the NHANES 2003-2004 cycle. Odds ratios (ORs) were calculated using multivariate logistic regression models accounting for population-weighted survey techniques and controlling for age, body mass index (BMI), education, smoking, alcohol consumption and thyroid medication. Menopause status was obtained by self-reported absence of menstruation in the previous 12 months and declared menopause. Women in the highest quartile of serum concentrations for BDEs 47, 99, and 100 had increased odds of currently having thyroid disease (ORs: 1.5, 1.8, 1.5, respectively) compared to the reference group (1st and 2nd quartiles combined); stronger associations were observed when the analysis was restricted to postmenopausal women (ORs: 2.2, 3.6, 2.0, respectively). Exposure to BDEs 47, 99, and 100 is associated with thyroid disease in a national sample of U.S. women, with greater effects observed post-menopause, suggesting that the disruption of thyroid signaling by PBDEs may be enhanced by the altered estrogen levels during menopause.

  16. Resilience, depressed mood, and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pérez-López, Faustino R; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo; Fernández-Iñarrea, José; Fernández-Alonso, Ana M; Chedraui, Peter; Llaneza, Plácido

    2014-02-01

    This study aims to assess resilience, depressed mood, and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women. In this cross-sectional study, 169 postmenopausal women aged 48 to 68 years were asked to fill out the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (WYRS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), and a questionnaire containing personal and partner sociodemographic data. The median [interquartile range] age of participating women was 54 [10.0] years. Among the women, 55.6% had increased body mass index, 76.9% had a partner, 17.8% were current smokers, 14.2% had hypertension, 25.4% used psychotropic drugs, and 13.0% used hormone therapy. Forty-five percent of the women had depressed mood (CESD-10 scores ≥10), and 34.9% had severe menopausal symptoms (total MRS scores ≥17). Less resilience (lower WYRS scores) correlated with depressed mood (higher CESD-10 scores) and severe menopausal symptoms (higher total, psychological, and urogenital MRS scores). Multiple linear regression analysis determined that WYRS scores positively correlated with exercising regularly and inversely correlated with CESD-10 scores (depressed mood). CESD-10 scores positively correlated with somatic and psychological MRS subscale scores and inversely correlated with WYRS scores (less resilience). In this postmenopausal sample, depressed mood and participation in regular exercise correlate with lower and higher resilience, respectively. Depressed mood is associated with the severity of menopausal symptoms (somatic and psychological).

  17. Identifying the Educational Needs of Menopausal Women: A Feasibility Study

    PubMed Central

    Trudeau, Kimberlee J.; Ainscough, Jessica L.; Trant, Meredith; Starker, Joan; Cousineau, Tara

    2013-01-01

    Background The goal of this project was to identify the educational needs of menopausal women and test the feasibility of an online self management program based on social learning theory. Methods The four stages included: (1) a needs assessment using a) focus groups with 24 women ages 40 – 55 and b) phone interviews with eight health experts, (2) the use of concept mapping methodology for quantifying qualitative data from Stage 1 to identify the core programmatic concepts, (3) development of a demonstration program, and (4) a pilot study with 35 women and nine health experts to assess knowledge gained and program satisfaction. Results Results show that women desire more information about normalcy of menopause and symptom management, found the program to meet a need for menopausal education otherwise perceived as unavailable, and they significantly increased their menopausal knowledge after brief exposure (t34= 3.64, p = .001). Conclusions This project provides support for an online health education program for menopausal women and content ideas for inclusion in women’s health education curriculum. PMID:21185735

  18. Menopausal symptoms among healthy, middle-aged Omani women as assessed with the Menopause Rating Scale.

    PubMed

    El Shafie, Kawther; Al Farsi, Yahya; Al Zadjali, Najat; Al Adawi, Samir; Al Busaidi, Zakiya; Al Shafaee, Mohammed

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence and severity of climacteric symptoms and associated risk factors among a cohort of healthy, middle-aged Omani women. In this cross-sectional study, 472 healthy Omani women between 40 and 60 years old from the representative regions of Omani society were surveyed using the Menopause Rating Scale. The scores obtained were plotted against their demographic data and menopausal stage. Overall, 39.6% of the participants were premenopausal, 15.2% were perimenopausal, and 43.6% were postmenopausal. The Menopause Rating Scale scoring showed that somatic and psychological symptoms occurred more frequently than did urogenital symptoms in all three stages. Muscle and joint pain was the most common symptom (73.3%), followed by mental and physical exhaustion (47.2%) and anxiety (46.6%). An increase in the mean scores for both somatic and psychological symptoms and their severity was observed when the following factors were present: progression of menopausal stage (mean ± SD, 22.5 ± 2.6, 3.6 ± 2.9, 4.5 ± 3.2), old age (4.2 ± 3.2) versus young age (2.9 ± 2.6), single (4.3 ± 3.3) versus married (3.3 ± 2.9), illiterate (3.9 ± 3.1) versus educated (2.7 ± 2.6), and sexually inactive (4.4 ± 3.4) versus sexually active (3.1 ± 2.7). Omani women were found to exhibit highly atypical symptoms of menopause. Increased severity of symptoms was found to be related to age, advanced stage of menopause, and lower educational level.

  19. Teaching Taboo Topics: Menstruation, Menopause, and the Psychology of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is (a) to consider reasons why women's reproductive processes receive so little attention in psychology courses and (b) to make an argument for why more attention is needed. Menstruation, menopause, and other reproductive events are important to the psychology of women. Reproductive processes make possible a social role…

  20. Teaching Taboo Topics: Menstruation, Menopause, and the Psychology of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is (a) to consider reasons why women's reproductive processes receive so little attention in psychology courses and (b) to make an argument for why more attention is needed. Menstruation, menopause, and other reproductive events are important to the psychology of women. Reproductive processes make possible a social role…

  1. Surgical menopause and nonvertebral fracture risk among older US women.

    PubMed

    Vesco, Kimberly K; Marshall, Lynn M; Nelson, Heidi D; Humphrey, Linda; Rizzo, Joanne; Pedula, Kathryn L; Cauley, Jane A; Ensrud, Kristine E; Hochberg, Marc C; Antoniucci, Diana; Hillier, Teresa A

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether older postmenopausal women with a history of bilateral oophorectomy before natural menopause (surgical menopause) have a higher risk of nonvertebral postmenopausal fracture than women with natural menopause. We used 21 years of prospectively collected incident fracture data from the ongoing Study of Osteoporotic Fractures, a cohort study of community-dwelling women without previous bilateral hip fracture who were 65 years or older at enrollment, to determine the risk of hip, wrist, and any nonvertebral fracture. χ(2) and t tests were used to compare the two groups on important characteristics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by baseline oral estrogen use status were used to estimate the risk of fracture. Baseline characteristics differed significantly among the 6,616 women within the Study of Osteoporotic Fractures who underwent either surgical (1,157) or natural (5,459) menopause, including mean age at menopause (44.3 ± 7.4 vs 48.9 ± 4.9 y, P < 0.001) and current use of oral estrogen (30.2% vs 6.5%, P < 0.001). Fracture rates were not significantly increased for surgical versus natural menopause, even among women who had never used oral estrogen (hip fracture: hazard ratio [HR], 0.87; 95% CI, 0.63-1.21; wrist fracture: HR, 1.10; 95% CI, 0.78-1.57; any nonvertebral fracture: HR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.93-1.32). These data provide some reassurance that the long-term risk of nonvertebral fracture is not substantially increased for postmenopausal women who experienced premenopausal bilateral oophorectomy, compared with postmenopausal women with intact ovaries, even in the absence of postmenopausal estrogen therapy.

  2. Relationship between menopause status, attitude toward menopause, and quality of life in Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong.

    PubMed

    Li, Sixuan; Ho, Suzanne C; Sham, Aprille

    2016-01-01

    This cross-sectional study aimed to explore the relationship between menopause status and attitude toward menopause, and also its relationship with quality of life (QoL) of Chinese midlife women in Hong Kong. Hong Kong Chinese women aged 40 to 59 years were recruited through computer-generated random telephone dialing. Information was obtained through telephone interviews based on a structured questionnaire. Women were classified into 3 groups: premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal. Menopause Belief Scale and Utian Quality of Life Scale (QoL) were used to measure respondents' attitude toward menopause and their QoL. Information on social, health, and lifestyle factors was also collected. The mean age of the participants was 49.4 ± 5.2 years. Respondents generally had a positive attitude toward menopause. Compared with premenopausal women, postmenopausal women were noted to have significantly higher attitude score toward menopause. No significant differences in QoL score were noted among women of the 3 menopause statuses. Stepwise regression analysis showed that women with more positive attitude toward menopause tended to have higher QoL score. Furthermore, better self-reported health status, doing physical activities, higher education level, being married, and non-smoking status were associated with better QoL. Postmenopausal women tended to have more positive attitude toward menopause. Although menopause status did not seem to be associated with QoL, attitude toward menopause, self-reported health status, as well as social and lifestyle factors were associated with QoL in Chinese midlife women.

  3. EMAS recommendations for conditions in the workplace for menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Amanda; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    Women form a large part of many workforces throughout Europe. Many will be working throughout their menopausal years. Whilst the menopause may cause no significant problems for some, for others it is known to present considerable difficulties in both their personal and working lives. During the menopausal transition women report that fatigue and difficulties with memory and concentration can have a negative impact on their working lives. Furthermore, hot flushes can be a source of embarrassment and distress. Some consider that these symptoms can impact on their performance. Greater awareness among employers, together with sensitive and flexible management can be helpful for women at this time. Particular strategies might include: fostering a culture whereby employees feel comfortable disclosing health problems, allowing flexible working, reducing sources of work-related stress, providing easy access to cold drinking water and toilets, and reviewing workplace temperature and ventilation.

  4. The effects of valerian root on hot flashes in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mirabi, Parvaneh; Mojab, Faraz

    2013-01-01

    Hot flash is among the most common complaints of menopausal women, affecting their career, social activities and quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Valerian on hot flashes in menopausal women. In this double blind clinical trial, 68 menopausal women with the chief complaint of hot flash were enrolled using sampling at hand and were randomly divided into drug and placebo groups. The women in the drug group were prescribed 255 mg Valerian capsules 3 times a day for 8 weeks. The women in the placebo group were prescribed identical capsules filled with starch. Then, severity and frequency of hot flashes were measured and recorded through questionnaires and information forms in three levels (2 weeks before, four and eight weeks after the treatment). The Severity of hot flashes revealed a meaningful statistical difference pre- and post- Valerian treatment (p <0.001) while this difference was not meaningful in the placebo group. Further, the comparison of the two groups regarding the severity of hot flash after the treatment showed a meaningful statistical difference (p <0.001). Valerian has also led to a reduction of hot flash frequencies 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment (p <0.001) but this difference was not meaningful in drug like group. Valerian can be effective in treatment of menopausal hot flash and that it can be considered as a treatment of choice for reduction of hot flashes among the women who are reluctant to receive hormone therapy due to fear or any other reason.

  5. Age at menopause: imputing age at menopause for women with a hysterectomy with application to risk of postmenopausal breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Rosner, Bernard; Colditz, Graham A.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Age at menopause, a major marker in the reproductive life, may bias results for evaluation of breast cancer risk after menopause. Methods We follow 38,948 premenopausal women in 1980 and identify 2,586 who reported hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy, and 31,626 who reported natural menopause during 22 years of follow-up. We evaluate risk factors for natural menopause, impute age at natural menopause for women reporting hysterectomy without bilateral oophorectomy and estimate the hazard of reaching natural menopause in the next 2 years. We apply this imputed age at menopause to both increase sample size and to evaluate the relation between postmenopausal exposures and risk of breast cancer. Results Age, cigarette smoking, age at menarche, pregnancy history, body mass index, history of benign breast disease, and history of breast cancer were each significantly related to age at natural menopause; duration of oral contraceptive use and family history of breast cancer were not. The imputation increased sample size substantially and although some risk factors after menopause were weaker in the expanded model (height, and alcohol use), use of hormone therapy is less biased. Conclusions Imputing age at menopause increases sample size, broadens generalizability making it applicable to women with hysterectomy, and reduces bias. PMID:21441037

  6. CHRONIC MEDICAL CONDITIONS AND REPRODUCIBILITY OF SELF-REPORTED AGE AT MENOPAUSE AMONG COMMUNITY DWELLING WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    de Vries, Heather F.; Northington, Gina M.; Kaye, Elise M.; Bogner, Hillary R.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. METHOD Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of the age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall of age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. RESULTS One hundred and forty three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) of women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994 while 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within one year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among women with surgical menopause, women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio (OR) = 0.36, 95% confidence interval (CI) [0.15, 0.91]) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years from menopause. CONCLUSIONS Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause. PMID:21971208

  7. Sexual function in menopausal women in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Hardip Kaur; Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Ghaffar, Nor Aliza Abdul

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the study was to document sexual function in Kelantanese postmenopausal women. A semi-structured questionnaire in Malay language was administered to 326 women (mean age of 57.1+/-6.58 (S.D.) years) residing in Kelantan. The subjects comprised of naturally menopaused, healthy women. Of the total respondents, 70% (n=227) were with a spouse at the time of the study. Of these, more than two-thirds reported a decrease in sexual activity following menopause. Varying degree of dyspareunia was reported by 44% of the women. A small fraction (8.8%) reported inability of the vagina to stretch sufficiently to enable the complete penetration of an erect penis. Of the total married respondents, vaginal secretion during sexual intercourse was decreased in 52.4%, did not change in 31% but increased in 1.3% of the women following menopause. Sexual desire was reportedly decreased or absent in two-thirds of the total respondents (n=326). It appears that sexual function significantly decreases during menopause. This may be due to dyspareunia, poor lubrication, loss of sexual desire, and the spouse's health status and ageing itself. Although declining sexual function was recognised by nearly two-thirds of the women, more than half did not take any action to improve their sexual function. Of those who did, they used hormonal therapy, traditional, alternative medicine or practiced healthy lifestyle or a varied combination of above self-help actions.

  8. Menopausal Symptoms in Women with Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Cheung, Katharine L.; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Allison, Matthew A.; LeBlanc, Erin S; Vitolins, Mara Z.; Shara, Nawar; Chertow, Glenn M.; Winkelmayer, Wolfgang C.; Tamura, Manjula Kurella

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To determine if menopausal symptoms differed among women with versus without chronic kidney disease (CKD) and whether CKD modified associations of late vasomotor symptoms (VMS) with mortality and/or cardiovascular events. Methods Chronic kidney disease, defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) <60 ml/min/1.73m2 by the CKD-EPI equation, was determined in 17,891 postmenopausal women, aged 50–79 at baseline, in the multiethnic Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) cohort. Primary outcomes were presence, severity and timing/duration of VMS (self-reported hot flushes and night sweats) at baseline. We used polytomous logistic regression to test for associations among CKD and four VMS categories (none; early- present before menopause but not at enrollment; late- present only at enrollment; persistent- present before menopause and at enrollment) and determined whether CKD modified associations between late VMS and mortality or cardiovascular events, using Cox regression. Results Women with CKD (1017/17891; mean eGFR, 50.7mL/min/1.73m2) were more likely to have had menopause before age 45 (26% versus 23%, P=0.02), but were less likely to experience VMS (38% versus 46%, P<0.001) compared to women without CKD. Women with CKD were not more likely than women without CKD to experience late VMS. Late VMS (HR=1.16; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.29) and CKD (HR=1.74; 95% CI: 1.54, 1.97) were each independently associated with increased risk for mortality, but CKD did not modify the association of late VMS with mortality (Pinteraction=0.53), coronary heart disease (Pinteraction=0.12) or stroke (Pinteraction= 0.68). Conclusions Women with mild CKD experience earlier menopause and fewer VMS than women without CKD. PMID:25628057

  9. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  10. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  11. Pyosalpinx as a sequela of labial fusion in a post-menopausal woman: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Complete labia fusion is a rare clinical entity in post-menopausal women. The most common complications of this presentation are infections of the urinary tract and retention of urine in the vagina. We present the case of a post-menopausal woman with adnexal mass and abdominal pain due to fusion of the labia majora. To the best of our knowledge this is the first report in the literature of this complication. Case presentation A 78-year-old Caucasian woman was admitted to our hospital due to abdominal pain and urination difficulty, along with fever and leucocytosis. On examination the labial majora were fused. Computed tomography of the abdomen revealed a cystic formation in the anatomical area of the right adnexa. Our patient had developed a pyosalpinx as a Sequela of labial fusion. At laparoscopy the right pyosalpinx was identified and resected, whereas the labia majora were reconstructed via dissection and separation. Conclusions Labial fusion is a rare clinical entity in post-menopausal women and can have serious and unexpected complications. Though this presentation is rare, a clinical examination must be performed in detail in order to gain valuable information for an accurate diagnosis. Post-operational instruction must be given to patients in order to prevent the re-occurrence of the fusion and its complications. PMID:22054217

  12. Vocal Symptoms and Acoustic Findings in Menopausal Women in Comparison to Pre-menopause Women with Body Mass Index as a Confounding Variable.

    PubMed

    Hamdan, Abdul-Latif; Ziade, Georges; Tabet, Georges; Btaiche, Rachel; Fakhri, Ghina; Yatim, Firas; Sarieddine, Doja; Seoud, Muhieddine

    2017-08-01

    To compare the prevalence of phonatory symptoms in menopausal women compared to pre-menopause women with body mass index (BMI) as a confounding variable. A total of 69 women, 34 menopausal and 35 pre-menopausal were invited to participate in this study. Demographic variables included age, smoking, and BMI. All subjects were asked about the presence hoarseness, loss of high or low frequencies, pitch breaks, throat clearing, dryness in the throat and vocal fatigue. Acoustic analysis was performed and the Voice Handicap Index (VHI)-10 was filled by all the subjects. There was a significantly higher prevalence of throat clearing and dryness in the menopausal group compared to the pre-menopause group with a P value of 0.035 and 0.032 respectively. When BMI was taken into account, there was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of any of the phonatory symptoms in menopausal women with high BMI and pre-menopause. There was no statistically significant difference in the means of any of the acoustic parameters between the menopausal group and pre-menopausal group. There was no significant difference in the mean VHI-10 between the menopause group and the pre-menopause (P = 0.652). The results of this investigation substantiate the importance of fat as an alternative source of estrogen which can mask some of the phonatory symptoms.

  13. Women's stories: ethnic variations in women's attitudes and experiences of menopause, hysterectomy, and hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Mingo, C; Herman, C J; Jasperse, M

    2000-01-01

    To increase understanding of women's midlife changes, 23 focus groups were held to investigate the possible ethnic variations in attitude toward and experience with menopause, hysterectomy, and hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in non-Hispanic white, Hispanic, and Navajo women in New Mexico. The medical definition of menopause, no menstrual bleeding for 12 months, did not coincide with the women's definition of menopause as the hormonal fluctuations they experienced before, during, and after any change in their menstrual cycle. More women reported having to fight to have a hysterectomy than having one unnecessarily. Women complained about the lack of information and preparation prior to having a hysterectomy and expressed dissatisfaction with doctor-patient communication, but they were satisfied with their hysterectomy because they felt better after the surgery. Although women in the study reported that menopause and hysterectomy are seldom discussed openly, they all participated freely in the storytelling focus groups. The most traditional women, primarily rural Navajo and newly immigrated Latina, related few or no menopausal symptoms with natural menopause or after hysterectomy. Many of these women had not even heard of HRT. Many women who had been prescribed HRT expressed dissatisfaction with the side effects and dosage. Unsupervised tinkering with the dosage was the rule rather than the exception. The study revealed that women are much more alike than they are different. Traditional women in all ethnic groups had more in common with each other than they did with the least traditional women in their own ethnic group.

  14. Health issues for menopausal women: the top 11 conditions have common solutions.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Gabriella M; Kavousi, Maryam; Troup, Jenna; Franco, Oscar H

    2015-01-01

    Multiple health issues affect women throughout the life course differently from men, or do not affect men at all. Although attention to women's health is important in all stages in life, health among middle-aged and elderly women has not received sufficient attention by scientists and policy-makers. Related to the menopausal transition and the experiences accumulated until that age, many diseases occur or further develop in middle-aged and elderly women. To improve women's quality of life and guarantee a long-lasting and active role for middle-aged and elderly women in society, prevention of chronic diseases and disability is a key aspect. In this manuscript we give an overview of the major health issues for peri- and post-menopausal women, we summarize risk factors and interventions to improve menopausal health. Based on the available scientific literature and the global burden of disease endeavor, we have selected and herein describe the following top 11 key health issues, selected in terms of burden exerted in women's mortality, morbidity, disability and quality of life: cardiovascular disease, musculoskeletal disorders, cancer, cognitive decline and dementia, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, diabetes mellitus, metabolic syndrome, depression, vasomotor symptoms, sleep disturbances and migraine.

  15. Acute effects of marihuana on luteinizing hormone in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mendelson, J H; Cristofaro, P; Ellingboe, J; Benedikt, R; Mello, N K

    1985-11-01

    Plasma luteinizing hormone (LH) levels were determined under double blind crossover conditions in 10 healthy menopausal adult females prior to and following smoking of a 1-g marihuana cigarette containing 1.83% delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and a 1-g marihuana placebo cigarette. A significant increase in pulse rate and levels of intoxication occurred after marihuana smoking but not after smoking placebo cigarettes. LH levels determined before administration of marihuana and placebo cigarettes were not significantly different and were within the range of normal values for healthy menopausal women. No significant differences were found between LH levels following marihuana and placebo smoking.

  16. The effects of menopausal health training for spouses on women's quality of life during menopause transitional period.

    PubMed

    Bahri, Narjes; Yoshany, Nooshin; Morowatisharifabad, Mohammad Ali; Noghabi, Ali Delshad; Sajjadi, Moosa

    2016-02-01

    Spouses' support during menopausal transition has an important role for improving the quality of life in postmenopausal women. Since the first step in providing support is having adequate knowledge, this study aimed to investigate the effects of an educational program on menopause health for spouses on women's quality of life during the menopausal transition. This clinical trial was conducted in Yazd, Iran. A hundred healthy women aged 45 to 60 years were recruited by random sampling. The spouses in the intervention group (n = 50) attended three training sessions about the management and health of menopausal transition. The spouses in the control group (n = 50) did not receive any intervention. Knowledge and performance about menopausal health were assessed in all spouses before and 3 months after intervention. All women were assessed by the Menopause Rating Scale, and the Menopause Quality of Life questionnaire before and 3 months after educational intervention. Analyses were carried out using SPSS 16 software. The level of significance was set at P less than 0.05. The knowledge and performance of spouses in the intervention group were significantly higher 3 months after intervention (P < 0.0001). The quality of life in women in the intervention group was higher 3 months after intervention (P < 0.0001). The mean scores of psychological and physical domains were significantly lower in the intervention group (P = 0.002 and P = 0.001, respectively). The training of menopausal health for spouses improves the quality of life in women during menopausal transition. We suggest integrating such educational programs in menopausal management programs.

  17. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... Help You Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions La menopausia y las hormonas: Preguntas más frecuentes Compounded Bio- ... Menopause and Hormones Card (PDF - 1.3MB) La menopausia y las hormonas tarjeta (PDF - 1.6MB) Order ...

  18. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted κ 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

  19. Long-term topical oestrogen treatment of sun-exposed facial skin in post-menopausal women does not improve facial wrinkles or skin elasticity, but induces matrix metalloproteinase-1 expression.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Hyun-Sun; Lee, Se-Rah; Chung, Jin Ho

    2014-01-01

    It is controversial whether treatment with oestrogen stimulates collagen production or accumulation in sun-exposed skin. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of long-term treatment with topical oestrogen on photoaged facial skin, with regard to wrinkle severity, and expression of procollagen and matrix metalloproteinase-1 enzyme. Two groups of 40 post-menopausal women applied either 1 g of 1% oestrone or vehicle cream once daily to the face for 24 weeks. Visiometer R1-R5 values (skin wrinkles) and Cutometer values (skin elasticity) were not significantly improved in the oestrone group after 24 weeks of treatment. Type I procollagen immunostaining did not increase in the oestrone group compared with the control group. However, levels of matrix metalloproteinase-1 mRNA increased robustly (10.3 times) in oestrone-treated skin compared with vehicle-treated skin. Thus, treatment with topical oestrogen may be deleterious in ultraviolet-induced skin ageing, at least in part, through induction of matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) expression in human skin.

  20. β-Cryptoxanthin modulates the response to phytosterols in post-menopausal women carrying NPC1L1 L272L and ABCG8 A632 V polymorphisms: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Granado-Lorencio, F; de Las Heras, L; Millán, C San; Garcia-López, F J; Blanco-Navarro, I; Pérez-Sacristán, B; Domínguez, G

    2014-09-01

    Phytosterol (PS) intake may be used for hypercholesterolaemia in some groups although the presence of non-responders is well known. Carotenoids and PS/cholesterol may compete for the same transporters during absorption. As part of a randomized, double-blind, crossover, multiple-dose supplementation study with β-cryptoxanthin (β-Cx) and PS, single and combined, polymorphisms of ABCG8 (A632V) and NCPL1 (L272L) were determined in 19 post-menopausal women. Subjects carrying CC polymorphism for NCP1L1 (L272L) showed a net increase in total cholesterol and LDL after PS intake but, interestingly, displayed a decrease in both lipid fractions after consuming PS plus β-Cx. For the ABCG8 (A632V) gene, CT/TT carriers consuming PS also displayed an increase in total cholesterol and LDL, but this increment was much lower after the intake of PS plus β-Cx. Additionally, in CC carriers for ABCG8 (A632V), a greater decrease in total cholesterol and LDL was found after the intake of PS plus β-Cx compared to that observed after PS alone. Overall, our results suggest that β-Cx improves the response to PS in individuals carrying specific genetic polymorphisms (i.e. non-responders), opening the possibility to modulate the response to PS by food technology. (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01074723).

  1. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth

    PubMed Central

    Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E.

    2016-01-01

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has—their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. PMID:27022074

  2. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    PubMed

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has--their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. © 2016 The Author(s).

  3. The impact of the menopause transition on the health and wellbeing of women living with HIV: A narrative review.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Shema; Delpech, Valerie; Anderson, Jane

    2016-06-01

    Improvements in survival due to advances in antiretroviral therapy (ART) have led to a shift in the age distribution of those receiving HIV care, with increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) reaching menopausal age. We present a narrative literature review of 26 studies exploring the menopause transition in WLHIV, focusing on: (1) natural history (2) symptomatology and management, and (3) immunologic and virologic effects. Data are conflicting on the association between HIV and earlier age at menopause, and the role of HIV-specific factors such as HIV viral load and CD4 count. There are some data to suggest that WLHIV experience more vasomotor and psychological symptoms during the menopause than HIV-negative women, and that uptake of hormone replacement therapy by WLHIV is comparatively low. There is no evidence that menopause affects either CD4 count or response to ART, although there may be increased immune activation in older WLHIV. We conclude that menopause in WLHIV is a neglected area of study. Specific information gaps include qualitative studies on experiences of reproductive ageing; data on the impact of the menopause on women's quality of life and ability to adhere to health-sustaining behaviors; as well as studies investigating the safety and efficacy of pharmacological and psychosocial interventions. There is likely to be a burden of unmet health need among this growing population, and better data are required to inform optimal provision of care, supporting WLHIV to maintain their health and wellbeing into their post-reproductive years.

  4. Prevalence of menopausal symptoms in women in Kelantan, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Dhillon, Hardip Kaur; Singh, Harbindar Jeet; Shuib, Rashidah; Hamid, Abdul Manaf; Mohd Zaki Nik Mahmood, Nik

    2006-06-20

    The aim of the study was to document the prevalence of 16 symptoms commonly associated with menopause, in women living in Kelantan. After verification, a semi-structured questionnaire in the Malay language was administered to 326 naturally menopaused healthy women in Kelantan (mean age of 57.1+/-6.58 (S.D.) years) to assess the prevalence of 16 common symptoms, which had been identified through focus group discussions and those that have been repeatedly reported in the literature. Mean age at menopause was 49.4+/-3.4 (S.D.) years while both the mode and median were 50 years. Of these, 75% were within the first 10 years of menopause and the rest were within the range of 11 to more than 20 years postmenopause. The mode for the number of symptoms complained by each woman was 8 (range 0-16). The prevalence of atypical symptoms was as follows: tiredness (79.1%), reduced level of concentration (77.5%), musculo-skeletal aches (70.6%) and backache (67.7%). Night sweats (53%), headache (49.4%) and hot flushes (44.8%) were the typical vasomotor symptoms, whereas mood swings (51%), sleep problems (45.1%), loneliness (41.1%), anxiety (39.8%) and crying spells (33.4%) were the main psychological symptoms. Uro-genital symptoms such as vaginal discomfort (45.7%), occasional stress incontinence (40%), weak bladder control (24%) and urinary tract infection (19.3%) were also reported. The symptoms are somewhat similar to those experienced by postmenopausal women elsewhere, albeit at different frequencies. There was a tendency for the women to admit to having more of the atypical symptoms, the prevalence of some which increased with increasing menopausal status, and lesser of the vasomotor and psychological symptoms.

  5. Do SSRIs and SNRIs reduce the frequency and/or severity of hot flashes in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Stubbs, Chris; Mattingly, Lisa; Crawford, Steven A; Wickersham, Elizabeth A; Brockhaus, Jessica L; McCarthy, Laine H

    2017-05-01

    In menopausal women who experience regular hot flashes, does treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) reduce the frequency and/or severity of hot flashes? Yes. Review of the literature suggests that treatment with SSRIs or SNRIs reduces the frequency and severity of hot flashes in menopausal and post-menopausal women. Studies demonstrated that paroxetine (Paxil), citalopram (Celexa) and escitolapram (Lexapro) were the most effective SSRIs, and venlafaxine (Effexor) was the most effective first line SNRI, with desvenlafaxine as a second option. The most common side effects reported for both SSRIs and SNRIs are nausea and constipation, with most resolving within the first week of treatment. SNRIs have been associated with increased blood pressure in some patients and should be used with caution in women with hypertension. Women with a history of breast cancer and taking tamoxifen should avoid SSRIs, which have been shown to interfere with tamoxifen metabolism. SNRIs are the safest drugs for this population. Treatment choice should be patient-specific and begin with the lowest dose available. A. SSRI, SNRI, hot flashes, vasomotor symptoms, menopause. August 2014, February 2016 and August 2016. menopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal women 18 years of age or older with frequent and/or severe vasomotor symptoms, meta-analyses, systematic reviews, randomized controlled trials, cohort studies. pre-menopause, anxiety, depression, panic disorder, bipolar disorder, co-morbid conditions.

  6. Menopause and the influence of culture: another gap for Indigenous Australian women?

    PubMed

    Jones, Emma K; Jurgenson, Janelle R; Katzenellenbogen, Judith M; Thompson, Sandra C

    2012-12-12

    There is great variation in experience of menopause in women around the world. The purpose of this study was to review current understanding of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) women's experiences of menopause. The literature pertaining to the perception, significance and experience of menopause from a number of cultural groups around the world has been included to provide context for why Indigenous women's experience might be important for their health and differ from that reported in other studies of Australian women and menopause. A search of databases including Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science, AUSThealth, AMED, EMBASE, Global Health and PsychINFO was undertaken from January 2011 to April 2011 using the search terms menopause, Indigenous, Aboriginal, attitudes, and perceptions and repeated in September 2012. Considerable research shows significant variation across cultures in the menopausal experience. Biological, psychological, social and cultural factors are associated with either positive or negative attitudes, perceptions or experiences of menopause in various cultures. Comparative international literature shows that neither biological nor social factors alone are sufficient to explain the variation in experiences of the menopausal transition. However, a strong influence of culture on the menopause experience can be found. The variation in women's experience of menopause indicates that different cultural groups of women may have different understandings and needs during the menopausal transition. While considerable literature exists for Australian women as a whole, there has been little investigation of Australian Indigenous women, with only two research studies related to Indigenous women's experiences of menopause identified. Differences in biocultural experience of menopause around the world suggest the importance of biocultural research. For the Indigenous women of Australia, the relative contribution of culture, social

  7. Endothelial function and cardiovascular risk stratification in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mulvagh, S L; Behrenbeck, T; Lahr, B A; Bailey, K R; Zais, T G; Araoz, P A; Miller, V M

    2010-02-01

    Peripheral arterial, endothelium-dependent, flow-mediated reactive hyperemia is reduced in individuals with atherosclerosis. This study tested the hypothesis that digital tonometry, as a surrogate of endothelial function, is useful to stratify cardiovascular risk in recently menopausal women who are asymptomatic for cardiovascular disease. Women undergoing screening for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS) were evaluated for conventional risk factors, flow-mediated reactive hyperemia by digital tonometry (RHI), carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) by ultrasound, and coronary arterial calcium (CAC) by 64-slice CT scanner. One hundred and two non-diabetic Caucasian women (53.0 +/- 2.3 years old, 18.0 +/- 9.0 months past their last menses) participated; 72% were never-smokers. Fourteen women had positive CAC scores (range 0.5-133 Agatston units); CIMT ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 mm. RHI ranged from 1.26 to 5.44. RHI did not correlate with time past menopause, CAC, CIMT, total cholesterol or low density lipoprotein cholesterol. The significant negative correlation of RHI with body mass index (r = -0.21, p = 0.031) was lost in non-smokers (r = - 0.17, p = 0.14). There was also a negative correlation of high density lipoprotein cholesterol with CAC, both in the overall group and non-smokers (rho = -0.20, p = 0.05 and rho = -0.27, p = 0.02, respectively). RHI varies widely in healthy women within the first 3 years of menopause. RHI was not associated with standard risk assessment algorithms, CAC or CIMT. RHI may indicate an additional, independent component and non-invasive tool to further stratify cardiovascular risk in recently menopausal women. As KEEPS continues, data on RHI will provide information regarding hormonal therapy, endovascular biology and atherosclerotic risk.

  8. Time-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover study

    PubMed Central

    Asp, Michelle L.; Collene, Angela L.; Norris, Leigh E.; Cole, Rachel M.; Stout, Michael B.; Tang, Szu-Yu; Hsu, Jason C.; Belury, Martha A.

    2011-01-01

    Background & Aims Metabolic effects of dietary fat quality in people with type 2 diabetes are not well-understood. The study objective was to evaluate effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower (SAF) oils on glycemia, blood lipids, and inflammation. The hypothesis we tested is SAF oil improves glycemic and inflammatory markers in a time dependent way that follows accumulation of linoleic acid and CLA isomers in serum of subjects supplemented with dietary oils. Methods Fifty-five post-menopausal, obese women with type 2 diabetes enrolled, and 35 completed this randomized, double-masked crossover study. Treatments were eight grams daily of CLA and SAF for 16 weeks each. We used a multiple testing procedure with predetermined step analysis to determine when the earliest time to effect was significant. Results CLA did not alter measured metabolic parameters. SAF decreased HbA1c (−0.64±0.18%, p<0.0007) and C-reactive protein (−13.6±8.2mg/L, p<0.0472), increased QUICKI (0.0077±0.0035, p<0.0146) with a minimum time to effect observed 16 weeks after treatment. SAF increased HDL cholesterol (0.12±0.05mmol/L, p<0.0228) with the minimum time to detect an effect of SAF at 12 weeks. The minimum time to detect an increase of c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA and linoleic acid in serum of women supplemented CLA or SAF respectively was four weeks. Conclusions We conclude that eight grams of SAF daily improved glycemia, inflammation, and blood lipids indicating that small changes in dietary fat quality may augment diabetes treatments to improve risk factors for diabetes-related complications. PMID:21295383

  9. Menopause experiences and attitudes in women with intellectual disability and in their family carers.

    PubMed

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan. A survey found that how the carers perceived the level of menopausal symptoms in their female family members with ID was affected by their attitudes toward menopause; and carer age and education were significant factors associated with carer menopausal attitudes. The results of in-depth interviews indicated the carers' gender, age, kinships with the women with ID, and the carers' own menopausal experiences were related to how the carers felt about the menopausal transition of the women with ID. Both quantitative and qualitative findings show that little attention has been paid to either the menopausal transition experiences or the wellbeing of women with ID.

  10. Menopause Symptoms and Attitudes of African American Women: Closing the Knowledge Gap and Expanding Opportunities for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.; Tingle, Lynne R.; Bond, Lloyd A.

    2005-01-01

    Menopause, a normal midlife transition for women, remains poorly understood, especially for minority women. A total of 226 African American midlife women completed the Menopause Symptoms List (J. M. Perz, 1997); Menopause Attitude Scale (C. Bowles, 1986); Attitudes Toward Menopause checklist (B. L. Neugarten, V. Wood, R. J. Kraines, & B. Loomes,…

  11. Menopause Symptoms and Attitudes of African American Women: Closing the Knowledge Gap and Expanding Opportunities for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.; Tingle, Lynne R.; Bond, Lloyd A.

    2005-01-01

    Menopause, a normal midlife transition for women, remains poorly understood, especially for minority women. A total of 226 African American midlife women completed the Menopause Symptoms List (J. M. Perz, 1997); Menopause Attitude Scale (C. Bowles, 1986); Attitudes Toward Menopause checklist (B. L. Neugarten, V. Wood, R. J. Kraines, & B. Loomes,…

  12. Periodontal disease-associated micro-organisms in peri-menopausal and post-menopausal women using or not using hormone replacement therapy. A two-year follow-up study.

    PubMed

    Tarkkila, Laura; Kari, Kirsti; Furuholm, Jussi; Tiitinen, Aila; Meurman, Jukka H

    2010-04-29

    Despite conflicting results on the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) there is no doubt that many women benefit from it. Women using HRT are known to be more health conscious in general with putative positive implications in the mouth. However, we observed recently in our cohort hardly any difference in oral health status between HRT-users and non-users. There are only a few studies about HRT and oral microbiota. We hypothesized that counts of periodontal micro-organisms are lower in health-conscious HRT-users than non-users. Two-year open follow-up study was conducted on originally 200 HRT-users and 200 non-users from age cohorts of 50-58 years. After clinical examination pooled subgingival plaque samples were taken for polymerase chain reaction analyses. The results of finally 135 women meeting the inclusion criteria were analyzed with cross-tabulation and chi-square test. Explanatory factors were studied by step-wise logistic regression analysis. In HRT group, the numbers of positive samples for Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis, p < 0.07), Prevotella intermedia (P. intermedia, p < 0.05)and Tannerella forsythia (T. forsythia, p < 0.01) decreased in women with >or= 4-mm-deep pockets. Respectively in HRT users with >or= 6-mm-deep pockets the numbers of positive samples for P. gingivalis (p < 0.05) and T. forsythia (p < 0.01) were decreased. No corresponding differences were observed in the non-HRT group. In logistic regression, the existence of deep periodontal pockets explained the majority of cases harboring specific micro-organisms in both groups. Although use of HRT did not correlate with periodontal health status, HRT led to decreasing numbers of positive samples of the periodontal pathogens P. gingivalis and T. forsythia. Further studies with longer observation time are needed to observe the clinical relevance of the results.

  13. Oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal and post-menopausal meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans.

    PubMed

    Thomas, H V; Davey, G K; Key, T J

    1999-07-01

    Endogenous oestradiol is strongly associated with breast cancer risk but its determinants are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that vegetarians have lower plasma oestradiol and higher sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) than meat-eaters we assayed samples from 640 premenopausal women (153 meat-eaters, 382 vegetarians, 105 vegans) and 457 post-menopausal women (223 meat-eaters, 196 vegetarians, 38 vegans). Vegetarians and vegans had lower mean body mass indices (BMI) and lower plasma cholesterol concentrations than meat-eaters, but there were no statistically significant differences between meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in pre- or post-menopausal plasma concentrations of oestradiol or SHBG. Before adjusting for BMI there were small differences in the direction expected, with the vegetarians and vegans having higher SHBG and lower oestradiol (more noticeable amongst post-menopausal women) than the meat-eaters. These small differences were essentially eliminated by adjusting for BMI. Thus this study implies that the relatively low BMI of vegetarians and vegans does cause small changes in SHBG and in post-menopausal oestradiol, but that the composition of vegetarian diets may not have any additional effects on these hormones.

  14. Oestradiol and sex hormone-binding globulin in premenopausal and post-menopausal meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, H V; Davey, G K; Key, T J

    1999-01-01

    Endogenous oestradiol is strongly associated with breast cancer risk but its determinants are poorly understood. To test the hypothesis that vegetarians have lower plasma oestradiol and higher sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG) than meat-eaters we assayed samples from 640 premenopausal women (153 meat-eaters, 382 vegetarians, 105 vegans) and 457 post-menopausal women (223 meat-eaters, 196 vegetarians, 38 vegans). Vegetarians and vegans had lower mean body mass indices (BMI) and lower plasma cholesterol concentrations than meat-eaters, but there were no statistically significant differences between meat-eaters, vegetarians and vegans in pre- or post-menopausal plasma concentrations of oestradiol or SHBG. Before adjusting for BMI there were small differences in the direction expected, with the vegetarians and vegans having higher SHBG and lower oestradiol (more noticeable amongst post-menopausal women) than the meat-eaters. These small differences were essentially eliminated by adjusting for BMI. Thus this study implies that the relatively low BMI of vegetarians and vegans does cause small changes in SHBG and in post-menopausal oestradiol, but that the composition of vegetarian diets may not have any additional effects on these hormones. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10424753

  15. Low back pain in women before and after menopause.

    PubMed

    Kozinoga, Mateusz; Majchrzycki, Marian; Piotrowska, Sylwia

    2015-09-01

    Low back pain is a massive problem in modern population, both in social and economic terms. It affects large numbers of women, especially those aged 45-60. Going through a perimenopausal period is associated with many symptoms, including low back pain. This paper is a review of published research on the association between the perimenopausal age and low back pain. PubMed databases were investigated. After the search was narrowed to "menopausal status, back pain", 35 studies were found. Seven studies, which suited our area of research best, were thoroughly analyzed. All studies show increased pain when women enter this period of their life. There is no agreement among researchers regarding which stage of menopause is the most burdensome. Examples of possible treatments and physiotherapeutic methods targeting low back pain are also presented. Physiotherapeutic procedures used to treat low back pain include exercises in safe positions, balance exercises, manual therapy, massage and physical measures.

  16. Low back pain in women before and after menopause

    PubMed Central

    Majchrzycki, Marian; Piotrowska, Sylwia

    2015-01-01

    Low back pain is a massive problem in modern population, both in social and economic terms. It affects large numbers of women, especially those aged 45-60. Going through a perimenopausal period is associated with many symptoms, including low back pain. This paper is a review of published research on the association between the perimenopausal age and low back pain. PubMed databases were investigated. After the search was narrowed to “menopausal status, back pain”, 35 studies were found. Seven studies, which suited our area of research best, were thoroughly analyzed. All studies show increased pain when women enter this period of their life. There is no agreement among researchers regarding which stage of menopause is the most burdensome. Examples of possible treatments and physiotherapeutic methods targeting low back pain are also presented. Physiotherapeutic procedures used to treat low back pain include exercises in safe positions, balance exercises, manual therapy, massage and physical measures. PMID:26528111

  17. Assessment of cardiovascular risk factors in menopausal Argentinian women.

    PubMed

    Etchegoyen, G S; Ortiz, D; Goya, R G; Sala, C; Panzica, E; Sevillano, A; Dron, N

    1995-01-01

    The cardiovascular risk factor profile was assessed in a population sample consisting of 60 nonmenopausal (control) and 100 menopausal women from different cities in Buenos Aires Province, Argentina. Each subject was individually interviewed and asked to complete a specially designed questionnaire aimed at identifying cardiovascular risk factors. A clinical general and gynecological examination including blood pressure and anthropometric measurements as well as a Papanicolaou smear were performed. The most prevalent risk factor in the menopausal group was low physical activity (87% of the subjects), followed by nervous complaints (67%), obesity (64%), familial antecedents of cardiovascular disease (CVD; 38%) and hypertension (33%). Other risk factors assessed showed a level of prevalence below 10%. In the control group, a tobacco smoking habit was the CVD risk factor with the highest prevalence (47%). Nervous complaints also showed a high prevalence (48%). Most menopausal patients (77%) had a cardiovascular risk index (RI) level between 1.5 and 4.0, whereas 17% of these subjects had an RI greater than 4.0 (high-risk patients). The present study reveals that, in the studied community, the menopause is associated with increased levels of both estrogen-dependent and psychosocial risk factors for CVD.

  18. Circulating microparticles and endogenous estrogen in newly menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Jayachandran, M; Litwiller, R D; Owen, W G; Miller, V M

    2009-04-01

    Estrogen modulates antithrombotic characteristics of the vascular endothelium and the interaction of blood elements with the vascular surface. A marker of these modulatory activities is formation of cell-specific microparticles. This study examined the relationship between blood-borne microparticles and endogenous estrogen at menopause. Platelet activation and plasma microparticles were characterized from women being screened (n = 146) for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study. Women were grouped according to serum estrogen (< 20 pg/ml; low estrogen, n = 21 or > 40 pg/ml; high estrogen, n = 11). Age, body mass index, blood pressure and blood chemistries were the same in both groups. No woman was hypertensive, diabetic or a current smoker. Platelet counts, basal and activated expression of P-selectin on platelet membranes were the same, but activated expression of glycoprotein IIb/IIIa was greater in the high-estrogen group. Numbers of endothelium-, platelet-, monocyte- and granulocyte-derived microparticles were greater in the low-estrogen group. Of the total numbers of microparticles, those positive for phosphatidylserine and tissue factor were also greater in the low-estrogen group. These results suggest that, with declines in endogenous estrogen at menopause, numbers of procoagulant microparticles increase and thus may provide a means to explore mechanisms for cardiovascular risk development in newly menopausal women.

  19. Effects of Diabetes on Post-Menopausal Rat Submandibular Glands: A Histopathological and Stereological Examination

    PubMed Central

    Buyuk, Basak; Parlak, Secil Nazife; Keles, Osman Nuri; Can, Ismail; Yetim, Zeliha; Toktay, Erdem; Selli, Jale; Unal, Bunyami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The menopause in elderly women is a physiological process where ovarian and uterine cycles end. Diabetes means higher blood glucose level that is a metabolic disease and has an increased incidence. The aim of the study was to examine the single or combined effects of menopause and diabetes that causes pathophysiological processes on submandibular gland on ovariectomy and diabetes induced rat models. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley twelve weeks old female (n=24) rats were divided randomly into four groups; Healthy control group (n=6), diabetic group (DM, n=6), ovariectomized group (OVX, n=6), post ovariectomy diabetes induced group (DM+OVX, n=6) individually. Histopathological, histochemical and stereological analyses were done in these groups. Results: Significant neutrophil cell infiltrations and myoepithelial cell proliferations, granular duct and seromucous acini damages and changes in the content of especially seromucous acini secretion in DM and/or OVX groups and distinctive interstitial and striated duct damages in post ovariectomy diabetes induced group were detected. Alterations ingranular ducts hypertrophic and in seromucous acini atrophic were determined in DM and/or OVX groups. Conclusion: The results revealed the pathophysiological processes that lead to morphological and functional alterations on the cellular level in submandibular glands. The molecular mechanisms related with pathogenesis of diabetes and menopause need further investigation. PMID:26644770

  20. Cross-cultural study: experience, understanding of menopause, and related therapies in Australian and Laotian women.

    PubMed

    Sayakhot, Padaphet; Vincent, Amanda; Teede, Helena

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate and compare symptom experiences, beliefs, attitudes, and understanding of menopause and menopausal therapies in Australian and Laotian women. This was a cross-cultural, questionnaire-based study involving 108 women (56 Australian women and 52 Laotian women aged 40-65 y) attending outpatient clinics in Australia and Laos. Descriptive statistics and univariate analysis were conducted using Student's t test or Mann-Whitney U test, where appropriate. Psychological symptoms, depression, vasomotor symptoms, and sexual dysfunction were significantly higher in Australian women compared with Laotian women (P < 0.05). Australian women perceived the meaning of menopause as aging (57%), whereas most Laotian women reported not knowing what menopause meant to them (81%). Australian women's fears about menopause included weight gain (43%), aging (41%), and breast cancer (38%), whereas Laotian women reported not knowing about potential menopausal problems (85%). Exercise (55%), education and awareness (46%), and improving lifestyle (41%) were reported by Australian women as being effective in alleviating menopausal symptoms, with only 21% reporting not knowing what was effective compared with 83% of Laotian women. Many women reported not knowing the risks/benefits of hormonal therapies (50% of Australian women and 87% of Laotian women) and herbal therapies (79% of Australian women and 92% of Laotian women). General practitioners were the most common source of menopause information for both Australians (73%) and Laotians (67%). Sociocultural factors influence women's perception of menopause. Psychological symptoms, sexual dysfunction, and vasomotor symptoms are more commonly reported by Australian women than by Laotian women. Women have a limited understanding of the risks/benefits of menopausal therapies, and culturally appropriate education is needed.

  1. The Influence of Early Menopause on Cardiovascular Risk in Women with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Pfeifer, Emily C; Crowson, Cynthia S; Amin, Shreyasee; Gabriel, Sherine E; Matteson, Eric L

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Early menopause is associated with an increased risk for developing rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women increases following menopause. Since RA is associated with an increased risk of CVD, this study was undertaken to determine if early menopause affects the risk of developing CVD in women with RA. Methods: A population-based inception cohort of 600 women with RA who fulfilled 1987 ACR criteria for RA between 1955 and 2007 and were age ≥ 45 years at diagnosis was assembled and followed. Age at menopause and duration of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), along with occurrence of CVD was ascertained by review of medical records. Cox proportional hazard models compared women who underwent early menopause (natural or artificial menopause at age ≤ 45 years) to those within the cohort who did not undergo early menopause. Results: Of 600 women, 79 exprienced early menopause. Women who underwent early menopause were at significantly higher risk for developing CVD when compared to women who did not (hazard ratio (HR): 1.56; 95% CI: 1.08-2.26). Conclusion: The risk of CVD in women with RA was higher in those who experience early menopause, and like other known risk factors should increase clinician concern for development of CVD in these patients. PMID:24882842

  2. Informing Women on Menopause and Hormone Therapy: Know the Menopause a Multidisciplinary Project Involving Local Healthcare System

    PubMed Central

    Donati, Serena; Satolli, Roberto; Colombo, Cinzia; Senatore, Sabrina; Cotichini, Rodolfo; Da Cas, Roberto; Spila Alegiani, Stefania; Mosconi, Paola

    2013-01-01

    Background Hormone therapy (HT) in the menopause is still a tricky question among healthcare providers, women and mass media. Informing women about hormone replacement therapy was a Consensus Conference (CC) organized in 2008: the project Know the Menopause has been launched to shift out the results to women and healthcare providers and to assess the impact of the cc’s statement. Methods And Findings: The project, aimed at women aged 45-60 years, was developed in four Italian Regions: Lombardy, Tuscany, Lazio, Sicily, each with one Local Health Unit (LHU) as “intervention” and one as “control”. Activities performed were: survey on the press; training courses for health professionals; educational materials for target populations; survey aimed at women, general practitioners (GPs), and gynaecologists; data analysis on HT drugs’ prescription. Local activities were: training courses; public meetings; dissemination on mass media. About 3,700 health professionals were contacted and 1,800 participated in the project. About 146,500 printed leaflets on menopause were distributed to facilitate the dialogue among women and health care professionals. Training courses and educational cascade-process activities: participation ranged 25- 72% of GPs, 17-71% of gynaecologists, 14-78% of pharmacists, 34-85% of midwives. Survey: 1,281 women interviewed. More than 90% believed menopause was a normal phase in life. More than half did not receive information about menopause and therapies. HT prescription analysis: prevalence fell from 6% to 4% in five years. No differences in time trends before-after the intervention. Major limitations are: organizational difficulties met by LHU, too short time for some local activities. Conclusions A huge amount of information was spread through health professionals and women. The issue of menopause was also used to discuss women’s wellbeing. This project offered an opportunity to launch a multidisciplinary, multimodal approach to

  3. Longitudinal Trends in Sexual Behaviors with Advancing Age and Menopause Among Women With and Without HIV-1 Infection

    PubMed Central

    Weedon, Jeremy; Golub, Elizabeth T.; Karpiak, Stephen E.; Gandhi, Monica; Cohen, Mardge H.; Levine, Alexandra M.; Minkoff, Howard L.; Adedimeji, Adebola A.; Goparaju, Lakshmi; Holman, Susan; Wilson, Tracey E.

    2014-01-01

    We assessed changes in self-reported sexual activity (SA) over 13 years among HIV-infected and uninfected women. The impact of aging and menopause on SA and unprotected anal or vaginal intercourse (UAVI) was examined among women in the Women’s Interagency HIV Study (WIHS), stratifying by HIV status and detectable viral load among HIV-infected women. Generalized mixed linear models were fitted for each outcome, adjusted for relevant covariates. HIV-uninfected women evidenced higher levels of SA and UAVI than HIV-infected. The odds of SA declined by 62–64 % per decade of age. The odds of SA in a 6-month interval for women aged 40–57 declined by 18–22 % post-menopause (controlling for age). Among HIV+/detectable women only, the odds of any UAVI decreased by 17 % per decade of age; the odds of UAVI were unchanged pre-menopause, and then decreased by 28 % post-menopause. Elucidating the factors accounting for ongoing unprotected sex among older women should inform interventions. PMID:25245474

  4. Periodontal aspects in menopausal women undergoing hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    López-Marcos, Joaquín Francisco; García-Valle, Silvia; García-Iglesias, Angel Agustín

    2005-01-01

    Currently, an important number of women use HRT to control their hormonal problems during menopause. A large percentage of these have problems at periodontal level. The present study aims at examining the effects that menopause, due to a decline in the synthesis of hormones, mainly of estrogens, can cause on the oral dental health of such women; in particular on the characteristics of the gingiva and periodontium, checking whether characteristics such as gingival recession, pain, tooth mobility and periodontal pocket formation might permit physicians to evaluate the degree of bone loss in menopausal woman. Menopausal women aged 40 to 58 years of age undergoing hormone replacement therapy that had gingival periodontal disturbances. The total population of the study comprised 210 patients, divided into two groups. One group received HRT administered in patches and the other group did not receive this therapy. Gynecologic and odonto-stomatologic protocols were established for data collection. In order to assess the efficacy of the treatment a descriptive statistical study for sociodemographic variables, analysis of variance, McNemar's test and the Stuart-Maxwell test were performed. The mean age of the patients studied was 49.6 years. HRT acts as a protective factor in dental pain and improves tooth mobility and depth of the probing of periodontal pockets. With respect to the variable gingival recession, no significant results were found either for the group not receiving HRT or for the group being treated with patches. The response to the HR therapy in periodontal disease is probably due to the existence of estrogen receptors localized in the gingiva and in the periodontal ligament.

  5. Talking "among us": how women from different racial-ethnic groups define and discuss menopause.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Heather; Byrnes, Mary; Miller, Sara; Rehan, Sonica

    2008-08-01

    Against a backdrop of scant literature on commonalities and differences among diverse groups of menopausal women within the United States, and little attempt by scholars in any country to study the ways in which both privilege and oppression can shape women's ideas and experiences of menopause, in this study, 61 menopausal women of varied racial-ethnic and class locations in a Midwestern state were asked about the different meanings and experiences of menopause. African American women and Chicanas, particularly working-class women, viewed menopause as a positive experience, whereas many middle-class European American women discussed more negative feelings. Women of color were more likely than European Americans to report talking about menopause with same-race, same-sex friends only. While women of color discussed their knowledge of European American women's menopause, the latter lacked knowledge of other women's experiences. Women's lived experiences with privilege and oppression also surfaced in the interviews. The authors argue that when scholars listen to how women discuss menopause experiences, commonalities among women by gender, and differences among women by race, and class are exposed. The presence of racial-ethnic differences in these pilot data suggests the importance of more comparative studies on reproductive aging both in the United States and abroad.

  6. The ALTERNATE trial: assessing a biomarker driven strategy for the treatment of post-menopausal women with ER+/Her2− invasive breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    Suman, Vera Jean; Ellis, Matthew J.; Ma, Cynthia X.

    2016-01-01

    The Alliance for Clinical Trials in Oncology cooperative group has designed a phase III neoadjuvant clinical trial (ALTERNATE trial) which randomizes women with cT2–4 N0-3 M0 ER+/Her2− invasive breast cancer to either anastrozole, fulvestrant or its combination to assess a biomarker-driven treatment strategy to identify women with a low risk of disease recurrence. This strategy incorporates the findings that: higher expression of the proliferation marker, Ki67, after 2 weeks of neoadjuvant endocrine therapy (ET), is associated with poor recurrence-free survival, and that patients with surgical findings of pT1/2, pN0 disease, Ki67 ≤2.7% and ER Allred score of 3–8 after neoadjuvant ET have extremely low recurrence rates. We present a description and rationale for the design of this trial. PMID:26408301

  7. Use of MR-based trabecular bone microstructure analysis at the distal radius for osteoporosis diagnostics: a study in post-menopausal women with breast cancer and treated with aromatase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Thomas; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Pencheva, Tsvetelina D.; Jungmann, Pia M.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Müller, Dirk; Bauer, Jan S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose Treatment with aromatase inhibitor (AI) is recommended for post-menopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, AI therapy is known to induce bone loss leading to osteoporosis with an increased risk for fragility fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes of magnetic resonance (MR)-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters as advanced imaging biomarker can already be detected in subjects with AI intake but still without evidence for osteoporosis according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements as current clinical gold standard. Methods Twenty-one postmenopausal women (62±6 years of age) with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer, ongoing treatment with aromatase inhibitor for 23±15 months, and no evidence for osteoporosis (current DXA T-score greater than −2.5) were recruited for this study. Eight young, healthy women (24±2 years of age) were included as controls. All subjects underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the distal radius to assess the trabecular bone microstructure. Results Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) different between subjects with AI intake and controls, including apparent bone fraction (0.42±0.03 vs. 0.42±0.05), trabecular number (1.95±0.10 mm−1 vs 1.89±0.15 mm−1), trabecular separation (0.30±0.03 mm vs 0.31±0.06 mm), trabecular thickness (0.21±0.01 mm vs 0.22±0.02 mm), and fractal dimension (1.70±0.02 vs. 1.70±0.03). Conclusion These findings suggest that the initial deterioration of trabecular bone microstructure as measured by MRI and BMD loss as measured by DXA occur not sequentially but rather simultaneously. Thus, the use of MR-based trabecular bone microstructure assessment is limited as early diagnostic biomarker in this clinical setting. PMID:27252740

  8. Effects of folic acid supplementation on serum homocysteine levels, lipid profiles, and vascular parameters in post-menopausal Korean women with type 2 diabetes mellitus

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Aswathy; Kim, Eun-kyung; Kim, Hyesook; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES Complications of diabetes, such as cardiovascular disease, are associated with increased mortality among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. Homocysteine has been recently identified as a predictor of cardiovascular disease-related complications in diabetes. We investigated whether or not supplementation with folic acid tablets can lower homocysteine levels and improve parameters related with vascular complications. SUBJECTS/METHODS We conducted a non-randomized 8-week trial involving postmenopausal diabetic women (n = 25) supplemented with 800 µg of folic acid (400 µg twice a day) daily. Subjects' serum levels of folate, homocysteine, and vitamin B12 were measured, along with vascular function and brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. RESULTS Folic acid supplementation significantly increased serum folate levels (P < 0.0001), reduced homocysteine levels (P < 0.0001), and increased vitamin B12 levels (P = 0.0063). There were significant decreases in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels as well as the ratios of low-density lipoprotein cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and total cholesterol to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Brachial-ankle pulse wave velocities were not altered by supplementation. Changes in serum vitamin B12 after folic acid supplementation were negatively correlated with changes in brachial-ankle pulse wave velocity. CONCLUSIONS In this study on postmenopausal Korean women with type 2 diabetes mellitus, folic acid supplementation reduced serum homocysteine levels, increased serum folate and vitamin B12 levels, and lowered lipid parameters. PMID:28765779

  9. Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

  10. Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

  11. Effect of selected socio-demographic, clinical and biochemical factors on self-reported quality of life among post-menopausal women with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Bączyk, Grażyna; Chuchracki, Marek; Opala, Tomasz

    2013-01-01

    The goal of health care with relation to women with osteoporosis is the prevention of fractures, maintenance of independence, and good quality of life. To discover how selected socio-demographic, clinical and biochemical factors affect positively or negatively the overall assessment of the quality of life, and to assess the quality of life in specific domains among women with osteoporosis. The study group covered 85 women with osteoporosis. Self-reported quality of life was evaluated using WHOQOL-100. In order to determine factors affecting the self-reported of quality of life the logistic regression analysis was applied. The physical domain was associated with decreased height (OR=2.13; 95%CI 1.04-4.35), anxiety (OR=1.30; 95%CI 1.14-1.49) and depression (OR=1.32; 95%CI 1.09-1.59). The psychological domain was associated with previous fractures (OR=4.76; 95%CI 2.22-11.11), deformities of the back (OR=2.13; 95%CI 1.08-4.17) and anxiety (OR=1.16; 95%CI 1.02-1.16). The level of independence and of social domain were associated with performance of occupational activity, respectively (OR=0.93; 95%CI 0.88-0.97) (OR=0.96; 95%CI 0.88-0.98). The social domain was associated with decreased height (OR=2.38; 95%CI 1.12-5.26), deformities of the back (OR=1.28; 95%CI 1.02-4.35), BMI (OR=1.14; 95%CI 1.05-1.23), anxiety (OR=1.41; 95%CI 1.20-1.64) and depression (OR=1.23; 95%CI 1.03-1.49). The factors determining poor quality of life were decreased height, deformity of the back, previous fractures, elevated FSH level, anxiety and depression. The factors determining a good self-reported quality of life were higher level of education and occupational activity.

  12. Correlations among inflammatory markers in plasma, saliva and oral mucosal transudate in post-menopausal women with past intimate partner violence.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Botran, Rafael; Miller, James J; Burns, Vicki E; Newton, Tamara L

    2011-02-01

    The relationship between psychosocial factors and an increased risk for disease has been related to a heightened pro-inflammatory status reflected in increased circulating levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and/or C-reactive protein (CRP). Routinely, epidemiological studies rely on measurements of inflammatory markers in serum or plasma, but the use of biological fluids such as saliva or oral mucosal transudate (OMT) may offer potential advantages. This study investigated correlations among plasma CRP and levels of IL-6 and soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6R) in plasma, saliva and OMT in a population of middle aged women with histories of past intimate partner violence (IPV). A total of 67 women without existing chronic diseases participated in the study, which included two visits each in which psychological tests were administered, and blood, saliva and OMT samples were collected. Although significantly higher plasma CRP levels were found in past IPV sufferers compared to controls, there were no significant differences in IL-6 or sIL-6R levels in plasma, saliva or OMT between the two groups. There were only relatively modest correlations between IL-6 levels in plasma and those in saliva or OMT and between plasma IL-6 and CRP levels. A significant correlation between IL-6 and sIL-6R levels in both saliva and OMT, but not in plasma, was also detected. No significant correlations were found between levels of IL-6 in saliva or OMT and periodontal health measures. Results indicate that IL-6 and sIL-6R levels in saliva or OMT do not closely reflect those in plasma, and therefore are not a good surrogate for systemic levels. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Homocysteine oxidative stress and relation to bone mineral density in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Yilmaz, Necat; Eren, Esin

    2009-01-01

    Mildly elevated homocysteine (Hcy) and oxidative stress are novel and potentially modifiable risk factors for post-menopausal osteoporosis. We hypothesized that imbalance of oxidant/ antioxidant status and increased Hcy concentration stimulates osteoporotic activity, leading to increased collagen I breakdown in post-menopausal women. Patients were divided into 2 groups (NOP and OP). Group NOP had normal bone mineral density (BMD) and group OP low BMD. Thirty-four (69%) were in group OP and 15 (31%) in group NOP. Serum Total Antioxidant Status (TAS) and Total Peroxide (TPx) levels were determined with new automated methods. The study included measurement of Deoxypyridinoline (DPD). In OP patients plasma t-Hcy, urine deoxypyridinoline and plasma TPx were significantly higher than those in NOP controls. In addition, OP patients also had lower TAS levels than controls, which represent the oxidative imbalance. Pearson's correlation analysis revealed a negative correlation between t-Hcy and TAS (p<0.038). A significant negative correlation was also found between TAS level and BMD values for the spine in OP patients (p<0.035). In contrast, a positive correlation between t-Hcy and TPx in OP patients was demonstrated significantly, r=0.52, p<0.029. We show that the OP group had reduced TAS, whereas the elevated TPx was different from that in the NOP group. Slightly elevated homocysteinemia may contribute to increasing TPx and reducing TAS in the OP group. However, our results suggest a weak but negative relationship between TAS and BMD. Further investigations are needed to examine the relationship of oxidative stress as an endogenous bioactive agent to bone loss in post-menopausal women. Since oxidative stress is the imbalance between total oxidants and antioxidants in the body, any single oxidant/ antioxidant parameter may not reflect overall oxidative stress. Further studies are needed to understand the underlying mechanisms of these findings.

  14. Lycium chinense Improves Post-Menopausal Obesity Via Regulation of PPAR-γ and Estrogen Receptor-α/β Expressions.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mi Hye; Kim, Eun-Jung; Choi, You Yeon; Hong, Jongki; Yang, Woong Mo

    2017-02-23

    The fruit of Lycium chinense Miller (Solanaceae) is used as a functional food and a medicinal herb for treating many specific health concerns. Weight gain induced by estrogen deficiency is a problem for post-menopausal women around the globe. The present study investigates the effects of aqueous extract of L. chinense (LC) on post-menopausal obesity. Female C57BL/6 mice were ovariectomized and fed on high-fat diet (HFD) for 12 weeks to induce post-menopausal obesity. LC extract (1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg) was orally administrated for 6 weeks with continuous HFD feeding. Ovarian adipose tissues and uterus were weighed. Serum triglyceride, cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol and fasting glucose levels were analyzed. The expressions of adipocyte-specific factors and estrogen receptors (ERs) were investigated. Additionally, lipid accumulation was confirmed in differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. Increased body weight due to post-menopausal obesity was ameliorated about 14.7% and 17.76% by treatment of 1[Formula: see text]mg/kg and 10[Formula: see text]mg/kg LC, respectively. LC treatment reduced both of serum lipid and fasting blood glucose levels. Adipocyte hypertrophy and fatty liver were ameliorated in LC-treated groups. In LC-treated adipocyte cells, lipid accumulation was significantly inhibited. The expression of perilipin in adipose tissues was decreased by LC. In addition, expression of PPAR-[Formula: see text] protein was down-regulated in adipose tissues and differentiated adipocytes, while GLUT4 expression was increased in adipose tissues by LC treatment. Moreover, LC treatment up-regulated the expressions of ER-[Formula: see text]/[Formula: see text] accompanied with increased uterine weight. These results showed the ameliorative effects of LC on overweight after menopause. Post-menopausal obesity may be improved by LC treatment.

  15. Effect of Feelings of Guilt and Shame on Life Quality of Women in Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Sohbet, Rabia

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Current study was conducted between September 2014 and January 2015 in Gaziantep proviency Şehitkamil town Şirinevler district. Purpose of the study is to measure changes experienced, point of view on menopause, and life style of women who are older than 40, living in said district, and within post-menopause and how these factors effected their feelings of guilt and shame. Methods Out of universe consisting of 800 women, 500 participants have joined the study. Data collected by personal information form, Guilt-Shame scales, and World Health Organization quality of life (WHOQOL-BREF) scales. SPSS 18 was used to conduct statistical analysis. Results Analysis indicated that 78.6% of the participants was not literate, 37.8% of the participants were was subjected to domestic violence. Fifty-five percent of the participants were found to see menopause as a predicament, 45.4% as a disease, and 56% as infertility. Results of scales are as follows; guilt factor 48.95 ± 0.37, shame factor 44.89 ± 0.27, body 10.64 ± 0.42, mental 10.96 ± 0.39, social 11.12 ± 0.49, environment 10.84 ± 0.37. Conclusions No significant correlation found between Guilt: body, mental, social, and environmental area (P < 0.05). It was found that there is a significant correlation between the thought that menopause is not a bad thing and the perceived guilt (P < 0.001). Results of analyses indicate that information about menopause significantly correlates between perceived guilt (P < 0.05). Current study found that as perceived shame and guild increases, the life quality of the sample decreases and the average life quality of the sample is below average. PMID:28523254

  16. It's not as bad as you think: menopausal representations are more positive in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Brown, Lydia; Brown, Valerie; Judd, Fiona; Bryant, Christina

    2017-09-22

    The menopausal transition is associated with underlying hormonal changes that can contribute to a range of physical and emotional symptoms. Psycho-social factors including attitudes and internal representations play a central role in women's experience of the menopause, but very little is known about how representations might differ across menopausal stages. A sample of 387 women aged 40-60 completed a postal questionnaire that included the menopausal representations questionnaire, the emotional representation subscale adapted from the illness perception questionnaire, and data on menopausal status. Significant differences across menopausal stages were found for both cognitive [F(2, 381) = 4.32, p < .05, η(2) = 0.022], and emotional [F(2, 381) = 9.70, p < .01, η(2) = 0.048] menopausal representations. Postmenopausal women had a significantly more positive cognitive representations of the menopause relative to perimenopausal women (standardised mean difference = 0.25, p > .05). Postmenopausal women held a significantly more positive emotional representation of the menopause than both premenopausal (standardised mean difference = 0.56, p < .05) and perimenopausal (standardised mean difference = 0.43, p < .05) women. Women's emotional and cognitive representations of the menopause are more positive among postmenopausal women, compared to women in the late premenopausal stage. This is consistent with the affective forecasting theory, which proposes the tendency to overestimate the intensity and duration of emotional reactions to future events. Given the association between representations and bothersomeness of menopausal symptoms, clinicians should educate women about their expectations, and challenge their negative beliefs about the menopause.

  17. Activity of Wedelia calendulacea Less. in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Annie, Shirwaikar; Prabhu, R G; Malini, S

    2006-01-01

    Wedelia calendulacea Less., a perennial herb containing isoflavanoids, is used in liver disorders, uterine hemorrhage and menorrhagia. Osteoporosis in women occurs mainly due to estrogen deficiency following menopause. Studies indicate that isoflavones are estrogenic enough to promote bone formation. Our study was aimed to investigate the antiosteoporotic effect of the ethanol extract of W. calendulacea in the ovariectomized rat model of osteoporosis, at two different dose levels of 500 and 750 mg/kg/body wt. day. The findings, assessed on the basis of biomechanical and biochemical parameters, showed that the ethanol extract of the plant had a definite protective effect. This was further supported by the histopathological studies. Phytochemical investigation revealed the presence of isoflavones and wedelolactone, which are known to act as phytoestrogens and may be responsible for the antiosteoporotic activity.

  18. Efficacy of Panoramic Radiography in the Detection of Osteoporosis in Post-Menopausal Women When Compared to Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry.

    PubMed

    Pallagatti, Shambulingappa; Parnami, Priyanka; Sheikh, Soheyl; Gupta, Deepak

    2017-01-01

    It is a well-known fact that osteoporosis affects the people with old age and remains unnoticeable until the patient presents with fracture. Various studies in the literature reveal that panoramic radiographs may prove to be beneficial in the detection of Osteoporosis in patients. Henceforth this present study was aimed to validate the use of Klemetti Index (KI) on panoramic radiographs so as to detect osteoporosis in the patients at an early stage. 60 postmenopausal women were selected. A panoramic radiograph was taken to grade their mandibular cortex on the basis of Klemetti Index. All the panoramic radiographs were evaluated by 5 different Oral Medicine and Radiology specialists. Later all the patients were subjected to dual energy X-ray absorptimetry (DEXA) scan for bone mineral density evaluation. The results were evaluated statistically. The average accuracy of the five observers to demonstrate normal bone, osteopenia and osteoporosis when compared to DEXA scan was 58.08%, 63.3% and 64.74% respectively. The observations of the 5 observers on the basis of KI were not statistically different from the BMD evaluation done with the help of DEXA Scan. Panoramic radiographs can be used as a screening tool for the evaluation as well as early detection of osteoporosis with the usage of Klemetti Index.

  19. A comparative study of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer: Risk factors, presentation, characteristics and management

    PubMed Central

    Surakasula, Aruna; Nagarjunapu, Govardhana Chary; Raghavaiah, K. V.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Breast cancer is the most common female cancer worldwide and is the second most commonly diagnosed cancer in Indian women. This study evaluates the differences between pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer women regarding risk factors, nature of disease presentation, tumor characteristics, and management. Methods: This is a prospective observational study, conducted in the Oncology Department of St. Ann's Cancer Hospital, for a period of 6 months from January to August 2012. Data on basic demography, clinical and pathological tumor profile, and treatment details were collected prospectively for each patient based on patient interviews and medical records. Findings: Among 100 female patients taken up for the study, 48 were premenopausal and 52 had reached menopause. The mean age of presentation for breast carcinoma was a decade earlier in these patients compared with western patients. The risk factors for both pre-and post-menopausal breast cancer were found similar other than late menopause in postmenopausal patients. Having dense breast tissue was a predominant risk factor among all women. Late presentation was the common phenomenon in almost all patients. The treatment given was not based on any standard guidelines due to inadequate public health policies. Conclusion: Late stage at presentation of breast cancer is the main problem and possesses a challenge to the health care community. In order to reduce the burden of breast cancer, a multi-sectorial approach and evidence-based strategies aiming at early detection and effective management of the disease are required. PMID:24991630

  20. Time-dependent effects of safflower oil to improve glycemia, inflammation and blood lipids in obese, post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes: a randomized, double-masked, crossover study.

    PubMed

    Asp, Michelle L; Collene, Angela L; Norris, Leigh E; Cole, Rachel M; Stout, Michael B; Tang, Szu-Yu; Hsu, Jason C; Belury, Martha A

    2011-08-01

    Metabolic effects of dietary fat quality in people with type 2 diabetes are not well-understood. The study objective was to evaluate effects of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) and safflower (SAF) oils on glycemia, blood lipids, and inflammation. The hypothesis we tested is that dietary oils improve glycemia, lipids, and inflammatory markers in a time-dependent way that follows accumulation of linoleic acid and CLA isomers in serum of subjects supplemented with dietary oils. Fifty-five post-menopausal, obese women with type 2 diabetes enrolled, and 35 completed this randomized, double-masked crossover study. Treatments were 8 g daily of CLA and SAF for 16 weeks each. We used a multiple testing procedure with pre-determined steps analysis to determine the earliest time that a significant effect was detected. CLA did not alter measured metabolic parameters. SAF decreased HbA1c (-0.64 ± 0.18%, p = 0.0007) and C-reactive protein (-13.6 ± 8.2 mg/L, p = 0.0472), increased QUICKI (0.0077 ± 0.0035, p = 0.0146) with a minimum time to effect observed 16 weeks after treatment. SAF increased HDL cholesterol (0.12 ± 0.05 mmol/L, p = 0.0228) with the minimum time to detect an effect of SAF at 12 weeks. The minimum time to detect an increase of c9t11-CLA, t10c12-CLA, and linoleic acid in serum of women supplemented CLA or SAF, respectively, was four weeks. We conclude that 8 g of SAF daily improved glycemia, inflammation, and blood lipids, indicating that small changes in dietary fat quality may augment diabetes treatments to improve risk factors for diabetes-related complications. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd and European Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism. All rights reserved.

  1. Increased vascular inflammation in early menopausal women is associated with hot flush severity.

    PubMed

    Bechlioulis, Aris; Naka, Katerina K; Kalantaridou, Sophia N; Kaponis, Apostolos; Papanikolaou, Odysseas; Vezyraki, Patra; Kolettis, Theofilos M; Vlahos, Antonis P; Gartzonika, Konstantina; Mavridis, Anestis; Michalis, Lampros K

    2012-05-01

    Menopause has been related to an increased atherosclerotic risk. Presence and severity of hot flushes in menopausal women have been associated with impaired endothelial function and advanced subclinical atherosclerosis. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of menopausal transition on vascular inflammation indices and investigate the association of hot flush severity with these indices in early menopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study that included 120 early menopausal women (age range 42-55 yr, <3 yr in menopause) recruited from the menopause outpatient clinic of an academic hospital and 24 age-matched premenopausal women (controls). Serum high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, P-selectin, and soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) levels were measured. P-selectin and sCD40L were increased in early menopausal compared with control women (P = 0.006 and P = 0.02 respectively), whereas high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels did not differ (P = 0.4) between the groups. Hot flush severity was the most important independent predictor of P-selectin levels (P = 0.011) in early menopausal women. Women with moderate/severe/very severe hot flushes had increased P-selectin compared with women with no/mild hot flushes or controls (P < 0.05 for both). The sCD40L levels were also higher in menopausal women with moderate/severe/very severe hot flushes compared with controls (P = 0.03) but did not differ significantly compared with women with no/mild hot flushes (P = 0.2). Increased indices of vascular inflammation in early menopausal compared with age-matched premenopausal women may indicate a higher atherosclerotic risk. Increased severity of hot flushes was associated with adverse changes in vascular inflammation, further supporting the emerging role of hot flushes in cardiovascular prognosis in these women.

  2. A prospective study of body size throughout the life-course and the incidence of endometrial cancer among pre- and post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Dougan, Marcelle M.; Hankinson, Susan E.; De Vivo, Immaculata; Tworoger, Shelley S.; Glynn, Robert J.; Michels, Karin B.

    2016-01-01

    Although adult obesity is known to increase endometrial cancer risk, evidence for childhood obesity is limited. We prospectively examined the association between body fatness throughout life and endometrial cancer risk. 47,289 members of the Nurses’ Health Study (NHS) and 105,386 of the Nurses’ Health Study II (NHS II) recalled their body fatness at ages 5, 10, and 20 using a pictogram. Childhood and adolescent body fatness were derived as the average at ages 5 and 10, and ages 10 and 20, respectively. We obtained adult weight from concurrent questionnaires. We calculated hazard ratios (HR) of endometrial cancer using Cox proportional hazards models. During follow-up, 757 incident cases of endometrial cancer were diagnosed. Body fatness in childhood, at age 10, in adolescence, and at age 20 were positively associated with endometrial cancer risk (HR for ≥ Level 5 versus ≤ Level 2 in adolescence: 1.83 (95% CI 1.41-2.37). After adjusting for most recent BMI, none of the associations persisted. Weight change since age 18 was positively associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR for ≥ 25 kg gain versus stable: 2.54 (95% CI 1.80-3.59). Adult BMI was strongly associated with endometrial cancer risk [HR BMI ≥ 35 kg/m2 versus BMI ≤ 25 kg/m2: 4.13 (95% CI 3.29-5.16)]. In postmenopausal women, the association with BMI was significantly stronger among non-users of hormone therapy. In conclusion, obesity throughout life is positively associated with endometrial cancer risk, with adult obesity one of the strongest risk factors. Maintaining a healthy weight throughout life remains important. PMID:25641700

  3. A comparison of DXA and CT based methods for estimating the strength of the femoral neck in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Danielson, Michelle E.; Beck, Thomas J.; Karlamangla, Arun S.; Greendale, Gail A.; Atkinson, Elizabeth J.; Lian, Yinjuan; Khaled, Alia S.; Keaveny, Tony M.; Kopperdahl, David; Ruppert, Kristine; Greenspan, Susan; Vuga, Marike; Cauley, Jane A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Simple 2-dimensional (2D) analyses of bone strength can be done with dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) data and applied to large data sets. We compared 2D analyses to 3-dimensional (3D) finite element analyses (FEA) based on quantitative computed tomography (QCT) data. Methods 213 women participating in the Study of Women’s Health across the Nation (SWAN) received hip DXA and QCT scans. DXA BMD and femoral neck diameter and axis length were used to estimate geometry for composite bending (BSI) and compressive strength (CSI) indices. These and comparable indices computed by Hip Structure Analysis (HSA) on the same DXA data were compared to indices using QCT geometry. Simple 2D engineering simulations of a fall impacting on the greater trochanter were generated using HSA and QCT femoral neck geometry; these estimates were benchmarked to a 3D FEA of fall impact. Results DXA-derived CSI and BSI computed from BMD and by HSA correlated well with each other (R= 0.92 and 0.70) and with QCT-derived indices (R= 0.83–0.85 and 0.65–0.72). The 2D strength estimate using HSA geometry correlated well with that from QCT (R=0.76) and with the 3D FEA estimate (R=0.56). Conclusions Femoral neck geometry computed by HSA from DXA data corresponds well enough to that from QCT for an analysis of load stress in the larger SWAN data set. Geometry derived from BMD data performed nearly as well. Proximal femur breaking strength estimated from 2D DXA data is not as well correlated with that derived by a 3D FEA using QCT data. PMID:22810918

  4. Menopause and colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Franceschi, S; Gallus, S; Talamini, R; Tavani, A; Negri, E; Vecchia, C La

    2000-01-01

    Post-menopausal women who have never used hormone replacement therapy have a higher risk of colon, but not rectal, cancer than do premenopausal women of the same age, socio-cultural class and dietary habits. Such risk increase seems to last about 10 years and to be restricted to lean women, a group who have lower levels of oestradiol after ovarian function ceases after menopause. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10839302

  5. Zoledronic acid has differential anti-tumour activity in the pre-and post-menopausal bone microenvironment in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Ottewell, Penelope D; Wang, Ning; Brown, Hannah K; Reeves, Kimberly J; Fowles, C Anne; Croucher, Peter I; Eaton, Colby L; Holen, Ingunn

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Clinical trials in early breast cancer have suggested that benefits of adjuvant bone targeted treatments are restricted to women with established menopause. We developed models that mimic pre- and post-menopausal status to investigate effects of altered bone turnover on growth of disseminated breast tumour cells. Here we report a differential anti-tumour effect of zoledronic acid (ZOL) in these two settings. Experimental design 12-week old female Balb/c-nude mice with disseminated MDA-MB-231 breast tumour cells in bone underwent sham operation or ovariectomy (OVX), mimicking the pre- and post-menopausal bone microenvironment, respectively. To determine the effects of bone-targeted therapy, sham/OVX animals received saline or 100ug/kg ZOL weekly. Tumour growth was assessed by in vivo imaging and effects on bone by RT-PCR, microCT, histomorphometry and measurements of bone markers. Disseminated tumour cells were detected by two-photon microscopy. Results OVX increased bone resorption and induced growth of disseminated tumour cells in bone. Tumours were detected in 83% of animals following OVX (post-menopausal model) compared to 17% following sham operation (pre-menopausal model). OVX had no effect on tumours outside of bone. OVX-induced tumour growth was completely prevented by ZOL, despite the presence of disseminated tumour cells. ZOL did not affect tumour growth in bone in the sham-operated animals. ZOL increased bone volume in both groups. Conclusions This is the first demonstration that tumour growth is driven by osteoclast-mediated mechanisms in models that mimic post-but not pre-menopausal bone, providing a biological rationale for the differential anti-tumour effects of ZOL reported in these settings. PMID:24687923

  6. Effectiveness of coaching for enhancing the health of menopausal Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Kaoru

    2017-01-01

    We conducted and evaluated a coaching intervention aimed at encouraging menopausal women's engagement in goal-oriented actions, self-efficacy enhancement, menopausal symptom alleviation, and quality of life improvement. The study was a randomized controlled trial comprising women aged 40-60 who were not receiving hormone therapy. The intervention group received leaflets and three monthly coaching sessions. Instruments included the Simplified Menopausal Index, Medical Outcome Study 36-Item Short Form Health Survey, and goal achievement scale. Participants were measured preintervention, immediately postintervention, and three months postintervention. A 3-month coaching intervention to enhance menopausal women's health increased their self-efficacy. This effect was not maintained 3 months postintervention.

  7. Pharmacologic Therapies in Women's Health: Contraception and Menopause Treatment.

    PubMed

    Allen, Caitlin; Evans, Ginger; Sutton, Eliza L

    2016-07-01

    Female hormones play a significant role in the etiology and treatment of many women's health conditions. This article focuses on the common uses of hormonal therapy. When prescribing estrogen-containing regimens throughout the span of a woman's life, the risks are similar (ie, cardiovascular risk and venous thromboembolism), but the degree of risk varies significantly depending on a woman's particular set of risk factors and the details of the hormone regimen. In addition to estrogens and progestogens, this article also touches on the use of selective steroid receptor modulators in emergency contraception and in treatment of menopause symptoms.

  8. ID4 gene polymorphism and osteoporosis in Thai menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Chupeerach, Chaowanee; Kulanuwat, Sirikul; Chuenta, Wanida; Wannaiampikul, Sivaporn; Schuh, Vanessa Anne; Preutthipan, Sangchai; Tungtrongchitr, Rungsunn

    2014-10-01

    The inhibitor of DNA binding 4 (ID4) protein regulates osteogenic and adipogenic cell fate and lack of lD4 gene expression decreased osteoblast differentiation. Variant in the ID4 gene polymorphism has not been reported with osteoporosis. To identify whether ID4 can be a marker gene for osteoporosis in Thai menopausal women. The 3 'UTR of lD4 (rs3798339) single nucleotide polymorphism was examined bypolymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method (PCR-RFLP), together with lumbar spine bone mineral density (BAMD) in 160 Thai menopausal women. Lumbar spine 3 (L3) had a significantly lower BMD score in women with the TT genotype, compared with the CT+CC genotypes (p = 0.037). This disappeared after the adjustment of various factors. The polymorphism at 3'UTR of lD4 gene can alter ID4 mRNA stability, and may be linked to the function of proteins. However, this needs confirmation in larger populations. The present study is useful as an initial investigation into ID4 gene polymorphism in osteoporosis.

  9. Influence of Menopausal Status on the Symptom Experience of Women Before Breast Cancer Surgery.

    PubMed

    Mazor, Melissa; Cataldo, Janine K; Lee, Kathryn; Dhruva, Anand; Paul, Steven M; Smoot, Betty J; Dunn, Laura B; Levine, Jon D; Mastick, Judy; Conley, Yvette P; Miaskowski, Christine

    2017-09-23

    Breast cancer treatments can change women's hormonal milieu and alter their symptom experience. Little is known about associations between menopausal status and menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer before surgery. The purpose of this study was to evaluate for differences in occurrence, severity, and distress of symptoms between premenopausal and postmenopausal women before breast cancer surgery. A total of 312 women with breast cancer completed the Menopausal Symptoms Scale, a self-report measure that evaluated the occurrence, severity, and distress of 46 common symptoms associated with menopause. Regression analyses were used to evaluate for between-group differences in these symptoms. Of the 312 patients enrolled, 37.4% (n = 116) were premenopausal, and 62.6% (n = 196) were postmenopausal. In the multivariate analysis that adjusted for 7 covariates, premenopausal patients reported higher occurrence rates for urinary frequency (P = .006) and reported lower occurrence rates for joint pain/stiffness (P = .011), difficulty falling asleep (P = .025), and vaginal dryness (P = .002). A significant interaction was found between age and menopausal status for hot flashes (P = .002), wake during the night (P = .025), and headache (P = .040). Regardless of menopausal status, women reported high occurrence rates for several menopausal symptoms. Associations between some symptom occurrence rates and menopausal status depended on the patients' age. As part of a preoperative symptom assessment, clinicians need to consider a woman's menopausal status and salient demographic and clinical characteristics. The identification of women with a higher symptom burden will assist with more effective management.

  10. Why is cardiovascular health important in menopausal women?

    PubMed

    Simon, T

    2006-09-01

    Since endogenous estrogen shows some preventative benefits against cardiovascular risk factors in premenopausal women, cardiovascular disease (CVD) is often considered a male disease. However, CVD is the biggest cause of death in women, especially after menopause when endogenous estrogen withdrawal has detrimental effects on cardiovascular physiology and whole-body metabolism. Despite this, awareness of the risk of CVD is low in both women and in doctors; this needs rectifying. Women are under-represented in most clinical studies of CVD. Following diagnosis of CVD, the prognosis for women is not systematically similar to that for men. Furthermore, from the few comparisons conducted, gender differences in response to pharmacological interventions are evident, so that results obtained in wholly or largely male-based studies cannot be systematically extrapolated to women. Women with CVD should be afforded equivalent investigations and treatment to men, and it is vital that women be included in clinical trials in sufficient numbers to allow sub-group analyses and subsequent development of appropriate therapies. Since CVD is usually advanced by the time symptoms appear, prevention is the key; health management advice might include smoking cessation, adoption of a healthy diet, and incorporation of physical activity into the lifestyle.

  11. Midlife Women and Menopause: A Challenge for the Mental Health Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed women (n=99) aged 35 to 55 about their medical histories, current menstrual events and symptomatology, and perceptions and experiences with menopause. Discovered menopausal women reported their needs were not being met because clinicians lacked sufficient understanding and because of shortage of information resources. Mental health…

  12. Midlife Women and Menopause: A Challenge for the Mental Health Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed women (n=99) aged 35 to 55 about their medical histories, current menstrual events and symptomatology, and perceptions and experiences with menopause. Discovered menopausal women reported their needs were not being met because clinicians lacked sufficient understanding and because of shortage of information resources. Mental health…

  13. Chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Heather F; Northington, Gina M; Kaye, Elise M; Bogner, Hillary R

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the association between chronic medical conditions and reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause among community-dwelling women. Age at menopause was assessed in a population-based longitudinal survey of 240 women twice, in 1993 and 2004. Women who recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (concordant) were compared with women who did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year of age at menopause recalled in 1993 (discordant). Type of menopause (surgical or natural) and chronic medical conditions were assessed by self-report. One hundred forty-three women (59.6%) reported surgical menopause, and 97 (40.4%) reported natural menopause. In all, 130 (54.2%) women recalled age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994, whereas 110 (45.8%) women did not recall age at menopause in 2004 within 1 year or less of recalled age at menopause in 1994. Among the women with surgical menopause, the women with three or more medical conditions were less likely to have concordant recall of age at menopause than the women with less than three chronic medical conditions (adjusted odds ratio, 0.36; 95% CI, 0.15-0.91) in multivariate models controlling for potentially influential characteristics including cognition and years since menopause. Among women who underwent surgical menopause, the presence of three or more medical conditions is associated with decreased reproducibility of self-reported age at menopause.

  14. Phthalate metabolite levels and menopausal hot flashes in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Gallicchio, Lisa; Chiang, Catheryne; Ther, Sara N; Miller, Susan R; Zacur, Howard A; Dills, Russell L; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-04-01

    During the menopausal transition, a woman's reproductive capacity declines, her hormone milieu changes, and her risk of hot flashes increases. Exposure to phthalates, which can be found in personal care products, can also result in altered reproductive function. Here, we investigated the associations between phthalate metabolite levels and midlife hot flashes. Eligible women (45-54 years of age) provided detailed information on hot flashes history and donated urine samples (n=195). Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. A higher total sum of phthalate metabolites commonly found in personal care products was associated with an increased risk of ever experiencing hot flashes (odds ratio (OR)=1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-1.96), hot flashes in the past 30days (OR=1.43; 95%CI=1.04-1.96), and more frequent hot flashes (OR=1.47; 95%CI=1.06-2.05). These data suggest that some phthalate exposures from personal care products are associated with menopausal hot flashes in women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Phthalate metabolite levels and menopausal hot flashes in midlife women

    PubMed Central

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Gallicchio, Lisa; Chiang, Catheryne; Ther, Sara N.; Miller, Susan R.; Zacur, Howard A.; Dills, Russell L.; Flaws, Jodi A.

    2016-01-01

    During the menopausal transition, a woman’s reproductive capacity declines, her hormone milieu changes, and her risk of hot flashes increases. Exposure to phthalates, which can be found in personal-care products, can also result in altered reproductive function. Here, we investigated the associations between phthalate metabolite levels and midlife hot flashes. Eligible women (45–54 years of age) provided detailed information on hot flashes history and donated urine samples (n=195). Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. A higher total sum of phthalate metabolites commonly found in personal-care products was associated with an increased risk of ever experiencing hot flashes (odds ratio (OR)=1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI)= 1.07–1.96), hot flashes in the past 30 days (OR=1.43; 95%CI=1.04–1.96), and more frequent hot flashes (OR=1.47; 95%CI=1.06–2.05). These data suggest that some phthalate exposures from personal care products are associated with menopausal hot flashes in women. PMID:26867866

  16. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  17. Attitude toward menopause and aging: a study on postmenopausal women of West Bengal.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Doyel; Ray, Subha

    2013-01-01

    We examined the attitude of postmenopausal women toward menopause and aging with respect to sociodemographic variables and postmenopausal years. Four hundred and eighty postmenopausal women representing Bengali-speaking Hindu ethnic group of West Bengal, India were interviewed about their attitude toward menopause and aging. Information on sociodemographic and reproductive characteristics and menopausal symptoms were also collected. The participants were categorized into four groups based on postmenopausal years (Group 1: ≤2; Group 2: >2 to ≤5; Group 3: >5 to ≤8; and Group 4: >8). The attitude did not differ significantly among different groups, but it differed significantly when compared for residential status and per capita monthly household expenditure (pooled groups), for residential and educational status (Groups 3 and 4), and per capita monthly household expenditure (Group 3). Hierarchical linear regression (stepwise) shows per capita monthly expenditure, age at menopause, years after menopause, and menopausal symptoms (irritability and inability to hold urine) significantly predict attitude.

  18. From menarche to menopause: the fertile life span of celiac women.

    PubMed

    Santonicola, Antonella; Iovino, Paola; Cappello, Carmelina; Capone, Pietro; Andreozzi, Paolo; Ciacci, Carolina

    2011-10-01

    We evaluated menopause-associated disorders and fertile life span in women with celiac disease (CD) under untreated conditions and after long-term treatment with a gluten-free diet. The participants were 33 women with CD after menopause (untreated CD group), 25 celiac women consuming a gluten-free diet at least 10 years before menopause (treated CD group), and 45 healthy volunteers (control group). The Menopause Rating Scale questionnaire was used to gather information on menopause-associated disorders. The International Physical Activity Questionnaire was used to acquire information on physical activity. Untreated celiac women had a shorter duration of fertile life span than did the control women because of an older age of menarche and a younger age of menopause (P < 0.01). The scores for hot flushes, muscle/joint problems, and irritability were higher in untreated celiac women than in the control women (higher by 49.4%, 121.4%, and 58.6%, respectively; P < 0.05). In comparison with untreated CD, long-lasting treatment of CD was not associated with a significant difference in the duration of fertile life span, but was only associated with a significant reduction in muscle/joint problems (a reduction of 47.1%; P < 0.05). Late menarche and early menopause causes a shorter fertile period in untreated celiac women compared with control women. A gluten-free diet that started at least 10 years before menopause prolongs the fertile life span of celiac women. The perception of intensity of hot flushes and irritability is more severe in untreated celiac women than in controls. Low physical exercise and/or poorer quality of life frequently reported by untreated celiac women might be the cause of reduced discomfort tolerance, thus increasing the subjective perception of menopausal symptoms.

  19. Sleep and the menopause - do postmenopausal women experience worse sleep than premenopausal women?

    PubMed

    Kalleinen, Nea; Polo-Kantola, Päivi; Himanen, Sari-Leena; Alhola, Paula; Joutsen, Atte; Urrila, Anna S; Polo, Olli

    2008-09-01

    To examine the sleep characteristics in three cross-sectional populations: young, premenopausal and postmenopausal women, and the associations between sleep, menopause, mood and cognitive performance. Twenty-one premenopausal (45-51 years), 29 postmenopausal (59-71 years) and 11 young (20-26 years, using oral contraceptives) women were recruited. Polysomnography was used to measure objective sleep quality. Subjective sleep quality, sleepiness and mood were assessed using questionnaires. Cognitive performance was investigated by means of three attentional tests. Total sleep time in pre- and postmenopausal women was similar (404.9 and 384.7 minutes), but shorter than in young women (448.2 minutes, P = 0.030 and <0.003, respectively). Sleep efficiency followed the same pattern, being 84.3% in premenopausal (P = 0.027), 80.2% in postmenopausal (P < 0.003) and 93.4% in young women. Pre- and postmenopausal women had less slow wave sleep (duration or activity) and more wake time after sleep onset (duration or frequency). Insomnia complaints were more frequent after the menopause (P = 0.023). Sleepiness and mood scores were similar in all groups. Reaction speeds slowed with increasing age. After the menopause, better cognitive performance was associated with more rapid eye movement sleep. Objective sleep measures differed significantly between the young and postmenopausal groups. These differences may be more because of the physiology of ageing than the rapid changes across the menopause, since similar sleep characteristics were already present in the premenopausal women. The increase in sleep complaints after menopause was not associated with sleepiness or disturbances in objective sleep quality, mood or cognitive performance.

  20. A review of the cost effectiveness of bisphosphonates in the treatment of post-menopausal osteoporosis in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Lippuner, Kurt; Pollock, Richard F; Smith-Palmer, Jayne; Meury, Thomas; Valentine, William J

    2011-11-01

    The economic burden associated with osteoporosis is considerable. As such, cost-effectiveness analyses are important contributors to the diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making process. The aim of this study was to review the cost effectiveness of treating post-menopausal osteoporosis with bisphosphonates and identify the key factors that influence the cost effectiveness of such treatment in the Swiss setting. A systematic search of databases (MEDLINE, EMBASE and the Cochrane Library) was conducted to identify published literature on the cost effectiveness of bisphosphonates in post-menopausal osteoporosis in the Swiss setting. Outcomes were compared with similar studies in Western European countries. Three cost-effectiveness studies of bisphosphonates in this patient population were identified; all were from a healthcare payer perspective. Outcomes showed that, relative to no treatment, treatment with oral bisphosphonates was predicted to be cost saving for most women aged ≥70 years with osteoporosis or at least one risk factor for fracture, and cost effective for women aged ≥75 years without prior fracture when used as a component of a population-based screen-and-treat programme. Results were most sensitive to changes in fracture risk, cost of fractures, cost of treatment, nursing home admissions and adherence with treatment. Swiss results were generally comparable to those in other European settings. Assuming similar clinical efficacy, lowering treatment cost (through the use of price-reduced brand-name or generic drugs) and/or improving adherence should both contribute to further improving the cost effectiveness of bisphosphonates in women with post-menopausal osteoporosis. Published evidence indicates that bisphosphonates are estimated to be similarly cost effective or cost saving in most treatment scenarios of post-menopausal osteoporosis in Switzerland and in neighbouring European countries.

  1. A feminist analysis of the menopause discourse.

    PubMed

    Loppie, Charlotte; Keddy, Barbara

    2002-02-01

    Menopause has been viewed as a medical condition which needs to be treated. The discourse surrounding the process reflects a positivist paradigm without acknowledgement of the lived experiences of women who have been given conflicitng information. In this paper we write about the dilemmas faced by peri menopausal, menopausal and post menopausal women as they grapple with the issues that focus on 'symptoms', rather than a natural phenomenon. We point out that the 'science' of menopause is class, race and gender biased as we present a feminist analysis of the concerns facing mid life women.

  2. Menopausal attitudes, objectified body consciousness, aging anxiety, and body esteem: European American women's body experiences in midlife.

    PubMed

    McKinley, Nita Mary; Lyon, Louise Ann

    2008-12-01

    Seventy-four European American women aged 50-68 years completed surveys of menopausal attitudes, appearance aging anxiety, body esteem, body surveillance, and body shame. Hypotheses based on the connections between cultural constructions of femininity and menopause were partially supported. Menopausal attitudes and appearance-related aging anxiety were related to body surveillance. Appearance-related menopausal attitudes were related to both body surveillance and body esteem. Body shame moderated the relationship between appearance-related menopausal attitudes and body esteem.

  3. Menopause and the influence of culture: another gap for Indigenous Australian women?

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background There is great variation in experience of menopause in women around the world. The purpose of this study was to review current understanding of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander (Indigenous) women’s experiences of menopause. The literature pertaining to the perception, significance and experience of menopause from a number of cultural groups around the world has been included to provide context for why Indigenous women’s experience might be important for their health and differ from that reported in other studies of Australian women and menopause. Methods A search of databases including Ovid Medline, Pubmed, Web of Science, AUSThealth, AMED, EMBASE, Global Health and PsychINFO was undertaken from January 2011 to April 2011 using the search terms menopause, Indigenous, Aboriginal, attitudes, and perceptions and repeated in September 2012. Results Considerable research shows significant variation across cultures in the menopausal experience. Biological, psychological, social and cultural factors are associated with either positive or negative attitudes, perceptions or experiences of menopause in various cultures. Comparative international literature shows that neither biological nor social factors alone are sufficient to explain the variation in experiences of the menopausal transition. However, a strong influence of culture on the menopause experience can be found. The variation in women’s experience of menopause indicates that different cultural groups of women may have different understandings and needs during the menopausal transition. While considerable literature exists for Australian women as a whole, there has been little investigation of Australian Indigenous women, with only two research studies related to Indigenous women’s experiences of menopause identified. Conclusions Differences in biocultural experience of menopause around the world suggest the importance of biocultural research. For the Indigenous women of Australia

  4. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  5. "Why can't you control this?" How women's interactions with intimate partners define menopause and family.

    PubMed

    Dillaway, Heather E

    2008-01-01

    In this article I explore women's discussions of the interactions that families have about menopause and, thus, attempt to broaden feminist knowledge of women's experiences of menopause within families. Data on which this article is based were collected in 61 in-depth interviews with menopausal women in a midwest state in 2001. Findings suggest that biomedical definitions of menopause are often reaffirmed within interactions between intimate partners. Thus, women reported negative familial interactions about menopause, as they were encouraged to define symptoms as problematic and seek medical treatment. Alternatively, some interviewees reported positive interactions about menopause, as a few partners helped them soothe symptoms and follow health regimens. Women interpreted these latter interactions as support or care, rather than surveillance or monitoring. The author concludes that familial interactions bolster dominant constructions of both menopause and family because, as menopause is discussed between intimate partners, definitions of gendered familial roles and responsibilities are cemented.

  6. Bone mineral density and perceived menopausal symptoms: factors influencing low back pain in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Ahn, Sukhee; Song, Rhayun

    2009-06-01

    This paper is a report of a study of the relationships between the factors influencing low back pain in postmenopausal women (i.e. menopausal symptoms, bone mineral density, duration of menopause, hormonal therapy, obesity, inactivity during leisure time, parity, osteoarthritis and drinking coffee). Previous studies have shown that low back pain in postmenopausal women is associated with bone mineral density, menopausal symptoms and lifestyle factors, yet the factors influencing low back pain are not clear and vary with ethnicity. A survey was conducted with postmenopausal women (n = 134) in Korea in 2006. Bone mineral density in the lumbar spine, back pain status, menopausal symptoms and health habits were assessed. Participants' mean age was 59 years. About 70% experienced back pain on more than 1 day during the week prior to the survey and 35% suffered back pain daily. Women with back pain reported more severe menopausal symptoms than those without back pain. Based on bone mineral density scores, 26.9% of the women were considered to be at risk of osteoporosis. However, there was no association between back pain status and fracture risk status. Based on a multiple logistic regression model, menopausal symptoms, drinking coffee and inactivity during leisure time were statistically significant influencing factors for low back pain in this sample. The prevalence of low back pain in postmenopausal women should be recognized in association with menopausal symptoms and health habits. Further research is needed to develop interventions for the management of low back pain in postmenopausal women.

  7. Abdominal fat distribution in pre- and postmenopausal women: The impact of physical activity, age, and menopausal status.

    PubMed

    Kanaley, J A; Sames, C; Swisher, L; Swick, A G; Ploutz-Snyder, L L; Steppan, C M; Sagendorf, K S; Feiglin, D; Jaynes, E B; Meyer, R A; Weinstock, R S

    2001-08-01

    Age-related increases in total body fat have been reported, but the impact of menopause on abdominal fat distribution is still unclear. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of menopausal status on abdominal fat distribution using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, we investigated the influence of abdominal fat distribution on blood lipid profiles and leptin concentrations. Twenty-three premenopausal (PRE), 27 postmenopausal (POST), and 28 postmenopausal women on estrogen replacement therapy (ERT) had measurements of regional abdominal fat, blood lipids, and serum leptin concentrations. The women were matched for body mass index (BMI) and total body fat mass. Age and menopausal status were not found to be significant predictors of total abdominal fat, visceral fat, or subcutaneous fat, while physical activity was a significant predictor (P <.01) for total abdominal fat (R(2) =.16), visceral fat (R(2) =.32) and percent visceral fat (R(2) =.25). There was a trend for a greater visceral fat content in the POST women compared with the PRE women (2,495.0 +/- 228.4 v 1,770.4 +/- 240.8 cm(2), respectively, P =.06). The percent visceral abdominal fat was significantly lower (P <.05) in the premenopausal women than in either postmenopausal group (PRE, 23.2% +/- 1.7%; POST, 28.9% +/- 1.8%; ERT, 28.9% +/- 1.6%). Menopausal status and age did not influence any of the blood lipid values. Abdominal fat distribution was a significant predictor of cholesterol concentrations and the cholesterol/high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C) ratio, but only accounted for approximately 15% of the variability in these levels. Total body fat and physical activity accounted for 47% of the variability in leptin concentrations, while abdominal fat distribution, age, and menopausal status were not significant predictors. In conclusion, in early postmenopausal women, the level of physical activity accounts for the variability in abdominal fat distribution observed

  8. [Profits of post-menopausal ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy for benign disease: mirage or reality?].

    PubMed

    Ouldamer, L; Marret, H; Jacquet, A; Denakpo, J; Body, G

    2013-04-01

    This study aimed to summarize the existing literature on the benefice-risk balance for ovarian conservation at the time of hysterectomy for benign disease in post menopausal women not at high risk for ovarian cancer. We searched the published English and French literature using search engines from PUBMED, Medline for studies related to outcomes following hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy for benign disease and risk-reducing surgery for ovarian cancer. There are in the literature arguments to support systematic bilateral oophorectomy in post menopausal women not at high risk for ovarian cancer (prevention of ovarian cancer, ovarian benign disease and chronic pelvic pain due to postoperative ovarian adhesions). There are also arguments against postmenopausal oophorectomy (effect on endocrine function, bone density, cardiovascular disease and increased mortality). Before the age of 65, there is no formal argument allowing to recommend an attitude rather than another. On the other hand, beyond the age of 65 years, the literature is clear and a bilateral salpingooophorectomy is recommended. Before the age of 65 years, benefits and relative risks of bilateral oophorectomy at the time of hysterectomy for benign disease even in post menopausal patients should be considered on an individual basis by clinicians and patients. Beyond the age of 65 years, the literature is clear and a bilateral salpingooophorectomy is recommended. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women…

  10. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women…

  11. [Effects on health of soy in menopausic women].

    PubMed

    de Luis, D A; Aller, R; Sagrado, J

    2006-04-01

    Phystestrogens are organic compounds produced by a large variety of plants with protective function against the invasion of them by microorganisms. Phystestrogens, and among them isoflavones, have a great similarity with estradiol, principal endogenous estrogen. Those known most for their estrogenic activity are daidzeine and genisteine. Due to the existence of contradictory data on the effects of soy isoflavones on the most outstanding health disorders of menopause such as osteoporosis and hot flushes, and its ineffective role in the improvement of the lipid profile, it is recommendable to continue choosing hygienic-dietary and conventional drug treatments. However, we could introduce soy and soy derived products within a balanced, varied and adequate diet for these women.

  12. Predictors of Breast Discomfort among Women Initiating Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Carolyn J.; Markovic, Daniela; Huang, Mei-Hua; Greendale, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the determinants of breast discomfort among postmenopausal women initiating menopausal hormone therapy (HT). Methods We analyzed questionnaire, anthropometric, and serum estrone data from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Trial (PEPI), a randomized trial comparing placebo, conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) alone, or CEE with a progestogen (continuous or cyclical medroxyprogesterone acetate or cyclical micronized progesterone) among postmenopausal women. HT users could join PEPI after stopping HT for 2 months. We modeled the relation between smoking, body weight, alcohol consumption, age, quitting HT to join PEPI, physical activity and alpha-tocopherol consumption and new-onset breast discomfort at 12-month follow-up among 662 participants without baseline breast discomfort. Results The associations of new-onset breast discomfort with weight and with strenuous exercise varied by treatment assignment. Among women assigned to CEE + progestogen, strenuous exercise was associated with a 49% lower odds of new-onset breast discomfort (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29–0.89, P = 0.02), whereas among women assigned to placebo or CEE alone, strenuous exercise was not significantly associated with new-onset breast discomfort. Surprisingly, among women taking CEE alone, each kilogram higher weight was associated with 6% lower odds of new-onset breast discomfort (P=0.04), whereas among women taking placebo, the association was in the opposite direction (P=0.04). Adjustment for estrone level had neglible effects on odds ratios. Alpha-tocopherol intake, age, smoking, and alcohol intake were not significantly associated with new-onset breast discomfort in adjusted analyses. Conclusion Strenuous exercise and higher body weight may decrease the odds of new-onset breast discomfort among postmenopausal women initiating HT. PMID:20009961

  13. Spirituality and severity of menopausal symptoms in a sample of religious women.

    PubMed

    Steffen, Patrick R; Soto, Marilyn

    2011-09-01

    Menopause represents an important life change, particularly for religious women whose identity is significantly related to family. Two competing hypotheses are examined: one, because religious women have their identity focused on family and child rearing, spirituality will be related to increased menopausal symptoms because menopause represents a loss of identity and purpose; and two, because spirituality can provide strength and comfort during difficult times, it will, therefore, be related to decreased menopausal symptoms. To test these competing hypotheses, questionnaires were administered to 218 women (average age 55, 35% premenopausal, 26% peri-menopausal, 39% postmenopausal) who were members of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. Regression analyses indicated that higher levels of spiritual strength were related to decreased levels of reported menopausal symptoms. Spiritual strength was also related to increased benefit finding during menopause, decreased concern with body appearance, and increased use of adaptive coping strategies. We conclude that finding strength in spirituality may help religious women cope better with the life changes associated with menopause.

  14. Age at menopause, reproductive history, and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women: the Women's Health Initiative Hormone Therapy clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O'Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, Joann E

    2014-03-01

    This study aims to investigate venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized hormone therapy (HT) assignment, among postmenopausal women. Using pooled data from the Women's Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women aged 50 to 79 years who had no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy, and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazards models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships, and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. During follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 non-procedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected, and there was not a significant association between VTE and age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy, or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to non-procedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (P < 0.01). Compared with women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those who had early menopause (age <40 y) or late menopause (age >55 y) had a significantly increased VTE risk (hazard ratio [95% CI]: 1.8 [1.2-2.7] and 1.5 [1.0-2.4], respectively). Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for non-procedure-related VTE.

  15. Assessment of menopausal symptoms among women attending various outreach clinics in South Canara District of India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nitin; Nagaraj, Kondagunta; Saralaya, Vittal; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rao, PP Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopausal symptoms experienced by women are known to affect their quality-of-life. The symptoms experienced at menopause are quite variable and their etiology is found to be multifactorial. This study was hence done to assess the pattern and severity of menopausal symptoms and to find out the factors associated with these symptoms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in various outreach clinics of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Women in the age group of 40-65 years were included in the study by convenient sampling method. Data regarding menopausal symptom was obtained by interviewing each participant using the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the participants were 54.2 ± 7.2 years and mean age of attainment of menopause was 48.4 ± 4.5 years. Mean duration of menopause was found to be 7.5 ± 5.3 years. Commonest symptom reported was joint and muscular discomfort and physical and mental exhaustion seen in 94 (85.4%) participants. The mean number of symptoms reported by participants was 7.6 ± 2.8. Educated women reported significantly more symptoms (F = 2.218, P = 0.047). Somatic and urogenital symptoms were more among perimenopausal women and somatic symptoms were more among postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight (52.7%) participants had one or more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms were most among premenopausal women. Conclusion: The high proportion and severity of menopausal symptoms observed in this study group proves that menopausal symptoms are common and cannot be ignored. More of menopausal clinics are needed for awareness generation, early recognition and treatment of related morbidities. PMID:24970987

  16. Menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the United States.

    PubMed

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Seung Hee; Dormire, Sharon; Chee, Wonshik; Kresta, Kimberly

    2009-10-01

    Using a feminist approach, we examined the menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the United States This was a qualitative online forum study among 27 Hispanic midlife women in the United States. Seven topics related to menopausal symptom experience were used to administer the 6-month online forum. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (a) "Cambio de vida (change of life)," (b) "being silent about menopause," (c) "trying to be optimistic," and (d) "getting support." More in-depth studies with diverse groups of Hispanic women are needed while considering family as a contextual factor.

  17. Natural menopause among women below 50 years in India: A population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Singh, Abhishek; Dean, Tara; Dewey, Ann; Stones, William

    2016-01-01

    Background & objectives: The age at which menopause naturally occurs may reflect nutritional and environmental circumstances as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined natural menopause as a marker of women's health at the population level in India and in some major States. Methods: Data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS) carried out during 2007-2008 covering 643,944 ever-married women aged 15-49 yr were used; women of older ages were not included in this survey. Since not all women in this age group had achieved natural menopause at the time of survey, Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to obtain the median age of women reporting a natural menopause, excluding those who underwent hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for key socio-economic and reproductive variables that could potentially affect the age at natural menopause <40 yr. Results: Overall, menopause prior to age 40 was reported by approximately 1.5 per cent of women. In the national data set, significant associations with age at natural menopause were identified with marriage breakdown or widowhood, poverty, Muslim religious affiliation, ‘scheduled caste’ status, not having received schooling, rural residence, having never used contraceptive pills, not been sterilized or had an abortion, low parity and residence in the western region. Within data from five selected States examined separately, the strength of these associations varied. Interpretation & conclusions: Associations of natural menopause with sociocultural, family planning and demographic variables were noted. Most importantly, there was an association with poverty that would require further investigation as to causality. The proportion of women experiencing early menopause may represent a useful overall indicator of women's health. The data are reassuring with regard to possible late effects of sterilization on ovarian function. PMID:28139535

  18. Natural menopause among women below 50 years in India: A population-based study.

    PubMed

    Pallikadavath, Saseendran; Ogollah, Reuben; Singh, Abhishek; Dean, Tara; Dewey, Ann; Stones, William

    2016-09-01

    The age at which menopause naturally occurs may reflect nutritional and environmental circumstances as well as genetic factors. In this study we examined natural menopause as a marker of women's health at the population level in India and in some major States. Data from the Indian District Level Household Survey (DLHS) carried out during 2007-2008 covering 643,944 ever-married women aged 15-49 yr were used; women of older ages were not included in this survey. Since not all women in this age group had achieved natural menopause at the time of survey, Cox proportional hazard regression models were employed to obtain the median age of women reporting a natural menopause, excluding those who underwent hysterectomy. Hazard ratios (HRs) were estimated for key socio-economic and reproductive variables that could potentially affect the age at natural menopause <40 yr. Overall, menopause prior to age 40 was reported by approximately 1.5 per cent of women. In the national data set, significant associations with age at natural menopause were identified with marriage breakdown or widowhood, poverty, Muslim religious affiliation, 'scheduled caste' status, not having received schooling, rural residence, having never used contraceptive pills, not been sterilized or had an abortion, low parity and residence in the western region. Within data from five selected States examined separately, the strength of these associations varied. Associations of natural menopause with sociocultural, family planning and demographic variables were noted. Most importantly, there was an association with poverty that would require further investigation as to causality. The proportion of women experiencing early menopause may represent a useful overall indicator of women's health. The data are reassuring with regard to possible late effects of sterilization on ovarian function.

  19. Self-Reported Menopausal Symptoms, Coronary Artery Calcification and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in Recently Menopausal Women Screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M.; Brinton, Eliot A.; Budoff, Mathew J.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Hodis, Howard N.; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Merriam, George R.; Miller, Virginia M.; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S. Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Setting Multi-center, randomized controlled trial. Patients Recently menopausal women (n=868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). Design Cross sectional analysis. Interventions None Main Outcome Measures Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum estradiol (E2) levels and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using Coronary Artery Calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n=771) and Carotid Intima-Media Thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, estradiol (E2), CAC, and CIMT were assessed. Results In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations (p=0.09) and depression (p=0.07) approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and E2. Conclusions Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine if baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. PMID:23312232

  20. Self-reported menopausal symptoms, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness in recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos early estrogen prevention study (KEEPS).

    PubMed

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Mathew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, Joann E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional analysis. Multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Recently menopausal women (n = 868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). None. Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum E2 levels, and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using coronary artery calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n = 771) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, E2, CAC, and CIMT were assessed. In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations and depression approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and E2. Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine whether baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Polyfluoroalkyl Chemicals and Menopause among Women 20–65 Years of Age (NHANES)

    PubMed Central

    Hoffman, Kate; Thayer, Kristina A.; Daniels, Julie L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals (PFCs) such as perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been associated with early menopause. However, previous cross-sectional studies have lacked adequate data to investigate possible reverse causality (i.e., higher serum concentrations due to decreased excretion after menopause). Objectives: We investigated the association between PFOS, PFOA, perfluorononanoate (PFNA), and perfluorohexane sulfonate (PFHxS) and age at natural menopause among women 20–65 years of age in NHANES (National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey). Methods: We used proportional hazard models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for the onset of natural menopause as a function of age and serum PFC levels, and to investigate reverse causation by estimating associations between PFC levels and the rate of hysterectomy. We also used multivariable linear regression to determine whether time since menopause predicted serum PFC levels. Results: After adjusting for age at survey, race/ethnicity, education, ever smoking, and parity, women with higher levels of PFCs had earlier menopause than did women with the lowest PFC levels. We observed a monotonic association with PFHxS: The HR was 1.42 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.87) for serum concentrations in tertile 2 versus tertile 1, and 1.70 (95% CI: 1.36, 2.12) for tertile 3 versus tertile 1. We also found evidence of reverse causation: PFCs were positively associated with rate of hysterectomy, and time since natural menopause was positively associated with serum PFCs. Conclusions: Our findings suggest a positive association between PFCs and menopause; however, at least part of the association may be due to reverse causation. Regardless of underlying cause, women appear to have higher PFC concentrations after menopause. Citation: Taylor KW, Hoffman K, Thayer KA, Daniels JL. 2014. Polyfluoroalkyl chemicals and menopause among women 20–65 years of age (NHANES). Environ Health Perspect 122:145

  2. Menopausal symptoms in an intercultural context: a comparison between German women, Chinese women and migrant Chinese women using the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS II).

    PubMed

    Hinrichsen, Grete; Wernecke, Klaus-D; Schalinski, Adelheid; Borde, Theda; David, Matthias

    2014-11-01

    What are the differences between the occurrence of menopausal symptoms in German women, migrant Chinese women in Germany and Chinese women in their native country? Can these potential discrepancies be explained by sociocultural differences? What are the differences in menopausal symptoms in connection with the consumption of soya? Cross-sectional study 2005-2008. Survey of three groups of women aged between 45 and 60 years (native German women in Berlin, migrant Chinese women in several German cities, Chinese women in Beijing) with an evaluated set of questionnaires surveying socio-demographic data, use of hormone therapy, migration/acculturation, MRS II and other areas. A total of 2,109 questionnaires were sent out and a 41 % response rate was achieved, although this varied greatly across the three individual study groups. The results of the MRS II factor analysis were almost identical for German women and migrant Chinese women, but there were some differences in content compared to the Chinese study group. Chinese women surveyed in Beijing reported severe symptoms significantly less frequently in all three symptom groups (factors) of MRS II than the German women and the migrant Chinese women, but the values from the German women and migrant Chinese women surveyed are relatively similar. In all three study groups there are no significant differences in the stated severity of the symptoms, regardless of whether soya is consumed frequently or less frequently. The question whether the differences found are solely cultural or migration-related must be examined in further studies. The special experiences and situation in life of migrant women should be taken into particular account by attending physicians during the care and treatment of women in this phase of life.

  3. Assessment of Questionnaire Measuring Quality of Life in Menopausal Women: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jenabi, Ensiyeh; Shobeiri, Fatemeh; Hazavehei, Seyyed M.M.; Roshanaei, Ghodratollah

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a natural part of the aging process in women and is defined as occurring 12 months after the last menstrual period marking the end of menstrual cycles. Menopause has a negative impact on the quality of life (QoL). Various generic and specific questionnaires have been used for assessing different dimensions of QoL in menopausal women. The purpose of this systematic review was to identify those general and specific instruments, and to determine the factors that affect QoL in menopausal women. We assessed eight specific and three general tools and found that some general and specific instruments, such as the 36-item short form (SF-36) and the Menopause Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL), were mostly used for assessment. The specific tools available were diverse. Employment status and a high educational level in menopausal women were considered to be protective factors in improving QoL. Identification of predicting factors of QoL, such as body mass index, race, age, duration of menopause, and social and occupational variables can help to improve the QoL of these women allowing planning of psychological consultations and practical interventions. PMID:26171119

  4. Menstrual Cycle Hormone Changes in Women Traversing Menopause: Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    PubMed

    Santoro, Nanette; Crawford, Sybil L; El Khoudary, Samar R; Allshouse, Amanda A; Burnett-Bowie, Sherri-Ann; Finkelstein, Joel; Derby, Carol; Matthews, Karen; Kravitz, Howard M; Harlow, Sioban D; Greendale, Gail A; Gold, Ellen B; Kazlauskaite, Rasa; McConnell, Dan; Neal-Perry, Genevieve; Pavlovic, Jelena; Randolph, John; Weiss, Gerson; Chen, Hsiang-Yu; Lasley, Bill

    2017-07-01

    Menstrual cycle hormone patterns in women approaching menopause are inadequately studied. To describe day-to-day menstrual cycle hormones in women as they approach menopause from the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation Daily Hormone Study (DHS). DHS enrollees collected daily urine for one entire menstrual cycle or up to 50 days, whichever came first, annually, up to the final menstrual period (FMP) or for up to 10 years. Seven sites across the United States. A total of 511 premenopausal or early perimenopausal women at enrollment, within 10 years before menopause. Time-to-FMP measurement. Evidence of luteal activity (ELA), determined using objective algorithms. Menstrual cycle/segment length; whole cycle, and segment integrated urinary luteinizing hormone, follicle-stimulating hormone, estrone conjugates, and pregnanediol glucuronide (Pdg) for each year, organized around the FMP. Mean menstrual cycle length was remarkably preserved at 26 to 27 days in ELA cycles; non-ELA cycles had greater variability. The percentage of cycles that were ELA remained high until 5 years before the FMP (87.9%); only 22.8% of cycles within 1 year of the FMP were ELA. Whole cycle hormones remained relatively stable up to 3 years before the FMP, when gonadotropins began to increase. Pdg excretion declined slowly with progress to the FMP, but Pdg patterns of ELA cycles remained distinguishable from non-ELA. Menstrual cycle hormone patterns in perimenopausal women resemble those of midreproductive-aged women until 5 years before menopause, and presumably ovulatory cycles retain a potentially fertile pattern up to the end of reproductive life.

  5. Association of SLC2A9 genotype with phenotypic variability of serum urate in pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Topless, Ruth K.; Flynn, Tanya J.; Cadzow, Murray; Stamp, Lisa K.; Dalbeth, Nicola; Black, Michael A.; Merriman, Tony R.

    2015-01-01

    The SLC2A9 gene, that encodes a renal uric acid reuptake transporter, has genetic variants that explain ∼3% of variance in urate levels. There are previous reports of non-additive interaction between SLC2A9 genotype and environmental factors which influence urate control. Therefore, our aim was to further investigate the general phenomenon that such non-additive interactions contribute to genotype-specific association with variance at SLC2A9. Data from 14135 European individuals were used in this analysis. The measure of variance was derived from a ranked inverse normal transformation of residuals obtained by regressing known urate-influencing factors (sex, age, and body mass index) against urate. Variant rs6449173 showed the most significant effect on serum urate variance at SLC2A9 (P = 7.9 × 10-14), which was maintained after accounting for the effect on average serum urate levels (P = 0.022). Noting the stronger effect in a sub-cohort that consisted of pre-menopausal women and younger men, the participants were stratified into males and pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women. This revealed a strong effect on variance in pre-menopausal women (P = 3.7 × 10-5) with a weak effect in post-menopausal women (P = 0.032) and no effect in men (P = 0.22). The T-allele of rs6449173, which associates with increased urate levels, was associated with the greater variance in urate. There was a non-additive interaction between rs6449173 genotype and female gender in control of serum urate levels that was driven by a greater increase in urate levels associated with the T-allele in women. Female hormones, and/or other factors they influence or are associated with (such as iron levels, temperature, testosterone) interact with SLC2A9 genotype in women to determine urate levels. The association of SLC2A9 with greater variance in pre-menopausal women may reflect the cyclical changes resulting from menstruation. PMID:26528330

  6. The Relationship between Physical Activity and General Health among Menopausal Women in Ahvaz, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sharifi, Nasibeh; Jalili, Lida; Khazaeian, Somayeh; Nia, Anvar-Sadat Nayebi

    2017-01-01

    Most women experience significant changes in their general health status during menopause, which negatively affects their quality of life. Physical activity has also been shown to enhance quality of life. However, little is known about the effect of physical activity on women's health during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between physical activity and general health among menopausal women in Ahvaz, Iran. This cross sectional study was carried out on 600 menopausal women using cluster random sampling during 2013-2014. Data collection tools were three questionnaires; women's demographic characteristics, the Goldenberg's questionnaire, and International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS version 19. The statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval. There was a significant relationship between the total score of physical activity and physical health, social functioning, anxiety and depression (p<0.05), but no significant relationship was found between subscales related to physical activity and general health (p>0.05). Physical activity is effective in improving general health in menopausal women. Proper training and effective interventions for regular physical activity can be important steps to promote the general health of menopausal women.

  7. Knowledge and attitude toward menopause phenomenon among women aged 40-45 years.

    PubMed

    Noroozi, Ensieh; Dolatabadi, Nayereh Kasiri; Eslami, Ahmad Ali; Hassanzadeh, Akbar; Davari, Soheila

    2013-01-01

    Appropriate understanding of women that certain physical, mental, social and psychological changes occur during menopause helps them with greater readiness to cope with these changes. In all training programs to identify and analyze perceptions of the subjects is a key component. The purpose of this study was to investigate the knowledge and attitude of women toward the menopause phenomenon. This cross-sectional study was conducted on 400 healthy and non-menopaused women aged 40-45 years. The stratified sampling method was used and participation in this study was based on obtaining informed consent. The data collection instrument was a questionnaire consisting of three parts: demographic information, questions to assess knowledge and attitude investigation questions. The results showed that the average knowledge score of subjects was 63.57 ± 10.79, and their average attitude score was 61.21 ± 12.73. In this study, 8% of the subjects had poor knowledge, 68% had moderate knowledge and 38.5% had good knowledge. Meanwhile, 81.5% of the women had a positive attitude toward menopause. The correlation test showed that knowledge and attitude are meaningfully related to economic status and education level. But, the relationship between knowledge and attitudes of women under study was not significant. Identifying the quality of women's subjective perception of menopause has an essential role in the development of accurate and appropriate programs to promote women's health during menopausal years.

  8. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in menopausal women and in peripartum women.

    PubMed

    Neels, Hedwig; Tjalma, Wiebren A A; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-11-01

    [Purpose] Pelvic floor dysfunction is an important health-care issue, with pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause as the most important risk factors. Insufficient knowledge about pelvic floor dysfunction is the largest barrier to seeking care. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge and information on pelvic floor dysfunction in peripartum and menopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was a cross-sectional survey. A valid and reliable questionnaire of 48 items was distributed to 402 women who were pregnant or had recently given birth and to 165 postmenopausal women. All answers were analyzed and interpreted. The study was approved by an ethics committee (B300201318334). [Results] On a VAS scale of 0 to 10, the mean ratings of the peripartum and postmenopausal women concerning their knowledge were 4.38 (SD 2.71) and 4.92 (SD 2.72). Peripartum women held significantly more pessimistic perceptions about the occurrence of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction. The results showed that 75% of the peripartum women and 68% of the postmenopausal women felt insufficiently informed or want to get better informed. [Conclusion] The results reveal sparse knowledge about the pelvic floor among women of all ages and that a major proportion of them would be interested in more information. Amelioration of common knowledge could improve help-seeking behavior in women.

  9. Knowledge of the pelvic floor in menopausal women and in peripartum women

    PubMed Central

    Neels, Hedwig; Tjalma, Wiebren A. A.; Wyndaele, Jean-Jacques; De Wachter, Stefan; Wyndaele, Michel; Vermandel, Alexandra

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Pelvic floor dysfunction is an important health-care issue, with pregnancy, childbirth, and menopause as the most important risk factors. Insufficient knowledge about pelvic floor dysfunction is the largest barrier to seeking care. The aim of this study was to investigate the level of knowledge and information on pelvic floor dysfunction in peripartum and menopausal women. [Subjects and Methods] The present study was a cross-sectional survey. A valid and reliable questionnaire of 48 items was distributed to 402 women who were pregnant or had recently given birth and to 165 postmenopausal women. All answers were analyzed and interpreted. The study was approved by an ethics committee (B300201318334). [Results] On a VAS scale of 0 to 10, the mean ratings of the peripartum and postmenopausal women concerning their knowledge were 4.38 (SD 2.71) and 4.92 (SD 2.72). Peripartum women held significantly more pessimistic perceptions about the occurrence of postpartum pelvic floor dysfunction. The results showed that 75% of the peripartum women and 68% of the postmenopausal women felt insufficiently informed or want to get better informed. [Conclusion] The results reveal sparse knowledge about the pelvic floor among women of all ages and that a major proportion of them would be interested in more information. Amelioration of common knowledge could improve help-seeking behavior in women. PMID:27942113

  10. [Sacropexy with abdominal fascia in treatment of vaginal prolapse vault of menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Lemus Rocha, Santiago Roberto; Martínez Rodríguez, Oscar Arturo; Matute González, Manuel; Sánchez Juárez, Armando; Ramírez Rangel, Rosario; Hernández Valencia, Marcelino

    2003-12-01

    Vaginal vault prolapsed is a rare complication, with a frequency from 0.2 to 1% after hysterectomy, which is presented due to a bad surgical technique in fixation of the vault suspension elements, as well others factors as the multiparity, menopause, chronic lungs disease, obesity, smoking and weak physical activity. There are many techniques reported to correct this pelvic disease, although the conventional sacropexy has been established for abdominal way, where the diversity of materials of fixation is varied, including natural material as the abdominal fascia and aponeurosis of muscle rectos. This descriptive and clinical study was carried out in a group of patient with vaginal vault prolapsed, with the objective to know the results and experience of this correction with the surgical technique of sacropexy utilizing abdominal fascia. 32 menopausal patient with mean age of 53.9 years, 5 gestations, as well as index of Quetelet of 26.2, were studied, a following of a year was carried out. In these women the main symptom were the sensation of vaginal strange body and subsequently urinary incontinence of effort. Moreover, considering to all group the mean in presentation of the vaginal vault prolapsed after hysterectomy was of 7.7 years, with surgical time of 129 minutes and bled of 172 milliliters. RESULTS. The 97.5% of the patient returned to its sexual life without difficulties and only one referred dyspareunia. Post-surgical complications were not presented and only a patient presented vault prolapsed again (0.31%). With this results we can consider that the sacropexy with abdominal fascia is a good technique for the correction of the vaginal vault prolapsed in healthy menopausal women with regular sexual activity and then is a natural material who cause not any.

  11. Evaluation of cardiovascular disease risk in women with surgically induced menopause.

    PubMed

    Sari, Nagihan; Engin-Üstün, Yaprak; Kiyak Çağlayan, Emel; Göçmen, Ayşe Yeşim; Polat, Muhammet Fevzi

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluates cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among women undergoing natural menopause or surgically induced menopause through the measurement of serum growth differentiation factor-15 (GDF-15), B-type natriuretic peptide (BNP), ischemia modified albumin (IMA), total cholesterol, LDL cholesterol (LDL-C), HDL cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride, fibrinogen, and C-reactive protein (CRP). The study included women with surgically induced menopause (n = 50) and women undergoing natural menopause (n = 50). The two study groups were matched according to age, body mass index, menopause duration. GDF-15, BNP, IMA, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fibrinogen, and CRP were measured. There was no significant difference in GDF-15, BNP, IMA, total cholesterol, LDL-C, HDL-C, triglyceride, fibrinogen, and CRP results between the two groups. We conclude that there is no increase in CVD risk among women aged 40-50 with surgically induced menopause relative to matched control subjects undergoing normal age-related menopause.

  12. Study of menopausal symptoms among peri and postmenopausal women attending NMCTH.

    PubMed

    Marahatta, R Khanal

    2012-09-01

    This is a prospective study conducted in the department of OBGYN, Nepal medical college teaching hospital (NMCTH), Kathmandu Nepal. The main objective of this study being to find out the major health problem in mid-life of female, to see the age of menopause and to see prevalence of menopausal symptoms and common menopausal symptom among Nepalese women. Total 500 women were included in the study with effect from 1st of January 1012 till 500 respondents were interviewed, it took almost 10 months and ended on November 1012 for the study. Age wise all women from 45 years to 60 years are included, surgical menopause, diagnosed Hypertensive, diabetes and thyroid disorder were excluded from the study. Informed consent was taken and standard questionnaire were administered to women after history and clinical examination. Data were collected and analysed. The mean age of menopause found to be 49.9% with urinary tract infection being the major clinical diagnosis and physical menopausal symptoms being the commonest. About 20% of respondent had MRS (menopausal rating scale) score more than 16.

  13. [Depression and anxiety in menopausal women: associated factors].

    PubMed

    Polisseni, Alvaro Fernando; de Araújo, Dimas Augusto Carvalho; Polisseni, Fernanda; Mourão Junior, Carlos Alberto; Polisseni, Juliana; Fernandes, Eduardo Siqueira; Guerra, Martha de Oliveira

    2009-03-01

    to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in climacteric women and the probable factors responsible for its occurrence. a transversal study that has selected 93 women attended at a climacteric outpatient clinic, from May 2006 to August 2007. Inclusion criteria were: women from 40 to 65 years old who agreed with participating in the project. patients in hormonal therapy, hormone-therapy by implant, DIUs and depo injections in the preceding six months, endocrinopathies leading to menstrual irregularities, hepatopathies, thrombopathies, use of drugs which interfere in the menstrual cycle, anxiolytics and antidepressants (as their use indicates previous diagnosis of mood disorders), hysterectomy, oophorectomy, cancer or psychiatric disease, and patients who had been submitted to radio or chemotherapy. During the interview, four questionnaires were applied: Anamnesis, containing socio-demographic, clinical and living habits data; Blatt-Kupperman's Menopausal Index for climacteric syndrome diagnosis; Anxiety sub-scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS-A) for anxiety diagnosis; and Beck's Depression Inventory for the diagnosis of depression. Descriptive and correlation analysis among the variables, chi2 and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were performed using the Statistica Software program, version 6. the average depression prevalence among the patients was 36.8%, while that of anxiety was 53.7%. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the three phases of climacterium. There was a significant relationship between the presence of moderate climacteric symptoms and the presence of mood alterations (p<0.001). Depression was more frequent in women with anxiety (OR=4.2) and insomnia (OR=4.9), having a job being a protection factor (OR=0.2). Risk factors related to anxiety were the presence of depression (OR=6.1) and antecedents of pre-menstrual tension (OR=7.0). the prevalence of depression and anxiety is high

  14. [Depression and anxiety in menopausal women: associated factors].

    PubMed

    Polisseni, Alvaro Fernando; de Araújo, Dimas Augusto Carvalho; Polisseni, Fernanda; Mourão Junior, Carlos Alberto; Polisseni, Juliana; Fernandes, Eduardo Siqueira; Guerra, Martha de Oliveira

    2009-01-01

    to determine the prevalence of depression and anxiety in climacteric women and the probable factors responsible for its occurrence. a transversal study that has selected 93 women attended at a climacteric outpatient clinic, from May 2006 to August 2007. Inclusion criteria were: women from 40 to 65 years old who agreed with participating in the project. patients in hormonal therapy, hormone-therapy by implant, DIUs and depo injections in the preceding six months, endocrinopathies leading to menstrual irregularities, hepatopathies, thrombopathies, use of drugs which interfere in the menstrual cycle, anxiolytics and antidepressants (as their use indicates previous diagnosis of mood disorders), hysterectomy, oophorectomy, cancer or psychiatric disease, and patients who had been submitted to radio or chemotherapy. During the interview, four questionnaires were applied: Anamnesis, containing socio-demographic, clinical and living habits data; Blatt-Kupperman's Menopausal Index for climacteric syndrome diagnosis; Anxiety sub-scale of the Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS-A) for anxiety diagnosis; and Beck's Depression Inventory for the diagnosis of depression. Descriptive and correlation analysis among the variables, chi2 and Hosmer-Lemeshow tests were performed using the Statistica Software program, version 6. the average depression prevalence among the patients was 36.8%, while that of anxiety was 53.7%. There was no significant difference between the prevalence of depression and anxiety in the three phases of climacterium. There was a significant relationship between the presence of moderate climacteric symptoms and the presence of mood alterations (p<0.001). Depression was more frequent in women with anxiety (OR=4.2) and insomnia (OR=4.9), having a job being a protection factor (OR=0.2). Risk factors related to anxiety were the presence of depression (OR=6.1) and antecedents of pre-menstrual tension (OR=7.0). the prevalence of depression and anxiety is high

  15. A randomised controlled trial on hypolipidemic effects of Nigella Sativa seeds powder in menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background The risk of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is increased tremendously among menopausal women, and there is an increasing demand for alternative therapies for managing factors like dyslipidemia that contribute to CVD development. Methods In this study, Nigella sativa was evaluated for its hypolipidemic effects among menopausal women. In a randomised trial, hyperlipidemic menopausal women were assigned to treatment (n = 19) or placebo groups (n = 18), and given N. sativa or placebo for two months after their informed consents were sought. At baseline, blood samples were taken and at one month intervals thereafter until one month after the end of the study. Results The results showed that N. sativa significantly improved lipid profiles of menopausal women (decreased total cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglyceride, and increased high density lipoprotein cholesterol) more than the placebo treatment over 2 months of intervention. One month after cessation of treatment, the lipid profiles in the N. sativa-treated group tended to change towards the pretreatment levels. Conclusions N. sativa is thought to have multiple mechanisms of action and is cost-effective. Therefore, it could be used by menopausal women to remedy hypercholesterolemia, with likely more benefits than with single pharmacological agents that may cause side effects. The use of N. sativa as an alternative therapy for hypercholesterolemia could have profound impact on the management of CVD among menopausal women especially in countries where it is readily available. PMID:24685020

  16. Health-related quality of life of women with menopausal hot flushes and night sweats.

    PubMed

    Ayers, B; Hunter, M S

    2013-04-01

    Despite a large body of research on menopause, there is little definitive evidence of the impact of vasomotor symptoms on health-related quality of life (HrQoL). Therefore, this study describes the HrQoL of menopausal women with hot flushes and night sweats and examines predictors of HrQoL. A total of 140 women reporting at least ten hot flushes/night sweats (vasomotor symptoms) a week for at least a month completed an assessment interview (including medical history, past and current physical and mental health and menopausal status) and questionnaires eliciting sociodemographic and help-seeking information, HrQoL and the Hot Flush Rating Scale. Women with vasomotor symptoms reported somewhat reduced HrQoL compared to SF-36 US norms and a general sample of UK menopausal women; 53% reported comorbid physical illness and 66% had current psychosocial concerns; 77% had visited their doctor about menopausal symptoms; 28% were past and 3% current users of hormone therapy. Overall, poor HrQoL was associated with having problematic hot flushes, current psychosocial concerns, (younger) age, (higher) body mass index and poor general health. This sample of relatively healthy mid-aged women with vasomotor symptoms reported reduced HrQoL compared to age-matched norms and a general sample of menopausal women. Problem rating, rather than frequency, of hot flushes was associated with reduced HrQoL, as were health and psychosocial factors.

  17. [Clinical, vegetative and cognitive disorders in hypertensive postmenopausal women in relation to menopause causes].

    PubMed

    Kolbasnikov, S V; Bakhareva, O N

    2006-01-01

    To specify clinical, vegetative and cognitive disorders in hypertensive women depending on the type of menopause. A total of 195 hypertensive women were divided into three groups: group 1 (n = 50, age 45.6 +/- 4.5 years) consisted of premenopausal women, group 2 (n = 100, age 57.4 +/- 4.7 years) - of women with natural menopause, group 3 (n = 45, age 55.1 +/- 5.9 years)--with early and/or surgical menopause. Severity of the menopausal syndrome, anxiety, depression, alexitimia, mental performance, vegetative regulation of heart rhythm were examined. The premenopausal women were characterized by cardial and cerebral disorders, unaffected psychovegetative function and initial symptoms of lowering mental performance. Hypertensive women with natural menopause showed combination of cardial and cerebral symptoms with moderate anxio-depressive disorders, alexitimia, subnormal parasympathetic activity of the autonomic nervous system in high centralization of heart rhythm regulation and attention disturbances. Patients with surgical and/or early menopause had marked cardial and cerebral symptoms, moderate anxiodepressive disorders, alexitimia, inhibition of mental performance, vegetative dysfunction, overcentralization of heart rhythm control. With development of postmenopausal metabolic symptom complex, severity of hypertension grows with emergence of anxiodepressive disorders which combine with vegetative regulation disorders and attenuation of mental performance.

  18. The menopause transition in women living with HIV: current evidence and future avenues of research.

    PubMed

    Tariq, Shema; Anderson, Jane; Burns, Fiona; Delpech, Valerie; Gilson, Richard; Sabin, Caroline

    2016-04-01

    As the life expectancy of people living with HIV improves as a result of antiretroviral therapy, increasing numbers of women living with HIV (WLHIV) are now reaching menopausal age. The menopause transition in WLHIV remains a relatively overlooked area in clinical HIV research. Whilst there is some evidence to suggest that WLHIV experience menopause at an earlier age and that they have more menopausal symptoms, there is no clear consensus in the literature around an impact of HIV infection on either timing or symptomatology of the menopause. Data are also conflicting on whether HIV-related factors such as HIV viral load and CD4 cell count have an impact on the menopause. Furthermore, menopausal symptoms in WLHIV are known to go under-recognised by both healthcare providers and women themselves. There is likely to be a burden of unmet health needs among WLHIV transitioning through the menopause, with significant gaps in the evidence base for their care. With this in mind, we have developed the PRIME study (Positive Transitions Through the Menopause). This mixed-methods observational study will explore, for the first time in the UK, the impact of the menopause on the health and wellbeing of 1500 ethnically diverse WLHIV. In establishing a cohort of women in their midlife and following them up longitudinally, we hope to develop a nuanced understanding of the gendered aspects of ageing and HIV, informing the provision of appropriate services for WLHIV to ensure that they are supported in maintaining optimal health and wellbeing as they get older.

  19. Counseling Women in Midlife: An Integrative Approach to Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that counselors who use an integrative approach to menopause can not only provide accurate biomedical information but also conceptualize menopause as a normative midlife transition. Provides a foundation in biomedical issues and considers how these in interaction with cultural and psychosocial factors influence the experience of…

  20. Counseling Women in Midlife: An Integrative Approach to Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that counselors who use an integrative approach to menopause can not only provide accurate biomedical information but also conceptualize menopause as a normative midlife transition. Provides a foundation in biomedical issues and considers how these in interaction with cultural and psychosocial factors influence the experience of…

  1. Reducing menopausal symptoms for women during the menopause transition using group education in a primary health care setting-a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Rindner, Lena; Strömme, Gunilla; Nordeman, Lena; Hange, Dominique; Gunnarsson, Ronny; Rembeck, Gun

    2017-04-01

    Women's physical and mental ill-health shows a marked increase during menopause, which usually occurs between 45 and 55 years of age. Mental illness and somatic symptoms are common causes of long-term sick leave. Women suffer from a lack of knowledge about the menopause transition and its associated symptoms. The aim of the study was to investigate whether group education for women in primary health care (PHC) about the menopause transition can improve their physical and mental ill-health. This randomized controlled study was conducted in PHC and aimed to evaluate a group education programme for women aged 45-55 years, around the menopause transition. A total of 131 women were randomized to group education or no intervention. The group intervention included two education sessions with topics related to menopause. They answered two questionnaires at baseline and at four-month follow-up: the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS) and the Montgomery-Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS). Change in MRS and MADRS scores over the four months. The intervention group experienced a slight reduction in symptoms while the control group mostly experienced the opposite. This study showed that it was feasible to implement group education on menopause for women aged 45-55 years. NTC02852811. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Premature Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, UB; Ezenyeaku, CC

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk. PMID:23634337

  3. The Relationship between Physical Activity and General Health among Menopausal Women in Ahvaz, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Sharifi, Nasibeh; Jalili, Lida; Khazaeian, Somayeh; nia, Anvar-sadat Nayebi

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Most women experience significant changes in their general health status during menopause, which negatively affects their quality of life. Physical activity has also been shown to enhance quality of life. However, little is known about the effect of physical activity on women’s health during the menopausal transition. This study aimed to determine the relationship between physical activity and general health among menopausal women in Ahvaz, Iran. Methods This cross sectional study was carried out on 600 menopausal women using cluster random sampling during 2013–2014. Data collection tools were three questionnaires; women’s demographic characteristics, the Goldenberg’s questionnaire, and International physical activity questionnaire (IPAQ). Data were analyzed using descriptive and inferential statistics through SPSS version 19. The statistical tests were performed at the 95% confidence interval. Results There was a significant relationship between the total score of physical activity and physical health, social functioning, anxiety and depression (p<0.05), but no significant relationship was found between subscales related to physical activity and general health (p>0.05). Conclusion Physical activity is effective in improving general health in menopausal women. Proper training and effective interventions for regular physical activity can be important steps to promote the general health of menopausal women. PMID:28243418

  4. Exploring the prevalence of menopause symptoms in midlife women in methadone maintenance treatment.

    PubMed

    Tuchman, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Menopause is a natural process that occurs in women's lives as part of normal aging. Many women go through the menopausal transition with few or no symptoms, while some have significant or even disabling symptoms. The purpose of this paper is to describe the menopausal symptom experience of 135 urban methadone-maintained midlife women between the ages of 40 and 55 years. A cross-sectional survey comprising sample characteristic questions and a 14-item menopause symptom checklist was administered. Ninety-six percent reported one or more symptoms with a mean of 6.2 symptoms. Symptom reporting was found to be relatively high, with more than half of the sample reporting hot flashes, night sweats, sleep disturbances, joint pains, and fatigue in the two weeks preceding the survey. However, the psychological symptoms (irritability and depression) were the two most common symptoms in this sample. This study documents a relatively heavy burden of symptoms in an aging cohort of methadone-maintained women. The physical and psychological impact of aging and, in particular, the experience of menopause in these women is rarely studied and poorly understood. This gap in critical knowledge is further complicated by the remarkable similarity of many symptoms associated with menopause and opiate withdrawal. Aging, drug-related health problems, and poor access to health care further complicate the picture and underscore the importance of better integration of health care with social work intervention.

  5. Menopausal women: perceiving continuous power through the experience of regular exercise.

    PubMed

    Jeng, Chii; Yang, Shun-Hsuan; Chang, Pi-Chen; Tsao, Lee-Ing

    2004-05-01

    Menopausal women are at high risk for cardiovascular diseases and osteoporosis. However, for so long, women have devoted much of their time and energy to family, children, and work such that they could not regularly exercise. There are few studies addressing the experiences of Taiwanese women who regularly exercise. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of regularly exercising, defined as thoughts or actions by menopausal women who did not regularly exercise before menopause, but who now exercise regularly. A grounded theory research design was used. In-depth interviews were undertaken with a purposive sampling of 12 menopausal women who began to do regular exercises after menopause and who have continued exercising for more than 6 months. The constant comparative method was used to analyse the interview data. 'Perceiving Continuous Power' was the core category during the process of regularly exercising. Every participating woman perceived that her body and mind were filled with continuous power including the subcategories of 'Overcoming the initial discomfort', 'Experiencing Benefits to Body and Mind' and 'Broadening' during the process. 'Awareness of Health Crisis', which included the subcategories of 'Cureless Chronic Disease', 'Mood Swings', and 'Conflict on Medication', was identified as occurring when these women first began regularly exercising. Throughout the process of perceiving continuous power, women experienced the following interactive behaviour categories: 'Exercise Selection' with subcategories of 'Self-Evaluation', 'Seeking and Fitting', 'Comparing' and 'Health Becoming' with the subcategories of 'Releasing Health Crisis', 'Regaining Flowering Life', and 'Self-Fulfilling'. Regular exercises provided continuous power for menopausal women. The experiences with exercise we uncovered in this study can provide a reference for nurses to guide menopausal women with their regular exercise plans.

  6. Escitalopram reduces hot flashes in nondepressed menopausal women: A pilot study.

    PubMed

    Defronzo Dobkin, Roseanne; Menza, Matthew; Allen, Lesley A; Marin, Humberto; Bienfait, Karina L; Tiu, Jade; Howarth, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Hot flashes are one of the most troubling manifestations of menopause, affecting about 80% of women. Due to recent controversies about hormone replacement therapy, many women seek alternative treatments. The use of antidepressants to treat hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms has been an active area of investigation. However, the majority of past research in this area has included women with significant medical or psychiatric histories that may influence treatment response. This was the first study to examine the impact of escitalopram on hot flashes, mood, sleep, and quality of life in a sample of healthy nondepressed menopausal women. This study enrolled 25 menopausal women who had no significant psychiatric or medical history. All women were treated with escitalopram (10 to 20 mg flexibly dosed) for 8 weeks. The active treatment phase was preceded by a single-blind placebo lead-in period. Over the course of the study, women reported significant decreases in both hot flash frequency and severity as well as improvements in dysphoria, anxiety, quality of life, and sleep. These preliminary findings suggest that escitalopram may be a feasible and effective option for treating hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms in healthy women who might not ordinarily consider antidepressant treatment.

  7. Escitalopram Reduces Hot Flashes in Non-depressed Menopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Menza, Matthew; Allen, Lesley A.; Marin, Humberto; Bienfait, Karina L.; Tiu, Jade; Howarth, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Background Hot flashes are one of the most troubling manifestations of menopause, affecting about 80% of women. Due to recent controversies about hormone replacement therapy (HRT), many women are seeking alternative treatments. The use of antidepressants to treat hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms has been an active area of investigation. However, the majority of past research in this area has included women with significant medical or psychiatric histories that may influence treatment response. This was the first study to examine the impact of escitalopram on hot flashes, mood, sleep, and quality of life in a healthy sample of non-depressed menopausal women. Methods Twenty-five menopausal women, with no significant psychiatric or medical history, were enrolled. All women were treated with escitalopram (10-20mg flexibly dosed) for 8 weeks. The active treatment phase was preceded by a single blind placebo lead-in period. Results Over the course of the study, women reported significant decreases in both hot flash frequency and severity and improvements in dysphoria, anxiety, quality of life, and sleep. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that escitalopram may be a feasible and effective option for treating hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms in healthy women who might not ordinarily consider antidepressant treatment. PMID:19439155

  8. Equol production changes over time in pre-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Franke, Adrian A; Lai, Jennifer F; Pagano, Ian; Morimoto, Yukiko; Maskarinec, Gertraud

    2012-04-01

    Equol (EQ) is a metabolite produced by gut bacteria through the chemical reduction of the soya isoflavone daidzein (DE), but only by 30-60% of the population. EQ is believed to provide benefits derived from soya intake and its production is widely viewed as a relatively stable phenomenon. In a randomised, cross-over intervention with soya foods, seventy-nine pre-menopausal women were challenged with a high-soya and a low-soya diet each for 6 months, separated by a 1-month washout period. Overnight urine was collected at three time points during each diet period and analysed for DE and EQ by liquid chromatography tandem MS. Remaining an EQ producer (EP) or non-producer (NP) or changing towards an EP or NP was assessed using an EQ:DE ratio of ≥0·018 combined with a DE threshold of ≥2 nmol/mg creatinine as a cut-off point. We observed 19 and 24% EP during the low-soya and high-soya diet periods, respectively, and found that 6-11% of our subjects changed EQ status 'within' each study period (on an average of 1·2 times), while 16% changed 'between' the two diet periods. The present finding challenges the widely held conviction that EQ production within an individual remains stable over time. The precise factors contributing to changes in EQ status, however, remain elusive and warrant further investigation.

  9. Menopausal status and the risk of lung cancer in women

    PubMed Central

    Min, Lingfeng; Wang, Fang; Liang, Sudong; Yang, Junjun; Xu, Xingxiang

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Quantification of the association between menopausal status and risk of lung cancer is inconsistent. We carried out a meta-analysis of available studies to examine this issue. Methods: Relevant articles were identified by searching PudMed and Embase databases. Reference lists from selected papers were also reviewed. A random-effect model was used to calculate summary odds ratios (OR) and relative risk (RR) with 95% confidence interval (CI). Publication bias was estimated using Egger regression asymmetry test. Results: Eight eligible studies, including 5 case–control studies and 3 cohort studies, provided data for meta-analysis. Postmenopausal women had a statistically significant increased risk of lung cancer in all included studies (RR = 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12–1.85) and cohort studies (RR = 1.39, 95% CI: 1.05–1.86), but not in case–control studies (OR = 1.46, 95% CI: 0.95–2.24). Conclusions: Overall, there was evidence that postmenopause is related to increased lung cancer risk. However, studies have produced slightly heterogeneous results (I2 = 38.40%). To obtain a better indication of relationship, well-designed large prospective studies are required. PMID:28658099

  10. Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome in Women at Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Mankowska, Aneta; Nowak, Lena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with premature atherosclerosis, as well as with many metabolic alterations including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Visceral fat accumulation, particularly, is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. The menopause transition, as well as the early postmenopausal period, is associated with increase in total and central obesity. Among adipocytokines secreted by the adipose tissue adiponectin is the only one that has a protective role in the development of obesity-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to present a role that adiponectin may play during the progress of menopause in relation to development of menopausal metabolic syndrome. PMID:27683315

  11. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  12. Recent Changes in Endometrial Cancer Trends Among Menopausal-Age US Women

    PubMed Central

    Wartko, Paige; Sherman, Mark E; Yang, Hannah P; Felix, Ashley S; Brinton, Louise A; Trabert, Britton

    2013-01-01

    Background Changes in endometrial cancer incidence rates after the precipitous decline in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use in 2002 have not been evaluated. Methods Using data from the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results Program from 1992–2009 (SEER 13), we identified 63,428 incident endometrial cancer cases among women ages 20–74. We compared Annual Percent Change (APC) in endometrial cancer incidence rates from 1992–2002 to rates from 2003–2009. Results In contrast to the constant endometrial cancer rate pattern observed from 1992–2002 (APC 0.0%), rates increased after 2002 in women 50–74 years old (2.5%; PAPC comparison <0.01). Endometrial cancer incidence increased over the entire time period among women ages 20–49 (1992–2002: 1.1%; 2003–2009: 2.1%; PAPC comparison = 0.21). Post-2002 increases in incidence among women ages 50–74 were specific to Type I endometrial tumors (1992–2002: −0.6%; 2003–2009: 1.6%; PAPC comparison < 0.01). Discussion The increase in endometrial cancer incidence rates after 2002 may be related to the widespread decrease in estrogen plus progestin MHT use, which has been reported to lower endometrial cancer risk in overweight and obese women. PMID:23591011

  13. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharanya Shre, E. S.; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. Methodology: The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. Results: The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. Conclusion: There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women. PMID:27134461

  14. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India.

    PubMed

    Sharanya Shre, E S; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women.

  15. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-06-15

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  16. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  17. 2016 IMS Recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J; Panay, N; Fenton, A

    2016-04-01

    The International Menopause Society (IMS) has produced these new 2016 recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy (MHT) to help guide health-care professionals in optimizing their management of women in the menopause transition and beyond. The term MHT has been used to cover therapies including estrogens, progestogens and combined regimens. For the first time, the 2016 IMS recommendations now include grades of recommendations, levels of evidence and 'good practice points', in addition to section-specific references. Where possible, the recommendations are based on and linked to the evidence that supports them, unless good-quality evidence is absent. Particular attention has been paid to published evidence from 2013 onwards, the last time the IMS recommendations were updated. Databases have been extensively searched for relevant publications using key terms specific to each specialist area within menopause physiology and medicine. Information has also been drawn from international consensus statements published by bodies such as the IMS, the European Menopause and Andropause Society and the North American Menopause Society. The recommendations have been produced by experts derived mainly from the IMS, with the assistance of key collaborators where deemed advantageous. In preparing these international recommendations, experts have taken into account geographical variations in medical care, prevalence of diseases, and country-specific attitudes of the public, medical community and health authorities towards menopause management. The variation in availability and licensing of MHT and other products has also been considered.

  18. Body Mass Index Is Positively Associated with Endometrial Cancer in Chinese Women, Especially Prior to Menopause.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yifei; Dai, Xujing; Chen, Limei; Lee, Arier C; Tong, Mancy; Wise, Michelle; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Obesity is a well-known risk factor for developing endometrial cancer. However, the incidence and survival rate of endometrial cancer are associated with ethnicity and geographical area. In addition, whether menopausal status is associated with developing endometrial cancer in obese women and whether obesity is associated with subtypes of endometrial cancer have not been fully investigated. Here, we investigated the effect of BMI on developing endometrial cancer in Chinese women taking into account menopausal status and cancer subtypes. Data on 1,127 women with endometrial cancer including body mass index (BMI), age at diagnosis, parity, menopausal status and cancer subtype were collected from the largest obstetrics & gynaecology hospital in China and analysed. After adjusting for age and parity, the odds for developing endometrial cancer in overweight or obese perimenopausal women was significantly higher than that in women with normal weight (OR=2.6 with 95%CI:1.9-3.5, and OR=3.5 with 95%CI: 2.2-5.4, respectively). The odds of developing endometrial cancer in overweight postmenopausal women were significantly higher than that in women who were normal weight (OR=2.4 with 95%CI: 1.8-3.1), however this was not the case for obese postmenopausal women. We further found that BMI, menopausal status, age and parity were not associated with subtypes of endometrial cancer. Our data demonstrate that obesity is positively associated with the incidence of developing endometrial cancer in Chinese women, with more significant effects in perimenopausal women.

  19. Effect of menopausal status on carotid intima-media thickness and presence of carotid plaque in Chinese women generation population.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yong; Wang, Dandan; Yang, Xin; Wang, Anxin; Gao, Xiang; Guo, Yuming; Wu, Shouling; Zhao, Xingquan

    2015-01-28

    Menopause is an important physiological stage in women's life. The potential association of menopause with carotid intima-media thickness as well as with occurrence and stability of carotid plaque in Chinese female population is unclear. We conducted a population-based, cross-sectional study by recruiting 2,131 participants aged above 40 years from northeast of China. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT), presence of carotid plaque and its stability were evaluated by carotid duplex sonography. Among the participants, 1,133 (53.2%) were identified to be postmenopausal. After adjusting for potential confounding factors, presence of CIMT at 50(th-) 75(th) and ≥75(th) percentiles, carotid plaque and its unstable status were found to be significantly associated with the postmenopausal status (P < 0.001). When matched the participants by age, post-menopausal status was still associated with a higher risk of having unstable plaque. Moreover, our data show that postmenopausal status is a risk factor for intracranial arterial stenosis when compared with premenopausal status in the univariate analysis (OR = 1.314, P = 0.043), and such relationship is lost when the confounding factors are adjusted (OR = 0.828, P = 0.225). In conclusion, the vascular risk factors increase as the menopausal status changes. Compared with premenopausal status, postmenopausal status is associated with higher morbidity of CIMT, carotid plaque and its unstable status.

  20. Long-term prediction of three-dimensional bone architecture in simulations of pre-, peri- and post-menopausal microstructural bone remodeling.

    PubMed

    Müller, Ralph

    2005-03-01

    The mechanical behavior of trabecular bone depends on the internal bone structure. It is generally accepted now that the trabecular bone structure is a result of a load adaptive bone remodeling. The mathematical laws that relate bone remodeling to the local state of stress and strain, however, are still under investigation. The aim of this project was to investigate if changes in the trabecular architecture as observed with age-related bone loss and osteoporosis can be predicted from a computer model that simulates bone resorption after hormone depletion based on realistic models of trabecular microstructure using micro-computed tomography (muCT). A compact desktop muCT providing a nominal isotropic resolution of 14 mum was used to measure two groups of seven trabecular bone specimens from pre-menopausal and post-menopausal women respectively. A novel algorithm was developed to simulate age-related bone loss for the specimens in the first group. The algorithm, also referred to as simulated bone atrophy (SIBA), describes a truly three-dimensional approach and is based directly on cellular bone remodeling with an underlying realistic time frame. Bone resorption is controlled by osteoclastic penetration depth and bone formation is governed by the efficiency level of the osteoblasts. The simulation itself describes an iterative process with a cellular remodeling cycle of 197 days. Activation frequency is controllable and can be adjusted for the different phases of pre-, peri- and post-menopause. For our simulations, osteoblastic and osteoclastic activities were in balance until the onset of menopause, set to be at the age of 50 years. In that period, the structure remained almost constant. After the onset of menopause an imbalance in the cell activities was modeled resulting in a net bone loss. The doubling of the activation frequency in the peri-menopausal phase caused a pronounced loss. Using advanced animation tools and quantitative bone morphometry, the changes in

  1. Conceptual models for women's health research: reclaiming menopause as an exemplar of nursing's contributions to feminist scholarship.

    PubMed

    Andrist, L C; MacPherson, K I

    2001-01-01

    An examination of women's transition through menopause provides a remarkable example of nursing's contributions to feminist scholarship. The predominant biomedical model perpetuates the idea that menopause is a deficiency disease, whereas feminist and nurse scholars have deconstructed this paradigm and have reclaimed menopause as a part of midlife women's developmental stage. We begin this chapter with a review of the birth of women's health scholarship as it is the foundation for theory that undergirds feminist nursing research. We then discuss the tenets of feminist scholarship. The historical context of menopause is reviewed briefly to highlight the ways in which menopause was transformed from a normal physiological event to a disease. Using this as a backdrop, we reviewed nursing studies in two emerging bodies of knowledge. We reviewed 10 studies in the area of "women reclaiming menopause" and found that over all women believe the menopausal transition is a normal developmental stage. The second area of new research looks at "menopause across cultures." The studies of Korean, Indian, and Thai women reviewed demonstrate that similar to other health issues, the experience of Western women cannot be universalized, and most important, researchers must take into consideration the social, political, economic, and cultural forces that impact women's experience of the menopause transition.

  2. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. [Chemotherapy-Induced Amenorrhea and Menopause Symptoms in Women With Breast Cancer].

    PubMed

    Li, Chia-Ying; Chen, Mei-Ling

    2016-10-01

    Chemotherapy is a common adjuvant therapy for breast cancer that improves survival rates by killing residual cancer cells. However, this intervention may damage the germ cells within the ovary and interrupt the menstrual cycle, ultimately leading to chemotherapy-induced amenorrhea (CIA). The incidence of CIA depends on how broadly this term is defined. Around 75% of premenopausal breast cancer women treated with chemotherapy will develop CIA. Age, having a relatively long chemotherapy cycle duration, being estrogen-receptor positive, and using Tamoxifen all increase the risk of CIA. Although CIA may be associated with better prognosis outcomes, breast cancer women must subsequently deal with the various menopausal symptoms that are associated with a CIA-induced drop in estrogen level (such as cognitive function decline, physical and psychological symptoms, vasomotor symptoms, reproductive and sexual function problems, and body weight change). The present article describes the female menstrual cycle, the mechanism and risk factors of CIA, and the range of menopausal symptoms. Furthermore, we summarized methods of assessing menopausal symptoms and compared five common rating scales of menopausal symptoms. By better understanding the potential menopausal symptoms, researchers and clinicians may then select the most appropriate scale based on the situational needs in order to evaluate the severity of menopausal symptoms that are experienced by breast cancer women.

  4. The Quality of Life During and After Menopause Among Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    G K, Poomalar; Arounassalame, Bupathy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The overall health and well-being of middle-aged women has become a major public health concern around the world. More than 80% of the women experience physical or psychological symptoms in the years when they approach menopause, with various distresses and disturbances in their lives, leading to a decrease in the quality of life. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life and the impact of hormonal changes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and to correlate the prevalence of the symptoms with their duration since menopause. Material and Methods: A cross- sectional study was done at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, from January 2012 to April 2012. Five hundred women who were in the age group of 40-65 years, who came from rural areas to our hospital, were included in the study. The women who were receiving hormonal treatment and those who refused to participate in the study were excluded. The data such as the socio-demographic information and the menstruation status, which were based on the reported length of time since the last menstrual period and the experience of the symptoms, as were tested in the Menopause Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire, were collected from each patient. The women who were included in the study were divided into three groups as the menopause transition, early postmenopausal and the late postmenopausal groups. All the data which were gathered were analyzed by using SAS 9.2. The Chi square test and the relative risk and the confidence interval calculations were applied to compare the frequencies of the symptoms among the women with different menopausal statuses. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean menopausal age in the study group was 45 years. The most common symptom within study subjects were low back ache (79%) and muscle-joint pain (77.2%). The least frequent symptoms were increase in facial hair (15%) and

  5. [Survey on menopausal age and menstruation span in women in Pudong district of Shanghai].

    PubMed

    Chen, Hua; Feng, You-ji; Shu, Hui-min; Lu, Tian-mei; Zhu, Hong-mei; Yang, Bin-lie; Xiong, Miao

    2010-06-01

    To investigate natural spontaneous menopausal age, menstruation span and their relationship with menarche age and parity in Pudong district of Shanghai. From Jan 2007 to Jul 2008, 15 083 spontaneous menopause women undergoing cervical cancer screening were enrolled in this study. The questionnaire included menarche age, parity, spontaneous menopausal age and menstruation span. Those women were divided into four groups based on age, which were group of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70.Analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used for comparing difference between menopausal age and menstruation span. Multiple factor regressions was used to analyze the relationship between menarche age, parity and menopausal age and menstruation span. (1) Spontaneous menopausal age: the minimum was 29 years old, the maximum was 61 years old, and the mean age was (50.6 ± 3.7) years old. The mean spontaneous menopause age were (50.9 ± 3.4), (50.7 ± 3.7), (50.0 ± 4.1), (49.6 ± 4.0) years in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menopausal age were observed, which the difference of 1.36 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (2) Menstruation span: the mean of menstruation span was (34.3 ± 4.1) years, which the minimal age of 12 years and maximal age of 48 years were recorded. (34.6 ± 3.8), (34.3 ± 4.1), (33.9 ± 4.6), (33.2 ± 4.5) were observed in groups of 56 - 60, 61 - 65, 66 - 70 and more than 70 years. With the increasing age range in four groups, the increasing trends of menstruation span were observed, which the difference of 1.41 year was shown between groups of 56 - 60 and more than 70 years. (3) The impact of menarche age on menopausal age and menstruation span: there was no correlation between menarche age and menopausal age (r = 0.02); however, menstruation span was found to be negatively correlated with the menarche age (r = -0.43). (4) The impact

  6. Associations of physical activity and diet with the onset of menopause in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, Chisato; Wada, Keiko; Nakamura, Kozue; Tamai, Yuya; Tsuji, Michiko; Shimizu, Hiroyuki

    2012-01-01

    Prospective studies on physical activity and diet and the onset of natural menopause are scarce. The aim of this study was to examine the association of physical activity and dietary factors potentially related to endogenous estrogen levels such as fats, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol with the onset of menopause in a cohort of premenopausal women. Study participants were 3,115 premenopausal Japanese women aged 35 to 56 years derived from the participants in the Takayama Study. Physical activity was assessed by a validated questionnaire at baseline, and the metabolic equivalent score was calculated. The dietary intakes were estimated by a validated food frequency questionnaire at baseline and adjusted for total energy. Menopause status was defined as the absence of menstruation for 12 months or more. The Cox proportional hazard model was used to estimate the hazard ratio of the occurrence of menopause after controlling for age, parity, body mass index, smoking status, years of education, and lifelong irregular menstrual cycle. During the 10-year follow-up, 1,790 women experienced natural menopause. A high physical activity level and a high intake of polyunsaturated fat were moderately but significantly associated with the earlier onset of menopause; the hazard ratios for the highest versus lowest quartile were 1.17 (95% CI, 1.02-1.34) for physical activity and 1.15 (95% CI, 1.01-1.31) for polyunsaturated fat intake. Total fat, other types of fat, dietary fiber, soy isoflavones, and alcohol were not associated with the onset of menopause. These data suggest that high levels of physical activity and polyunsaturated fat intake are associated with earlier onset of menopause.

  7. Hemorheological aspects in hypertensive menopausal smoker women treated with female hormones.

    PubMed

    Cicco, G; Dolce, E; Vicenti, P; Stingi, G D; Tarallo, M S; Pirrelli, A

    1999-01-01

    In postmenopausal hypertensive women (PostMHW) the erythrocyte deformability (ED) is reduced if compared with premenopausal hypertensive women (PreMHW). This might partially explain the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CD) in hypertensive women after menopause. Moreover a positive correlation exists between estradiol and rheological patterns in women. If PostMHW smoke cigarettes, there is an important decrease in hemorheological parameters. On the other hand if PostMHW are submitted to an hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) they can show controversial results with an impairment if hemorheological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking and HRT on PostMHW. We studied four groups of subjects: Group 1: PreMHW (10 F aged 35 +/- 3 years) non smokers; Group 2: PostMHW (8 F aged 45 +/- 2 years) non smokers; Group 3: PostMHW (14 F aged 48 +/- 4 years) smokers (20 cigarettes per day); Group 4: PostMHW (16 F aged 50 +/- 2 years) smokers (20 cigarettes per day) submitted to HRT. We evaluated Elongation Index of erythrocytes under torsion force of 30 pascals (EI--30 Pa) using a new computerized instrument Laser assisted Optical rotational Red Cell Analyzer (LORCA) (Mechatronics, Hoorn, NL) acc. to Hardeman (1994) and, also with the same LORCA, Aggregation Index (AI), t(1/2). We measured the transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (TcpO2) in subclavicular standard area using a Transcutaneous Oximeter (Microgas 7650 Kontron Instruments with Combi Sensor) and total cholesterolaemia. In PostMHW our data showed a significant (p < 0.01) impairment of hemorheological patterns and tissue oxygenation if compared with PreMHW (Group 1). In Group 3 there is a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in EI, a significant (p < 0.01) increase in AI, a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in t(1/2) and TcpO2 if compared with Control Group 1 and Group 2. Finally a further significant (p < 0.01) impairment in hemorheology and tissue oxygenation showed Group 4

  8. Association of diet with the onset of menopause in Japanese women.

    PubMed

    Nagata, C; Takatsuka, N; Kawakami, N; Shimizu, H

    2000-11-01

    A prospective study was conducted in Takayama, Gifu, Japan, to evaluate the association between diet and the onset of menopause. A total of 1,130 female residents aged 35-54 years who were premenopausal and completed a validated semiquantitative food frequency questionnaire in 1992 were contacted by mail with a follow-up questionnaire in 1998 to update information on menopause. Onset of menopause was defined as a woman's age at the last menstrual period prior to stopping menstruation for 12 months. During the 6-year study period, 296 women experienced natural menopause. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate hazard ratios of the onset of menopause after controlling for age, total energy, body mass index, years of smoking, and age at which regular menstrual cycle began. The authors found that green and yellow vegetable intake was significantly inversely associated with the 6-year incidence of menopause (hazard ratio = 0.71, 95% confidence interval: 0.54, 0.95 for the highest vs. lowest tertile of intake, p for trend = 0.02). Association of carotene intake with the incidence of menopause was of borderline significance (hazard ratio = 0.78, 95% confidence interval: 0.59, 1.04, p for trend = 0.07).

  9. The management of menopause in women with a history of endometriosis: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Gemmell, L C; Webster, K E; Kirtley, S; Vincent, K; Zondervan, K T; Becker, C M

    2017-07-01

    Endometriosis is typically regarded as a premenopausal disease, resolving after natural or iatrogenic menopause due to declining oestrogen levels. Nonetheless, case reports over the years have highlighted the incidence of recurrent postmenopausal endometriosis. It is now clear that both recurrence and malignant transformation of endometriotic foci can occur in the postmenopausal period. Postmenopausal women are commonly treated with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) to treat climacteric symptoms and prevent bone loss; however, HRT may reactivate endometriosis and stimulate malignant transformation in women with a history of endometriosis. Given the uncertain risks of initiating HRT, it is difficult to determine the best menopausal management for this group of women. The aim of this study was to systematically review the existing literature on management of menopausal symptoms in women with a history of endometriosis. We also aimed to evaluate the published literature on the risks associated with HRT in these women, and details regarding optimal formulations and timing (i.e. initiation and duration) of HRT. Four electronic databases (MEDLINE via OVID, Embase via OVID, PsycINFO via OVID and CINAHL via EbscoHost) were searched from database inception until June 2016, using a combination of relevant controlled vocabulary terms and free-text terms related to 'menopause' and 'endometriosis'. Inclusion criteria were: menopausal women with a history of endometriosis and menopausal treatment including HRT or other preparations. Case reports/series, observational studies and clinical trials were included. Narrative review articles, organizational guidelines and conference abstracts were excluded, as were studies that did not report on any form of menopausal management. Articles were assessed for risk of bias and quality using GRADE criteria. We present a synthesis of the existing case reports of endometriosis recurrence or malignant transformation in women undergoing

  10. In Behalf of Women Over 40: Understanding the Importance of the Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkun, Cleo S.

    1986-01-01

    Interviews with 60 women aged 40-55 suggest no significant associations between a woman's menstrual status and her affective state. However, subjects strongly desired information about menopause and bodily changes. They protected themselves from exposure to the social rejection often experienced by older women but did not regret cessation of…

  11. Menopause Experiences and Attitudes in Women with Intellectual Disability and in Their Family Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. Method: A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan.…

  12. Daydreaming in 40- to 60-Year-Old Women: Menopause, Health, Values, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambra, Leonard M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated midlife influences on daydreaming for 477 women from 40 to 60 years of age. Examined 42 variables including health status, symptom presence, menstruation difficulties, sexual activities, and effects of menopause. Results indicated daydreaming was more prevalent among women with various psychological symptoms. (PAS)

  13. Daydreaming in 40- to 60-Year-Old Women: Menopause, Health, Values, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambra, Leonard M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated midlife influences on daydreaming for 477 women from 40 to 60 years of age. Examined 42 variables including health status, symptom presence, menstruation difficulties, sexual activities, and effects of menopause. Results indicated daydreaming was more prevalent among women with various psychological symptoms. (PAS)

  14. Menopause Experiences and Attitudes in Women with Intellectual Disability and in Their Family Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. Method: A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan.…

  15. In Behalf of Women Over 40: Understanding the Importance of the Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkun, Cleo S.

    1986-01-01

    Interviews with 60 women aged 40-55 suggest no significant associations between a woman's menstrual status and her affective state. However, subjects strongly desired information about menopause and bodily changes. They protected themselves from exposure to the social rejection often experienced by older women but did not regret cessation of…

  16. Surgical Menopause and Nonvertebral Fracture Risk among Older U.S. Women

    PubMed Central

    Vesco, Kimberly K.; Marshall, Lynn M.; Nelson, Heidi D.; Humphrey, Linda; Rizzo, Joanne; Pedula, Kathryn L.; Cauley, Jane A.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Hochberg, Marc C.; Antoniucci, Diana; Hillier, Teresa A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine whether older postmenopausal women with a history of bilateral oophorectomy prior to natural menopause (surgical menopause) have a higher risk of nonvertebral, postmenopausal fracture than women with natural menopause. Methods We used 21 years of prospectively collected incident fracture data from the ongoing Study of Osteoporotic Fractures (SOF), a cohort study of community dwelling women without previous bilateral hip fracture who were age 65 or older at enrollment, to determine the risk of hip, wrist, and any nonvertebral fracture. Chi square and t-tests were used to compare the two groups on important characteristics. Multivariable Cox proportional hazards regression models stratified by baseline oral estrogen use status were used to estimate the risk of fracture. Results Baseline characteristics differed significantly between the 6,616 women within SOF who underwent either surgical (1,157) or natural (5,459) menopause, including mean age at menopause (44.3 ±7.4 versus 48.9 ±4.9 years, p<.001) and current use of oral estrogen (30.2% vs 6.5%, p<.001). Fracture rates were not significantly increased for surgical versus natural menopause, even among women who had never used oral estrogen (hip fracture, hazard ratio [HR] 0.87, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.63–1.21; wrist fracture HR 1.10, 95% CI 0.78–1.57; any nonvertebral fracture HR 1.11, 95% CI 0.93–1.32). Conclusion These data provide some reassurance that the long-term risk of nonvertebral fracture is not substantially increased for postmenopausal women who experienced premenopausal bilateral oophorectomy, compared to postmenopausal women with intact ovaries, even in the absence of postmenopausal estrogen therapy. PMID:22547252

  17. ALOX12 gene is associated with the onset of natural menopause in white women

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengyuan; Lu, Yan; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen; Dvornyk, Volodymyr

    2010-01-01

    Objective Natural menopause is a key physiological event in a woman’s life. Timing of menopause affects risk for many postmenopausal systemic disorders and may thus influence life expectancy. Age at natural menopause (ANM) is largely determined genetically, but a list of candidate genes is far from complete. This study investigated the ALOX12 gene for its possible association with ANM. Methods Six single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the gene (rs9904779, rs2073438, rs11571340, rs434473, rs2307214, and rs312462) were genotyped in a random sample of 210 unrelated white women. The SNPs and common haplotypes were then analyzed for their association with ANM. Smoking, alcohol consumption, and duration of breast-feeding were used as covariates. Results Two SNPs, rs9904779 and rs434473 (encodes a replacement of asparagine by serine in the protein), were significantly associated with ANM (P = 0.022 and 0.033, respectively). The minor alleles of both SNPs seem to promote about 1.3- to 1.5-year earlier menopause and confer a 1.6 to 1.8 times higher risk for early menopause. All SNPs indicated significant or nearly significant interactions with alcohol use and duration of breast-feeding. Five common haplotypes were also associated with ANM. Conclusions The ALOX12 gene seems to be associated with the timing of natural menopause in white women. PMID:20061896

  18. Prevalence of menopausal symptoms among mid-life women: findings from electronic medical records.

    PubMed

    Sussman, Matthew; Trocio, Jeffrey; Best, Craig; Mirkin, Sebastian; Bushmakin, Andrew G; Yood, Robert; Friedman, Mark; Menzin, Joseph; Louie, Michael

    2015-08-13

    To assess the prevalence of menopausal symptoms among women prescribed hormone therapy (HT) using electronic medical record data from a regional healthcare organization. Retrospective data from the Reliant Medical Group from 1/1/2006-12/31/2011 were assessed for 102 randomly-selected patients. Study eligibility criteria included: females aged 45 to 65; prescribed oral or transdermal HT; no history of breast cancer, venous thromboembolism, stroke, gynecological cancer, or hysterectomy; continuously enrolled in the health plan for 1 year before and after the first observed HT prescription. Prevalence of menopause-related symptoms was analyzed descriptively at both the patient and visit levels. Mean age of patients was 54 years. The most common menopausal symptoms were: hot flushes (40%), night sweats (17%), insomnia (16%), vaginal dryness (13%), mood disorders (12%), and weight gain (12%). Among the 102 patients, 163 individual visits listing menopausal symptoms were identified, of which hot flushes (71 visits) were the most common symptom identified. Our findings provide recent data on the types of menopausal symptoms experienced by mid-life women prescribed HT. Electronic medical records may be a rich source of data for future studies of menopausal symptoms in this population.

  19. The association of depression status with menopause symptoms among rural midlife women in China.

    PubMed

    Zang, Hongyan; He, Lianping; Chen, Yan; Ge, Jianfeng; Yao, Yingshui

    2016-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the association of depression with menopausal status and some menopause symptoms (vasomotor symptoms and poor sleep). A total of 743 participants aged 40-60 years were recruited. Depression status was evaluated by using Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS). Sleep quality and vasomotor symptoms were evaluated by specific symptoms questionnaire. The prevalence of depression among participants was 11.4%. Depression was found more likely to occur in participants with poor sleep (OR, 6.02; 95%CI, 3.61, 10.03) or with vasomotor symptoms (VMS) (OR, 2.03; 95%CI, 1.20, 3.44) after controlling for age, education level, marital status, menopause status, monthly family income and chronic diseases. Menopause status was not associated with depression. Stratification analysis showed a significant association between poor sleep and depression across different menopause stages, while VMS were associated with depression only in premenopausal status. The majority of Chinese rural midlife women do not experience depression. The relationship between depression, VMS and sleep disturbances tends to change with menopausal status in Chinese rural midlife women.

  20. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J

    2015-11-01

    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P<0.05) and HF and total power were higher (P<0.05) in ExFHA than in eumenorrhoeic women. In all groups, LBNP decreased (P<0.05) SBP, HF and total power and increased (P<0.05) HR and LF/HF ratio. However, HF and total power remained higher (P<0.05) and HR, SBP and LF/HF ratio remained lower (P<0.05) in ExFHA than in eumenorrhoeic women, in whom measures did not differ (P>0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (P<0.05) with HF. In conclusion, ExFHA women demonstrate augmented vagal yet unchanged sympathetic HR modulation, both at rest and during orthostatic stress. Although the role of oestrogen deficiency is unclear, these findings are in contrast with studies reporting decreased HRV in hypoestrogenic post-menopausal women.

  1. The effect of menopause on carotid artery remodeling, insulin sensitivity, and plasma adiponectin in healthy women.

    PubMed

    Muscelli, Elza; Kozàkovà, Michaela; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kyriakopoulou, Konstantina; Astiarraga, Brenno D; Glintborg, Dorte; Konrad, Thomas; Favuzzi, Angela; Petrie, Jhon

    2009-04-01

    The mechanisms by which menopause may influence the systemic subclinical atherosclerosis are unexplained. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to evaluate the associations between early menopause, established cardiovascular (c-v) risk factors, metabolic parameters (insulin secretion and sensitivity, plasma adiponectin), and carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) in healthy women. In 74 menopausal women (mean age = 51 +/- 3 years, mean duration of menopause = 2.9 +/- 1.2 years) and in 74 nonmenopausal women comparable for age and body mass index (BMI), common carotid artery (CCA) luminal diameter, and IMT in different carotid segments were measured in digitized ultrasound images. Insulin sensitivity and secretion were assessed using the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp technique and oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT). Insulin secretion was reconstructed by mathematical modeling. CCA diameter (5.55 +/- 0.46 vs. 5.21+/- 0.51 mm, P < 0.001), CCA IMT (608 +/- 78 vs. 576 +/- 74 microm, P < 0.01) and systolic blood pressure (BP) (117 +/- 12 vs. 113 +/- 11 mm Hg, P < 0.05) were higher in menopausal women, whereas CCA IMT/diameter ratio and IMT in other carotid segments did not differ between the groups. By multivariate models, independent predictors of CCA diameter were menopause and body weight (cumulative R2 = 0.37) and independent correlates of CCA IMT were luminal diameter, systolic BP and low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol (cumulative R2 = 0.48). Fasting insulin, insulin secretion, and sensitivity and plasma adiponectin were similar in the two groups and were not related to carotid IMT. Early menopause is associated with CCA remodeling, characterized by a proportional increase in luminal diameter and wall thickness, independent of atherosclerotic risk factors and metabolic variables.

  2. The impact of extroversion or menopause status on depressive symptoms among climacteric women in Taiwan: neuroticism as moderator or mediator?

    PubMed

    Lin, Mei-Fang; Ko, Huei-Chen; Wu, Jo Y W; Chang, Fong-Ming

    2008-01-01

    The study was designed to test whether neuroticism moderated the effect of extroversion and mediated the impact of menopause status on depressive symptoms among women in Taiwan during their menopausal transition. A sample of 197 women, aged 40 to 60 years, were recruited from the community. We used Ko's Depression Inventory, the Five-Factor Inventory-Chinese version, the Menopausal Symptoms Scale, and the Chinese version of the Modified Schedule of Affective Disorders and Schizophrenia-Lifetime to gather data. Moreover, each woman underwent a semistructured diagnostic interview in person to obtain her lifetime psychiatric history. The hierarchy regression analyses showed that the interaction between neuroticism and extroversion was statistically significant. Further analyses indicated that in the high neuroticism group, extroversion was negatively associated with depressive symptoms; however, in the low neuroticism group, extroversion was not correlated with depressive symptoms. Menopause status was correlated with depressive symptoms, but after adding neuroticism and extroversion, the main effect of menopause status became insignificant. Results of the Sobel test showed that depressive symptoms of women during the menopause transition largely represented neuroticism. The present study revealed that the lower levels of extroversion are associated with depression among all stages of menopausal women with high levels of neuroticism; moreover, all stages of menopausal women who have high levels of neuroticism are more vulnerable to depression. The results support that personality may play an important role in women's depression during the transition of menopausal status.

  3. Menopausal symptoms and physical activity in multiethnic groups of midlife women: a secondary analysis.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2013-09-01

    To explore the effect of diverse types of women's physical activity on menopausal symptoms among multiethnic groups of midlife women in the USA. Although physical activity is one of the most widely used non-pharmacological methods for managing menopausal symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical guidelines for women and healthcare providers because the relationship between physical activity and menopausal symptoms has been found inconsistent in previous studies. A secondary analysis of the data from a lager Internet survey study conducted in 2008-2010. A total of 481 midlife women among four ethnic groups were selected from the original study. The data were collected using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey and the Midlife Women's Symptom Index. Bivariate correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyse the data. The household/caregiving activity index was positively associated with the prevalence scores of the psychological symptoms in both non-Hispanic Asians and non-Hispanic African Americans. The increased sports/exercise activity index was negatively associated with the severity scores of the physical symptoms in both Hispanics and non-Hispanic Whites. The occupational activity index and the active living activity index significantly predicted the severity scores of the psychosomatic symptoms in Hispanics and non-Hispanic African Americans, respectively. Nurses who take care of multiethnic groups of midlife women who experience menopausal symptoms should be aware of diverse types of women's physical activities within the cultural context. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  4. Menopausal experiences and bone density of Mayan women in Yucatan, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Beyene, Y; Martin, M C

    2001-01-01

    This cross-sectional study reports on the menopausal transition of Mayan women from Yucatan, Mexico. A total of 228 women completed the study, and 118 women were classified by history as postmenopausal; the others were premenopausal. Demographic information, reproductive history, physical examination, hormone concentrations, radial bone density, food samples, and history of physical activity were obtained. The average age at which menopause occurred by history was 44.3 +/- 4.4 years; this is reflected in the distribution of FSH levels by age. None of the women reported symptoms of hot flashes, and none recalled any history of significant symptoms associated with their menopausal transition. Hormone levels were similar to U.S. reference values with elevated FSH (66.6 +/- 29.1 mIU/ml), low estradiol (9.4 +/- 8.3 pg/ml) and estrone (13.3 +/- 7.8 pg/ml), E1 > E2, and normal levels of testosterone and androstenedione. BMD declined with age, and values were lower than reference values for United States women. Clinical evidence of fracture was not detected by history or physical examination even for those who were 20 years postmenopausal. The endocrine characteristics of menopause among Mayan women in Yucatan are similar to hormonal changes reported for women in the United States, but signs, symptoms, and apparent consequences are different in the two populations.

  5. El cambio de vida: conceptualizations of menopause and midlife among urban Latina women.

    PubMed

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Harlow, Sioban D; Lopez, Maria; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    The experience of menopause among Latina women has seldom been described. The purpose of this study was to conceptualize and contextualize the experience of menopause from the perspective of Latina women. A series of focus group sessions were conducted with postmenopausal Latina women living in a large midwestern city. Themes derived from content analysis included: (a) The primacy of health and the importance of harmony and balance; (b) El cambio de vida--something you have to go through; and (c) This time is for me: reorientation and restructuring. Rediscovery and redefinition as opposed to being defined by physical symptoms marked this life phase. Implications of study findings are discussed within the context of an emerging biopsychosocial perspective of midlife and menopause transition.

  6. Menopausal Symptom Experience of Hispanic Midlife Women in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Seung Hee; Dormire, Sharon; Chee, Wonshik; Kresta, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Using a feminist approach, we examined the menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the U.S. This was a qualitative online forum study among 27 Hispanic midlife women in the U.S. Seven topics related to menopausal symptom experience were used to administer the 6-month online forum. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (a) “Cambio de vida (change of life),” (b) “being silent about menopause,” (c) “trying to be optimistic,” and (d) “getting support.” More in-depth studies with diverse groups of Hispanic women are needed while considering family as a contextual factor. PMID:19742365

  7. Racial Differences in Bone Loss and Relation to Menopause Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjali; Flom, Peter L.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Schoenbaum, Ellie E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize changes in bone mineral density (BMD) according to race among HIV-infected and uninfected women, and to evaluate the relationship between race and menopause-related bone loss. Methods Dual x-ray absorptiometry measured BMD on study entry and a minimum of 18 months later in 246 HIV-infected and 219 HIV-uninfected women in the Menopause Study. Linear regression analyses determined percent annual BMD change at total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), and lumbar spine (LS) after adjusting for potential confounders. Race-stratified and HIV-infected subgroup analyses were performed. Results At baseline, mean age was 45 years, 19% of women were postmenopausal. HIV-infected women were more likely to be black (58% vs. 38%), and had lower BMI and less cigarette exposure when compared to HIV-uninfected women. Women who were perimenopausal at baseline and postmenopausal at follow-up had the greatest TH bone loss (−1.68%/yr, p<.0001) followed by those postmenopausal throughout (−1.02%/yr, p=.007). We found a significant interaction between HIV status and race in multivariate analyses of BMD change at the FN and TH. In race-stratified analyses, HIV infection was associated with TH BMD loss in non-black women. Black women experienced greater menopause-associated decline in TH BMD compared with non-black women. Conclusions The association of HIV and BMD differs strikingly by race, as do the effects of the menopausal transition on bone. Determining the extent to which the effect of HIV on fracture risk varies by race will be crucial to identify HIV-infected women at greatest risk for osteoporotic fracture, particularly as they enter menopause. PMID:25896953

  8. Should menopausal characteristics be considered during cardiorespiratory exercise prescription in postmenopausal women?

    PubMed

    Aragão, F R; Moreira, M H; Gabriel, R E; Abrantes, C G

    2015-04-01

    Menopausal characteristics (i.e. the nature of menopause, hormone therapy, and time elapsed since menopause) are known to affect women's health-related quality of life. The purpose of this study was to determine whether menopausal characteristics affect the cardiorespiratory exercise response and which characteristics should be considered for exercise prescription. Fifty-eight postmenopausal women (60.21 ± 4.49 years of age; 66.26 ± 8.99 kg body weight; 157.09 ± 4.92 cm in height; 29.70 ± 4.79 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) maximal oxygen uptake) participated in this study. A graded 25-W/min(2) cycle ergometer exercise protocol was applied to assess aerobic power and ventilatory thresholds. Participants' heart rates and gas-exchange variables were measured continuously using a COSMED K4b(2) portable gas analyzer system. The first and the second ventilatory thresholds were determined by the time-course curves of ventilation and oxygen and carbon dioxide ventilatory equivalents. Using age as a covariate, an analysis of covariance was performed to assess the effect of menopause characteristics upon the data. Regardless of the nature of menopause, use of hormone therapy, time elapsed since menopause, and the interaction between these characteristics, the participants presented no differences in maximal oxygen uptake values, neither on submaximal variables often used in evaluations of exercise prescription, such as percent of maximal oxygen uptake, maximal heart rate, and heart rate reserve, nor in respiratory exchange ratio and gas exchange energy expenditure at aerobic and anaerobic ventilatory thresholds. These data suggest that a personalized cardiorespiratory target zone for this population should be set according to the published literature, and that consideration of the individual menopausal characteristics seems to be unnecessary.

  9. A microsatellite polymorphism in IGF1 gene promoter and timing of natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Kotarski, Jan; Halerz-Nowakowska, Barbara; Goździka-Józefiak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Genes involved in the IGF-1 aging pathways in the human ovary can be considered strong candidates for predictors of the natural menopause timing. This study evaluates the association between a cytosine-adenine (CA) microsatellite polymorphism in the IGF1 gene promoter P1 and age at natural menopause. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, PCR was performed using primers designed to amplify the polymorphic (CA) n repeat of the human IGF1 gene, an allele dose effect for the most common (CA)19 repeats allele, Cox proportional hazard regression models and the Kaplan-Meier cumulative survivorship method with the log-rank test were used to determine statistical significance of studied associations in a sample of 257 Polish women aged 40-58 years. Crude Cox proportional hazard regression analysis confirmed the association between the IGF1 gene polymorphism and the menopause timing (p=0.038). This relationship remained statistically significant after controlling for other menopause confounders in multivariate modelling. Out of the input variables, the (CA)n polymorphism in the IGF1 gene promoter, age at menarche and smoking status were independent covariates of the natural menopause timing (χ2=12.845; df=3; p=0.034). The onset of menopause at a younger age was likely associated with the IGF1 genotype variant not carrying the (CA)19 repeats allele, menarche before the age of 12 and a current cigarette smoker status (HR=1.6). This study provides evidence that a common cytosine-adenine (CA) microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF1 gene is an independent predictive factor for age at natural menopause in Caucasian women also after adjusting for other menopause covariates.

  10. Sex life and role identity in Taiwanese women during menopause: a qualitative study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Cheng-Fang; Kenney, Nancy J; Chang, Ting-Chen; Chang, Shiow-Ru

    2016-04-01

    Our goal was to examine Taiwanese women's perspectives on the way menopause affected their sexual behaviour to gain an in-depth understanding of their experiences during this transition. Physical symptoms associated with menopause may affect women's sexual experiences. Little is known about how menopause-related changes in sexual behaviour may affect role identity of women living in a modernizing urban culture that is still strongly rooted in traditional beliefs and attitudes. This was a qualitative study involving face-to-face interviews using open-ended questions. During 2011-2012, eighteen peri or postmenopausal women visiting a medical clinic for gynaecological examinations or treatment were interviewed about their sexual experiences. Responses were analysed for common themes. Four themes were identified about the effects of menopause on women's sex life: (1) changes in physical responses during sex; (2) the acceptance/non-acceptance of the current situation; (3) sexual pressure related to their marital role; (4) efforts to improve sexual interest or activity. Menopause-related physical changes often (but not always) made sexual interactions difficult. But women's responses to the changes varied. Some used sexual discomfort as a reason to avoid sexual intercourse. Others sought to improve their sexual encounters through behavioural modifications or hormone therapy. Given the variety of reactions to the impact of menopause on sexual behaviour/relationships seen here, it is clear that health professionals need to assess of each woman's specific situation and be prepared to recommend a variety of behavioural or hormonal treatment options. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. The pQCT 'Bone Strength Indices' (BSIs, SSI). Relative mechanical impact and diagnostic value of the indicators of bone tissue and design quality employed in their calculation in healthy men and pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cointry, G R; Ferretti, J L; Reina, P S; Nocciolino, L M; Rittweger, J; Capozza, R F

    2014-03-01

    The pQCT-assessed Bone Strength Indices (BSI's, SSI) depend on the product of a 'quality' indicator, the cortical vBMD (vCtD), and a 'design' indicator, one of the cross-sectional moments of inertia or related variables (MIs) in long bones. As the MIs vary naturally much more than the vCtD and represent different properties, it could be that the variation of the indices might not reflect the relative mechanical impact of the variation of their determinant factors in different individuals or circumstances. To understand this problem, we determined the vCtD and MI's in tibia scans of 232 healthy men and pre- and post-MP women, expressed in SD of the means calculated for each group, and analyzed the independent influence of 1 SD unit of variation of each factor on that of the indices by multiple correlations. Results showed: 1. that the independent influence of the MIs on the indices was generally larger than that of the vCtD, and 2. that in post-MP women the influence of the vCtD was larger than it was in the other groups. This confirms the view that inter-individual variation of vCtD is comparatively small, and that mechanical competence of human bone is mostly determined by 'design' factors.

  12. Psychometric attributes of the Cervantes short-form questionnaire for measuring health-related quality of life in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Coronado, Pluvio J; Sánchez-Borrego, Rafael; Ruiz, Miguel A; Baquedano, Laura; Sánchez, Sonia; Argudo, Cristina; Fernández-Abellán, Mariela; González, Silvia; Iglesias, Eva; Calleja, Jackie; Presa, Jesus; Duque, Alfonso; Ruiz, Fernando; Otero, Borja; Rejas, Javier

    2016-02-01

    To analyse the psychometric properties of the Cervantes scale short-form (SF) in the peri- and post-menopausal periods. Outpatients women 45-65 years with menstrual problems associated with the climacteric syndrome were analysed. Original and SF versions of the Cervantes scale were administered along with the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D) and work productivity and activity impairment questionnaire (WPAI) scales. Conceptual model, burden of administration, feasibility, reliability, criteria validity and construct validity were assessed. 317 women [55.7±5.3 years (mean±standard deviation)] were recruited: 75.4% were post- and 22.3% were peri-menopausal. The Cervantes-SF was completed in 2.5±1.6min, and 86% answered all items. Cronbach's α was 0.820, and ranged from 0.510 (Aging) to 0.918 (Vasomotor Symptoms) for individual dimensions. The scale structure matched the structure of the original version, χ(2)/(degrees of freedom)=3.6, Comparative Fit Index=0.848, Tucker-Lewis Index=0.850, and root mean square error of approximation=0.099, although differences were found between sexual activity statuses. Criteria validity was good (r=0.890), concurrent validity was congruent with a priori hypothesis using either the EQ-5D or the WPAI scales. The scale discriminated significantly the severity of both vasomotor and genital climacteric associated symptoms. The Cervantes-SF has shown good psychometric properties for measuring Health related quality of life in peri- and post-menopausal women who regularly attended gynaecology clinics in Spain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Cost of non-persistence with oral bisphosphonates in post-menopausal osteoporosis treatment in France

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background During the last decade, oral bisphosphonates (BP) became the most widely prescribed pharmacologic class for post-menopausal osteoporosis. However, many surveys revealed the important issue of poor persistence with those drugs resulting in a failure of treatment to reduce fracture risk sufficiently. Using a published Markov model, this study analyses the economic impact of non-persistence with bisphosphonates in the context of the introduction of generics in France. Methods Direct costs of vertebral, hip and wrist fracture were assessed and included in an existing 10-year Markov model developed to analyse consequences of non-persistence. Three alternatives of comparison were set: no treatment, real-world persistence, and ideal persistence. Simulated patients' characteristics matched those from a French observational study and the real-world adherence alternative employed persistence data from published database analysis. The risk of fracture of menopausal women and the risk reduction associated with the drugs were based on results reported in clinical trials. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) were calculated first between real-world adherence and no treatment alternatives, and second between ideal and real-world persistence alternatives. The cost of non-persistence was defined as the difference between total cost of ideal and real-world persistence alternatives. Results Within fractured women population, mean costs of 10-year management of fracture were significantly different between the three alternatives with €7,239 (± €4,783), €6,711 (± €4,410) and €6,134 (± €3,945) in the no-treatment, the real-world and ideal persistence alternatives, respectively (p < 0.0001). Cost-effectiveness ratio for real-world treatment persistence compared with no-treatment alternative was found dominant and as well, alternative of ideal persistence dominated the former. Each ten percentage point of persistence gain amounted to €58 per patient

  14. Symptomatic Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor not Otherwise Specified in a Post-Menopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neha; Desai, Kaniksha; Chindris, Ana-Maria; Lewis, Jason; Dinh, Tri A.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) is a rare subtype of sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary and contributes less than 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. The majority of tumors occur in pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43 years), in which 56-77% of patients present with virilization due to excess testosterone. An 80-year-old woman with worsening alopecia and excessive growth of coarse hair on abdomen and genital area was found to have elevated serum testosterone level (462 ng/mL). Radiologic studies were consistent with bilateral adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling ruled out the adrenal gland as origin of hormone secretion. A diagnostic and therapeutic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy confirmed steroid cell tumor NOS of the left ovary. Post-operatively, the patient had complete resolution of her symptoms and normalization of testosterone level. Our case emphasizes the importance of a clinical suspicion for an occult testosterone secreting ovarian tumor in a symptomatic patient without obvious ovarian mass on imaging. PMID:27441075

  15. Roles of microRNA-221/222 in type 2 diabetic patients with post-menopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, M Y; Pan, S R; Qiu, A Y

    2016-07-14

    The aim of the research was to examine the expression level of microRNA221/222 (miR-221/222) in the serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are also diagnosed with post-menopausal breast cancer. We aimed to evaluate the differences in microRNA expression in patients with T2DM alone, patients with post-menopausal breast cancer alone, and patients with both T2DM and post-menopausal breast cancer. We selected 20 cases from a healthy control group, 30 cases from the group of patients with T2DM and obesity, 30 cases from the group of the patients with post-menopausal breast cancer, and 30 cases from the group of patients with both T2DM and post-menopausal breast cancer. The expression of miR-221/222 in the serum of the patients with post-menopausal breast cancer was higher than that of T2DM patients (P < 0.05), but lower than that of the T2DM patients who were also positive for post-menopausal breast cancer (P < 0.05); the expression of miR-221/222 in the serum of the T2DM patients was higher than that of the healthy controls (P < 0.05). BMI, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, and TG were positively correlated with the relative expression of miR-221/222 in the serum (P < 0.01). In conclusion, miR-221/222 participates in insulin resistance; the combination of miR- 221/222 and estrogen contributes to incidence of T2DM with post-menopausal breast cancer complications. MiR-221/222 may participate in the occurrence and progression of T2DM with post-menopausal breast cancer via down-regulation of CAVl.

  16. Depression, Anxiety, and Stress Symptoms in Menopausal Arab Women: Shedding More Light on a Complex Relationship.

    PubMed

    Bener, A; Saleh, N M; Bakir, A; Bhugra, D

    2016-01-01

    The association between depression, anxiety, and stress among Arab menopause and postmenopausal women have been explored in detailed. The objective of this study was to determine the correlation between depression, anxiety, and stress in menopausal and postmenopausal women and shedding more light on a complex relationship. A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian women at the primary health care centers in Qatar. A representative sample of 1468 women aged 45-65 years were approached during July 2012 and May 2014 and 1101 women agreed to participate (75.0%) and responded to the study. Depression, anxiety, and stress were measured using the Depression Anxiety Stress Scales 21. Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical and other parameters were used. Univariate, multivariate, and matrix correlation analysis were performed for statistical analysis. A total of 1101 women agreed to participate after informed consent was obtained. The mean age and standard deviation (SD) of the menopausal age were 49.55 (3.12), the mean and SD of postmenopausal age was 58.08 (3.26) (P < 0.001). There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to age, ethnicity, educational status, occupation status, and place of living. Furthermore, there were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure (BP), Vitamin D deficiency, and diseases. Depression and anxiety were more common among postmenopause women. Furthermore, there were no differences between the groups regarding the frequency of certain levels of stress among menopause and postmenopause. The multivariate regression analyses revealed that age in years, diastolic BP, consanguinity, regular exercise were a predictor for depression. Meanwhile, diastolic BP, occupation, and physical activity considered the main risk factors for anxiety. Furthermore, age in years, occupation

  17. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition attenuates cutaneous vasodilation during the post-menopausal hot flash

    PubMed Central

    Hubing, Kimberly A.; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Coso, Juan Del; Low, David A.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that local inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin synthesis attenuates cutaneous vasodilator responses during post-menopausal hot flashes. Methods Four microdialysis membranes were inserted into forearm skin (dorsal surface) of 8 post-menopausal women (mean ± SD, 51±7 y). Ringers solution (control), 10mM Ketorolac (Keto) to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, 10mM NG-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase, and a combination of 10mM Keto + 10mM L-NAME were each infused at the separate sites. Skin blood flow at each site was indexed using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure and was expressed as a percentage of the maximal calculated CVC (CVCmax) obtained following infusion of 50mM sodium nitropruside at all sites at the end of the study. Data from 13 hot flashes were analyzed. Results At the control site, the mean ± SD peak increase in CVC was 15.5±6% CVCmax units. This value was not different relative to the peak increase in CVC at the Keto site (13.0±5 % CVCmax units, P = 0.09). However, the peak increase in CVC during the flash was attenuated at the L-NAME and L-NAME + Keto sites (7.4±4 % CVCmax units and 8.7±7 % CVCmax units, respectively) relative to both the control and the Keto sites (P<0.05 for both comparisons). There were no significant differences in the peak increases in sweat rate between any of the sites (P = 0.24). Conclusions These data demonstrate that cutaneous vasodilation during a hot flash has a nitric oxide component. Increases in CVC despite the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis suggest prostaglandins do not contribute to cutaneous vasodilation during a hot flash. PMID:20505548

  18. Factors related to the experience of menopausal symptoms in women prescribed tamoxifen

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Zoe; Hunter, Myra S.; Moss-Morris, Rona; Hughes, Lyndsay Dawn

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Menopausal symptoms are frequent and severe in breast cancer survivors taking tamoxifen; however, treatment options are limited for these patients as hormonal replacement therapy is contraindicated. This study aimed to explore the experience and attribution of menopausal symptoms and identify factors related to the experience of menopausal symptoms in women taking tamoxifen. Methods: Women who had been prescribed tamoxifen for a diagnosis of primary breast cancer were recruited from oncology clinics across England and from online advertisements. Seven hundred and forty women completed questionnaires assessing illness perceptions, social support, mood and symptom duration/severity. Results: Eighty-four percent of women had experienced hot flushes and 80% experienced night sweats; of these, 60% experienced severe symptoms. Symptoms persisted throughout 5 years of treatment and were mainly attributed to tamoxifen. Logistic regressions showed that depressive symptoms, previous chemotherapy and being employed were associated with increased odds of hot flush or night sweat prevalence. Symptom severity was associated with depression, being employed and attributing symptoms to tamoxifen. Discussion: These findings have clinical implications in terms of targeting women who are more at risk and offering non-hormonal treatment options, such as cognitive behavioural therapy, to help women to develop self-management strategies for coping with menopausal symptoms. PMID:27583832

  19. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    PubMed

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  20. Vulvovaginal symptoms prevalence in postmenopausal women and relationship to other menopausal symptoms and pelvic floor disorders

    PubMed Central

    EREKSON, Elisabeth A.; LI, Fang-Yong; MARTIN, Deanna K.; FRIED, Terri R.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The primary objective of this study was to utilize the Vulvovaginal Symptom Questionnaire (VSQ) to estimate the prevalence and examine the emotional, life style and sexual impact of vulvovaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women. Methods We administered the VSQ questionnaire, a previous validated instrument to 358 postmenopausal women recruited from primary care physician offices and local senior centers. The first 7 questions of the VSQ comprise the symptom subscale (itching, burning, hurting, irritation, dryness, discharge and odor). Women who answered “Yes” to any of the first 7 symptom questions were considered to have vulvovaginal symptoms. Results Two hundred seventy nine women were recruited from primary care offices and 79 women were recruited from senior centers. One hundred eighty-three post-menopausal women (51.1%; 95% CI 45.9%, 56.3%) reported at least one vulvovaginal symptom. The most common symptom was being dry 35.8% (n/N = 128/358). Ten percent of women (n/N = 38/358) reported ≥ 5 symptoms and 6% of women reported all 7 symptoms in the last week. For women reporting ≥ 1vulvovaginal symptoms, 40.4% (n/N = 74/183) reported emotional impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 4 emotional impact subscale items) and 32.8% (n/N = 60/183) reported life style impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 5 life impact subscale items) from these symptoms. For sexually active women reporting vulvovaginal symptoms, 75.3% (n/N = 67/89) reported sexual impact (Yes to ≥ 1 out of 4 sexual impact subscale items). Vulvovaginal symptoms were associated with increased co-occurrence of specific pelvic floor disorders, including pelvic organ prolapse (p=0.001), anal incontinence to solid stool (p=0.001), urinary frequency (p=0.02), urgency urinary incontinence (p=0.001), and dysuria (p<0.001). Conclusion Vulvovaginal symptoms are common and present in over 50% of postmenopausal women. Sizeable proportions of women with vulvovaginal symptoms report emotional, life style and sexual

  1. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-12-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life.

  2. Exercising after Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... before beginning a new exercise program. Benefits of Exercise for Post-Menopausal Women Helps prevent osteoporosis by keeping bone and cartilage tissue strong and healthy. Reduces the risk of heart attack and other cardiovascular diseases by increasing heart and respiratory rates. Keeps your ...

  3. Perceptions of and attitudes toward estrogen therapy among surgically menopausal women in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ruey-Jien; Chang, Ting-Chen; Chow, Song-Nan

    2008-01-01

    To evaluate awareness of and attitudes toward estrogen therapy (ET) among surgically menopausal women in Taiwan. We performed a retrospective analysis of 188 women who underwent hysterectomy with bilateral oophorectomy before menopause. Responses to a questionnaire included women's thoughts about 20 of the most common menopausal symptoms, whether they used ET, and their attitudes about taking ET. Mean respondent age at surgery was 45.3+/-4.2 (SD) years; 59 women (31.4%) were either current or former users of ET. Vegetarians had a lower rate of ET use (9.5%) than omnivores (34.1%, P=0.0239, chi2 test). By multiple logistic regression, insomnia (P=0.005), palpitations (P=0.024), and cold sweats (P=0.027) were the symptoms most associated with ET use. The prevalence rates of the 20 menopausal symptoms ranged from 48.9% to 85.6%. By factor analysis, the 20 symptoms were grouped into four clusters: psychological, vasomotor, genital, and somatic. Although ET can improve all 20 symptoms, the effect was superior for the vasomotor cluster (P<0.0001, analysis of variance). Of the women, 154 (81.9%) were aware of ET, and their major sources of information about it were health professionals (48.1%) and the mass media (34.4%). Only 49.5% of the women regarded ET as necessary, and 50.4% of the women who had never used ET claimed that they would use it if their doctor could persuade them that its benefits outweighed its risks. Even though ET can significantly improve vasomotor symptoms, surgically menopausal women in Taiwan have a low rate of ET use.

  4. The concept and treatment methodology for inducing ovulation in women in apparent premature menopause.

    PubMed

    Check, J H

    2009-01-01

    To provide the concept and details of the methodology of inducing ovulation in women in apparent menopause. A recent case is discussed and other previous publications described illustrating how to induce ovulation and achieve pregnancies despite what appears to be menopause. The various methods of lowering serum follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and restoring down-regulated FSH receptors in granulosa theca cells of the follicle are described. The newly reported case had two successful pregnancies after having a trisomy 15 in her first pregnancy. Women aged 42 and younger in apparent menopause have a reasonably good chance of ovulation induction and pregnancy by adhering to the tenets discussed, especially including lowering the elevated FSH in some way (the easiest and cheapest with ethinyl estradiol), using minimal or no gonadotropins, and supporting the luteal phase with progesterone.

  5. [Constitution identification and treatment with acupuncture-moxibustion for menopausal women].

    PubMed

    Wang, Hong-Bin; Li, Xiao-Hong; Sun, Zhi-Fang; Mo, Jie; Wang, Jing; He, Long

    2011-12-01

    According to the theory of constitution and disease prevention of Chinese medicine, kidney deficiency, lack of nourishment of the Thoroughfare Vessel and the Conception Vessel as well as qi sufficiency and blood deficiency are taken as the main features of body constitutions of women during menopausal period. Acupuncture-moxibustion treatment before or in the early stage of menopausal period are discussed initially. Methods of tonifying the kidney and regulate qi and blood are held as the main treating principles. Acupuncture points such as Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Shenshu (BL 23), Guanyuan (CV 4) and Baihui (GV 20) are adopted as the main points. And proper stimulation of needling and moxibustion are applied. Thus, a new way of thinking is provided for disease prevention and health keeping of women during menopausal period in China.

  6. Knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and practices of African-American women toward menopausal health.

    PubMed

    Sharps, Phyllis W; Phillips, Janice; Oguntimalide, Lola; Saling, Jessica; Yun, Stephanie

    2003-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare the knowledge, attitudes, perceptions and health practices related to menopausal health among African-American women (N= 106) from diverse SES levels, between 40 to 65 years of age. The mean age was 49 years of age, 60.7% were college graduates, 45.8% were married, 85% employed full-time and 88% had medical insurance. Two-thirds rated their health as good, and half believed their health was better than other women. Most women (58%) use hormone replacement therapy (HRT) or would consider using HRT. In general women were knowledgeable about the process of menopause. Among this diverse group of women there were significant differences (p<.05) in use of HRT and health promotion behaviors. Most women (48.5%) sought information from printed materials. Women and their physicians should be encouraged to discuss menopausal health. Culturally appropriate materials should be provided in all women's health settings, through media and places where women gather including churches, beauty parlors, community centers.

  7. The association of menopause status with physical function: the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation.

    PubMed

    Tseng, Lisa A; El Khoudary, Samar R; Young, Elizabeth A; Farhat, Ghada N; Sowers, MaryFran; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Newman, Anne B

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether postmenopause status is associated with self-reported limitations in physical function. The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation is a multisite, multiethnic, longitudinal study of midlife women. Women aged 45 to 57 years (N = 2,566) completed the physical function scale of the Medical Outcomes Study Short-Form 36 on visit 4 (2000-2001). Scores created a three-category variable of physical function limitations: none (86-100), moderate (51-85), and substantial (0-50). In the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation, menopause status is a five-category list variable based on menstrual bleeding patterns and gynecological surgery. Premenopausal and perimenopausal women using hormones (n = 284) or missing physical function scores (n = 46) were excluded. Multinomial logistic regression was used to relate physical function and menopause status after adjustment for age, ethnicity, site, education, body mass index (BMI), and self-reported diabetes, hypertension, arthritis, depressive symptoms, smoking, and hormone use among postmenopausal women. Of 2,236 women, 8% were premenopausal, 51% were early perimenopausal, 12% were late perimenopausal, 24% were naturally postmenopausal, and 5% were surgically postmenopausal. In the full model, substantial limitations in physical function were higher in postmenopausal women, whether naturally postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.82; 95% CI, 1.46-10.0) or surgically postmenopausal (odds ratio, 3.54; 95% CI, 1.15-10.84), than in premenopausal women. These associations were attenuated by higher BMI and depressive symptoms but remained significant. Moderate limitations in physical function were not significantly related to menopause status. Women experiencing surgical or naturally occurring postmenopause report greater limitations in physical function compared with premenopausal women, independent of age and only partly explained by higher BMI and depressive symptoms. This suggests that

  8. Sedentary lifestyle in middle-aged women is associated with severe menopausal symptoms and obesity.

    PubMed

    Blümel, Juan E; Fica, Juan; Chedraui, Peter; Mezones-Holguín, Edward; Zuñiga, María C; Witis, Silvina; Vallejo, María S; Tserotas, Konstantinos; Sánchez, Hugo; Onatra, William; Ojeda, Eliana; Mostajo, Desireé; Monterrosa, Alvaro; Lima, Selva; Martino, Mabel; Hernández-Bueno, José A; Gómez, Gustavo; Espinoza, María T; Flores, Daniel; Calle, Andrés; Bravo, Luz M; Benítez, Zully; Bencosme, Ascanio; Barón, Germán; Aedo, Sócrates

    2016-05-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the association between sedentary lifestyle and the severity of menopausal symptoms and obesity in middle-aged women. The Menopause Rating Scale, the Goldberg Anxiety and Depression Scale, and the Athens Insomnia Scale were administered to 6,079 Latin American women aged 40 to 59 years. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as fewer than three weekly, 30-minute periods of physical activity. Sedentary women had more severe menopausal symptoms (total Menopause Rating Scale score: 9.57 ± 6.71 vs 8.01 ± 6.27 points, P < 0.0001) and more depressive symptoms (Goldberg), anxiety (Goldberg), and insomnia (Athens Scale) compared with non-sedentary women. They also had greater mean waist circumference (86.2 ± 12.3 vs 84.3 ± 1.8 cm, P < 0.0001) and a higher prevalence of obesity (20.9% vs 14.3%, P < 0.0001). Logistic regression analysis showed that both obesity (odds ratio [OR] 1.52; 95% CI, 1.32-1.76) and severe menopausal symptoms (OR 1.28; 95% CI, 1.06-1.53), including insomnia and depressive mood, were positively associated with a sedentary lifestyle. Having a stable partner (OR 0.85; 95% CI, 0.76-0.96), using hormone therapy (OR 0.75; 95% CI, 0.64-0.87) and having a higher educational level (OR 0.66; 95% CI, 0.60-0.74) were negatively related to sedentary lifestyle. There was a high prevalence of sedentary lifestyle in this middle-aged Latin American female sample which was associated with more severe menopausal symptoms and obesity.

  9. Effects of body composition and menopause characteristics on maximal oxygen uptake of postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Aragão, Florbela da Rocha; Abrantes, Catarina Gavião; Gabriel, Ronaldo Eugénio; Sousa, Mário Fernando; Castelo-Branco, Camil; Moreira, Maria Helena

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the effects of body composition and menopause characteristics on maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2max) variation in postmenopausal women. The study was conducted on 208 healthy women aged 49 to 79 years. Data related to menopause were obtained through medical history. Measurements of fat mass, visceral fat area, skeletal muscle mass (SM), fat-free mass, and basal metabolic rate were assessed by octopolar bioimpedance. SM index was calculated using the formula SM index = SM/weight, and V˙O2max was assessed through a modified Bruce protocol. Cardiorespiratory fitness was negatively associated with age, percent fat mass, visceral fat area, body fat-muscular condition, and central adiposity-muscular condition. Only time elapsed since menopause revealed a statistically significant correlation with V˙O2max. Age and time of menopause aside, body fat-muscular condition was related to the V˙O2max variation, presenting an interactive effect with basal metabolic rate. Central adiposity-muscular condition also affects V˙O2max; however, the association of all interactions, age, basal metabolic rate, and time elapsed since menopause was not significant. Our data suggest an impairment of cardiorespiratory fitness with increasing age and time elapsed since menopause, but especially in the presence of increased total and central adiposity or reduced SM index. Body fat-muscular condition was significantly related to the V˙O2max variation, regardless of age and time elapsed since menopause, but not of basal metabolic rate. Central adiposity-muscular condition was a significant and independent factor of the V˙O2max exercise-related variations.

  10. Type and Timing of Menopause and Later Life Mortality Among Women in the Iowa Established Populations for the Epidemiological Study of the Elderly Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Rachel; Wallace, Robert B.; Guralnik, Jack M.

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background The relationship between menopausal characteristics and later life mortality is unclear. We tested the hypotheses that women with surgical menopause would have increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality compared with women with natural menopause, and that women with earlier ages at natural or surgical menopause would have greater all-cause and cardiovascular mortality than women with later ages at menopause. Methods Women who participated in the Iowa cohort of the Established Populations for the Epidemiologic Study of the Elderly (n=1684) reported menopausal characteristics and potential confounding variables at baseline and were followed up for up to 24 years. Participants were aged 65 years or older at baseline and lived in rural areas. We used survival analysis to examine the relationships between menopausal characteristics and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Results A total of 1477 women (87.7% of respondents) died during the study interval. Women with an age at natural menopause ≥55 years had increased all-cause and cardiovascular disease mortality compared with women who had natural menopause at younger ages. Type of menopause and age at surgical menopause were not related to mortality. These patterns persisted after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Conclusions Among an older group of women from a rural area of the United States, later age at natural menopause was related to increased all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Monitoring the cardiovascular health of this group of older women may contribute to improved survival times. PMID:21970557

  11. Obstacles to the discussion of sexual problems in menopausal women: a qualitative study of healthcare providers.

    PubMed

    Ghazanfarpour, Masoumeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mehdi Hazavehei, Seyed Mohammad

    2017-07-01

    The aim of this study was to explore issues that challenge menopausal women in discussions of their sexual problems with a physician. This was done from the perspective of healthcare providers. In a descriptive exploratory qualitative study, using a semi-structured interview and purposive sampling, a sample set of 12 midwives and 13 general practitioners aged 25-70 years were selected in order to elicit meaning behind their experiences about the subject under study. Data analysis was carried out using qualitative content analysis. Results were used to identify a number of obstacles that hindered women from seeking help for sexual problems from GPs and midwives. These obstacles included the following: (1) traditional and cultural beliefs; (2) religious belief; (3) individuals' beliefs and (4) access to services. More research is needed to explore effective strategies to overcome these problems. Impact statement Current knowledge on the subject: In the literature, many reasons have been identified for the unwillingness of Iranian women to discuss their sexual problems with health providers. These include lack of time, feelings of shame and an expectation that a doctor cannot help. However, no qualitative study has addressed barriers held by menopausal women for seeking treatment for sexual problems. The contribution made by the results of this study: The results of this study add to the growing body of research on reasons that determine why most postmenopausal women rarely visit a doctor unless they were in tremendous physical or emotional pain. Also, menopausal women thought that an unmarried health provider would be less understanding about sexual and marital problems and they felt guilty about sharing such issues with them. Patients' opinions on the nature of menopause (a pathological vs. physiological process) affect the way in which the symptoms of menopause and sexual problems are handled by patient. The implications are of these findings for clinical

  12. Hormonal changes in menopause: do they contribute to a 'midlife hair crisis' in women?

    PubMed

    Mirmirani, P

    2011-12-01

    Female pattern hair loss is a common problem affecting a large number of women worldwide but beset by a paucity of research. The study of androgens has hitherto dominated the field of hair biology but there is increasing scientific and clinical data to suggest that nonandrogen signals can also affect the folliculosebaceous unit, especially in women. The discovery of oestrogen receptor beta has renewed and redefined prior concepts of oestrogen activity and signalling in hair biology. It is postulated that oestrogens modulate hair growth by their influence on a number of other hormones, growth factors, transcription factors and cytokines. The menopause is a period in which significant changes in oestrogen levels are recorded, and this review discusses studies that help to clarify the link between menopause and the perception of thinning hair. In a study of pre- and postmenopausal women without alopecia, menopausal status significantly influenced hair parameters, specifically hair growth rate, percentage anagen and hair diameter distributions, most notably in the frontal scalp. Hair density decreased with age, but was not correlated with menopausal status. Analyses of hair amount using a model of hair density and hair diameters suggest that the impact of changing hair parameters is most notable in the mid-forties for women.

  13. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on nitric oxide metabolism and blood pressure in menopausal women

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Isoflavones, having chemical structures similar to estrogens, are believed to stimulate nitric oxide production and thus lower blood pressure. The efficacy of soy isoflavone supplementation to stimulate nitric oxide production and lower blood pressure in menopausal women with high normal blood press...

  14. Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Eswar; Bennett, Mihoko; Chen, Linjun

    2014-11-01

    This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population. Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively. Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses. Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

  15. Aromatherapy Massage Affects Menopausal Symptoms in Korean Climacteric Women: A Pilot-Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures. PMID:18830459

  16. Aromatherapy massage affects menopausal symptoms in korean climacteric women: a pilot-controlled clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Hur, Myung-Haeng; Yang, Yun Seok; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2008-09-01

    This study investigated the effects of aromatherapy massage on menopausal symptoms in Korean climacteric women. Kupperman's menopausal index was used to compare an experimental group of 25 climacteric women with a wait-listed control group of 27 climacteric women. Aromatherapy was applied topically to subjects in the experimental group in the form of massage on the abdomen, back and arms using lavender, rose geranium, rose and jasmine in almond and primrose oils once a week for 8 weeks (eight times in total). The experimental group reported a significantly lower total menopausal index than wait-listed controls (P < 0.05). There were also significant intergroup differences in subcategories such as vasomotor, melancholia, arthralgia and myalgia (all P < 0.05). These findings suggest that aromatherapy massage may be an effective treatment of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, depression and pain in climacteric women. However, it could not be verified whether the positive effects were from the aromatherapy, the massage or both. Further rigorous studies should be done with more objective measures.

  17. Life course socioeconomic adversity and age at natural menopause in women from Latin America and the Caribbean.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Maria P; Alvarado, Beatriz; Lord, Catherine; Zunzunegui, Maria-Victoria

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the association between life course socioeconomic adversity and age at menopause in Latin America and the Caribbean. Data from 4,056 women aged 60 to 79 years randomly selected from seven cities in Latin America and the Caribbean were analyzed. Cox proportional hazards models were used to estimate the probability of age at menopause by indicators of life course socioeconomic adversity. Median age at menopause was 50 years. The following life course socioeonomic indicators were associated with earlier age at menopause: low education (hazard ratio [HR], 1.16; 95% CI, 1.07-1.26) and manual occupation/housewives (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 1.03-1.20). Other factors associated with earlier age at menopause were current smoking (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.03-1.27), nulliparity (HR, 1.14; 95% CI, 1.02-1.28), and multiparity (five children or more; HR, 1.15; 95% CI, 1.06-1.24). There was a cumulative effect of socioeconomic adversities across the life course. The median age at menopause was lower for women with six indicators of life course socioeconomic adversity compared with women with no adversities (HR, 1.40; 95% CI, 1.10-1.77). Median age at menopause occurs several years earlier in women from Latin America and the Caribbean compared with women from high-income countries. The results support the association between life course socioeconomic adversity and age at menopause.

  18. Attitude to the Menopause and Sex amongst Middle-Aged Women in a Family Medicine Clinic in Ibadan, Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Daramola, Olufunmilola Olutosin

    2016-01-01

    Background. Menopause is the expected end of reproductive life. Having a positive attitude towards it has been shown to result in a positive experience, while a negative attitude is associated with negative experiences and symptoms. Traditionally, women often abstain from sex after menopause. The study aimed to determine the level of awareness and perceptions about the menopause and sex in perimenopausal women attending a general outpatient clinic. Methods. Women over 40 years were recruited from the Family Medicine Department of University College Hospital, excluding those who were menopausal. Data analyses were done with chi-square test (p < 0.05). Results. Most (302; 86.4%) of the 352 surveyed participants were aware of the menopause. Only 36.1% anticipated associated symptoms. About half (55.7%) were indifferent to menopause onset, while 23% had a positive attitude and 21.4% had a negative attitude, respectively. Younger women were less likely to have a positive attitude to the menopause (p = 0.04). There were negative cultural beliefs towards sex. Sexual activity was low and declined with age (p < 0.001). Many women would like treatment to improve their sexual activity. Conclusion. Most participants had a favourable disposition towards the menopause, though sexual relationships suffer. Counselling and treatment should be offered. PMID:27895667

  19. Identifying predictive motor factors for falls in post-menopausal breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Zak, Marek; Biskup, Malgorzata; Macek, Pawel; Krol, Halina; Krupnik, Szymon; Opuchlik, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Objective Breast cancer treatment, including radical surgery, is also pursued as late as the 7th - 8th decade of women’s lives. Standard physical rehabilitation procedures offered to those women are predominantly focused on attenuating specific functional deficits of the upper limb and trunk. Seldom do they entail any regimens specifically aimed at recovering overall functionality, and reducing exposure to falls-risk. The study aimed to assess potential interrelationships between the self-reported falls, individual functional capabilities and appreciably reducing exposure to falls-risk in a group of post-menopausal, post-surgical breast cancer survivors. Methods The study recruited 102 women (aged 65–79; mean age 70.2), post-surgical breast cancer survivors. The subjects were stratified by age into three groups: Group 1 (65–69 years); Group 2 (70–74 years), and Group 3 (75–79 years). Individual functional capabilities were assessed with Eight-foot up & go test (8UG), chair stand test (CST), and 2-minute step test (2ST). Tinetti POMA test was applied to assess gait and balance disorders. Self-reported falls in the past year were ascertained through a questionnaire. Results Assessment of individual aerobic endurance (2ST) also demonstrated a clear deficit in the mean scores category in all respective age sub-groups, as compared against the reference values. The deficits ranged from 4.86 to 15.90 steps less than the normative values; the oldest subjects demonstrating the largest deficit. The aerobic endurance tests results significantly impacted the ultimate assessment of an individual falls-risk in the oldest group. The analysis of the number of falls sustained within the recent year indicated that 43.67% of the subjects fell victim of such incidents. Conclusion An individual exposure to falls-risk was found to be appreciably more dependent upon individual aerobic endurance rather than overall strength of the lower part of the body in the breast cancer

  20. Differences in Menopausal Hormone Therapy Use among Women in Germany between 1998 and 2003

    PubMed Central

    Du, Yong; Dören, Martina; Melchert, Hans-Ulrich W; Scheidt-Nave, Christa; Knopf, Hildtraud

    2007-01-01

    Background To examine the differences in menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) use and user profiles among women in Germany before and after the communication of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) trial and other study results concerning the risks and benefits of MHT. Methods Current MHT use was ascertained in two periodic German national health surveys conducted in 1997–1999 and 2003–2004. MHT prevalence and user profiles were assessed within each survey. The association of the survey period (2003–2004 vs. 1997–1999) with current MHT use was analyzed in weighted multivariable logistic regression (MLR) models, pooling data from both surveys. Results The overall prevalence of current MHT use decreased by 40.2% from 16.9% of the sample in 1997–1999 to 10.1% in 2003–2004. The difference in prevalence between surveys varied with age decade with the smallest decreases among women 60–69 years of age (20.3% vs. 18.5%), compared to women of younger and older age groups (40–49: 10.7% vs. 3.9%; 50–59: 36.3% vs. 21.3%; 70–79: 5.7% vs. 3.2%). Variables independently associated with higher current MHT use in both health surveys included age category (curvilinear relationship with highest use among women 50–59 years) and residence in West vs. East Germany. A higher social status, lower body mass index, and more health-conscious behaviour were significantly associated with higher current MHT use in the 1997–1999 survey, but these associations were not found in the later survey. MLR analyses confirmed a significant decline in MHT use between the 1997–1999 and 2003–2004 surveys, however, the effect was modified by social status and was not significant among lowest social-status women. Conclusion Current MHT use considerably declined among women in Germany between the pre- and post-WHI era. A convergence of current MHT use among women of higher social status with pre-existing patterns of use among lower social-status women suggests that MHT in Germany is now

  1. Cluster headache in women: relation with menstruation, use of oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause

    PubMed Central

    van Vliet, J A; Favier, I; Helmerhorst, F M; Haan, J; Ferrari, M D

    2006-01-01

    In contrast with migraine, little is known about the relation between cluster headache and menstrual cycle, oral contraceptives, pregnancy, and menopause. A population based questionnaire study was performed am