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Sample records for post menopausal women

  1. Treatment of hyperprolactinemia in post-menopausal women: pros.

    PubMed

    Iacovazzo, D; De Marinis, L

    2015-02-01

    The incidence of hyperprolactinemia in women peaks during the 3rd-4th decade and then greatly decreases after the menopause. Apart from the effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis, prolactin can act directly on bone metabolism. Hyperprolactinemia is a recognized cause of secondary osteoporosis, and treatment with dopamine agonists can lead to improved BMD. Moreover, hyperprolactinemia has been linked to weight gain and insulin resistance, which can be ameliorated following medical treatment. Although relatively rare, prolactinomas can be observed in post-menopausal women and are frequently large and invasive; dopamine agonists appear to be as effective in these patients as in younger women to induce reduction of prolactin levels and tumour shrinkage. Here, we review data potentially favouring medical treatment with dopamine agonists in post-menopausal women diagnosed with hyperprolactinemia.

  2. Serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber: differences between pre- and post-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women

    PubMed Central

    Ganji, Vijay; Kuo, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death in women and men. Psyllium, a soluble fiber has been known to reduce serum lipids. In this pilot study, we evaluated whether menopausal status would affect the serum lipid responses to psyllium fiber in women. Methods Eleven post-menopausal and eight pre-menopausal women with serum total cholesterol >200 mg/dL were included in the study. Subjects consumed their habitual diet and 15 g psyllium/d for 6 weeks. Psyllium was incorporated into cookies. Each cookie contained ≈5 g of psyllium fiber. Subjects ate one cookie in each meal. Results With psyllium fiber, total cholesterol concentration was significantly lower (≈5.2%, P < 0.05) in post-menopausal women but not in pre-menopausal women (≈1.3%). Also, there was a significant decrease in HDL-cholesterol in post-menopausal women (≈10.2%, P < 0.05). There were no significant changes observed in concentrations of LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, apolipoprotein A1, and apolipoprotein B in both pre- and post-menopausal women with psyllium. Conclusion In this pilot study, post- and pre-menopausal, hypercholesterolemic women responded differently to psyllium fiber supplementation. Post-menopausal women would benefit from addition of psyllium to their diets in reducing the risk for heart diseases. The results of this study should be used with caution because the study was based on a small sample size. PMID:18727833

  3. Association between Estrogen Receptor Gene Polymorphisms and Depression in Post-Menopausal Women: A Preliminary Study

    PubMed Central

    Pae, Chi Un; Kim, Mi Ran; Min, Jung Ah; Kim, Kyung Hee; Lee, Chang Uk; Lee, Chul; Paik, In Ho

    2010-01-01

    Post-menopausal women experience variable biological and psychological changes. The effect of reduced levels of estrogen can effect on post-menopausal depression. Estrogen triggers physiological responses by binding to the estrogen receptor (ER). Two subtypes of ER, ERa and ERb are now known. We investigated the significance of ERa and ERb polymorphisms and post-menopasal depression in this study. Forty three women with post-menopausal depression and 63 post-menopausal women without depression as normal controls were recruited. Polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism method was used to investigate genotypes of ERa and ERb polymorphisms. Genotypes of PvuII and XbaI polymorphism of ERa receptor were significantly different in patients with post-menopausal depression comparing with controls. Genotypes of ERb did not show association with post-menopausal depression. Our study showed that ERa receptor polymorphism had an association with depression in post-menopausal women. It suggests that investigation of ER genes and their functions might be important for understanding pathophysilogical mechanism of post-menopausal depression. PMID:20927313

  4. Impaired cardiac response to exercise in post-menopausal women: relationship with peripheral vascular function.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, J; Node, K; Hasegawa, S; Paul, A K; Mu, X; Maruyama, K; Nakatani, D; Kitakaze, M; Hori, M; Nishimura, T

    2003-04-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in post-menopausal women. To assess the relationship between peripheral vascular reserve and cardiac function during exercise in post-menopausal women, 91 subjects, who had no ischaemic findings on myocardial SPECT, were assigned to four groups: pre-menopausal women (n=13), post-menopausal women (n=33), younger men aged < or =50 years (n=10), and older men aged >50 years (n=35). First-pass radionuclide angiography was performed before and during bicycle exercise to calculate ejection fraction (EF) and peripheral vascular resistance (VR). There were no differences in haemodynamic variables among the groups at baseline. The per cent increase in EF=(exercise EF - resting EF)x100/resting EF, and the per cent decrease in VR=(resting VR - exercise VR)x100/resting VR were depressed in the post-menopausal women (0.4+/-2% and 35+/-3%, respectively) compared to the pre-menopausal women (10+/-3% and 47+/-3%, respectively; P<0.05 each). Although the age dependent impairment is thought to cause this depression, neither the per cent increase in EF nor the per cent decrease in VR in the older men was significantly different from that in the younger men. Post-menopausal women exhibited depressed cardiac function during exercise, which may be related to the impairment of peripheral vascular function after menopause. PMID:12673166

  5. Impaired cardiac response to exercise in post-menopausal women: relationship with peripheral vascular function.

    PubMed

    Yoshioka, J; Node, K; Hasegawa, S; Paul, A K; Mu, X; Maruyama, K; Nakatani, D; Kitakaze, M; Hori, M; Nishimura, T

    2003-04-01

    Endothelial dysfunction has been demonstrated in post-menopausal women. To assess the relationship between peripheral vascular reserve and cardiac function during exercise in post-menopausal women, 91 subjects, who had no ischaemic findings on myocardial SPECT, were assigned to four groups: pre-menopausal women (n=13), post-menopausal women (n=33), younger men aged < or =50 years (n=10), and older men aged >50 years (n=35). First-pass radionuclide angiography was performed before and during bicycle exercise to calculate ejection fraction (EF) and peripheral vascular resistance (VR). There were no differences in haemodynamic variables among the groups at baseline. The per cent increase in EF=(exercise EF - resting EF)x100/resting EF, and the per cent decrease in VR=(resting VR - exercise VR)x100/resting VR were depressed in the post-menopausal women (0.4+/-2% and 35+/-3%, respectively) compared to the pre-menopausal women (10+/-3% and 47+/-3%, respectively; P<0.05 each). Although the age dependent impairment is thought to cause this depression, neither the per cent increase in EF nor the per cent decrease in VR in the older men was significantly different from that in the younger men. Post-menopausal women exhibited depressed cardiac function during exercise, which may be related to the impairment of peripheral vascular function after menopause.

  6. A Comparative Study of Lipid Profile and Oestradiol in Pre- and Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Reddy Kilim, Srinivas; Chandala, Srinivasa Rao

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the relationship between the menopausal status and related hormonal variation of oestradiol with plasma lipid concentrations. Material and Methods: Fifty premenopausal women and fifty postmenopausal women subjects were selected. Data was collected through clinical evaluation from questionnaires and laboratory investigations. Plasma oestradiol and lipid profile determinations were done by using competitive binding immunoassay methods and enzymatic methods respectively. Student’s T test and Pearson’s test of correlation were used for the statistical analysis. P-values of < 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant. Results: There was a significant increase in serum Total Cholesterol (TC), Triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol levels in post-menopausal women. HDL-cholesterol level was significantly decreased in post-menopausal women. The calculated atherogenic index (Total Cholesterol/HDL ratio) was significantly increased in post-menopausal women as compared to that in premenopausal women. Oestradiol concentration was significantly lower (p<0.001) in post-menopausal women. Discussion: Oestrogen changes the vascular permeability by increasing nitrous oxide production. It maintains a healthy lipoprotein profile. It stabilizes the endothelial cells, enhances antioxidant effect and alters fibrinolysis protein. All these cardioprotective mechanisms are lost in menopause. Postmenopausal women develop an increased risk for cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Menopause leads to changes in lipid profile by reducing HDL, and elevating Total Cholesterol (TC), triglycerides (TG), LDL-cholesterol and VLDL-cholesterol, thus increasing the risk for cardiovascular disease. These changes are caused by reduced oestrogen concentrations which are seen in menopause. PMID:24086849

  7. Predictors of weight variation and weight gain in peri- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Pimenta, Filipa; Maroco, João; Ramos, Catarina; Leal, Isabel

    2014-08-01

    This research encompasses a community sample of 497 women in peri- and post-menopause and uses structural equation modelling to investigate the structural models of weight variation and weight gain. Variables such as body shape concerns, depression, stress and life events are explored. Weight gain (from pre-menopause to current menopausal status) was observed in 69 per cent of participants. The predictors of weight gain were lower education level (β = -.146, p = .017), less or no physical exercise (β = -.111, p = .021), having a recent psychological problem (β = .191, p < .001), transition from peri- to post-menopause (β = .147, p = .013) and more frequent body shape concerns (β = .313, p < .001). Prevention of weight gain in pre-menopause is recommended; risk groups should be targeted considering the predictors of weight increase.

  8. Hyperuricemia is independently associated with left ventricular hypertrophy in post-menopausal women but not in pre-menopausal women in rural Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Yu, Shasha; Yang, Hongmei; Guo, Xiaofan; Zheng, Liqiang; Sun, Yingxian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to estimate the relationship between hyperuricemia and left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and to investigate whether menopause was associated with the relationship between hyperuricemia and LVH. This survey was conducted from July 2012 to August 2013. A total of 6029 women (3508, 58.2% were post-menopause) from the rural Northeast China were randomly selected and examined. LVH was defined using the 2007 Guidelines for the Management of Arterial Hypertension of the European Society of Hypertension (ESH) and of the European Society of Cardiology (ESC). Age, body mass index, glucose, estimated glomerular filtration rate and lipid level were significantly correlated with serum uric acid level. LVH showed a gradual increase in accordance with the serum uric acid level in entire study population (<4.0 mg/dL, 11.4%; 4 to <5 mg/dL, 14.9%; 5 to <6 mg/dL, 18.9%; ≥6 mg/dL, 27.4%; p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed that hyperuricemia was a significantly independent risk factor for LVH in post-menopausal women [OR (95% CI): 1.367 (1.026, 1.821)], but not in pre-menopausal women [OR (95% CI): 1.290 (0.669, 2.486)]. These findings suggested that hyperuricemia can be used as a risk marker of LVH in a female population and, in particular, as an independent risk factor in post-menopausal women but not in pre-menopausal women.

  9. Memory Decline in Peri- and Post-menopausal Women: The Potential of Mind-Body Medicine to Improve Cognitive Performance.

    PubMed

    Sliwinski, Jim R; Johnson, Aimee K; Elkins, Gary R

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive decline is a frequent complaint during the menopause transition and among post-menopausal women. Changes in memory correspond with diminished estrogen production. Further, many peri- and post-menopausal women report sleep concerns, depression, and hot flashes, and these factors may contribute to cognitive decline. Hormone therapy can increase estrogen but is contraindicated for many women. Mind-body medicine has been shown to have beneficial effects on sleep, mood, and hot flashes, among post-menopausal women. Further, mind-body medicine holds potential in addressing symptoms of cognitive decline post-menopause. This study proposes an initial framework for how mind-body interventions may improve cognitive performance and inform future research seeking to identify the common and specific factors associated with mind-body medicine for addressing memory decline in peri- and post-menopausal women. It is our hope that this article will eventually lead to a more holistic and integrative approach to the treatment of cognitive deficits in peri- and post-menopausal women.

  10. Expression of estrogen receptor alpha and beta in breast cancers of pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Murillo-Ortiz, Blanca; Pérez-Luque, Elva; Malacara, J M; Daza-Benítez, Leonel; Hernández-González, Martha; Benítez-Bribiesca, Luis

    2008-12-01

    Expression of estrogen receptors (ER) is clinically relevant in designing therapeutic strategies. The relative importance of the two types of estrogen receptors (ER-alpha and ER-beta) in human breast cancers in pre- and post-menopausal women has not been properly defined. To determine the possible association between the expression of estrogen receptor and serum estradiol levels in pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. 44 patients with invasive ductal carcinoma of the breast were studied and a breast tissue biopsy was taken. ER-alpha and ER-beta were detected by immunocytochemistry. Serum levels of estradiol and estrone were measured by radioimmunoassay and FSH was measured using IRMA. We studied 21 pre- and 23 post-menopausal women with breast carcinoma. Examining the number of cases with tumors positive for ER, we found no differences in the frequency of ER-alpha between pre- and post-menopausal women, but ER-beta decreased marginally after menopause (p < 0.051). In cases with tumors positive for ER, the proportion of cells positive for ER-alpha was similar post-menopausally (53.95%) and pre-menopausally (57.21%), but for ER-beta the number of positive cells decreased significantly after menopause (p < 0.051). In pre-menopausal women there was a correlation between serum estradiol levels and ER-beta; in post-menopausal women there was a correlation between serum FSH levels and ER-alpha. These results indicate that estradiol levels in women with mammary carcinoma are related to ER-beta expression in the breast tumor tissue.

  11. Lifetime physical activity and risk of breast cancer in pre-and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Si, Si; Boyle, Terry; Heyworth, Jane; Glass, Deborah C; Saunders, Christobel; Fritschi, Lin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the association between different types of physical activity (PA) and breast cancer. A case-control study of breast cancer was conducted in Western Australia from 2009 to 2011, in which 1205 women with breast cancer and 1789 frequency age-matched breast cancer-free control women were recruited. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information about lifetime and age-period recreational, household, occupational and transport physical activities. Detailed questions about demographic characteristics, and relevant reproductive, medical and lifestyle factors were also included. Logistic regression and restrictive cubic spline analyses were applied to investigate the association and dose-response relationship between PA and breast cancer risk. Subgroup analysis was performed regarding menopausal status. We found non-linear dose-response associations between PA and risk of breast cancer. Overall, 95-130 MET-hours/week of total lifetime PA was associated with the lowest breast cancer risk. The effects were stronger among post-menopausal women. We also found that the medium amounts of recreational PA (up to 21 MET-hours/week) were associated with lower breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women. Further analysis on the intensity of recreational PA demonstrated different dose-response associations between moderate- and vigorous-intensity recreational PA and breast cancer risk. We found that PA was associated with a reduced risk of breast cancer among post-menopausal women, but not in a linear fashion. Recreational PA of different intensities may have different dose-response associations with risk of breast cancer.

  12. Vaginal microbiome and epithelial gene array in post-menopausal women with moderate to severe dryness.

    PubMed

    Hummelen, Ruben; Macklaim, Jean M; Bisanz, Jordan E; Hammond, Jo-Anne; McMillan, Amy; Vongsa, Rebecca; Koenig, David; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding pathogens. The objectives of this study were twofold: first to identify the microbiome of post-menopausal women with and without vaginal dryness and symptoms of atrophy; and secondly to examine any differences in epithelial gene expression associated with atrophy. The vaginal microbiome of 32 post-menopausal women was profiled using Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sixteen subjects were selected for follow-up sampling every two weeks for 10 weeks. In addition, 10 epithelial RNA samples (6 healthy and 4 experiencing vaginal dryness) were acquired for gene expression analysis by Affymetrix Human Gene array. The microbiota abundance profiles were relatively stable over 10 weeks compared to previously published data on premenopausal women. There was an inverse correlation between Lactobacillus ratio and dryness and an increased bacterial diversity in women experiencing moderate to severe vaginal dryness. In healthy participants, Lactobacillus iners and L. crispatus were generally the most abundant, countering the long-held view that lactobacilli are absent or depleted in menopause. Vaginal dryness and atrophy were associated with down-regulation of human genes involved in maintenance of epithelial structure and barrier function, while those associated with inflammation were up-regulated consistent with the adverse clinical presentation.

  13. Selenium Intake in Hypertensive and Normotensive Post-Menopausal Indonesian Women.

    PubMed

    Adriani, Merryana; Diarry, Vella I P; Abdulah, Rizky; Wirjatmadi, Bambang

    2015-01-01

    The Indonesian Ministry of Health has predicted that the national prevalence of hypertension in Indonesia may reach 26.5% in 2013. Increasing age, stress, lack of physical activity, obesity and passive smoking are known to be risk factors of hypertension. In women over 50 y, hormonal changes that occur post-menopause may also increase the risk of hypertension and other vascular diseases. Antioxidant precursors, such as selenium, however, are known to provide protection against the development of several oxidative stress-related diseases, including hypertension. To prove the hypothesis, we compared the levels of consumption of selenium in hypertensive and normotensive post-menopausal women. An observational comparative study with cross-sectional design was conducted in groups of post-menopausal women with hypertension and those who are normotensive. Structured interviews and food recall of 2×24 h were used to determine the level of consumption, and the Depression, Anxiety and Stress Scale (DASS) questionnaire was used to measure the level of stress. The result suggests a significant difference in the levels of selenium intake between the normotensive and hypertensive groups (p=0.008). Furthermore, the passive smoking and stress levels of the hypertensive group were significantly higher than those of the normotensive group. These result support the hypothesis that selenium may play a protective role in vascular disease. PMID:26440639

  14. Lifetime exercise activity and breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Carpenter, C L; Ross, R K; Paganini-Hill, A; Bernstein, L

    1999-08-01

    Lifetime exercise activity has been linked to breast cancer risk among young women. However, no study has specifically evaluated whether lifetime exercise activity is related to the breast cancer risk of post-menopausal women. We conducted a population-based case-control study of post-menopausal white women (1123 newly diagnosed cases and 904 healthy controls) aged 55-64 who lived in Los Angeles County, California, USA to evaluate this relationship. Although neither exercise activity from menarche to age 40 years, nor exercise after age 40 separately predicted breast cancer risk, risk was lower among women who had exercised each week for at least 17.6 MET-hours (metabolic equivalent of energy expenditure multiplied by hours of activity) since menarche than among inactive women (odds ratio (OR) = 0.55; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.37-0.83). Exercise activity was not protective for women who gained considerable (> 17%) weight during adulthood. However, among women with more stable weight, breast cancer risk was substantially reduced for those who consistently exercised at high levels throughout their lifetime (OR = 0.42; 95% CI 0.24-0.75), those who exercised more than 4 h per week for at least 12 years (OR = 0.59; 95% CI 0.40-0.88), and those who exercised vigorously (24.5 MET-hours per week) during the most recent 10 years (OR = 0.52; 95% CI 0.32-0.85). Strenuous exercise appears to reduce breast cancer risk among post-menopausal women who do not gain sizable amounts of weight during adulthood.

  15. Combination of estrogen replacement and exercise protects against HDL oxidation in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lawler, J M; Hu, Z; Green, J S; Crouse, S F; Grandjean, P W; Bounds, R G

    2002-10-01

    The incidence of atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women increases following menopause and has been associated with a reduction in circulating estrogen. Increased CVD risk is also perpetuated by sedentary lifestyle. Growing evidence indicates that oxidation of lipoproteins leads to a powerful immune response, disruption of normal lipoprotein function, and deposition of atherosclerotic plaques. For example, once high-density lipoproteins (HDL) are oxidized, they lose the ability to a) participate in reverse transport of cholesterol to the liver, and b) protect low-density lipoproteins (LDL) against oxidation. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of combining estrogen replacement and exercise upon lipid peroxidation of the HDL fraction (HDL-ox). Blood samples were drawn from 34 post-menopausal women from four groups: women who were not receiving estrogen replacement and who were sedentary (NSD) (n = 9); women who were not receiving estrogen replacement and who were participating in regular exercise (NEX) (n = 8); women who were receiving estrogen replacement and who were sedentary (ESD) (n = 8); and women who were receiving estrogen replacement and who were participating in regular exercise (EEX) (n = 9). Total-HDL cholesterol was significantly higher (p<0.05) in EEX when compared with NEX, NSD, and ESD. HDL-ox was assessed via malondialdehyde (MDA). Mean (+/- SEM) values for HDL MDA expressed in nM are as follows: NSD = 903.3 +/- 118.4; NEX = 1226.7 +/- 247.7; ESD = 876.7 +/- 116.3; EEX = 537.4 +/- 74.8. EEX lipid peroxidation was significantly (p = 0.02) lower than NEX. Lipid peroxidation tended to be lower in EEX than in NSD and ESD (p = 0.07). These data indicate that the combination of estrogen replacement and regular exercise in post-menopausal women may be most effective in reducing oxidation of HDL in vivo.

  16. Impact of Estrogen Therapy on Lymphocyte Homeostasis and the Response to Seasonal Influenza Vaccine in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Engelmann, Flora; Rivera, Andrea; Park, Byung; Messerle-Forbes, Marci; Jensen, Jeffrey T.; Messaoudi, Ilhem

    2016-01-01

    It is widely recognized that changes in levels of ovarian steroids modulate severity of autoimmune disease and immune function in young adult women. These observations suggest that the loss of ovarian steroids associated with menopause could affect the age-related decline in immune function, known as immune senescence. Therefore, in this study, we determined the impact of menopause and estrogen therapy (ET) on lymphocyte subset frequency as well as the immune response to seasonal influenza vaccine in three different groups: 1) young adult women (regular menstrual cycles, not on hormonal contraception); 2) post-menopausal (at least 2 years) women who are not receiving any form of hormone therapy (HT) and 3) post-menopausal hysterectomized women receiving ET. Although the numbers of circulating CD4 and CD20 B cells were reduced in the post-menopausal group receiving ET, we also detected a better preservation of naïve B cells, decreased CD4 T cell inflammatory cytokine production, and slightly lower circulating levels of the pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6. Following vaccination, young adult women generated more robust antibody and T cell responses than both post-menopausal groups. Despite similar vaccine responses between the two post-menopausal groups, we observed a direct correlation between plasma 17β estradiol (E2) levels and fold increase in IgG titers within the ET group. These findings suggest that ET affects immune homeostasis and that higher plasma E2 levels may enhance humoral responses in post-menopausal women. PMID:26859566

  17. Dietary Factors Contributing to Osteoporosis among Post Menopausal Saudi Women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alsaif, Mohammed A.; Khan, Latifa K.; Alhamdan, Adel A. H.; Alorf, Saada M.; Al-Othman, Abdulaziz M.; Makki, Rabab J.

    This study was designed to investigate the dietary components which are likely to contribute to osteoporosis in postmenopausal Saudi women. In the present study, 36 osteoporotic postmenopausal and 25 healthy postmenopausal women as cases and controls respectively were selected from Armed Forces Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study has designed to collect the data about the general characteristics (age, marital status, education, number of pregnancies, activity level, income and housing), anthropometric measurements, medical history and dietary intake by using both the methods (24 h recall, food frequency questionnaire). Serum samples were analyzed for calcium, phosphorus, vitamin D and Para Thyroid Hormone (PTH) and they were correlated with Bone Mineral Density (BMD). Food intake items were correlated with hip, neck and spin BMD. In results, cases found significantly older than controls and had history of bone fractures. Cases were consumed significantly less dietary calcium than controls. Serum parameters did not show any significant differences. However significant correlation was found between serum level of PTH and calcium with BMD of spine and right neck femur respectively. Banana and Mataziz (locally prepared dish with vegetables) showed positive correlation with hip BMD. A negative significant correlation was found between Arabian coffee and right neck femur BMD. In conclusion, Saudi women require encouragement to consume adequate amounts of calcium, fruits and vegetables in combination with maintaining a daily physical activity and space in child birth.

  18. Physical Activity Level of Post-menopausal Women with Low Bone Mineral Density.

    PubMed

    Dallanezi, Glauber; Freire, Beatriz Funayama Alvarenga; Nahás, Eliana Aguiar Petri; Nahás-Neto, Jorge; Corrente, José Eduardo; Mazeto, Gláucia Maria Ferreira da Silva

    2016-05-01

    Introduction Proper physical activity is related to the prevention and the treatment of osteoporosis. Purpose To assess the level of physical activity (PA) in post-menopausal women with low bone mineral density (BMD). Methods This cross-sectional clinical study included 123 post-menopausal women. The inclusion criteria were: age of ≥ 45 years with last menses at least 12 months prior to the initiation of the study, and bone density scan (BDS) values measured over the preceding 12 months. Women with severe osteoarthritis were excluded. Women were allocated into three groups, according to BMD measured by BDS [osteoporosis (OP; 54 women), osteopenia (35 women), and normal bone density (NBD; 35 women)], and compared for general, clinical, and anthropometric data, and for PA level. The latter was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ), in metabolic equivalent of task (MET) units. Participants were classified as sedentary, active or very active. Quantitative variables were compared using ANOVA followed by Tukey's test. Associations between qualitative variables were tested by Chi-square (χ2) or Fisher's exact test. In order to check for differences among groups and IPAQ domains, a generalized linear model with Gamma distribution was adjusted for values in METs. Results The OP group differed from the NBD group regarding age (61.8 ± 10.1 and 52.9 ± 5.4 years), percentage of participants with self-declared white ethnicity (43.9 and 28.0%), body mass index (BMI - 25.7 ± 5.4 and 30.9 ± 5.1 kg/m(2)), and time since menopause (15.5 ± 7.5 and 5.8 ± 4.5 years). Smoking rates were higher in the OP (55.6%) and NBD groups (33.3%) than in the osteopenia group (11.1%). Within the OP group, the rate of subjects with sedentary lifestyles was higher (42.6%), and time spent sitting was greater (344.3 ± 204.8 METs) than in the groups with osteopenia (20.0% and 300.9 ± 230.6 METs) and NBD (17.7% and 303

  19. Acute effects of walking on inflammatory and cardiovascular risk in sedentary post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Davis, Jillian; Murphy, Marie; Trinick, Tom; Duly, Ellie; Nevill, Alan; Davison, Gareth

    2008-02-01

    Biochemical markers of inflammation are emerging as new predictors of risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and may alter acutely with exercise. Few studies have been conducted on the effects of walking on these markers or whether different walking intensities elicit varied effects. As there is growing interest in modifiable lifestyle factors such as walking to reduce CVD risk, these inflammatory responses warrant investigation. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of walking at 50% versus 70% of predicted maximal heart rate on C-reactive protein (CRP), plasma fibrinogen, and triglycerides in sedentary post-menopausal women. Twelve post-menopausal women (mean age 58 years, s +/-6; stature 1.62 m, s+/-0.06; body mass 66.8 kg, s +/-6.2) completed two 30-min treadmill walks in a randomized cross-over design. Fasted blood samples were taken (for the determination of plasma fibrinogen, CRP, and lipids) before, immediately after, and 1 and 24 h after exercise. Triglyceride concentrations decreased from pre-exercise to 24 h post exercise at both walking intensities (time x group interaction, P < 0.05). No significant effects were observed for plasma fibrinogen, CRP, total cholesterol, low-density or high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (time x group interaction, P > 0.05). The results of this study suggest that fasting plasma triglycerides are decreased on the morning after 30 min of brisk walking at either 50% or 70% of maximal heart rate (moderate and vigorous intensity).

  20. Hormones and dementia – a comparative study of hormonal impairment in post-menopausal women, with and without dementia

    PubMed Central

    Robusto-Leitao, Olívia; Ferreira, H

    2006-01-01

    Context Women seem to be more vulnerable to dementia, particularly Alzheimer’s disease (AD), than men. There is controversy among studies correlating estrogen deficit to cognitive impairment. Because of the sudden drop of estrogens in menopause, this hormonal deficit could represent one of the risk factors for the larger incidence and prevalence of AD in post-menopausal women. Rationale We therefore wanted to find out if post-menopausal women with dementia, or even in a prior stage, mild cognitive impairment (MCI), would have a more significant deficit of estrogens than post-menopausal women without dementia, or any other type of cognitive problem. Objectives The aim of this study was to detect possible differences of the sex hormone levels among post-menopausal women, simultaneously affected by MCI or dementia, in comparison with a control group without cognitive impairment. Design, setting, and participants A small, multicenter, prospective study was performed on 82 post-menopausal women (41 cases, 41 controls), aged 45–81 years, to investigate their sex hormone balance. The diagnosis of dementia was made according to ICD 9 or 10 and DSM III-R or IV appropriate to the time interval. The diagnosis of probable AD followed the NINCDS-ADRDA criteria. MCI met the Paquid-study criteria. Blood was analyzed in qualified centers for LH, FSH, and 17-β-estradiol. All women went through a thorough psychiatric examination and those with a suspected hormonal impairment were examined by a gynecologist. Results 15 cases (36.6%) had impaired hormonal function, compared with 8 controls (19.5%). Of the 15 cases with hormonal impairment, 9 had MCI. Conclusions These preliminary data stress a considerable difference between the sex hormone status of these two populations, showing a tendency towards a more accentuated estrogen deficit linked to cognitive deficit. Enlarging the sample and following the evolution could bring more interesting data. PMID:19412464

  1. Putative relationship between hormonal status and serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase activity in pre- and post- menopausal women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Carrera-González, María del Pilar; Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Dueñas, Basilio; Martínez-Ferrol, Julia; Mayas, María Dolores; Martínez-Martos, José Manuel

    2012-12-01

    In breast cancer, hormonal changes are rather constant in post-menopausal women since they tend to vary only over long time spans. However, in pre-menopausal women, the development of breast cancer is associated with hormonal physiological variations. The aim of the present work was to analyse the changes in circulating levels of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) in pre- and post-menopausal women that were healthy or with breast cancer, and their connection to serum pyrrolidone carboxypeptidase (Pcp) activity. We observed significant changes in the hormonal profile in post-menopausal women with breast cancer compared to the control group. In pre-menopausal women, we found significant changes in circulating GnRH levels with respect to the healthy group. Our present results support the existence of neuroendocrine misregulation that could be involved in tumour progression, with Pcp being a potentially new pharmacological target in breast cancer treatments.

  2. Preference for wine is associated with lower hip fracture incidence in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Past studies of relationships between alcohol and hip fracture have generally focused on total alcohol consumed and not type of alcohol. Different types of alcohol consist of varying components which may affect risk of hip fracture differentially. This study seeks to examine the relationship between alcohol consumption, with a focus on type of alcohol consumed (e.g. beer, wine, or hard liquor) and hip fracture risk in post-menopausal women. Methods The longitudinal cohort consisted of U.S. post-menopausal women aged 50–79 years enrolled between 1993–1998 in the Women’s Health Initiative Clinical Trials and Observational Study (N=115,655). Results Women were categorized as non-drinkers, past drinkers, infrequent drinkers and drinkers by preference of alcohol type (i.e. those who preferred wine, beer, hard liquor, or who had no strong preference). Mean alcohol consumption among current drinkers was 3.3 servings per week; this was similar among those who preferred wine, beer and liquor. After adjustment for potential confounders, alcohol preference was strongly correlated with hip fracture risk (p = 0.0167); in particular, women who preferred wine were at lower risk than non-drinkers (OR=0.78; 95% CI 0.64-0.95), past drinkers (OR=0.85; 95% CI 0.72-1.00), infrequent drinkers (OR=0.73; 95% CI 0.61-0.88), hard liquor drinkers (OR=0.87; 95% CI 0.71-1.06), beer drinkers (OR=0.72; 95% CI 0.55-0.95) and those with no strong preference (OR=0.89; 95% CI 0.89; 95% CI 0.73-1.10). Conclusions Preference of alcohol type was associated with hip fracture; women who preferentially consumed wine had a lower risk of hip fracture compared to non-drinkers, past drinkers, and those with other alcohol preferences. PMID:24053784

  3. Evaluation of Trabecular Micro-Architecture in Non-Osteoporotic Post-Menopausal Women With and Without Fracture

    PubMed Central

    Kijowski, Richard; Tuite, Michael; Kruger, Diane; Del Rio, Alejandro Munoz; Kleerekoper, Michael; Binkley, Neil

    2012-01-01

    Purpose To compare microscopic magnetic resonance imaging (μMRI) parameters of trabecular micro-architecture between postmenopausal women with and without fracture who have normal or osteopenic bone mineral density (BMD) on dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Methods The study included 36 post-menopausal Caucasian women 50 years of age and older with normal or osteopenic BMD (T-scores better than −2.5 at the lumbar spine, proximal femur, and one-third radius on DXA). Eighteen women had a history of low-energy fracture, while 18 women had no history of fracture and served as an age, race, and ultra-distal radius BMD-matched control group. A three-dimensional fast large-angle spin-echo (FLASE) sequence with 137 μm × 137 μm × 400 μm resolution was performed through the non-dominant wrist of all 36 women using the same 1.5T scanner. The high resolution images were used to measure trabecular bone volume fraction, trabecular thickness, surface-to-curve ratio, and erosion index. Wilcoxon signed rank tests were used to compare differences in BMD and μMRI parameters between post-menopausal women with and without fracture. Results Post-menopausal women with fracture had significantly lower (p<0.05) trabecular bone volume fraction and surface-to-curve ratio and significantly higher (p<0.05) erosion index than post-menopausal women without fracture. There was no significant difference between post-menopausal women with and without fracture in trabecular thickness (p=0.80) and BMD of the spine (p=0.21), proximal femur (p=0.19), one-third radius (p=0.47), and ultra-distal radius (p=0.90). Conclusions Post-menopausal women with normal or osteopenic BMD who had a history of low energy fracture had significantly different (p<0.05) μMRI parameters than an age, race, and ultra-distal radius BMD-matched control group of postmenopausal women with no history of fracture. Our study suggests that μMRI can be used to identify individuals without a DXA-based diagnosis of

  4. ENDOCRINE RESPONSE TO AN ULTRA-MARATHON IN PRE- AND POST-MENOPAUSAL WOMEN

    PubMed Central

    Verzosa, M.L.S.

    2014-01-01

    Ultra-endurance competitions are becoming increasingly popular but there is limited research on female participants. The purpose of this study was to examine changes in estrogen and the IGF-I system in women after an ultra-marathon. Six pairs of pre- and post- menopausal women were matched for race finish times;mean finish time was 20 hours. Blood samples were drawn 24 hours before the race, at the finish, and 24 hours into recovery. Samples were analysed for estradiol, total IGF-I, IGFBP-1, and intact IGFBP-3. There was a significant increase in estradiol following the race in both groups (P < 0.05). Total IGF-I decreased after the race (P < 0.01) and remained lower in recovery. IGFBP-1 increased after the race (P < 0.001) but returned to pre-race levels after 24 hours, while intact IGFBP-3 was significantly lower post-race and in recovery (P < 0.001). Postmenopausal women had significantly lower estradiol at baseline, but there were no other group differences. These results demonstrate that among recreational female runners, an ultra-marathon is associated with IGF system changes that are consistent with an energy-deficient, catabolic state. Further research is needed to confirm the effect of these endocrine changes on health and performance. PMID:24899777

  5. Circulating oxidative stress parameters in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women suffering from breast cancer treated or not with neoadjuvant chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Expósito, María Jesús; Sánchez-López, Estefanía; Cueto-Ureña, Cristina; Dueñas, Basilio; Carrera-González, Pilar; Navarro-Cecilia, Joaquín; Mayas, María Dolores; Arias de Saavedra, José M; Sánchez-Agesta, Rafael; Martínez-Martos, José M

    2014-10-01

    We evaluate here the redox status in pre- and post-menopausal healthy women and in women with breast cancer in order to understand the consequences of the hormonal alterations of menopause for the oxidative stress status, its modifications with breast cancer and the influence of neoadjuvant chemotherapy (NC). To that, serum oxidative stress parameters (total antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation), non-enzyme antioxidant defenses (total glutathione, uric acid and bilirubin) and enzyme antioxidant defenses (superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities) were measured in healthy women and in women with breast cancer divided according to their menopausal status and that received or not NC. Circulating estradiol, progesterone, FSH and LH were also analyzed. We found that menopause itself modifies the redox status of healthy women, being most of these differences also reflected in women with breast cancer. However, several changes occur as a consequence of the disease. Furthermore, NC increases oxidative damage, decreases antioxidant defenses and eliminates the differences found in menopause. We conclude that the normal redox balance is disrupted by breast cancer but is also affected by the hormonal status promoted by menopause. In fact, NC nullifies the differences found between pre- and postmenopausal women in several antioxidant defense systems.

  6. Mammographic parenchymal texture as an imaging marker of hormonal activity: a comparative study between pre- and post-menopausal women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daye, Dania; Bobo, Ezra; Baumann, Bethany; Ioannou, Antonios; Conant, Emily F.; Maidment, Andrew D. A.; Kontos, Despina

    2011-03-01

    Mammographic parenchymal texture patterns have been shown to be related to breast cancer risk. Yet, little is known about the biological basis underlying this association. Here, we investigate the potential of mammographic parenchymal texture patterns as an inherent phenotypic imaging marker of endogenous hormonal exposure of the breast tissue. Digital mammographic (DM) images in the cranio-caudal (CC) view of the unaffected breast from 138 women diagnosed with unilateral breast cancer were retrospectively analyzed. Menopause status was used as a surrogate marker of endogenous hormonal activity. Retroareolar 2.5cm2 ROIs were segmented from the post-processed DM images using an automated algorithm. Parenchymal texture features of skewness, coarseness, contrast, energy, homogeneity, grey-level spatial correlation, and fractal dimension were computed. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis was performed to evaluate feature classification performance in distinguishing between 72 pre- and 66 post-menopausal women. Logistic regression was performed to assess the independent effect of each texture feature in predicting menopause status. ROC analysis showed that texture features have inherent capacity to distinguish between pre- and post-menopausal statuses (AUC>0.5, p<0.05). Logistic regression including all texture features yielded an ROC curve with an AUC of 0.76. Addition of age at menarche, ethnicity, contraception use and hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) use lead to a modest model improvement (AUC=0.78) while texture features maintained significant contribution (p<0.05). The observed differences in parenchymal texture features between pre- and post- menopausal women suggest that mammographic texture can potentially serve as a surrogate imaging marker of endogenous hormonal activity.

  7. Gincosan (a combination of Ginkgo biloba and Panax ginseng): the effects on mood and cognition of 6 and 12 weeks' treatment in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Hartley, D E; Elsabagh, S; File, S E

    2004-01-01

    As memory and concentration impairments are a frequent complaint in post-menopausal women, this well-defined population was selected to investigate the effect on mood and cognition of chronic treatment with Gincosan. In a double-blind placebo controlled study, post-menopausal women aged 51-66 were randomly assigned to 12 weeks' treatment with Gincosan (320mg/day), containing 120mg Ginkgo biloba, and 200mg Panax ginseng (n = 30), or matched placebo (n = 27). They were given measurements of mood, somatic anxiety, sleepiness, and menopausal symptoms and a battery of cognitive tests before treatment and after 6 and 12 weeks of treatment. There were no significant effects of Gincosan treatment on ratings of mood, bodily symptoms of somatic anxiety, menopausal symptoms, or sleepiness or on any of the cognitive measures of attention, memory or frontal lobe function. Thus, after chronic administration, Gincosan appeared to have no beneficial effects in post-menopausal women.

  8. Non-hormonal treatment of vulvo-vaginal atrophy-related symptoms in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tersigni, C; Di Simone, N; Tempestilli, E; Cianfrini, F; Russo, R; Moruzzi, M C; Amar, I D; Fiorelli, A; Scambia, G; Villa, P

    2015-01-01

    In post-menopausal period vulvo-vaginal atrophy (VVA)-related symptoms may seriously affect women's quality of life. Hormonal replacement therapy effectively relieves these symptoms but it is not always safe or accepted, and a non-hormonal treatment is often needed instead. Over a period of 12 weeks, we tested the effect of a twice-a-week vulvo-vaginal application of a hyaluronic acid, AC collagen, isoflavones and vitamins-based cream (Perilei Pausa) on 35 women in post-menopausal period, reporting VVA-related symptoms. After 12 weeks of treatment with Perilei Pausa a significant improvement in vaginal dryness, vulvo-vaginal itching, dyspareunia (P < 0.001), dysuria (P = 0.02), nocturia (P = 0.009) and pollakiuria (P = 0.005) was reported by the women. Colposcopical score assessing the intensity of atrophic colpitis, cervico-vaginal paleness and petechiae was also reduced (P = 0.037, P = 0.016 and P = 0.032, respectively). No significant difference in terms of maturation value of cervico-vaginal epithelium was observed. In conclusion, Perilei Pausa may represent an effective and safe alternative treatment of symptomatic VVA in post-menopausal women.

  9. Residential proximity to major roadways and incident hypertension in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kingsley, Samantha L; Eliot, Melissa N; Whitsel, Eric A; Wang, Yi; Coull, Brent A; Hou, Lifang; Margolis, Helene G; Margolis, Karen L; Mu, Lina; Wu, Wen-Chih C; Johnson, Karen C; Allison, Matthew A; Manson, JoAnn E; Eaton, Charles B; Wellenius, Gregory A

    2015-10-01

    Living near major roadways has been associated with increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality, presumably from exposure to elevated levels of traffic-related air and/or noise pollution. This association may potentially be mediated through increased risk of incident hypertension, but results from prior studies are equivocal. Using Cox proportional hazards models we examined residential proximity to major roadways and incident hypertension among 38,360 participants of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) Clinical Trial cohorts free of hypertension at enrollment and followed for a median of 7.9 years. Adjusting for participant demographics and lifestyle, trial participation, and markers of individual and neighborhood socioeconomic status, the hazard ratios for incident hypertension were 1.13 (95% CI: 1.00, 1.28), 1.03 (0.95, 1.11), 1.05 (0.99, 1.11), and 1.05 (1.00, 1.10) for participants living ≤50, >50-200, >200-400, and >400-1000 m vs >1000 m from the nearest major roadway, respectively (ptrend=0.013). This association varied substantially by WHI study region with hazard ratios for women living ≤50 m from a major roadway of 1.61 (1.18, 2.20) in the West, 1.51 (1.22, 1.87) in the Northeast, 0.89 (0.70, 1.14) in the South, and 0.94 (0.75, 1.19) in the Midwest. In this large, national cohort of post-menopausal women, residential proximity to major roadways was associated with incident hypertension in selected regions of the U.S. If causal, these results suggest residential proximity to major roadways, as a marker for air, noise and other traffic-related pollution, may be a risk factor for hypertension.

  10. Free living energy expenditure in post menopausal women before and after exercise training.

    PubMed

    Keytel, L R; Lambert, M I; Johnson, J; Noakes, T D; Lambert, E V

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the effects of 8 weeks of moderate exercise training, on 24-hour free living energy expenditure in previously sedentary post-menopausal women. The experimental group (EX) included 9 women. Ten non-exercising control subjects (CON) were recruited to undergo pre- and post-testing. Estimated total daily energy expenditure (TDEE), total 24-hour heart beats (HB), total energy intake (TEI), resting metabolic rate, maximal oxygen consumption (VáO2max), body composition, and submaximal heart rate were measured before and after the exercise intervention. Body composition did not change (body fat % in CON 34.0 +/- 4.0% vs. 33.9 +/- 3.6% and EX 34.1 +/- 4.0% vs. 34.0 +/- 3.4%). Mean submaximal heart rate during steady-state exercise in EX was lower after training compared to CON (p < .05); however, VáO2max did not increase significantly (CON 1.96 +/- 0.23 vs. 1.99 +/- 0.24 l L O2/min and EX 1.86 +/- 0.39 vs. 1.94 +/- 0.30 L O2/min). Neither estimated TDEE (CON, 11.6 +/- 2.0 vs. 11.4 +/- 2.78 MJ; and EX 11.4 +/- 3.3 vs. 11.5 +/- 2.5 MJ, pre vs. post, respectively), RMR (CON 134.2 +/- 9.4 vs. 136.9 +/- 15.0 KJ/kgFFM/day, and EX 138.4 +/- 6.4 vs. 140.7 +/- 14.2 KJ/kgFFM/day, pre vs. post, respectively), TEI (CON 7.9 +/- 2.2 vs. 8.2 +/- 2.5 MJ, and EX 9.4 +/-1.6 vs. 8.3 +/- 2.8 MJ), nor HB (CON 110,808 +/- 12,574 vs. 107,366 +/- 12,864 beats, and EX 110,188 +/- 9,219 vs. 114,590 +/- 12,750 beats) change over 8 weeks in either group. These data suggest that a moderate exercise program may not impact on TDEE, RMR, TEI, or HB in previously sedentary, older women.

  11. Menopause in crisis post-Women's Health Initiative? A view based on personal clinical experience.

    PubMed

    Neves-E-Castro, Manuel

    2003-12-01

    Menopausal women should not consider that hormonal treatment is an obligatory long-term commitment. Estrogen-based treatments are extremely effective for vasomotor symptom relief and for vaginal atrophy. HRT also is one of several effective methods for the primary prevention of osteoporosis. If trials were done early after the menopause when the endothelium is likely still to be intact, estrogen-based treatment might be shown to prevent coronary heart disease. However, greater efficacy is to be expected from smoking cessation, proper nutrition, exercise, moderate alcohol consumption, statins, beta-blockers and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The treatment options for a menopausal woman should include non-drug-related strategies, non-hormonal pharmaceutical therapies as well as hormonal treatments. The first objective of this contribution is to call to the attention of practising physicians the fact that the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) and Heart and Estrogen/Progestin Replacement Study (HERS) studies involved women much older than the early postmenopausal age groups for whom HRT is prescribed because of symptoms. The second objective is to emphasize that the attending physicians must not only treat the symptomatic women but also prevent the occurrence of diseases more prevalent after 60 years of age. Hormones can safely be used for the former, when not contraindicated, whereas for the latter non-pharmacological interventions and non-hormonal medications are preferable.

  12. Long-term effects of oral contraceptives on the prevalence of diabetes in post-menopausal women: 2007-2012 KNHANES.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sung-Woo; Jeon, Jae-Han; Lee, Won-Kee; Lee, Sungwoo; Kim, Jung-Guk; Lee, In-Kyu; Park, Keun-Gyu

    2016-09-01

    There is little information on whether past use of oral contraceptives (OCs) at child-bearing age influences the incidences of diabetes and insulin resistance (IR) after menopause. This study aimed to evaluate the association of past use of OCs with the development of diabetes and IR in post-menopausal women. This cross-sectional study was based on data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey carried out from 2007 to 2012. Of the 50405 participants, 6554 post-menopausal women were included in the analysis. The associations of OC use with the prevalence of diabetes in post-menopausal women were examined using multivariate logistic analysis. In addition, fasting glucose and insulin levels were measured in 3338 nondiabetic post-menopausal women, and the association between IR and OCs was examined by the analysis of covariance. The prevalence of diabetes was significantly higher in post-menopausal participants who had taken OCs for more than 6 months than in those who had never taken OCs. The association remained significant after adjusting for multiple confounding factors (odd ratio 1.379; 95 % CI 1.115-1.707; P = 0.003). The duration of OC use was also positively associated with the prevalence of diabetes. Furthermore, taking OCs for more than 6 months led to a significant increase in fasting insulin levels and HOMA-IR in nondiabetic participants. Past use of OCs for more than 6 months led to a significant increase in the prevalence of diabetes in post-menopausal women, and increased IR in nondiabetic participants. These results suggested that the prolonged use of OCs at reproductive age may be an important risk factor for developing diabetes in post-menopausal women.

  13. Evaluation of the Prevalence and Correlated Factors for Decreased Bone Mass Density among Pre- and Post-menopausal Educated Working Women in Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Al-Muammar, May N.; Elareefy, Azza A.

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT Most of the previous studies on osteoporosis have focused on post-menopausal women, and more research is needed to evaluate its prevalence in pre-menopausal women. This study was carried out to evaluate the prevalence and correlated factors for decreased bone mass density among pre- and post-menopausal women. This was a cross-sectional study carried out in Applied Medical Sciences College under King Saud University. All pre- and post-menopausal women working there were invited to participate in the study. Measurement of bone mass density was done by quantitative ultrasound densitometry. One-fourth of the pre-menopausal females had osteopaenia. There was a significant correlation between having osteoporosis and increasing age, fertility period, parity, menopausal duration, gynaecological age, and presence of co-morbidity, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus. Pre-menopausal females had high prevalence of osteopaenia (24.8%), and it is recommended to implement health education campaigns demonstrating the preventive measures of osteoporosis. PMID:25395914

  14. The theory of modulated hormone therapy for the treatment of breast cancer in pre- and post-menopausal women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiley, Teresa S.; Haraldsen, Jason T.

    2012-03-01

    We present a theory that questions the standard of care for pre- and post-menopausal women with breast cancer. Through the use of modulated hormones to mimic the natural multiphasic fluctuations of estrogen and progesterone cycles of healthy young women, it can be expected that patients will not only exhibit increased quality of life such as better sleep, well-being, and libido, but also memory improvement and less joint pain. Additionally, this regimen may engage genetic pathways that protect women in youth from breast cancers. We present a mathematical basis for the coupling of the hormone cycles through the use of Gaussian curves that provides the foundation of a new format of hormone replacement in women.

  15. Concentrations of isoflavones in plasma and urine of post-menopausal women chronically ingesting high quantities of soy isoflavones.

    PubMed

    Mathey, J; Lamothe, V; Coxam, V; Potier, M; Sauvant, P; Bennetau-Pelissero, C

    2006-06-01

    Soy food or food supplements based on soy containing isoflavones (Isos) are increasingly available in Western countries. However, the variability of Isos levels in urine and plasma in humans during chronic ingestion is poorly documented. Nevertheless, this is the way these compounds will most probably be used in the future, especially if the soy-based supplements market goes on increasing. Here, glycosilated Isos in an enriched extract of Prevastein equal to 100 mg of equivalent Isos aglycone was given daily to 27 post-menopausal women for 30 days and to 12 post-menopausal women for 60 days. Volunteers were given Prevastein in a cereal bar (25 mg Isos) and in a yoghurt (25 mg Isos) both at breakfast and dinner. Plasma samples were collected after overnight fasting. Urine samples were aliquots of a 24 h collection checked on volume and creatinin excretion levels. Genistein, daidzein and equol were measured at day 0 and every 15 days afterwards, using original specific ELISAs. Constant levels were reached from the 15th day. About 59.2% of the volunteers were significant equol producers in the first experiment and 58.3% in the second. A large variability in plasma and urine levels was observed among post-menopausal women consuming 100 mg Isos per day, although remaining relatively stable in each individual subject. This could partly account for the controversial effects of Isos recorded so far in clinical studies. So Isos plasma levels would have to be assayed during chronic exposures, and could help to better understand the large variability of the effects classically observed in clinical studies. ELISA techniques could be easily exported to analytical laboratories to help physicians and nutritionists with their prescriptions. PMID:16513315

  16. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Centi, Amanda J; Booth, Sarah L; Gundberg, Caren M; Saltzman, Edward; Nicklas, Barbara; Shea, M Kyla

    2015-12-01

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between changes in measures of OC and changes in body weight and percent body fat in obese, but otherwise healthy post-menopausal women undergoing a 20-week weight loss program. All participants received supplemental vitamins K and D and calcium. Body weight and body fat percentage (%BF) were assessed before and after the intervention. Serum OC [(total (tOC), ucOC, percent uncarboxylated (%ucOC)], and procollagen type 1N-terminal propeptide (P1NP; a measure of bone formation) were measured. Women lost an average of 10.9 ± 3.9 kg and 4 %BF. Serum concentrations of tOC, ucOC, %ucOC, and P1NP did not significantly change over the twenty-week intervention, nor were these measures associated with changes in weight (all p > 0.27) or %BF (all p > 0.54). Our data do not support an association between any serum measure of OC and weight or %BF loss in post-menopausal women supplemented with nutrients implicated in bone health.

  17. Increased Intake of Selected Vegetables, Herbs and Fruit may Reduce Bone Turnover in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Gunn, Caroline Ann; Weber, Janet Louise; McGill, Anne-Thea; Kruger, Marlena Cathorina

    2015-01-01

    Increased consumption of vegetables/herbs/fruit may reduce bone turnover and urinary calcium loss in post-menopausal women because of increased intake of polyphenols and potassium, but comparative human studies are lacking. The main aim was to compare bone turnover markers and urinary calcium excretion in two randomised groups (n = 50) of healthy post-menopausal women consuming ≥9 servings of different vegetables/herbs/fruit combinations (three months). Group A emphasised a generic range of vegetables/herbs/fruit, whereas Group B emphasised specific vegetables/herbs/fruit with bone resorption-inhibiting properties (Scarborough Fair Diet), with both diets controlled for potential renal acid load (PRAL). Group C consumed their usual diet. Plasma bone markers, urinary electrolytes (24 h) and estimated dietary PRAL were assessed at baseline and 12 weeks. Procollagen type I N propeptide (PINP) decreased (−3.2 μg/L, p < 0.01) in the B group only, as did C-terminal telopeptide of type I collagen (CTX) (−0.065 μg/L, p < 0.01) in women with osteopenia compared to those with normal bone mineral density (BMD) within this group. Intervention Groups A and B had decreased PRAL, increased urine pH and significantly decreased urinary calcium loss. Urinary potassium increased in all groups, reflecting a dietary change. In conclusion, Group B demonstrated positive changes in both turnover markers and calcium conservation. PMID:25856221

  18. Voices from the Hilo Women's Health Study: Talking Story About Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Morrison, Lynn A.; Sievert, Lynnette L.; Brown, Daniel E.; Reza, Angela; Rahberg, Nichole; Mills, Phoebe; Goodloe, Amber

    2013-01-01

    Our purpose in conducting this qualitative study was to examine how a multi-ethnic sample of women living in Hilo, Hawaii describe menopause. Interviews were conducted with 185 pre-, peri-, and post-menopausal women aged 45 to 55. We found that pre-menopausal women felt anxious compared to peri- and post-menopausal women's more affirmative attitudes of increasing confidence and freedom in this new cycle of life. A dominant theme was the construction of a post-menstrual identity. Peri-and post-menopausal women's attitudes were not biomedically oriented. Local culture and the island lifestyle may provide a positive atmosphere for women going through menopause. PMID:24134306

  19. The ECOS-16 questionnaire for the evaluation of health related quality of life in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Badia, Xavier; Díez-Pérez, Adolfo; Lahoz, Raquel; Lizán, Luis; Nogués, Xavier; Iborra, Jordi

    2004-01-01

    Background The aim of this study is to validate the questionnaire ECOS-16 (Assessment of health related quality of life in osteoporosis) for the evaluation of health related quality of life (HRQoL) in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis. Methods An observational, prospective and multi-centre study was carried out among post-menopausal women with osteoporosis in primary care centres and hospital outpatient clinics. All patients attended 2 visits: at baseline and at 6 months. In addition, the subgroup of outpatients attended another visit a month after the baseline to assess the test-retest reliability. The psychometric properties of the questionnaire were evaluated in terms of feasibility, validity (content validity and construct validity) and internal consistency in baseline, and in terms of test-retest reliability and responsiveness to change in visit at month and visit at 6 months, respectively. In all visits, ECOS-16, EUROQoL-5D (EQ-5D) and four 7-point items about health status (general health status, back pain, limitation in daily activities and emotional status) were administered, whereas only outpatients were given MINI-OQLQ (Mini Osteoporosis Quality of Life Questionnaire), besides all clinical variables; and sociodemographic variables at baseline. Results 316 women were consecutively included, 212 from primary care centres and 104 from hospital outpatient clinics. Feasibility: 94.3% of patients answered all items of the questionnaire. The mean administration time was 12.3 minutes. Validity: factor analysis suggested that the questionnaire was unidimensional. In the multivariate analysis, patients with vertebral fractures, co-morbidity and a lower education level showed to have worse HRQoL. Moderate to high correlations were found between the ECOS-16 score and the other health status questionnaires (0.47–0.82). Reliability: internal consistency (Cronbach's α) was 0.92 and test-retest reliability (ICC) was 0.80. Responsiveness to change: ECOS-16

  20. Food matrix and isoflavones bioavailability in early post menopausal women: a European clinical study.

    PubMed

    Chanteranne, Brigitte; Branca, Francesco; Kaardinal, A; Wahala, K; Braesco, Véronique; Ladroite, Philippe; Brouns, Fred; Coxam, Véronique

    2008-01-01

    The estrogenic effects of soy isoflavones (IF) on symptoms of menopause are of particular interest. The aim of the present study was to improve compliance of IF in two IF-enriched foods providing the same IF circulating levels in postmenopausal women. Forty-two healthy postmenopausal women (mean age: 53.28 years) were recruited for a randomized, crossover, multicenter trial conducted in the Netherlands, Italy and France. Over 18 days, volunteers were assigned to two groups and supplemented with two different IF-enriched foods (100 mg IF aglycones/two servings). The first group had to eat two biscuits daily for three days. After a wash-out period (11 d), they received cereal bars for three days. The second group started with the cereal bars and finished with biscuits. After IF intake, plasma and urinary levels of genistein, daidzein, O desmethyl angolensin and equol significantly increased and returned to baseline level after the washout period. There was no difference between biscuits and cereals bars intake, as shown by group values at each end of experimental period (day 4 or day 18). Both matrixes are comparable in terms of IF-circulating levels and could be used independently. PMID:19281063

  1. Comparison of sex hormonal and metabolic profiles between omnivores and vegetarians in pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Fex, Annie; Filion, Marie-Eve; Adlercreutz, Herman; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the sex hormonal and metabolic profiles in vegetarians and compare these with the profiles in omnivores. The design of the present study was cross-sectional. The study sample of pre- and post-menopausal women included forty-one omnivores and twenty-one vegetarians. Thereafter we determined: (1) plasma sex hormones, (2) fasting insulin, NEFA as well as apo-A and apo-B, (3) BMI, (4) a dietary profile (3 d dietary records), (5) physical activity and (6) total faecal excretion per 72 h and total urinary excretion per 72 h. Vegetarians showed higher levels of sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), apo-A, total faecal excretion per 72 h and total fibre intake as well as lower levels of apo-B, free oestradiol, free testosterone, dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (DHEA-s) and BMI. Interestingly, after controlling for BMI, significant differences between groups still persisted except for apo-B. Moreover, stepwise regression analysis showed that total fibre intake explained 15.2 % of the variation in SHBG in our cohort, which accounted for the greatest source of unique variance. Results of the present study indicate that pre- and post-menopausal vegetarians present higher concentrations of SHBG, which could be explained, in part, by higher levels of fibre intake. This may explain, at least in part, the lower risk of developing type 2 diabetes.

  2. Evaluation of intervention research in weight reduction in post menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Al-Zadjali, Manal; Keller, Colleen; Larkey, Linda K; Albertini, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    To describe the evidence that has accrued for interventions targeting weight loss in postmenopausal women, and to assess the strengths and limitations of weight loss interventions in postmenopausal women using the framework of evaluation theory, including definition of the problem and the use of theoretical framework and mediators. Electronic databases were used, including CINAHL, EBSCO Host, Google scholar, Medline, and the Science Citation Index, Expanded, in the Web of Science from 1995 to December 2009. Keyword searches included the terms obesity, obese, overweight, menopause, and weight management interventions. Searches were combined to find reports addressing 1 or more keywords. Experimental design studies that examined physical activity or dietary intervention effects on weight loss or body composition changes in postmenopausal women were selected for review. Reports of 15 intervention studies met inclusion criteria from the list of 120 generated through the database searches. Each article was evaluated for 1) effects produced as a result of the intervention, 2) the characteristics of the problem of postmenopausal obesity, 3) specification of theoretical constructs and critical inputs that guide the design of an intervention, and 4) link of the theoretical predictors and the outcome measures selected. Four types of interventions were tested in the 15 research reports. Only 5 of the 15 used theories or models to guide the interventions. All of the interventions resulted in some positive weight management outcome, such as lowered body mass index, fat mass, waist circumference, systolic blood pressure, glucose, and cholesterol. Overall, the reviewed research showed efficacy of varying intensities of exercise when combined with hypocaloric diet or meal replacement therapy in producing low body weight, low fat, improved insulin sensitivity, glycemic control, and cardio-respiratory fitness. The external validity of the 15 studies was limited in reporting of a

  3. Psychosocial correlates of cardiorespiratory fitness and muscle strength in overweight and obese post-menopausal women: a MONET study.

    PubMed

    Karelis, Antony D; Fontaine, Jonathan; Messier, Virginie; Messier, Lyne; Blanchard, Chris; Rabasa-Lhoret, Remi; Strychar, Irene

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the psychosocial correlates of cardiorespiratory fitness (VO2peak) and muscle strength in overweight and obese sedentary post-menopausal women. The study population consisted of 137 non-diabetic, sedentary overweight and obese post-menopausal women (mean age 57.7 years, s = 4.8; body mass index 32.4 kg.m(-2), s = 4.6). At baseline we measured: (1) body composition using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; (2) visceral fat using computed tomography; (3) insulin sensitivity using the hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp; (4) cardiorespiratory fitness; (5) muscle strength using the leg press exercise; and (6) psychosocial profile (quality of life, perceived stress, self-esteem, body-esteem, and perceived risk for developing chronic diseases) using validated questionnaires. Both VO2peak and muscle strength were significantly correlated with quality of life (r = 0.29, P < 0.01 and r = 0.30, P < 0.01, respectively), and quality of life subscales for: physical functioning (r = 0.28, P < 0.01 and r = 0.22, P < 0.05, respectively), pain (r = 0.18, P < 0.05 and r = 0.23, P < 0.05, respectively), role functioning (r = 0.20, P < 0.05 and r = 0.24, P < 0.05, respectively), and perceived risks (r = -0.24, P < 0.01 and r = -0.30, P < 0.01, respectively). In addition, VO2peak was significantly associated with positive health perceptions, greater body esteem, and less time watching television/video. Stepwise regression analysis showed that quality of life for health perceptions and for role functioning were independent predictors of VO2peak and muscle strength, respectively. In conclusion, higher VO2peak and muscle strength are associated with a favourable psychosocial profile, and the psychosocial correlates of VO2peak were different from those of muscle strength. Furthermore, psychosocial factors could be predictors of VO2peak and muscle strength in our cohort of overweight and obese sedentary post-menopausal women.

  4. Predictors of systolic blood pressure in post-menopausal euthyroid women: A study of the NHANES continuous survey data 2007-2012.

    PubMed

    Khitan, Zeid; Dial, Larry; Santhanam, Prasanna

    2015-06-01

    There is an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and higher rate of hypertension in post-menopausal (compared to pre-menopausal women). We analysed the cross-sectional National Health and Nutritional Examination and Survey 2007-2012 to look at the factors that affect systolic blood pressure in post-menopausal women. We also performed a linear regression with systolic blood pressure as the dependent variable and age, body mass index, total cholesterol, triglycerides, A1C and serum creatinine as independent variables. In the regression model, only body mass index was a significant predictor of systolic blood pressure (adjusted r (2) of 0. 100, F(6, 740) = 14.74, standard error β = 0.08, standardized coefficient B = 0.31, p < 0.01).

  5. The relative efficacy of nine osteoporosis medications for reducing the rate of fractures in post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the absence of head-to-head trials, indirect comparisons of randomized placebo-controlled trials may provide a viable option to assess relative efficacy. The purpose was to estimate the relative efficacy of reduction of fractures in post-menopausal women, and to assess robustness of the results. Methods A systematic literature review of multiple databases identified randomized placebo-controlled trials with nine drugs for post-menopausal women. Odds ratio and 95% credibility intervals for the rates of hip, non-vertebral, vertebral, and wrist fractures for each drug and between drugs were derived using a Bayesian approach. A drug was ranked as the most efficacious if it had the highest posterior odds ratio, or had the highest effect size. Results 30 studies including 59,209 patients reported fracture rates for nine drugs: alendronate (6 studies), denosumab (1 study), etidronate (8 studies), ibandronate (4 studies), raloxifene (1 study), risedronate (7 studies), strontium (2 study), teriparatide (1 study), and zoledronic acid (1 study). The drugs with the highest probability of reducing non-vertebral fractures was etidronate and teriparatide while the drugs with the highest probability of reducing vertebral, hip or wrist fractures were teriparatide, zoledronic acid and denosumab. The drugs with the largest effect size for vertebral fractures were zoledronic acid, teriparatide and denosumab, while the drugs with the highest effect size for non-vertebral, hip or wrist fractures were alendronate or risedronate. Estimates were consistent between Bayesian and classical approaches. Conclusion Teriparatide, zoledronic acid and denosumab have the highest probabilities of being most efficacious for non-vertebral and vertebral fractures, and having the greatest effect sizes. The estimates from indirect comparisons were robust to differences in methodology. PMID:21943363

  6. Correlating Estrogen Levels and Cognitive Functions in Regularly Menstruating Females of Reproductive Age Group and Post Menopausal Women of North India

    PubMed Central

    Khattar, Deepti; Sodhi, Candy; Parmod, John; Dutta, Abhilasha

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To correlate serum estrogen levels with cognitive functions calculated objectively as per Mini Mental State Examination (MMSE) in the females in reproductive age group and those attaining menopause. Materials and methods: This study was conducted in Christian Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana, Punjab, India. 150 subjects (100 postmenopausal females and 50 regularly menstruating females of the reproductive age group) were included. The cognitive functions of all the females and serum estrogen levels (i.e Estradiol E2) were assessed. Results: The E2 levels in normal menstruating females were found to be higher (mean = 188.062 pg/ml) as compared to the menopausal females and the difference in E2 levels was found to be significant (p < 0.001). However, the difference in serum estrogen levels of subjects in the two menopausal groups was insignificant. MMSE, showed that scores of normal menstruating females were higher (mean score = 29.92) as compared to post menopausal females for 1-5 years (mean score = 26.72) and post menopausal females for last 6-10 years (mean score = 26.30). Conclusion: We observed that the cognition functions declined in post menopausal women, whereas the scores were higher in the women of reproductive age group, meaning thereby, that it is the serum estrogen level that is bringing about this difference. Another finding was that the decline in cognition following menopause was not progressive. Therefore, this correlation would open up the gates for the use of estrogen therapy for various neuropsychological disorders pertaining to cognition in the postmenopausal females. PMID:26177471

  7. Correlation of physical aptitude; functional capacity, corporal balance and quality of life (QoL) among elderly women submitted to a post-menopausal physical activities program.

    PubMed

    de Souza Santos, César Augusto; Dantas, Estélio Enrique Martin; Moreira, Maria Helena Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of physical activity from the "Menopause in Form" program on physical aptitude, functional capacity, corporal balance and QoL among elderly women. In addition, correlations among these variables were examined. The present work was a longitudinal study that was quasi-experimental and correlational. A total of 323 elderly women (age: 69.0±5.53 years) participated in this study. Subjects were non-institutionalized, post-menopausal individuals residing at the Elderly Care Center in Belém Municipality (Pará, Brazil) and practiced one activity (i.e., dancing or walking) over a 10-month period. The assessment protocols used were the following: the Fullerton functional fitness test battery (physical aptitude); the activities of daily living (ADL) indices (functional capacity); the Tinetti-scale (corporal balance); and the WHOQOL-OLD questionnaire (QoL). The adopted significance level was p<0.05. Results from the Wilcoxon test demonstrated significant differences for the post-test assessment of functional capacity (Δ%=5.63%; p=0.0001) and general QoL (Δ%=9.19%; p=0.001). These results suggest that the physical activities employed during the "Menopause in Form" program resulted in significant improvements in the functional capacity and QoL of post-menopausal elderly women.

  8. Factors associated with estrogen receptors-alpha (ER-alpha) and -beta (ER-beta) and progesterone receptor abundance in obese and non obese pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Meza-Muñoz, Dalia Edith; Fajardo, Martha E; Pérez-Luque, Elva Leticia; Malacara, Juan Manuel

    2006-06-01

    There is scarce information about the factors associated with estrogen receptors (ER) at menopause. In 113 volunteers pre- and post-menopausal healthy women, grouped as with and without obesity, estrogen receptors-alpha and -beta, and progesterone receptor (PR) were measured by immunohistochemistry in skin punch biopsies obtained from the external gluteal area. In pre-menopausal women, biopsies and a blood sample were performed between days 7 and 14 of the cycle. Serum hormone levels were measured by immunoradiometric assay or radioimmunoassay. After menopause, ER and PR amounts decreased significantly. At pre-menopause, obese women had lower PR levels than non obese (P<.006). In the post-menopausal group, obese women showed higher ER-alpha (P<.03) and ER-beta (P<.02) levels than the non obese group. In the analysis of factors associated with the amount of steroid receptors for the total group, log[ER-alpha], log[ER-beta], and log[PR] were associated with age (P<.002, <.005, and <.004, respectively). The log[ER-alpha] was also associated with log[FSH] (P<.0008); meanwhile, the log[PR] showed a marginal correlation with log[FSH]. In pre-menopausal women no factor associated with any of the three receptors was found. In post-menopausal women log[ER-alpha] was associated with log[estrone] and log[DHEAS] (P<.003 and <.02, respectively). log[PR] was associated with BMI (P<.002), years since menopause (P<.05), and log[DHEAS] (P<.003). We concluded that ER and PR diminish sharply at post-menopause. At this stage the amount of receptors depends on several factors such as BMI, years since menopause, and androgen precursors.

  9. Development and validation of a specific quality of life module in post-menopausal women with osteoporosis: the QUALIOST.

    PubMed

    Marquis, P; Cialdella, P; De la Loge, C

    2001-01-01

    Established post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMO) has serious consequences on health related quality of life (HRQL), as long-term back and joint pain can severely limit normal activities. The quality of life questionnaire in osteoporosis (QUALIOST), a self-administered module consisting of 23 questions which complements the SF-36, was specifically designed to evaluate the repercussions of PMO on patient HRQL. The QUALIOST was developed simultaneously in French and English after discussion with 45 patients. A validation study in France and the UK included 140 women with PMO, with at least one osteoporotic vertebral fracture. Patients completed the SF-36 and QUALIOST twice, 7 days apart. Factorial analysis revealed a physical and emotional component. Three scores were calculated: physical repercussions (10 items), emotional repercussions (13 items) and the global score (23 items). Internal reliability and stability over time were excellent. Concurrent validity with the SF-36 physical and mental fields was satisfactory. A deterioration in clinical state, as measured by pain severity, hospital admission and walking stick use, increased the repercussions on HRQL for all three scores, demonstrating the clinical validity of the questionnaire. The QUALIOST, combined with the SF-36, is a valid rating scale for measuring HRQL in clinical trials for established PMO, providing both general and specific data on the effects of PMO on patient HRQL.

  10. Effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    El-Mekawy, Hanan S; ElDeeb, Abeer M; Ghareib, Hassan O

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Twenty-eight obese post-menopausal women were randomly distributed to the control and laser acupuncture group. The control group received the diet-exercise intervention and the study group received the same intervention and sessions of laser acupuncture, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurement, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profile were assessed before and after the treatment course. Both groups showed a significant decrease in the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. However, laser acupuncture group showed a greater decrease in the waist (P = 0.001) and hip (P = 0.001) circumferences, cholesterol (P = 0.04), and insulin levels (P = 0.043) than the control group. These results suggest that laser acupuncture is a valuable approach that could be added to the diet-exercise intervention to correct features of the MetS. PMID:26425364

  11. Effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on metabolic syndrome in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    El-Mekawy, Hanan S; ElDeeb, Abeer M; Ghareib, Hassan O

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of laser acupuncture combined with a diet-exercise intervention on features of the metabolic syndrome (MetS). Twenty-eight obese post-menopausal women were randomly distributed to the control and laser acupuncture group. The control group received the diet-exercise intervention and the study group received the same intervention and sessions of laser acupuncture, 3 times/week for 12 weeks. Anthropometric measurement, fasting blood glucose and insulin levels, homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), and lipid profile were assessed before and after the treatment course. Both groups showed a significant decrease in the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. However, laser acupuncture group showed a greater decrease in the waist (P = 0.001) and hip (P = 0.001) circumferences, cholesterol (P = 0.04), and insulin levels (P = 0.043) than the control group. These results suggest that laser acupuncture is a valuable approach that could be added to the diet-exercise intervention to correct features of the MetS.

  12. Denosumab for the prevention of osteoporotic fractures in post-menopausal women: a NICE single technology appraisal.

    PubMed

    Scotland, Graham; Waugh, Norman; Royle, Pamela; McNamee, Paul; Henderson, Rob; Hollick, Rosemary

    2011-11-01

    The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) invited the manufacturer of denosumab (Amgen Inc., UK) to submit evidence for the clinical and cost effectiveness of denosumab for the prevention of fragility fractures in post-menopausal women, as part of the Institute's single technology appraisal (STA) process. The University of Aberdeen Health Technology Assessment Group were commissioned to act as the Evidence Review Group (ERG); the role of the ERG being to appraise the manufacturer's submission and to produce an independent report. This article provides a description of the company submission, the ERG review and NICE's subsequent decisions. The manufacturer considered that denosumab would be appropriate for patients unable to take, comply with or tolerate oral bisphosphonates. Comparator treatments selected for the submission were, therefore, 'no treatment', raloxifene, strontium ranelate, intravenous zoledronic acid, intravenous ibandronate and teriparatide. The main effectiveness evidence for denosumab was derived from a large randomized controlled trial comparing denosumab with placebo. Given by subcutaneous injection at 6-monthly intervals for 3 years, denosumab reduced the incidence of hip fracture by 40%, and reduced the incidence of clinical vertebral fracture by 69%. An indirect treatment comparison was used to derive adjusted relative risk (RR) estimates for different types of fracture for each comparator versus placebo. The RRs (95% CI) applied for denosumab were 0.316 (0.208, 0.478) for clinical vertebral fracture, 0.605 (0.373, 0.983) for hip fracture and 0.842 (0.638, 1.110) for wrist fracture. Despite a number of concerns surrounding the methodology of the indirect comparison, the ERG was satisfied with the robustness of the effect estimates. The RR estimates were applied in a good-quality Markov model that took account of drug costs, administration and monitoring costs, costs associated with fractures, and long-term nursing home

  13. Effects of soy protein and isoflavones on circulating hormone concentrations in pre- and post-menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hooper, L.; Ryder, J.J.; Kurzer, M.S.; Lampe, J.W.; Messina, M.J.; Phipps, W.R.; Cassidy, A.

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND Hormonal effects of soy and isoflavones have been investigated in numerous trials with equivocal findings. We aimed to systematically assess the effects of soy and isoflavones on circulating estrogen and other hormones in pre- and post-menopausal women. METHODS The Cochrane Library, MEDLINE and EMBASE (plus reviews and experts) were searched to December 2007. Inclusion of randomized or residential crossover trials of soy or isoflavones for 4 or more weeks on estrogens, SHBG, FSH, LH, progesterone and thyroid hormones in women was assessed independently in duplicate. Six percent of papers assessed were included. Data concerning participants, interventions, outcomes, potential effect modifiers and trial quality characteristics were extracted independently in duplicate. RESULTS Forty-seven studies (11 of pre-, 35 of post- and 1 of perimenopausal women) were included. In premenopausal women, meta-analysis suggested that soy or isoflavone consumption did not affect primary outcomes estradiol, estrone or SHBG concentrations, but significantly reduced secondary outcomes FSH and LH [by ∼20% using standardized mean difference (SMD), P = 0.01 and 0.05, respectively]. Menstrual cycle length was increased by 1.05 days (95% CI 0.13, 1.97, 10 studies). In post-menopausal women, there were no statistically significant effects on estradiol, estrone, SHBG, FSH or LH, although there was a small statistically non-significant increase in total estradiol with soy or isoflavones (∼14%, SMD, P = 0.07, 21 studies). CONCLUSIONS Isoflavone-rich soy products decrease FSH and LH in premenopausal women and may increase estradiol in post-menopausal women. The clinical implications of these modest hormonal changes remain to be determined. PMID:19299447

  14. Impact of age on aortic wave reflection responses to metaboreflex activation and its relationship with leg lean mass in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Figueroa, Arturo; Jaime, Salvador J; Johnson, Sarah A; Alvarez-Alvarado, Stacey; Campbell, Jeremiah C; Feresin, Rafaela G; Elam, Marcus L; Arjmandi, Bahram H

    2015-10-01

    Wave reflection (augmentation pressure [AP] and index [AIx]) is greater in older women than men. Resting AP is a better wave reflection index than AIx in older adults. The negative relationship between wave reflection and lean mass (LM) has been inconsistent. We investigated the impact of age and LM on aortic hemodynamic responses to metaboreflex activation in post-menopausal women. Post-menopausal women, younger and older (n=20 per group) than 60 years, performed 2-min isometric handgrip at 30% of maximal force followed by 3-min post-exercise muscle ischemia (PEMI). We measured carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) and femoral-ankle PWV (faPWV) at rest, and aortic systolic blood pressure (aSBP), pulse pressure (aPP), AP, AIx, and AIx-adjusted for heart rate (AIx@75) at rest and during PEMI using tonometry. Arm and leg LM were measured by DEXA. Resting cfPWV, aSBP, and aPP were higher, while AIx@75 and leg LM were lower in older than younger women. aSBP and aPP increased similarly during PEMI in both groups. Increases in AP (P<0.05), AIx (P<0.05), and AIx@75 (P<0.01) during PEMI were greater in older than younger women. From these responses, only AP during PEMI was correlated (P<0.05) positively with aSBP and aPP responses, and negatively with leg LM. Resting faPWV, but not cfPWV, was correlated (P<0.01) with AP, aSBP, and aPP during PEMI. Therefore, PEMI induces greater wave reflection responses in older than younger post-menopausal women. Our findings suggest that the increased AP response to PEMI is related to leg arterial stiffness and muscle loss in older women.

  15. Effects of resistance training on resistin, leptin, cytokines, and muscle force in elderly post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Prestes, Jonato; Shiguemoto, Gilberto; Botero, Joao Paulo; Frollini, Anelena; Dias, Rodrigo; Leite, Richard; Pereira, Guilherme; Magosso, Rodrigo; Baldissera, Vilmar; Cavaglieri, Claudia; Perez, Sergio

    2009-12-01

    It may be that resistance exercise can be used to prevent the degenerative processes and inflammation associated with ageing. Thus, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of resistance training on cytokines, leptin, resistin, and muscle strength in post-menopausal women. Thirty-five sedentary women (mean age 63.18 years, s = 4.8; height 1.64 m, s = 0.07; body mass 57.84 kg, s = 7.70) were recruited. The 16 weeks of periodized resistance training consisted of two weekly sessions of three sets of 6-14 repetition maximum. Maximal strength was tested in bench press, 45 degrees leg press, and arm curl. Plasma tumour necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, interleukin-15, leptin, and resistin were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Maximal strength on all measures was increased after 16 weeks. There were minor or no modifications in tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-15. Interleukin-6 was decreased 48 h after compared with baseline and declined after 16 weeks. Leptin decreased 24 h after compared with baseline and was reduced at baseline and 48 h after compared with pre-training. There was a decrease in resistin after 24 and 48 h compared with baseline and a decline in baseline and immediately after levels compared with pre-training. A possible explanation of the results of the present study is a lower production of pro-inflammatory cytokines by the innate immune system. Periodized resistance training seems to be an important intervention to reduce systemic inflammation in this population.

  16. [Symptoms, life habits and risk factors in Italian menopause women].

    PubMed

    Ricci, S; Manna, P; Piscicelli, C; Serra, G B

    1997-01-01

    Authors report selected demographic, clinical and behavioral characteristics and symptoms of 2181 post-menopausal women enrolled in the CIOM study (collaborazione inter-ospedaliera per la menopausa) in the period 1990-1994. A computerized clinical record was used which was filled by gynecologist during the first and subsequent visits. The study allows to better understand some epidemiological aspects of menopause in comparison with other national and international surveys. The results support the need of educational interventions, both for women and medical doctors, to promote healthy lifestyle and the use of hormonal replacement therapy to alleviate symptoms and to prevent post-menopausal diseases.

  17. Screening for osteoporosis among post-menopausal women in community pharmacy

    PubMed Central

    Barris Blundell, Damià; Rodríguez Zarzuelo, Carmen; Sabio Sánchez, Belén; Gutiérrez álvarez, José Luis; Navarro Visa, Elena; Muñoz Valdés, Oscar; Garrido Jiménez, Belén; Gómez, Rocío Sánchez

    Objectives To identify postmenopausal women with risk of osteoporosis through quantitative ultrasound imaging (QUI) and to value the medical intervention after the determination of the bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Cross-sectional descriptive study developed in a community pharmacy. During the month of June of 2005 the community pharmacy enrolled postmenopausal women into the study. Women in treatment with calcium, vitamin D, hormone replacement therapy, estrogen receptor modulators, calcitonin or biphosphonates were considered criteria for exclusion. To all the women that consent to participate, the pharmacist measured BMD with the device Sahara Hologic Ultrasound Bone Densitometer at right calcaneus. Following the World Health Organization, women were classified as osteoporotic if their T-Score was less than -2.5 and as osteopenic if their T-Score ranged between -2.5 and -1.0. Results Of the 100 women screened, 11 (11%) presented risk of osteoporosis and 61 (61%) of osteopenia. The 18.5% postmenopausal women with body mass index lesser than 30 presented risk of osteoporosis and the 63.0% osteopenia. Conclusions The QUI constitutes a useful tool in community pharmacy for the screening of osteoporosis and it supposes a greater integration of the community pharmacy within the health care. PMID:25247006

  18. Menopausal Experiences of Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, D. S.; Wishart, J. G.; Muir, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the menopause in women with intellectual disabilities (ID) save that its onset is earlier than in the general population, and earlier still in women with Down's syndrome (DS). This study directly explored menopausal experiences in women with ID, both with and without DS, with the aim of identifying levels of…

  19. Dose-response effect of exercise frequency on bone mineral density in post-menopausal, osteopenic women.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, W; von Stengel, S

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the long-term dose-response relationship of exercise frequency on areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in early post-menopausal women with osteopenia. Based on the 12-year results of the consequently supervised exercise group (EG) of the Erlangen Fitness and Osteoporosis Prevention Study, we retrospectively structured two exercise groups according to the overall exercise frequency. Changes in aBMD at lumbar spine and proximal femur as assessed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry technique were compared between a low-frequency exercise group (LEF-EG, n = 16) with 1.5-<2 sessions/week and a high-frequency exercise group (HEF-EG, n = 25) with ≥ 2-3.5 sessions/week. Changes in aBMD at the lumbar spine and proximal femur were significantly more favorable in the HEF-EG compared with the LEF-EG; lumbar spine: (mean value ± standard deviation) 1.1 ± 4.7% vs -4.1 ± 3.0%; P = 0.001, ES: d' = 1.26; total hip: -4.4 ± 3.9% vs -6.7 ± 3.5%, P = 0.045, ES: d' = 0.70). BMD results of the LEF-EG did not significantly differ from the data of the non-training control group (lumbar spine: -4.4 ± 5.2%, total hip: -6.9 ± 5.0%). Although this result might not be generalizable across all exercise types and cohorts, it indicates that to impact bone, an overall exercise frequency of at least 2 sessions/week may be crucial, even if exercise is applied with high intensity/impact.

  20. Working women and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Kopenhager, T; Guidozzi, F

    2015-06-01

    Women are living longer, working more and retiring later. About 45% of the over 50-year-old workforce in virtually all forms of employment are women, all of whom will experience the menopause and its symptoms, which in some women will be mild to moderate, whilst in others they may be severe and debilitating. About half of these women will find it somewhat, or fairly difficult, to cope with their work, about half will not be affected and only about 5% will be severely compromised. Poor concentration, tiredness, poor memory, depression, feeling low, lowered confidence, sleepiness and particularly hot flushes are all cited as contributing factors. As with any longstanding health-related condition, the need for support and understanding from line management is crucial and can make a major difference to how a woman will deal with the adverse impact the menopausal symptoms may have on her productivity, her job satisfaction and her efficiency. A number of plausible strategies have been proposed that can be realistically implemented in the workplace and which could certainly make a significant difference. Careful thought, planning, consideration and effort may be required but, if instituted, they will, in the final analysis, benefit both employer and employee.

  1. Effects of exercise training and Mediterranean diet on vascular risk reduction in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Alkhatib, Ahmad; Klonizakis, Markos

    2014-01-01

    This study tested the potential risk-reduction benefits of Mediterranean Diet (MD) and regular exercise training on microvascular activity and cardiorespiratory capacity in postmenopausal women. Fifteen sedentary postmenopausal participants (age = 54.6 ± 3.6) were randomised into either exercise training or exercise combined with following MD for eight-weeks, and were assessed for their cardiorespiratory capacity, and upper- and lower-limb endothelial cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) test using Laser Doppler Fluximetry (LDF), coupled with measuring endothelium-dependent Acetylcholine Chloride (Ach) and -dependent Sodium Nitropurruside (SNP) vasodilators. Exercise training improved cardiorespiratory capacity as indicated by ventilatory threshold (11.5 ± 2.1 vs. 14.0 ± 3.0 ml·kg-1·min-1, p < 0.05) and improved the microcirculatory perfusion results of CVC for both vasodilators Ach (p < 0.001, d = 0.65) and SNP (p = 0.003, d = 0.53) in the lower-limb and ACh (p = 0.01, d = 0.41) and SNP (p = 0.03, d = 0.48) in the upper-limb, all (p < 0.05). However, combining exercise with MD showed a stronger improvement in Ach (p = 0.02, d = 0.36) of the lower limb, than in exercise alone group. The results suggest that regular moderate exercise improves microcirculatory vascular function and increases exercise tolerance, both are responsible for reducing cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women. However, combining MD with exercise suggests additional microvascular vasodialiatory improvement, suggesting an effective strategy for further cardiovascular risk-reduction in this high-risk group.

  2. Association of morning illumination and window covering with mood and sleep among post-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    YOUNGSTEDT, Shawn D; LEUNG, Amy; KRIPKE, Daniel F; LANGER, Robert D

    2014-01-01

    The antidepressant and sleep-promoting effects of light exposure might be useful for treating age-related mood and sleep disorders. In view of recent evidence suggesting beneficial effects of morning light, this study examined the associations of mood and sleep with morning light exposure, 24 h environmental illumination, and the degree to which the volunteers’ bedroom windows were covered in the morning. We examined 459 postmenopausal women participating an ancillary study of the Women’s Health Initiative conducted at the University of California, San Diego Clinical Center, San Diego, CA, USA. At baseline, volunteers completed a 4-week sleep-recall questionnaire. Volunteers were then assessed for 5–7 days in their home environments with actigraphic wrist monitors. During home recording, self-reported mood was assessed. Morning illumination during the first 4 h after arising, 24-h illumination mesor (cosine-fitted mean), and illumination acrophase (cosine-fitted peak time) were calculated. Sleep was scored each night using validated wrist actigraphic methods. A sleep diary was completed each morning. During two 24-h periods, urine was collected approximately every 2 h during wakefulness and following any voidings during the sleep period. Cosine-fitting established the acrophase of urinary 6-sulfatoxymelatonin (aMT6s) excretion. Morning illumination and 24-h illumination were modestly associated with better mood and sleep. Associations of light with mood and sleep were consistently greater for subjects whose body clocks were delayed relative to the group median. Less morning window covering in the subjects’ bedrooms was associated with more morning light and less depressed mood. The results suggest that both morning and 24-h light exposure may be beneficial for older adults. PMID:25374475

  3. The calciotropic hormone response to omega-3 supple-mentation during long-term weight-bearing exercise training in post menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Tartibian, Bakhtiar; Maleki, Behzad Hajizadeh; Abbasi, Asghar

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of ingestion of omega-3 (n-3) and aerobic exercise intervention on the calcium regulating hormones in healthy postmenopausal women. To this end, 56 healthy sedentary postmenopausal women with mean age 57.7 ± 3.5 yrs participated in this study. Participants were randomly divided into exercise plus supple-ment (E+S; n = 14), exercise (E; n = 14), supplement (S; n = 14) and control (Con, n = 14) groups. The subjects in E+S and E groups performed aerobic exercise training (walking and jog-ging) up to 65% of exercise HRmax, three times a week for 16 weeks. Subjects in E+S and S groups were asked to consume 1000 mg/d omega-3 for 16 weeks. The blood ionized Calcium (Ca(+2)), Parathyroid hormone (PTH), estrogen and Calcitonin (CT) were measured before and after 16 weeks of exercise training. Results indicated that consuming 1000 mg·day(-1) omega-3 during 16 weeks and or the aerobic exercise, significantly increased CT (p = 0.001) in E+S, E and S groups and significantly decreased PTH (p = 0.001) levels in E+S and E groups, also significantly increased estrogen (p = 0.024) levels in E+S and E groups, but had no significant effects on blood Ca(+2) (p = 0.619) levels. The results of present study demonstrate that omega-3 in combination with regular aerobic exercise training have significant effects on serum CT, estrogen and PTH in non-athletic post-menopausal women, suggesting that participating in moderate intensity weight-bearing exercise and incorporating sources of omega-3 in the diet a possible intervention to help slow the loss of bone that occurs following menopause. Key pointsLong-term weight-bearing exercise was shown to prove positive effects on bone metabolism.Serum calciotropic hormone levels and Ca(+2) can be affected by exercise intensity as well as dura-tion.There is a good relationship between dietary omega-3 (n-3) and bone metabolism in post-menopausal women.Omega-3 in combination with long-term weight

  4. Evidence for the Cost of Reproduction in Humans: High Lifetime Reproductive Effort Is Associated with Greater Oxidative Stress in Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Sancilio, Amelia; Galbarczyk, Andrzej; Klimek, Magdalena

    2016-01-01

    Life history theory predicts trade-offs between reproductive effort and maternal survivorship in energy-restricted environments. However, empirical evidence for the positive association between maternal mortality and reproductive effort from energetically challenged human populations are mixed and physiological mechanisms that may underlie this association are poorly understood. We hypothesized that increases in aerobic metabolism during repeated periods of pregnancy and lactation result in increased oxidative stress that may contribute to somatic deterioration, vulnerability to illness, and accelerated aging. We therefore predicted that lifetime gravidity and parity would be related to levels of biomarkers of oxidative stress, as well as antioxidative defence enzymes in post-menopausal women. Our hypothesis was supported by positive linear associations between levels of 8-OHdG, a biomarker of DNA oxidative damage (β = 0.21, p<0.05), levels of antioxidative defence enzyme Cu-Zn SOD (β = 0.25, p<0.05), and number of lifetime pregnancies. Furthermore, independent of age and health status, post-menopausal women with higher gravidity and parity (> = 4 pregnancies per lifetime) had 20% higher levels of 8-OHdG and 60% higher levels of Cu-Zn SOD compared to women with lower gravidity and parity (<4 pregnancies per lifetime). Our results present the first evidence for oxidative stress as a possible cost of reproductive effort in humans. PMID:26761206

  5. Association between age at menarche and diabetes in Korean post-menopausal women: results from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007-2009).

    PubMed

    Hwang, Eunjung; Lee, Kyong Won; Cho, Yoonsu; Chung, Hye Kyung; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2015-01-01

    Early menarche is known to be associated with diabetes, however this association remains controversial. Our study aimed to investigate the possible association between age at menarche and diabetes prevalence in post-menopausal Korean women. This study included 3,254 post-menopausal Korean women aged 50-85 years from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey IV (KNHANES 2007-2009). Logistic regression analyses were used to estimate odds ratios (ORs) for diabetes prevalence. Levels of biochemical markers were compared according to groups by age at menarche. Women in the earlier menarche age group (10-12 years) showed higher levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG) and scores of homeostatic model assessment in the insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) index than other groups (p <0.05). After adjusting for potential confounding factors, early age at menarche was significantly associated with a higher prevalence of diabetes (OR 1.86, 95% confidence intervals [CI] 1.07-3.23). The observed association remained significant despite additional adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (OR 1.82, 95% CI 1.03-3.23) and despite further adjustments for FBG levels and HOMA-IR index (OR 2.25, 95% CI 1.11-4.55). Our findings strengthen the hypothesis that younger age at menarche is associated with increased diabetes prevalence in the Korean population.

  6. The effect of herbal extract (EstroG-100) on pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women: a randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Chang, Albert; Kwak, Bo-Yeon; Yi, Kwontaek; Kim, Jae Soo

    2012-04-01

    This clinical research study was designed to evaluate the efficacy of a new herbal product, EstroG-100, containing a mixture of standardized extracts of Cynanchum wilfordii, Phlomis umbrosa and Angelica gigas, on menopausal symptoms. This randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial was performed for 12 weeks with 64 pre-, peri- and postmenopausal White Hispanic, White non-Hispanic and African American women who were randomly allocated to either the EstroG-100 group (n = 31) or the placebo group (n =  33). Primary end-points were the mean change in scores of the Kupperman menopause index (KMI) that evaluates 11 symptoms, and the mean change in scores of vaginal dryness. The mean KMI score was significantly reduced in the EstroG-100 group from 29.5 ± 7.4 at baseline to 11.3 ± 5.8 (p < 0.01) compared with change of the placebo group (29.2 ± 6.6 at baseline vs 23.7 ± 7.7 at week 12). The constituting symptoms of vasomotor, paresthesia, insomnia, nervousness, melancholia, vertigo, fatigue and rheumatic pain were significantly improved in the EstroG-100 group in comparison with the placebo group (p < 0.05). Statistically significant improvement in vaginal dryness in the EstroG-100 group was also observed compared with that of the placebo group (p < 0.05). In conclusion, EstroG-100 significantly improved the menopausal symptoms of pre-, peri- and post-menopausal women without weight gain or any serious side effects.

  7. Intravaginally applied oxytocin improves post-menopausal vaginal atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Uvnäs-Moberg, Kerstin; Jonasson, Aino F

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the efficacy of local oxytocin for the treatment of post-menopausal vaginal atrophy. Design Double-blinded randomised controlled trial. Setting Healthy post-menopausal women in Stockholm, Sweden. Participants Sixty four post-menopausal women between February and June 2012 at the Karolinska University Hospital Huddinge/Sweden. Main outcome measures The efficacy of oxytocin for treatment of vaginal atrophy after seven weeks and cytological evaluation. Results The percentage of superficial cells in the vaginal smears and the maturation values were significantly increased after seven weeks of treatment with vagitocin 400 IU (p = 0.0288 and p = 0.0002, respectively). The vaginal pH decreased significantly after seven weeks of treatment with vagitocin 100 IU (p = 0.02). The scores of vaginal atrophy, according to the histological evaluation, were significantly reduced after administration of vagitocin 100 IU (p = 0.03). The thickness of the endometrium did not differ between the treatment and placebo groups after seven weeks of treatment. The symptom experienced as the most bothersome was significantly reduced after seven weeks of treatment in the women receiving vagitocin 400 IU compared to women in the placebo group (p = 0.0089). Conclusions Treatment with intravaginally applied oxytocin could be an alternative to local estrogen treatment in women with post-menopausal vaginal atrophy. PMID:25995333

  8. Prediction of tamoxifen outcome by genetic variation of CYP2D6 in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brauch, Hiltrud; Schwab, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    The question of whether genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 can affect treatment outcome in patients with early post-menopausal oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been a matter of debate over the past few years. In this article we revisit the hypothesis of CYP2D6 being a potential tamoxifen outcome predictor and provide detailed insight into the ongoing controversy that prevented the CYP2D6 marker from being accepted by the scientific and clinical community. We summarize the available pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic evidence and resolve the controversy based on the recognized methodological and statistical issues. The cumulative evidence suggests that genotyping for CYP2D6 is clinically relevant in post-menopausal women. This is important, because the clarification of this issue has the potential to resolve a clinical management question that is relevant to hundreds of thousands of women diagnosed with ER-positive breast cancer each year, who should not be denied effective endocrine therapy.

  9. Prediction of tamoxifen outcome by genetic variation of CYP2D6 in post-menopausal women with early breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Brauch, Hiltrud; Schwab, Matthias

    2014-04-01

    The question of whether genetic polymorphisms of CYP2D6 can affect treatment outcome in patients with early post-menopausal oestrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer has been a matter of debate over the past few years. In this article we revisit the hypothesis of CYP2D6 being a potential tamoxifen outcome predictor and provide detailed insight into the ongoing controversy that prevented the CYP2D6 marker from being accepted by the scientific and clinical community. We summarize the available pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic and pharmacogenetic evidence and resolve the controversy based on the recognized methodological and statistical issues. The cumulative evidence suggests that genotyping for CYP2D6 is clinically relevant in post-menopausal women. This is important, because the clarification of this issue has the potential to resolve a clinical management question that is relevant to hundreds of thousands of women diagnosed with ER-positive breast cancer each year, who should not be denied effective endocrine therapy. PMID:24033728

  10. A prospective study on obesity and subcutaneous fat patterning in relation to breast cancer in post-menopausal women participating in the DOM project.

    PubMed Central

    den Tonkelaar, I.; Seidell, J. C.; Collette, H. J.; de Waard, F.

    1994-01-01

    The associations of body fat and body fat distribution with breast cancer risk were examined in a prospective study in 9,746 post-menopausal women with a natural menopause, aged 49-66 at intake, participating in a breast cancer screening project (the DOM project in Utrecht). During a follow-up period of 15 years (mean follow-up time 12.5 years) 260 women developed breast cancer. Fat distribution, assessed by contrasting groups of subcapsular and triceps skinfold thickness, was found to be unrelated to breast cancer incidence. No significant relationship between body fat, measured either by weight, Quetelet's index, triceps skinfold or subscapular skinfold, and breast cancer risk was found when analysed in quartiles. However, women in the upper decile compared with the lower decile of the distribution of Quetelet's index were found to have a 1.9 times (95% CI 1.1-3.3) higher risk for breast cancer. These results seemed to be in contrast with the significant positive association between fatness, analysed in quartiles, and breast cancer observed in a cross-sectional study, based on mammographic screening, carried out previously in the same population. Although the differences between the present, prospective, study and our cross-sectional study may be due to chance it may be that there are differences between characteristics of breast cancer detected at screening and subsequently, which influence the associations between measures of fatness and risk of breast cancer. PMID:8297734

  11. Post-menopausal Osteoporosis: Can it Be Prevented?

    PubMed Central

    Wade, John P.; Vreede-Brown, Elizabeth F.

    1990-01-01

    The prevention of post-menopausal osteoporosis is a challenge for primary care physicians. Recently available technology to determine bone density can help determine whether intervention other than dietary calcium recommendations and an exercise program is appropriate. Estrogen replacement therapy can be used for post-menopausal women who have no contra-indications. The use of concomitant progestational agents in a cyclic fashion or with a low-dose continuous regimen reduces the risk of endometrial malignancy. In the future new investigational agents that modulate bone turnover could be recommended. PMID:21234073

  12. An exploratory study into the effect of exhausting bicycle exercise on endocrine and immune responses in post-menopausal women: relationships between vigour and plasma cortisol concentrations and lymphocyte proliferation following exercise.

    PubMed

    van der Pompe, G; Bernards, N; Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, C

    2001-08-01

    It is well-established that bicycle exercise alters the endocrine and immune responses in men, but little information is available for women, especially middle-aged, post-menopausal women. The purpose of our study was to document the endocrine and immune reactivity to exhausting bicycle exercise in post-menopausal women, and to explore whether complaints of fatigue or low vigour are related to these exercise-induced responses. Thirteen healthy post-menopausal women participated in this study. We used a graded exercise protocol to study the kinetics of activation of the endocrine and immune system. We chose to examine hormones related to the hypothalamus-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) system such as adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH) and cortisol and hormones related to the pituitary such as prolactin (PRL) and growth hormone (GH). With regard to the immune system, we examined the natural killer (NK) cell activity and pokeweed (PWM)-induced lymphocyte proliferation in addition to changes in peripheral blood cell counts. Our results demonstrate that acute physical stress results in a strong release of ACTH, cortisol, GH and PRL. The bicycle test significantly increased the number of CD3+, CD4+, CD16/56+ (NK cells) and CD8+ cells in our group of post-menopausal women. Interestingly, NK activity did not increase significantly despite an increase in NK cell numbers. PWM-induced lymphocyte proliferation did not change either. In addition, our data support the hypothesis that low vigour in post-menopausal women interferes with the endocrine and immune responses to exhausting exercise. In women with complaints of low vigour we found lower cortisol responses and higher increments in the proliferative capacity of lymphocytes as compared to those with high vigour scores. NK activity was unrelated to exhaustive mood states. These data indicate that endocrine as well as immune system activity changes in response to exhausting exercise in middle-aged, post-menopausal women. In addition

  13. Skin academy: hair, skin, hormones and menopause - current status/knowledge on the management of hair disorders in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Atkin, Stephen; Gieler, Uwe; Grimalt, Ramon

    2012-01-01

    Menopause is defined by 12 months of amenorrhea after the final menstrual period. The reduction in ovarian hormones and increased androgen levels can manifest as hair and skin disorders. Although hirsutism, unwanted facial hair, alopecia, skin atrophy and slackness of facial skin are common issues encountered by post-menopausal women, these problems receive very little attention relative to other menopausal symptoms. The visibility of these disorders has been shown to cause significant anxiety and may impact on patients' self-esteem and quality of life, particularly given the strong association of hair and skin with a woman's femininity and beauty, which is demonstrated by extensive marketing by the cosmetic industry targeting this population and the large expenditure on these products by menopausal women. The proportion of the female population who are in the post-menopausal age group is rising. Therefore, the prevalence of these dermatological symptoms is likely to increase. Current therapies aim to rectify underlying hormonal imbalances and improve cosmetic appearance. However, there is little evidence to support treatment for these disorders specifically in post-menopausal women. This review discusses the assessment and treatment of both the physiological and psychological aspects of hair and skin disorders pertinent to the growing post-menopausal population. PMID:22503791

  14. Effects of hormone replacement therapy and high-impact physical exercise on skeletal muscle in post-menopausal women: a randomized placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Sipilä, S; Taaffe, D R; Cheng, S; Puolakka, J; Toivanen, J; Suominen, H

    2001-08-01

    An age-related decline in muscle performance is a known risk factor for falling, fracture and disability. In women, a clear deterioration is observed from early menopause. The effect of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in preserving muscle performance is, however, unclear. This trial examined the effects of a 12-month HRT and high-impact physical exercise regimen on skeletal muscle in women in early menopause. A total of 80 women aged 50-57 years were assigned randomly to one of four groups: exercise (Ex), HRT, exercise+HRT (ExHRT) and control (Co). The exercise groups participated in a high-impact training programme. The administration of HRT (oestradiol/noretisterone acetate) or placebo was carried out double-blind. Knee extension torque and vertical jumping height were evaluated. Lean tissue cross-sectional area (LCSA) and the relative proportion of fat within the muscle compartment were measured for the quadriceps and lower leg muscles. The ExHRT group showed significant increases in knee extension torque (8.3%) and vertical jumping height (17.2%) when compared with the Co group (-7.2%). Vertical jumping height also increased after HRT alone (6.8%). The LCSA of the quadriceps was increased significantly in the HRT (6.3%) and ExHRT (7.1%) groups when compared with the Ex (2.2%) and Co (0.7%) groups. Lower leg LCSA was also increased in the ExHRT group (9.1%) when compared with the Ex (3.0%) and Co (4.1%) groups. In addition, the increase in the relative proportion of fat in the quadriceps in the Co group (16.6%) was significant compared with those in the HRT (4.9%) and ExHRT (-0.6%) groups. Thus, in post-menopausal women, muscle performance, muscle mass and muscle composition are improved by HRT. The beneficial effects of HRT combined with high-impact physical training may exceed those of HRT alone.

  15. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... stopping estrogen therapy in the Women's Health Initiative randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Menopause . 2010;17(5):946- ... extended poststopping phases of the Women's Health Initiative randomized trials. JAMA . 2013;310(13):1353-68. PMID: ...

  16. Perspectives on menopause and women with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Andany, Nisha; Kennedy, V Logan; Aden, Muna; Loutfy, Mona

    2016-01-01

    Since the implementation of effective combination antiretroviral therapy, HIV infection has been transformed from a life-threatening condition into a chronic disease. As people with HIV are living longer, aging and its associated manifestations have become key priorities as part of HIV care. For women with HIV, menopause is an important part of aging to consider. Women currently represent more than one half of HIV-positive individuals worldwide. Given the vast proportion of women living with HIV who are, and will be, transitioning through age-related life events, the interaction between HIV infection and menopause must be addressed by clinicians and researchers. Menopause is a major clinical event that is universally experienced by women, but affects each individual woman uniquely. This transitional time in women’s lives has various clinical implications including physical and psychological symptoms, and accelerated development and progression of other age-related comorbidities, particularly cardiovascular disease, neurocognitive dysfunction, and bone mineral disease; all of which are potentially heightened by HIV or its treatment. Furthermore, within the context of HIV, there are the additional considerations of HIV acquisition and transmission risk, progression of infection, changes in antiretroviral pharmacokinetics, response, and toxicities. These menopausal manifestations and complications must be managed concurrently with HIV, while keeping in mind the potential influence of menopause on the prognosis of HIV infection itself. This results in additional complexity for clinicians caring for women living with HIV, and highlights the shifting paradigm in HIV care that must accompany this aging and evolving population. PMID:26834498

  17. Analysis of the Relationship between Estradiol and Follicle-Stimulating Hormone Concentrations and Polymorphisms of Apolipoprotein E and LeptinGenes in Women Post-Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Rył, Aleksandra; Jasiewicz, Andrzej; Grzywacz, Anna; Adler, Grażyna; Skonieczna-Żydecka, Karolina; Rotter, Iwona; Sipak-Szmigiel, Olimpia; Rumianowski, Bogdan; Karakiewicz, Beata; Jurczak, Anna; Parczewski, Miłosz; Urbańska, Anna; Grabowska, Marta; Laszczyńska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Background: Menopause is the permanent cessation of menstruation due to loss of ovarian follicular activity. A review of the available literature indicates that correlations between the changes that take place in a woman’s body after menopause and different genetic variants are still being sought. Methods: The study was conducted in 252 women who had completed physiological menopause. The women were divided into groups according to the time elapsed since menopause. The total concentrations of estradiol and follicle-stimulating hormone were determined by means of electrochemiluminescence. The apolipoprotein E (APOE) and lepitn (LEP) genotypes were determined by real-time PCR and polymerase chain reaction–restriction fragment length polymorphism, respectively. Results: We observed that people with the APOE3/E3 genotype entered menopause insignificantly later compared to other genotypes. Additionally, in the group of patients with the APOE3/E3 genotypes, differences in the E2 concentration were significantly related to the time since their last menstruation. There is no association found in the literature between these polymorphisms of the LEP gene and hormones. Conclusions: To date, attempts to formulate a model describing the association between E2 and FSH concentration with the polymorphisms of various genes of menopause in women have not been successful. This relationship is difficult to study because of the number of nongenetic factors. Environmental factors can explain variation in postmenopausal changes in hormone levels. PMID:27240396

  18. Correlation between Female Sex Hormones and Electrodiagnostic Parameters and Clinical Function in Post-menopausal Women with Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Azam; Naseri, Mahshid; Namazi, Hamid; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of sex-hormonal changes in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among post-menopausal women through measuring estrogen receptor (ER) expression in their transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and serum estrogen level, as well as determine the correlation between these factors and electrodiagnostic parameters and Boston score. Methods Biopsy samples of TCL were collected from 12 postmenopausal women who had undergone surgery for severe idiopathic CTS; control specimens were collected from 10 postmenopausal women without CTS who had undergone surgery for the other hand pathologies. To determine the distributions of ER in TCL, histological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Serum estrogen level was also measured. Electrodiagnosis and Boston questionnaire were used for CTS severity and determination of the patients' function. Results ER expression in TCL and serum estrogen level were not significantly different in the case group compared to the control group (P = 0.79 and P = 0.88, respectively). Also, there was no correlation between ER expression or serum estrogen level and electrodiagnostic parameters or Boston score. Conclusions Sex hormones cannot still be considered as the etiology of idiopathic CTS in postmenopausal women. The role of other factors such as wrist ratio and narrower outlet in females compared to the males should be considered along with hormonal changes.

  19. Correlation between Female Sex Hormones and Electrodiagnostic Parameters and Clinical Function in Post-menopausal Women with Idiopathic Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Mohammadi, Azam; Naseri, Mahshid; Namazi, Hamid; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To investigate the role of sex-hormonal changes in idiopathic carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) among post-menopausal women through measuring estrogen receptor (ER) expression in their transverse carpal ligament (TCL) and serum estrogen level, as well as determine the correlation between these factors and electrodiagnostic parameters and Boston score. Methods Biopsy samples of TCL were collected from 12 postmenopausal women who had undergone surgery for severe idiopathic CTS; control specimens were collected from 10 postmenopausal women without CTS who had undergone surgery for the other hand pathologies. To determine the distributions of ER in TCL, histological and immunohistochemical examinations were performed. Serum estrogen level was also measured. Electrodiagnosis and Boston questionnaire were used for CTS severity and determination of the patients' function. Results ER expression in TCL and serum estrogen level were not significantly different in the case group compared to the control group (P = 0.79 and P = 0.88, respectively). Also, there was no correlation between ER expression or serum estrogen level and electrodiagnostic parameters or Boston score. Conclusions Sex hormones cannot still be considered as the etiology of idiopathic CTS in postmenopausal women. The role of other factors such as wrist ratio and narrower outlet in females compared to the males should be considered along with hormonal changes. PMID:27617242

  20. Lipids, Menopause and Early Atherosclerosis in SWAN Heart Women

    PubMed Central

    Woodard, Genevieve A.; Brooks, Maria M.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Mackey, Rachel H.; Matthews, Karen A.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2011-01-01

    Objective The risk of cardiovascular disease increases after menopause. Recent evidence suggests that it is possible for HDL to become proatherogenic or dysfunctional in certain situations. Our objective was to evaluate whether the relationship of HDL-C to subclinical cardiovascular disease differed across the menopausal transition, which would provide insight for this increased risk. Methods Aortic calcification (AC), coronary artery calcification (CAC), carotid plaque and intima media thickness (IMT) were measured in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN Heart). Women, not using hormone therapy, were stratified into premenopausal or early-perimenopausal (Pre/EP, n=316) and late-perimenopausal or postmenopausal (LP/Post, n=224). Results The inverse relationship of HDL-C to subclinical atherosclerosis measures among Pre/EP women was weaker or reversed among LP/post women, adjusted for age, site, race, SBP, glucose, BMI, smoking, menopausal status and LDL-C. Specifically: Multivariable modeling demonstrated an inverse association between HDL-C and AC and IMT, among Pre/EP women; however, the protective effect of HDL-C for AC, left main CAC, carotid plaque and IMT was not seen in LP/Post women. In a small subset (n=53), LP/Post women had more total and small HDL particles, higher triglycerides and more total LDL particles compared to Pre/EP women (p<0.05). Conclusion These results suggest that the protective effect of HDL may be diminished as women transition the menopause. Future studies should examine whether this may be due to changes in HDL size, functionality, or related changes in other lipids or lipoproteins. PMID:21107300

  1. The Effects of Exercising in Different Natural Environments on Psycho-Physiological Outcomes in Post-Menopausal Women: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    White, Mathew P; Pahl, Sabine; Ashbullby, Katherine J; Burton, Francesca; Depledge, Michael H

    2015-09-01

    The current study examined potential psycho-physiological benefits from exercising in simulated natural environments among a sample of post-menopausal women using a laboratory based protocol. Participants cycled on a stationary exercise bike for 15 min while facing either a blank wall (Control) or while watching one of three videos: Urban (Grey), Countryside (Green), Coast (Blue). Blood pressure, heart rate and affective responses were measured pre-post. Heart rate, affect, perceived exertion and time perception were also measured at 5, 10 and 15 min during exercise. Experience evaluation was measured at the end. Replicating most earlier findings, affective, but not physiological, outcomes were more positive for exercise in the simulated Green and, for the first time, Blue environment, compared to Control. Moreover, only the simulated Blue environment was associated with shorter perceived exercise duration than Control and participants were most willing to repeat exercise in the Blue setting. The current research extended earlier work by exploring the effects of "blue exercise" and by using a demographic with relatively low average levels of physical activity. That this sample of postmenopausal women were most willing to repeat a bout of exercise in a simulated Blue environment may be important for physical activity promotion in this cohort. PMID:26404351

  2. The Effects of Exercising in Different Natural Environments on Psycho-Physiological Outcomes in Post-Menopausal Women: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    White, Mathew P; Pahl, Sabine; Ashbullby, Katherine J; Burton, Francesca; Depledge, Michael H

    2015-09-23

    The current study examined potential psycho-physiological benefits from exercising in simulated natural environments among a sample of post-menopausal women using a laboratory based protocol. Participants cycled on a stationary exercise bike for 15 min while facing either a blank wall (Control) or while watching one of three videos: Urban (Grey), Countryside (Green), Coast (Blue). Blood pressure, heart rate and affective responses were measured pre-post. Heart rate, affect, perceived exertion and time perception were also measured at 5, 10 and 15 min during exercise. Experience evaluation was measured at the end. Replicating most earlier findings, affective, but not physiological, outcomes were more positive for exercise in the simulated Green and, for the first time, Blue environment, compared to Control. Moreover, only the simulated Blue environment was associated with shorter perceived exercise duration than Control and participants were most willing to repeat exercise in the Blue setting. The current research extended earlier work by exploring the effects of "blue exercise" and by using a demographic with relatively low average levels of physical activity. That this sample of postmenopausal women were most willing to repeat a bout of exercise in a simulated Blue environment may be important for physical activity promotion in this cohort.

  3. The Effects of Exercising in Different Natural Environments on Psycho-Physiological Outcomes in Post-Menopausal Women: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    White, Mathew P.; Pahl, Sabine; Ashbullby, Katherine J.; Burton, Francesca; Depledge, Michael H.

    2015-01-01

    The current study examined potential psycho-physiological benefits from exercising in simulated natural environments among a sample of post-menopausal women using a laboratory based protocol. Participants cycled on a stationary exercise bike for 15 min while facing either a blank wall (Control) or while watching one of three videos: Urban (Grey), Countryside (Green), Coast (Blue). Blood pressure, heart rate and affective responses were measured pre-post. Heart rate, affect, perceived exertion and time perception were also measured at 5, 10 and 15 min during exercise. Experience evaluation was measured at the end. Replicating most earlier findings, affective, but not physiological, outcomes were more positive for exercise in the simulated Green and, for the first time, Blue environment, compared to Control. Moreover, only the simulated Blue environment was associated with shorter perceived exercise duration than Control and participants were most willing to repeat exercise in the Blue setting. The current research extended earlier work by exploring the effects of “blue exercise” and by using a demographic with relatively low average levels of physical activity. That this sample of postmenopausal women were most willing to repeat a bout of exercise in a simulated Blue environment may be important for physical activity promotion in this cohort. PMID:26404351

  4. Reduced risk of oestrogen receptor positive breast cancer among peri- and post-menopausal women in Scotland following a striking decrease in use of hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Sharpe, Katharine H; McClements, Paula; Clark, Douglas I; Collins, Joanne; Springbett, Anthea; Brewster, David H

    2010-03-01

    Many countries report a decline in breast cancer incidence among peri- and post-menopausal women following a decline in HRT prescribing. To investigate recent Scottish incidence trends, European age-standardised incidence rates from 1997 to 2005 were stratified by method of first detection, ER status and age group. We developed change point models of the annual age-specific cases for the peri- and post-menopausal age groups and ER status using Poisson regression. In Scotland all HRT categories together show a 32.4% increase in the number of items dispensed in 1993-2000 followed by a striking 61.8% decline by 2007. The incidence rates of screen-detected tumours increased gradually in the 50-64 and 65-74 age groups. For the older age group this increase accelerated after 2003 corresponding to an extension of the age range of screening. For ER positive tumours in the 50-64 age group, age-standardised rates increased 31.5% from 1997 to 2000, followed by a statistically significant decrease of 11.2% by 2005 (change in slope=-0.0943, P<0.0001). We conclude that an overall incidence in the 50-64 age group declined since 2000 reflecting the sudden fall in HRT dispensed items and is largely accounted for by the decrease in ER positive tumour incidence. A longer term decline in ER negative tumours for this age group was pre-existing and is unaffected by the collapse in HRT prescribing.

  5. The effects of water-based exercise in combination with blood flow restriction on strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Joamira P; Neto, Gabriel R; Loenneke, Jeremy P; Bemben, Michael G; Laurentino, Gilberto C; Batista, Gilmário; Silva, Júlio C G; Freitas, Eduardo D S; Sousa, Maria S C

    2015-12-01

    Water-based exercise and low-intensity exercise in combination with blood flow restriction (BFR) are two methods that have independently been shown to improve muscle strength in those of advancing age. The objective of this study was to assess the long-term effect of water-based exercise in combination with BFR on maximum dynamic strength and functional capacity in post-menopausal women. Twenty-eight women underwent an 8-week water-based exercise program. The participants were randomly allocated to one of the three groups: (a) water exercise only, (b) water exercise + BFR, or (c) a non-exercise control group. Functional capacity (chair stand test, timed up and go test, gait speed, and dynamic balance) and strength testing were tested before and after the 8-week aquatic exercise program. The main findings were as follows: (1) water-based exercise in combination with BFR significantly increased the lower limb maximum strength which was not observed with water-based exercise alone and (2) water-based exercise, regardless of the application of BFR, increased functional performance measured by the timed up and go test over a control group. Although we used a healthy population in the current study, these findings may have important implications for those who may be contraindicated to using traditional resistance exercise. Future research should explore this promising modality in these clinical populations.

  6. FTO first intron rs1558902 variant and platelets count in white middle-aged women: prague pre- and post-menopausal females (3PMFs) study.

    PubMed

    Hubacek, Jaroslav A; Dlouha, Dana; Lanska, Vera; Stavek, Petr; Pagacova, Libuse; Kralova-Lesna, Ivana; Pitha, Jan

    2013-02-01

    The polymorphisms within the FTO gene play an important role in the genetic determination of body weight and body mass index and have been associated with cardiovascular disease, but the causal mechanism is still a matter of debate. The possible effect on the platelet count as a marker of hemocoagulation status as a possible cardiovascular risk factor was suggested in Japanese population. We have analyzed both rs1558902 FTO polymorphism (T > A) and platelet counts in the Prague Pre and Post Menopausal Females (3PMFs) study, including those of 669 women (mean age, 55.7 ± 2.7 years). The frequencies of the FTO genotypes were similar to other populations (TT, 30.4%; TA, 48.1%; and AA, 21.5%). We have not detected a significant association between the FTO rs1558902 variant and platelet counts in white women (TT, 242 ± 55 × 10; TA, 246 ± 67 × 10; and AA, 247 ± 55 × 10; F[2.642] = 0.30, P = 0.75). At least in white persons, platelet count seems not to be a link between the FTO variation and risk of cardiovascular disease.

  7. Lipoprotein profile, glycemic control and physical fitness after strength and aerobic training in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Zois, Christos E; Christos, Zois E; Tokmakidis, Savvas P; Volaklis, Konstantinos A; Kotsa, Kalliopi; Touvra, Anna-Maria; Douda, Eleni; Yovos, Ioannis G

    2009-08-01

    We studied the effects on blood lipids and physical fitness after a training program that combined strength and aerobic exercise in postmenopausal women with type 2 diabetes. Ten patients (55.0 +/- 5.2 years) followed four exercise sessions per week, two strength and two aerobic, and ten (59.4 +/- 3.2 years) served as a control group. Lipid profile, glycated hemoglobin (HbA(1c)), HOMA2 index, exercise stress and muscular testing were assessed at the beginning and after 16 weeks of training program. Exercise training increased significantly HDL-C (17.2%; P < 0.001) and decreased triglycerides (18.9%), HbA(1c) (15.0%), fasting plasma glucose (5.4%), insulin resistance (HOMA2 25.2%) and resting blood pressure (P < 0.01). After 16 weeks of training, exercise time (17.8%) and muscular strength increased significantly (P < 0.001). The results indicated that a combined strength and aerobic training program could induce positive adaptations on lipid profile, glycemic control, insulin resistance, cardiovascular function, and physical fitness in post-menopausal women with type 2 diabetes.

  8. CYP19 and ESR1 gene polymorphisms: response of the bone mineral density in post-menopausal women to hormonal replacement therapy

    PubMed Central

    Masi, Laura; Ottanelli, Silva; Berni, Rossella; Cacudi, Ettore; Giusti, Francesca; Marcucci, Gemma; Cavalli, Loredana; Fossi, Caterina; Marini, Francesca; Ciuffi, Simone; Tanini, Annalisa; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2014-01-01

    Summary Objectives Sex steroids are important regulators of bone physiology and play an essential role in the maintenance of bone health throughout the life. Hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) is a treatment commonly used to relieve symptoms and some undesirable consequences of menopause such as osteoporosis. Osteoporosis, characterized by the loss of bone mass and deterioration of microarchitecture with a consequent higher risk of fragility fractures, is under genetic influence. A tetranucleotide (TTTA)n microsatellite repeat polymorphism, at intron 4 of the CYP19 (aromatase) gene, has been previously associated with higher lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) and lower risk of spine fracture in postmenopausal women. Moreover, the ERα encoded by the ESR1 gene is another important candidate for the regulation of bone mass of menopause. Moreover prospective analysis from >18.000 subjects at the GENOMOS study indicated that XX homozygotes genotype had a reduced risk of fracture independently from BMD. In the present study, we investigated in postmenopausal Italian women, at baseline and after 1 year of HRT, whether ESR1 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms could affect BMD through different statistical models. Methods This study has been performed on 100 post-menopausal Italian women, from a larger group of 250. The study group was administred HRT and LS-BMD was measured at baseline and after 1 year of therapy. Genetic analysis evaluating ESR1 and CYP19 gene polymorphisms was performed. Results Generalized Linear Models (GLMs) test showed that women with normal LS-BMD at the baseline had a major statistically significant BMD increase of 0.1426 gr/cm2 (p= 0.0001) with respect to the osteoporotic patients. In addition, subjects with genotype 1 and 2 of CYP19 gene had a lower modification in LS-BMD after 1 year of HRT (0.0837 gr/cm2 and 0,076 g/cm2; p=0.0470 and 0,0547 respectively) when compared to genotype 3. No influences of the aromatase genotypes were observed in

  9. Menopausal symptoms among Thai women in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Sukwatana, P; Meekhangvan, J; Tamrongterakul, T; Tanapat, Y; Asavarait, S; Boonjitrpimon, P

    1991-09-01

    A random probability cluster area sampling of 614 women living in Bangkok was conducted to determine the prevalence of abnormal symptoms related to the menopause. Women interviewed were aged 40 and above currently registered as living in the Bangkok Metropolitan area. Sixty-nine percent of the women interviewed experienced abnormal symptoms. Eighty-two percent of those with abnormal symptoms reported having hot flushes. Palpitation, increased heat intolerance and emotional liability were common symptoms. Minor abnormalities included insomnia, weakness, anxiety and urinary symptoms. Changes related to sexual function were difficult to elicit due to cultural limitations. Economic and cultural factors might play important roles in the way these women perceived symptoms related to the menopause and sought medical assistance.

  10. Insomnia in women approaching menopause: Beyond perception.

    PubMed

    Baker, Fiona C; Willoughby, Adrian R; Sassoon, Stephanie A; Colrain, Ian M; de Zambotti, Massimiliano

    2015-10-01

    The menopausal transition is marked by increased prevalence in disturbed sleep and insomnia, present in 40-60% of women, but evidence for a physiological basis for their sleep complaints is lacking. We aimed to quantify sleep disturbance and the underlying contribution of objective hot flashes in 72 women (age range: 43-57 years) who had (38 women), compared to those who had not (34 women), developed clinical insomnia in association with the menopausal transition. Sleep quality was assessed with two weeks of sleep diaries and one laboratory polysomnographic (PSG) recording. In multiple regression models controlling for menopausal transition stage, menstrual cycle phase, depression symptoms, and presence of objective hot flashes, a diagnosis of insomnia predicted PSG-measured total sleep time (p < 0.01), sleep efficiency (p = 0.01) and wakefulness after sleep onset (WASO) (p = 0.01). Women with insomnia had, on average, 43.5 min less PSG-measured sleep time (p < 0.001). There was little evidence of cortical EEG hyperarousal in insomniacs apart from elevated beta EEG power during REM sleep. Estradiol and follicle stimulating hormone levels were unrelated to beta EEG power but were associated with the frequency of hot flashes. Insomniacs were more likely to have physiological hot flashes, and the presence of hot flashes predicted the number of PSG-awakenings per hour of sleep (p = 0.03). From diaries, women with insomnia reported more WASO (p = 0.002), more night-to-night variability in WASO (p < 0.002) and more hot flashes (p = 0.012) compared with controls. Women who develop insomnia in the approach to menopause have a measurable sleep deficit, with almost 50% of the sample having less than 6h of sleep. Compromised sleep that develops in the context of the menopausal transition should be addressed, taking into account unique aspects of menopause like hot flashes, to avoid the known negative health consequences associated with insufficient sleep and insomnia in

  11. A Systems Biology Approach Investigating the Effect of Probiotics on the Vaginal Microbiome and Host Responses in a Double Blind, Placebo-Controlled Clinical Trial of Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bisanz, Jordan E.; Seney, Shannon; McMillan, Amy; Vongsa, Rebecca; Koenig, David; Wong, LungFai; Dvoracek, Barbara; Gloor, Gregory B.; Sumarah, Mark; Ford, Brenda; Herman, Dorli; Burton, Jeremy P.; Reid, Gregor

    2014-01-01

    A lactobacilli dominated microbiota in most pre and post-menopausal women is an indicator of vaginal health. The objective of this double blinded, placebo-controlled crossover study was to evaluate in 14 post-menopausal women with an intermediate Nugent score, the effect of 3 days of vaginal administration of probiotic L. rhamnosus GR-1 and L. reuteri RC-14 (2.5×109 CFU each) on the microbiota and host response. The probiotic treatment did not result in an improved Nugent score when compared to when placebo. Analysis using 16S rRNA sequencing and metabolomics profiling revealed that the relative abundance of Lactobacillus was increased following probiotic administration as compared to placebo, which was weakly associated with an increase in lactate levels. A decrease in Atopobium was also observed. Analysis of host responses by microarray showed the probiotics had an immune-modulatory response including effects on pattern recognition receptors such as TLR2 while also affecting epithelial barrier function. This is the first study to use an interactomic approach for the study of vaginal probiotic administration in post-menopausal women. It shows that in some cases multifaceted approaches are required to detect the subtle molecular changes induced by the host to instillation of probiotic strains. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02139839 PMID:25127240

  12. Women's perspectives toward menopause: A phenomenological study in Iran.

    PubMed

    Hakimi, Sevil; Simbar, Masoumeh; Ramezani Tehrani, Fahimeh; Zaiery, Farid; Khatami, Shiva

    2016-01-01

    This study explores the attitude and feelings toward menopause among Azeri menopausal women using hermeneutic phenomenology based on Van Manen's approach. A total of 18 menopausal women who were attended in urban health centers of Tabriz, Iran, were recruited using a purposive sampling method. Data were gathered through semistructured interviews. Each interview was transcribed verbatim and analyzed simultaneously. Data analysis led to the emergence of five main themes: positive attitude, neutral attitude, negative attitude, positive feelings, and negative feelings. Participants had different feelings and attitude. Acceptance of menopause as a natural process helps women to have a neutral attitude toward menopause.

  13. Relations between fertility, body shape and menopause in Austrian women.

    PubMed

    Kirchengast, S

    1992-10-01

    The influence of number and date of pregnancies, births, and spontaneous and induced abortions on body shape, age at menopause and menopausal symptoms have been studied for 110 postmenopausal Viennese women. A significant correlation between fertility and age at menopause was not found, but several menopausal symptoms showed statistically significant correlations with fertility. With a higher number of pregnancies the individual symptoms became more severe.

  14. Impact of Tai Chi exercise on multiple fracture-related risk factors in post-menopausal osteopenic women: a pilot pragmatic, randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Tai Chi (TC) is a mind-body exercise that shows potential as an effective and safe intervention for preventing fall-related fractures in the elderly. Few randomized trials have simultaneously evaluated TC's potential to reduce bone loss and improve fall-predictive balance parameters in osteopenic women. Methods In a pragmatic randomized trial, 86 post-menopausal osteopenic women, aged 45-70, were recruited from community clinics. Women were assigned to either nine months of TC training plus usual care (UC) vs. UC alone. Primary outcomes were changes between baseline and nine months of bone mineral density (BMD) of the proximal femur and lumbar spine (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry) and serum markers of bone resorption and formation. Secondary outcomes included quality of life. In a subsample (n = 16), quiet standing fall-predictive sway parameters and clinical balance tests were also assessed. Both intent-to-treat and per-protocol analyses were employed. Results For BMD, no intent-to-treat analyses were statistically significant; however, per protocol analyses (i.e., only including TC participants who completed ≥ 75% training requirements) of femoral neck BMD changes were significantly different between TC and UC (+0.04 vs. -0.98%; P = 0.05). Changes in bone formation markers and physical domains of quality of life were also more favorable in per protocol TC vs. UC (P = 0.05). Changes in sway parameters were significantly improved by TC vs. UC (average sway velocity, P = 0.027; anterior-posterior sway range, P = 0.014). Clinical measures of balance and function showed non-significant trends in favor of TC. Conclusions TC training offered through existing community-based programs is a safe, feasible, and promising intervention for reducing multiple fracture risks. Our results affirm the value of a more definitive, longer-term trial of TC for osteopenic women, adequately powered to detect clinically relevant effects of TC on attenuation of BMD loss and

  15. Does neighborhood walkability moderate the effects of intrapersonal characteristics on amount of walking in post-menopausal women?

    PubMed

    Perry, Cynthia K; Herting, Jerald R; Berke, Ethan M; Nguyen, Huong Q; Vernez Moudon, Anne; Beresford, Shirley A A; Ockene, Judith K; Manson, Joann E; Lacroix, Andrea Z

    2013-05-01

    This study identifies factors associated with walking among postmenopausal women and tests whether neighborhood walkability moderates the influence of intrapersonal factors on walking. We used data from the Women's Health Initiative Seattle Center and linear regression models to estimate associations and interactions. Being white and healthy, having a high school education or beyond and greater non-walking exercise were significantly associated with more walking. Neighborhood walkability was not independently associated with greater walking, nor did it moderate influence of intrapersonal factors on walking. Specifying types of walking (e.g., for transportation) can elucidate the relationships among intrapersonal factors, the built environment, and walking.

  16. Plasma levels of HDL subpopulations and remnant lipoproteins predict the extent of angiographically defined disease in post-menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The association of coronary heart disease (CHD) with subpopulations of triglyceride (TG)-rich lipoproteins and high-density lipoproteins (HDL) is established in men, but has not been well characterized in women. Plasma HDL subpopulation concentrations, quantified by 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis...

  17. Acute effects of calcium supplements on blood pressure and blood coagulation: secondary analysis of a randomised controlled trial in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Sarah M; Gamble, Greg D; Stewart, Angela; Horne, Anne M; Reid, Ian R

    2015-12-14

    Recent evidence suggests that Ca supplements increase the risk of cardiovascular events, but the mechanism(s) by which this occurs is uncertain. In a study primarily assessing the effects of various Ca supplements on blood Ca levels, we also investigated the effects of Ca supplements on blood pressure and their acute effects on blood coagulation. We randomised 100 post-menopausal women to 1 g/d of Ca or a placebo containing no Ca. Blood pressure was measured at baseline and every 2 h up to 8 h after their first dose and after 3 months of supplementation. Blood coagulation was measured by thromboelastography (TEG) in a subgroup of participants (n 40) up to 8 h only. Blood pressure declined over 8 h in both the groups, consistent with its normal diurnal rhythm. The reduction in systolic blood pressure was smaller in the Ca group compared with the control group by >5 mmHg between 2 and 6 h (P≤0·02), and the reduction in diastolic blood pressure was smaller at 2 h (between-groups difference 4·5 mmHg, P=0·004). Blood coagulability, assessed by TEG, increased from baseline over 8 h in the calcium citrate and control groups. At 4 h, the increase in the coagulation index was greater in the calcium citrate group compared with the control group (P=0·03), which appeared to be due to a greater reduction in the time to clot initiation. These data suggest that Ca supplements may acutely influence blood pressure and blood coagulation. Further investigation of this possibility is required.

  18. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions. PMID:26578458

  19. Effects of a Pilates exercise program on muscle strength, postural control and body composition: results from a pilot study in a group of post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Bergamin, M; Gobbo, S; Bullo, V; Zanotto, T; Vendramin, B; Duregon, F; Cugusi, L; Camozzi, V; Zaccaria, M; Neunhaeuserer, D; Ermolao, A

    2015-12-01

    Participation in exercise programs is heartily recommended for older adults since the level of physical fitness directly influences functional independence. The aim of this present study was to investigate the effects of supervised Pilates exercise training on the physical function, hypothesizing that a period of Pilates exercise training (PET) can increase overall muscle strength, body composition, and balance, during single and dual-task conditions, in a group of post-menopausal women. Twenty-five subjects, aged 59 to 66 years old, were recruited. Eligible participants were assessed prior and after 3 months of PET performed twice per week. Muscular strength was evaluated with handgrip strength (HGS) test, 30-s chair sit-to-stand test (30CST), and abdominal strength (AST) test. Postural control and dual-task performance were measured through a stabilometric platform while dynamic balance with 8 ft up and go test. Finally, body composition was assessed by means of dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Statistically significant improvements were detected on HGS (+8.22%), 30CST (+23.41%), 8 ft up and go test (-5.95%), AST (+30.81%), medio-lateral oscillations in open eyes and dual-task condition (-22.03% and -10.37%). Pilates was effective in increasing upper body, lower body, and abdominal muscle strength. No changes on body composition were detected. Results on this investigation indicated also that 12-week of mat Pilates is not sufficient to determine a clinical meaningful improvement on static balance in single and dual-task conditions.

  20. Effect of block-periodized exercise training on bone and coronary heart disease risk factors in early post-menopausal women: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Kemmler, W; Bebenek, M; von Stengel, S; Engelke, K; Kalender, W A

    2013-02-01

    The purpose of this 12 month randomized exercise intervention was to determine the effect of a block-periodized multipurpose exercise program on bone mineral density (BMD) and parameters of the metabolic syndrome (MetS) in early post-menopausal women. Eighty-five subjects (52.3 ± 2.4 years) living in the area of Erlangen (Germany) were randomly assigned into an exercise (EG, n=43) or a wellness-control group (CG: n=42). The EG performed a periodized multipurpose exercise program with 4-6-week blocks of high-intensity bone-specific exercise intermitted by 10-12 weeks of exercise dedicated to increase endurance and reduce cardiac and metabolic risk factors. The CG performed a low-volume/low-intensity "wellness" program to increase well-being. After 12 months, significant exercise effects were observed for the lumbar spine (LS) BMD as assessed by quantitative computed tomography [total BMD (EG: -0.3 ± 2.1% vs CG: -2.1 ± 2.2%, P=0.015); trabecular BMD (EG: -0.7 ± 3.4% vs CG: -4.7 ± 4.9%, P=0.001) and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA) (EG: -0.1 ± 2.2% vs CG: -2.0 ± 2.0%, P=0.002)]. However, no significant effects were observed for total hip BMD as assessed by DXA (P=0.152). Although all MetS parameters were favorably affected among the EG, only the effect for waist circumference was significant. In summary, short periods of bone-specific intervention embedded in longer periods of exercises dedicated to improve cardiovascular and metabolic risk factors positively affected BMD at the LS.

  1. Management of menopause in women with breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A J

    2015-10-01

    Increasing breast cancer incidence and decreasing mortality have highlighted the importance of survivorship issues related to breast cancer. A consideration of the issues related to menopause is therefore of great importance to both women and clinicians. Menopause/menopausal symptoms, with significant negative effects on quality of life and potential long-term health impacts, may in women with breast cancer be associated with: (1) natural menopause occurring concurrently with a breast cancer diagnosis; (2) recurrence of menopausal symptoms following cessation of hormone replacement therapy; (3) treatment-induced menopause (chemotherapy, ovarian ablation/suppression) and adjuvant endocrine therapy. A variety of non-hormonal pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies have been investigated as therapeutic options for menopausal symptoms with mixed results, and ongoing research is required. This review presents a summary of the causes, common problematic symptoms of menopause (vasomotor, genitourinary and sexual dysfunction), and longer-term consequences (cardiovascular disease and osteoporosis) related to menopause. It proposes an evidenced-based multidisciplinary approach to the management of menopause/menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer.

  2. Discourses on menopause--Part II: How do women talk about menopause?

    PubMed

    Hvas, Lotte; Gannik, Dorte Effersøe

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this article is to describe which of the different available discourses women relate to as revealed in the way they talk about menopause. We use a discourse analytic approach, which implies that meaning is ascribed to things according to how we talk about them. Twenty-four menopausal women from Denmark were interviewed. They were selected to cover a broad spectrum of Danish women with different menopausal experiences and social background factors. Seven previously identified discourses could be found in the interviews, though to varying degrees from woman to woman. Nearly all women used terms from the biomedical sphere like 'a period of decline and decay', even if they did not necessarily agree with this view. Also the existential discourse permeated most of the interviews, especially when the conversation turned to the ageing process, femininity and self-development. The way the menopause was talked about almost became kaleidoscopic when images speedily changed from the decrepit osteoporotic woman or a woman with lack of vitality and sex-appeal to a healthy and strong woman with control over her body and self. Since many women contact doctors in relation to menopause, and since the way doctors talk about menopause is influential, doctors should carefully consider which words and images they use in the counselling. The medical way of perceiving menopause is just one of many, and doctors must be aware that there are other different and partially contradicting discourses at play in society and in the women's universes.

  3. Zinc transporter gene expression and glycemic control in post-menopausal women with Type 2 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Foster, Meika; Chu, Anna; Petocz, Peter; Samman, Samir

    2014-10-01

    Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) is associated often with underlying zinc deficiency and nutritional supplements such as zinc may be of therapeutic benefit in the disease. In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, 12-week trial in postmenopausal women (n=48) with Type 2 DM we investigated the effects of supplementation with zinc (40mg/d) and flaxseed oil (FSO; 2g/d) on the gene expression of zinc transporters (ZnT1, ZnT5, ZnT6, ZnT7, ZnT8, Zip1, Zip3, Zip7, and Zip10) and metallothionein (MT-1A, and MT-2A), and markers of glycemic control (glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin [HbA1c]). The homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) was calculated. No significant effects of zinc or FSO supplementation were observed on glycemic marker concentrations, HOMA-IR or fold change over 12 weeks in zinc transporter and metallothionein gene expression. In multivariate analysis, the change over 12 weeks in serum glucose concentrations (P=0.001) and HOMA-IR (P=0.001) predicted the fold change in Zip10. In secondary analysis, marginal statistical significance was observed with the change in both serum glucose concentrations (P=0.003) and HOMA-IR (P=0.007) being predictive of the fold change in ZnT6. ZnT8 mRNA expression was variable; HbA1c levels were higher (P=0.006) in participants who exhibited ZnT8 expression compared to those who did not. The significant predictive relationships between Zip10, ZnT6, serum glucose and HOMA-IR are preliminary, as is the relationship between HbA1c and ZnT8; nevertheless the observations support an association between Type 2 DM and zinc homeostasis that requires further exploration.

  4. Relationships between menstrual and menopausal attitudes and associated demographic and health characteristics: the Hilo Women's Health Study.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Lynn A; Sievert, Lynnette L; Brown, Daniel E; Rahberg, Nichole; Reza, Angela

    2010-07-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the relation of menstrual attitudes to menopausal attitudes and the demographic and health characteristics associated with each. This cross-sectional study consisted of a randomly selected sample of 1,824 respondents aged 16 to 100 years in multi-ethnic Hilo, Hawai'i. Women completed questionnaires for demographic and health information, such as age, ethnicity, education, residency in Hawai'i, menopausal status, exercise, and attitudes toward menstruation and menopause. Women more often chose positive terms, such as "natural," to describe menstruation (60.8%) and menopause (59.4%). In bivariate analyses, post-menopausal women were significantly more likely to have positive menstrual and menopausal attitudes than pre-menopausal women. Factor analyses were used to cluster attitudes followed by linear regression to identify demographic characteristics associated with factor scores. Asian-American ethnicity, higher education, reporting more exercise, and growing up outside of Hawai'i were associated with positive menstrual attitudes. Higher education, older age, post-menopausal status, growing up outside of Hawai'i and having hot flashes were associated with positive menopausal attitudes. Bivariate correlation analyses suggested significant associations between factor scores for menstrual and menopausal attitudes. Both negative and positive menstrual attitudes were positively correlated with the anticipation of menopause, although negative attitudes toward menstruation were negatively correlated with menopause as a positive, natural life event. Demographic variables, specifically education and where one grows up, influenced women's attitudes toward menstruation and menopause and should be considered for inclusion in subsequent multi-ethnic studies. Further research is also warranted in assessing the relationship between menstrual and menopausal attitudes.

  5. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity

    PubMed Central

    Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause. PMID:26327888

  6. Guidelines for dietary management of menopausal women with simple obesity.

    PubMed

    Brończyk-Puzoń, Anna; Piecha, Dariusz; Nowak, Justyna; Koszowska, Aneta; Kulik-Kupka, Karolina; Dittfeld, Anna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-03-01

    The problem of obesity affects all age groups. It is also observed among menopausal women. Menopause is the time in a woman's life when, as a consequence of hormonal changes occurring in the body, the risk of overweight and obesity increases significantly and, therefore, so does the risk of metabolic and cardiovascular diseases. Excess body weight in menopausal women may also be of social and psychological importance since the occurring symptoms may considerably decrease quality of life and sexual activity of these women. Reduction of body weight in obese menopausal women should play a vital role in treatment of this group of patients. Therefore, adequate management seems to be essential, and it should involve dietary, pharmacological and/or surgical treatment, depending on the patient's needs. Following a rational weight loss plan provided by a dietician under medical supervision may contribute to improvement of the health condition and quality of life. It is recommended to observe the guidelines on dietary management described in this article by adjusting a diet plan individually. The following work constitutes a review of articles from 2004-2014 which are available in the PubMed medical knowledge base and the Polish Medical Bibliography (Polska Bibliografia Lekarska). For this purpose, the following controlled vocabulary has been used: menopausal woman, menopausal diet, menopausal weight gain, menopausal weight loss, dietary management in menopause.

  7. Effect of soy isolate protein and resistance exercises on muscle performance and bone health of osteopenic/osteoporotic post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Shenoy, Shweta; Bedi, Reecha; Sandhu, Jaspal S

    2013-01-01

    There are contradictory reports regarding the effect of soy protein isolate on bone health in menopause. The main objective of this study was to assess the influence of soy isolate protein intake and resistance exercises on isokinetic muscle strength, endurance, power, and bone health parameters in osteopenic/osteoporotic postmenopausal women. Sixty osteoporotic sedentary women (mean age 54.55 years) were randomly assigned to three groups: soy isolate protein (Group A), soy + exercise group (Group B), and control group (Group C). Group B performed supervised progressive resistance exercises 4 times/week for 12 weeks. Muscle performance was measured by isokinetic dynamometry, and bone health was measured by ultrasound densitometry. Analysis of variance showed significant bone and muscle strength gains (p < .05) both in Group A and B, with the improvements more pronounced in Group B. Significant muscle performance changes, after intervention, were evident and bone strength increases may parallel changes in muscle strength.

  8. Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B₂ and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F₁α in healthy post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women receiving aspirin 100 mg.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Marcia Dewi; Arieselia, Zita; Setiabudy, Rianto; Setiawati, Arini; Baziad, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women increases sharply after menopause. In postmenopausal women, thromboxane production increases while prostacyclin decreases. Low dose aspirin reduces the production of both thromboxane and prostacyclin. The present study was an open-label clinical trial with two parallel groups of 15 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women. Twenty-four hours urine was collected from each subject before and after aspirin 100 mg daily for 7 days. The concentration of thromboxane and prostacyclin was measured as their metabolites (11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F(1α)) in urine using enzyme immunoassay methods. This study showed that aspirin significantly reduced thromboxane in both groups with significantly larger percentage reduction in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women (73.32 vs. 61.13%, p = 0.021). This study also showed that aspirin reduced prostacyclin significantly in both groups, but the percentage reduction between the groups was not significantly different. The decrease in the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) should be compared to assess aspirin efficacy as an antithrombotic. Calculation of the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) before aspirin consumption was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The decrease in 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio by aspirin was greater in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (1.91 vs. 0.17; p = 0.022). It was concluded that aspirin reduced thromboxane and prostacyclin significantly in each group with significant 11-dTXB(2) percentage reduction between groups and non-significant 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) percentage reduction between groups, but reduced the 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio much larger in postmenopausal women compared to that in premenopausal women.

  9. Urinary 11-dehydro-thromboxane B₂ and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F₁α in healthy post-menopausal and pre-menopausal women receiving aspirin 100 mg.

    PubMed

    Hartanto, Marcia Dewi; Arieselia, Zita; Setiabudy, Rianto; Setiawati, Arini; Baziad, Ali

    2012-07-01

    The prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in women increases sharply after menopause. In postmenopausal women, thromboxane production increases while prostacyclin decreases. Low dose aspirin reduces the production of both thromboxane and prostacyclin. The present study was an open-label clinical trial with two parallel groups of 15 premenopausal women and 15 postmenopausal women. Twenty-four hours urine was collected from each subject before and after aspirin 100 mg daily for 7 days. The concentration of thromboxane and prostacyclin was measured as their metabolites (11-dehydro-thromboxane B(2) and 2,3-dinor-6-keto-prostaglandin-F(1α)) in urine using enzyme immunoassay methods. This study showed that aspirin significantly reduced thromboxane in both groups with significantly larger percentage reduction in postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal women (73.32 vs. 61.13%, p = 0.021). This study also showed that aspirin reduced prostacyclin significantly in both groups, but the percentage reduction between the groups was not significantly different. The decrease in the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) should be compared to assess aspirin efficacy as an antithrombotic. Calculation of the ratio of 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) before aspirin consumption was higher in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women. The decrease in 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio by aspirin was greater in postmenopausal women than in premenopausal women (1.91 vs. 0.17; p = 0.022). It was concluded that aspirin reduced thromboxane and prostacyclin significantly in each group with significant 11-dTXB(2) percentage reduction between groups and non-significant 2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) percentage reduction between groups, but reduced the 11-dTXB(2)/2,3-dinor-6-keto-PGF(1α) ratio much larger in postmenopausal women compared to that in premenopausal women. PMID:22311294

  10. Experience of menopause in aboriginal women: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Chadha, N; Chadha, V; Ross, S; Sydora, B C

    2016-01-01

    Every woman experiences the menopause transition period in a very individual way. Menopause symptoms and management are greatly influenced by socioeconomic status in addition to genetic background and medical history. Because of their very unique cultural heritage and often holistic view of health and well-being, menopause symptoms and management might differ greatly in aboriginals compared to non-aboriginals. Our aim was to investigate the extent and scope of the current literature in describing the menopause experience of aboriginal women. Our systematic literature review included nine health-related databases using the keywords 'menopause' and 'climacteric symptoms' in combination with various keywords describing aboriginal populations. Data were collected from selected articles and descriptive analysis was applied. Twenty-eight relevant articles were included in our analysis. These articles represent data from 12 countries and aboriginal groups from at least eight distinctive geographical regions. Knowledge of menopause and symptom experience vary greatly among study groups. The average age of menopause onset appears earlier in most aboriginal groups, often attributed to malnutrition and a harsher lifestyle. This literature review highlights a need for further research of the menopause transition period among aboriginal women to fully explore understanding and treatment of menopause symptoms and ultimately advance an important dialogue about women's health care.

  11. Korean urban women's experience of menopause: new life.

    PubMed

    Lee, K H

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to share with nurses around the world the findings of a phenomenological study of the meaning of menopause as experienced by modern Korean women. Four rhythmical patterns of the process of menopause were found: from suffering to comfort, from oppression to freedom, from being a good wife and mother to becoming a woman, and from a productive life to a transformed life. This unique nursing perspective on women's experience of menopause can further nurses' understanding of this human health experience and contribute to their participation in the quality of women's lives.

  12. Contextual Influences on Women's Health Concerns and Attitudes toward Menopause

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strauss, Judy R.

    2011-01-01

    Social factors that affect women's attitudes toward menopause were examined in a sample of 1,037 baby boomer women who took part in two waves of the Midlife in the United States survey. Survey data were collected in 1996 and 2005 from a nationally representative sample of women born between 1946 and 1964 residing in the United States. Women's…

  13. Basal plasma levels of calcitonin and bone mineral mass in normal and uremic women. Effect of menopause.

    PubMed

    Corghi, E; Ortolani, S; Bianchi, M L; Favini, P; Vigo, P; Polli, E E

    1984-01-01

    Basal plasma levels of immunoreactive calcitonin (iCT), forearm bone mineral content (BMC) as measured by 125I photon absorptiometry and 24-hour urinary hydroxyproline/creatinine ratio (OHPr/Cr) were determined in 32 healthy women (13 pre-menopausal, aged 40 to 54 years, and 19 post-menopausal, aged 41 to 54 years). The basal plasma levels of iCT were significantly higher in the pre-menopausal group (mean value 96 vs 54 pg/ml, P less than 0.025). The BMC value of the radius was also significantly greater in the same group (mean +/- SEM 656 +/- 13 vs. 620 +/- 9 mg/cm2, P less than 0.05), while the urinary OHPr/Cr ratio was higher in the post-menopausal group (29.9 +/- 1.5 vs. 38.7 +/- 2.7 mg/g, P less than 0.02). These results suggest that basal plasma levels of iCT decrease after the menopause and support the hypothesis that a deficiency of CT could be involved in the pathogenesis of post-menopausal bone loss. Similar results were obtained in 25 uremic women on maintenance hemodialysis (9 pre-menopausal and 16 post-menopausal) aged 30 to 65 yrs.: both basal iCT levels and BMC values were significantly higher in the pre-menopausal group.

  14. Menopause, only for women? The social construction of menopause as an exclusively female condition.

    PubMed

    Oudshoorn, N E

    1997-06-01

    Over the last three decades the menopause has continued to interest the medical profession, the pharmaceutical industry and the mass media. Although there exist many different views on the menopause, there is one common denominator. Menopause is depicted as an exclusively female condition. The medical discourse on menopause seems to exclude men. However, a closer look at the history of the medical sciences reveals that there have been and still are, attempts to classify symptoms of ageing men as male menopause or climacterium. Despite these attempts to put men on the menopausal agenda, most attention is focused on women. How can we understand this almost exclusive focus on female bodies? Why does there exist such an emphasis on the medicalization of the third age of women rather than of men? Maybe we might be inclined to think of a male conspiracy, as has been suggested by feminists: women take the pills, while men cash the bills. We might consider the enormous profits of the pharmaceutical industry. This paper is concerned with finding an alternative explanation for the almost exclusive attention for the female menopause. Based on historical data and more recent discussions in medical journals, the paper shows that the medicalization of the female menopause and the relative silence around the male climacterium can be understood in terms of the social and cultural processes that underly the classification of health problems as specific diseases. The imbalance in medical treatment of climacteric health problems in women and men is not simply rooted in biological sex differences, but can be ascribed to men's attitudes towards health problems and organizational infrastructures of the medical institutions.

  15. Wrinkle reduction in post-menopausal women consuming a novel oral supplement: a double-blind placebo-controlled randomized study

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, G; Wainwright, L J; Holland, R; Barrett, K E; Casey, J

    2014-01-01

    Synopsis Objective The maintenance of youthful skin appearance is strongly desired by a large proportion of the world's population. The aim of the present study was therefore to evaluate the effect on skin wrinkling, of a combination of ingredients reported to influence key factors involved in skin ageing, namely inflammation, collagen synthesis and oxidative/UV stress. A supplemented drink was developed containing soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C and vitamin E and given to post-menopausal women with a capsule containing fish oil. Method We have performed a double-blind randomized controlled human clinical study to assess whether this cocktail of dietary ingredients can significantly improve the appearance of facial wrinkles. Results We have shown that this unique combination of micronutrients can significantly reduce the depth of facial wrinkles and that this improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Conclusion This study demonstrates that consumption of a mixture of soy isoflavones, lycopene, vitamin C, vitamin E and fish oil is able to induce a clinically measureable improvement in the depth of facial wrinkles following long-term use. We have also shown, for the first time with an oral product, that the improvement is associated with increased deposition of new collagen fibres in the dermis. Résumé Objectif Le maintien de l'apparence d'une peau jeune est vivement souhaité par une grande proportion de la population mondiale. L'objectif de la présente étude était donc d'évaluer l'effet sur les rides de la peau, d'une combinaison d'ingrédients rapportés à influer sur les facteurs clés impliqués dans le vieillissement de la peau, à savoir l'inflammation, la synthèse du collagène et le stress oxydatif / UV. Une boisson supplémentée a été élaborée contenant des isoflavones de soja, le lycopène, la vitamine C et la vitamine E et donnée aux femmes ménopausées avec une capsule contenant de l

  16. Association Between Hypertension, Menopause, and Cognition in Women.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Judith M; Cerezo, Gustavo H; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernandez-Pérez, Cristina; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Vicario, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive state in women and its relation to menopause and hypertension (HTN). The authors included 1034 women aged 47.13±15.71 years. The prevalence of HTN was 47.1%, with 67.8% of patients treated and 48.6% controlled. Cognitive impairment was higher among hypertensive menopausal (mini-Boston Naming Test: 7.4±3.1 vs 8.5±2.4, P<.001; Clock-Drawing Test: 5.2±2 vs 5.6±1.6, P<.01). Using logistic regression adjusted by age and education level, statistical differences were found in the results from the mini-Boston Naming Test between menopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.07; P=.021), and no difference between nonmenopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.57; P=.697). The P interaction between both groups was significant (P=.038). The possibility of alteration in cortical functions in menopausal hypertensive woman showed a relative increment of 48% (P=.021). The association between HTN and menopause increases the possibility of compromising the semantic memory by 50%. PMID:26252810

  17. Association Between Hypertension, Menopause, and Cognition in Women.

    PubMed

    Zilberman, Judith M; Cerezo, Gustavo H; Del Sueldo, Mildren; Fernandez-Pérez, Cristina; Martell-Claros, Nieves; Vicario, Augusto

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the cognitive state in women and its relation to menopause and hypertension (HTN). The authors included 1034 women aged 47.13±15.71 years. The prevalence of HTN was 47.1%, with 67.8% of patients treated and 48.6% controlled. Cognitive impairment was higher among hypertensive menopausal (mini-Boston Naming Test: 7.4±3.1 vs 8.5±2.4, P<.001; Clock-Drawing Test: 5.2±2 vs 5.6±1.6, P<.01). Using logistic regression adjusted by age and education level, statistical differences were found in the results from the mini-Boston Naming Test between menopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.06-2.07; P=.021), and no difference between nonmenopausal hypertensive vs menopausal normotensive women (odds ratio, 0.89; 95% confidence interval, 0.51-1.57; P=.697). The P interaction between both groups was significant (P=.038). The possibility of alteration in cortical functions in menopausal hypertensive woman showed a relative increment of 48% (P=.021). The association between HTN and menopause increases the possibility of compromising the semantic memory by 50%.

  18. Women, menopause, and (Ms.)information: communication about the climacteric.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Merry C; Villagran, Melinda Morris; Ragan, Sandra L

    2002-01-01

    This research utilizes a communication perspective to examine the dissemination of information about menopause in terms of women's attitudes, beliefs, and knowledge. Specifically, this study uses a grounded theory approach (Glaser & Strauss, 1967) to explore the communicative processes of misinformation concerning women's lived experiences in relation to the climacteric. Five emergent themes extracted from premenopausal, perimenopausal, and postmenopausal women's discourse are identified and described through qualitative data analysis. Findings suggest that due to a lack of consistent communication, women are generally either unknowledgeable or misinformed about menopause and its related issues. Inaccurate information concerning a health-related experience that all women undergo has negative implications for women, their practitioners, and society. Moreover, a clearer understanding of women's experiences concerning menopause may enhance communication in physician-patient interactions (PPIs). PMID:11853211

  19. Yale Study: African-American Women Report More Menopause Symptoms than White Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Black Issues in Higher Education, 2005

    2005-01-01

    A study of African-American women in menopause shows that while they experience many of the same symptoms as White women, they report more vasomotor symptoms such as dizziness and bloating, according to a study by a Yale School of Nursing researcher. The women reported symptoms common among White women in menopause--hot flashes, irregular…

  20. Menopausal experiences of Thai women. Part 2: The cultural context.

    PubMed

    Punyahotra, S; Dennerstein, L

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes the cultural context of middle-aged Thai women who took part in a survey of symptoms and attitudes to menopause. The women lived in Nonthaburi province, adjacent to Bangkok, which has undergone a transition from rural to urban. Household structure often includes three generations. There have been changing opportunities for women in areas of education, occupation and family size and women's power increases with age. Thai women perceive menstruation as an indicator of health and take special care during menstruation. There is a special idiom in Thai 'leod cha pai-lom cha ma' (the blood will go--the wind will come) used to describe changes in a woman's behaviour, emotions and well-being during the menopause. These changes are expected to happen occasionally, not in every woman. Some women looked forward to menopause, while others were found to be ambivalent towards it.

  1. A DXA study of muscle-bone relationships in the whole body and limbs of 2512 normal men and pre- and post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Capozza, R F; Cointry, G R; Cure-Ramírez, P; Ferretti, J L; Cure-Cure, C

    2004-07-01

    A whole-body DXA study of 1450 healthy Caucasian individuals [Bone 22 (1998) 683] found that mineral mass, either crude (BMC) or statistically adjusted to fat mass (FM-adjusted BMC), correlated linearly with lean mass (LM, proportional to muscle mass). The results showed similar slopes but decreasing intercepts (ordinate values) in the order: pre-MP women > men > post-MP women > children. This supports the hypothesis that sex hormones influence the control of bone status by muscle strength in all species. Now we further study those relationships in 2512 healthy Hispanic adults (307 men, 753 pre-MP women, 1452 post-MP women), including separate determinations in their upper and lower limbs. The slopes of the BMC or FM-adjusted BMC vs. LM relationships were parallel in all the studied regions. However, region-related differences were found between the ordinates of the curves. In the whole body, the crude-BMC/LM relationships showed the same ordinate differences as previously observed. In the lower limbs, those differences were smaller in magnitude but highly significant, showing the order: pre-MP women > men = post-MP women. In the upper limbs, the decreasing ordinate order was: men > pre-MP women > post-MP women. After fat adjustment of the BMC, order in both limbs was: men > pre-MP women > post-MP women. Parallelism of the curves was maintained in all cases. LM had a larger independent influence on these results than FM, body weight, or age. The parallelism of the curves supports the idea that a common biomechanical control of bones by muscles occurs in humans. Results suggest that sex-hormone-associated differences in DXA-assessed muscle-bone proportionality in humans could vary according to the region studied. This could be related to the different weight-bearing nature of the musculoskeletal structures studied. Besides the obvious anthropometric associations, FM would exert a mechanical effect as a component of body weight, evident in the lower limbs, while

  2. Teaching Taboo Topics: Menstruation, Menopause, and the Psychology of Women

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chrisler, Joan C.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this article is (a) to consider reasons why women's reproductive processes receive so little attention in psychology courses and (b) to make an argument for why more attention is needed. Menstruation, menopause, and other reproductive events are important to the psychology of women. Reproductive processes make possible a social role…

  3. EMAS recommendations for conditions in the workplace for menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Amanda; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    Women form a large part of many workforces throughout Europe. Many will be working throughout their menopausal years. Whilst the menopause may cause no significant problems for some, for others it is known to present considerable difficulties in both their personal and working lives. During the menopausal transition women report that fatigue and difficulties with memory and concentration can have a negative impact on their working lives. Furthermore, hot flushes can be a source of embarrassment and distress. Some consider that these symptoms can impact on their performance. Greater awareness among employers, together with sensitive and flexible management can be helpful for women at this time. Particular strategies might include: fostering a culture whereby employees feel comfortable disclosing health problems, allowing flexible working, reducing sources of work-related stress, providing easy access to cold drinking water and toilets, and reviewing workplace temperature and ventilation.

  4. EMAS recommendations for conditions in the workplace for menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Amanda; Ceausu, Iuliana; Depypere, Herman; Lambrinoudaki, Irene; Mueck, Alfred; Pérez-López, Faustino R; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Senturk, Levent M; Simoncini, Tommaso; Stevenson, John C; Stute, Petra; Rees, Margaret

    2016-03-01

    Women form a large part of many workforces throughout Europe. Many will be working throughout their menopausal years. Whilst the menopause may cause no significant problems for some, for others it is known to present considerable difficulties in both their personal and working lives. During the menopausal transition women report that fatigue and difficulties with memory and concentration can have a negative impact on their working lives. Furthermore, hot flushes can be a source of embarrassment and distress. Some consider that these symptoms can impact on their performance. Greater awareness among employers, together with sensitive and flexible management can be helpful for women at this time. Particular strategies might include: fostering a culture whereby employees feel comfortable disclosing health problems, allowing flexible working, reducing sources of work-related stress, providing easy access to cold drinking water and toilets, and reviewing workplace temperature and ventilation. PMID:26857884

  5. Low vitamin D, and bone mineral density with depressive symptoms burden in menopausal and postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Saleh, Najah M.

    2015-01-01

    significantly higher in post-menopausal women than in premenopausal women (P = 0.046). Similarly, vitamin D deficiency was more prevalent among postmenopausal women than menopausal women. Overall, only 15.1% of women had optimum vitamin D level and 15.5% had severe, 33.2% had moderate vitamin D insufficiency and 36.3% had mild vitamin D insufficiency in menopausal and post menopausal women (P = 0.021). The study revealed that vitamin D level, hemoglobin level, serum iron fasting plasma glucose, calcium, triglycerides, high density lipid (HDL) cholesterol, low density lipid (LDL) Cholesterol, alkaline phosphate and magnesium were considerably lower in postmenopausal compared to menopausal women (P < 0.001). Conclusion: The current study revealed that there was a strong association between vitamin D level and BMD in Arab women during the menopausal and post-menopausal period. PMID:26538987

  6. Influences of Natural Menopause on Psychological Characteristics and Symptoms of Middle-Aged Healthy Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Karen A.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated psychological and symptom consequences of natural menopause in longitudinal study of 541 initially premenopausal healthy women. Findings 3 years later from 101 menopausal women and control group of 101 premenopausal women revealed that natural menopause led to few changes in psychological characteristics, with only decline in…

  7. Change in bone mass distribution induced by hormone replacement therapy and high-impact physical exercise in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Cheng, S; Sipilä, S; Taaffe, D R; Puolakka, J; Suominen, H

    2002-07-01

    The purpose of this intervention trial was to determine whether changes in bone mass distribution could be observed in postmenopausal women following hormone replacement therapy (HRT) and/or high-impact physical exercise. Eighty healthy women, aged 50-57 years, at <5 years after the onset of menopause and with no previous use of HRT, were randomly assigned to one of four groups: HRT; exercise (Ex); HRT + Ex (ExHRT); and control (Co). HRT administration was conducted in a double-blind manner for 1 year using estradiol plus noretisterone acetate (Kliogest). The exercise groups participated in a 1 year progressive training program consisting of jumping and bounding activities. Subjects participated in two supervised sessions per week and were asked to perform a series of exercises at home 4 days/week. Bone measurements using a quantitative computed tomography scanner (Somatom DR, Siemens) were obtained from the proximal femur, midfemur, proximal tibia, and tibial shaft. Data were analyzed with a software program (BONALYSE 1.3) calculating density (g/cm(3)), cross-sectional area (CSA; mm(2)), and moments of inertia (I(max), I(min), I(polar)). In addition, the bone mass spectrum was determined as a function of the angular distribution around the bone mass center (polar distribution) and the distance from the bone mass center through the diaphyseal wall (radial distribution). After the 1 year period, there was an overall interaction of group x time in bone mineral density (BMD) at the proximal femur (p = 0.05) and tibial shaft (p = 0.035). Women in the ExHRT and HRT groups had increased proximal femur and tibial shaft BMD when compared with the change observed in the Co group (p = 0.024-0.011). The change was more pronounced in the cortical tibia, wherein the ExHRT group also differed from the Ex group (p = 0.038). No significant changes were found in bone CSA at any of the measured sites. The radial distribution indicated an increase of BMD in the endocortical part of

  8. Menopausal symptoms in women with breast cancer: prevalence and treatment preferences.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Myra S; Grunfeld, Elizabeth A; Mittal, Sangeeta; Sikka, Pooja; Ramirez, Amanda-Jane; Fentiman, Ian; Hamed, Hisham

    2004-11-01

    Menopausal symptoms are common and problematic for women receiving adjuvant treatment for breast cancer and management presents a challenge. This cross-sectional descriptive study aimed to investigate the experience of menopausal symptoms, current management and treatment preferences of 113 patients with breast cancer. These women (who were prescribed tamoxifen and were on average 3 years post-diagnosis) were recruited from a breast unit database. They completed the Hot Flush and Night Sweats Questionnaire (HFNSQ), the Women's Health Questionnaire (WHQ) and subscales of the EORTC-QLQ-C30 and the BR23, as well as questions about treatments. Forty-four of this sample were also interviewed. The prevalence of hot flushes and night sweats was 80 and 72%, respectively (average 30 per week). Having more problematic hot flushes and night sweats were associated with more anxiety and sleep problems (WHQ), and with poorer emotional and social functioning and worse body image (EORTC-QLQ-C30). The women had used a range of treatments for menopausal symptoms but there was often no evidence for the efficacy for many of these treatments. Strongest preferences were for non-medical treatments, particularly vitamins and herbal remedies and cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT). The evidence for the effectiveness of the former is weak, whereas CBT has been shown to reduce menopausal symptoms, but needs to be evaluated in a population of women who have been treated for breast cancer.

  9. Effects of the addition of a resistance training programme to a caloric restriction weight loss intervention on psychosocial factors in overweight and obese post-menopausal women: a Montreal Ottawa New Emerging Team study.

    PubMed

    Messier, Virginie; Rabasa-Lhoret, Rémi; Doucet, Eric; Brochu, Martin; Lavoie, Jean-Marc; Karelis, Antony; Prud'homme, Denis; Strychar, Irene

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of the addition of a resistance training programme to a caloric restriction weight loss intervention on psychosocial profile. The study sample consisted of 137 overweight and obese post-menopausal women. Participants were randomized to a caloric restriction group and caloric restriction + resistance training group. Psychosocial, anthropometric, and metabolic variables were measured before and after the 6-month weight loss intervention. Both groups presented similar weight loss and there were no significant differences between the caloric restriction group and caloric restriction + resistance training group for changes in psychosocial profile. Thereafter, all participants were classified into quintiles based on the amount of weight loss. In all quintiles, women markedly improved body esteem and self-esteem, and decreased hunger and perceived risk for diabetes mellitus (P < 0.05). However, significant increases in dietary restraint were observed in quintiles 2-5 (> or =2.4 % body weight loss), decreases in disinhibition in quintiles 3-5 (> or =4.9 %), increases in self-efficacy in quintiles 3-5 (> or =4.9 %), and increases in health perceptions in quintile 5 (> or =11.1%). The results of this study do not support the hypothesis that the addition of a resistance training programme to a caloric restriction weight loss intervention has additional benefits on psychosocial profile. Overall, the significant improvements in the psychosocial profile observed were mostly accounted for by the degree of weight loss.

  10. Vascular Aging across the Menopause Transition in Healthy Women

    PubMed Central

    Moreau, Kerrie L.; Hildreth, Kerry L.

    2015-01-01

    Vascular aging, featuring endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening, is a major risk factor for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). In women, vascular aging appears to be accelerated during the menopause transition, particularly around the late perimenopausal period, presumably related to declines in ovarian function and estrogen levels. The mechanisms underlying endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening with the menopause transition are not completely understood. Oxidative stress and the proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α contribute to endothelial dysfunction and large artery stiffening in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women. Habitual endurance exercise attenuates the age-related increase in large artery stiffness in estrogen-deficient postmenopausal women and can reverse arterial stiffening to premenopausal levels in estrogen-replete postmenopausal women. In contrast, estrogen status appears to play a key permissive role in the adaptive response of the endothelium to habitual endurance exercise in that endothelial improvements are absent in estrogen-deficient women but present in estrogen-replete women. We review here the current state of knowledge on the biological defects underlying vascular aging across the menopause transition, with particular focus on potential mechanisms, the role of habitual exercise in preserving vascular health, and key areas for future research. PMID:25984561

  11. Why do women stop reproducing before menopause? A life-history approach to age at last birth.

    PubMed

    Towner, Mary C; Nenko, Ilona; Walton, Savannah E

    2016-04-19

    Evolutionary biologists have long considered menopause to be a fundamental puzzle in understanding human fertility behaviour, as post-menopausal women are no longer physiologically capable of direct reproduction. Menopause typically occurs between 45 and 55 years of age, but across cultures and history, women often stop reproducing many years before menopause. Unlike age at first reproduction or even birth spacing, a woman nearing the end of her reproductive cycle is able to reflect upon the offspring she already has--their numbers and phenotypic qualities, including sexes. This paper reviews demographic data on age at last birth both across and within societies, and also presents a case study of age at last birth in rural Bangladeshi women. In this Bangladeshi sample, age at last birth preceded age at menopause by an average of 11 years, with marked variation around that mean, even during a period of high fertility. Moreover, age at last birth was not strongly related to age at menopause. Our literature review and case study provide evidence that stopping behaviour needs to be more closely examined as an important part of human reproductive strategies and life-history theory. Menopause may be a final marker of permanent reproductive cessation, but it is only one piece of the evolutionary puzzle. PMID:27022074

  12. Decreasing menopausal symptoms in women undertaking a web-based multi-modal lifestyle intervention: The Women's Wellness Program.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine

    2015-05-01

    Menopausal transition can be challenging for many women. This study tested the effectiveness of an intervention delivered in different modes in decreasing menopausal symptoms in midlife women. The Women's Wellness Program (WWP) intervention was delivered to 225 Australian women aged between 40 and 65 years through three modes (i.e., on-line independent, face-to-face with nurse consultations, and on-line with virtual nurse consultations). All women in the study were provided with a 12-week Program Book outlining healthy lifestyle behaviors while women in the consultation groups were supported by a registered nurse who provide tailored health education and assisted with individual goal setting for exercise, healthy eating, smoking and alcohol consumption. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected on menopausal symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale), health related quality of life (SF12), and modifiable lifestyle factors. Linear mixed-effect models showed an average 0.87 and 1.23 point reduction in anxiety (p<0.01) and depression scores (p<0.01) over time in all groups. Results also demonstrated reduced vasomotor symptoms (β=-0.19, SE=0.10, p=0.04) and sexual dysfunction (β=-0.17, SE=0.06, p<0.01) in all participants though women in the face-to-face group generally reported greater reductions than women in the other groups. This lifestyle intervention embedded within a wellness framework has the potential to reduce menopausal symptoms and improve quality of life in midlife women thus potentially enhancing health and well-being in women as they age. Of course, study replication is needed to confirm the intervention effects. PMID:25818771

  13. Decreasing menopausal symptoms in women undertaking a web-based multi-modal lifestyle intervention: The Women's Wellness Program.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Debra; Seib, Charrlotte; McGuire, Amanda; Porter-Steele, Janine

    2015-05-01

    Menopausal transition can be challenging for many women. This study tested the effectiveness of an intervention delivered in different modes in decreasing menopausal symptoms in midlife women. The Women's Wellness Program (WWP) intervention was delivered to 225 Australian women aged between 40 and 65 years through three modes (i.e., on-line independent, face-to-face with nurse consultations, and on-line with virtual nurse consultations). All women in the study were provided with a 12-week Program Book outlining healthy lifestyle behaviors while women in the consultation groups were supported by a registered nurse who provide tailored health education and assisted with individual goal setting for exercise, healthy eating, smoking and alcohol consumption. Pre- and post-intervention data were collected on menopausal symptoms (Greene Climacteric Scale), health related quality of life (SF12), and modifiable lifestyle factors. Linear mixed-effect models showed an average 0.87 and 1.23 point reduction in anxiety (p<0.01) and depression scores (p<0.01) over time in all groups. Results also demonstrated reduced vasomotor symptoms (β=-0.19, SE=0.10, p=0.04) and sexual dysfunction (β=-0.17, SE=0.06, p<0.01) in all participants though women in the face-to-face group generally reported greater reductions than women in the other groups. This lifestyle intervention embedded within a wellness framework has the potential to reduce menopausal symptoms and improve quality of life in midlife women thus potentially enhancing health and well-being in women as they age. Of course, study replication is needed to confirm the intervention effects.

  14. The trace metal status of a group of post-menopausal vegetarians.

    PubMed

    Gibson, R S; Anderson, B M; Sabry, J H

    1983-03-01

    The copper, manganese, and selenium status of 36 post-menopausal vegetarians was compared with that of a group of post-menopausal omnivores, using dietary trace element intake data, serum and hair copper levels, and hair manganese and hair selenium levels as the principal indexes. Findings of this study suggest that the copper and selenium status of these long-term vegetarian women was comparable to that of non-vegetarians, despite the high intake of dietary fiber by the vegetarian group. In contrast, the manganese status of the vegetarians, as indicated by elevated hair manganese levels, was higher, almost certainly as a result of the significantly higher manganese intake of this group.

  15. Validity and Reproducibility of a Self-Administered Semi-Quantitative Food-Frequency Questionnaire for Estimating Usual Daily Fat, Fibre, Alcohol, Caffeine and Theobromine Intakes among Belgian Post-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Bolca, Selin; Huybrechts, Inge; Verschraegen, Mia; De Henauw, Stefaan; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2009-01-01

    A novel food-frequency questionnaire (FFQ) was developed and validated to assess the usual daily fat, saturated, mono-unsaturated and poly-unsaturated fatty acid, fibre, alcohol, caffeine, and theobromine intakes among Belgian post-menopausal women participating in dietary intervention trials with phyto-oestrogens. The relative validity of the FFQ was estimated by comparison with 7 day (d) estimated diet records (EDR, n 64) and its reproducibility was evaluated by repeated administrations 6 weeks apart (n 79). Although the questionnaire underestimated significantly all intakes compared to the 7 d EDR, it had a good ranking ability (r 0.47–0.94; weighted κ 0.25–0.66) and it could reliably distinguish extreme intakes for all the estimated nutrients, except for saturated fatty acids. Furthermore, the correlation between repeated administrations was high (r 0.71–0.87) with a maximal misclassification of 7% (weighted κ 0.33–0.80). In conclusion, these results compare favourably with those reported by others and indicate that the FFQ is a satisfactorily reliable and valid instrument for ranking individuals within this study population. PMID:19440274

  16. Menopause Symptoms and Attitudes of African American Women: Closing the Knowledge Gap and Expanding Opportunities for Counseling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.; Tingle, Lynne R.; Bond, Lloyd A.

    2005-01-01

    Menopause, a normal midlife transition for women, remains poorly understood, especially for minority women. A total of 226 African American midlife women completed the Menopause Symptoms List (J. M. Perz, 1997); Menopause Attitude Scale (C. Bowles, 1986); Attitudes Toward Menopause checklist (B. L. Neugarten, V. Wood, R. J. Kraines, & B. Loomes,…

  17. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... cream, low-dose antidepressants, soy products and certain herbal supplements may help ease some menopausal symptoms. Discuss these ... symptoms? I’ve heard that soy products or herbal supplements may help. Are these effective? Are they good ...

  18. The effects of valerian root on hot flashes in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Mirabi, Parvaneh; Mojab, Faraz

    2013-01-01

    Hot flash is among the most common complaints of menopausal women, affecting their career, social activities and quality of life. This study aimed to investigate the effects of Valerian on hot flashes in menopausal women. In this double blind clinical trial, 68 menopausal women with the chief complaint of hot flash were enrolled using sampling at hand and were randomly divided into drug and placebo groups. The women in the drug group were prescribed 255 mg Valerian capsules 3 times a day for 8 weeks. The women in the placebo group were prescribed identical capsules filled with starch. Then, severity and frequency of hot flashes were measured and recorded through questionnaires and information forms in three levels (2 weeks before, four and eight weeks after the treatment). The Severity of hot flashes revealed a meaningful statistical difference pre- and post- Valerian treatment (p <0.001) while this difference was not meaningful in the placebo group. Further, the comparison of the two groups regarding the severity of hot flash after the treatment showed a meaningful statistical difference (p <0.001). Valerian has also led to a reduction of hot flash frequencies 4 and 8 weeks after the treatment (p <0.001) but this difference was not meaningful in drug like group. Valerian can be effective in treatment of menopausal hot flash and that it can be considered as a treatment of choice for reduction of hot flashes among the women who are reluctant to receive hormone therapy due to fear or any other reason. PMID:24250592

  19. ESTROGEN RELATED MECHANISMS OF HYPERTENSION IN MENOPAUSAL WOMEN.

    PubMed

    Buleishvili, M; Lobjanidze, N; Ormotsadze, G; Enukidze, M; Machavariani, M; Sanikidze, T

    2016-06-01

    The aim of our investigation was to establish the role of estrogens in the pathogenesis of hypertension during menopause. Menopausal women (40-55 years) with hypertension who had been admitted to "The N. Kipshidze Central University Clinic" (Tbilisi, Georgia) during 2011-2015 and without hypertension were investigated. Essential hypertension was defined as elevated blood pressure while in a sitting position, exceeding 160±10/90±10 mm Hg 60/95 mm Hg, for three consecutive measurements over a period of at least 4 weeks. Determination and verification of menopause was provided based on the criteria of at least 12 months of amenorrhea. All the patients had given their informed consent before any procedure. Study protocol was approved by Local Ethical Committee of Davit Agmashenebeli University. In each group blood content of estradiol, free nitric oxide (NO) and nitrosilated hemoglobin (HbNO), endothelin-1 and angiotensin II (ANG) were investigated. Decrease free nitric oxide (NO) (by 10%) and increase in endothelin-1 (by 14%) and Angiotensin II (ANG) (by 12%) content in the blood of menopausal women with hypertension were identified. In some patients with hypertension it was detected low intensity of NOHb EPR signal in blood (~1,5±0,07 mm/mg). In blood of hypertensive postmenopausal women there was revealed statistically significant correlation between estrogen level and NO content (r=-0,7935, p=0,0061), estrogen level and ANG II content (r=-0,7080, p=0,0328), statistically nonsignificant dependence between NOHb EPR signal intensity and estradiol content (r=-0,29, p=0,12). In normotensive postmenopausal women correlation between blood estrogen and NO level, blood estrogen and ANGII level was not statistically significant (r=-0,4342, p=0,2429; r=-0,2676, p=0,4547). These data indicate that in postmenopausal women in the regulation of arterial pressure in addition to the estrogens involve other factors, like as was shown in our previous investigation, oxidative

  20. Carer Knowledge and Experiences with Menopause in Women with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willis, Diane S.; Wishart, Jennifer G.; Muir, Walter J.

    2010-01-01

    Overall life expectancy for women with intellectual disabilities (ID) is now significantly extended, and many will live long enough to experience menopause. Little is known about how carers support women with ID through this important stage in their lives. This study investigated carer knowledge of how menopause affects women with ID under their…

  1. Poor sleep in middle-aged women is not associated with menopause per se.

    PubMed

    Tao, M F; Sun, D M; Shao, H F; Li, C B; Teng, Y C

    2016-01-01

    Whether sleep problems of menopausal women are associated with vasomotor symptoms and/or changes in estrogen levels associated with menopause or age-related changes in sleep architecture is unclear. This study aimed to determine if poor sleep in middle-aged women is correlated with menopause. This study recruited women seeking care for the first time at the menopause outpatient department of our hospital. Inclusion criteria were an age ≥40 years, not taking any medications for menopausal symptoms, and no sleeping problems or depression. Patients were assessed with the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), modified Kupperman Index (KI), and Menopause Rating Scale (MRS). A PSQI score of <7 indicated no sleep disorder and ≥7 indicated a sleep disorder. Blood specimens were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels. A total of 244 women were included in the study; 103 (42.2%) were identified as having a sleep disorder and 141 as not having one. In addition, 156 (64%) women were postmenopausal and 88 (36%) were not menopausal. Follicle-stimulating hormone and estradiol levels were similar between the groups. Patients with a sleep disorder had a significantly higher total modified KI score and total MRS score (both, P<0.001) compared with those without a sleep disorder. Correlations of the PSQI total score with the KI and MRS were similar in menopausal and non-menopausal women. These results do not support that menopause per se specifically contributes to sleep problems.

  2. Effects of Diabetes on Post-Menopausal Rat Submandibular Glands: A Histopathological and Stereological Examination

    PubMed Central

    Buyuk, Basak; Parlak, Secil Nazife; Keles, Osman Nuri; Can, Ismail; Yetim, Zeliha; Toktay, Erdem; Selli, Jale; Unal, Bunyami

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The menopause in elderly women is a physiological process where ovarian and uterine cycles end. Diabetes means higher blood glucose level that is a metabolic disease and has an increased incidence. The aim of the study was to examine the single or combined effects of menopause and diabetes that causes pathophysiological processes on submandibular gland on ovariectomy and diabetes induced rat models. Materials and Methods: Sprague Dawley twelve weeks old female (n=24) rats were divided randomly into four groups; Healthy control group (n=6), diabetic group (DM, n=6), ovariectomized group (OVX, n=6), post ovariectomy diabetes induced group (DM+OVX, n=6) individually. Histopathological, histochemical and stereological analyses were done in these groups. Results: Significant neutrophil cell infiltrations and myoepithelial cell proliferations, granular duct and seromucous acini damages and changes in the content of especially seromucous acini secretion in DM and/or OVX groups and distinctive interstitial and striated duct damages in post ovariectomy diabetes induced group were detected. Alterations ingranular ducts hypertrophic and in seromucous acini atrophic were determined in DM and/or OVX groups. Conclusion: The results revealed the pathophysiological processes that lead to morphological and functional alterations on the cellular level in submandibular glands. The molecular mechanisms related with pathogenesis of diabetes and menopause need further investigation. PMID:26644770

  3. Use of MR-based trabecular bone microstructure analysis at the distal radius for osteoporosis diagnostics: a study in post-menopausal women with breast cancer and treated with aromatase inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Baum, Thomas; Karampinos, Dimitrios C.; Seifert-Klauss, Vanadin; Pencheva, Tsvetelina D.; Jungmann, Pia M.; Rummeny, Ernst J.; Müller, Dirk; Bauer, Jan S.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Purpose Treatment with aromatase inhibitor (AI) is recommended for post-menopausal women with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer. However, AI therapy is known to induce bone loss leading to osteoporosis with an increased risk for fragility fractures. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether changes of magnetic resonance (MR)-based trabecular bone microstructure parameters as advanced imaging biomarker can already be detected in subjects with AI intake but still without evidence for osteoporosis according to dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA)-based bone mineral density (BMD) measurements as current clinical gold standard. Methods Twenty-one postmenopausal women (62±6 years of age) with hormone-receptor positive breast cancer, ongoing treatment with aromatase inhibitor for 23±15 months, and no evidence for osteoporosis (current DXA T-score greater than −2.5) were recruited for this study. Eight young, healthy women (24±2 years of age) were included as controls. All subjects underwent 3 Tesla magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the distal radius to assess the trabecular bone microstructure. Results Trabecular bone microstructure parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) different between subjects with AI intake and controls, including apparent bone fraction (0.42±0.03 vs. 0.42±0.05), trabecular number (1.95±0.10 mm−1 vs 1.89±0.15 mm−1), trabecular separation (0.30±0.03 mm vs 0.31±0.06 mm), trabecular thickness (0.21±0.01 mm vs 0.22±0.02 mm), and fractal dimension (1.70±0.02 vs. 1.70±0.03). Conclusion These findings suggest that the initial deterioration of trabecular bone microstructure as measured by MRI and BMD loss as measured by DXA occur not sequentially but rather simultaneously. Thus, the use of MR-based trabecular bone microstructure assessment is limited as early diagnostic biomarker in this clinical setting. PMID:27252740

  4. Effects of long-term hormone replacement therapy on QT and corrected QT dispersion during resting and peak exercise electrocardiography in post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Altunkeser, Bülent B; Ozdemir, Kurtulus; Içli, Abdullah; Celik, Cetin; Akyürek, Cemalettin; Gök, Hasan

    2002-01-01

    It is known that the QT interval is longer in women than men. Estrogen is reported to account for the QT interval prolongation in several studies conducted with hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women. Along with this, there are conflicting data as regards the effects of HRT on QT interval and dispersion. Moreover, there is no evidence about the effect of HRT on exercise QT parameters. We compared QT parameters obtained from surface electrocardiograms during resting and peak exercise before and after 6 months of HRT consisting of estrogen plus progesterone in healthy postmenopausal women. Twenty-four healthy postmenopausal women were given 0.625 mg/day conjugated estrogens and 2.5 mg/day medroxyprogesterone acetate for 6 months. Exercise stress testing using the Bruce protocol was performed before and after HRT. QT maximum, minimum, dispersion and corrected QT maximum, minimum and dispersion were calculated during resting and peak exercise. HRT resulted in a significant increase in estradiol plasma levels from 24+/-10 pg/mL to 117+/-66 pg/mL (P<0.001). There was no significant difference in resting QT parameters after HRT, whereas QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion were significantly increased during peak exercise (20+/-7 versus 25+/-10 ms; P<0.05, 33+/-12 versus 41+/-16 ms; P<0.05, respectively). Nonetheless, the other exercise QT parameters were unchanged. The resting QT parameters are not affected by long term HRT consisting of estrogen plus progesterone, which leads to an increase in QT dispersion and corrected QT dispersion during peak exercise.

  5. The beneficial effects of exercise on BMD are lost after cessation: a 5-year follow-up in older post-menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Englund, U; Littbrand, H; Sondell, A; Bucht, G; Pettersson, U

    2009-06-01

    This study investigates whether the positive effects on bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm(2)) and neuromuscular function following a combined weight-bearing program are sustained in older women, a longer period after cessation of training. Thirty-four women (18 exercisers and 16 controls) aged 73-88 years, who completed a 12-month randomized-controlled trial, were invited to a 5-year follow-up assessment of BMD and neuromuscular function. Both groups sustained significant losses in BMD of the femoral neck, trochanter, and Ward's triangle during the follow-up period. Significant losses were also seen in all neuromuscular function tests. The inter-group change was, however, significant only for maximal walking speed where the exercise group had a significantly greater loss. In conclusion, this study suggests that gains in bone density and neuromuscular functions achieved by training are lost after cessation of training. Continuous high-intensity weight-loading physical activity is probably necessary to preserve bone density and neuromuscular function in older women.

  6. Midlife Women and Menopause: A Challenge for the Mental Health Counselor.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mansfield, Phyllis Kernoff; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Surveyed women (n=99) aged 35 to 55 about their medical histories, current menstrual events and symptomatology, and perceptions and experiences with menopause. Discovered menopausal women reported their needs were not being met because clinicians lacked sufficient understanding and because of shortage of information resources. Mental health…

  7. Phthalate metabolite levels and menopausal hot flashes in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Ziv-Gal, Ayelet; Gallicchio, Lisa; Chiang, Catheryne; Ther, Sara N; Miller, Susan R; Zacur, Howard A; Dills, Russell L; Flaws, Jodi A

    2016-04-01

    During the menopausal transition, a woman's reproductive capacity declines, her hormone milieu changes, and her risk of hot flashes increases. Exposure to phthalates, which can be found in personal care products, can also result in altered reproductive function. Here, we investigated the associations between phthalate metabolite levels and midlife hot flashes. Eligible women (45-54 years of age) provided detailed information on hot flashes history and donated urine samples (n=195). Urinary phthalate metabolite levels were measured by HPLC-MS/MS. A higher total sum of phthalate metabolites commonly found in personal care products was associated with an increased risk of ever experiencing hot flashes (odds ratio (OR)=1.45; 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.07-1.96), hot flashes in the past 30days (OR=1.43; 95%CI=1.04-1.96), and more frequent hot flashes (OR=1.47; 95%CI=1.06-2.05). These data suggest that some phthalate exposures from personal care products are associated with menopausal hot flashes in women.

  8. Health in middle-aged and elderly women: A conceptual framework for healthy menopause.

    PubMed

    Jaspers, Loes; Daan, Nadine M P; van Dijk, Gabriella M; Gazibara, Tatjana; Muka, Taulant; Wen, Ke-Xin; Meun, Cindy; Zillikens, M Carola; Roeters van Lennep, Jeanine E; Roos-Hesselink, Jolien W; Laan, Ellen; Rees, Margaret; Laven, Joop S E; Franco, Oscar H; Kavousi, Maryam

    2015-05-01

    Middle-aged and elderly women constitute a large and growing proportion of the population. The peri and postmenopausal period constitutes a challenging transition time for women's health, and menopausal health is a crucial aspect in healthy and successful aging. Currently, no framework for the concept of healthy menopause exists, despite its recognized importance. Therefore, we aimed to: (i) characterize healthy menopause; (ii) identify aspects that contribute to it; and (iii) explore potential approaches to measure it. We propose healthy menopause as a dynamic state, following the permanent loss of ovarian function, which is characterized by self-perceived satisfactory physical, psychological and social functioning, incorporating disease and disability, allowing the attainment of a woman's desired ability to adapt and capacity to self-manage. The concept of healthy menopause applies to all women from the moment they enter the menopausal transition, up until they reach early and late postmenopause and includes women with spontaneous, iatrogenic, and premature menopause. This conceptualization can be considered as a further step in the maintenance and improvement of health in menopausal women from different perspectives, foremost the woman's own perspective, followed by the clinical, public health, and societal perspectives, and can be seen as a further step in delineating lines for future research. Furthermore, it could facilitate the improvement of adequate preventive and treatment strategies, guide scientific efforts, and aid education and communication to health care practitioners and the general public, allowing women the achievement of their potential and the fulfillment of their fundamental role in society.

  9. AN ONLINE FORUM ON MENOPAUSAL SYMPTOM EXPERIENCE OF WHITE WOMEN IN THE U.S.

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Aims Using a feminist approach, the study aimed at exploring menopausal symptom experience of 23 White midlife women through a six-month online forum. Background Recent cross-cultural investigations have indicated significant ethnic differences in menopausal symptoms and have challenged the universality of menopausal symptoms. Currently available cultural knowledge on menopausal experience, however, is inadequate to guide appropriate and adequate care even for White midlife women in the menopausal transition. Data source Qualitative data collected through an online forum in 2007. Method The study was a cross-sectional qualitative online forum study. A total of 23 midlife women who self-identify as non-Hispanic Whites were recruited for the study using a convenience sampling method. Seven topics related to menopausal symptom experience were used to guide the online forum for 6-months. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis involving line-by-line coding, categorization, and theme extraction. Results The experience of menopause caused women to redefine themselves within their busy daily life schedules. The women were optimistic about their symptoms, and tried to laugh at the experience to boost their inner strength and motivate themselves persevere. Many women thought that both generational and life styles differences were much more important than ethnic differences in menopausal symptom experience. In seeking assistance with the symptoms of menopause, women were not satisfied with the guidance of their physicians. Conclusion Nurses need to carefully listen to what the women themselves talked about their own experience with menopausal symptoms and help them to adequately manage and live with the symptoms. PMID:18373610

  10. Menstrual Profile and Early Menopause in Women with Down Syndrome Aged 26-40 Years

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ejskjaer, Kirsten; Uldbjerg, Niels; Goldstein, Henri

    2006-01-01

    Background: It is known that women with Down syndrome can be fertile, but it is not known whether all women with Down syndrome are fertile or sub-fertile. The age at menopause for women with Down syndrome is lower compared to women without Down syndrome. Method: A cross-sectional study of 11 women was undertaken, in which the participating women…

  11. Age at menopause, reproductive history and venous thromboembolism risk among postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Canonico, Marianne; Plu-Bureau, Geneviève; O’Sullivan, Mary Jo; Stefanick, Marcia L.; Cochrane, Barbara; Scarabin, Pierre-Yves; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To investigate VTE risk in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause, as well as any interaction with randomized HT assignment among postmenopausal women. Methods Using pooled data from the Women’s Health Initiative HT clinical trials including 27,035 postmenopausal women ages 50 to 79 years with no history of VTE, we assessed the risk of VTE in relation to age at menopause, age at menarche, parity, bilateral oophorectomy and time since menopause by Cox proportional hazard models. Linear trends, quadratic relationships and interactions of reproductive life characteristics with HT on VTE risk were systematically tested. Results During the follow-up, 426 women reported a first VTE, including 294 nonprocedure-related events. No apparent interaction of reproductive life characteristics with HT assignment on VTE risk was detected and there was any significant association of VTE with age at menarche, age at menopause, parity, oophorectomy or time since menopause. However, analyses restricted to nonprocedure-related VTE showed a U-shaped relationship between age at menopause and thrombotic risk that persisted after multivariable analysis (p<0.01). Compared to women aged 40 to 49 years at menopause, those with early menopause (age<40 years) or with late menopause (age>55 years) had a significant increased VTE risk (HR=1.8;95%CI:1.2–2.7 and HR=1.5;95%CI:1.0–2.4, respectively). Conclusion Reproductive life characteristics have little association with VTE and do not seem to influence the effect of HT on thrombotic risk among postmenopausal women. Nevertheless, early and late onset of menopause might be newly identified risk factors for nonprocedure-related VTE. PMID:23760439

  12. Predictors of Breast Discomfort among Women Initiating Menopausal Hormone Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Crandall, Carolyn J.; Markovic, Daniela; Huang, Mei-Hua; Greendale, Gail A.

    2009-01-01

    Objective To study the determinants of breast discomfort among postmenopausal women initiating menopausal hormone therapy (HT). Methods We analyzed questionnaire, anthropometric, and serum estrone data from the Postmenopausal Estrogen/Progestin Interventions Trial (PEPI), a randomized trial comparing placebo, conjugated equine estrogen (CEE) alone, or CEE with a progestogen (continuous or cyclical medroxyprogesterone acetate or cyclical micronized progesterone) among postmenopausal women. HT users could join PEPI after stopping HT for 2 months. We modeled the relation between smoking, body weight, alcohol consumption, age, quitting HT to join PEPI, physical activity and alpha-tocopherol consumption and new-onset breast discomfort at 12-month follow-up among 662 participants without baseline breast discomfort. Results The associations of new-onset breast discomfort with weight and with strenuous exercise varied by treatment assignment. Among women assigned to CEE + progestogen, strenuous exercise was associated with a 49% lower odds of new-onset breast discomfort (OR 0.51, 95% CI 0.29–0.89, P = 0.02), whereas among women assigned to placebo or CEE alone, strenuous exercise was not significantly associated with new-onset breast discomfort. Surprisingly, among women taking CEE alone, each kilogram higher weight was associated with 6% lower odds of new-onset breast discomfort (P=0.04), whereas among women taking placebo, the association was in the opposite direction (P=0.04). Adjustment for estrone level had neglible effects on odds ratios. Alpha-tocopherol intake, age, smoking, and alcohol intake were not significantly associated with new-onset breast discomfort in adjusted analyses. Conclusion Strenuous exercise and higher body weight may decrease the odds of new-onset breast discomfort among postmenopausal women initiating HT. PMID:20009961

  13. Complementary/alternative and conventional medicine use amongst menopausal women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenbo; Adams, Jon; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David W

    2014-11-01

    Large population-based studies of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional medicine use amongst menopausal women are lacking. This study helps address this gap by analysing data from a nationally representative sample of 10011 Australian women aged 59-64 years. Overall, 39% of menopausal women consulted CAM practitioners, 75% used self-prescribed CAM, 95% consulted general practitioners (GP) and 50% consulted specialists during the previous year, and 12% were current hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users. Our findings suggest that CAM is a significant healthcare option utilized by women to treat menopausal symptoms, and so requires attention from GPs and specialists. PMID:25190368

  14. Complementary/alternative and conventional medicine use amongst menopausal women: results from the Australian Longitudinal Study on Women's Health.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenbo; Adams, Jon; Hickman, Louise; Sibbritt, David W

    2014-11-01

    Large population-based studies of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) and conventional medicine use amongst menopausal women are lacking. This study helps address this gap by analysing data from a nationally representative sample of 10011 Australian women aged 59-64 years. Overall, 39% of menopausal women consulted CAM practitioners, 75% used self-prescribed CAM, 95% consulted general practitioners (GP) and 50% consulted specialists during the previous year, and 12% were current hormone replacement therapy (HRT) users. Our findings suggest that CAM is a significant healthcare option utilized by women to treat menopausal symptoms, and so requires attention from GPs and specialists.

  15. Assessment of menopausal symptoms among women attending various outreach clinics in South Canara District of India

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Nitin; Nagaraj, Kondagunta; Saralaya, Vittal; Nelliyanil, Maria; Rao, PP Jagadish

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Menopausal symptoms experienced by women are known to affect their quality-of-life. The symptoms experienced at menopause are quite variable and their etiology is found to be multifactorial. This study was hence done to assess the pattern and severity of menopausal symptoms and to find out the factors associated with these symptoms. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in various outreach clinics of Kasturba Medical College, Mangalore. Women in the age group of 40-65 years were included in the study by convenient sampling method. Data regarding menopausal symptom was obtained by interviewing each participant using the menopause rating scale questionnaire. Results: Mean age of the participants were 54.2 ± 7.2 years and mean age of attainment of menopause was 48.4 ± 4.5 years. Mean duration of menopause was found to be 7.5 ± 5.3 years. Commonest symptom reported was joint and muscular discomfort and physical and mental exhaustion seen in 94 (85.4%) participants. The mean number of symptoms reported by participants was 7.6 ± 2.8. Educated women reported significantly more symptoms (F = 2.218, P = 0.047). Somatic and urogenital symptoms were more among perimenopausal women and somatic symptoms were more among postmenopausal women. Fifty-eight (52.7%) participants had one or more severe symptoms. Severe symptoms were most among premenopausal women. Conclusion: The high proportion and severity of menopausal symptoms observed in this study group proves that menopausal symptoms are common and cannot be ignored. More of menopausal clinics are needed for awareness generation, early recognition and treatment of related morbidities. PMID:24970987

  16. Significance of Ovarian Function Suppression in Endocrine Therapy for Breast Cancer in Pre-Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Scharl, A.; Salterberg, A.

    2016-01-01

    Ovarian function suppression (OFS) for treating breast cancer in pre-menopausal women was introduced for the first time in the late 19th century as bilateral oophorectomy. It was not until the 1960s that the oestrogen receptor was identified and a test for detecting endocrine sensitivity of the breast cancer was developed. A weakness of early trials on OFS for breast cancer treatment is therefore their failure to take receptor sensitivity into account when selecting participants. A meta-analysis performed in the early 1990s first proved that adjuvant OFS significantly improved the cure rate of oestrogen receptor-positive breast cancer in pre-menopausal women regardless of whether it was carried out through oophorectomy, radiation-induced ablation or drug therapy. In the 1970s, tamoxifen was synthesized. It became one of the most important cancer drugs and today constitutes the gold standard for endocrine adjuvant therapy. Taking tamoxifen for a five-year period lowers mortality by 30 % over 15 years. Ten years of tamoxifen therapy reduces mortality even further, with increased side effects, however. Research over the past ten years has proven that for post-menopausal women, aromatase inhibitors have benefits over tamoxifen. Current trial results have rekindled the debate about the combination of OFS with tamoxifen or with aromatase inhibitors for adjuvant breast cancer treatment of pre-menopausal women. These trials have reported an improvement in disease-free survival in patients with a high risk of recurrence when they are treated with a combination of OFS plus tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors, especially in women younger than 35. However, combination therapy causes significantly more side effects, which could negatively impact compliance. Endocrine treatments administered over a period of many years show waning compliance, which tends to be only around 50 % after five years. Inadequate compliance compromises efficacy and increases the risk of mortality. For

  17. Clinical Hypnosis in the Treatment of Post-Menopausal Hot Flashes: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Elkins, Gary R.; Fisher, William I.; Johnson, Aimee K.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Keith, Timothy Z.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The use of estrogen and progesterone to manage vasomotor symptoms (i.e., hot flashes, night sweats) has declined due to concerns over their risks and there is an increased interest in alternate, effective, and low-risk treatments. This study reports the results of a randomized, controlled trial of clinical hypnosis in treating vasomotor symptoms among post-menopausal women. Methods Randomized, single-blind, controlled, clinical trial involving 187 post-menopausal women reporting a minimum of seven hot flashes per day, or at least 50 hot flashes a week at baseline between December 2008 and April 2012. Eligible participants received five weekly sessions of either clinical hypnosis or structured-attention control. Primary outcomes were hot flash frequency (subjectively and physiologically recorded) and hot flash score assessed by daily diaries at weeks 2–6, and 12. Secondary outcomes included measures of hot flash related daily interference, sleep quality and treatment satisfaction. Results In a modified intent-to-treat analysis that included all randomized participants that provided data, reported subjective hot flash frequency from baseline to week 12 showed a mean reduction of 55.82 hot flashes for the clinical hypnosis intervention (74.16%), versus a 12.89 hot flash reduction (17.13%) for the control (p<.001, 95% CI, 36.15–49.67). Mean reduction in hot flash score was 18.83 (80.32%) for the clinical hypnosis intervention as compared to 3.53 (15.38%) for the control (p<.001, 95% CI, 12.60–17.54). At 12 week follow-up, the mean reduction in physiologically monitored hot flashes was 5.92 (56.86%) for clinical hypnosis and .88 (9.94%) for the control (p<.001, 95% CI, 2.00–5.46). Secondary outcomes were significantly improved compared to control at 12 week follow-up in hot flash related interference (p<.001, 95% CI, 2.74–4.02), sleep quality (p<.001, 95% CI, 3.65–5.84), and treatment satisfaction (p<.001, 95% CI, 7.79–8.59). Conclusion Compared

  18. Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... y Cuidadores Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ... Women's Health Hormones and Health Journey Through the Endocrine System Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) Endocrine Glands and Types ...

  19. "I should live and finish it": A qualitative inquiry into Turkish women's menopause experience

    PubMed Central

    Cifcili, Serap Y; Akman, Mehmet; Demirkol, Abdullah; Unalan, Pemra C; Vermeire, Etienne

    2009-01-01

    Background While bio-medically, menopause could be treated as an illness, from a psychosocial and cultural perspective it could be seen as a "natural" process without requiring medication unless severe symptoms are present. Our objective is to explore the perceptions of Turkish women regarding menopause and Hormone Therapy (HT) to provide health care workers with an insight into the needs and expectations of postmenopausal women. Methods A qualitative inquiry through semi-structured, in-depth interviews was used to explore the study questions. We used a purposive sampling and included an equal number of participants who complained about the climacteric symptoms and those who visited the outpatient department for a problem other than climacteric symptoms but when asked declared that they had been experiencing climacteric symptoms. The interview questions focused on two areas; 1) knowledge, experiences, attitudes and beliefs about menopause and; 2) menopause-related experiences and ways to cope with menopause and perception of HT. Results Most of the participants defined menopause as a natural transition process that one should go through. Cleanliness, maturity, comfort of not having a period and positive changes in health behaviour were the concepts positively attributed to menopause, whereas hot flushes, getting old and difficulties in relationships were the negatives. Osteoporosis was an important concern for most of the participants. To deal with the symptoms, the non-pharmacological options were mostly favoured. Conclusion To our knowledge, this is the first qualitative study which focuses on Turkish women's menopausal experiences. Menopause was thought to be a natural process which was characterised by positive and negative features. Understanding these features and their implications in these women's lives may assist healthcare workers in helping their clients with menopause. PMID:19134179

  20. Relationship between psychosocial factors and health behaviours for women experiencing menopause.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Debra; Posner, Natasha

    2002-10-01

    This study investigated the psychosocial factors related to the health behaviours of women at menopause. These health behaviours included choice of intervention by women for menopause, particularly consultation of health professionals, use of hormone replacement therapy and preferred information sources. A postal questionnaire was distributed to a structured random population-based sample of 400 women in the 45-54 years age group living in south-east Queensland, Australia. Explanatory variables were: attitudes to menopause, social functioning, mental health, vitality, preventive health practices and lifestyle factors. This study found that information, preventive health practices, attitudes towards menopause, exercise, number of children living at home, years of formal education and working in paid employment, were related to the health behaviours of women at menopause. The study concludes that a number of related psychosocial factors not associated with hormonal changes may influence the health behaviours of menopausal women. It will be important for nurses, other health professionals and counsellors to decide how best to respond to these findings in consultation with the women affected by their decisions. PMID:12225353

  1. Counseling Women in Midlife: An Integrative Approach to Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huffman, Shirley B.; Myers, Jane E.

    1999-01-01

    Proposes that counselors who use an integrative approach to menopause can not only provide accurate biomedical information but also conceptualize menopause as a normative midlife transition. Provides a foundation in biomedical issues and considers how these in interaction with cultural and psychosocial factors influence the experience of…

  2. Oxidative Stress: An Effective Prognostic Tool for an Early Detection of Cardiovascular Disease in Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Mridula; Mohan, Gurinder

    2016-01-01

    Background. Menopause, a form of reproductive aging, is marked by many hormonal variations which cause imbalance in the oxidative processes resulting in onset of endothelial dysfunction leading to cardiovascular disease (CVD). We aimed to analyze the effect of oxidative stress in an early detection of CVD in all menopausal women both normolipidemic and hyperlipidemic. Methods and Results. Study included 523 menopausal women (265 CVD and 258 non-CVD). They were screened for lipid profile, serum malondialdehyde (MDA), serum LDL carbonyl protein, and serum superoxide dismutase (SOD). Pearson's correlation was observed between MDA and atherogenic index of plasma (AIP) in both normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.207; p < 0.01) CVD group as compared to non-CVD menopausal women. Significant correlation was also observed between LDL carbonyl content and AIP in normolipidemic (r = 0.650; p < 0.001) and hyperlipidemic (r = 0.248; p < 0.01) CVD menopausal women as compared to non-CVD ones. Conclusion. Strong correlation between atherogenic index of plasma and oxidative stress in CVD menopausal women reveals oxidative stress as an effective prognostic tool for an early detection of cardiovascular risk. PMID:27069688

  3. Escitalopram Reduces Hot Flashes in Non-depressed Menopausal Women: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Dobkin, Roseanne DeFronzo; Menza, Matthew; Allen, Lesley A.; Marin, Humberto; Bienfait, Karina L.; Tiu, Jade; Howarth, Jennifer

    2009-01-01

    Background Hot flashes are one of the most troubling manifestations of menopause, affecting about 80% of women. Due to recent controversies about hormone replacement therapy (HRT), many women are seeking alternative treatments. The use of antidepressants to treat hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms has been an active area of investigation. However, the majority of past research in this area has included women with significant medical or psychiatric histories that may influence treatment response. This was the first study to examine the impact of escitalopram on hot flashes, mood, sleep, and quality of life in a healthy sample of non-depressed menopausal women. Methods Twenty-five menopausal women, with no significant psychiatric or medical history, were enrolled. All women were treated with escitalopram (10-20mg flexibly dosed) for 8 weeks. The active treatment phase was preceded by a single blind placebo lead-in period. Results Over the course of the study, women reported significant decreases in both hot flash frequency and severity and improvements in dysphoria, anxiety, quality of life, and sleep. Conclusions These preliminary findings suggest that escitalopram may be a feasible and effective option for treating hot flashes and other menopausal symptoms in healthy women who might not ordinarily consider antidepressant treatment. PMID:19439155

  4. Premature Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Okeke, TC; Anyaehie, UB; Ezenyeaku, CC

    2013-01-01

    Premature menopause affects 1% of women under the age of 40 years. The women are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. There is need to use simplified protocols and improved techniques in oocyte donation to achieve pregnancy and mother a baby in those women at risk. Review of the pertinent literature on premature menopause, selected references, internet services using the PubMed and Medline databases were included in this review. In the past, pregnancy in women with premature menopause was rare but with recent advancement in oocyte donation, women with premature menopause now have hoped to mother a child. Hormone replacement therapy is beneficial to adverse consequences of premature menopause. Women with premature menopause are at risk of premature death, neurological diseases, psychosexual dysfunction, mood disorders, osteoporosis, ischemic heart disease and infertility. Public enlightenment and education is important tool to save those at risk. PMID:23634337

  5. Use of luteinising hormone-releasing hormone agonist (leuprorelin) in advanced post-menopausal breast cancer: clinical and endocrine effects.

    PubMed Central

    Crighton, I. L.; Dowsett, M.; Lal, A.; Man, A.; Smith, I. E.

    1989-01-01

    Fifteen post-menopausal patients with advanced breast cancer were treated with the LH-RH agonist leuprorelin (D-leu6-des-gly10-Gn-RH-ethylamide) given in a dosage of 7.5 mg as a monthly subcutaneous depot injection, to assess the clinical activity and endocrine response to treatment. None of the 15 patients showed an objective response to treatment, although four patients had stable disease for at least 6 months. No toxicity was demonstrated. Endocrine effects after 4 weeks' treatment were as follows: mean levels of serum gonadotrophins fell to 10% of their pretreatment values; there were no significant changes in the levels of prolactin on treatment; there was a significant decrease in the levels of serum testosterone in 12 out of 14 patients; there were no significant changes in the levels of oestradiol, androstenedione and oestrone. The lowering of serum testosterone suggests that androgens in post-menopausal women may be partly produced by the ovaries, stimulated by LH and FSH. This fall in testosterone may explain why some post-menopausal breast cancer patients in other studies have been reported to respond to treatment with LH-RH agonists, as it would decrease the substrate for the peripheral synthesis of oestrogens. PMID:2508735

  6. Cardiovascular Fat, Menopause, and Sex Hormones in Women: The SWAN Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study

    PubMed Central

    Shields, Kelly J.; Janssen, Imke; Hanley, Carrie; Budoff, Matthew J.; Barinas-Mitchell, Emma; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Powell, Lynda H.; Matthews, Karen A.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Cardiovascular risk increases in women after menopause. Mounting evidence demonstrates a role of cardiovascular fat (CF) in the pathogenesis of coronary heart disease, but no research has examined CF in relation to sex hormones or menopausal status in women. Objective: The objective was to determine the relationship between CF depots, menopausal status, and endogenous sex hormones. Design: Cross-sectional and longitudinal study designs were used. Setting: The setting included the Study of Women's Health Across the Nation (SWAN) Heart and Cardiovascular Fat Ancillary Study. Participants: A total of 456 women (mean age, 50.75 y); 62% premenopausal/early perimenopausal, and 38% late peri-/postmenopausal. Intervention: Menopausal status, endogenous sex hormones measured simultaneously with CF volumes, and circulating estradiol available 4.80 years (median) before CF measures. Main Outcome Measures: Volumes of CF (epicardial adipose tissue [EAT], paracardial adipose tissue [PAT], total heart adipose tissue [TAT = EAT + PAT], and aortic perivascular adipose tissue [PVAT]). Results: In final models, late peri-/postmenopausal women had 9.88% more EAT, 20.72% more PAT, and 11.69% more TAT volumes than pre-/early perimenopausal women (P < .05). PVAT was not associated with menopausal status. In final models, lower estradiol concentrations were associated with greater volumes of PAT and TAT (P < .05). Women with the greatest reduction in estradiol since baseline had greater volumes of PAT compared to women with the least reduction (P = .02). Conclusions: Late peri-/postmenopausal women have greater volumes of heart fat compared with pre-/early perimenopausal women independent of age, obesity, and other covariates. Endogenous sex hormones are associated with CF. Perhaps CF plays a role in the higher risk of coronary heart disease reported in women after menopause. PMID:26176800

  7. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  8. Menopausal Age and Chronic Diseases in Elderly Women: A Cross-Sectional Study in Northeast China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Yingli; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Shibin; Kanu, Joseph Sam; You, Yueyue; Liu, Yingyu; Zhang, Yangyu; Liu, Yawen; Li, Bo; Tao, Yuchun; Kou, Changgui

    2016-01-01

    Many factors affect menopausal age, and early or late onset of menopause may be associated with many chronic health problems. However, limited data are available regarding this phenomenon in the Northeast China population. For this study, 2011 elderly women were selected as a sample from participants in a cross-sectional survey performed using stratified, clustered multistage, and random sampling methods. Early menopause was more prevalent in subjects born from 1943 to 1947 (OR = 1.708, 95% CI = 1.205, 2.420) and 1933 to 1937 (OR = 2.445, 95% CI: 1.525, 3.921) and in physical laborers (OR = 1.413, 95% CI = 1.021, 1.957). Women with less than nine years of education (OR = 0.515, 95% CI: 0.327, 0.812) and who were current smokers (OR = 0.577, 95% CI: 0.347, 0.959) were less likely to have late menopause. BMIs between 25 and 30 (OR = 1.565, 95% CI: 1.152, 2.125) and greater than 30 (OR = 2.440, 95% CI: 1.482, 4.016) were associated with later menopausal age. Late menopause was positively associated with diabetes (OR = 1.611, 95% CI: 1.142, 2.274) but protective against chronic gastroenteritis/peptic ulcers (OR = 0.533, 95% CI: 0.333, 0.855). Results showed that (1) Being born in an earlier year, having a lower education, and engaging in physical labor were associated with an earlier menopausal age, while a higher BMI was associated with a later menopausal age; and that (2) menopausal age was associated with diabetes and gastroenteritis in elderly women living in Northeast China. PMID:27669270

  9. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Christina T.L.; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K.; Andrews, Jeanette S.; Arnold, Alice M.; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E.; Kerr, Kathleen F.; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K.; Musani, Solomon K.; Nalls, Michael A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B.; Bandera, Elisa V.; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G.; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S.; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L.; Goodarzi, Mark O.; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M.; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L.; Olshan, Andrew F.; Press, Michael F.; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F.; Taylor, Herman A.; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K.; Harris, Tamara B.; Henderson, Brian E.; Kardia, Sharon L.R.; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H.; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G.; Zonderman, Alan B.; Cupples, L. Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W.; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M.; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-01-01

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA. PMID:24493794

  10. Meta-analysis of loci associated with age at natural menopause in African-American women.

    PubMed

    Chen, Christina T L; Liu, Ching-Ti; Chen, Gary K; Andrews, Jeanette S; Arnold, Alice M; Dreyfus, Jill; Franceschini, Nora; Garcia, Melissa E; Kerr, Kathleen F; Li, Guo; Lohman, Kurt K; Musani, Solomon K; Nalls, Michael A; Raffel, Leslie J; Smith, Jennifer; Ambrosone, Christine B; Bandera, Elisa V; Bernstein, Leslie; Britton, Angela; Brzyski, Robert G; Cappola, Anne; Carlson, Christopher S; Couper, David; Deming, Sandra L; Goodarzi, Mark O; Heiss, Gerardo; John, Esther M; Lu, Xiaoning; Le Marchand, Loic; Marciante, Kristin; Mcknight, Barbara; Millikan, Robert; Nock, Nora L; Olshan, Andrew F; Press, Michael F; Vaiyda, Dhananjay; Woods, Nancy F; Taylor, Herman A; Zhao, Wei; Zheng, Wei; Evans, Michele K; Harris, Tamara B; Henderson, Brian E; Kardia, Sharon L R; Kooperberg, Charles; Liu, Yongmei; Mosley, Thomas H; Psaty, Bruce; Wellons, Melissa; Windham, Beverly G; Zonderman, Alan B; Cupples, L Adrienne; Demerath, Ellen W; Haiman, Christopher; Murabito, Joanne M; Rajkovic, Aleksandar

    2014-06-15

    Age at menopause marks the end of a woman's reproductive life and its timing associates with risks for cancer, cardiovascular and bone disorders. GWAS and candidate gene studies conducted in women of European ancestry have identified 27 loci associated with age at menopause. The relevance of these loci to women of African ancestry has not been previously studied. We therefore sought to uncover additional menopause loci and investigate the relevance of European menopause loci by performing a GWAS meta-analysis in 6510 women with African ancestry derived from 11 studies across the USA. We did not identify any additional loci significantly associated with age at menopause in African Americans. We replicated the associations between six loci and age at menopause (P-value < 0.05): AMHR2, RHBLD2, PRIM1, HK3/UMC1, BRSK1/TMEM150B and MCM8. In addition, associations of 14 loci are directionally consistent with previous reports. We provide evidence that genetic variants influencing reproductive traits identified in European populations are also important in women of African ancestry residing in USA.

  11. Severity and clustering of menopausal symptoms among obese and nonobese postmenopausal women in India

    PubMed Central

    Sharanya Shre, E. S.; Trout, Kate; Singh, Sonia Pant; Singh, Awnish Kumar; Mohan, Surapaneni Krishna; Joshi, Ashish

    2016-01-01

    Background: The symptoms of menopause have a negative impact on quality of life, especially in women transitioning to menopause and earlier transitions. This study was conducted with the objective of assessing the effect of obesity on the severity of menopausal symptoms and the clustering of symptoms in postmenopausal women in India. Methodology: The Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS) was used to assess the severity of menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women of Chennai, visiting Saveetha Medical College, Chennai, India. This cross-sectional study was conducted from August to November 2013 in Chennai, India. Sociodemographic characteristics, anthropometric measurements, blood pressure level, menopausal history, personal health history, and hormonal disorder issues were investigated. Results: The results have shown that 24% of the participants had complaint of mild to severe hot flushes, half of them had reported heart ailments (49%; n = 74), and disturbed sleep (48%; n = 72). The proportion of overweight/obese participants was higher in married (64%) than widows (41%), and this difference was found statistically significant (P = 0.005). There were no significant differences in MRS scores of obese and nonobese postmenopausal participants. Conclusion: There is a need of developing interactive, user friendly, technology based education module for addressing the chronic ailments of postmenopausal women. PMID:27134461

  12. Adiponectin and Metabolic Syndrome in Women at Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Mankowska, Aneta; Nowak, Lena; Sypniewska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    Obesity is associated with premature atherosclerosis, as well as with many metabolic alterations including insulin resistance, dyslipidemia and hypertension. Visceral fat accumulation, particularly, is closely associated with the development of metabolic syndrome. The menopause transition, as well as the early postmenopausal period, is associated with increase in total and central obesity. Among adipocytokines secreted by the adipose tissue adiponectin is the only one that has a protective role in the development of obesity-related disorders, such as type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. This review aims to present a role that adiponectin may play during the progress of menopause in relation to development of menopausal metabolic syndrome.

  13. 2016 IMS Recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Baber, R J; Panay, N; Fenton, A

    2016-04-01

    The International Menopause Society (IMS) has produced these new 2016 recommendations on women's midlife health and menopause hormone therapy (MHT) to help guide health-care professionals in optimizing their management of women in the menopause transition and beyond. The term MHT has been used to cover therapies including estrogens, progestogens and combined regimens. For the first time, the 2016 IMS recommendations now include grades of recommendations, levels of evidence and 'good practice points', in addition to section-specific references. Where possible, the recommendations are based on and linked to the evidence that supports them, unless good-quality evidence is absent. Particular attention has been paid to published evidence from 2013 onwards, the last time the IMS recommendations were updated. Databases have been extensively searched for relevant publications using key terms specific to each specialist area within menopause physiology and medicine. Information has also been drawn from international consensus statements published by bodies such as the IMS, the European Menopause and Andropause Society and the North American Menopause Society. The recommendations have been produced by experts derived mainly from the IMS, with the assistance of key collaborators where deemed advantageous. In preparing these international recommendations, experts have taken into account geographical variations in medical care, prevalence of diseases, and country-specific attitudes of the public, medical community and health authorities towards menopause management. The variation in availability and licensing of MHT and other products has also been considered.

  14. Women With Early Menopause Have Higher Rates of Target Lesion Revascularization After Percutaneous Coronary Intervention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Linlin; Wang, Zhijian; Liu, Xiaoli; Zhou, Zhiming; Zhao, Yingxin; Shi, Dongmei; Liu, Yuyang; Liang, Jing; Yang, Lixia; Chai, Meng; Zhou, Yujie

    2016-04-01

    Early menopause has been found to be associated with higher risk of cardiovascular disease. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early menopause on clinical outcomes for women undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). We observed female patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) undergoing PCI and found that women with early menopause (≤46 years old) were more likely to have CAD risk factors and more severe coronary lesions. During the 18-month follow-up, early menopause was associated with similar risk of death and myocardial infarction but higher risk of target lesion revascularization (TLR; 7.8% vs 5.3%, P = .003) and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACEs; 11.3% vs 9.0%, P = .007). After adjustment, early menopause was an independent risk factor for 18-month MACEs (hazard ratio [HR], 1.54; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18-2.00) and TLR (HR 1.61; 95% CI 1.21-2.13). In conclusion, for women undergoing PCI, early menopause is associated with higher risk of MACE, which is mainly driven by risk of TLR.

  15. The Quality of Life During and After Menopause Among Rural Women

    PubMed Central

    G K, Poomalar; Arounassalame, Bupathy

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The overall health and well-being of middle-aged women has become a major public health concern around the world. More than 80% of the women experience physical or psychological symptoms in the years when they approach menopause, with various distresses and disturbances in their lives, leading to a decrease in the quality of life. The aim of our study was to assess the quality of life and the impact of hormonal changes in perimenopausal and postmenopausal women and to correlate the prevalence of the symptoms with their duration since menopause. Material and Methods: A cross- sectional study was done at Sri Manakula Vinayagar Medical College and Hospital, Puducherry, from January 2012 to April 2012. Five hundred women who were in the age group of 40-65 years, who came from rural areas to our hospital, were included in the study. The women who were receiving hormonal treatment and those who refused to participate in the study were excluded. The data such as the socio-demographic information and the menstruation status, which were based on the reported length of time since the last menstrual period and the experience of the symptoms, as were tested in the Menopause Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire, were collected from each patient. The women who were included in the study were divided into three groups as the menopause transition, early postmenopausal and the late postmenopausal groups. All the data which were gathered were analyzed by using SAS 9.2. The Chi square test and the relative risk and the confidence interval calculations were applied to compare the frequencies of the symptoms among the women with different menopausal statuses. A p-value of less than 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: Mean menopausal age in the study group was 45 years. The most common symptom within study subjects were low back ache (79%) and muscle-joint pain (77.2%). The least frequent symptoms were increase in facial hair (15%) and

  16. Expect the unexpected: Endometriosis mimicking a rectal carcinoma in a post-menopausal lady

    PubMed Central

    Jakhmola, C. K.; Kumar, Ameet; Sunita, B. S.

    2016-01-01

    Altered bowels habits along with rectal mass in an elderly would point toward a rectal cancer. We report an unusual case of a post-menopausal lady who presented with these complaints. We had difficulties in establishing a pre-operative diagnosis. With a tentative diagnosis of a rectal cancer/gastrointestinal stromal tumor, she underwent a laparoscopic anterior resection. On histopathology, this turned out to be endometriosis. Bowel endometriosis is an uncommon occurrence. That it occurred in a post-menopausal lady was a very unusual finding. We discuss the case, its management, and the relevant literature. PMID:27073315

  17. Menopause Experiences and Attitudes in Women with Intellectual Disability and in Their Family Carers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chou, Yueh-Ching; Lu, Zxy-Yann Jane; Pu, Cheng-Yun

    2013-01-01

    Background: Little is known about how middle-aged and older women with intellectual disability (ID) cope with life transitions such as perimenopause and postmenopause. Method: A mixed methods approach was employed to explore the attitudes toward and experiences of menopause among women with ID and their family carers in one city in Taiwan.…

  18. Daydreaming in 40- to 60-Year-Old Women: Menopause, Health, Values, and Sexuality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giambra, Leonard M.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated midlife influences on daydreaming for 477 women from 40 to 60 years of age. Examined 42 variables including health status, symptom presence, menstruation difficulties, sexual activities, and effects of menopause. Results indicated daydreaming was more prevalent among women with various psychological symptoms. (PAS)

  19. In Behalf of Women Over 40: Understanding the Importance of the Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berkun, Cleo S.

    1986-01-01

    Interviews with 60 women aged 40-55 suggest no significant associations between a woman's menstrual status and her affective state. However, subjects strongly desired information about menopause and bodily changes. They protected themselves from exposure to the social rejection often experienced by older women but did not regret cessation of…

  20. Menopause and Hormones

    MedlinePlus

    ... Consumer Information by Audience For Women Menopause and Hormones: Common Questions Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More ... reproduction and distribution. Learn More about Menopause and Hormones Menopause--Medicines to Help You Links to other ...

  1. Hemorheological aspects in hypertensive menopausal smoker women treated with female hormones.

    PubMed

    Cicco, G; Dolce, E; Vicenti, P; Stingi, G D; Tarallo, M S; Pirrelli, A

    1999-01-01

    In postmenopausal hypertensive women (PostMHW) the erythrocyte deformability (ED) is reduced if compared with premenopausal hypertensive women (PreMHW). This might partially explain the increased incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CD) in hypertensive women after menopause. Moreover a positive correlation exists between estradiol and rheological patterns in women. If PostMHW smoke cigarettes, there is an important decrease in hemorheological parameters. On the other hand if PostMHW are submitted to an hormonal replacement therapy (HRT) they can show controversial results with an impairment if hemorheological parameters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of smoking and HRT on PostMHW. We studied four groups of subjects: Group 1: PreMHW (10 F aged 35 +/- 3 years) non smokers; Group 2: PostMHW (8 F aged 45 +/- 2 years) non smokers; Group 3: PostMHW (14 F aged 48 +/- 4 years) smokers (20 cigarettes per day); Group 4: PostMHW (16 F aged 50 +/- 2 years) smokers (20 cigarettes per day) submitted to HRT. We evaluated Elongation Index of erythrocytes under torsion force of 30 pascals (EI--30 Pa) using a new computerized instrument Laser assisted Optical rotational Red Cell Analyzer (LORCA) (Mechatronics, Hoorn, NL) acc. to Hardeman (1994) and, also with the same LORCA, Aggregation Index (AI), t(1/2). We measured the transcutaneous oxygen partial pressure (TcpO2) in subclavicular standard area using a Transcutaneous Oximeter (Microgas 7650 Kontron Instruments with Combi Sensor) and total cholesterolaemia. In PostMHW our data showed a significant (p < 0.01) impairment of hemorheological patterns and tissue oxygenation if compared with PreMHW (Group 1). In Group 3 there is a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in EI, a significant (p < 0.01) increase in AI, a significant (p < 0.01) decrease in t(1/2) and TcpO2 if compared with Control Group 1 and Group 2. Finally a further significant (p < 0.01) impairment in hemorheology and tissue oxygenation showed Group 4

  2. Augmented vagal heart rate modulation in active hypoestrogenic pre-menopausal women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Emma; Goodman, Jack M; Morris, Beverly L; Floras, John S; Harvey, Paula J

    2015-11-01

    Compared with eumenorrhoeic women, exercise-trained women with functional hypothalamic amenorrhoea (ExFHA) exhibit low heart rates (HRs) and absent reflex renin-angiotensin-system activation and augmentation of their muscle sympathetic nerve response to orthostatic stress. To test the hypothesis that their autonomic HR modulation is altered concurrently, three age-matched (pooled mean, 24 ± 1 years; mean ± S.E.M.) groups of women were studied: active with either FHA (ExFHA; n=11) or eumenorrhoeic cycles (ExOv; n=17) and sedentary with eumenorrhoeic cycles (SedOv; n=17). Blood pressure (BP), HR and HR variability (HRV) in the frequency domain were determined during both supine rest and graded lower body negative pressure (LBNP; -10, -20 and -40 mmHg). Very low (VLF), low (LF) and high (HF) frequency power spectra (ms(2)) were determined and, owing to skewness, log10-transformed. LF/HF ratio and total power (VLF + LF + HF) were calculated. At baseline, HR and systolic BP (SBP) were lower (P<0.05) and HF and total power were higher (P<0.05) in ExFHA than in eumenorrhoeic women. In all groups, LBNP decreased (P<0.05) SBP, HF and total power and increased (P<0.05) HR and LF/HF ratio. However, HF and total power remained higher (P<0.05) and HR, SBP and LF/HF ratio remained lower (P<0.05) in ExFHA than in eumenorrhoeic women, in whom measures did not differ (P>0.05). At each stage, HR correlated inversely (P<0.05) with HF. In conclusion, ExFHA women demonstrate augmented vagal yet unchanged sympathetic HR modulation, both at rest and during orthostatic stress. Although the role of oestrogen deficiency is unclear, these findings are in contrast with studies reporting decreased HRV in hypoestrogenic post-menopausal women.

  3. Correlation between the modified Kupperman Index and the Menopause Rating Scale in Chinese women

    PubMed Central

    Tao, MinFang; Shao, HongFang; Li, ChangBing; Teng, YinCheng

    2013-01-01

    Background The severity of menopausal symptoms can vary according to ethnicity and geography. Two common menopausal symptom scales, the modified Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopausal Rating Scale (MRS), are accepted internationally. In this study, we evaluated the correlation between these scales and their relevance to women in the People’s Republic of China. Methods We enrolled treatment-naïve women who visited the menopause outpatient department at a major teaching hospital in Shanghai, People’s Republic of China. The women were required to complete two questionnaires, ie, the modified KI and the MRS. We assessed the correlation between the tools using a correlation analysis. Results We enrolled 277 women of average age 51.5 ± 4.8 years. There was a strong positive correlation between total scores on the modified KI and the MRS (0.74, 95% confidence interval 0.69–0.79) and subscores for the somatic and psychological domains (0.74 and 0.77, respectively), with a moderate correlation for urogenital symptoms. According to the modified KI, 15 (5.4%) women were categorized as asymptomatic, and when using the MRS, 33 (11.9%) were categorized as asymptomatic. Women categorized as having none/minimal symptoms by the MRS were diagnosed as having mild to severe symptoms using the modified KI. The highest agreement (74%) was found when symptoms were moderate. Conclusion The modified KI and the MRS do correlate in Chinese women, but the modified KI is more likely to identify menopausal symptoms than the MRS in screening if there is doubt about the diagnosis of menopause. PMID:23569361

  4. North American Menopause Society

    MedlinePlus

    ... Menopause Guidebook MenoNotes MenoPro Mobile App MenoPause Blog Sexual Health & Menopause Online Changes at Midlife How to Navigate ... Bone Health and Heart Health Exercise and Diet Sexual Health Mental Health at Menopause Women's Health and Menopause ...

  5. Racial Differences in Bone Loss and Relation to Menopause Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Women

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Anjali; Flom, Peter L.; Rosen, Clifford J.; Schoenbaum, Ellie E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To characterize changes in bone mineral density (BMD) according to race among HIV-infected and uninfected women, and to evaluate the relationship between race and menopause-related bone loss. Methods Dual x-ray absorptiometry measured BMD on study entry and a minimum of 18 months later in 246 HIV-infected and 219 HIV-uninfected women in the Menopause Study. Linear regression analyses determined percent annual BMD change at total hip (TH), femoral neck (FN), and lumbar spine (LS) after adjusting for potential confounders. Race-stratified and HIV-infected subgroup analyses were performed. Results At baseline, mean age was 45 years, 19% of women were postmenopausal. HIV-infected women were more likely to be black (58% vs. 38%), and had lower BMI and less cigarette exposure when compared to HIV-uninfected women. Women who were perimenopausal at baseline and postmenopausal at follow-up had the greatest TH bone loss (−1.68%/yr, p<.0001) followed by those postmenopausal throughout (−1.02%/yr, p=.007). We found a significant interaction between HIV status and race in multivariate analyses of BMD change at the FN and TH. In race-stratified analyses, HIV infection was associated with TH BMD loss in non-black women. Black women experienced greater menopause-associated decline in TH BMD compared with non-black women. Conclusions The association of HIV and BMD differs strikingly by race, as do the effects of the menopausal transition on bone. Determining the extent to which the effect of HIV on fracture risk varies by race will be crucial to identify HIV-infected women at greatest risk for osteoporotic fracture, particularly as they enter menopause. PMID:25896953

  6. Menopausal Symptom Experience of Hispanic Midlife Women in the U.S.

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Lim, Hyun-Ju; Lee, Seung Hee; Dormire, Sharon; Chee, Wonshik; Kresta, Kimberly

    2009-01-01

    Using a feminist approach, we examined the menopausal symptom experience of Hispanic midlife women in the U.S. This was a qualitative online forum study among 27 Hispanic midlife women in the U.S. Seven topics related to menopausal symptom experience were used to administer the 6-month online forum. The data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Four themes were identified: (a) “Cambio de vida (change of life),” (b) “being silent about menopause,” (c) “trying to be optimistic,” and (d) “getting support.” More in-depth studies with diverse groups of Hispanic women are needed while considering family as a contextual factor. PMID:19742365

  7. El cambio de vida: conceptualizations of menopause and midlife among urban Latina women.

    PubMed

    Villarruel, Antonia M; Harlow, Sioban D; Lopez, Maria; Sowers, MaryFran

    2002-01-01

    The experience of menopause among Latina women has seldom been described. The purpose of this study was to conceptualize and contextualize the experience of menopause from the perspective of Latina women. A series of focus group sessions were conducted with postmenopausal Latina women living in a large midwestern city. Themes derived from content analysis included: (a) The primacy of health and the importance of harmony and balance; (b) El cambio de vida--something you have to go through; and (c) This time is for me: reorientation and restructuring. Rediscovery and redefinition as opposed to being defined by physical symptoms marked this life phase. Implications of study findings are discussed within the context of an emerging biopsychosocial perspective of midlife and menopause transition.

  8. A prospective cohort study of the combined effects of physical activity and anthropometric measures on the risk of post-menopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Bellocco, Rino; Marrone, Gaetano; Ye, Weimin; Nyrén, Olof; Adami, Hans-Olov; Mariosa, Daniela; Lagerros, Ylva Trolle

    2016-04-01

    Although keeping a healthy weight and being physically active are among the few modifiable risk factors for post-menopausal breast cancer, the possible interaction between these two risk factors remains to be established. We analyzed prospectively a cohort of 19,196 women who provided detailed self-report on anthropometric measures, physical activity and possible confounders at enrollment in 1997. We achieved complete follow-up through 2010 and ascertained 609 incident cases of post-menopausal invasive breast cancer. We calculated metabolic energy turnover (MET h/day) per day and fitted Cox proportional hazards models to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs). The incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer among obese women (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) was 58 % higher (HR 1.58, CI 1.16-2.16) than in women of normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI < 25). Women in the lowest tertile of total physical activity (< 31.2 MET h/day) had 40 % higher incidence of post-menopausal breast cancer (HR 1.40, CI 1.11-1.75) than those in the highest tertile (≥ 38.2 MET h/day). The excess incidence linked to these two factors seemed to combine in an approximately additive manner; the incidence among the most obese and sedentary women was doubled (HR 2.07, CI 1.31-3.25) compared with the most physically active women with normal weight. No heterogeneity of the physical activity-linked risk ratios across strata of BMI was detected (p value for interaction = 0.98). This prospective study revealed dose-dependent, homogenous inverse associations between post-menopausal breast cancer incidence and physical activity across all strata of BMI, and between post-menopausal breast cancer incidence and BMI across all strata of physical activity, with no evidence of additive or multiplicative interaction between the two, suggesting independent effects.

  9. A Microsatellite Polymorphism in IGF1 Gene Promoter and Timing of Natural Menopause in Caucasian Women

    PubMed Central

    Kaczmarek, Maria; Pacholska-Bogalska, Joanna; Kwaśniewski, Wojciech; Kotarski, Jan; Halerz-Nowakowska, Barbara; Goździka-Józefiak, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Background: Genes involved in the IGF-1 aging pathways in the human ovary can be considered strong candidates for predictors of the natural menopause timing. This study evaluates the association between a cytosine-adenine (CA) microsatellite polymorphism in the IGF1 gene promoter P1 and age at natural menopause. Methods: Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood, PCR was performed using primers designed to amplify the polymorphic (CA)n repeat of the human IGF1 gene, an allele dose effect for the most common (CA)19 repeats allele, Cox proportional hazard regression models and the Kaplan-Meier cumulative survivorship method with the log-rank test were used to determine statistical significance of studied associations in a sample of 257 Polish women aged 40-58 years. Results: Crude Cox proportional hazard regression analysis confirmed the association between the IGF1 gene polymorphism and the menopause timing (p=0.038). This relationship remained statistically significant after controlling for other menopause confounders in multivariate modelling. Out of the input variables, the (CA)n polymorphism in the IGF1 gene promoter, age at menarche and smoking status were independent covariates of the natural menopause timing (χ2 =12.845; df=3; p=0.034). The onset of menopause at a younger age was likely associated with the IGF1 genotype variant not carrying the (CA)19 repeats allele, menarche before the age of 12 and a current cigarette smoker status (HR=1.6). Conclusion: This study provides evidence that a common cytosine-adenine (CA) microsatellite repeat polymorphism in the P1 promoter region of the IGF1 gene is an independent predictive factor for age at natural menopause in Caucasian women also after adjusting for other menopause covariates. PMID:25552916

  10. The age and symptomatology of natural menopause among United Arab Emirates women.

    PubMed

    Rizk, D E; Bener, A; Ezimokhai, M; Hassan, M Y; Micallef, R

    1998-06-17

    A population-based survey of 742 United Arab Emirates women aged 40 years and over who had attained natural menopause (amenorrhea of at least 6 months' duration) investigated age at onset and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. Women from both urban and rural areas of Al-Ain City and Abu Dhabi, Dubai, and Sharjah Emirates were recruited through use of the multi-stage stratified cluster sampling technique. The median age at menopause in this sample was 48 years (mean, 47.3 +or- 3.29 years; range, 40-59 years)--significantly lower than the 50.3 year mean recorded among Western women. Median age at menopause was significantly associated with that of the mother (p 0.001) and older sister (p 0.001), parity (p 0.0001), and a history of use of oral contraceptives for more than 1 year (p 0.001). 394 women (53%) reported at least one climacteric symptom. Most common were hot flushes, reported by 47% of women. 145 women (19.5%) were currently taking hormone replacement therapy. The relatively low age at menopause in this population could reflect additional social, economic, environmental, or genetic factors that were not explored in this study.

  11. Total bone calcium in normal women: effect of age and menopause status

    SciTech Connect

    Gallagher, J.C.; Goldgar, D.; Moy, A.

    1987-12-01

    Bone density in different regions of the skeleton was measured in 392 normal women aged 20-80 years by dual photon absorpiometry. In premenopausal women, aged 25-50 years, multiple regression analysis of regional bone density on age, height, and weight showed a small significant decrease in total bone density (less than 0.01) but no significant change in other regions of the skeleton. In postmenopausal women there were highly significant decreases in all regions of the skeleton (p less than 0.001), and bone density in these areas decreased as a logarithmic function of years since menopause. Based on multiple regression analyses, the decrease in spine density and total bone calcium was 2.5-3.0 times greater in the 25 years after menopause than the 25 years before menopause. The largest change, however, occurred in the first five years after menopause. During this time the estimated annual change in spine density and total bone calcium was about 10 times greater than that in the premenopausal period. These results demonstrate the important effect of the menopause in determining bone mass in later life.

  12. Patient Satisfaction with Physician Discussions of Treatment Impact on Fertility, Menopause and Sexual Health among Pre-menopausal Women with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Scanlon, Maura; Blaes, Anne; Geller, Melissa; Majhail, Navneet S; Lindgren, Bruce; Haddad, Tufia

    2012-01-01

    PURPOSE: Pre-menopausal women with cancer are at risk of therapy-associated infertility, premature menopause, and sexual dysfunction. However, it is unknown whether oncologists adequately address these risks during treatment planning. We conducted a study to evaluate physician-patient discussions addressing the impact of cancer treatment and actual treatment effects on fertility, menopause status, and general sexual health. METHODS: A questionnaire was administered in four oncology clinics specializing in breast, gynecologic, general hematology-oncology, and blood and marrow transplantation (BMT) cancer care at a single institution. Eligible participants were pre-menopausal at the time of diagnosis and either actively receiving or within 24 months from completion of treatment. Participants completed the questionnaire at enrollment and at 1-year follow-up. RESULTS: Of the 104 eligible women, a majority were satisfied with the quality (68%) and length (66%) of reproductive health discussions, with the highest satisfaction levels in the gynecologic cancer clinic (85%) and the lowest levels in the BMT clinic (53%). Fertility preservation was desired by 20% of women, including some >40 years old. Women were more interested in discussing treatment impact on menopause status and sexual health than fertility. Rates of discussions on treatment impact on sexual health were low despite 77% of women reporting severe sexual dysfunction at 1-year follow-up. CONCLUSIONS: One-third of women are dissatisfied with the quality and length of discussions regarding the impact of cancer treatment on reproductive health. There is notably inadequate counseling on the effect of treatment on fertility in women > 40 and on sexual function in all women. Oncologists must offer better resources and improve communication on the effect of treatment on reproductive health to pre-menopausal women with cancer. PMID:22606211

  13. Total PC Activity Is Increased in Uterine Lavage of Post-Menopausal Endometrial but Not Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Sophea; Stephens, Andrew N.; Jobling, Tom W.; Nie, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial and ovarian cancers are two most common cancers affecting women in their post-menopausal years. To date, there are no simple biochemical tests to detect these cancers at early stages. Our previous study has demonstrated that the activity of total proprotein convertases (PCs) is significantly increased in uterine lavage at all stages of endometrial cancer, suggesting uterine lavage which can be obtained relatively non-invasively may provide a simple tool for the detection of endometrial cancer. However, uterine lavage may also contain ovarian-derived factors, and PCs are also reported to be up-regulated in ovarian cancer. In this study we determined whether increases in uterine lavage PC activity are specific to endometrial cancer or are also associated with ovarian cancer. PC activity was detected in all uterine lavages examined but no difference was found between women with and without ovarian cancer. On the other hand, the PC activity was significantly higher in post-menopausal endometrial cancer patients, consistent with our previous report. These results suggest that measuring total PC activity in uterine lavage is a useful tool to detect endometrial cancer specifically. PMID:27698920

  14. Total PC Activity Is Increased in Uterine Lavage of Post-Menopausal Endometrial but Not Ovarian Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Heng, Sophea; Stephens, Andrew N.; Jobling, Tom W.; Nie, Guiying

    2016-01-01

    Endometrial and ovarian cancers are two most common cancers affecting women in their post-menopausal years. To date, there are no simple biochemical tests to detect these cancers at early stages. Our previous study has demonstrated that the activity of total proprotein convertases (PCs) is significantly increased in uterine lavage at all stages of endometrial cancer, suggesting uterine lavage which can be obtained relatively non-invasively may provide a simple tool for the detection of endometrial cancer. However, uterine lavage may also contain ovarian-derived factors, and PCs are also reported to be up-regulated in ovarian cancer. In this study we determined whether increases in uterine lavage PC activity are specific to endometrial cancer or are also associated with ovarian cancer. PC activity was detected in all uterine lavages examined but no difference was found between women with and without ovarian cancer. On the other hand, the PC activity was significantly higher in post-menopausal endometrial cancer patients, consistent with our previous report. These results suggest that measuring total PC activity in uterine lavage is a useful tool to detect endometrial cancer specifically.

  15. Body Mass Index Is Positively Associated with Endometrial Cancer in Chinese Women, Especially Prior to Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yifei; Dai, Xujing; Chen, Limei; Lee, Arier C; Tong, Mancy; Wise, Michelle; Chen, Qi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Obesity is a well-known risk factor for developing endometrial cancer. However, the incidence and survival rate of endometrial cancer are associated with ethnicity and geographical area. In addition, whether menopausal status is associated with developing endometrial cancer in obese women and whether obesity is associated with subtypes of endometrial cancer have not been fully investigated. Here, we investigated the effect of BMI on developing endometrial cancer in Chinese women taking into account menopausal status and cancer subtypes. Methods: Data on 1,127 women with endometrial cancer including body mass index (BMI), age at diagnosis, parity, menopausal status and cancer subtype were collected from the largest obstetrics & gynaecology hospital in China and analysed. Results: After adjusting for age and parity, the odds for developing endometrial cancer in overweight or obese perimenopausal women was significantly higher than that in women with normal weight (OR=2.6 with 95%CI:1.9-3.5, and OR=3.5 with 95%CI: 2.2-5.4, respectively). The odds of developing endometrial cancer in overweight postmenopausal women were significantly higher than that in women who were normal weight (OR=2.4 with 95%CI: 1.8-3.1), however this was not the case for obese postmenopausal women. We further found that BMI, menopausal status, age and parity were not associated with subtypes of endometrial cancer. Conclusion: Our data demonstrate that obesity is positively associated with the incidence of developing endometrial cancer in Chinese women, with more significant effects in perimenopausal women. PMID:27326261

  16. Symptomatic Ovarian Steroid Cell Tumor not Otherwise Specified in a Post-Menopausal Woman

    PubMed Central

    Sood, Neha; Desai, Kaniksha; Chindris, Ana-Maria; Lewis, Jason; Dinh, Tri A.

    2016-01-01

    Steroid cell tumor not otherwise specified (NOS) is a rare subtype of sex cord stromal tumor of the ovary and contributes less than 0.1% of all ovarian neoplasms. The majority of tumors occur in pre-menopausal women (mean age: 43 years), in which 56-77% of patients present with virilization due to excess testosterone. An 80-year-old woman with worsening alopecia and excessive growth of coarse hair on abdomen and genital area was found to have elevated serum testosterone level (462 ng/mL). Radiologic studies were consistent with bilateral adrenal adenomas. Bilateral adrenal venous sampling ruled out the adrenal gland as origin of hormone secretion. A diagnostic and therapeutic bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy confirmed steroid cell tumor NOS of the left ovary. Post-operatively, the patient had complete resolution of her symptoms and normalization of testosterone level. Our case emphasizes the importance of a clinical suspicion for an occult testosterone secreting ovarian tumor in a symptomatic patient without obvious ovarian mass on imaging. PMID:27441075

  17. Nitric oxide synthase inhibition attenuates cutaneous vasodilation during the post-menopausal hot flash

    PubMed Central

    Hubing, Kimberly A.; Wingo, Jonathan E.; Brothers, R. Matthew; Coso, Juan Del; Low, David A.; Crandall, Craig G.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that local inhibition of nitric oxide and prostaglandin synthesis attenuates cutaneous vasodilator responses during post-menopausal hot flashes. Methods Four microdialysis membranes were inserted into forearm skin (dorsal surface) of 8 post-menopausal women (mean ± SD, 51±7 y). Ringers solution (control), 10mM Ketorolac (Keto) to inhibit prostaglandin synthesis, 10mM NG-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) to inhibit nitric oxide synthase, and a combination of 10mM Keto + 10mM L-NAME were each infused at the separate sites. Skin blood flow at each site was indexed using laser-Doppler flowmetry. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as laser-Doppler flux/mean arterial blood pressure and was expressed as a percentage of the maximal calculated CVC (CVCmax) obtained following infusion of 50mM sodium nitropruside at all sites at the end of the study. Data from 13 hot flashes were analyzed. Results At the control site, the mean ± SD peak increase in CVC was 15.5±6% CVCmax units. This value was not different relative to the peak increase in CVC at the Keto site (13.0±5 % CVCmax units, P = 0.09). However, the peak increase in CVC during the flash was attenuated at the L-NAME and L-NAME + Keto sites (7.4±4 % CVCmax units and 8.7±7 % CVCmax units, respectively) relative to both the control and the Keto sites (P<0.05 for both comparisons). There were no significant differences in the peak increases in sweat rate between any of the sites (P = 0.24). Conclusions These data demonstrate that cutaneous vasodilation during a hot flash has a nitric oxide component. Increases in CVC despite the inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis suggest prostaglandins do not contribute to cutaneous vasodilation during a hot flash. PMID:20505548

  18. Sexual Activity and Urological Morbidities Among Nigerian Menopausal Women: Findings from a Community Based Survey

    PubMed Central

    Adedokun, BO; Morhason-Bello, IO; Okonkwo, SN; Ojengbede, OA

    2014-01-01

    Background: Menopause represents the end of women reproductive career and it is at this time they begin to manifest morbidities such as urinary incontinence. Aim: To document proximate determinants of sexual activity and urological morbidities of menopausal women. Subjects and Methods: This was a community survey conducted among 254 menopausal women Mokola in Ibadan, Nigeria in 2008. Respondents were selected using cluster sampling technique. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used to obtain information on their characteristics, pattern of urological and sexual activities. Descriptive, bivariate and multivariable tests were performed with Statistical Package for the Social Sciences 15.0 (Chicago, IL USA) and statistical significance was set at P value less than 0.05. Results: The mean age of subjects was 60.3 (standard deviation = 10.2 years). About 33.5% (85/254) was still sexually active. About 68% (173/254) reported a reduction in sexual frequency since menopause while 31.5% (80/254) reported no change. The mean self-rated sexual performance score was 4.3 based on a numerical scale where 10 is the maximum obtainable. Significant predictors of reduction in sexual activity were age at menopause and education. Those between 45 and 49 years were less likely than those at 55 years or more (odds ratio [OR] = 0.21; 95% confidence interval OR = 0.05-0.87) while women with at least secondary education were thrice less likely than those with none to report a reduction in sexual activity after menopause. Less than a tenth reported urinary incontinence as a complaint. Urge incontinence was the most commonly reported followed by dysuria and stress incontinence. Less than a quarter of them had requested for a form of treatment. Conclusion: Sexual performance of Nigerian menopausal women is associated with age at menopause and education. Non-fistulous urinary incontinence is now being mentioned as a complaint contrary to the widely held view that it is part of the

  19. Roles of microRNA-221/222 in type 2 diabetic patients with post-menopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Li, M Y; Pan, S R; Qiu, A Y

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the research was to examine the expression level of microRNA221/222 (miR-221/222) in the serum of patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who are also diagnosed with post-menopausal breast cancer. We aimed to evaluate the differences in microRNA expression in patients with T2DM alone, patients with post-menopausal breast cancer alone, and patients with both T2DM and post-menopausal breast cancer. We selected 20 cases from a healthy control group, 30 cases from the group of patients with T2DM and obesity, 30 cases from the group of the patients with post-menopausal breast cancer, and 30 cases from the group of patients with both T2DM and post-menopausal breast cancer. The expression of miR-221/222 in the serum of the patients with post-menopausal breast cancer was higher than that of T2DM patients (P < 0.05), but lower than that of the T2DM patients who were also positive for post-menopausal breast cancer (P < 0.05); the expression of miR-221/222 in the serum of the T2DM patients was higher than that of the healthy controls (P < 0.05). BMI, HOMA-IR, HbA1c, and TG were positively correlated with the relative expression of miR-221/222 in the serum (P < 0.01). In conclusion, miR-221/222 participates in insulin resistance; the combination of miR- 221/222 and estrogen contributes to incidence of T2DM with post-menopausal breast cancer complications. MiR-221/222 may participate in the occurrence and progression of T2DM with post-menopausal breast cancer via down-regulation of CAVl.

  20. The menopausal age and climacteric complaints in Thai women in Bangkok.

    PubMed

    Chompootweep, S; Tankeyoon, M; Yamarat, K; Poomsuwan, P; Dusitsin, N

    1993-07-01

    Age at menopause, associated factors and related clinical symptoms were recorded in a sample of Thai women living in the Bangkok area. Interviews by trained nurses were offered to a sample of 2375 women aged 45-59 years selected at random in 19 of the 54 Bangkok Metropolis Administration health centers. Full reports were obtained from 2354 women. Fifty-six percent of the study population were classified as postmenopausal, i.e. having no vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months, 12% were perimenopausal, i.e. having irregular vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months and 31% were premenopausal, i.e. having regular vaginal bleeding during the last 12 months. The average age at menopause was 49.5 +/- 3.6 years and was not related to body weight, height, age at menarche, level of education, smoking or use of oral contraceptives. However, high parity was significantly correlated to delayed menopause. Clinical symptoms of oestrogen deficiency were reported at a significantly higher rate in the perimenopause group, but the premenopause and postmenopause groups did not differ in their complaints about any symptom, including hot flushes. The most striking effect of menopause was a dramatic loss of sexual desire in 86.9% of postmenopausal women. However, the situation did not induce any specific complaint or any request for medical support.

  1. Comparison of menopause healthcare considerations between Japanese and Filipino women living in local communities.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hiroya; Yamanaka, Rie; Senba, Naomi; Beltran, Ruth; Ladines-Llave, Cecilia; Blanco-Capito, Loudes

    2012-12-13

    To investigate the involvement of psychological/social factors in the condition of climacteric disturbance in Japan and the Philippines, we examined the menopausal symptoms and psychological/social factors in menopausal women living in local communities and compared among both countries whether differences in culture, lifestyle, etc. affected the condition of climacteric disturbance. High percentages of Japanese women reported mental symptoms, while relatively high percentages of Filipino women also experienced motor neurological symptoms in addition to psychoneurological symptoms. Japanese and Filipino women were found to have different stressors: a high percentage of the Japanese women had problems involving human relationships, such as providing nursing care, while a high percentage of the Filipino women had household problems, including husband's health and financial problems. Stress severity was associated with SMI scores in both countries. A poorer marital relationship in Japan than in the Philippines and an association between marital relationship and SMI scores were found. The present study suggests the association of differences in psychological/social factors between Japanese and Filipino women with differences in menopausal symptoms.

  2. Comparison of menopause healthcare considerations between Japanese and Filipino women living in local communities.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Hiroya; Yamanaka, Rie; Senba, Naomi; Beltran, Ruth; Ladines-Llave, Cecilia; Blanco-Capito, Loudes

    2012-01-01

    To investigate the involvement of psychological/social factors in the condition of climacteric disturbance in Japan and the Philippines, we examined the menopausal symptoms and psychological/social factors in menopausal women living in local communities and compared among both countries whether differences in culture, lifestyle, etc. affected the condition of climacteric disturbance. High percentages of Japanese women reported mental symptoms, while relatively high percentages of Filipino women also experienced motor neurological symptoms in addition to psychoneurological symptoms. Japanese and Filipino women were found to have different stressors: a high percentage of the Japanese women had problems involving human relationships, such as providing nursing care, while a high percentage of the Filipino women had household problems, including husband's health and financial problems. Stress severity was associated with SMI scores in both countries. A poorer marital relationship in Japan than in the Philippines and an association between marital relationship and SMI scores were found. The present study suggests the association of differences in psychological/social factors between Japanese and Filipino women with differences in menopausal symptoms. PMID:23660453

  3. Effect of Oestrogen on Altering the Serum and Urinary Levels of Calcium, Phosphate and Magnesium in Hysterectomised Women Compared to Natural Menopausal South Indian Women: A Case Control Study.

    PubMed

    Sonu, Yeldose; Avinash, S S; Sreekantha; Arun Kumar, K; Malathi, M; Shivashankara, A R

    2016-07-01

    Given the paucity of studies conducted to know the effect of suddenness and earlier onset of endocrinological changes associated with hysterectomy, on the serum and urinary levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate the present study was conducted to compare the levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and urine of hysterectomised and natural menopausal south Indian women. This is a cross-sectional observational study. The study included three groups of 30 healthy premenopausal, 30 early surgical menopausal and 30 natural post menopausal women. Women suffering from any endocrine disease were excluded. Analysis was performed in serum and urine sample. The levels of calcium, magnesium and phosphate in serum and calcium/creatinine, magnesium/creatinine and phosphate/creatinine ratio were estimated in urine by spectrophotometric method. Hysterectomised women (serum calcium: 8.7 ± 0.09 mg/dl; urine calcium/creatinine: 0.16 ± 0.02) have significantly low serum calcium (p < 0.001) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002) ratio and post menopausal women (serum magnesium: 2.1 ± 0.03; serum phosphate: 4.4 ± 0.16; urinary calcium/creatinine: 0.17 ± 0.02; urinary magnesium/creatinine: 0.09 ± 0.01) have significantly high serum magnesium (p = 0.016), serum phosphate (p = 0.043) and high urinary calcium/creatinine (p = 0.002), magnesium/creatinine ratio (p = 0.025) compared to healthy pre menopausal women. Post menopausal women (serum calcium: 9.1 ± 0.08) have significantly high serum calcium and phosphate compared to hysterectomised women (serum phosphate: 3.93 ± 0.11). Hysterectomised women have significantly low serum calcium, oestrogen and high urinary calcium/creatinine ratio compared to healthy premenopausal women and low serum calcium and low serum phosphate compared to natural postmenopausal women. Natural postmenopausal women had low serum oestrogen and high serum magnesium, serum phosphate, urinary calcium

  4. Orthotopic genital sparing radical cystectomy in pre-menopausal women with muscle-invasive bladder carcinoma: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Moursy, Essam ElDin S.; Eldahshoursy, Mohammed Z.; Gamal, Wael M.; Badawy, Abdelbasset A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Invasive cancer bladder is a life-threatening disease that is best treated with radical cystectomy and a suitable urinary diversion. The aim of this study was to evaluate the oncological outcome, voiding and sexual functions after genital sparing radical cystectomy with orthotopic bladder reconstruction in pre-menopausal women with bladder cancer. Materials and Methods: 18 pre-menopausal women who underwent radical cystectomy and orthotopic urinary diversion with preservation of genital organs were included for this study. The patients were followed-up clinically and radiologically to assess their oncological outcome in addition to their voiding and sexual function. Results: Mean age of the patients was 37.8 years, and the median follow-up after surgery was 70 months. One patient was lost to follow-up at 12 months post-operatively. The surgery was completed as planned in all patients, with a mean operative time of 290 min and an average blood loss of 750 mL. 14 patients were able to void satisfactorily, being continent day and night, while four patients needed clean intermittent catheterization. Sexual life remained unchanged in 15 cases, while three patients reported dysparunea. Till the last follow-up, there was no local recurrence while distant metastases were detected in three cases, two of whom died. Conclusions: Genital sparing cystectomy is a valid option for managing carefully selected women with muscle-invasive bladder cancer with good functional and sexual outcomes. PMID:26941498

  5. Menopausal Status and Physical Performance in Middle Aged Women: A Cross-Sectional Community-Based Study in Northeast Brazil

    PubMed Central

    da Câmara, Saionara M. A.; Zunzunegui, Maria Victoria; Pirkle, Catherine; Moreira, Mayle A.; Maciel, Álvaro C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To examine associations between menopausal status and physical performance in middle-aged women from the Northeast region of Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional study of women between 40 to 65 years old living in Parnamirim. Women were recruited by advertisements in primary care neighborhood centers across the city. Physical performance was assessed by grip strength, gait speed and chair stands. Menopausal status was determined using the Stages of Reproductive Aging Workshop classification and women were classified in: premenopausal, perimenopausal or postmenopausal. Multiple linear regression analyses were performed to model the effect of menopausal status on each physical performance measure, adjusting for covariates (age, family income, education, body mass index, parity and age at first birth). Results The premenopausal women were significantly stronger and performed better in chair stands than perimenopausal and postmenopausal women. Gait speed did not vary significantly by menopausal status. In multivariate analyses, menopausal status remained statistically significant only for grip strength. In fully adjusted analyses, premenopausal women had grip strength mean of 2.226 Kgf (95% CI: 0.361 – 4.091) higher than the postmenopausal group. Conclusions This study provides further evidence for the associations between menopause and physical performance in middle-aged women, since grip strength is weaker in peri and postmenopausal women compared to premenopausal, even adjusted for age and other covariates. PMID:25822526

  6. Menopausal symptoms of postmenopausal women in a rural community of Delhi, India: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Akanksha; Pradhan, Shishir Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: There is very little data on the consequence of menopause on women in South East Asia region, especially from rural India. Importance is always given to reproductive health from menarche to menopause. Menopausal health demands priority in Indian scenario due to rising population of postmenopausal women. Objectives: The aim was to determine the mean age at attaining menopause and the prevalence of various self-reported menopausal symptoms complained by postmenopausal women (40-54 years). Furthermore, to determine the prevalence of anxiety and depression among postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in a rural area of New Delhi among 252 postmenopausal women from October 2011 to March 2013. A pretested, self-designed, semi structured, interview based, oral questionnaire was used. The Statistical Package for Social Sciences software Version 21.0 (SPSS) was used for analyses. Results: The mean age at attaining menopause was 46.24 (Standard Deviation = 3.38) years. Only 4 (1.6%) postmenopausal women had premature menopause. A total of 225 (89.3%) postmenopausal women experienced at least one or more menopausal symptom(s). The most common complaints of postmenopausal women were sleep disturbances (62.7%), muscle or joint pain (59.1%), hot flushes (46.4%) and night sweats (45.6%). A total of 32.1% (n=81) postmenopausal women suffered from depression and 21.0% (n=53) postmenopausal women suffered from anxiety. Conclusion: It is necessary to critically introspect health needs of postmenopausal women and specific components can be incorporated in the national health programs. PMID:24970983

  7. Concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements in menopausal women; an approach to provider preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Gardiner, Paula; Stargrove, Mitchell Bebel; Dog, Tieraona Low

    2010-01-01

    Dietary supplements are becoming increasingly popular as therapies for symptom relief among menopause-age women in the United States. However, a large gap exists between research in the concomitant use of prescription medications and dietary supplements and provider preparedness to guide patient decision making. Many menopausal women take prescription medications, over the counter medications, and herbs and dietary supplements for climactic symptoms or other health conditions. With any drug, there is the potential for interactions. Women taking medications with a narrow therapeutic index, such as anticoagulants, anticonvulsants, and drugs for the treatment of chronic diseases, are at particular risk. Patients should be queried regarding their use of dietary supplements when starting or stopping a prescription drug, or if unexpected reactions occur. When counseling patients, one must carefully consider the risks and benefits of each supplement and medication being taken by each individual. PMID:21168291

  8. Plasma fibrinogen in women: relationships with oral contraception, the menopause and hormone replacement therapy.

    PubMed

    Lee, A J; Lowe, G D; Smith, W C; Tunstall-Pedoe, H

    1993-04-01

    Plasma fibrinogen was measured in 4837 women aged 25-64 years as part of the Scottish Heart Health Study and Scottish MONICA population surveys. The relationships of oral contraceptive use, the menopause and hormone replacement therapy were examined. Univariate analyses found that women with a history of oral contraceptive use, premenopausal women and those on hormone replacement therapy all had significantly lower fibrinogen levels than women who had never used oral contraceptives, postmenopausal women and non-hormone replacement users respectively. These differences persisted after age standardization. On multivariate analysis, menopausal status and hormone replacement therapy had independent effects on fibrinogen levels. Together with the common risk factors, 9.9% of the total variation in plasma fibrinogen levels was explained. However, less than 1% of this was from the combined menopausal and hormonal factors. These results confirm a postmenopausal rise in fibrinogen level which may be relevant to an increased risk of coronary heart disease. In addition, a protective effect with hormone replacement therapy is noted, although this was probably due to selection bias.

  9. The promise of post-menopausal pregnancy (PMP).

    PubMed

    Landau, Ruth

    2004-01-01

    Postmenopausal pregnancy (PMP) is presented as a means of alleviating women's suffering by helping them realize their wish for a child of their "own." The availability of IVF technology and oocyte donation, both necessary for PMP, create the illusion of unlimited female fertility. The aim of this paper is twofold: (1) to examine the psychosocial, health, and ethical aspects of PMP; and (2) to answer the question of whether PMP's promise of unlimited fertility really offers more personal freedom and control for women. The paper concludes that PMP seems to increase, rather than to decrease, human suffering.

  10. Efficacy of Escitalopram for Hot Flashes in Healthy Menopausal Women: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen W.; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Caan, Bette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Cohen, Lee S.; Joffe, Hadine; Carpenter, Janet S.; Anderson, Garnet L.; Larson, Joseph C.; Ensrud, Kristine E.; Reed, Susan; Newton, Katherine M.; Sherman, Sheryl; Sammel, Mary D.; La Croix, Andrea Z.

    2011-01-01

    Context Concerns for the risks of hormone therapy have resulted in its decline and a demand for non-hormonal treatments with demonstrated efficacy for hot flashes. Objective Determine the efficacy and tolerability of 10–20 mg/day escitalopram, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, in alleviating the frequency, severity and bother of menopausal hot flashes. Design, Setting and Patients Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel arm trial for 8 weeks in a sample stratified by race (African American n=95; white n=102) and conducted at 4 MsFlash network sites between July 2009 and June 2010. Of 205 women randomized, 194 (95%) completed week 8 (intervention endpoint), and 183 completed post-treatment follow-up. Main Outcome Measures Primary outcomes were the frequency and severity of hot flashes assessed by prospective daily diaries. Secondary outcomes were hot flash "bother" recorded on daily diaries and clinical improvement (hot flash frequency >=50% decrease from baseline). Results Hot flash frequency was 9.78/day (SD 5.60) at baseline. At week 8, reduction in hot flash frequency was greater in the escitalopram group versus placebo (−4.60, SD 4.28 and −3.20, SD 4.76, respectively, P=0.004). Fifty-five percent of the escitalopram group (versus 36% of the placebo group) reported >=50% decreases in hot flash frequency (P=0.009). Differences in decreases in the severity and bother of hot flashes were significant (P=0.003 and P=0.013, respectively), paralleling the decreases in hot flash frequency. Three weeks after treatment ended, hot flash frequency increased in the escitalopram group to the level of the placebo group, which remained stable in the follow-up interval (P=0.020). Overall discontinuation due to side effects was 4% (7 drug, 2 placebo). Conclusion Escitalopram 10–20 mg/day provides non-hormonal off-label treatment for menopausal hot flashes that is effective and well-tolerated in healthy women. PMID:21245182

  11. The impact of years since menopause on the development of impaired glucose tolerance.

    PubMed

    Wu, S I; Chou, P; Tsai, S T

    2001-02-01

    This is a community-based population survey carried out by the Yang-Ming Crusade to investigate the impact of years since menopause on the development of glucose intolerance in post-menopausal women. A total of 5412 women were screened with fasting plasma glucose. Those with fasting plasma glucose levels between 5.5 and 7.8 mM were given an oral glucose tolerance test. Among the 5412 women screened, 2039 (37.7%) were post-menopausal with a median age at menopause of 49 years. Pre-menopausal women showed impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) and diabetes mellitus (DM) prevalences of 3.7% and 3.1% respectively, whereas the corresponding figures for post-menopausal women were 8.4% and 17.6%, respectively. Comparing DM versus normal glucose tolerance (NGT) and IGT versus NGT as dependent variables in logistic regression analysis, menopause status was significantly associated with DM and IGT. In post-menopausal women, after maintaining body mass index, waist-hip ratio, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, family history of DM, age at menopause, cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides as controls, years since menopause was the only significant factor associated with IGT (OR = 1.05, 95%CI 1.01-1.08) and years since menopause was not associated with DM. Further analysis indicated years since menopause (OR = 1.06, 95%CI, 1.01-1.11) was the only factor significantly associated with IGT for women whose age at menopause was greater than 49 years. Our study indicates that in subjects who have not undergone hormone replacement therapy and whose age at menopause is greater than 49 years, an increase in years since menopause confers a negative influence on glucose tolerance and increases the risk of IGT by 6% for each year after menopause.

  12. Menopausal complaints in Slovak midlife women and the impact of CYP1B1 polymorphism on their incidence.

    PubMed

    Luptáková, Lenka; Sivtáková, Daniela; Cernanová, Veronika; Cvicelová, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of symptoms have been attributed to menopause, negatively influencing women's physical and psychological health. In addition to lifestyle parameters and personal history, genetic factors are considered to be the main source of this variation. This study aims to investigate the incidence of menopausal symptoms among midlife women according to their menopausal status, and to evaluate the contribution to their manifestation from CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism as a predisposing factor for menopausal symptoms. The studied cohort consisted of 299 women ranging from 39 to 59 years of age. Women were recruited from the western and middle parts of Slovakia, and all participants completed a menopause-specific questionnaire and provided blood or saliva samples for genotyping. Our results indicated that all women are at risk of typical menopausal symptoms, but there is a higher number of postmenopausal women affected than premenopausal ones. Regression analysis showed that the CYP1B1 Leu/Leu genotype can increase the experience of bloated stomach and facial hair increase in all the sampled women, while the Leu/Leu genotype may increase experience of palpitations and involuntary urination in the premenopausal women. The Leu/Leu genotype may increase the experience of nausea, bloated stomach, and vaginal dryness in peri- and postmenopausal women. We determined that women with the Leu/Leu, or Leu/Val genotypes were approximately five times more likely to suffer from vaginal dryness than the Val/Val women (OR = 4.948; 95% CI, 1.259-19.447). We therefore suggest that CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism could be involved in individual susceptibility to menopausal symptoms in Slovak midlife women. PMID:23350153

  13. Twelve-week exercise training and the quality of life in menopausal women – clinical trial

    PubMed Central

    Dąbrowska, Jolanta; Rutkowska, Magdalena; Michalski, Bogdan Adam

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The menopause transition is associated with decreased health functioning. About 80-90% of women experience mild to severe physical or physiological menopause-related complaints per year when approaching menopause. Physical activity may reduce some climacteric symptoms and improve the quality of life. Aim of the study Aim of the study was to investigate the influence of a 12-week training programme on the quality of life (QoL) in menopausal-aged women living in a rural area. Material and methods Participants were 80 women aged 40-65 years and divided into two randomly selected groups in training sessions (exercising group, n = 40 and control group, n = 40). SF36 was used to assess the quality of life in both groups before and after 12 weeks. Exercising women participated in training session 3 times a week. Each 60-minute exercise session included warming-up exercises, walking, stretching, strengthening exercises with an elastic band and cooling down exercises. Results A non-significant positive difference in all SF36 domains in the exercising group was observed. The results of the study showed a statistically significant higher QoL in the exercising group compared to the control group after 12-week training in two domains: vitality and mental health. The improvement in the quality of life in the study group was 0.19 points (role limits – physical domain, least change) and 4.96 (vitality domain, most change). Conclusions Controlled and regular exercise for 12 weeks was significantly correlated with a positive change in vitality and mental health. Sedentary women should consider modification of their lifestyle to include physical activity as it leads to improvement of their quality of life. PMID:27095954

  14. Health Promoting Lifestyle Behaviors in Menopausal Women: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Asrami, Fereshte Shabani; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Shahhosseini, Zohreh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Determining health promoting lifestyle behaviors of age-specific groups of women provides valuable information for designing health promotion intervention programs. Hence the present study was conducted to assess health promoting lifestyle behaviors in menopausal women. Methods: The present descriptive cross-sectional study examined health promoting lifestyle behaviors in 400 menopausal women admitted to health care centers in Neka city-north of Iran-from March 2015 to July 2015. Health promoting lifestyle behaviors were evaluated using a demographic characteristics form and the Health Promoting Lifestyle Profile II (HPLP II) through simple convenience sampling. Data were analyzed in SPSS version 18 using descriptive and inferential statistics at the significance level of P<0.05. Results: The mean score of participants’ health promoting lifestyle behaviors was 136.43±19.61, ranging from 88 to 194. The logistic regression test revealed women’s health promoting lifestyle behaviors to be significantly related to their place of residence (P=0.009, odds ratio=1.73) and their spouse’s level of education (P=0.027, odds ratio=0.58). The Pearson correlation test showed significant relationships between mean score of the six sub-scale of health promoting lifestyle behaviors with each other (P<0.001). Conclusion: These findings have implications for addressing the role of men to promote health promoting lifestyle behaviors among rural menopausal women.

  15. Association of Renal Function and Menopausal Status with Bone Mineral Density in Middle-aged Women

    PubMed Central

    Sheng, Yueh-Hsuan; Chen, Jen-Hau; Chiou, Jeng-Min; Tsai, Keh-Sung; Lee, Yue-Yuan; Tsao, Chwen-Keng; Chen, Yen-Ching

    2015-01-01

    The association between mild renal dysfunction and bone mineral density (BMD) has not been fully explored. It is also unclear how menopausal status and the use of Chinese herb affect this association. This is a cross-sectional study that included a total of 1,419 women aged 40 to 55 years old who were recruited from the MJ Health Management Institution in Taiwan between 2009 and 2010. Spinal BMD was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Renal function was assessed using estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and creatinine clearance rate (CCr). The multivariable logistic regression and general linear models were employed to assess the association between renal function and BMD. Stratification analyses were performed by menopausal status and use of Chinese herbs. Low CCr levels were significantly associated with low BMD [adjusted odds ratio (AOR) = 1.48, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.15–1.90]. This association was observed in premenopausal women (AOR = 1.43, 95% CI = 1.07–1.92) and in women not taking Chinese herbs (AOR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.14–1.94). CCr is a better predictor for low BMD in middle-aged women. Menopausal status and the use of Chinese herbs also affected this association. PMID:26459876

  16. Intake of Novel Red Clover Supplementation for 12 Weeks Improves Bone Status in Healthy Menopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Thorup, Anne Cathrine; Lambert, Max Norman; Kahr, Henriette Strøm; Bjerre, Mette; Jeppesen, Per Bendix

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effect by which daily consumption of a novel red clover (RC) extract influences bone health, inflammatory status, and cardiovascular health in healthy menopausal women. Design. A 12-week randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled trial involving 60 menopausal women receiving a daily dose of 150 mL RC extract containing 37.1 mg isoflavones (33.8 mg as aglycones) or placebo. Methods. Bone parameters were changes in bone mineral density (BMD), bone mineral content (BMC), and T-score at the lumbar spine and femoral neck. Bone turnover (CTx) and inflammatory markers were measured in plasma and finally blood pressure (BP) was evaluated. Results. RC extract had positive effect on bone health, and only the women receiving the placebo experienced a decline in BMD (p < 0.01) at the lumbar spine. T-score at the lumbar spine only decreased in the placebo group (p < 0.01). CTx decreased in the RC group with −9.94 (±4.93)%, although not significant. Conclusion. Daily consumption of RC extract over a 12-week period was found to have a beneficial effect on bone health in menopausal women based on BMD and T-score at the lumbar spine and plasma CTx levels. No changes in BP or inflammation markers were found and no side effects were observed. PMID:26265926

  17. Psychological and physiological evaluation of emotional effects of a perfume in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Abriat, A; Barkat, S; Bensafi, M; Rouby, C; Fanchon, C

    2007-10-01

    In the present study, we familiarized menopausal women with a pleasant smell in the skin care products, they used for 1 week and assessed whether their mood and emotions improved using behavioural and physiological tools. Eventually, we studied the effects of inhaling the familiar fragrance on physiological response of the subjects. An anhedonia questionnaire was used to distinguish the effects of the test products according to low vs. high score of anhedonia. Familiarization with the fragrance induced a modification of some physiological parameters, reflecting a relaxing effect, and these unconscious effects paralleled the conscious positive effects on mood recorded during the familiarization phase; it appeared that the effects were more prominent in subjects with higher scores of anhedonia. These results suggest that the pleasant smell of a skin care product contributes to the quality of life in a population of menopausal women with low easiness to experience pleasure.

  18. Menopausal symptoms and physical activity in multiethnic groups of midlife women: A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2013-01-01

    Aims To explore the effect of diverse types of women’s physical activity on menopausal symptoms among multiethnic groups of midlife women in the USA. Background Although physical activity is one of the most widely used non-pharmacological methods for managing menopausal symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical guidelines for women and healthcare providers because the relationship between physical activity and menopausal symptoms has been found inconsistent in previous studies. Design A secondary analysis of the data from a lager Internet survey study conducted in 2008 – 2010. Methods A total of 481 midlife women among four ethnic groups were selected from the original study. The data were collected using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey and the Midlife Women’s Symptom Index. Bivariate correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results/Findings The household/caregiving activity index was positively associated with the prevalence scores of the psychological symptoms in both Non-Hispanic Asians and Non-Hispanic African Americans. The increased sports/exercise activity index was negatively associated with the severity scores of the physical symptoms in both Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites. The occupational activity index and the active living activity index significantly predicted the severity scores of the psychosomatic symptoms in Hispanics and Non-Hispanic African Americans, respectively. Conclusion Nurses who take care of multiethnic groups of midlife women who experience menopausal symptoms should be aware of diverse types of women’s physical activities within the cultural context. PMID:23171423

  19. Mechanisms underlying social inequality in post-menopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Hvidtfeldt, Ulla Arthur

    2014-10-01

    This thesis is based on studies conducted in the period 2010-2014 at Department of Public Health, University of Copenhagen and at Department of Epidemiology and Population Health, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, New York. The results are presented in three scientific papers and a synopsis. The main objective of the thesis was to determine mechanisms underlying social inequality (defined by educational level) in postmenopausal breast cancer (BC) by addressing mediating effects through hormone therapy (HT) use, BMI, lifestyle and reproductive factors. The results of previous studies suggest that the higher risk of postmenopausal BC among women of high socioeconomic position (SEP) may be explained by reproductive factors and health behaviors. Women of higher SEP generally have fewer children and give birth at older ages than women of low SEP, and these factors have been found to affect the risk of BC - probably through altered hormone levels. Adverse effects on BC risk have also been documented for modifiable health behaviors that may affect hormone levels, such as alcohol consumption, high BMI, physical inactivity, and HT use. Alcohol consumption and HT use are likewise more common among women of higher SEP. The analyses were based on the Social Inequality in Cancer (SIC) cohort and a subsample of the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study (WHI-OS). The SIC cohort was derived by pooling 6 individual studies from the Copenhagen area including 33,562 women (1,733 BC cases) aged 50-70 years at baseline. The subsample of WHI-OS consisted of two case-cohort studies with measurements of endogenous estradiol (N = 1,601) and insulin (N = 791). Assessment of mediation often relies on comparing multiplicative models with and without the potential mediator. Such approaches provide potentially biased results, because they do not account for mediator-outcome confounding, exposure-dependent mediator-outcome confounding, exposure-mediator interaction and interactions

  20. Female Sexual Function During the Menopausal Transition in a Group of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Dashti, Mahboobeh; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women and association of sexual dysfunction with menopausal symptoms. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 151 married women with the age of 40-60 yearsold who were referred for treatmentto Department of Gynecology in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from April to July 2012, were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire.Menopause rating scale (MRS) was developed for the diagnosis and quantification of climacteric symptoms. Results: Total frequency of sexual dysfunction was 53% with the domains of lubrication, arusal and desire being commonly affected 62%, 70% and 98.5% of cases respectively. There is a relationship between severity of somatic and urogenital symptoms with sexual dysfunction (p = 0.03, p = 0.00 respectively). Conclusion: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in this period. Somatic and urogenital symptoms during the menopausal period could be a factor to maintain or intensity of sexual dysfunctions. PMID:27648093

  1. Female Sexual Function During the Menopausal Transition in a Group of Iranian Women

    PubMed Central

    Eftekhar, Tahereh; Dashti, Mahboobeh; Shariat, Mamak; Haghollahi, Fedyeh; Raisi, Firoozeh; Ghahghaei-Nezamabadi, Akram

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To determine the prevalence of sexual problems in Iranian women and association of sexual dysfunction with menopausal symptoms. Materials and methods: In this cross-sectional study, 151 married women with the age of 40-60 yearsold who were referred for treatmentto Department of Gynecology in Vali-e-Asr Hospital (Tehran, Iran) from April to July 2012, were recruited. They were evaluated concerning their sexual function in the domains of desire, arousal, lubrication, orgasm, satisfaction and pain with the female sexual function index (FSFI) questionnaire.Menopause rating scale (MRS) was developed for the diagnosis and quantification of climacteric symptoms. Results: Total frequency of sexual dysfunction was 53% with the domains of lubrication, arusal and desire being commonly affected 62%, 70% and 98.5% of cases respectively. There is a relationship between severity of somatic and urogenital symptoms with sexual dysfunction (p = 0.03, p = 0.00 respectively). Conclusion: A considerable percentage of women experienced sexual dysfunctions in this period. Somatic and urogenital symptoms during the menopausal period could be a factor to maintain or intensity of sexual dysfunctions.

  2. [The Unified National Health System and public policies: psychological care for menopausal women in the Federal District, Brazil].

    PubMed

    Mori, Maria Elizabeth; Coelho, Vera Lúcia Decnop; Estrella, Renata da Costa Netto

    2006-09-01

    This study focused on psychological care for middle-aged women in public health services in the Federal District (Brasilia), Brazil. The article discusses women's health and more specifically menopause and its place in Brazilian public health policies. The survey confirmed the lack of psychological support for menopausal women. In most cases only outpatient medical care was offered. No psychologist had been designated in any of the units surveyed to assist these women. The study concludes that this period of women's life has failed to receive psychological care in Brazil, thus neglecting the principles of the Unified National Health System. Menopausal women deserve comprehensive health care, including attention to conflicts related to biological, psychological, and socio-cultural dimensions of aging, thus contributing to the process of working through maturity.

  3. Polymorphisms of estrogen metabolism-related genes ESR1, UGT2B17, and UGT1A1 are not associated with osteoporosis in surgically menopausal Japanese women

    PubMed Central

    Yokota, Megumi; Makita, Kazuya; Akahane, Tomoko; Sakai, Kensuke; Makabe, Takeshi; Horiba, Yuko; Yamagami, Wataru; Ogawa, Mariko; Iwata, Takashi; Yanamoto, Shigehisa; Deshimaru, Ryota; Banno, Kouji; Susumu, Nobuyuki; Aoki, Daisuke

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy (BSO) is a risk factor for osteoporosis. Previous studies have reported an association between genetic polymorphisms and the risk of developing osteoporosis. However, the relationship between osteoporosis and genetic polymorphisms in Japanese women treated with BSO is not well understood. To improve the quality of life for post-BSO patients, it is important to determine the genetic factors that influence their risk for osteoporosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between gene variations of estrogen metabolism-related genes and osteoporosis in surgically menopausal patients, which may improve their quality of life. Material and methods This study included 203 menopausal women treated with BSO because of gynecologic disorders. One hundred and twenty-six women with artificial (surgical) menopause, who had undergone BSO in the premenopausal period, were compared with 77 women with natural menopause, who had undergone BSO in the postmenopausal period. The women were tested for bone mineral density to diagnose osteoporosis. Polymorphisms of estrogen receptor 1 (ESR1) and UDP-glucuronosyl transferase (UGT) genes UGT2B17 and UGT1A1 were analyzed, and their association with bone mass and osteoporosis was statistically evaluated. Results No significant association was found between osteoporosis and polymorphisms in ESR1, UGT2B17, or UGT1A1 in both groups, suggesting that BSO might be a more significant physiological factor in influencing bone mass density compared to genetic variations. Conclusions These results suggest that the ESR1, UGT2B17, and UGT1A1 polymorphisms are not genetic factors affecting osteoporosis in postmenopausal Japanese women. PMID:26528103

  4. Estrogen and progestogen use in postmenopausal women: July 2008 position statement of The North American Menopause Society

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Objective To update for both clinicians and the lay public the evidence-based position statement published by The North American Menopause Society (NAMS) in March 2007 regarding its recommendations for menopausal hormone therapy (HT) for postmenopausal women, with consideration for the therapeutic benefit-risk ratio at various times through menopause and beyond. Design An Advisory Panel of clinicians and researchers expert in the field of women’s health was enlisted to review the March 2007 NAMS position statement, evaluate new evidence through an evidence-based analysis, and reach consensus on recommendations. The Panel’s recommendations were reviewed and approved by the NAMS Board of Trustees as an official NAMS position statement. The document was provided to other interested organizations to seek their endorsement. Results Current evidence supports a consensus regarding the role of HT in postmenopausal women, when potential therapeutic benefits and risks around the time of menopause are considered. This paper lists all these areas along with explanatory comments. Conclusions that vary from the 2007 position statement are highlighted. Addenda include a discussion of risk concepts, a new component not included in the 2007 paper, and a recommended list of areas for future HT research. A suggested reading list of key references is also provided. Conclusions Recent data support the initiation of HT around the time of menopause to treat menopause-related symptoms; to treat or reduce the risk of certain disorders, such as osteoporosis or fractures in select postmenopausal women; or both. The benefit-risk ratio for menopausal HT is favorable close to menopause but decreases with aging and with time since menopause in previously untreated women. PMID:18580541

  5. Associations Between the Periodontal Disease in Women Before Menopause and Menstrual Cycle Irregularity

    PubMed Central

    Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The association between menstrual cycle irregularities and system disease has been evaluated in previous studies. However, the association between periodontal disease and menstrual cycle irregularity has not been fully investigated. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and tooth loss in women before menopause and menstrual cycle irregularity using nationally representative data. This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The analysis in this study was confined to a total of 1553 respondents over 19 years old who had not gone through menopause and had no missing values for the reproductive factors and outcome variables. A community periodontal index was greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal treatment needs. The risk of periodontal treatment needs tended to increase in the presence of menstrual cycle irregularity after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = .0481 in model 1; 0.0613 in model 2; 0.0369 in model 3; 0.0456 in model 4). The number of natural teeth of 28 did not reach statistically significant differences (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.2204 in model 1; 0.2373 in model 2; 0.2814 in model 3; 0.2609 in model 4). Menstrual cycle irregularity was positively associated with the risk of periodontal treatment needs in Korean women before menopause. However, there was no significant association between tooth loss and menstrual cycle irregularity. Menstrual cycle irregularity may be considered to be a potential risk indicator for periodontal treatment needs in Korean women before menopause. PMID:26871840

  6. Nutrition and bone health in women after the menopause.

    PubMed

    Rizzoli, René; Bischoff-Ferrari, Heike; Dawson-Hughes, Bess; Weaver, Connie

    2014-11-01

    Osteoporosis affects one out of three postmenopausal women. Their remaining lifetime risk of fragility fractures exceeds that of breast cancer. The risk of osteoporosis and/or fragility fractures can be reduced through healthy lifestyle changes. These include adequate dietary intakes of calcium, vitamin D and protein, regular weight-bearing exercise, reduction in alcohol intake and smoking cessation. European guidance for the diagnosis and management of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women recommends a daily intake of at least 1000 mg/day for calcium, 800 IU/day for vitamin D and 1 g/kg body weight of protein for all women aged over 50 years. The development of programs that encourage lifestyle changes (in particular balanced nutrient intakes) are therefore essential for the reduction of osteoporosis risk.

  7. Research posts for women

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) is accepting proposals for its Visiting Professorships for Women (VPW) program. Under this program, female scientists and engineers who are experienced in independent research can undertake advanced research as visiting professors at universities or research institutions that have the necessary facilities. In addition to research, each visiting professor takes on lecturing, counseling, and “other interactive activities” intended to increase the visibility of female scientists at the host institution and to encourage other women to pursue careers in science and engineering, according to NSF.

  8. Dealing with premature menopause in women at high-risk for hereditary genital and breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Nappi, Rossella E; Cassani, Chiara; Rossi, Margherita; Zanellini, Francesca; Spinillo, Arsenio

    2016-10-01

    Risk-reducing salpingo-oophorectomy is the mainstay of ovarian cancer prevention in BRCA mutation carriers. However, premature menopause exerts many short and long-term consequences on the individual health that are preventable with a tailored approach. Even though our level of knowledge on BRCA1 and -2 mutation carriers is still in its infancy, the basic principles governing the management of menopausal symptomatology and the prevention of diseases should be applied, including the use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT), approximately until the age of 50. Indeed, short-term HRT significantly ameliorate quality of life and symptoms associated to vulvo-vaginal atrophy, without displaying an adverse effect on oncologic outcomes in BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutation carriers without a personal history of breast cancer. Premature menopause affects significantly also bone health, cardiovascular parameters and cognition. A standard of care is required in order to identify those women at higher risk of developing chronic conditions at midlife and beyond. Appropriate counseling on both hormonal and non-hormonal treatments is an essential part of a shared decision on the most effective management of women at high-risk for hereditary genital and breast cancer. PMID:26928421

  9. Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity across the life course and risk of pre- and post-menopausal breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Lindsay C; Janssen, Ian; Richardson, Harriet; Lai, Agnes S; Spinelli, John J; Aronson, Kristan J

    2013-06-01

    Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) reduces breast cancer risk, although the effects of MVPA in different settings across the life course and how they may differ by menopausal status are unclear. This gap was addressed using data from a case-control study of 1,110 incident breast cancer cases and 1,172 cancer-free controls, frequency matched by age, from Vancouver and Kingston, Canada. In Vancouver, cases were recruited from the British Columbia Cancer Registry and controls from the Screening Mammography Program of British Columbia and in Kingston cases and controls were recruited from a breast assessment center. Lifetime leisure-time, household, and occupational MVPA energy expenditures were assessed in an open-ended questionnaire and mean weekly metabolic equivalent hours (MET-h/week) were calculated for the age periods 12-17, 18-34, 35-49, and ≥50 years and for the total lifetime. Odds ratios were estimated separately for pre- and for post-menopausal women using unconditional logistic regression. Among post-menopausal women, each of >22.9 MET-h/week of mean lifetime leisure-time MVPA (equivalent to running for 3 h) and >61.1 MET-h/week of mean lifetime household MVPA (equivalent to 24 h of moderate household work) reduced breast cancer risk by 40 %, compared to 0 MET-h/week of each. The respective ORs were 0.63 (95 % CI 0.42-0.94) and 0.58 (95 % CI 0.43-0.79). Among post-menopausal women, leisure-time MVPA after age 35 was more strongly associated with reduced breast cancer risk than MVPA in early life, while household MVPA was associated with reduced risk at all adulthood age periods. The weekly volume of leisure-time MVPA required to reduce post-menopausal breast cancer risk was consistent with amount recommended in the World Cancer Research Fund/American Institute for Cancer Research guidelines for cancer prevention.

  10. Effects of stretching on menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Kai, Yuko; Nagamatsu, Toshiya; Kitabatake, Yoshinori; Sensui, Hiroomi

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Exercise may help alleviate menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged women, but sufficient evidence does not currently exist to fully support this theory. Whereas frequent moderate- to vigorous-intensity exercise may be associated with the risk of menopausal hot flashes, light-intensity exercise, such as stretching, is not likely to increase the occurrence of hot flashes. Little is, however, known about the effects of light-intensity exercise on menopausal and depressive symptoms. We examined the effects of a 3-week stretching program on the menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. Methods: Forty Japanese women, aged 40 to 61 years, were recruited (mean age, 51.1 ± 7.3 y). The participants were randomly assigned to either a stretching or a control group. The stretching group (n = 20) participated in a 3-week intervention program that involved 10 minutes of daily stretching, just before bedtime. The control group (n = 20) was assigned to a waiting list. Menopausal symptoms were evaluated using the Simplified Menopausal Index, which measures vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Self-Rating Depression Scale. Results: The compliance rate was 75.8% during the 3-week intervention program. The total Simplified Menopausal Index scores, including the vasomotor, psychological, and somatic symptoms, and the Self-Rating Depression Scale scores significantly decreased in the stretching group compared with that in the control group. No adverse events, including increased hot flashes, were reported by the participants during the study period. Conclusions: These findings suggest that 10 minutes of stretching before bedtime decreases menopausal and depressive symptoms in middle-aged, Japanese women. PMID:27300113

  11. Yoga and menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Vaze, Nirmala; Joshi, Sulabha

    2010-07-01

    With increased life expectancy, today, women spend one-third of their life after menopause. Thus more attention is needed towards peri- and post-menopausal symptoms. Estrogen replacement therapy is the most effective treatment, however, it has its own limitations. The present need is to explore new options for the management of menopausal symptoms. Yogic life style is a way of living which aims to improve the body, mind and day to day life of individuals. The most commonly performed Yoga practices are postures (asana), controlled breathing (pranayama), and meditation (dhyana). Yoga has been utilized as a therapeutic tool to achieve positive health and control and cure diseases. The exact mechanism as to how Yoga helps in various disease states is not known. There could be neuro-hormonal pathways with a selective effect in each pathological situation. There have been multiple studies that have combined the many aspects of Yoga into a general Yoga session in order to investigate its effects on menopausal symptoms. Integrated approach of Yoga therapy can improve hot flushes and night sweats. There is increasing evidence suggesting that even the short-term practice of Yoga can decrease both psychological and physiological risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies conclude that our age old therapy, Yoga, is fairly effective in managing menopausal symptoms.

  12. Effect of Serum Lipoprotein (a) [Lp(a)] in Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Bhakta, S K; Sarker, A

    2016-04-01

    The behavior of LP during the menopausal trinities and their relationship with sex hormones and body fat distribution is still unclear. The aim of this case control study was to estimate the serum lipoprotein (a) in postmenopausal women and women in reproductive age group and comparison of the above mention serum lipids between the two groups and was carried out in the Department of Biochemistry, Dhaka Medical College (DMC), Dhaka, in co-operation with the Department of Immunology, Bangladesh Institute of Research and Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka from July-2005 to June 2006. A total number of 70 women were selected. Selected women were grouped as Group A and Group B. In Group A 30 postmenopausal women were selected with age range 55-70 years. In Group B, 40 women within reproductive age were selected. Group B was again divided into two groups - Group B1 & Group B2 according to their ages. In Group B1 20 women were selected with age range 25-35 years, and in Group B2 another 20 women were selected with age range 36-45 years. Serum lipoprotein (a) or Lp(a) and lipid profile of all groups were measured. Mean sLp(a) concentration were compared between groups by" Mann Whitney U" test. Mean concentrations of every individual components of lipid profile (sTAG, sTc, sLDL & sHDL) were compared with different groups. sLp(a) concentration of Group A compared to Group B1 was found to be significantly higher (p<0.001). In the same way mean serum Lp(a) concentration of Group A compared to Group B2 was also significantly higher (p<0.001). Mean sLp(a) concentration of B1 compared B2 did not differ significantly. Mean values of lipid profiles were slightly elevated in Group A compared to Group B1 and Group B2 except sHDL-c level. Mean concentrations HDL-c was significantly lower in Group A compared to Group B1 and Group B2. Thus the present study has revealed that there is increased Lp(a) in menopause & decreased HDL in menopause

  13. The effects of calcitriol therapy on serum interleukin-1, interleukin-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha concentrations in post-menopausal patients with osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Inanir, A; Ozoran, K; Tutkak, H; Mermerci, B

    2004-01-01

    Seventy post-menopausal women with osteoporosis were randomized into two groups: 40 patients received calcitriol (0.5 microg/day) and calcium (1000 mg/day); and 30 control patients received calcium (1000 mg/day) alone. Thirty healthy women formed the healthy control group. Bone mineral density (BMD) and serum interleukin (IL)-1, IL-6 and tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) concentrations were measured at baseline and after 6 months of treatment. Calcitriol treatment for 6 months significantly increased BMD and reduced serum IL-1 and TNF-alpha concentrations compared with no significant changes in patients treated with calcium alone. Both treatments increased serum calcium and decreased parathyroid hormone concentrations. The healthy control group had a significantly lower IL-6 concentration than the post-menopausal women with osteoporosis. We have shown that calcitriol was an effective treatment for osteoporosis. Significant reductions in serum IL-1 and TNF-alpha concentrations suggest that, in addition to increasing the absorption of calcium, calcitriol may directly affect bone metabolism via cytokines.

  14. The Availability of Beneficial Insects-originated Materials on Women's Health following Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Sun Shin; Song, Ji Ae; Baek, Hyekyung; Hwang, Eunmi; Kim, Tae-Hee; Lee, Hye-Hyeog

    2015-01-01

    Human health problems due to long life are becoming major issues in society, and in particular greater interest collected on women's health after menopause. Many substances can be introduced to women's health, however, materials from the substances have not shown all of the safety and efficacy properties that are not easily found. Currently, it is known about the effects of the disease on the female insect-derived material that is capable of overcoming this problem significantly. When using the insect-derived material through the results of several studies suggest that it is possible to solve a hormonal imbalance and nutritional imbalance in the elderly. Here, we'd like to try to dissertate about the new trends for women's health improvement using novel materials-derived from insects. PMID:26793676

  15. Menopause, local biologies, and cultures of aging.

    PubMed

    Lock, M; Kaufert, P

    2001-01-01

    Menopause marks the end of menstruation, once generally accepted as the closure of women's reproductive lives. The current medical view of menopause, however, is as a pathological event with its own distinct set of symptoms and diseases. Researchers have described women as facing a dramatic increase in the risk of heart disease, osteoporosis, stroke, and Alzheimer's, all as the result of the impact of changing hormone levels, particularly the decline in estrogen. The clinical literature has interpreted these findings in terms of the absolute necessity of replacing these lost hormones for all women who are menopausal regardless of any other physiological, social, or cultural characteristic they might possess. Using research done in Japan, Canada, and the United States, this paper challenges the notion of a universal menopause by showing that both the symptoms reported at menopause and the post-menopause disease profiles vary from one study population to the next. For most of the symptoms commonly associated with menopause in the medical literature, rates are much lower for Japanese women than for women in the United States and Canada, although they are comparable to rates reported from studies in Thailand and China. Mortality and morbidity data from these same societies are used to show that post-menopausal women are also not equally at risk for heart disease, breast cancer, or osteoporosis. Rather than universality, the paper suggests that it is important to think in terms of "local biologies", which reflect the very different social and physical conditions of women's lives from one society to another. PMID:11400220

  16. Investigation of the relationship between personality characteristics and vasomotor symptoms in menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Ghorbani, Mahboubeh; Azhari, Sedigheh; Esmaily, Habib Allah; GhanbariHashemabadi, Bahram Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background: Research demonstrates that most of the menopausal symptoms and problems are the reflection of individual and social circumstances rather than the endocrine events of the menopause. As majority of women live 30 years or more through postmenopausal period, treatment and following up their problems during this period is among the main duties of a midwife. The aim of this study is to determine the relationship between personality traits and vasomotor symptoms in postmenopausal women. Materials and Methods: This correlation study was conducted on 400 postmenopausal women referring to the training maternity centers of Mashhad, Iran. Subjects were selected through simple sampling method and filled NEO Five-Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI (questionnaire. Their daily records of hot flashes and night sweats were also collected. NEO-FFI questionnaire assesses the five personality aspects of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, conscientiousness, and agreeableness. After the data were collected, they were analyzed by Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients, Mann-Whitney, Kruskal-Wallis, and linear regression statistical tests. P < 0.05 was considered as a statistically significant value. Results: Most of the women were in average level of personality traits. Among the aspects of personality traits, there was a significant correlation between intensity of hot flashes (P = 0.041) and night sweats (P = 0.028), and conscientiousness. Conclusions: According to the results of the study, during treatment of the vasomotor symptoms, a midwife should pay close attention to the personality of postmenopausal women to achieve an effective treatment. These women should also be referred to a psychologist, if needed. PMID:27563331

  17. Difference in Leukocyte Composition between Women before and after Menopausal Age, and Distinct Sexual Dimorphism

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Chang; Yang, Peixuan; Ye, Shu; Tan, Xuerui

    2016-01-01

    There are sex differences in many inflammatory and immune diseases, and the differences tend to diminish after menopause. The underlying reasons are unclear, but sex hormone levels are likely to be an important factor. Blood leukocyte count and composition provide an indicator of the inflammatory and immune status of an individual. We performed a cross-sectional analysis of blood leukocyte data from 46,879 individuals (26,212 men and 20,667 women, aged 18 to 93 years) who underwent a routine health checkup. In women aged around 50 years, neutrophil percentage (NE%) dropped whilst lymphocyte percentage (LY%) rose. Accordingly, women before age 50 had significantly higher NE%, lower LY%, and higher neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR) than women of 51–70 years of age (p = 1.35×10−82, p = 5.32×10−100, and p = 1.25×10−26, respectively). In age groups of <50 years, women had higher NE%, lower LY% and higher NLR than men (p = 1.82×10−206, p = 1.46×10−69, and p = 2.30×10−118, respectively), whereas in age groups of >51 years, it was the reverse (p = 1.92×10−15, p = 1.43×10−84, and p = 1.51×10−48, respectively). These results show that blood leukocyte composition differs between women before and after menopausal age, with distinct sexual dimorphism. PMID:27657912

  18. Stress, menopausal status and nocturnal blood pressure dipping patterns among hypertensive women

    PubMed Central

    Routledge, Faye S; McFetridge-Durdle, Judith A; Dean, CR

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A less than 10% decline in blood pressure during the night is known as a nondipping blood pressure (BP) pattern. Nondipping BP has been shown to be associated with target organ damage and poorer cardiovascular outcomes. Additionally, some evidence suggests that hypertensive nondipping women are at greater risk for target organ damage than hypertensive nondipping men. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether stress, demographics, menopausal status or sleep quality are associated with nondipping BP among hypertensive women. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was used to describe the relationship between stress and dipping status among a sample of hypertensive women and to describe the sample by age, ethnicity, marital status, menopausal status, current medications and sleep quality. RESULTS: The study sample consisted of 47 women (mean [± SD] age 57±13.9 years) with essential or office hypertension who underwent 24 h ambulatory BP monitoring, and completed stress and sleep quality measurements. Thirty-one women (66%) were classified as dippers and 16 (34%) were classified as nondippers. Nondippers were older (P=0.04), postmenopausal (P=0.003) and had lower stress scores (P=0.02) than their dipper counterparts. Postmenopausal status significantly predicted nondipping (OR 16; 95% CI 1.9 to 136.4). CONCLUSION: These findings were of interest given that some women had a nondipping BP pattern and significantly lower stress scores. It is possible that there are fundamentally different physiological mechanisms that explain this nondipping phenomenon. In the future, the identification of specific hemodynamic mechanisms associated with nondipping could potentially influence the choice of antihypertensive treatment regimens for nondipper hypertensive patients. PMID:19536383

  19. Impact of Weight Loss on Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin in Overweight-to-Obese Post Menopausal Breast Cancer Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Henry J.; Sedlacek, Scot M.; Wolfe, Pamela; Paul, Devchand; Lakoski, Susan G.; Playdon, Mary C.; McGinley, John N.; Matthews, Shawna B.

    2015-01-01

    Women who are obese at the time of breast cancer diagnosis have higher overall mortality than normal weight women and some evidence implicates adiponectin and leptin as contributing to prognostic disadvantage. While intentional weight loss is thought to improve prognosis, its impact on these adipokines is unclear. This study compared the pattern of change in plasma leptin and adiponectin in overweight-to-obese post-menopausal breast cancer survivors during weight loss. Given the controversies about what dietary pattern is most appropriate for breast cancer control and regulation of adipokine metabolism, the effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate pattern was evaluated using a non-randomized, controlled study design. Anthropometric data and fasted plasma were obtained monthly during the six-month weight loss intervention. While leptin was associated with fat mass, adiponectin was not, and the lack of correlation between leptin and adiponectin concentrations throughout weight loss implies independent mechanisms of regulation. The temporal pattern of change in leptin but not adiponectin was affected by magnitude of weight loss. Dietary pattern was without effect on either adipokine. Mechanisms not directly related to dietary pattern, weight loss, or fat mass appear to play dominant roles in the regulation of circulating levels of these adipokines. PMID:26132992

  20. Impact of Weight Loss on Plasma Leptin and Adiponectin in Overweight-to-Obese Post Menopausal Breast Cancer Survivors.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Henry J; Sedlacek, Scot M; Wolfe, Pamela; Paul, Devchand; Lakoski, Susan G; Playdon, Mary C; McGinley, John N; Matthews, Shawna B

    2015-07-01

    Women who are obese at the time of breast cancer diagnosis have higher overall mortality than normal weight women and some evidence implicates adiponectin and leptin as contributing to prognostic disadvantage. While intentional weight loss is thought to improve prognosis, its impact on these adipokines is unclear. This study compared the pattern of change in plasma leptin and adiponectin in overweight-to-obese post-menopausal breast cancer survivors during weight loss. Given the controversies about what dietary pattern is most appropriate for breast cancer control and regulation of adipokine metabolism, the effect of a low fat versus a low carbohydrate pattern was evaluated using a non-randomized, controlled study design. Anthropometric data and fasted plasma were obtained monthly during the six-month weight loss intervention. While leptin was associated with fat mass, adiponectin was not, and the lack of correlation between leptin and adiponectin concentrations throughout weight loss implies independent mechanisms of regulation. The temporal pattern of change in leptin but not adiponectin was affected by magnitude of weight loss. Dietary pattern was without effect on either adipokine. Mechanisms not directly related to dietary pattern, weight loss, or fat mass appear to play dominant roles in the regulation of circulating levels of these adipokines. PMID:26132992

  1. An Evaluation of a Health Education Intervention for Mid-Aged Women: Five Year Follow-up of Effects upon Knowledge, Impact of Menopause and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, Myra; O'Dea, Irene

    1999-01-01

    Discusses an evaluation of the long-term impact of a health education intervention for premenopausal women (N=86). Five years after the intervention questionnaire results showed that greater knowledge of menopause and fewer symptoms attributed to menopause. The evaluation was positive in terms of increasing knowledge and helping women to deal with…

  2. Exercise through Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuhr, Robyn M.

    2002-01-01

    Menopause is associated with many different health effects and symptoms. This paper explains that regular exercise can play a critical role in protecting health and battling the increased risk of cardiovascular disease, osteoporosis, pelvic floor atrophy, and joint stiffness associated with menopause. Exercise programs for menopausal women should…

  3. Cardiovascular Disease and Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Dosi, Rupal; Bhatt, Nikita; Shah, Priyanki; Patell, Rushad

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the study was to study the abnormalities in the cardiovascular profile in postmenopausal Indian women and to compare the same with the cardiovascular profile of pre menopausal Indian women belonging to the same age group; taken as controls. The goal was to throw some light on the cardiovascular risk in postmenopausal women of the Indian population as this population is thought to be at higher risk than their western counterparts and significant studies of the same kind in this population have been few. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional comparative study on 100 women who were either postmenopausal or premenopausal and were between the age group of 40 to 55 years was carried out over a period of ten months at our hospital. The variations in the cardiovascular profile between both groups were studied. All the women were subjected to a detailed history, thorough examination, investigations and imaging studies. Results: The evaluation revealed that Coronary Artery Disease (CAD), hypertension, abnormal Body Mass Index (BMI) and abnormal Waist Hip Ratio (WHR) were significantly higher in the postmenopausal group as compared to the premenopausal group. The post menopausal women had significantly higher prevalence of abnormal lipid profiles as compared to their premenopausal counterparts. The postmenopausal women with a normal lipid profile also had increased prevalence of CAD and SAHT, which emphasizes the non-lipid cardiovascular benefits of estrogen. Conclusion: Thus, we can conclude that cardiovascular disease was more common in postmenopausal women of age group 40-55 years as compared to those not yet achieved menopause in a population of western Indian women. And this risk was significantly associated with central obesity, an abnormal lipid profile and the postmenopausal state in itself. PMID:24701484

  4. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Feng; Xiong Donghai; Wang Wei; Shen Hui; Xiao Peng; Yang Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng Hongwen . E-mail: dengh@umkc.edu

    2006-10-06

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women.

  5. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2006-10-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values=0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value=0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  6. HDC gene polymorphisms are associated with age at natural menopause in Caucasian women

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Xiong, Dong-Hai; Wang, Wei; Shen, Hui; Xiao, Peng; Yang, Fang; Recker, Robert R.; Deng, Hong-Wen

    2007-01-01

    Histidine decarboxylase gene (HDC) encodes histidine decarboxylase which is the crucial enzyme for the biosynthesis of histidine. Studies have shown that histamine is likely to be involved in the regulation of reproduction system. To find the possible correlation between HDC gene and AANM (age at natural menopause), we selected 265 postmenopausal women from 131 nuclear families and performed a transmission disequilibrium test. Significant within-family associations with AANM for SNP rs854163 and SNP rs854158 of HDC gene were observed (P values = 0.0018 and 0.0197, respectively). After 1000 permutations, SNP rs854163 still remained significant within-family association with AANM. Consistently, we also detected a significant within-family association between haplotype block 2 (defined by SNP rs854163 and rs860526) and AANM in the haplotype analyses (P value = 0.0397). Our results suggest that the HDC gene polymorphisms are significantly associated with AANM in Caucasian women. PMID:16919600

  7. Cognitive effects of chemotherapy-induced menopause in breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Vearncombe, Katharine J; Rolfe, Margaret; Andrew, Brooke; Pachana, Nancy A; Wright, Margaret; Beadle, Geoffrey

    2011-11-01

    This study examined whether chemotherapy-induced menopause affects cognitive functioning in women with early breast cancer. The neuropsychological performance of 121 breast cancer patients (age M=49.62, SD=8.11, range=25.25-67.92) treated with chemotherapy was assessed pre-chemotherapy, as well as 1, 6, and 18 months post-chemotherapy completion. Linear mixed modeling was used to evaluate the data. Type of menopause (pre, chemotherapy-induced, and post menopause) was found to significantly interact with cognitive performance on two cognitive variables. Specifically, chemotherapy-induced menopausal women did not show any significant changes in performance on an abstract reasoning task, while the pre-menopausal and post-menopausal groups significantly improved over time. A significant interaction on a test of finger dexterity and coordination was also found, although inspection of the results indicated that this was due to a significant improvement in the pre-menopausal groups at 6 months post chemotherapy. After chemotherapy most cognitive variables showed improvements over time, although two indicators of verbal memory showed significant declines immediately after chemotherapy, with improvement by 18 months post completion. The current study found little evidence to suggest that chemotherapy-induced menopause broadly affects cognitive functioning after treatment administration. However, longer follow-up assessments are warranted to assess the long-term effects of combined chemotherapy and endocrine treatment.

  8. Post-menopausal bleeding: a rare presentation of metastatic uveal melanoma.

    PubMed

    Coutts, Michael A; Borthwick, Nicola J; Hungerford, John L; Cree, Ian A

    2006-01-01

    Uveal melanoma differs from cutaneous melanoma in many ways, including its pattern of metastasis, and exhibits latency with clinical evidence of metastasis sometimes appearing many years after primary diagnosis. Most patients develop metastasis within the liver, but some may present with metastasis to other sites. We report a case of uveal melanoma that presented with post-menopausal bleeding due to metastasis. Further investigation revealed widespread metastatic disease and the patient was not fit for chemotherapy. She died two months after presentation: autopsy revealed metastases in many sites, including the uterus, right ovarian fibroma, kidney, mesentery, liver, lung, thyroid, bone marrow and skin. The immediate cause of death was cardiac tamponade due to a malignant effusion secondary to cardiac metastasis. This case illustrates the widespread metastatic potential of uveal melanoma and highlights the potential for unusual presentation of metastatic disease from this eye tumor. PMID:16998600

  9. Electrospun polyurethane-dextran nanofiber mats loaded with Estradiol for post-menopausal wound dressing.

    PubMed

    Unnithan, Afeesh Rajan; Sasikala, Arathyram Ramachandra Kurup; Murugesan, Priya; Gurusamy, Malarvizhi; Wu, Dongmei; Park, Chan Hee; Kim, Cheol Sang

    2015-01-01

    Post-menopausal wound care management is a substantial burden on health services, since there are an increased number of elderly populations linked with age-related delayed wound healing. The controlled estrogen replacement can accelerate healing of acute cutaneous wounds, linked to its potent anti-inflammatory activity. The electrospinning technique can be used to introduce the desired therapeutic agents to the nanofiber matrix. So here we introduce a new material for wound tissue dressing, in which a polyurethane-dextran composite nanofibrous wound dressing material loaded with β-estradiol was obtained through electrospinning. Dextran can promote neovascularization and skin regeneration in chronic wounds. This study involves the characterization of these nanofibers and analysis of cell growth and proliferation to determine the efficiency of tissue regeneration on these biocomposite polymer nanofibrous scaffolds and to study the possibility of using it as a potential wound dressing material in the in vivo models. PMID:25748849

  10. Effects of acute caffeine ingestion and menopause on sulfate homeostasis in women.

    PubMed

    Benincosa, L J; Sagawa, K; Massey, L K; Morris, M E

    1995-01-01

    Inorganic sulfate is a physiological anion which is utilized in the metabolism of both endogenous compounds and xenobiotics. Its homeostasis is maintained predominantly by facilitated reabsorptive processes in the kidneys. The objectives of the present investigation were to evaluate the effects of menopausal status and caffeine ingestion on the serum concentrations and clearance of inorganic sulfate. Thirty-nine women who were classified as premenopausal, postmenopausal with or without estrogen treatment, and postmenopausal with osteoporosis participated in the study. The women were studied on two separate occasions following the ingestion of a decaffeinated beverage to which 6 mg caffeine/kg lean body mass or no caffeine was added. All women were habitual caffeine users (mean ingestion of 588 mg caffeine per day) but abstained from all caffeine sources for 2 weeks prior to the control study day. Postmenopausal women with estrogen supplementation exhibited significantly lower sulfate serum concentrations (0.24 +/- 0.02 mM vs. 0.32 +/- 0.04 mM in premenopausal women, mean +/- SD, p < 0.05) and a decreased renal reabsorption of sulfate for the control (no caffeine) period. There was no difference in serum sulfate or sulfate reabsorption in estrogen supplemented postmenopausal women, compared with women not taking estrogen. Postmenopausal women with osteoporosis had significantly lower creatinine and sulfate clearances than postmenopausal women with estrogen supplementation which may be related to their older age, or factors related to the disease process. The 6 mg/kg dose of caffeine caused a diuresis, but no change in GFR, as indicated by urine volume and creatinine clearance values, respectively. Caffeine administration resulted in an increase in the sulfate excretion rate; there was no change in sulfate serum concentrations. The results of this investigation indicate that menopause results in decreased sulfate serum concentrations that may be the consequence of a

  11. Menopausal Women's Access Path to Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy: An Exploratory.

    PubMed

    Moro, Doris; Young, Wendy; Stein, Richard; Isaac, Winston; Goodman, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory qualitative study was to describe (1) the key factors affecting women's initial decision to explore the use of bioidentical hormone, (2) where women gather their information on bioidentical hormones, (3) the enablers and barriers to obtaining bioidentical hormones, and (4) how to improve the bioidentical hormone replacement therapy access path. The study was conducted in a compounding pharmacy located in a large urban area in southern Ontario, Canada. The participants included four postmenopausal women between the ages of 46 and 72 who self-identified as users of bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and with comprehensive provincial healthcare coverage. Participants were recruited at a compounding pharmacy with the use of tri-fold brochures, tear-sheets, and posters. The women participated in an audio-taped mini focus group. Discussion was guided by six open-ended questions. Verbatim quotes were analyzed using an affinity diagram. Participants identified three key factors related to their initial decision: (1) symptoms unalleviated by synthetic hormone replacement therapy, (2) side effects from synthetic hormone replacement therapy, and (3) personal preference. They obtained information and support from many sources, including: family/friends, publications, and specialists in menopausal health. Once participants had made a decision, they obtained a prescription and accessed bioidentical hormone replacement therapy at a compounding pharmacy. Knowledgeable primary care physicians and compounding pharmacists were seen as enablers. Lack of support/Information and costs were identifies as barriers. Improvements to bioidentical hormone replacement therapy access path were suggested. The results of this study suggest that there may be value in implementing strategies to further encourage family physicians and other specialists in menopausal health to discuss options regarding hormone replacement therapy with patients. For example, the

  12. Menopausal Women's Access Path to Bioidentical Hormone Replacement Therapy: An Exploratory.

    PubMed

    Moro, Doris; Young, Wendy; Stein, Richard; Isaac, Winston; Goodman, Deborah

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this exploratory qualitative study was to describe (1) the key factors affecting women's initial decision to explore the use of bioidentical hormone, (2) where women gather their information on bioidentical hormones, (3) the enablers and barriers to obtaining bioidentical hormones, and (4) how to improve the bioidentical hormone replacement therapy access path. The study was conducted in a compounding pharmacy located in a large urban area in southern Ontario, Canada. The participants included four postmenopausal women between the ages of 46 and 72 who self-identified as users of bioidentical hormone replacement therapy and with comprehensive provincial healthcare coverage. Participants were recruited at a compounding pharmacy with the use of tri-fold brochures, tear-sheets, and posters. The women participated in an audio-taped mini focus group. Discussion was guided by six open-ended questions. Verbatim quotes were analyzed using an affinity diagram. Participants identified three key factors related to their initial decision: (1) symptoms unalleviated by synthetic hormone replacement therapy, (2) side effects from synthetic hormone replacement therapy, and (3) personal preference. They obtained information and support from many sources, including: family/friends, publications, and specialists in menopausal health. Once participants had made a decision, they obtained a prescription and accessed bioidentical hormone replacement therapy at a compounding pharmacy. Knowledgeable primary care physicians and compounding pharmacists were seen as enablers. Lack of support/Information and costs were identifies as barriers. Improvements to bioidentical hormone replacement therapy access path were suggested. The results of this study suggest that there may be value in implementing strategies to further encourage family physicians and other specialists in menopausal health to discuss options regarding hormone replacement therapy with patients. For example, the

  13. Depressive symptoms and bone mineral density in menopause and postmenopausal women: A still increasing and neglected problem

    PubMed Central

    Bener, Abdulbari; Saleh, Najah M.; Bhugra, Dinesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: The association between depression and loss of bone mineral density (BMD) has been reported as controversial. Objective: The objectıve of the current study was to investigate whether an association exists between depression and low BMD during the menopausal and postmenopausal period. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to generate menopause symptoms experienced by Arabian women at the Primary Health Care Centers in Qatar. A multi-stage sampling design was used, and a representative sample of 1650 women aged 45–65 years were included during July 2012 and November 2013. This prospective study explored the association between bone density and major depressive disorder in women. Bone mineral densitometry measurements (BMD) (g/m2) were assessed at the BMD unit using a lunar prodigy DXA system (Lunar Corp., Madison, WI). Data on body mass index (BMI), clinical biochemistry variables including serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D were collected. The Beck Depression Inventory was administered for depression purposes. Results: Out of 1650 women 1182 women agreed to participate in the study (71.6%). The mean age and standard deviation (SD) of the menopausal age were 48.71 ± 2.96 with depressed and 50.20 ± 3.22 without depressed (P < 0.001). Furthermore, the mean and SD of postmenopausal age were 58.55 ± 3.27 with depression and 57.78 ± 3.20 without depression (P < 0.001). There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to a number of parity, and place of living. There were statistically significant differences between menopausal stages with regards to BMI, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, Vitamin D deficiency, calcium deficiency and shisha smoking habits. Overall, osteopenia and osteoporosis and bone loss were significantly lower in postmenopausal women than in menopausal women (P < 0.001). Similarly, T-score and Z-score were lower with depression menopause and postmenopausal women (P < 0

  14. Menstrual Cycle-Related Variation in Physiological Sleep in Women in the Early Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Willoughby, Adrian R.; Sassoon, Stephanie A.; Colrain, Ian M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Most studies show sleep homeostasis and continuity remain stable across the menstrual cycle in young women. The influence of the menstrual cycle on physiological sleep in midlife women is unknown. Objective: The objective of the study was to assess the impact of menstrual cycle phase on the polysomnogram and electroencephalographic (EEG) features of sleep in midlife women, accounting for the presence of an insomnia disorder. Design and Participants: This was a laboratory study of 20 women in the early menopausal transition (48.8 ± 2.9 y), 11 with a Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, diagnosis of insomnia, studied on one night each in the follicular and luteal menstrual cycle phases. Main Outcome Measures: Polysomnographic and sleep EEG indices were measured. Results: Both groups of women had more awakenings (P = .003) and arousals (P = .025) per hour of sleep and less percentage slow wave sleep (P = .024) when progesterone was raised (≥3 ng/mL−1) during the luteal compared with the follicular phase. Both groups had greater spindle density (P = .007), longer spindles (P = .037), and increased 14–17 Hz EEG activity in the luteal phase (P < .05), although for the 15- to 16-Hz bin, this effect was significant only in women without insomnia (P < .001). Women with insomnia had a shorter sleep duration (P = .012), more wakefulness after sleep onset (P = .031), and a lower sleep efficiency (P = .034) than women without insomnia, regardless of menstrual cycle phase. Conclusion: Sleep is more disrupted in the luteal phase compared with the follicular phase in midlife women, whether or not they have an insomnia disorder. There is a prominent increase in sleep spindles and spindle frequency activity in the luteal phase, likely an effect of progesterone and/or its neuroactive metabolites acting on sleep regulatory systems. PMID:26079775

  15. Adenomyosis a variant not a disease? Evidence from Hysterectomized Menopausal Women in the SWAN Study

    PubMed Central

    Weiss, Gerson; Maseelall, Priya; Schott, Laura L; Brockwell, Sarah E; Schocken, Miriam; Johnston, Janet M

    2009-01-01

    Objective Our study evaluates the symptoms commonly attributed to adenomyosis in women undergoing the menopausal transition. We hypothesized that adenomyosis is more commonly seen in women with fibroids, pelvic pain, abnormal uterine bleeding, and in the presence of endometriosis. Design Retrospective cohort Setting multi-site community based study Patients SWAN study enrollees who had hysterectomies Interventions None Main Outcome Measurements Relationship of Adenomyosis to other entities Results Adenomyosis was found in 48% of 137 patients. Frequencies of presenting symptoms were similar in those with and without evidence of adenomyosis. The same prevalence of fibroids, 37 % versus 43% (p=0.39), endometriosis, 3% versus 5% (p=0.41), abnormal bleeding, 27% versus 33% (p=0.72), or chronic pelvic pain in the presence of fibroids 12% versus 17%, (p=0.58), was seen in the presence or absence of adenomyosis. Conclusions Adenomyosis is a common diagnosis seen in hysterectomized specimens from women undergoing the perimenopausal transition. Adenomyosis is equally common in women who also have fibroids, endometriosis, pelvic pain, or abnormal uterine bleeding, and those women that do not. Therefore, adenomyosis is an incidental finding, not the source of the symptomatology. It appears not to be a “disease” per se, but a normal variant. PMID:18243177

  16. Influence of menopause on adipose tissue clock gene genotype and its relationship with metabolic syndrome in morbidly obese women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Menopausal women exhibit a loss of circadian coordination, a process that runs parallel with a redistribution of adipose tissue. However, the specific genetic mechanisms underlying these alterations have not been studied. Thus, the aim of the present study was to determine whether the development of...

  17. Peripheral Blood Lymphocyte Subset Counts in Pre-menopausal Women with Iron-Deficiency Anaemia

    PubMed Central

    Reza Keramati, Mohammad; Sadeghian, Mohammad Hadi; Ayatollahi, Hossein; Mahmoudi, Mahmoud; Khajedaluea, Mohammad; Tavasolian, Houman; Borzouei, Anahita

    2011-01-01

    Background: Iron-deficiency anaemia (IDA) is a major worldwide public health problem. Children and women of reproductive age are especially vulnerable to IDA, and it has been reported that these patients are more prone to infection. This study was done to evaluate alteration of lymphocyte subgroups in IDA. Methods: In this prospective study, we investigated lymphocyte subsets in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia; 50 normal subjects and 50 IDA (hypochromic microcytic) cases were enrolled. Experimental and control anticoagulated blood samples were evaluated using flow cytometry to determine the absolute and relative numbers of various lymphocyte subgroups. Finally, the results of the patient and control groups were compared. Results: Mean (SD) absolute counts of lymphocytes, CD3+ cells, CD3+/CD4+ subsets (T helper) and CD3+/CD8+ subsets (T cytotoxic) in the patient group were 2.08 (0.65) x 109/L, 1.53 (0.53) x 109/L, 0.87 (0.28) x 109/L, and 0.51 (0.24) x 109/L, respectively. The results showed significant differences between case and control groups in mean absolute counts of lymphocytes (P = 0.014), T lymphocytes (P = 0.009), helper T cells (P = 0.004), and cytotoxic T cells (P = 0.043). Conclusion: This study showed that absolute counts of peripheral blood T lymphocytes as a marker of cell-mediated immunity may be decreased in pre-menopausal women with iron-deficiency anaemia, and that these patients may be more prone to infection. PMID:22135572

  18. Factors regulating circulating vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF): association with bone mineral density (BMD) in post-menopausal osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Costa, Nikola; Paramanathan, Sophia; Mac Donald, Dorothy; Wierzbicki, Anthony S; Hampson, Geeta

    2009-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays an important role in bone health. We investigated the factors which influence circulating VEGF and their association with bone mineral density (BMD). Two hundred and fifty two post-menopausal women aged 64.5 [9.2] years were studied. BMD was determined at the lumbar spine (LS), femoral neck (FN) and total hip (TH). Serum oestradiol and VEGF were measured. Subjects were genotyped for two polymorphic variants in the 5' untranslated region of the VEGF gene; G(634)C and C(936)T. Positive correlations were seen between circulating VEGF and BMI (r=0.2, p<0.02) and oestradiol (r=0.25, p<0.001). Following multi-linear regression analysis, serum VEGF was associated with the G(634) polymorphism (p=0.08) and dietary calcium intake (p=0.02). The association with calcium intake may be mediated by PTH as suggested by the in vitro studies. Following correction for confounders, there was no association between circulating VEGF and BMD at any site. Both VEGF polymorphisms were significant predictors of LS BMD G(634)C: p=0.017 and C(936)T: p=0.05. Circulating VEGF may be influenced by genetic, environmental and endocrine factors. Polymorphic variants in the VEGF gene are associated with spine BMD. Further larger studies are needed. PMID:19394248

  19. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments. PMID:27095961

  20. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna Sabina

    2016-03-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments.

  1. Nutrition of women with hair loss problem during the period of menopause.

    PubMed

    Goluch-Koniuszy, Zuzanna Sabina

    2016-03-01

    During the period of menopause as an effect of changes in hormone status, one of the most common ailments for women is hair loss. Taking into consideration fact that the ingredients of diet contained in various groups of consumed food products are both precursors in steroid hormones synthesis as well as have direct impact on structure, growth and keeping hair in skin integument, this is the reason why nourishing support for women during this period of life as well as during the hair loss therapy is reasonable. Standard value proteins containing Sulphur amino-acids: cysteine and methionine as precursor to keratin hair protein synthesis are basic element of diet conditioning of hair building. Irreplaceable having impact on keeping hair in skin integument is exogenous L-lysine, mainly present in the inner part of hair root is responsible for hair shape and volume. Fats present in the diet take part in steroid hormones synthesis (from cholesterol) thus have influence on keeping hair in skin integument. Women diet should contain products rich in complex carbohydrates, with low glycemic index and load containing fiber regulating carbohydrate-lipid metabolism of the body. Vitamins also have impact on the state of hair: C vitamin, group B and A vitamins. Minerals which influence hair growth are: Zn, Fe, Cu, Se, Si, Mg and Ca. It is worthwhile to pay closer attention to diet in women who besides hormone changes and undertaken pharmacotherapy are additionally exposed to chronic stress and improperly conducted cosmetic's and hairdresser's treatments. PMID:27095961

  2. Dermatosis associated with menopause

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Pragya A.

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is defined as permanent irreversible cessation of menses brought by decline in ovarian follicular activity. Hormonal alteration results in various physical, psychological, and sexual changes in menopausal women. Associated dermatological problems can be classified as physiological changes, age-related changes, changes due to estrogen deficiency and due to hormone replacement therapy. Dermatosis seen due to estrogen deficiency includes Atrophic Vulvovaginitis, Vulvar Lichen Sclerosus, Dyaesthetic Vulvodynia, Hirsutism, Alopecia, Menopausal Flushing, Keratoderma Climactericum, Vulvovaginal Candidiasis. Dermatologists and gynecologists need to be familiar with the problems of menopausal women, as with increase in life expectancy, women passing through this phase is rising. PMID:25540566

  3. Effects of Isoflavones and Amino Acid Therapies for Hot Flashes and Co-occurring Symptoms during the Menopausal Transition and Early Post Menopause: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Annette; Ismail, Rita; Taylor-Swanson, Lisa; Cray, Lori; Schnall, Janet G.; Mitchell, Ellen Sullivan; Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2014-01-01

    Aims Review controlled clinical trials of isoflavones and amino acid preparation effects on hot flashes and at least one other symptom including mood, sleep, pain, and cognitive function that women report during the menopausal transition and early postmenopause. Methods An experienced reference librarian searched PubMed/Medline, CINAHL Plus, PsycInfo, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, EMBASE, AMED, and Alt-Health Watch for English-language randomized controlled trials between 2004 to July 2011. Seventeen trials of isoflavones and amino acid effects on hot flashes and one additional symptom were identified. Results In five trials of soy isoflavone preparations, two (6g soy germ extract and 25g soy protein in soy nuts) significantly decreased hot flashes, but no other symptoms. In the seven trials of other isoflavones, six significantly reduced hot flashes; in addition, Red Clover (80 mg) significantly reduced mood symptoms; Rexflavone (350 mg) for women with Kupperman Index > 20 significantly reduced sleep symptoms; two trials had significant reductions for pain: Isoflavone powder (90 mg) and Red Clover (80 mg). The only trial in this systematic review that significantly reduced cognitive symptoms was Red Clover (80 mg). In one trial, Red Clover isoflavone (80 mg/d) significantly relieved hot flashes, mood, pain, and cognitive symptoms. Amino acids yielded no significant results. Equol supplements of 30 mg/d for non-Equol producing women significantly reduced mood symptoms in one trial. The Magnolia Bark Extract combination significantly reduced hot flashes, mood, and sleep symptoms. Conclusions Isoflavone trials yielded significant reductions on hot flashes and co-occurring symptoms during the menopausal transition and postmenopause, but studies require replication with larger sample sizes and attention to measurement of outcomes. PMID:24951101

  4. Duration of Menopausal Vasomotor Symptoms Over the Menopause Transition

    PubMed Central

    Avis, Nancy E.; Crawford, Sybil L.; Greendale, Gail; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Everson-Rose, Susan A.; Gold, Ellen B.; Hess, Rachel; Joffe, Hadine; Kravitz, Howard M.; Tepper, Ping G.; Thurston, Rebecca C.

    2015-01-01

    IMPORTANCE The expected duration of menopausal vasomotor symptoms (VMS) is important to women making decisions about possible treatments. OBJECTIVES To determine total duration of frequent VMS (≥6 days in the previous 2 weeks) (hereafter total VMS duration) during the menopausal transition, to quantify how long frequent VMS persist after the final menstrual period (FMP) (hereafter post-FMP persistence), and to identify risk factors for longer total VMS duration and longer post-FMP persistence. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS The Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) is a multiracial/multiethnic observational study of the menopausal transition among 3302 women enrolled at 7 US sites. From February 1996 through April 2013, women completed a median of 13 visits. Analyses included 1449 women with frequent VMS. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Total VMS duration (in years) (hot flashes or night sweats) and post-FMP persistence (in years) into postmenopause. RESULTS The median total VMS duration was 7.4 years. Among 881 women who experienced an observable FMP, the median post-FMP persistence was 4.5 years. Women who were premenopausal or early perimenopausal when they first reported frequent VMS had the longest total VMS duration (median, >11.8 years) and post-FMP persistence (median, 9.4 years). Women who were postmenopausal at the onset of VMS had the shortest total VMS duration (median, 3.4 years). Compared with women of other racial/ethnic groups, African American women reported the longest total VMS duration (median, 10.1 years). Additional factors related to longer duration of VMS (total VMS duration or post-FMP persistence) were younger age, lower educational level, greater perceived stress and symptom sensitivity, and higher depressive symptoms and anxiety at first report of VMS. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE Frequent VMS lasted more than 7 years during the menopausal transition for more than half of the women and persisted for 4.5 years after the FMP

  5. HIV and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Fan, Maria D; Maslow, Bat-Sheva; Santoro, Nanette; Schoenbaum, Ellie

    2008-12-01

    Dramatic improvement in the survival of the HIV population has occurred with the ascendance of highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). In the foreseeable future, HIV-infected women who acquired disease during the peak years of the epidemic are expected to survive to experience menopause and even years beyond. The HIV epidemic may be viewed as 'mature', as its earlier victims become part of the geriatric population. Research about the process of menopause in HIV-infected women and, conversely, about HIV infection in women undergoing menopause is currently limited. Existing research suggests that the process of menopause is affected by HIV infection, inasmuch as infected women appear to experience menopause at an earlier age, with greater symptomatology, and with different reproductive hormone profiles compared with HIV-uninfected women. HIV infection also appears to affect bone mineral density, cardiovascular disease and cognition, with some age-related interactions. Lifestyle and demographic factors have pervasive importance for both HIV infection and the menopause in women. This article reviews the current state of knowledge about the menopausal process in HIV-infected women, and the common conditions in postmenopausal women that are likely to be affected by HIV infection. Clinicians should appreciate the potential role of HIV infection in caring for menopause-aged women. PMID:19037065

  6. Thyroid hormone status interferes with estrogen target gene expression in breast cancer samples in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Conde, Sandro José; Luvizotto, Renata de Azevedo Melo; de Síbio, Maria Teresa; Nogueira, Célia Regina

    2014-01-01

    We investigated thyroid hormone levels in menopausal BrC patients and verified the action of triiodothyronine on genes regulated by estrogen and by triiodothyronine itself in BrC tissues. We selected 15 postmenopausal BrC patients and a control group of 18 postmenopausal women without BrC. We measured serum TPO-AB, TSH, FT4, and estradiol, before and after surgery, and used immunohistochemistry to examine estrogen and progesterone receptors. BrC primary tissue cultures received the following treatments: ethanol, triiodothyronine, triiodothyronine plus 4-hydroxytamoxifen, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, estrogen, or estrogen plus 4-hydroxytamoxifen. Genes regulated by estrogen (TGFA, TGFB1, and PGR) and by triiodothyronine (TNFRSF9, BMP-6, and THRA) in vitro were evaluated. TSH levels in BrC patients did not differ from those of the control group (1.34 ± 0.60 versus 2.41 ± 1.10  μ U/mL), but FT4 levels of BrC patients were statistically higher than controls (1.78 ± 0.20 versus 0.95 ± 0.16 ng/dL). TGFA was upregulated and downregulated after estrogen and triiodothyronine treatment, respectively. Triiodothyronine increased PGR expression; however 4-hydroxytamoxifen did not block triiodothyronine action on PGR expression. 4-Hydroxytamoxifen, alone or associated with triiodothyronine, modulated gene expression of TNFRSF9, BMP-6, and THRA, similar to triiodothyronine treatment. Thus, our work highlights the importance of thyroid hormone status evaluation and its ability to interfere with estrogen target gene expression in BrC samples in menopausal women.

  7. Prevalent osteoporotic fractures in 622 obese and non- obese menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Poiana, C; Carsote, M; Radoi, V; Mihai, A; Capatina, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis. The osteoporotic fractures represent a worldwide economical issue. In order to prevent them, we need to understand the risk factors constellation. Although obesity was traditionally considered as protective against osteoporosis, recent data exposed an increased risk of falling and thus a high risk of some fractures. Objective. We aimed to analyze the body mass index (BMI) in relationship with the bone mineral density (BMD) and the prevalent fractures. Methods and Results. Between 2008 and 2014, a cross-sectional observational study included Romanian menopausal Caucasian women without a previous diagnosis of bone maladies, or specific anti-osteoporotic therapy. Prevalent fragility fractures were both self-declared and incidental vertebral. All the subjects had lumbar BMD (GE Lunar Prodigy DXA machine). Out of 622 females (mean age of 58.65 years, mean BMI of 30.30 kg/ m2), 39.22% were obese (BMI ≥ 30kg/ m2). The fracture prevalence was 1.35% versus 1.67% in obese versus non-obese patients. The correlation coefficient between lumbar BMD and BMI was r=0.165, p<0.005. BMI in the fracture group was 31.68 kg/ m2 vs. 30.04 kg/ m2 in the non-fracture group (p=0.08). 15.91% of the entire cohort had prevalent fractures. Obesity prevalence among females with fractures was 30.3% versus 40.73% in the non-fracture group. The most frequent sites were distal forearm (42.42%) and vertebral (21.21%). Discussions & Conclusions. Although the vertebral fractures might be underdiagnosed in our study and despite the fact that we enrolled a relatively young menopausal population, BMI positively correlated with BMD, regardless of the fractures’ prevalence. In early menopause, the most frequent fracture is distal forearm. BMI is higher in patients with prevalent fractures vs. non-fractures (borderline significance). Obesity might not protect from any type of fracture but future evidence is necessary since one third of osteoporotic fractures are met in women with a BMI ≥ 30

  8. Prevalent osteoporotic fractures in 622 obese and non- obese menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Poiana, C; Carsote, M; Radoi, V; Mihai, A; Capatina, C

    2015-01-01

    Hypothesis. The osteoporotic fractures represent a worldwide economical issue. In order to prevent them, we need to understand the risk factors constellation. Although obesity was traditionally considered as protective against osteoporosis, recent data exposed an increased risk of falling and thus a high risk of some fractures. Objective. We aimed to analyze the body mass index (BMI) in relationship with the bone mineral density (BMD) and the prevalent fractures. Methods and Results. Between 2008 and 2014, a cross-sectional observational study included Romanian menopausal Caucasian women without a previous diagnosis of bone maladies, or specific anti-osteoporotic therapy. Prevalent fragility fractures were both self-declared and incidental vertebral. All the subjects had lumbar BMD (GE Lunar Prodigy DXA machine). Out of 622 females (mean age of 58.65 years, mean BMI of 30.30 kg/ m2), 39.22% were obese (BMI ≥ 30kg/ m2). The fracture prevalence was 1.35% versus 1.67% in obese versus non-obese patients. The correlation coefficient between lumbar BMD and BMI was r=0.165, p<0.005. BMI in the fracture group was 31.68 kg/ m2 vs. 30.04 kg/ m2 in the non-fracture group (p=0.08). 15.91% of the entire cohort had prevalent fractures. Obesity prevalence among females with fractures was 30.3% versus 40.73% in the non-fracture group. The most frequent sites were distal forearm (42.42%) and vertebral (21.21%). Discussions & Conclusions. Although the vertebral fractures might be underdiagnosed in our study and despite the fact that we enrolled a relatively young menopausal population, BMI positively correlated with BMD, regardless of the fractures' prevalence. In early menopause, the most frequent fracture is distal forearm. BMI is higher in patients with prevalent fractures vs. non-fractures (borderline significance). Obesity might not protect from any type of fracture but future evidence is necessary since one third of osteoporotic fractures are met in women with a BMI ≥ 30kg

  9. A study of menopausal symptoms in relation to habits of smoking and make-up using in Japanese women aged 35-59.

    PubMed

    Oi, N; Ohi, K

    2012-08-01

    We conducted a survey to elucidate the influence with menopause symptoms and the impact of not only smoking but also using make-up among for Japanese women, included ages above and below the menopausal generation. The subjects of this study were 335 Japanese women from 35 to 59 years of age who were examined for the first time in the specialized women's outpatient clinic of our institution from July 2010 to June 2011 for 1 year period. We used the items of the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire. Similarly, we analysed the scores in relation to menopausal symptoms and whether the subject smoked, whether the subject used make-up depend on women (including foundation, lip rouge, brush one's eyebrows), how frequently she used make-up. The JMP version 9.0 software program was used to statistically analyse the score data. Significant associations were observed in psychosocial (P = 0.0196), tended to be more severe in women before menopause and after climacteric. Furthermore, the frequency of using make-up were negative relations with menopause symptoms (P = 0.0251) after climacteric. Smoking had made worse for physical symptoms (P < 0.001). Menopause symptoms are already experienced by younger women, especially, psychological symptoms. Also, physical conditions were influenced by smoking. Using make-up frequently was often seen after climacteric because of appearance changes by oestrogen dynamic decline.

  10. Menopause as a long-term risk to health: implications of general practitioner accounts of prevention for women's choice and decision-making.

    PubMed

    Murtagh, Madeleine J; Hepworth, Julie

    2003-03-01

    Over the past two decades medical researchers and modernist feminist researchers have contested the meaning of menopause. In this article we examine various meanings of menopause in major medical and feminist literature and the construction of menopause in a semi-structured interview study of general practitioners in rural South Australia. Three discursive themes are identified in these interviews; (i) .the hormonal menopause - symptoms, risk, prevention; (ii). the informed menopausal woman; and (iii). decision-making and hormone replacement therapy. By using the discourse of prevention, general practitioners construct menopause in relation to women's health care choices, empowerment and autonomy. We argue that the ways in which these concepts are deployed by general practitioners in this study produces and constrains the options available to women. The implications of these general practitioner accounts are discussed in relation to the proposition that medical and feminist descriptions of menopause posit alternative but equally-fixed truths about menopause and their relationship with the range of responses available to women at menopause. Social and cultural explanations of disease causality (c.f. Germov 1998, Hardey 1998) are absent from the new menopause despite their being an integral part of the framework of the women's health movement and health promotion drawn on by these general practitioners. Further, the shift of responsibility for health to the individual woman reinforces practice claims to empower women, but oversimplifies power relations and constructs menopause as a site of self-surveillance. The use of concepts from the women's health movement and health promotion have nevertheless created change in both the positioning of women as having 'choices' and the positioning of some general practitioners in terms of greater information provision to women and an attention to the woman's autonomy. In conclusion, we propose that a new menopause has evolved

  11. Menopausal status, moderate-intensity walking, and symptoms in midlife women.

    PubMed

    Wilbur, JoEllen; Miller, Arlene Michaels; McDevitt, Judith; Wang, Edward; Miller, Josephine

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this randomized clinical trial study was to determine the effectiveness of a 24-week, home-based, moderate-intensity, walking intervention in improving symptoms (vasomotor, uro-genital/sexual, sleep, psychological, cognitive, physical) experienced by midlife women. One hundred and seventy-three Caucasian and African American women aged 45 to 65 who were not on hormone therapy, had no major signs or symptoms of cardiovascular disease, and were sedentary in their leisure activity were randomly assigned to the moderate-intensity walking group or the nonexercise control group. The exercise prescription was walking at a frequency of 4 times a week for a duration of 20 to 30 minutes. The symptom impact inventory included the frequency, intensity, and bothersomeness of 33 symptoms collected at baseline and 24 weeks. Adherence was measured with a heart rate monitor and exercise log. Average adherence to frequency of walking was 71.6% of the expected walks. After 24 weeks, there were no differences between the walking and control group on change in symptoms. However, multiple regression revealed that frequency of adherence to walking along with change in physical symptoms and menopausal status were significant predictors of change in sleep symptoms. While walking did not improve most symptoms experienced by midlife women, frequency of walking may improve sleep. PMID:16025696

  12. Comparison of SCORE-predicted risk of death due to cardiovascular events in women before and after menopause

    PubMed Central

    Brzostek, Tomasz

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Approximately 55% of women in Europe die from cardiovascular events, mostly as a result of coronary diseases and cerebral stroke. There is a 10-year shift in the cardiovascular risk between women and men. The risk in a 55-year-old female patient is similar to that of a 45-year-old man, thus the risk among women increases rapidly around the age of 50, when menopause prevails to occur. The purpose of the study was to assess and compare the SCORE-predicted risk of a fatal cardiovascular incident in pre- and postmenopausal women. Material and methods The cross-sectional study was conducted as part of community nursing practice. It covered 219 women – inhabitants of Krakow, aged from 30 to 65, without clinically validated cardiovascular diseases of arteriosclerotic and/or diabetic origin, who volunteered to take part in the study. The group was divided into three subgroups: K1 – menstruating women (n = 113), K2a – women after natural menopause (n = 88), and K2b – women after surgical menopause (n = 18). The study made use of a lifestyle questionnaire, which concerned the social and economic status, and lifestyle habits including tobacco smoking. Arterial blood pressure was measured, and total cholesterol concentration in blood (mmol/l) was recorded. Results A high (≥ 5%) level of the SCORE risk was discovered in 14.3% of postmenopausal women, as compared to 0.9% in the group of menstruating women. An average risk of a fatal cardiovascular incident during the following 10 years was significantly higher among women from groups K2a (2.61%) and K2b (2.32%) as compared to K1 – menstruating women (0.38%). No difference was, however, discovered between groups of naturally (K2a) and surgically menopausal women (K2b). Conclusions A significantly higher risk of SCORE-predicted death caused by a cardiovascular incident, as compared to the group of women in the premenopausal period, is characteristic of women in the postmenopausal period. PMID:26528104

  13. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7–10 min for warm-up, 35–40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5–7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  14. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility.

  15. [Phytoestrogens--whether can they be an alternative to hormone replacement therapy for women during menopause period?].

    PubMed

    Dittfeld, Anna; Koszowska, Aneta; Brończyk, Anna Puzoń; Nowak, Justyna; Gwizdek, Katarzyna; Zubelewicz-Szkodzińska, Barbara

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a turning point in a woman's life. Decreasing of secretion of estrogens can cause appearing of many health problems, which make that life is becoming harder in each partof life. Hormonal ReplacementTherapy (HRT) is using for relieving the symptoms of menopause, however, because of the possibility of adverse reactions cannot be used by all women. Alternative for HTC are phytoestrogens--compounds naturally occurring in plants, structurally similar to endogenous estrogen, so that they have an affinity for estrogen receptors, and in this way they can modulate functions of endocrine system. Phytoestrogens can play an important role in symptoms of menopause, but their positive impacts are being described for cardiovascular system, especially for lipid metabolism, bone metabolism. Moreover consumption of phytoestrogens could relieve as symptoms as: fatigue, insomnia, problems with concentrations and depression symptoms. Phytoestrogens are acting as antioxidants against free radicals, and reactive oxygen forms which are known as carcinogenic factors. Article is a review of the most important information about phitoestrogens and their influence on women organism during menopausal period.

  16. Effects of 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Haelim; Caguicla, Joy Matthew Cuasay; Park, Sangseo; Kwak, Dong Jick; Won, Deuk-Yeon; Park, Yunjin; Kim, Jeeyoun; Kim, Myungki

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of an 8-week Pilates exercise program on menopausal symptoms and lumbar strength and flexibility in postmenopausal women. In total, 74 postmenopausal women were recruited and randomly allocated to a Pilates exercise group (n=45) and a control group (n=29). Menopausal symptoms were measured through a questionnaire, while lumbar strength was measured through a lumbar extension machine, and lumbar flexibility was measured through sit-and-reach and trunk lift tests performed before and after the Pilates exercise program, respectively. The Pilates exercises consisted of 7-10 min for warm-up, 35-40 min for the main program modified from Pilates Academy International, and 5-7 min for the cool-down, and were performed 3 times a week for 8 weeks. The results showed a significant decrease in menopausal symptoms except urogenital symptoms. Also, the results presented a significant increase in lumbar strength and flexibility after 8 weeks of the Pilates exercise program. We concluded that an 8-week Pilates exercise program is effective in decreasing menopausal symptoms and increasing lumbar strength and flexibility. PMID:27419122

  17. Sleep disorders in menopause: results from an Italian Multicentric Study.

    PubMed

    Fabbrini, Monica; AricÃ, Irene; Tramonti, Francesco; Condurso, Rosaria; Carnicelli, Luca; De Rosa, Anna; Di Perri, Caterina; Bonsignore, Maria Rosaria; Zito, Anna; Russo, Giovanna; Pagliarulo, Maria Giovanna; Guarnieri, Biancamaria; Cerroni, Gianluigi; Mennuni, Gianfranco; Della Marca, Giacomo; Bonanni, Enrica; Silvestri, Rosalia

    2015-01-01

    Menopause in the female life cycle is a special period due to important hormonal, physical and psychological changes. Sleep disruption represents a common complaint for midlife and menopausal women, related to primary sleep disorders, including insomnia, sleep disordered breathing, restless legs syndrome (RLS), mood and anxiety disorder, other medical illness, hormonal-related vasomotor symptoms, and aging per se. Aims of our study were to evaluate the prevalence of sleep disorders in a sample of pre and post menopausal women, and to investigate the relationship between sleep and other medical disorders, and life habits. Among workers in the six participant centers, we enrolled 334 women, aged between 40 and 60 years, that completed a questionnaire that included screening on menarche, menstrual cycle, fertility, parity, menopause, life habits, personal medical and sleep history and related treatment, and self-administered scales for sleep quality (PSQI), excessive daytime sleepiness [Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)], mood disorder [Beck Depression Inventory (BDI)], Berlin Questionnaire for sleep disordered breathing (SDB), IRLS diagnostic interview and Rating Scale. Menopausal and perimenopausal women showed an increased prevalence of poor sleep, high risk of SDB, and mood disorder; menopausal women also reported increased RLS severity. Mood disorder had a significant impact on night sleep measures and excessive daytime sleepiness, as well as on RLS severity, and had a greater prevalence in hypertensive women. Sleep disturbances are frequent in menopausal women. Their aetiology is unclear, but probably multifactorial, and many factors contribute to the sleep disruption. Our data suggest the importance of correctly investigate and address sleep problems associated with menopause, through sleep history, and a sleep study could be obtained if clinically warranted. Pharmacological and behavioural treatment strategies should then be aimed at improving sleep and life

  18. Effects of red clover on hot flash and circulating hormone concentrations in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Mirzaii Najmabadi, Khadijeh; mousavi bazaz, Mojtaba; abdolahian, Somayeh; Khadivzadeh, Talat

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To critically evaluate the effect of red clover on hot flash, endometrial thickness, and hormones status in postmenopausal and peri- and post-menopausal women. Materials and Methods: MEDLINE (1966 to July 2014), Scopus (1990 to July 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2014) were searched for published randomized controlled Trials (RCTs). Results: Of 183 relevant publication trials, 11 RCTs met the inclusion criteria. The mean hot flashes frequency in red clover was lower than the control groups (MD -1.99; p=0.067). There was larger decrease in FSH (SMD -0.812; CI: -1.93 to 0.312; p=0.157) and SHBG (SMD -0.128; CI-0.425 to 0.170; P=0.4) in red clover group, compared with placebo, which was not however statistically significant. LH (SMD 0.144; CI-0.097 to 0.384, p=0.242), estradiol (SMD 0.240; CI-0.001 to 0.482, p=0.051), testosterone (MD 0.083; CI: -0.560 to 0.726; p=0.901), and endometrial thickness (SDM 0.022; CI: -0.380 to 0.424, p=0.915) showed greater increase in red clover, compared with placebo, although the effect of estradiol was only significant. Conclusion: Red clover had a positive effect of alleviating hot flash in menopausal women. Our data, however, suggested very slight changes in FSH, LH, testosterone, and SHBG and significant effect in estrogen status by red clover consumption. However, the interpretation of results of the current study is limited due to methodological flaws of the included studies, menopause status, and large heterogeneity among them. Further trials are still needed to confirm the current finding. PMID:26693407

  19. Endogenous Sex Hormones Impact the Progression of Subclinical Atherosclerosis in Women during the Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    El Khoudary, Samar R.; Wildman, Rachel P.; Matthews, Karen; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Bromberger, Joyce T.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Objective To determine whether endogenous sex hormones (estradiol (E2), testosterone (T), sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) are longitudinally associated with progression of atherosclerosis among women at midlife. Methods 249 Pre- or early peri-menopausal women (42–57 years) from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN) were followed for up to 9 years (median=3.7 years) and had up to 5 repeated measures of common carotid intima-media thickness (IMT) and adventitial diameter (AD). Linear mixed models were used for statistical analysis. Final models included age at baseline, time since baseline, cycle day of blood draw, race, income, SBP, BMI, insulin resistance index, lipids, C-reactive protein and co-morbidity. Results In final models for IMT, each one log unit decrease in SHBG was associated with a 0.005 mm/year increase in IMT progression (P=0.003). E2, T, and FSH were not associated with level or progression of IMT. For AD, each one log unit decrease in E2 was associated with a 0.012 mm/year increase in AD progression (P=0.04) and each one log unit increase in FSH was associated with a 0.016 mm/year increase in AD progression (P=0.003). T and SHBG were not associated with progression or level of AD. Conclusions Independent of SBP, BMI, lipids and other covariates, lower E2 and SHBG, and higher FSH were associated with increased subclinical atherosclerosis progression in women at midlife. PMID:22981430

  20. The Risk of Breast Cancer in Women Using Menopausal Hormone Replacement Therapy in Taiwan

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jui-Yao; Chen, Tzeng-Ji; Hwang, Shinn-Jang

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal hormone replacement therapy (HRT) increases the risk of breast cancer in Western countries; however, there are fewer reports from the Asian population, which has a lower incidence of breast cancer. A population-based retrospective cohort study was conducted by analyzing longitudinal National Health Insurance claim data of a 200,000-person national representative cohort. A total of 22,929 women aged ≥45 years in 1997 without previous diagnosis of breast cancer were enrolled and stratified into two birth cohorts born before or after 1933. HRT prescriptions were traced in outpatient data files and incident breast cancer cases were identified from 1997 to 2004. The Cox proportional hazards model was used to analyze breast cancer hazard ratio (HR). HRT users were censored after they discontinued HRT. The results showed that women born during 1933–1952 had a twofold increased risk of breast cancer (HR = 2.10, 95% CI = 1.47–3.00) compared with women born before 1933, when adjusted for HRT use. When adjusted for the birth-cohort difference, HRT users had significantly increased breast cancer HR versus non-users after four years of use (adjusted HR = 1.48, 95% CI = 1.03–2.13); the HR further increased to 1.95 (95% CI = 1.34–2.84) after eight years of use. In conclusion, a longer duration of current HRT use was associated with a higher risk of breast cancer independent of the birth-cohort difference. PMID:27187426

  1. Individual differences as predictors of dietary patterns among menopausal women with arterial hypertension

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to analyze selected individual determinants of dietary choices, important for etiology and prevention of degenerative cardiovascular disorders, in a group of menopausal women diagnosed with arterial hypertension. Material and methods The study included a group of 160 women from the Małopolska region, aged between 45 and 60 years and diagnosed with arterial hypertension. A questionnaire assessing the frequency of food product consumption was used, along with standardized psychological tests (GSES, LOT-R, and SWLS). Spearman's coefficients of rank correlation and the Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn tests were used for statistical analysis. Results We revealed that higher levels of self-efficacy were associated with more frequent consumption of whole grains, oatmeal, raw vegetables, fruit, semi-skimmed milk, natural yoghurt, marine fish, legume seeds, soy products, nuts, plant oils, and fruit and vegetable juices, as well as with less frequent consumption of whole milk, high-fat cottage cheese, and sweetened carbonated beverages and alcoholic beverages. The levels of optimism and satisfaction with life correlated positively with the consumption frequency of brown rice, whole grains, oatmeal, fruit, marine fish, legumes, soy products, nuts, butter, and fruit juices, and were inversely correlated with the consumption of white bread, high-fat cottage cheese, pork meat and sausages, and sweets and pastries. Conclusions Postmenopausal women with arterial hypertension who were characterized by lower levels of self-efficacy, optimism, and satisfaction with life made less rational dietary choices which could negatively affect the efficacy of the secondary prevention of cardiovascular degenerative disorders. PMID:26327838

  2. Metabolic disorders in menopause

    PubMed Central

    Pertyński, Tomasz; Pertyńska-Marczewska, Magdalena

    2015-01-01

    Metabolic disorders occurring in menopause, including dyslipidemia, disorders of carbohydrate metabolism (impaired glucose tolerance – IGT, type 2 diabetes mellitus – T2DM) or components of metabolic syndrome, constitute risk factors for cardiovascular disease in women. A key role could be played here by hyperinsulinemia, insulin resistance and visceral obesity, all contributing to dyslipidemia, oxidative stress, inflammation, alter coagulation and atherosclerosis observed during the menopausal period. Undiagnosed and untreated, metabolic disorders may adversely affect the length and quality of women's life. Prevention and treatment preceded by early diagnosis should be the main goal for the physicians involved in menopausal care. This article represents a short review of the current knowledge concerning metabolic disorders (e.g. obesity, polycystic ovary syndrome or thyroid diseases) in menopause, including the role of a tailored menopausal hormone therapy (HT). According to current data, HT is not recommend as a preventive strategy for metabolic disorders in menopause. Nevertheless, as part of a comprehensive strategy to prevent chronic diseases after menopause, menopausal hormone therapy, particularly estrogen therapy may be considered (after balancing benefits/risks and excluding women with absolute contraindications to this therapy). Life-style modifications, with moderate physical activity and healthy diet at the forefront, should be still the first choice recommendation for all patients with menopausal metabolic abnormalities. PMID:26327890

  3. Coconut oil predicts a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines

    PubMed Central

    Feranil, Alan B.; Duazo, Paulita L.; Kuzawa, Christopher W.; Adair, Linda S.

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35–69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu City. Coconut oil intake was measured as individual coconut oil intake calculated using two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.54 ± 8.92 grams). Cholesterol profiles were measured in plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Mean lipid values in this sample were total cholesterol (TC) (186.52 ± 38.86 mg/dL), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) (40.85 ± 10.30 mg/dL), low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (119.42 ± 33.21 mg/dL), triglycerides (130.75 ± 85.29 mg/dL) and the TC/HDL ratio (4.80 ± 1.41). Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with HDL-c levels. PMID:21669587

  4. Serum Estradiol Levels Are Not Associated with Urinary Incontinence in Mid-life Women Transitioning through Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Waetjen, L. Elaine; Johnson, Wesley O.; Xing, Guibo; Feng, Wen-Ying; Greendale, Gail A.; Gold, Ellen B.

    2012-01-01

    Objective We evaluated the relationship between annually measured serum endogenous estradiol and the development or worsening of stress and urge incontinence symptoms over 8 years in women transitioning through menopause. Methods This is a longitudinal analysis of women with incontinence in the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation (SWAN), a multi-center, multi-racial/ethnic prospective cohort study of community-dwelling women transitioning through menopause. At baseline and each of 8 annual visits, SWAN elicited frequency and type of incontinence in a self-administered questionnaire and drew a blood sample on days 2-5 of the menstrual cycle. All endocrine assays were performed using a double-antibody chemiluminescent immunoassay. We analyzed data using discrete Cox survival models and generalized estimating equations with time dependent covariates. Results Estradiol levels drawn at either the annual visit concurrent with or previous to the first report of incontinence were not associated with the development of any (hazard ratio (HR) = 0.99, 95% CI 0.99, 1.01), stress, or urge incontinence in previously continent women. Similarly, estradiol levels were not associated with worsening of any (odds ratio (OR) = 1.00, 95% CI 0.99, 1.01), stress, or urge incontinence in incontinent women. Change in estradiol levels from one year to the next was also not associated with the development (HR = 0.98, 95% confidence interval 0.97, 1.00) or worsening (OR = 1.03, 95% CI 0.99, 1.05) of incontinence. Conclusions We found that annually measured values and year-to-year changes in endogenous estradiol levels had no effect on the development or worsening of incontinence in women transitioning through menopause. PMID:21785372

  5. Menopause and Methodological Doubt

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spence, Sheila

    2005-01-01

    Menopause and methodological doubt begins by making a tongue-in-cheek comparison between Descartes' methodological doubt and the self-doubt that can arise around menopause. A hermeneutic approach is taken in which Cartesian dualism and its implications for the way women are viewed in society are examined, both through the experiences of women…

  6. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    PubMed Central

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-01-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition. PMID:12676627

  7. Relationship of blood and bone lead to menopause and bone mineral density among middle-age women in Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Garrido Latorre, Francisco; Hernández-Avila, Mauricio; Tamayo Orozco, Juan; Albores Medina, Carlos A; Aro, Antonio; Palazuelos, Eduardo; Hu, Howard

    2003-04-01

    To describe the relationship of blood lead levels to menopause and bone lead levels, we conducted a cross-sectional study on 232 pre- or perimenopausal (PreM) and postmenopausal (PosM) women who participated in an osteoporosis-screening program in Mexico City during the first quarter of 1995. Information regarding reproductive characteristics and known risk factors for blood lead was obtained using a standard questionnaire by direct interview. The mean age of the population was 54.7 years (SD = 9.8), with a mean blood lead level of 9.2 microg/dL (SD = 4.7/dL) and a range from 2.1 to 32.1 microg/dL. After adjusting for age and bone lead levels, the mean blood lead level was 1.98 microg/dL higher in PosM women than in PreM women (p = 0.024). The increase in mean blood lead levels peaked during the second year of amenorrhea with a level (10.35 microg/dL) that was 3.51 microg/dL higher than that of PreM women. Other important predictors of blood lead levels were use of lead-glazed ceramics, schooling, trabecular bone lead, body mass index, time of living in Mexico City, and use of hormone replacement therapy. Bone density was not associated with blood lead levels. These results support the hypothesis that release of bone lead stores increases during menopause and constitutes an internal source of exposure possibly associated with health effects in women in menopause transition.

  8. Equol status and changes in fecal microbiota in menopausal women receiving long-term treatment for menopause symptoms with a soy-isoflavone concentrate.

    PubMed

    Guadamuro, Lucía; Delgado, Susana; Redruello, Begoña; Flórez, Ana B; Suárez, Adolfo; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge regarding the intestinal microbial types involved in isoflavone bioavailability and metabolism is still limited. The present work reports the influence of a treatment with isoflavones for 6 months on the fecal bacterial communities of 16 menopausal women, as determined by culturing and culture-independent microbial techniques. Changes in fecal communities were analyzed with respect to the women's equol-producing phenotype. Compared to baseline, at 1 and 3 months the counts for all microbial populations in the feces of equol-producing women had increased strongly. In contrast, among the non-producers, the counts for all microbial populations at 1 month were similar to those at baseline, and decreased significantly by 3 and 6 months. Following isoflavone intake, major bands in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles appeared and disappeared, suggesting important changes in majority populations. In some women, increases were seen in the intensity of specific DGGE bands corresponding to microorganisms known to be involved in the metabolism of dietary phytoestrogens (Lactonifactor longoviformis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium sp., Ruminococcus sp.). Real-Time quantitative PCR revealed that the Clostridium leptum and C. coccoides populations increased in equol producers, while those of bifidobacteria and enterobacteria decreased, and vice versa in the non-producers. Finally, the Atopobium population increased in both groups, but especially in the non-producers at three months. As the main findings of this study, (i) variations in the microbial communities over the 6-month period of isoflavone supplementation were large; (ii) no changes in the fecal microbial populations that were convincingly treatment-specific were seen; and (iii) the production of equol did not appear to be associated with the presence of, or increase in the population of, any of the majority bacterial types analyzed.

  9. Effects of Smoking on Menopausal Age: Results From the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hee Jung; Suh, Pae Sun; Kim, Soo Jeong; Lee, Soon Young

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: Decreased fertility and impaired health owing to early menopause are significant health issues. Smoking is a modifiable health-related behavior that influences menopausal age. We investigated the effects of smoking-associated characteristics on menopausal age in Korean women. Methods: This study used data from the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2007 to 2012. Menopausal age in relation to smoking was analyzed as a Kaplan-Meier survival curve for 11 510 women (aged 30 to 65 years). The risk of entering menopause and experiencing early menopause (before age 48) related to smoking were assessed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Results: The menopausal age among smokers was 0.75 years lower than that among non-smokers (p<0.001). The results of the Cox proportional hazards model showed pre-correction and post-correction risk ratios for entering menopause related to smoking of 1.26 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.09 to 1.46) and 1.27 (95% CI, 1.10 to 1.47), respectively, and pre-correction and post-correction risk ratios for experiencing early menopause related to smoking of 1.36 (95% CI, 1.03 to 1.80) and 1.40 (95% CI, 1.05 to 1.85), respectively. Conclusions: Smokers reached menopause earlier than non-smokers, and their risk for experiencing early menopause was higher. PMID:26265667

  10. Effect of Bisphosphonates on the Levels of Rankl and Opg in Gingival Crevicular Fluid of Patients With Periodontal Disease and Post-menopausal Osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Verde, María E; Bermejo, Daniela; Gruppi, Adriana; Grenón, Miriam

    2015-12-01

    The Receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL)/RANK/Osteoprotegerine (OPG) system has been proposed as essential for osteoclast biology and identified as key part in regulating the physiology and pathology of the skeletal system. The study of the RANKL/RANK/OPG system has increased the understanding of the mechanisms involved in the bone remodeling process, especially in postmenopausal osteoporosis and periodontal disease. Bisphosphonates have become the mainstay of the treatment and prevention of post-menopausal osteoporosis. They inhibit the formation and dissolution of calcium phosphate crystals in bone and also osteoclasts, thus reducing bone turnover.Current investigations relate osteoporosis with the appearance and progression of periodontal disease. Although the etiology of both is different, the bone loss present in both shares several characteristics. Thus, therapy used for osteoporosis can be considered of value in the treatment of periodontal disease. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of RANKL, OPG and their relationship in gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) in patients with periodontal disease and postmenopausal osteoporosis/ osteopenia in relation to consumption of bisphosphonates. We studied 66 periodontal active sites obtained from 17 post- menopausal women patients aged between 45-70 years old with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease. GCF samples were collected using sterile filter paper strips. To determine the concentration of RANKL and OPG, a commercial ELISA assay was used. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio (RANKL/ OPG) were compared with Mann-Whitney U Test. The values of RANKL, OPG and their ratio obtained in patients with osteoporosis/osteopenia and periodontal disease with or without bisphosphonates treatment showed no differences. Bisphosphonates do not alter the concentration of RANKL and OPG and their ratio in the GCF of patients with osteoporosis/ osteopenia and periodontal disease

  11. Equol status and changes in fecal microbiota in menopausal women receiving long-term treatment for menopause symptoms with a soy-isoflavone concentrate

    PubMed Central

    Guadamuro, Lucía; Delgado, Susana; Redruello, Begoña; Flórez, Ana B.; Suárez, Adolfo; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Mayo, Baltasar

    2015-01-01

    The knowledge regarding the intestinal microbial types involved in isoflavone bioavailability and metabolism is still limited. The present work reports the influence of a treatment with isoflavones for 6 months on the fecal bacterial communities of 16 menopausal women, as determined by culturing and culture-independent microbial techniques. Changes in fecal communities were analyzed with respect to the women’s equol-producing phenotype. Compared to baseline, at 1 and 3 months the counts for all microbial populations in the feces of equol-producing women had increased strongly. In contrast, among the non-producers, the counts for all microbial populations at 1 month were similar to those at baseline, and decreased significantly by 3 and 6 months. Following isoflavone intake, major bands in the denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profiles appeared and disappeared, suggesting important changes in majority populations. In some women, increases were seen in the intensity of specific DGGE bands corresponding to microorganisms known to be involved in the metabolism of dietary phytoestrogens (Lactonifactor longoviformis, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Bifidobacterium sp., Ruminococcus sp.). Real-Time quantitative PCR revealed that the Clostridium leptum and C. coccoides populations increased in equol producers, while those of bifidobacteria and enterobacteria decreased, and vice versa in the non-producers. Finally, the Atopobium population increased in both groups, but especially in the non-producers at three months. As the main findings of this study, (i) variations in the microbial communities over the 6-month period of isoflavone supplementation were large; (ii) no changes in the fecal microbial populations that were convincingly treatment-specific were seen; and (iii) the production of equol did not appear to be associated with the presence of, or increase in the population of, any of the majority bacterial types analyzed. PMID:26300856

  12. Sex, women and the menopause: are specialist trainee doctors up for it? A survey of views and attitudes of specialist trainee doctors in Community Sexual & Reproductive Health and Obstetrics & Gynaecology around sexuality and sexual healthcare in the (peri)menopause.

    PubMed

    Gleser, Heike

    2015-03-01

    Sexual health, function and pleasure can contribute significantly towards the wellbeing of (peri-)menopausal women. Healthcare professionals specialising in women's health should therefore be able to provide 'sex-positive' menopause care, which proactively addresses any sexual issues and assesses the need for contraception and prevention of sexually transmitted infections. A survey was used to investigate the views and attitudes of specialist trainee doctors in Community Sexual & Reproductive Health (cSRH) and Obstetrics & Gynaecology towards sexual health in the (peri)menopause as they play a key role in promoting the sexual wellbeing of their patients. The results showed that both study groups had positive attitudes towards sexuality and sexual healthcare of mid-life and older women. However, cSRH trainees had significantly more confidence in dealing with psychosexual problems and perceived significantly less barriers to deliver comprehensive menopausal care within the mostly community-based Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare settings they are working in compared to their mainly hospital-based gynaecological colleagues. Profiting from seemingly better training in the topic cSRH trainees also noticed considerably less embarrassment from their patients when addressing sexual issues. Nonetheless, training needs were identified in both trainee groups.

  13. Efficacy and Safety of Remifemin on Peri-Menopausal Symptoms Induced by Post-Operative GnRH-a Therapy for Endometriosis: A Randomized Study versus Tibolone

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Jiming; Gao, Hongyan; Li, Qin; Cong, Jing; Wu, Jie; Pu, Dahua; Jiang, Guohua

    2014-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate clinical efficacy and safety of Remifemin on peri-menopausal symptoms in endometriosis patients with a post-operative GnRH-a therapy. Material/Methods We treated 116 women who had endometriosis with either Remifemin (n=56) 20 mg bid po or Tibolone (n=60) 2.5 mg qd po for 12 weeks after GnRH-a injection. The efficacy was evaluated by Kupperman menopausal index (KMI), and hot flash/sweating scores. The safety parameters such as liver and renal functions, lipid profile, endometrial thickness, and serum sex hormone level, as well as the incidence of adverse events were recorded. Results (1) After GnRH-a therapy, KMI and hot flash/sweating scores in both groups increased significantly (P<0.05) but we found no significant difference for KMI (2.87±1.40 for Remifemin and 2.70±1.26 for Tibolone) and hot flash/sweating scores (0.94±1.72 for Remifemin and 1.06±1.78 for Tibolone) between the 2 groups (P>0.05). (2) No statistical change was observed in liver or renal functions and lipid profile in both groups before and after the treatment (P>0.05). The post-therapeutic serum FSH, LH, and E2 level and endometrial thickness decreased remarkably in both groups (P<0.05). E2 level in the Remifemin group was obviously lower than that in the Tibolone group (P<0.05), and FSH and LH levels were strongly higher (P<0.05). No significant difference in thickness were found in either group (P>0.05). The Remifemin group had far fewer adverse events than the Tibolone group (P<0. 05). Conclusions Compared with Tibolone, Remifemin had a similar clinical efficacy and was safer for the peri-menopausal symptoms induced by GnRH-a in endometriosis patients. PMID:25321621

  14. Sedentary Lifestyle and High-Carbohydrate Intake are Associated with Low-Grade Chronic Inflammation in Post-Menopause: A Cross-sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Alves, Bruna Cherubini; Silva, Thaís Rasia da; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2016-07-01

    Introduction Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in post menopausal women, and inflammation is involved in the atherosclerosis process. Purpose to assess whether dietary pattern, metabolic profile, body composition and physical activity are associated with low-grade chronic inflammation according to high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels in postmenopausal women. Methods ninety-five postmenopausal participants, with no evidence of clinical disease, underwent anthropometric, metabolic and hormonal assessments. Usual dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire, habitual physical activity was measured with a digital pedometer, and body composition was estimated by bioelectrical impedance analysis. Patients with hs-CRP ≥10 mg/L or using hormone therapy in the last three months before the study were excluded from the analysis. Participants were stratified according to hs-CRP lower or ≥3 mg/L. Sedentary lifestyle was defined as walking fewer than 6 thousand steps a day. Two-tailed Student's t-test, Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney U or Chi-square (χ(2)) test were used to compare differences between groups. A logistic regression model was used to estimate the odds ratio of variables for high hs-CRP. Results participants with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L had higher body mass index (BMI), body fat percentage, waist circumference (WC), triglycerides, glucose, and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) (p = 0.01 for all variables) than women with hs-CRP <3 mg/L. Also, women with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L had a higher glycemic load diet and lower protein intake. Prevalence of sedentary lifestyle (p < 0.01) and metabolic syndrome (p < 0.01) was higher in women with hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L. After adjustment for age and time since menopause, the odds ratio for hs-CRP ≥3 mg/L was higher for sedentary lifestyle (4.7, 95% confidence interval [95%CI] 1.4-15.5) and carbohydrate intake (2.9, 95%CI

  15. Cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women with menopause symptoms: findings from a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Kolu, Päivi; Raitanen, Jani; Nygård, Clas-Håkan; Tomás, Eija; Luoto, Riitta

    2015-01-01

    Menopause is a period that may predispose one to a decrease in muscle strength, cardiorespiratory fitness, and quality of life. A study was carried out to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of physical activity among women displaying symptoms of menopause. The cost-effectiveness analysis was based on data from a six-month randomised controlled trial (n = 151). The women in the intervention group engaged in an unsupervised session of at least 50 minutes of physical activity four times a week. The control group continued their physical activity as before. An incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in terms of maximal oxygen consumption, lean muscle mass, and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) gained. A bootstrap technique was utilised to estimate uncertainty around the point estimate for ICER associated with the intervention. The mean total cost in the intervention group was €1,307 (SEM: €311) and in the control group was €1,253 (SEM: €279, p = 0.10) per person. The mean intervention cost was €208 per person. After six months of the behaviour-change intervention, the ICER was €63 for a 1 ml/kg/min improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness, the additional cost per one-gram increase in lean muscle mass was €126, and the cost per QALY gained was €46. According to the findings, physical activity among menopausal women was cost-effective for cardiorespiratory fitness, for lean muscle mass, and for QALYs gained, since the intervention was more effective than the actions within the control group and the additional effects of physical activity were gained at a very low price. From the societal perspective, the intervention used may promote ability to work and thereby save on further costs associated with early retirement or disability pension if the physical-activity level remains at least the same as during the intervention. PMID:26258804

  16. Promotional Tone in Reviews of Menopausal Hormone Therapy After the Women's Health Initiative: An Analysis of Published Articles

    PubMed Central

    Fugh-Berman, Adriane; McDonald, Christina Pike; Bell, Alicia M.; Bethards, Emily Catherine; Scialli, Anthony R.

    2011-01-01

    Background Even after the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) found that the risks of menopausal hormone therapy (hormone therapy) outweighed benefit for asymptomatic women, about half of gynecologists in the United States continued to believe that hormones benefited women's health. The pharmaceutical industry has supported publication of articles in medical journals for marketing purposes. It is unknown whether author relationships with industry affect promotional tone in articles on hormone therapy. The goal of this study was to determine whether promotional tone could be identified in narrative review articles regarding menopausal hormone therapy and whether articles identified as promotional were more likely to have been authored by those with conflicts of interest with manufacturers of menopausal hormone therapy. Methods and Findings We analyzed tone in opinion pieces on hormone therapy published in the four years after the estrogen-progestin arm of the WHI was stopped. First, we identified the ten authors with four or more MEDLINE-indexed reviews, editorials, comments, or letters on hormone replacement therapy or menopausal hormone therapy published between July 2002 and June 2006. Next, we conducted an additional search using the names of these authors to identify other relevant articles. Finally, after author names and affiliations were removed, 50 articles were evaluated by three readers for scientific accuracy and for tone. Scientific accuracy was assessed based on whether or not the findings of the WHI were accurately reported using two criteria: (1) Acknowledgment or lack of denial of the risk of breast cancer diagnosis associated with hormone therapy, and (2) acknowledgment that hormone therapy did not benefit cardiovascular disease endpoints. Determination of promotional tone was based on the assessment by each reader of whether the article appeared to promote hormone therapy. Analysis of inter-rater consistency found moderate agreement for scientific

  17. Does menopausal status impact urinary continence outcomes following abdominal sacrocolpopexy without anti-incontinence procedures in continent women?

    PubMed Central

    Inan, Abdurrahman Hamdi; Toz, Emrah; Beyan, Emrah; Gurbuz, Tutku; Ozcan, Aykut; Oner, Oznur

    2016-01-01

    Objective: We investigated the impact of menopausal status on urinary continence following abdominal sacrocolpopexy (ASC) without an anti-incontinence procedure in continent women. Methods: We conducted a clinical follow-up study of 137 patients diagnosed with stage 3 or higher pelvic organ prolapse (POP) without urinary incontinence between January 2012 and December 2014. Patients were provided with detailed a priori information pertaining to the abdominal sacrocolpopexy procedure and were invited to attend follow-up visits at 1, 3, 12, and 24 months. Follow-up visits included a gynecological examination, cough test, and validated Urinary Distress Inventory-6 (UDI-6) and Incontinence Impact Questionnaire-7 (IIQ-7) questionnaires. Results: The mean follow-up time for the cohort was 16.5±3.45 months. The study group was divided according to menopausal status: premenopausal (Group-1) and postmenopausal women (Group-II). Anatomical recurrence was not detected during the follow-up period in either group, but de novo stress urinary incontinence was seen in 15 of 53 (28.3%) Group-I patients and in 6 of 84 (7.1%; p < 0.01) Group-II patients. Conclusions: The risk of de novo stress urinary incontinence in postmenopausal women after ASC is low. However, premenopausal patients have a higher incidence of de novo stress incontinence which affect quality of life. PMID:27648027

  18. Management of cardiovascular risk in the peri-menopausal woman: a consensus statement of European cardiologists and gynaecologists.

    PubMed

    Collins, Peter; Rosano, Guiseppe; Casey, Catherine; Daly, Caroline; Gambacciani, Marco; Hadji, Peyman; Kaaja, Risto; Mikkola, Tomi; Palacios, Santiago; Preston, Richard; Simon, Tabassome; Stevenson, John; Stramba-Badiale, Marco

    2007-08-01

    Cardiovascular risk is poorly managed in women, especially during the menopausal transition when susceptibility to cardiovascular events increases. Clear gender differences exist in the epidemiology, symptoms, diagnosis, progression, prognosis, and management of cardiovascular risk. Key risk factors that need to be controlled in the peri-menopausal woman are hypertension, dyslipidaemia, obesity, and other components of the metabolic syndrome, with the avoidance and careful control of diabetes. Hypertension is a particularly powerful risk factor and lowering of blood pressure is pivotal. Hormone replacement therapy is acknowledged as the gold standard for the alleviation of the distressing vasomotor symptoms of the menopause, but the findings of the Women's Health Initiative (WHI) study generated concern for the detrimental effect on cardiovascular events. Thus, hormone replacement therapy cannot be recommended for the prevention of cardiovascular disease. Whether the findings of WHI in older post-menopausal women can be applied to younger peri-menopausal women is unknown. It is increasingly recognized that hormone therapy is inappropriate for older post-menopausal women no longer displaying menopausal symptoms. Both gynaecologists and cardiovascular physicians have an important role to play in identifying peri-menopausal women at risk of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality and should work as a team to identify and manage risk factors such as hypertension.

  19. Coconut oil is associated with a beneficial lipid profile in pre-menopausal women in the Philippines.

    PubMed

    Feranil, Alan B; Duazo, Paulita L; Kuzawa, Christopher W; Adair, Linda S

    2011-01-01

    Coconut oil is a common edible oil in many countries, and there is mixed evidence for its effects on lipid profiles and cardiovascular disease risk. Here we examine the association between coconut oil consumption and lipid profiles in a cohort of 1,839 Filipino women (age 35-69 years) participating in the Cebu Longitudinal Health and Nutrition Survey, a community based study in Metropolitan Cebu. Coconut oil intake was estimated using the mean of two 24-hour dietary recalls (9.5±8.9 grams). Lipid profiles were measured in morning plasma samples collected after an overnight fast. Linear regression models were used to estimate the association between coconut oil intake and each plasma lipid outcome after adjusting for total energy intake, age, body mass index (BMI), number of pregnancies, education, menopausal status, household assets and urban residency. Dietary coconut oil intake was positively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol especially among pre-menopausal women, suggesting that coconut oil intake is associated with beneficial lipid profiles. Coconut oil consumption was not significantly associated with low density lipoprotein cholesterol or triglyceride values. The relationship of coconut oil to cholesterol profiles needs further study in populations in which coconut oil consumption is common.

  20. Increasing iron and zinc in pre-menopausal women and its effects on mood and cognition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lomagno, Karla A; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Nowson, Caryl A; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition.

  1. Menopause, a Self Care Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Maria Cristina; And Others

    Written for women from the three main cultural groups in New Mexico (Native American, Hispanic, and Anglo), this pamphlet discusses the causes and symptoms, some remedies for the symptoms of menopause, and presents ideas for organizing support groups to help middle-aged women and their families deal with menopausal problems. Explanations of the…

  2. Early Menopause (Premature Menopause)

    MedlinePlus

    ... has been called “premature menopause” or “premature ovarian failure.” But a better term is “primary ovarian insufficiency,” ... and what procedures might cause it. Premature Ovarian Failure: Premature Menopause (Copyright © American Pregnancy Association) - This article ...

  3. Women's experience of post-term pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Maimburg, Rikke Damkjaer

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, induction of labour has become increasingly common in many countries and has moved towards an earlier gestational age. The aim of this study was to describe how low-risk pregnant women experienced post-term pregnancy in a large university hospital in Denmark Qualitative interviews were carried out with 31 low-risk pregnant women. Pregnant women passing their estimated time of birth date experienced their last days of pregnancy as a countdown to induction, not as their last days of pregnancy. Categorisation of the women's pregnancy based on medical statistics, and a focus on medical issues caused the women to feel less involved, and contributed to them being willing to negotiate an earlier induction of labour to avoid being stigmatised as pathological patients. PMID:27451487

  4. The Effect of Melatonin on Climacteric Symptoms in Menopausal Women; A Double-Blind, Randomized Controlled, Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    PARANDAVAR, Nehleh; ABDALI, Khadijeh; KESHTGAR, Sara; EMAMGHOREISHI, Maasoumeh; AMOOEE, Seddegheh

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background Menopause is one of the most critical periods of woman’s life. With reducing of ovarian estrogen; women are more prone to psychological and physical symptoms. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of melatonin on the climacteric symptoms. Methods The present double blind, placebo randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 240 menopausal women (40 - 60 years old) referring to the gynecology clinics of Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (January - November 2012). The participants were randomly divided into two groups through sortition. Demographic characteristics, Goldberg’s general health questionnaire (GHQ), Greene Climacteric Scale and level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) were determined for both groups before the intervention. The intervention group received one 3mg melatonin tablet each night for 3 months and the control group received the placebo in the same period. Changes of climacteric symptoms and drug complications were measured 1, 2 and 3 months after the intervention Results We analyzed the data of 99 postmenopausal women in the intervention group and 101 postmenopausal women in the control group. In the melatonin group, the climacteric symptoms score decreased from 35.73+11.6 to 17.09+10.22 during the 3-month study period and regardless of time, a significant difference was observed between the two groups (P<0.001). In addition, a significant difference was found between the two groups regarding various dimensions of the climacteric symptoms over time (P<0.001). No significant difference was found regarding side effects between the two groups (P= 0.135). Conclusion The study findings showed that using melatonin improved the climacteric symptoms. PMID:26060703

  5. Bioidentical hormones, menopausal women, and the lure of the "natural" in U.S. anti-aging medicine.

    PubMed

    Fishman, Jennifer R; Flatt, Michael A; Settersten, Richard A

    2015-05-01

    In 2002, the Women's Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women's risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a "natural" therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body's "natural" processes. The normative assumption that "natural" is inherently "good" not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients' embodied experiences and offering a "holistic" solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women's bodies.

  6. Does menopausal transition really influence mental health? Findings from the prospective long-term Zurich study.

    PubMed

    Rössler, Wulf; Ajdacic-Gross, Vladeta; Riecher-Rössler, Anita; Angst, Jules; Hengartner, Michael P

    2016-06-01

    In the prospective long-term Zurich study, we re-examined the hypothesized association between mental health problems in women and the transition through menopausal stages. One hundred sixty-eight women from a population-based Swiss community cohort were prospectively followed up from age 21 to 50. At age 50, the occurrence of hot flushes/night sweats and sleep disturbances was significantly more frequent in peri- and post-menopausal women. Irritability/nervousness was increased only in peri-menopausal women, but that association was accounted for by neuroticism trait scores at age 30. Transitions to peri- or post-menopause were not related to changes in either the prevalence rates of DSM major depressive episode or anxiety disorders, or the course of psychopathological syndromes as assessed by the Symptom Checklist 90 - Revised. The null associations held when adjusting for duration of reproductive period or age at menopause. Preceding mental health problems between ages 21 and 41, increased neuroticism trait scores at age 30, and concurrent psychosocial distress were significantly related to mental health problems occurring between ages 41 and 50. Depending upon the cut-off point that was chosen, the arbitrary dichotomization of a continuous depression outcome produced spurious associations with the menopausal transition. We conclude that mental health problems between ages 41 and 50 are probably not directly related to the menopausal transition, and that previously reported associations could be false positives due to inadequate dichotomizations, reporting bias, undisclosed multiple adjustments or overfitting. PMID:27265705

  7. Lean Mass and Body Fat Percentage Are Contradictory Predictors of Bone Mineral Density in Pre-Menopausal Pacific Island Women

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Maria; von Hurst, Pamela R.; Beck, Kathryn L.; Shultz, Sarah; Kruger, Marlena C.; O’Brien, Wendy; Conlon, Cathryn A.; Kruger, Rozanne

    2016-01-01

    Anecdotally, it is suggested that Pacific Island women have good bone mineral density (BMD) compared to other ethnicities; however, little evidence for this or for associated factors exists. This study aimed to explore associations between predictors of bone mineral density (BMD, g/cm2), in pre-menopausal Pacific Island women. Healthy pre-menopausal Pacific Island women (age 16–45 years) were recruited as part of the larger EXPLORE Study. Total body BMD and body composition were assessed using Dual X-ray Absorptiometry and air-displacement plethysmography (n = 83). A food frequency questionnaire (n = 56) and current bone-specific physical activity questionnaire (n = 59) were completed. Variables expected to be associated with BMD were applied to a hierarchical multiple regression analysis. Due to missing data, physical activity and dietary intake factors were considered only in simple correlations. Mean BMD was 1.1 ± 0.08 g/cm2. Bone-free, fat-free lean mass (LMO, 52.4 ± 6.9 kg) and age were positively associated with BMD, and percent body fat (38.4 ± 7.6) was inversely associated with BMD, explaining 37.7% of total variance. Lean mass was the strongest predictor of BMD, while many established contributors to bone health (calcium, physical activity, protein, and vitamin C) were not associated with BMD in this population, partly due to difficulty retrieving dietary data. This highlights the importance of physical activity and protein intake during any weight loss interventions to in order to minimise the loss of muscle mass, whilst maximizing loss of adipose tissue. PMID:27483314

  8. Endometriosis after menopause.

    PubMed

    Inceboz, Umit

    2015-08-01

    Endometriosis is a common but an enigmatic disease in which endometrial glands and stroma are found outside the uterus. Worldwide, 80 million women are affected by the disease. It has generally been accepted as a problem of reproductive ages and affects 6-10% of those women. It is more common in women with infertility. Moreover, since it is an estrogen dependent problem, it is generally believed that endometriosis connotes 'active ovarian function' and is 'healed' after the menopause. However, there are reports on endometriosis beyond the reproductive ages. In this article, endometriosis after the menopause will be discussed.

  9. Cognition and the menopause transition.

    PubMed

    Maki, Pauline M; Henderson, Victor W

    2016-07-01

    Complaints about forgetfulness, "brain fog," and difficulty concentrating are common in women transitioning through menopause. Women with these cognitive complaints often express concern about whether these problems are normal, related to menopause, or represent a symptom of Alzheimer disease or another serious cognitive disorder. In this Practice Pearl, we provide a brief summary of the scientific literature on the frequency of cognitive complaints in midlife women, the validity of complaints in relation to performance on standardized cognitive tests, and the influence of menopause on cognitive performance. We then offer recommendations for healthcare providers and women to address cognitive concerns. PMID:27272226

  10. Increasing Iron and Zinc in Pre-Menopausal Women and Its Effects on Mood and Cognition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lomagno, Karla A.; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J.; Booth, Alison O.; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A.; Nowson, Caryl A.; Byrne, Linda K.

    2014-01-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  11. Increasing iron and zinc in pre-menopausal women and its effects on mood and cognition: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Lomagno, Karla A; Hu, Feifei; Riddell, Lynn J; Booth, Alison O; Szymlek-Gay, Ewa A; Nowson, Caryl A; Byrne, Linda K

    2014-11-01

    Iron and zinc are essential minerals often present in similar food sources. In addition to the adverse effects of frank iron and zinc-deficient states, iron insufficiency has been associated with impairments in mood and cognition. This paper reviews current literature on iron or zinc supplementation and its impact on mood or cognition in pre-menopausal women. Searches included MEDLINE complete, Excerpta Medica Database (EMBASE), psychINFO, psychARTICLES, pubMED, ProQuest Health and Medical Complete Academic Search complete, Scopus and ScienceDirect. Ten randomized controlled trials and one non-randomized controlled trial were found to meet the inclusion criteria. Seven studies found improvements in aspects of mood and cognition after iron supplementation. Iron supplementation appeared to improve memory and intellectual ability in participants aged between 12 and 55 years in seven studies, regardless of whether the participant was initially iron insufficient or iron-deficient with anaemia. The review also found three controlled studies providing evidence to suggest a role for zinc supplementation as a treatment for depressive symptoms, as both an adjunct to traditional antidepressant therapy for individuals with a diagnosis of major depressive disorder and as a therapy in its own right in pre-menopausal women with zinc deficiency. Overall, the current literature indicates a positive effect of improving zinc status on enhanced cognitive and emotional functioning. However, further study involving well-designed randomized controlled trials is needed to identify the impact of improving iron and zinc status on mood and cognition. PMID:25405366

  12. Paraneoplastic syndromes revealing ovarian teratoma in young and menopausal women: report of two cases

    PubMed Central

    Boujoual, Majdouline; Hakimi, Ihsan; Kassidi, Farid; Akhoudad, Youssef; Sahel, Nawal; Rkiouak, Adil; Allaoui, Mohamed; Chahdi, Hafsa; Oukabli, Mohamed; Kouach, Jaouad; Moussaoui, Driss Rahali; Dehayni, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Paraneoplastic syndromes are a heterogeneous group of clinical and biological manifestations caused by underling neoplasms. They can reveal ovarian teratoma which express neuroendocrine proteins, or contain mature or immature neural tissue inducing an autoimmune response. The etiological investigation is then crucial to early identification of the tumor in order to optimize the prognosis and to limit neurological sequelae. In case of ovarian teratoma, management is essentially based on surgical resection sometimes associated with immunotherapie. We report two new cases of ovarian teratoma revealed by paraneoplastic syndromes in young and menopausal woman. PMID:27795759

  13. The advantage of letrozole over tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial is consistent in younger postmenopausal women and in those with chemotherapy-induced menopause

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Zhuoxin; Smith, Ian; Price, Karen N.; Thürlimann, Beat; Ejlertsen, Bent; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Regan, Meredith M.; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S.

    2016-01-01

    Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is ineffective in the presence of ovarian estrogen production. Two subpopulations of apparently postmenopausal women might derive reduced benefit from letrozole due to residual or returning ovarian activity: younger women (who have the potential for residual subclinical ovarian estrogen production), and those with chemotherapy-induced menopause who may experience return of ovarian function. In these situations tamoxifen may be preferable to an aromatase inhibitor. Among 4,922 patients allocated to the monotherapy arms (5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen) in the BIG 1-98 trial we identified two relevant subpopulations: patients with potential residual ovarian function, defined as having natural menopause, treated without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and age ≤55 years (n = 641); and those with chemotherapy-induced menopause (n = 105). Neither of the subpopulations examined showed treatment effects differing from the trial population as a whole (interaction P values are 0.23 and 0.62, respectively). Indeed, both among the 641 patients aged ≤55 years with natural menopause and no chemotherapy (HR 0.77 [0.51, 1.16]) and among the 105 patients with chemotherapy-induced menopause (HR 0.51 [0.19, 1.39]), the disease-free survival (DFS) point estimate favoring letrozole was marginally more beneficial than in the trial as a whole (HR 0.84 [0.74, 0.95]). Contrary to our initial concern, DFS results for young postmenopausal patients who did not receive chemotherapy and patients with chemotherapy-induced menopause parallel the letrozole benefit seen in the BIG 1-98 population as a whole. These data support the use of letrozole even in such patients. PMID:21892704

  14. The advantage of letrozole over tamoxifen in the BIG 1-98 trial is consistent in younger postmenopausal women and in those with chemotherapy-induced menopause.

    PubMed

    Chirgwin, Jacquie; Sun, Zhuoxin; Smith, Ian; Price, Karen N; Thürlimann, Beat; Ejlertsen, Bent; Bonnefoi, Hervé; Regan, Meredith M; Goldhirsch, Aron; Coates, Alan S

    2012-01-01

    Letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor, is ineffective in the presence of ovarian estrogen production. Two subpopulations of apparently postmenopausal women might derive reduced benefit from letrozole due to residual or returning ovarian activity: younger women (who have the potential for residual subclinical ovarian estrogen production), and those with chemotherapy-induced menopause who may experience return of ovarian function. In these situations tamoxifen may be preferable to an aromatase inhibitor. Among 4,922 patients allocated to the monotherapy arms (5 years of letrozole or tamoxifen) in the BIG 1-98 trial we identified two relevant subpopulations: patients with potential residual ovarian function, defined as having natural menopause, treated without adjuvant or neoadjuvant chemotherapy and age ≤ 55 years (n = 641); and those with chemotherapy-induced menopause (n = 105). Neither of the subpopulations examined showed treatment effects differing from the trial population as a whole (interaction P values are 0.23 and 0.62, respectively). Indeed, both among the 641 patients aged ≤ 55 years with natural menopause and no chemotherapy (HR 0.77 [0.51, 1.16]) and among the 105 patients with chemotherapy-induced menopause (HR 0.51 [0.19, 1.39]), the disease-free survival (DFS) point estimate favoring letrozole was marginally more beneficial than in the trial as a whole (HR 0.84 [0.74, 0.95]). Contrary to our initial concern, DFS results for young postmenopausal patients who did not receive chemotherapy and patients with chemotherapy-induced menopause parallel the letrozole benefit seen in the BIG 1-98 population as a whole. These data support the use of letrozole even in such patients.

  15. A Study on Perception and Usage Status on Health Functional Foods in Women according to Menopause Status

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Heesook; Lee, Hae-Hyeog

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study was performed to provide a reference base for suggesting proper guidelines for the health of the people by analyzing perception and intake pattern on health functional foods and by identifying needs in pre- and postmenopausal women. Methods We conducted a self-administered survey in women admitted to the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology at a university hospital between July and August, 2014. The survey questionnaire consisted of 8 items on general characteristics, 4 items on awareness on health functional foods, and 16 items on usage status. Results Of all 133 women with ages ranging between 19 to 67 years, postmenopausal women were 57 accounting for 42.9% of all subjects. Mean age was 55.4 ± 6.2 and menopausal age was 49.6 ± 4.3 in the postmenopause group. Mean age was 38.7 ± 9.0 in the postmenopause group. With respect to components of health functional foods, 76.3% of women answered "important" in the postmenopause group, significantly higher than 49.1% in the postmenopause group (P < 0.01). In regard to price, those who answered "important" accounted for the largest percentage in the premenopausal group at 56.6%, and those who answered "moderately important" accounted for 57.9% in the postmenopausal women. A significant difference was found between the two groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion Development of products reflecting consumer needs can be considered. It is important to foster an environment allowing individuals to choose right health functional foods and further studies are warranted. PMID:27152310

  16. Hand osteoarthritis, menopause and menopausal hormone therapy.

    PubMed

    Watt, Fiona E

    2016-01-01

    Hand osteoarthritis (OA) is one of the commonest musculoskeletal conditions, primarily affecting women over the age of 50, typically around the age of the menopause. Symptomatic disease can give rise to substantial pain, impairment of hand function and quality of life, leading to significant socioeconomic cost. There is currently no disease-modifying therapy, representing a huge unmet clinical need. The evidence for a relationship between hand OA and the menopause is summarised. Whether there is evidence for an effect of menopausal hormonal therapy on the incidence, prevalence or severity of symptomatic hand OA is critically reviewed, and gaps in our knowledge identified. Lastly, the potential mechanisms by which estrogen, or newer agents such as SERMs, might act to interfere with disease pathogenesis are overviewed. The need for specifically designed, controlled trials of agents in cohorts with symptomatic hand OA, refractory to standard symptomatic management is highlighted.

  17. Body mass index and colon cancer risk in Chinese people: Menopause as an effect modifier

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Lifang; Ji, Bu-Tian; Blair, Aaron; Dai, Qi; Gao, Yu-Tang; Potter, John D.; Chow, Wong-Ho

    2006-01-01

    High body mass index (BMI) has consistently been associated with increased colon cancer risk in men, but not in women. It is hypothesised that menopause-related changes in oestrogen levels play a role in gender-specific risk patterns. Most studies have been conducted in Western countries, where high incidence rates are coupled with a high prevalence of obesity and relatively common use of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in post-menopausal women. This study evaluated the correlation between body mass index (BMI) and colon cancer risk in a relatively lean population, comprising 931 cases and 1552 controls, in Shanghai, China, where HRT use was extremely rare among women, during 1990–1993. Among men, colon cancer risk significantly increased with increasing BMI (P-trend = 0.005). Among women, the risk varied with age and menopause status in a similar pattern. Within each menopause stratum, however, the BMI-related risk was similar for those aged under 55 years and those aged 55 years and over, indicating a menopause rather than age effect. Among pre-menopausal women, the odds ratios (ORs) for subjects in the highest versus lowest quintile were 1.9 (95% CI 1.1–4.9) for those under 55 years of age, and 2.2 (95% CI 1.4–8.2) for those aged 55 years and over. Among post-menopausal women, the corresponding ORs were 0.6 (95% CI 0.5–0.91) and 0.7 (95% CI 0.5–0.95), respectively. Our findings suggest that BMI predicts colon cancer risk in both genders. Among women, however, the risk is modified by menopause status, possibly through altered endogenous oestrogen levels. PMID:16321519

  18. Hormone replacement therapy and risk of atrial fibrillation in Taiwanese menopause women: A nationwide cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Tsai, Wei-Chung; Haung, Yaw-Bin; Kuo, Hsuan-Fu; Tang, Wei-Hua; Hsu, Po-Chao; Su, Ho-Ming; Lin, Tsung-Hsien; Chu, Chih-Sheng; Jhuo, Shih-Jie; Lee, Kun-Tai; Sheu, Sheng-Hsiung; Chen, Chung-Yu; Wu, Ming-Tsang; Lai, Wen-Ter

    2016-01-01

    Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is associated with risk of vascular disease. The association between atrial fibrillation (AF), vascular events, and different HRTs, including estradiol and conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), has been controversial in previous studies. Thus, we conducted a retrospective cohort study to investigate these associations. Female patients (>45 years old) first diagnosed with menopause were enrolled from National Health Insurance Research Dataset (1998–2008). Cox regression analysis estimated risk of new-onset AF, stroke, and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) after exposure to estradiol or CEE. Of 5489 females (mean age = 55 years) enrolled, 1815 treated with estradiol and 3674 treated with CEE. Incidence per 103 person-years of AF, stroke, and MACE in CEE vs estradiol patients was 2.23 vs. 0.92, 14.0 vs. 9.09, and 15.55 vs. 10.47. As compared with patients treated with estradiol, those treated with CEE had a significantly higher incidence of AF, stroke, and MACE. The adjusted hazard ratios for each category were 1.96, 1.30, and 1.26, respectively. The significant results remained similar, even after use of propensity-score-matched strategy. In conclusion, CEE was associated with a higher risk of AF, stroke, and MACE than estradiol in menopausal females. Further exploration of underlying mechanisms is necessary. PMID:27052889

  19. Novel use of the ovarian follicular pool to postpone menopause and delay osteoporosis.

    PubMed

    Andersen, Claus Yding; Kristensen, Stine Gry

    2015-08-01

    Life expectancy has increased by more than 30 years during the last century and continues to increase. Many women already live decades in menopause deprived of naturally produced oestradiol and progesterone, leading to an increasing incidence of menopause-related disorders such as osteoporosis, cardiovascular diseases and lack of general well-being. Exogenous oestradiol has traditionally been used to alleviate menopause-related effects. This commentary discusses a radical new method to postpone menopause. Part of the enormous surplus of ovarian follicles can now be cryostored in youth for use after menopause. Excision of ovarian tissue will advance menopause marginally and will not reduce natural fertility. Grafted tissue restores ovarian function with circulating concentrations of sex steroids for years in post-menopausal cancer survivors. Future developments may further utilize the enormous store of ovarian follicles. Currently, the main goal of ovarian cryopreservation is fertility preservation, but grafting of ovarian tissue may also serve endocrine functions as a physiological solution to prevent the massive medical legacy of osteoporosis and menopause-related conditions in the ageing population. This intriguing solution is now technically available; the question is whether this method qualifies for postponing menopause, perhaps initially for those patients who already have cryostored tissue?

  20. Menopause. How Exercise Mitigates Symptoms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hargarten, Kathleen M.

    1994-01-01

    During menopause and the climacteric, women experience many changes that can affect nearly every organ system and cause psychological symptoms. This article reviews the specific changes and explains how exercise can address each symptom; outlines a practical approach physicians can use to help menopausal patients improve their quality of life. (SM)

  1. Menopausal hormone therapy and breast cancer: what is the true size of the increased risk?

    PubMed Central

    Jones, Michael E; Schoemaker, Minouk J; Wright, Lauren; McFadden, Emily; Griffin, James; Thomas, Dawn; Hemming, Jane; Wright, Karen; Ashworth, Alan; Swerdlow, Anthony J

    2016-01-01

    Background: Menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) increases breast cancer risk; however, most cohort studies omit MHT use after enrolment and many infer menopausal age. Methods: We used information from serial questionnaires from the UK Generations Study cohort to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) for breast cancer among post-menopausal women with known menopausal age, and examined biases induced when not updating data on MHT use and including women with inferred menopausal age. Results: Among women recruited in 2003–2009, at 6 years of follow-up, 58 148 had reached menopause and 96% had completed a follow-up questionnaire. Among 39 183 women with known menopausal age, 775 developed breast cancer, and the HR in relation to current oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use (based on 52 current oestrogen plus progestogen MHT users in breast cancer cases) relative to those with no previous MHT use was 2.74 (95% confidence interval (CI): 2.05–3.65) for a median duration of 5.4 years of current use, reaching 3.27 (95% CI: 1.53–6.99) at 15+ years of use. The excess HR was underestimated by 53% if oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use was not updated after recruitment, 13% if women with uncertain menopausal age were included, and 59% if both applied. The HR for oestrogen-only MHT was not increased (HR=1.00; 95% CI: 0.66–1.54). Conclusions: Lack of updating MHT status through follow-up and inclusion of women with inferred menopausal age is likely to result in substantial underestimation of the excess relative risks for oestrogen plus progestogen MHT use in studies with long follow-up, limited updating of exposures, and changing or short durations of use. PMID:27467055

  2. The effect of 48 weeks of aerobic exercise training on cutaneous vasodilator function in post-menopausal females.

    PubMed

    Hodges, Gary J; Sharp, Lisa; Stephenson, Claire; Patwala, Ashish Y; George, Keith P; Goldspink, David F; Tim Cable, N

    2010-04-01

    Skin blood flow (SkBF) and endothelial-dependent vasodilatation decline with ageing and can be reversed with exercise training. We tested whether 48 weeks of training could improve SkBF and endothelial function in post-menopausal females; 20 post-menopausal subjects completed the study. SkBF was measured by laser-Doppler flowmetry (LDF). Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as LDF/blood pressure. Resting CVC was measured at 32 degrees C and peak CVC at 42 degrees C. Cutaneous endothelial-dependent and -independent vasodilatations were determined by the iontophoresis of acetylcholine (ACh) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), respectively. All assessments described were performed at entry (week 0), and after 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 weeks of training. Resting CVC measures did not change (P > 0.05) throughout the study. Peak CVC increased (P < 0.05) after 24 weeks (7.2 +/- 1.2 vs. 11.6 +/- 1.4 AU mmHg(-1)) and at the 36- and 48-week assessments (13.0 +/- 1.7 and 14.9 +/- 2.1 AU mmHg(-1), respectively). Responses to ACh also increased (P < 0.05) at the 24-week assessment (5.1 +/- 2.1 vs. 8.55 +/- 2.3 AU mmHg(-1)) and increased further at the 36 and 48-week assessments (11.6 +/- 3.7 and 13.2 +/- 3.9 AU mmHg(-1), respectively). Cutaneous responses to SNP increased (P < 0.05) after 36 weeks (8.7 +/- 2.1 vs. 13.02 +/- 2.23 AU mmHg(-1) at 36 weeks). VO(2max) increased after 12 weeks (23.5 +/- 0.7 vs. 25.4 +/- 0.9 ml kg(-1) min(-1)) and improved (P < 0.05) further throughout the study (31.6 +/- 1.8 ml kg(-1) min(-1) at week 48). Aerobic exercise produces positive adaptations in the cutaneous vasodilator function to local heating as well as in cutaneous endothelial and endothelial-independent vasodilator mechanisms. Aerobic capacity was also significantly improved. These adaptations were further enhanced with progressive increases in exercise intensity.

  3. Menopause accelerates biological aging.

    PubMed

    Levine, Morgan E; Lu, Ake T; Chen, Brian H; Hernandez, Dena G; Singleton, Andrew B; Ferrucci, Luigi; Bandinelli, Stefania; Salfati, Elias; Manson, JoAnn E; Quach, Austin; Kusters, Cynthia D J; Kuh, Diana; Wong, Andrew; Teschendorff, Andrew E; Widschwendter, Martin; Ritz, Beate R; Absher, Devin; Assimes, Themistocles L; Horvath, Steve

    2016-08-16

    Although epigenetic processes have been linked to aging and disease in other systems, it is not yet known whether they relate to reproductive aging. Recently, we developed a highly accurate epigenetic biomarker of age (known as the "epigenetic clock"), which is based on DNA methylation levels. Here we carry out an epigenetic clock analysis of blood, saliva, and buccal epithelium using data from four large studies: the Women's Health Initiative (n = 1,864); Invecchiare nel Chianti (n = 200); Parkinson's disease, Environment, and Genes (n = 256); and the United Kingdom Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development (n = 790). We find that increased epigenetic age acceleration in blood is significantly associated with earlier menopause (P = 0.00091), bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0018), and a longer time since menopause (P = 0.017). Conversely, epigenetic age acceleration in buccal epithelium and saliva do not relate to age at menopause; however, a higher epigenetic age in saliva is exhibited in women who undergo bilateral oophorectomy (P = 0.0079), while a lower epigenetic age in buccal epithelium was found for women who underwent menopausal hormone therapy (P = 0.00078). Using genetic data, we find evidence of coheritability between age at menopause and epigenetic age acceleration in blood. Using Mendelian randomization analysis, we find that two SNPs that are highly associated with age at menopause exhibit a significant association with epigenetic age acceleration. Overall, our Mendelian randomization approach and other lines of evidence suggest that menopause accelerates epigenetic aging of blood, but mechanistic studies will be needed to dissect cause-and-effect relationships further. PMID:27457926

  4. Verbal memory and menopause.

    PubMed

    Maki, Pauline M

    2015-11-01

    Midlife women frequently report memory problems during the menopausal transition. Recent studies validate those complaints by showing significant correlations between memory complaints and performance on validated memory tasks. Longitudinal studies demonstrate modest declines in verbal memory during the menopausal transition and a likely rebound during the postmenopausal stage. Clinical studies that examine changes in memory following hormonal withdrawal and add-back hormone therapy (HT) demonstrate that estradiol plays a critical role in memory. Although memory changes are frequently attributed to menopausal symptoms, studies show that the memory problems occur during the transition even after controlling for menopausal symptoms. It is well established that self-reported vasomotor symptoms (VMS) are unrelated to objective memory performance. However, emerging evidence suggests that objectively measured VMS significantly correlate with memory performance, brain activity during rest, and white matter hyperintensities. This evidence raises important questions about whether VMS and VMS treatments might affect memory during the menopausal transition. Unfortunately, there are no clinical trials to inform our understanding of how HT affects both memory and objectively measured VMS in women in whom HT is indicated for treatment of moderate to severe VMS. In clinical practice, it is helpful to normalize memory complaints, to note that evidence suggests that memory problems are temporary, and to counsel women with significant VMS that memory might improve with treatment.

  5. Migraine and the menopausal transition.

    PubMed

    Martin, Vincent T

    2014-05-01

    The menopausal transition or "perimenopause" represents a time period of turbulent changes in ovarian hormones as middle-aged women progress into menopause. The purpose of this article is to review the literature to determine the effect of the menopausal transition on migraine headaches and to develop a rational treatment approach to these patients. The menopausal transition is divided into early and stages based upon patterns of menstruation and specific reproductive hormones. Studies would suggest that the prevalence of migraine and other climacteric symptoms tend to peak during the late menopausal transition particularly in those with a past history of premenstrual stress disorder. Treatment approaches vary by stage of the menopausal transition and include conventional daily preventatives, mini-prophylaxis and hormonal therapies.

  6. Management of Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Kaunitz, Andrew M.; Manson, JoAnn E.

    2015-01-01

    Most menopausal women experience vasomotor symptoms, with bothersome symptoms often lasting longer than one decade. Hormone therapy (HT) represents the most effective treatment for these symptoms, with oral and transdermal estrogen formulations having comparable efficacy. Findings from the Women’s Health Initiative and other recent randomized clinical trials have helped to clarify the benefits and risks of combination estrogen-progestin and estrogen-alone therapy. Absolute risks observed with HT tended to be small, especially in younger women. Neither regimen affected all-cause mortality rates. Given the lower rates of adverse events on HT among women close to menopause onset and at lower baseline risk of cardiovascular disease, risk stratification and personalized risk assessment appears to represent a sound strategy for optimizing the benefit: risk profile and safety of hormone therapy. Systemic HT should not be arbitrarily stopped at age 65; instead treatment duration should be individualized based on patients’ risk profiles and personal preferences. Genitourinary syndrome of menopause represents a common condition that adversely impacts the quality of life of many menopausal women. Without treatment, symptoms worsen over time. Low-dose vaginal estrogen represents highly effective treatment for this condition. Because custom-compounded hormones have not been tested for efficacy or safety, U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved HT is preferred. A low dose formulation of paroxetine mesylate currently represents the only nonhormonal medication FDA-approved to treat vasomotor symptoms. Gynecologists and other clinicians who remain abreast of data addressing the benefit: risk profile of hormonal and nonhormonal treatments can help menopausal women make sound choices regarding management of menopausal symptoms. PMID:26348174

  7. Bioidentical Hormones, Menopausal Women, and the Lure of the “Natural” in U.S. Anti-Aging Medicine

    PubMed Central

    Fishman, Jennifer R.; Flatt, Michael A.; Settersten, Richard A.

    2015-01-01

    In 2002, the Women’s Health Initiative, a large-scale study of the safety of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women conducted in the United States, released results suggesting that use of postmenopausal HRT increased women’s risks of stroke and breast cancer. In the years that followed, as rates of HRT prescription fell, another hormonal therapy rose in its wake: bioidentical hormone replacement therapy (BHRT). Anti-aging clinicians, the primary prescribers of BHRT, tout it as a safe and effective alternative to treat menopausal symptoms and, moreover, as a preventative therapy for age-related diseases and ailments. Through in-depth interviews with 31 U.S.-based anti-aging clinicians and 25 female anti-aging patients, we analyze attitudes towards BHRT. We illustrate how these attitudes reveal broader contemporary values, discourses, and discomforts with menopause, aging, and biomedicine. The attraction to and promise of BHRT is rooted in the idea that it is a “natural” therapy. BHRT is given both biomedical and embodied legitimacy by clinicians and patients because of its purported ability to become part of the body’s “natural” processes. The normative assumption that “natural” is inherently “good” not only places BHRT beyond reproach, but transforms its use into a health benefit. The clinical approach of anti-aging providers also plays a role by validating patients’ embodied experiences and offering a “holistic” solution to their symptoms, which anti-aging patients see as a striking contrast to their experiences with conventional biomedical health care. The perceived virtues of BHRT shed light on the rhetoric of anti-aging medicine and a deeply complicated relationship between conventional biomedicine, hormonal technologies, and women’s bodies. PMID:25795991

  8. High Vitamin C Intake with High Serum β-Cryptoxanthin Associated with Lower Risk for Osteoporosis in Post-Menopausal Japanese Female Subjects: Mikkabi Cohort Study.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Minoru; Nakamura, Mieko; Ogawa, Kazunori; Ikoma, Yoshinori; Yano, Masamichi

    2016-01-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show that antioxidant vitamins and carotenoids might be beneficial to the maintenance of bone health. Recently, we found that serum carotenoids were inversely associated with the risk of developing osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects. However, little is known about the vitamin alone and/or the combination of the vitamin and carotenoid with the risk of osteoporosis. The objective of this study was to investigate longitudinally whether antioxidant vitamins and their combination with carotenoids are associated with the risk of developing of osteoporosis. We conducted a follow-up study on 187 post-menopausal female subjects from the Mikkabi prospective cohort study. Those who participated in previous bone mineral density (BMD) surveys and completed four years of follow-up were examined longitudinally. During a four-year follow-up, fifteen of the post-menopausal female subjects developed new-onset osteoporosis. After adjustment for confounders, the odds ratios (OR) for osteoporosis in the highest tertiles of vitamins C and E and retinol intakes against the lowest tertiles were 0.15 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.02-0.99), 0.50 (CI: 0.08-3.23), and 1.49 (CI: 0.36-6.22), respectively. Furthermore, a significantly lower odds ratio was observed in the higher vitamin C intake group (169-625 mg/d) with higher serum β-cryptoxanthin (1.88-10.53 μM) against the lower vitamin C intake group (47-168 mg/d) with lower serum β-cryptoxanthin (0.24-1.84 μM) used for the reference group (p<0.05). The combination of β-cryptoxanthin and vitamin C is inversely associated with the risk of developing osteoporosis in post-menopausal Japanese female subjects. PMID:27465725

  9. Do Changes in Sex Steroid Hormones Precede or Follow Increases in Body Weight during the Menopause Transition? Results from The Study of Women's Health Across the Nation

    PubMed Central

    Tepper, Ping G.; Crawford, Sybil; Finkelstein, Joel S.; Sutton-Tyrrell, Kim; Thurston, Rebecca C.; Santoro, Nanette; Sternfeld, Barbara; Greendale, Gail A.

    2012-01-01

    Context: Whether menopause-related changes in sex steroids account for midlife weight gain in women or whether weight drives changes in sex steroids remains unanswered. Objective: The objective of the study was to characterize the potential reciprocal nature of the associations between sex hormones and their binding protein with waist circumference in midlife women. Design, Setting, and Participants: The study included 1528 women (mean age 46 yr) with 9 yr of follow-up across the menopause transition from the observational Study of Women's Health Across the Nation. Main Outcome Measures: Waist circumference, SHBG, testosterone, FSH, and estradiol were measured. Results: Current waist circumference predicted future SHBG, testosterone, and FSH but not vice versa. For each sd higher current waist circumference, at the subsequent visit SHBG was lower by 0.04–0.15 sd, testosterone was higher by 0.08–0.13 sd, and log2 FSH was lower by 0.15–0.26 sd. Estradiol results were distinct from those above, changing direction across the menopause transition. Estradiol and waist circumference were negatively associated in early menopausal transition stages and positively associated in later transition stages (for each sd higher current waist circumference, future estradiol was lower by 0.15 sd in pre- and early perimenopause and higher by 0.38 sd in late peri- and postmenopause; P for interaction <0.001). In addition, they appeared to be reciprocal, with current waist circumference associated with future estradiol and current estradiol associated with future waist circumference. However, associations in the direction of current waist circumference predicting future estradiol levels were of considerably larger magnitude than the reverse. Conclusions: These Study of Women's Health Across the Nation data suggest that the predominant temporal sequence is that weight gain leads to changes in sex steroids rather than vice versa. PMID:22723312

  10. Effect of Combining Therapy with Traditional Chinese Medicine-Based Psychotherapy and Herbal Medicines in Women with Menopausal Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Hongyan; Yang, Jing; Wen, Zehuai; Zha, Qinglin; Nie, Guangning; Huang, Xuchun; Zhang, Chunlin; Lu, Aiping; Jiang, Miao; Wang, Xiaoyun

    2012-01-01

    This multicenter, randomized, controlled clinical study was designed to address the effectiveness of combined traditional-Chinese-medicine- (TCM-) based psychotherapy and Chinese herbal medicine (CHM) in the treatment of menopausal syndrome. Altogether 424 eligible women diagnosed as menopausal syndrome and categorized as Kidney-Yin/Kidney-Yang deficiency pattern in TCM were randomly assigned into 4 groups and accepted TCM-based psychotherapy (PSY), CHM, PSY + CHM, or placebo therapies, respectively, for 12 weeks, and another 12 weeks were taken as the followup. Kupperman Index (KI) and the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) with its four subscales (vasomotor, physical, psychosocial, and sexual) were employed for efficacy assessment. Results showed that 400 participants completed 12-week treatment, of which 380 finished the record of KI and MENQOF at week 24. The average adjusted number of KI score decreased between baseline and 12 weeks in all groups. Statistically significant differences were detected in the average adjusted change between the PSY + CHM group and placebo at overall time points (P < 0.05). No severe adverse events occurred in each group and no significant differences were indicated between any of the three groups and placebo in adverse event proportion. We concluded that TCM psychotherapy combined with CHM has a favorable outcome in treating menopausal syndrome. PMID:23304198

  11. An innovative metal base denture design for a 55-year-old menopausal woman

    PubMed Central

    Bhatia, Vishwas; Bhatia, Garima; Jain, Nitul; Jadon, Ashwani Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Menopause is a normal developmental stage in a woman's life, marking the permanent cessation of menstruation resulting from irreversible changes in the hormonal and reproductive functions of the ovaries and is associated with a large number of symptoms ranging from physical to psychological. Some of the common oral manifestations are oral burning sensation with associated mucosal infections, pain, altered taste perception, and alveolar bone loss. These symptoms may unfavorably affect oral health and treatment needs requiring dentists to devise newer methods that would add along to the treatment modalities advised by gynecologists in relieving menopausal women from above symptoms. The present case report describes an innovative method of fabricating a metal base denture in an edentulous female that would help perimenopausal/menopausal/post-menopausal edentulous women feel hot/cold sensations of food/liquids, thereby giving them relief from pain, better taste perception, and relief from associated allergic and candidal infections that are common with conventional acrylic base dentures. PMID:24082754

  12. Hormone Treatment Restores Bone Density for Young Women with Menopause-Like Condition (Primary Ovarian Insufficiency)

    MedlinePlus

    ... determine the effects of hormone treatment on bone mineral density of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Researchers ... insufficiency (POI) led to increases in their bone mineral density, restoring levels to normal. The study was ...

  13. Placebo-controlled cross-over study of effects of Org OD 14 in menopausal women.

    PubMed

    Kicovic, P M; Cortés-Prieto, J; Luisi, M; Milojevic, S; Franchi, F

    1982-01-01

    A double-blind cross-over study with Org OD 14 and placebo was performed in 82 menopausal patients presenting with hot flushes and associated symptoms. Patients were randomly allocated to Org OD 14 or placebo as first treatment, and switched to placebo or Org OD 14 as second treatment. Each treatment period lasted for 16 weeks; no wash-out period was introduced. Tablets containing 2.5 mg of Org OD 14 or matched placebo tablets were supplied. Data on the following variables were obtained and analysed by the non-parametric randomization test for paired observations: hot flushes, sweating, dizziness, palpitations, fatiguability, headache, sleeplessness, irritability, breathlessness, backache and loss of libido and, in 16 patients, on circulating levels of FSH, LH, PRL, T3, T4, cortisol (F), SHBG, TBG and CBG. Twenty patients (13 placebo, 7 Org OD 14) withdrew, because their symptoms did not improve and one patient withdrew for reasons unrelated to treatment, so that 61 patients completed the study. The data demonstrated a good clinical effect and statistically significant differences in favour of Org OD 14 for hot flushes and a number of associated symptoms. Many patients reported on a general feeling of well being and a mood-elevating effect following Org OD 14. Org OD 14 significantly suppressed FSH and LH levels, while those of PRL remained unchanged. Although there was slight suppression of TBG and T4 which attained statistical significance, there was no influence on the most important parameter, T3. SHBG levels were slightly suppressed, whereas F and CBG levels were unaffected.

  14. [Arterial hypertension in menopausal women: Clinical, functional, and pharmaco-economical aspects].

    PubMed

    Gel'tser, B I; Kotel'nikov, V N; Khludeeva, T A

    2003-01-01

    The study was undertaken to define the specific features of daily variations of blood pressure (BP) and autonomic cardiac regulation (ACR), as well as the functional status of the myocardium and vascular endothelium in females with menopausal arterial hypertension (MPAH) and to assess the pharmacotherapeutic and economical aspects of the combined use of arifon retard and clinonorm. The study enrolled 30 reproductive females with mild and moderate arterial hypertension (AH) and 65 females with MPAH who were randomly divided into 2 groups according to the therapeutic model. MPAH was characterized by more unfavorable hemodynamic changes that AH in the presence of preserved fertile function: greater load on target organs, elevated BP, its inadequate nocturnal lowering, greater BP variations, the magnitude and rate of its morning elevation. In AH, the vasomotor function of the endothelium varies with the clinical form of the disease and with the functional status of the female reproductive system. By and large, in the group of patients with MPAH, the latter was characterized by a more significant decrease in endothelium-dependent vasodilation (EDVD). Arifon retard monotherapy has an adequate antihypertensive effect in female patients with MPAH, by ensuring 24-hour control of BP and affecting its chronostructure. A combination of arifon retard and climonorm has no cumulative effect on the level of BP and on the parameters of pressure-induced load; however, this is a pathogenetically grounded combination that potentiates the positive effects of a diuretic in significantly improving EDVD and ACR. The use of arifon retard in combination with climonorm in MPAH is the most cost-effective for public health care facilities and effective for patients. The course of MPAH is of certain peculiarity, which should be taken into account in choosing a therapeutic model for this category of patients.

  15. Associations Between the Periodontal Disease in Women Before Menopause and Menstrual Cycle Irregularity: The 2010-2012 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Han, Kyungdo; Ko, Youngkyung; Park, Yong Gyu; Park, Jun-Beom

    2016-02-01

    The association between menstrual cycle irregularities and system disease has been evaluated in previous studies. However, the association between periodontal disease and menstrual cycle irregularity has not been fully investigated. The study aimed to evaluate the relationship between periodontal disease and tooth loss in women before menopause and menstrual cycle irregularity using nationally representative data.This study performed a cross-sectional analysis and used hierarchical multivariable logistic regression analysis models. Data from Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) between 2010 and 2012 were analyzed. The analysis in this study was confined to a total of 1553 respondents over 19 years old who had not gone through menopause and had no missing values for the reproductive factors and outcome variables. A community periodontal index was greater than or equal to code 3 was used to define periodontal treatment needs.The risk of periodontal treatment needs tended to increase in the presence of menstrual cycle irregularity after adjustment for potential confounders (P for trend in the odds ratios = .0481 in model 1; 0.0613 in model 2; 0.0369 in model 3; 0.0456 in model 4). The number of natural teeth of 28 did not reach statistically significant differences (P for trend in the odds ratios = 0.2204 in model 1; 0.2373 in model 2; 0.2814 in model 3; 0.2609 in model 4).Menstrual cycle irregularity was positively associated with the risk of periodontal treatment needs in Korean women before menopause. However, there was no significant association between tooth loss and menstrual cycle irregularity. Menstrual cycle irregularity may be considered to be a potential risk indicator for periodontal treatment needs in Korean women before menopause.

  16. Treatment of generalized hyperhidrosis with oxybutynin in post-menopausal patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Won Oak; Kil, Hae Keum; Yoon, Kyung Bong; Yoo, Ji Hyun

    2010-05-01

    Postmenopausal hyperhidrosis is a form of secondary hyperhidrosis, and hormone-replacement therapy is a commonly used therapeutic option. However, some women do not benefit from this treatment, and oral anticholinergics are a logical alternative for reducing generalized sweating in these patients. Twenty-one patients were medicated with 5 or 10 mg of oxybutynin per day. After a 3-month follow-up period, efficacy was assessed with the Hyperhidrosis Disease Severity Scale (HDSS) and the Dermatology Life Quality Index (DLQI) was used to assess the improvement in patients' quality of life. The HDSS score was 3.2 +/- 0.4 (mean +/- SD) before medication and 1.9 +/- 0.4 after 3 months. The baseline DLQI score of 8.4 +/- 1.0 was reduced to 4.4 +/- 0.9. No serious side-effects or adverse events resulted from treatment. Oxybutynin was a well-tolerated, effective, and safe method for treating postmenopausal sweating. However, long-term medication and the limited effects of the treatment were disadvantages. PMID:20526549

  17. Impact of pedometer-based walking on menopausal women's sleep quality: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, M; Abedi, P; Farshadbakht, F

    2016-08-01

    Objective Sleep disturbances are one of the most common psycho-physiological issues among postmenopausal women. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of walking with a pedometer on the sleep quality of postmenopausal Iranian women. Methods This randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 112 women who were randomly assigned to two groups. The women in the intervention group (n = 56) were asked to walk with a pedometer each day for 12 weeks and to increase their walking distance by 500 steps per week. A sociodemographic instrument and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to collect data. Sleep quality was measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after intervention. The control group (n = 56) did not receive any intervention. Results After 12 weeks, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction improved to a significantly greater extent in the intervention group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The total sleep quality score was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (0.64 vs. 0.98, p = 0.001). Conclusion This study showed that walking with a pedometer is an easy and cost-effective way to improve the quality of sleep among postmenopausal women. Use of this method in public health centers is recommended.

  18. Impact of pedometer-based walking on menopausal women's sleep quality: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tadayon, M; Abedi, P; Farshadbakht, F

    2016-08-01

    Objective Sleep disturbances are one of the most common psycho-physiological issues among postmenopausal women. This study was designed to evaluate the impact of walking with a pedometer on the sleep quality of postmenopausal Iranian women. Methods This randomized, controlled trial was conducted on 112 women who were randomly assigned to two groups. The women in the intervention group (n = 56) were asked to walk with a pedometer each day for 12 weeks and to increase their walking distance by 500 steps per week. A sociodemographic instrument and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index were used to collect data. Sleep quality was measured at baseline, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after intervention. The control group (n = 56) did not receive any intervention. Results After 12 weeks, subjective sleep quality, sleep latency, sleep duration, habitual sleep efficiency, sleep disturbances, use of sleeping medication, and daytime dysfunction improved to a significantly greater extent in the intervention group than in the control group (p < 0.05). The total sleep quality score was significantly higher in the intervention group than in the control group (0.64 vs. 0.98, p = 0.001). Conclusion This study showed that walking with a pedometer is an easy and cost-effective way to improve the quality of sleep among postmenopausal women. Use of this method in public health centers is recommended. PMID:26757356

  19. Metabolic syndrome in menopausal transition: Isfahan Healthy Heart Program, a population based study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction There is a remarkable increase in cardiovascular disease after menopause. On the other hand, metabolic syndrome as a collection of risk factors has a known effect on cardiovascular diseases. Hormone changes are considered as one of the main relevant factor regarding cardiovascular disease as well as some recognized relationship with metabolic syndrome's components. This study was carried out in order to search for prevalence of metabolic syndrome during menopausal transition. Method In a cross sectional study in urban and rural areas of Isfahan, Najafabad and Arak cities, 1596 women aged more than 45 years were investigated using Isfahan Healthy Heart Program's (IHHP) samples. Participants were categorized into three groups of pre-menopause, menopause and post-menopause. Leisure time physical activity and global dietary index were included as life style factors. The association of metabolic syndrome and its components with menopausal transition considering other factors such as age and life style was analyzed. Results there were 303, 233 and 987 women in premenopausal, early menopausal and postmenopausal groups respectively. Metabolic syndrome was found in 136(44.9%) premenopausal participants and significantly increased to 135(57.9%) and 634(64.3%) in early menopausal and postmenopausal participants respectively, when age was considered (P = 0.010). Except for hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia, there was no significant difference between three groups of menopausal transition when metabolic syndrome's components were considered. Conclusion In contrary to the claims regarding the role of waist circumference and blood glucose in increasing of metabolic syndrome during the menopausal transition, this study showed this phenomenon could be independence of them. PMID:20923542

  20. Polymorphisms in the BRCA1 and ABCB1 genes modulate menopausal hormone therapy associated breast cancer risk in postmenopausal women.

    PubMed

    2010-04-01

    Menopausal hormone therapy (HT) is associated with an increased breast cancer risk among postmenopausal women. In this study, we investigated genetic effect modification of HT associated breast cancer risk in 3,149 postmenopausal breast cancer patients and 5,489 controls from the two German population-based case-control studies MARIE and GENICA. Twenty-eight polymorphisms of 14 candidate genes including two drug and hormone transporter genes (ABCB1/MDR1 and SHBG), four genes involved in cell cycle regulation (BRCA1, P21/CDKN1A, STK15/AURKA and TP53), six cytokine genes (IGFBP3, IL6, TGFB1, TNF, LTA and IGF1), and two cytokine receptor genes (EGFR and ERBB2) were genotyped using validated methods. Conditional logistic regression was used to assess multiplicative statistical interaction between polymorphisms and duration of estrogen-progestagen therapy and estrogen monotherapy use with regard to breast cancer risk assuming log-additive and co-dominant modes of inheritance. Women homozygous for the major ABCB1_rs2214102_G allele were found to be at a significantly increased breast cancer risk associated with combined estrogen-progestagen therapy [odds ratio (OR) = 1.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.12-1.23, P (interaction) = 0.022]. Additionally, risk associated with estrogen monotherapy was modified by BRCA1_rs799917. We observed a trend with increasing minor T alleles leading to the highest risk in homozygous carriers of the minor allele [OR (95% CI) = 1.17 (0.98-1.39), 1.06 (0.98-1.14), and 1.02 (0.94-1.11) for homozygous minor, heterozygous, and homozygous major allele carriers, respectively; P (interaction) = 0.032]. Our results suggest that genetic variants in ABCB1 and BRCA1 may modify the effect of HT on postmenopausal breast cancer risk.

  1. Influence of SULT1A1 genetic variation on age at menopause, estrogen levels, and response to hormone therapy in recently postmenopausal white women

    PubMed Central

    Moyer, Ann M.; de Andrade, Mariza; Weinshilboum, Richard M.; Miller, Virginia M.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective: Onset and symptoms of menopause, and response to hormone therapy (HT) show large interindividual variability. SULT1A1 encodes for a highly expressed enzyme that metabolizes estrogens. We evaluated the relationship between genetic variation in SULT1A1, menopause age, symptoms, and response to HT. Methods: Women enrolled in the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study at Mayo Clinic were randomized to 48 months of treatment with oral conjugated equine estrogen (n = 34), transdermal 17β-estradiol (E2) (n = 33), or placebo (n = 35). Linear regression models and ANOVA were used to test for association of SULT1A1 copy number, rs3760091, rs750155, and rs9282861 (SULT1A1∗2), with age at menopause and symptoms, levels of estrogens (estrone [E1], estrone sulfate [E1S], E2, and estradiol sulfate [E2S]), before and after HT. Results: SULT1A1 gene copy number affected the minor allele frequency for each single nucleotide polymorphisms tested. Before administration of exogenous hormones, increasing number of G alleles at rs9282861 was associated with earlier age at menopause (P = 0.014), lower frequency of night sweats (P = 0.009), and less severe insomnia (P = 0.046). After 48 months of treatment, SULT1A1 genotype was not associated with the presence of menopausal symptoms. In women randomized to oral conjugated equine estrogen, increasing number of the A allele at rs750155 was associated with lower E1S and E2S (P = 0.004 and 0.017), whereas increasing number of the C allele at rs3760091 was associated with lower E2S/E2 (P = 0.044). Conclusions: Interindividual variability in onset of menopause and symptoms before initiation of HT is explained in part by genetic variation in SULT1A1 and may represent a step toward individualizing HT treatment decisions. PMID:27300114

  2. Mystified by Menopause? A Major Life Transition

    MedlinePlus

    ... because there are 40 million menopausal or postmenopausal women right now in this country, and a growing number are entering menopause each year,” says Dr. Howard N. Hodis, a cardiovascular ... period. On average, women have their last period around age 51, but ...

  3. Quality of Life in Infertile Menopausal Women; Development and Psychometric of an Instrument

    PubMed Central

    Direkvand-Moghadam, Ashraf; Montazeri, Ali; Sayehmiri, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction So far few studies have been designed to evaluate the quality of life instrument in infertile women. Aim The present study was decided to design a valid and reliable instrument to assess quality of life in Iranian infertile women in postmenopausal period. Materials and Methods Both quantitative and qualitative research methods were applied. The process was divided into three main stages including: instrument development, instrument validity and instrument reliability. Instrument development used three main steps, including determining content domain, item generation and instrument construction. Instrument was validated using face validity, content validity and factor analysis. Both internal consistency and test–retest reliability methods were used to confirm the reliability of the questionnaire. Results During content development, domain step obtained 83 items in all demission of life in infertile women. In the qualitative and quantitative face validity, 25 items had item impact less than 1.5 and were excluded from the questionnaire. In the content validity section, 17 items failure to obtain necessary score based on Lawshe formula, so were excluded from the questionnaire. Overall, 8 factors were extracted by factor analysis test. However, 67.38% of the total variance was explained by 4 factors, other 4 next factors explained the remaining 32.62% of the total variance. Totally, 34.01% of rotation variance was explained by first factor and 24.37% by second factor. In questionnaire internal consistency, 8 items had Cronbach’s alpha 0.942. Conclusion Therefore, we recommend the use of present questionnaire as a valid tool to evaluate the quality of life in infertile women during postmenopausal period. PMID:27504311

  4. Cooking with biomass increases the risk of depression in pre-menopausal women in India.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Madhuchhanda; Siddique, Shabana; Dutta, Anindita; Mukherjee, Bidisha; Ranjan Ray, Manas

    2012-08-01

    Cooking with biomass fuel, a common practice in rural India, is associated with a high level of indoor air pollution (IAP). The aim of this study was to investigate whether IAP from biomass burning increases the risk of depression. For this cross-sectional study, we enrolled a group of 952 women (median age 37 years) who cooked regularly with biomass and a control group of 804 age-matched women who cooked with cleaner fuel (liquefied petroleum gas). Depression was assessed using the second edition of Beck's depression inventory (BDI-II). Platelet P-selectin expression was assessed by flow cytometry and platelet serotonin was measured by ELISA. Particulate matter having diameter of less than 10 and 2.5 μm (PM(10) and PM(2.5), respectively) in indoor air was measured by real-time aerosol monitor. Carbon monoxide (CO) in exhaled breath was measured by CO monitor. Compared with the control group, women who cooked with biomass had a higher prevalence of depression and depleted platelet serotonin, suggesting altered serotonergic activity in the brain. In addition, P-selectin expression on platelet surface was up-regulated implying platelet hyperactivity and consequent risk of cardiovascular disease. Biomass-using households had increased levels of PM(10) and PM(2.5), and biomass users had elevated levels of CO in expired air. Controlling potential confounders, cooking with biomass was found to be an independent and strong risk factor for depression. IAP from cooking with biomass is a risk for depression among rural women in their child-bearing age.

  5. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups

    PubMed Central

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause. PMID:24966311

  6. A test of the intergenerational conflict model in Indonesia shows no evidence of earlier menopause in female-dispersing groups.

    PubMed

    Snopkowski, Kristin; Moya, Cristina; Sear, Rebecca

    2014-08-01

    Menopause remains an evolutionary puzzle, as humans are unique among primates in having a long post-fertile lifespan. One model proposes that intergenerational conflict in patrilocal populations favours female reproductive cessation. This model predicts that women should experience menopause earlier in groups with an evolutionary history of patrilocality compared with matrilocal groups. Using data from the Indonesia Family Life Survey, we test this model at multiple timescales: deep historical time, comparing age at menopause in ancestrally patrilocal Chinese Indonesians with ancestrally matrilocal Austronesian Indonesians; more recent historical time, comparing age at menopause in ethnic groups with differing postmarital residence within Indonesia and finally, analysing age at menopause at an individual-level, assuming a woman facultatively adjusts her age at menopause based on her postmarital residence. We find a significant effect only at the intermediate timescale where, contrary to predictions, ethnic groups with a history of multilocal postnuptial residence (where couples choose where to live) have the slowest progression to menopause, whereas matrilocal and patrilocal ethnic groups have similar progression rates. Multilocal residence may reduce intergenerational conflicts between women, thus influencing reproductive behaviour, but our results provide no support for the female-dispersal model of intergenerational conflict as an explanation of menopause.

  7. Boceprevir is highly effective in treatment-experienced hepatitis C virus-positive genotype-1 menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Bernabucci, Veronica; Ciancio, Alessia; Petta, Salvatore; Karampatou, Aimilia; Turco, Laura; Strona, Silvia; Critelli, Rosina; Todesca, Paola; Cerami, Caterina; Sagnelli, Caterina; Rizzetto, Mario; Cammà, Calogero; Villa, Erica

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the safety/efficacy of Boceprevir-based triple therapy in hepatitis C virus (HCV)-G1 menopausal women who were historic relapsers, partial-responders and null-responders. METHODS: In this single-assignment, unblinded study, we treated fifty-six menopausal women with HCV-G1, 46% F3-F4, and previous PEG-α/RBV failure (7% null, 41% non-responder, and 52% relapser) with 4 wk lead-in with PEG-IFNα2b/RBV followed by PEG-IFNα2b/RBV+Boceprevir for 32 wk, with an additional 12 wk of PEG-IFN-α-2b/RBV if patients were HCV-RNA-positive by week 8. In previous null-responders, 44 wk of triple therapy was used. The primary objective of retreatment was to verify whether a sustained virological response (SVR) (HCV RNA undetectable at 24 wk of follow-up) rate of at least 20% could be obtained. The secondary objective was the evaluation of the percent of patients with negative HCV RNA at week 4 (RVR), 8 (RVR BOC), 12 (EVR), or at the end-of-treatment (ETR) that reached SVR. To assess the relationship between SVR and clinical and biochemical parameters, multiple logistic regression analysis was used. RESULTS: After lead-in, only two patients had RVR; HCV-RNA was unchanged in all but 62% who had ≤ 1 log10 decrease. After Boceprevir, HCV RNA became undetectable at week 8 in 32/56 (57.1%) and at week 12 in 41/56 (73.2%). Of these, 53.8% and 52.0%, respectively, achieved SVR. Overall, SVR was obtained in 25/56 (44.6%). SVR was achieved in 55% previous relapsers vs. 41% non-responders (P = 0.250), in 44% F0-F2 vs 54% F3-F4 (P = 0.488), and in 11/19 (57.9%) of patients with cirrhosis. At univariate analysis for baseline predictors of SVR, only previous response to antiviral therapy (OR = 2.662, 95%CI: 0.957-6.881, P = 0.043), was related with SVR. When considering “on treatment” factors, 1 log10 HCV RNA decline at week 4 (3.733, 95%CI: 1.676-12.658, P = 0.034) and achievement of RVR BOC (7.347, 95%CI: 2.156-25.035, P = 0.001) were significantly related with the

  8. Low-Grade Inflammation, Oxidative Stress and Risk of Invasive Post-Menopausal Breast Cancer - A Nested Case-Control Study from the Malmö Diet and Cancer Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Dias, Joana A.; Fredrikson, Gunilla N.; Ericson, Ulrika; Gullberg, Bo; Hedblad, Bo; Engström, Gunnar; Borgquist, Signe; Nilsson, Jan; Wirfält, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    Objective Although cancer promotes inflammation, the role of inflammation in tumor-genesis is less well established. The aim was to examine if low-grade inflammation is related to post-menopausal breast cancer risk, and if obesity modifies this association. Methods In the Malmö Diet and Cancer cohort, a nested case-control study was defined among 8,513 women free of cancer and aged 55–73 years at baseline (1991–96); 459 were diagnosed with invasive breast cancer during follow-up (until December 31st, 2010). In laboratory analyses of blood from 446 cases, and 885 controls (matched on age and date of blood sampling) we examined systemic inflammation markers: oxidized (ox)-LDL, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-8, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, white blood cells, lymphocytes and neutrophils. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for breast cancer risk was calculated using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Results Inverse associations with breast cancer were seen in fully-adjusted models, for 2nd and 3rd tertiles of ox-LDL, OR (95% CI): 0.65 (0.47–0.90), 0.63 (0.45–0.89) respectively, p-trend = 0.01; and for the 3rd tertile of TNF-α, 0.65 (0.43–0.99), p-trend = 0.04. In contrast, those in the highest IL-1β category had higher risk, 1.71 (1.05–2.79), p-trend = 0.01. Obesity did not modify associations between inflammation biomarkers and breast cancer. Conclusion Our study does not suggest that low-grade inflammation increase the risk of post-menopausal breast cancer. PMID:27391324

  9. Changes in 5-hydroxytryptamine and cortisol plasma levels in menopausal women after inhalation of clary sage oil.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kyung-Bok; Cho, Eun; Kang, Young-Sook

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the antidepressant-like effects of clary sage oil on human beings by comparing the neurotransmitter level change in plasma. The voluntary participants were 22 menopausal women in 50's. Subjects were classified into normal and depression tendency groups using each of Korean version of Beck Depression Inventory-I (KBDI-I), KBDI-II, and Korean version of Self-rating Depression Scale. Then, the changes in neurotransmitter concentrations were compared between two groups. After inhalation of clary sage oil, cortisol levels were significantly decreased while 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) concentration was significantly increased. Thyroid stimulating hormone was also reduced in all groups but not statistically significantly. The different change rate of 5-HT concentration between normal and depression tendency groups was variable according to the depression measurement inventory. When using KBDI-I and KBDI-II, 5-HT increased by 341% and 828% for the normal group and 484% and 257% for the depression tendency group, respectively. The change rate of cortisol was greater in depression tendency groups compared with normal groups, and this difference was statistically significant when using KBDI-II (31% vs. 16% reduction) and Self-rating Depression Scale inventory (36% vs. 8.3% reduction). Among three inventories, only KBDI-II differentiated normal and depression tendency groups with significantly different cortisol level. Finally, clary sage oil has antidepressant-like effect, and KBDI-II inventory may be the most sensitive and valid tool in screening for depression status or severity.

  10. [Contemporary views on use of estrogen replacement therapy in postmenopausal women. I. Hormone therapy in women with menopausal osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Krasomski, G

    1995-01-01

    Osteoporosis is a great problem in postmenopausal women. It begins 4--5 years after a last period and appears in clinical form in about 25-44% women. Basic irregularity is osteopenia as a result of bone resorption superiority. Many observations lead to conclusion that postmenopausal osteoporosis follows estrogens deficiency, that play a substantial role in bone metabolism. Estrogen therapy reverses a process of osteoporosis. Periodic treatment, with use of progestogens, should be performed, under condition of close endometrium and breast control. Progestogens also increase, depending on dose and kind of hormone, mechanisms preventing bone mass lost. PMID:8522210

  11. The Effect of Some Polymorphisms in Vitamin D Receptor Gene in Menopausal Women with Osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Dehghan, Morteza

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Vitamin D receptor gene is one of candidate genes related to osteoporosis expansion. The association of ApaI, TaqI, BsmI polymorphisms in vitamin D receptor gene with bone metabolism and density has been area of interest in many studies. Aim This study was conducted to further investigate the association between the ApaI, TaqI, BsmI polymorphisms and bone density. This study was analytical study. Centers for bone density measurement in southwestern Iran. Materials and Methods In this analytical study, 200 participants aged 45- and above 45-year-old women referring the centers of bone density measurement participated. The bone density of femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae was measured using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry method. Based on t-score, the participants were assigned into patients (n=130) and healthy individuals (n=70). Different genotypes of ApaI (AA/Aa/aa), TaqI (TT/Tt/tt), and BsmI (BB/Bb/bb) were determined by PCR-RFLP. The data on bone density and PCR-RFLP were analysed by chi-square and ANOVA. Also, triad combination of the genotypes was statistically analysed. For each genotype combination, chi-square was run between the patients and control group and p-value was calculated. Results No significant association was seen between ApaI polymorphism and bone density (p>0.05). TaqI and BsmI polymorphisms had a significant association with femoral neck’s bone density (p<0.05), but these polymorphisms were not significantly associated with lumbar vertebrae’s (p>0.05). Patients with homozygous dominant TT genotype had the least bone density in femoral neck compared to other genotypes. Lumbar vertebrae’s bone density was similar in three TaqI genotypes. The patients with homozygous recessive bb genotype had the least bone density in femoral neck and lumbar vertebrae compared to other genotypes. Conclusion TaqI and BsmI polymorphisms could be desirable markers in diagnosis of women at risk of osteoporosis in the studied region in Iran

  12. [Phytoestrogens and menopause].

    PubMed

    Torella, M; La Rezza, F; Labriola, D; Ammaturo, F P; Ambrosio, D; Zarcone, R; Trotta, C; Schettino, M T; De Franciscis, P

    2013-12-01

    Menopause is the interruption of menstrual and reproductive capacity, therefore, that occurs naturally in all women between 48 and 55 years, due to a lower production of gonadal steroids. The period becomes progressively irregular and lack of ovulation and menstrual flow decrease, and finally disappears. The time between the first symptoms and the cessation of the menstrual cycle is called menopause. With the onset of menopause the woman undergoes a series of changes related to estrogen deficiency, which occur in all tissues of the body. In this period one can distinguish an early stage, characterized by hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats and insomnia, and a late phase in which we highlight more symptoms related to the interruption of hormonal such as osteoporosis, obesity, at urogenital and increased incidence of cardiovascular disease. In Italy, only 5.2% of women aged 45-64 years used hormone replacement therapy, and only 20-30% follow a therapy for more than two years, both for psychological reasons, and for fear of side effects. Not surprisingly, therefore, phytoestrogens are given a high importance, as they are considered a natural alternative tank to to their plant origin. Interest in phytoestrogens was born from the observation that postmenopausal women who live in the East have a lower incidence of symptoms, cardiovascular disease, cancer and osteoporosis hormone use, compared to Western women.

  13. HIV and Menopause: A Systematic Review of the Effects of HIV Infection on Age at Menopause and the Effects of Menopause on Response to Antiretroviral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Imai, Kentaro; Sutton, Madeline Y; Mdodo, Rennatus; Del Rio, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    More than half of persons living with HIV infection in the United States (U.S.) will be ≥50 years of age by 2020, including postmenopausal women. We conducted a systematic literature review about the effects of (1) HIV infection on age at menopause and (2) menopause on antiretroviral therapy (ART) response, in order to inform optimal treatment strategies for menopausal women living with HIV infection. We used the Ovid Medline database from 1980 to 2012. We included studies that focused on HIV-infected persons, included postmenopausal women, and reported outcome data for either age at menopause or response to ART across menopause. We identified six original research articles for age at menopause and five for response to ART across menopause. Our review revealed that current data were conflicting and inconclusive; more rigorous studies are needed. Disentangling the effects of menopause requires well-designed studies with adequate numbers of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women, especially disproportionately affected women of color. Future studies should follow women from premenopause through menopause, use both surveys and laboratory measurements for menopause diagnoses, and control for confounders related to normal aging processes, in order to inform optimal clinical management for menopausal women living with HIV.

  14. What the future holds for women after menopause: where we have been, where we are, and where we want to go.

    PubMed

    Lobo, R A

    2014-12-01

    With an increasing world population of postmenopausal women, providers of health care need to focus on improving the quality of life as well as the longevity of women. This review emphasizes the importance of health care for postmenopausal women, particularly the role of menopausal hormonal therapy (MHT), from the perspective of where we have been, where we are now, and where we can expect to be in the future. Use of MHT increased dramatically in the 1980s and then fell very abruptly in the early 2000s with the publications of various randomized hormonal trials, including the Women's Health Initiative (WHI). The recent publications from the WHI with 13 years of follow-up are different from the initial reports and do not show an increase in cardiovascular risk in any age group (with the exception of venous thrombosis). Breast cancer risk increased marginally with estrogen/progestogen therapy, related to duration of use, but with estrogen-alone therapy, breast cancer risk decreased significantly, as did mortality. For younger women receiving estrogen alone, there is great consistency between all randomized trials, including the WHI and observational data showing a coronary benefit and a decrease in all-cause mortality. Recent data also confirm the 'timing hypothesis', suggesting that younger women benefit from MHT, while older women do not exhibit this effect. In the future, we will have many more genetic and molecular tools to guide therapy and risk assessment, as we move into an era of personalized medicine. An important opportunity presents at the onset of menopause to prevent diseases which usually occur some 10 years later. Part of this preventative strategy may involve MHT. PMID:25032478

  15. Menopause and the vaginal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Muhleisen, Alicia L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis. PMID:27451320

  16. Menopause and the vaginal microbiome.

    PubMed

    Muhleisen, Alicia L; Herbst-Kralovetz, Melissa M

    2016-09-01

    For over a century it has been well documented that bacteria in the vagina maintain vaginal homeostasis, and that an imbalance or dysbiosis may be associated with poor reproductive and gynecologic health outcomes. Vaginal microbiota are of particular significance to postmenopausal women and may have a profound effect on vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal dryness, sexual health and overall quality of life. As molecular-based techniques have evolved, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of this bacterial community has expanded. The objective of this review is to compare the changes that have been identified in the vaginal microbiota of menopausal women, outline alterations in the microbiome associated with specific menopausal symptoms, and define how hormone replacement therapy impacts the vaginal microbiome and menopausal symptoms; it concludes by considering the potential of probiotics to reinstate vaginal homeostasis following menopause. This review details the studies that support the role of Lactobacillus species in maintaining vaginal homeostasis and how the vaginal microbiome structure in postmenopausal women changes with decreasing levels of circulating estrogen. In addition, the associated transformations in the microanatomical features of the vaginal epithelium that can lead to vaginal symptoms associated with menopause are described. Furthermore, hormone replacement therapy directly influences the dominance of Lactobacillus in the microbiota and can resolve vaginal symptoms. Oral and vaginal probiotics hold great promise and initial studies complement the findings of previous research efforts concerning menopause and the vaginal microbiome; however, additional trials are required to determine the efficacy of bacterial therapeutics to modulate or restore vaginal homeostasis.

  17. Effects of Estrogen or Venlafaxine on Menopause Related Quality of Life in Healthy Postmenopausal Women with Hot Flashes: A Placebo-Controlled Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Caan, Bette; LaCroix, Andrea Z.; Joffe, Hadine; Guthrie, Katherine A.; Larson, Joseph C.; Carpenter, Janet S.; Cohen, Lee S.; Freeman, Ellen W.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Newton, Katherine; Reed, Susan; Rexrode, Kathy; Shifren, Jan; Sternfeld, Barbara; Ensrud, Kris

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To evaluate the effects of low-dose estradiol (ET) or venlafaxine on menopause-related quality of life and associated symptoms in healthy peri- and postmenopausal women with hot flashes. METHODS A double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized trial of low-dose oral 17-beta-estradiol 0.5-mg/day, venlafaxine XR 75-mg/day, vs. identical placebo was conducted among 339 women ages 40–62 years with ≥2 (mean 8.07, SD 5.29) daily VMS recruited at 3 clinical sites from November 2011 to October 2012. The primary trial outcome, reported previously, was the frequency of VMS at 8 weeks. Here, we report on secondary endpoints of total and domain scores from the Menopause-Specific Quality of Life Questionnaire (MENQOL) and measures of pain (PEG), depression (PHQ-9), anxiety (GAD-7) and perceived stress (PSS). RESULTS Treatment with both estradiol and venlafaxine resulted in significantly greater improvement in quality of life, as measured by total MENQOL scores compared to placebo (mean difference for ET at 8 weeks of −0.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) −0.7 to −0.2; p<0.001 and for venlafaxine of −0.2; 95% CI −0.5 to 0.0; p 0.04). Quality of life (QOL) domain analyses revealed that ET had beneficial treatment effects in all domains of the MENQOL except psychosocial, while venlafaxine benefits were observed only in the psychosocial domain. Neither ET nor venlafaxine improved pain, anxiety or depressive symptoms, although baseline symptom levels were low. Modest benefits were observed for perceived stress with venlafaxine. CONCLUSIONS Both low-dose estradiol and venlafaxine are effective pharmacologic agents for improving menopause-related quality of life in healthy women with vasomotor symptoms. PMID:25405571

  18. Comparative study of the density of L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae in menopausal women aged over 50 years with osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Tavakoli, Mohammad Bagher; Salamat, Mohammad Reza; Tavakoli, Marzieh

    2015-01-01

    Background: The Index used for osteoporosis detection was BMD measured in L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae. We compared the density of the vertebrae to select the one with maximum change in the density for decreasing the cost and the time. Methods and Materials: Ninety seven osteoporotic post-menopausal women with a mean age of 61.78 ± 8.48 (50 - 86) years and a mean body mass index (BMI) of 24.75 ± 2.66 (kg/m2) (18 - 30) without any known diseases and on any medication affecting bone mineral density (BMD) were examined at osteoporosis section of a teaching hospital. The vertebral bodies (L2 - L4) of participants were measured by using a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry system (DEXA). To investigate if the BMD measurement of a single vertebra could replace the total L2 - L4 measurement, the mean BMDs and the correlations of the L2 - L4 were compared. Results: Among the 97 studied women, the mean BMI was 24.75 ± 2.66. The mean BMD of L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae were 0.7199, 0.7258, and 0.7402, respectively. There was no significant difference between the mean BMD of L2 and L3 vertebrae (P > 0.05), suggesting a strong relationship between L2 and L3. The mean BMD in the L4 vertebra was significantly higher than the other two vertebrae (P < 0.05), Statistical analysis showed that the BMD in all three L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae were associated with BMI (r > 0 and P < 0.05), but there was no significant relationship between BMD and age in the three L2, L3, and L4 vertebrae (r ≅ 0 and P > 0.05). Conclusion: Since the mean BMDs of L2 and L3 were not significantly different, and due to a very high correlation between L2 and L3, we recommend the measurement of L2 rather than L2 - L4 in order to save patient scanning time, cost, and the patient X-ray exposure. PMID:26097857

  19. The Women of Agabagaya: Education and Post-Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Janzen, Melanie D.

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a snapshot ethnography conducted in Uganda with the Agabagaya Women's Group. The purpose of the study was to explore how women share knowledge among themselves to support their communities. Using post-development theory and Freire's critical theory as a lens, I argue that although international development is often focused…

  20. A higher aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage incidence in women prior to menopause: a retrospective analysis of 4,895 cases from eight hospitals in China

    PubMed Central

    He, Jian; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Yao; Zhao, Lin; Liu, Heng; Yang, Lin; Zeng, Xian Jun; Yang, Jian; Peng, Guang Ming; Ahuja, Anil; Yang, Zheng Han

    2016-01-01

    Background Subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) from a ruptured cerebral aneurysm is a devastating disease. Despite the risk factors, including hypertension, cigarette smoking and alcohol use, are more common in men, aneurysmal SAH belongs to a few diseases which the incidence is higher in women than in men. Sex hormones, especially estrogen, might be protective against this condition. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) seems to be associated with a reduced risk for aneurysmal SAH. This study aims to know the prevalence of aneurysmal SAH of men and women at different ages. Methods The age and gender information of 4,895 case of aneurysmal SAH (3,016 females, 1,879 males) were collected retrospectively from eight institutions in mainland China. The prevalence of aneurysmal SAH of men and women at different ages was analyzed. Results The data showed women had a higher incidence of aneurysmal SAH than men starting at late thirties, and men might have a higher incidence of aneurysmal SAH than women only before 37-year-old. Conclusions Menopause may not be the only dominant factor causing higher incidence of aneurysmal SAH in women than in men. PMID:27190767

  1. Menopause: developing a rational treatment plan.

    PubMed

    Vitiello, Danielle; Naftolin, Frederick; Naftoilin, Frederick; Taylor, Hugh S

    2007-12-01

    In recent years, growing importance has been afforded to assisting women in coping with the menopausal transition. Menopause is a normal stage of development and a woman's attitude toward this transition embodies biological, psychological and social influences. An enlarging body of conflicting data concerning menopausal hormone therapy (MHT) demands reassessment of established paradigms of disease prevention and menopausal health. Currently, a woman's decision to participate in or abstain from menopausal HT is personal. It involves not only consideration of risk stratification of potential harm and benefit, but also involves her expectations and attitudes toward perceived physical and emotional changes associated with this change. Through the use of extensive patient history, quality-of-life questionnaires and powerful biological profiling, we may be able to develop a rational approach to menopausal HT that safely guides our patients through this transition.

  2. Menopause and Stroke: An Epidemiologic Review

    PubMed Central

    Lisabeth, Lynda; Bushnell, Cheryl

    2012-01-01

    Although women have a lower risk of stroke during middle age, the menopausal transition is a time when many women develop cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, during the 10 years after menopause, the risk of stroke roughly doubles in women. Endogenous estrogen levels decline by 60% during the menopausal transition, leading to a relative androgen excess, which could contribute to the increased cardiovascular risk factors in women. Earlier onset of menopause may influence the risk of stroke, but the data are not clear. Because of the stroke risk associated with hormone therapy, this is only indicated for treatment of vasomotor symptoms, but some formulations may be safe than others. More research is needed to understand which women are at greatest stroke risk during midlife and to determine the safest formulation, dose, and duration of hormone therapy that will treat vasomotor symptoms without increasing the risk for stroke. PMID:22172623

  3. Radiation Therapy in Treating Post-Menopausal Women With Early Stage Breast Cancer Undergoing Surgery

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-09-02

    Ductal Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Estrogen Receptor Negative; Estrogen Receptor Positive; HER2/Neu Negative; Invasive Cribriform Breast Carcinoma; Invasive Ductal Carcinoma, Not Otherwise Specified; Lobular Breast Carcinoma In Situ; Mucinous Breast Carcinoma; Papillary Breast Carcinoma; Progesterone Receptor Positive; Stage I Breast Cancer; Stage II Breast Cancer; Stage IIIA Breast Cancer; Stage IIIC Breast Cancer; Tubular Breast Carcinoma

  4. Cancer treatment - early menopause

    MedlinePlus

    Premature menopause; Primary ovarian insufficiency; POI ... Cancer treatments that can cause early menopause include: Surgery. Having both ovaries removed causes menopause to happen right away. If you are age 50 or younger, your provider may ...

  5. Association between depressive symptoms and reproductive variables in a group of perimenopausal women attending a menopause clinic in México City.

    PubMed

    Flores-Ramos, Mónica; Heinze, Gerhard; Silvestri-Tomassoni, Roberto

    2010-02-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the association between depressive symptoms and some variables related to the reproductive life, such as history of premenstrual dysphoric disorder, antecedent of postpartum depression, previous use of hormonal contraceptives, and current hot flushes, in a group of perimenopausal women attending a menopause clinic. Perimenopausal women, 45 to 55 years old, who had not received hormonal replacement therapy and/or psychotropic medication, were invited to participate in this study. 141 perimenopausal women were included; we obtained their psychiatric and gynecological data, and we evaluated their depressive symptomatology using the CES-D scale. There were a significantly higher number of cases of previous depressive episodes, PMDD and PPD history in depressed patients compared with non-depressed women; current hot flushes prevalence was similar between depressed and non-depressed women. Patients with a PMDD history were more likely to have experienced previous depressive episodes, a PPD history and high levels of depression. Variables associated with the level of depression were a previous history of PMDD, current hot flushes, and previous depressive episodes. The occurrence of perimenopausal depression is related to a previous history of PMDD, PPD, and depressive episodes; hot flushes only increase the severity of the depressive episode. PMID:19730981

  6. The Endocrine Dyscrasia that Accompanies Menopause and Andropause Induces Aberrant Cell Cycle Signaling that Triggers Cell Cycle Reentry of Post-mitotic Neurons, Neurodysfunction, Neurodegeneration and Cognitive Disease

    PubMed Central

    Atwood, Craig S.; Bowen, Richard L.

    2016-01-01

    Sex hormones are the physiological factors that regulate neurogenesis during embryogenesis and continuing through adulthood. These hormones support the formation of brain structures such as dendritic spines, axons and synapses required for the capture of information (memories). Intriguingly, a recent animal study has demonstrated that induction of neurogenesis results in the loss of previously encoded memories in animals (e.g. infantile amnesia). In this connection, much evidence now indicates that Alzheimer’s disease (AD) also involves aberrant re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into the cell cycle. Cell cycle abnormalities appear very early in the disease, prior to the appearance of plaques and tangles, and explain the biochemical, neuropathological and cognitive changes observed with disease progression. Since sex hormones control when and how neurons proliferate and differentiate, the endocrine dyscrasia that accompanies menopause and andropause is a key signaling event that impacts neurogenesis and the acquisition, processing, storage and recall of memories. Here we review the biochemical, epidemiological and clinical evidence that alterations in endocrine signaling with menopause and andropause drive the aberrant re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into an abortive cell cycle with neurite retraction that leads to neuron dysfunction and death. When the reproductive axis is in balance, luteinizing hormone (LH), and its fetal homolog, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), promote pluripotent human and totipotent murine embryonic stem cell and neuron proliferation. However, strong evidence supports menopausal/andropausal elevations in the ratio of LH:sex steroids as driving aberrant mitotic events mediated by the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor, amyloid-β precursor protein processing towards the production of mitogenic Aβ, and the activation of Cdk5, a key regulator of cell cycle progression and tau phosphorylation (a cardinal feature of both neurogenesis and

  7. Role of the short isoform of the progesterone receptor in breast cancer cell invasiveness at estrogen and progesterone levels in the pre- and post-menopausal ranges

    PubMed Central

    McFall, Thomas; Patki, Mugdha; Rosati, Rayna; Ratnam, Manohar

    2015-01-01

    Overexpression of the progesterone receptor (PR) isoform A (PR-A) is a negative prognosticator for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer but in vitro studies have implicated PR-B in progestin-induced invasiveness. As estrogen is known to suppress invasiveness and tumor progression and as the in vitro studies were conducted in models that either lacked ER or excluded estrogen, we examined the role of PR isoforms in the context of estrogen signaling. Estrogen (< 0.01nM) strongly suppressed invasiveness in various ER+ model cell lines. At low (< 1nM) concentrations, progestins completely abrogated inhibition of invasiveness by estrogen. It was only in a higher (5 nM — 50 nM) concentration range that progestins induced invasiveness in the absence of estrogen. The ability of low dose progestins to rescue invasiveness from estrogen regulation was exclusively mediated by PR-A, whereas PR-B mediated the estrogen-independent component of progestin-induced invasiveness. Overexpression of PR-A lowered the progestin concentration needed to completely rescue invasiveness. Among estrogen-regulated genes, progestin/PR-A counter-regulated a distinctive subset, including breast tumor progression genes (e.g., HES1, PRKCH, ELF5, TM4SF1), leading to invasiveness. In this manner, at relatively low hormone concentrations (corresponding to follicular stage and post-menopausal breast tissue or plasma levels), progesterone influences breast cancer cell invasiveness by rescuing it from estrogen regulation via PR-A, whereas at higher concentrations the hormone also induces invasiveness independent of estrogen signaling, through PR-B. The findings point to a direct functional link between PR-A and progression of luminal breast cancer in the context of the entire range of pre- and post-menopausal plasma and breast tissue hormone levels. PMID:26356672

  8. Safety and efficacy of low-dose esterified estrogens and methyltestosterone, alone or combined, for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study.

    PubMed

    Liu, James; Allgood, Adam; Derogatis, Leonard R; Swanson, Stephen; O'Mahony, Michael; Nedoss, Bertrand; Soper, Herbert; Zbella, Edward; Prokofieva, Svetlana Vladimirovna; Zipfel, Lisa; Guo, Chun-Yuan

    2011-01-01

    This study evaluated safety and efficacy of esterified estrogens and methyltestosterone administered alone or in combination for the treatment of hot flashes in menopausal women. The 0.30-mg esterified estrogens and 0.30-mg methyltestosterone combination was the lowest effective dose, and our results are consistent with the known safety profile of estrogen and androgen combination products.

  9. Effects of flaxseed and Hypericum perforatum on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women: a systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ghazanfarpour, Masumeh; Sadeghi, Ramin; Latifnejad Roudsari, Robab; Khadivzadeh, Talat; khorsand, Imaneh; Afiat, Maliheh; Esmaeilizadeh, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In this study, we aimed at evaluation of the efficacy of Hypericum perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers in menopausal women Materials and Methods: We searched MEDLINE, Scopus, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (RCT) to explore trials that assessed the effectiveness of H. perforatum and flaxseed on hot flash, vaginal atrophy and estrogen-dependent cancers. In this regard, the following terms were used “menopause AND H. perforatum OR flaxseed OR Linum usitatissimum. Only randomized controlled trials were included in the study. Results: Nine RCTs were included in this systematic review. Based on the literature, flaxseed showed beneficial effect on hot flash frequency and intensity, which was not statistically significant. According to two trials, flaxseed showed estrogenic effects; however, no conclusion regarding cancer promoting or protecting effects can be made. The evidence of the efficacy of the flaxseed on alleviating vaginal atrophy was also limited due to inconsistent findings in this regard. One trial declared that Vitex agnus-castus and H. perforatum showed comparable decrease in the frequency of hot flashes. Conclusion: The results of our systematic review suggest beneficial effect on vasomotor symptom with both of flaxseed and H. perforatum. Consistent conclusion regarding estrogen-dependent cancers and maturation value is limited due to small number of trials related to flaxseed. Further trials are still needed to confirm the results of our systematic review. PMID:27462550

  10. The urogenital system and the menopause.

    PubMed

    Calleja-Agius, J; Brincat, M P

    2015-01-01

    The major cause of urogenital atrophy in menopausal women is estrogen loss. The symptoms are usually progressive in nature and deteriorate with time from the menopausal transition. The most prevalent urogenital symptoms are vaginal dryness, vaginal irritation and itching. The genitourinary syndrome of menopause includes vulvovaginal atrophy and the postmenopausal modifications of the lower urinary tract. Dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding from fragile atrophic skin are common problems. Other urogenital complaints include frequency, nocturia, urgency, stress urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections. Atrophic changes of the vulva, vagina and lower urinary tract can have a large impact on the quality of life of the menopausal woman. However, hormonal and non-hormonal treatments can provide patients with the solution to regain the previous level of function. Therefore, clinicians should sensitively question and examine menopausal women, in order to correctly identify the pattern of changes in urogenital atrophy and manage them appropriately.

  11. The Academic Experiences of Women Post 9/11 Veterans Attending Post-Secondary Educational Institutions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grunden, Cynthia

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the perspectives of women Post 9/11 veterans on their experiences in the military and subsequently in higher education. Using feminist research methodology, I interviewed three women veterans about their decisions to join the military, their gendered experiences in the military, their decisions to enroll in college, and their…

  12. Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160227.html Heart Risk Factors Rise Before Menopause 'Danger zone' for women earlier ... WEDNESDAY, Aug. 3, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Heart disease risk factors -- such as abnormal cholesterol levels and high blood ...

  13. Menopause 101: A Primer for the Perimenopausal

    MedlinePlus

    ... 40 and 58. The average age is 51. Physical changes begin years before the final menstrual period. This ... of menopause is different. Many women report no physical changes during perimenopause except irregular menstrual periods that stop ...

  14. Menopause prediction and potential implications.

    PubMed

    Daan, Nadine M P; Fauser, Bart C J M

    2015-11-01

    Reproductive ageing in women is characterized by a decline in both the quantity and quality of oocytes. Menopause is reached upon exhaustion of the resting primordial follicle pool, occurring on average at 51 years of age (range 40-60 years). The mean global age at natural menopause (ANM) appears robust, suggesting a distinct genetic control. Accordingly, a strong correlation in ANM is observed between mothers and daughters. Few specific genetic determinants of ANM have been identified. Substantial efforts have been made to predict ANM by using anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) levels. AMH serum concentrations at reproductive age predict ANM, but precision is currently limited. Early ANM is associated with early preceding fertility loss, whereas late menopause is associated with reduced morbidity and mortality later in life. Menopause affects various women's health aspects, including bone density, breast, the cardiovascular system, mood/cognitive function and sexual well-being. If the current trend of increasing human life expectancy persists, women will soon spend half their life postmenopause. Unfortunately, increased longevity does not coincide with an equal increase in years spend in good health. Future research should focus on determinants of long term health effects of ANM, and efforts to improve women's postmenopausal health and quality of life.

  15. Soy consumption during menopause.

    PubMed

    Bolca, S; Bracke, M; Depypere, H

    2012-01-01

    In developed countries, the life expectancy of women is currently extending more than 30 years beyond the age of menopause. The menopausal transition is often associated with complaints. The conflicting results on the effectivity of phytoestrogens to alleviate menopausal symptoms. This discrepancy in treatment effect may be due to the large interindividual variation in isoflavone bioavailability in general and equol production in particular. Equol, a microbial metabolite of daidzein, has been hypothesized as a clue to the effectiveness of soy and its isoflavones, but only about 30-50% of the population harbor an intestinal microbial ecosystem supporting the conversion of daidzein into equol. There is much concern on breast cancer, since this incidence of this disease increases with age. There is indication that soy phytoestrogens may decrease this breast cancer incidence. In order to evaluate the estrogenic potential of these exposure levels, we studied the isoflavone-derived E2α- and E2β-equivalents (i.e. 17β-estradiol (E2)-equivalents towards ERα and ERβ, respectively) in human breast tissue. Total isoflavones showed a breast adipose/glandular tissue distribution of 40/60 and their derived E2β-equivalents exceeded on average 21 ± 4 and 40 ± 10 times the endogenous E2 concentrations in corresponding adipose and glandular biopsies, respectively, whereas the E2α/E2 ratios were 0.4 ± 0.1 and 0.8 ± 0.2 in adipose and glandular breast tissue, respectively. These calculations suggest that, at least in this case, soy consumption could elicit partial ERβ agonistic effects in human breast tissue. We are currently characterizing the differential activation of estrogen-responsive genes between dietary isoflavones, the chemopreventive selective ER modulators tamoxifen and raloxifene and exogenous estrogens in a controlled dietary intervention trial that integrates data on the exposure to estrogenically active compounds, expression of isoflavone

  16. Comparison of the Hyaluronic Acid Vaginal Cream and Conjugated Estrogen Used in Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy of Menopause Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    PubMed Central

    Jokar, Azam; Davari, Tayebe; Asadi, Nasrin; Ahmadi, Fateme; Foruhari, Sedighe

    2016-01-01

    Background: Vaginal atrophy is a common complication in menopause which does not improve with time and, if untreated, can affect the quality of life for women. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the vaginal cream of hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen (Premarin) in treatment of vaginal atrophy. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 56 menopausal women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy; they were randomly allocated to two groups (recipient conjugated estrogen and hyaluronic acid). The severity of each sign of atrophy was evaluated by visual analog signals (VAS) and on the basis of a four point scale. Also to recognize the cellular maturation with pap smear and the maturation degree were calculated according to the formula and scores 0-100. As to the vaginal PH, we used PH marker band, the rate of which was divided into 4 degrees. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the symptoms of vaginal atrophy compared with the baseline level were relieved significantly in both groups. Dryness, itching, maturation index, PH and composite score of the vaginal symptoms were relieved significantly in both groups (P<0.001). Dyspareunia in Premarin (P<0.05) and hyaluronic acid (P<0.001) decreased compared with pre-treatment. Urinary incontinence only showed improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P<0.05). Improvement in urinary incontinence, dryness, maturation index (P<0.05) and composite score of vaginal symptoms (P<0.001) in the hyaluronic acid group was better than those in the Premarin group. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen improved the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. But hyaluronic acid was more effective and this drug is suggested for those who do not want to or cannot take local hormone treatment. Trial Registration Number: IRCT2013022712644N1 PMID:26793732

  17. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause. PMID:27617243

  18. Age at Natural Menopause and Related Factors in Isfahan, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Golshiri, Parastoo; Abdollahzadeh, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Objective This study was aimed to evaluate the age at natural menopause and related factors among women in a population based study in 2015 in Isfahan, Islamic Republic of Iran. Methods In this cross-sectional study 960 menopausal women were selected by cluster sampling. Demographic, socioeconomic, lifestyle behavior and reproductive history aspects were collected using a structured questionnaire. Woman and her husband's educational level and occupation with family income were the variables to construct socioeconomic status using principal component analysis. Results Mean and median of natural menopause age were 48.66 and 48 years, respectively. Women body mass index (BMI) more than 30 kg/m2 had significantly higher menopausal age than women with lower BMI (P value = 0.022). The mean of menopausal age was not statistically significant in regard to marital status, physical activity, smoking status, menarche age, age at first pregnancy and history of abortion. Menopause age with pregnancy numbers and age at last pregnancy had a significant positive association. Women with better socioeconomic status had significantly higher natural menopause age. Multiple linear regression shows significant relationship between lower age at menopause with higher age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status. Conclusion Age at menopause in our studied sample is similar to previous estimates reported for other Iranian populations. Age at marriage, higher number of pregnancy and lower socioeconomic status were the significant factors in relations to age at menopause.

  19. Physical Activity Patterns of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2008-01-01

    Americans need more physical activity in their daily routines. There are numerous physical as well as psychological benefits that can be credited to regular physical activity. The purpose of this research was to examine the physical activity patterns of young women, post-college graduation. The average woman in this study exercised 22 minutes per…

  20. Dieting Behaviors of Young Women Post-College Graduation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soliah, LuAnn; Walter, Janelle; Antosh, Deeanna

    2007-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health epidemic in the United States. During the past decade, obesity has increased across all education levels, including college graduates. The purpose of this research was to study the health decisions that young women, post-college graduation make regarding their food intake. The subjects in this study completed a…

  1. Genetic and genomic insights into age at natural menopause.

    PubMed

    Moron, Francisco Jesus; Ruiz, Agustin; Galan, Jose Jorge

    2009-01-01

    The age at natural menopause shows great variability. It has been proposed that early age at menopause is a risk factor for osteoporosis and cardiovascular disease, whereas later age at menopause is a risk factor for breast cancer. In addition, it is thought that the genetic factors accounting for the genetic variability in age at menopause could also play a role in those diseases, as well as infertility in women. In this minireview we comment on the latest genetics and genomics insights into age at natural menopause.

  2. Association of Circulating Orexin-A Level With Metabolic Risk Factors in North Indian Pre Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Mishra, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the association between circulating Orexin-A level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian adult women. 342 women were enrolled for the case-control study, 172 women were with metabolic syndrome (mets) and 170 healthy control women were without metabolic syndrome, (womets) according to (NCEP ATP III criteria). Circulating Orexin-A level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Observations indicated low levels of orexin-A (26.06 ± 6.09 ng/ml) in women with mets and other metabolic risk factors compared to women without metabolic syndrome (36.50 ± 10.42 ng/ml). Further, in women with metabolic syndrome, circulating Orexin A was significantly associated with waist circumference, triglyceride (negative correlation) and hyperdensity lipoprotein (positive correlation). Our study shows that circulating Orexin A was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity-related disorders in North Indian premenopausal women.

  3. Identification of occupational cancer risks in British Columbia. A population-based case-control study of 995 incident breast cancer cases by menopausal status, controlling for confounding factors.

    PubMed

    Band, P R; Le, N D; Fang, R; Deschamps, M; Gallagher, R P; Yang, P

    2000-03-01

    Lifetime occupational histories as well as information on known and suspected breast cancer risk factors were collected by means of a self-administered questionnaire from 1018 women with incident breast cancer ascertained from the British Columbia Cancer Registry, and from 1020 population controls. A matched case-control study design was used. Conditional logistic regression for matched sets data and the likelihood ratio were used in a two-step procedure and were performed separately for pre-menopausal women, post-menopausal women, and for all cases combined. Excess risk was noted for several white-collar occupations. Significantly increased risk was observed: (1) among pre-menopausal women: in electronic data-processing operators; barbers and hairdressers; in sales and material processing occupations; and in the food, clothing, chemical and transportation industries; (2) among post-menopausal women: in schoolteaching; in medicine, health, and nursing occupations; in laundry and dry-cleaning occupations; and in the aircraft and automotive, including gasoline service station, industries. Several significant associations were also seen in the combined group of pre- and post-menopausal women, particularly in crop farmers and in the fruit and vegetable, publishing and printing, and motor vehicle repair industries. The results of this study suggest excess breast cancer risk in a number of occupations and industries, notably those that entail exposure to solvents and pesticides. PMID:10738708

  4. Post-partum hemorrhage in women with rare bleeding disorders.

    PubMed

    Peyvandi, Flora; Menegatti, Marzia; Siboni, Simona Maria

    2011-02-01

    Post-partum hemorrhage (PPH) accounts for a substantial fraction of maternal deaths in the general population. Among all women, however, those affected with rare bleeding disorders (RBDs) represent a particular group since to usual bleeding symptoms, they are likely to experience bleedings associated to obstetrical and gynaecological problems. Pregnancy and childbirth, two important stages in the life of a woman, pose a special clinical challenge in women with RBDs, since information about these issues are really scarce and limited to few case reports. These data show that all women with RBDs, except for FXI deficiency, have to be considered potentially at risk for developing PPH, therefore they should be monitored carefully during and immediately after pregnancy. The implication is that women with bleeding disorders may require prophylaxis and/or close observation for several weeks and should be followed by a multidisciplinary team including expertises such as laboratory haematologist, obstetrician-gynaecologist, anaesthesiologist, family physician, and laboratory technician.

  5. Herbs, menopause, and dialysis.

    PubMed

    Roemheld-Hamm, Beatrix; Dahl, Naomi V

    2002-01-01

    Women with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at increased risk for menstrual disorders, early menopause, and osteoporosis, and rarely discuss gynecologic and reproductive issues with their nephrologist. Various complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) products are of interest to women with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) who have these disorders. However, very little is known about the specifics of using herbal medicines in patients on chronic dialysis, resulting in numerous problems when patients and providers try to ascertain the safety and efficacy of these products. This article reviews evidence regarding the safety and efficacy of black cohosh, ginseng, chastetree, dong quai, evening primrose oil, soy products, and the so-called natural hormones. Pharmacologic parameters important to evaluating the quality of botanical products are discussed, along with recommendations and information resources. PMID:11874595

  6. Exercise in the menopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Shangold, M M

    1990-04-01

    An exercise program for menopausal women that includes both aerobic and resistance training may prevent or relieve problems such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, and depression. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases in women after menopause; in both men and women, regular aerobic exercise may improve cardiorespiratory endurance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise also prevents some age-related increases in body fat and it elevates resting metabolic rate, which correlates directly with lean body mass. Inactivity, not hormonal change, is the most common cause of obesity. Resistance training can improve muscle strength and bone density. Increases in bone mineral content have been found at lumbar vertebral and distal radial sites in women who participate in exercise programs. Weight-bearing exercise in conjunction with estrogen replacement therapy and calcium supplementation helps to prevent osteoporosis. Many women experience mood changes at menopause. Some of these symptoms are caused by chronic sleep deprivation due to night flushes and respond best to estrogen; others are related to levels of brain chemicals and respond favorably to exercise. PMID:2179791

  7. Exercise in the menopausal woman.

    PubMed

    Shangold, M M

    1990-04-01

    An exercise program for menopausal women that includes both aerobic and resistance training may prevent or relieve problems such as cardiovascular disease, obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, and depression. The risk of cardiovascular disease increases in women after menopause; in both men and women, regular aerobic exercise may improve cardiorespiratory endurance and reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease. Aerobic exercise also prevents some age-related increases in body fat and it elevates resting metabolic rate, which correlates directly with lean body mass. Inactivity, not hormonal change, is the most common cause of obesity. Resistance training can improve muscle strength and bone density. Increases in bone mineral content have been found at lumbar vertebral and distal radial sites in women who participate in exercise programs. Weight-bearing exercise in conjunction with estrogen replacement therapy and calcium supplementation helps to prevent osteoporosis. Many women experience mood changes at menopause. Some of these symptoms are caused by chronic sleep deprivation due to night flushes and respond best to estrogen; others are related to levels of brain chemicals and respond favorably to exercise.

  8. Starting Hormone Therapy at Menopause Increases Breast Cancer Risk

    Cancer.gov

    According to a January 28, 2011 article in the Journal of the National Cancer Institute, women who start taking menopausal hormone therapy around the time of menopause have a higher risk of breast cancer than women who begin taking hormones a few years later.

  9. The toxic impact of local anaesthetics in menopausal women: causes, prevention and treatment after local anaesthetic overdose. Local anaesthetic systemic toxicity syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sobolewski, Bogusław; Doman, Paweł; Oszukowski, Przemysław; Woźniak, Piotr

    2015-01-01

    Gynaecologists often use local anaesthetics in their medical practice. Some concomitant diseases during the menopausal period may cause problems during the qualification of postmenopausal women for general anaesthesia in gynaecological surgery. Many authors suggest the application of local analgesia for particular kinds of gynaecological surgery procedures performed on postmenopausal women, taking into consideration health determinants. While applying local anaesthetics, the possibility of their overdose has to be taken into account. Generalised toxic symptoms which appeared after the local anaesthesia are rare, but potentially are lethal complications. Toxic symptoms after local anaesthetic administration are manifested after accidental administration of a medicine into a blood vessel, when extravascular administration of a large volume of a local anaesthetic is absorbed into a bloodstream or with the reproducible doses of local anaesthetics which are administered when metabolism does not work sufficiently and cannot eliminate these substances. Clinical overdose of local anaesthetics is manifested by disorders in two systems. Firstly, the pathological symptoms come from the central nervous system (CNS). In the second phase, the pathological symptoms will additionally appear in the cardiovascular system. The aim of the present thesis is to remind clinical manifestations of the local anaesthetic overdose and suggest the management of patients with the aforementioned symptoms, especially in the case of intravenous lipid emulsions which have the status of an antidote in life-threatening conditions caused by cardiotoxic effects of local anaesthetics. PMID:26327891

  10. Life Course Exposure to Smoke and Early Menopause and Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Tawfik, Heba; Kline, Jennie; Jacobson, Judith; Tehranifar, Parisa; Protacio, Angeline; Flom, Julie D.; Cirillo, Piera; Cohn, Barbara A.; Terry, Mary Beth

    2015-01-01

    Objective Early age at menopause is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, stroke, osteoporosis and all-cause mortality. Cigarette smoke exposure in adulthood is an established risk factor for earlier age at natural menopause and may be related to age at menopausal transition. Using data from two U.S. birth cohorts, we examined the association between smoke exposure at various stages of the life course (prenatal, childhood exposure to parental smoking and adult smoke exposure) with menopause status in 1,001 women aged 39 – 49 years at follow-up. Methods We used logistic regression analysis, adjusting for age at follow-up, to estimate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) relating smoke exposure to natural menopause and menopausal transition. Results The magnitudes of the associations for natural menopause were similar, but not statistically significant after adjustment for confounders for i) women with prenatal smoke exposure who did not smoke at adult follow-up (OR= 2.7 [95% CI 0.8, 9.4]) and ii) current adult smokers who were not exposed prenatally (OR= 2.8 [95% CI 0.9, 9.0]). Women who had been exposed to prenatal smoke and were current smokers had three times the risk of experiencing natural menopause (adjusted OR=3.4 [95% CI 1.1, 10.3]) compared to women without smoke exposure in either time period. Only current smoking of long duration (>26 years) was associated with the timing of the menopausal transition. Conclusion Our data suggest that exposure to smoke both prenatally and around the time of menopause accelerates ovarian aging. PMID:25803667

  11. Dangers of the menopause. 1910.

    PubMed

    Perkins, Anne E

    2012-06-01

    Editor's note: From its first issue in 1900 through to the present day, AJN has unparalleled archives detailing nurses' work and lives over the last century. These articles not only chronicle nursing's growth as a profession within the context of the events of the day, but they also reveal prevailing societal attitudes about women, health care, and human rights. Today's nursing school curricula rarely include nursing's history, but it's a history worth knowing. To this end, From the AJN Archives will be a frequent column, containing articles selected to fit today's topics and times.This month's article, from the September 1910 issue, is "Dangers of the Menopause." The author, Anne E. Perkins, MD, states that its purpose is to correct "popular fallacies," so nurses can "disseminate knowledge of the real dangers" of menopause. It's interesting how much information in the article is still valid 100 years later, such as the need to investigate any postmenopausal bleeding. It's also noteworthy that the three symptoms causing women the most distress-hot flashes, insomnia, and mood problems-haven't changed, although a comparison of Dr. Perkins's article with "Managing Menopausal Symptoms" in this issue reveals that menopause management certainly has: from a "trip abroad" and avoiding "fancy work" in 1910 to physical exercise and acupuncture in 2012. To read the complete article from our archives, go to http://bit.ly/IZkCiD.

  12. Association of Circulating Orexin-A Level With Metabolic Risk Factors in North Indian Pre Menopausal Women.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Vani; Mishra, Sameeksha; Kumar, Sandeep; Mishra, Supriya

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the association between circulating Orexin-A level with metabolic risk factors in North Indian adult women. 342 women were enrolled for the case-control study, 172 women were with metabolic syndrome (mets) and 170 healthy control women were without metabolic syndrome, (womets) according to (NCEP ATP III criteria). Circulating Orexin-A level was determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Observations indicated low levels of orexin-A (26.06 ± 6.09 ng/ml) in women with mets and other metabolic risk factors compared to women without metabolic syndrome (36.50 ± 10.42 ng/ml). Further, in women with metabolic syndrome, circulating Orexin A was significantly associated with waist circumference, triglyceride (negative correlation) and hyperdensity lipoprotein (positive correlation). Our study shows that circulating Orexin A was found to be significantly associated with hyperlipidemia, obesity and obesity-related disorders in North Indian premenopausal women. PMID:27530010

  13. Sex-specific risk of cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline: pregnancy and menopause

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Understanding the biology of sex differences is integral to personalized medicine. Cardiovascular disease and cognitive decline are two related conditions, with distinct sex differences in morbidity and clinical manifestations, response to treatments, and mortality. Although mortality from all-cause cardiovascular diseases has declined in women over the past five years, due in part to increased educational campaigns regarding the recognition of symptoms and application of treatment guidelines, the mortality in women still exceeds that of men. The physiological basis for these differences requires further research, with particular attention to two physiological conditions which are unique to women and associated with hormonal changes: pregnancy and menopause. Both conditions have the potential to impact life-long cardiovascular risk, including cerebrovascular function and cognition in women. This review draws on epidemiological, translational, clinical, and basic science studies to assess the impact of hypertensive pregnancy disorders on cardiovascular disease and cognitive function later in life, and examines the effects of post-menopausal hormone treatments on cardiovascular risk and cognition in midlife women. We suggest that hypertensive pregnancy disorders and menopause activate vascular components, i.e., vascular endothelium and blood elements, including platelets and leukocytes, to release cell-membrane derived microvesicles that are potential mediators of changes in cerebral blood flow, and may ultimately affect cognition in women as they age. Research into specific sex differences for these disease processes with attention to an individual’s sex chromosomal complement and hormonal status is important and timely. PMID:23537114

  14. Physical Activity as Determinant of Femoral Neck Strength Relative to Load in Adult Women: Findings from the Hip Strength Across the Menopause Transition Study

    PubMed Central

    Mori, Takahiro; Ishii, Shinya; Greendale, Gail A.; Cauley, Jane A.; Sternfeld, Barbara; Crandall, Carolyn J.; Han, Weijuan; Karlamangla, Arun S.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Our objective was to examine the associations of physical activity in different life domains with peak femoral neck strength relative to load in adult women. Composite indices of femoral neck strength integrate body size with femoral neck size and bone mineral density to gauge bone strength relative to load during a fall, and are inversely associated with incident fracture risk. Methods Participants were 1919 pre- and early perimenopausal women from the Study of Women’s Health Across the Nation. Composite indices of femoral neck strength relative to load in three failure modes (compression, bending, and impact) were created from hip DXA scans and body size. Usual physical activity within the past year was assessed with the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey in four domains: sport, home, active living, and work. We used multiple linear regression to examine the associations. Results Greater physical activity in each of the four domains was independently associated with higher composite indices, adjusted for age, menopausal transition stage, race/ethnicity, SWAN study site, smoking status, smoking pack-years, alcohol consumption level, current use of supplementary calcium, current use of supplementary vitamin D, current use of bone-adverse medications, prior use of any sex steroid hormone pills or patch, prior use of depo-provera injections, history of hyperthyroidism, history of previous adult fracture, and employment status: standardized effect sizes ranged from 0.04 (p<0.05) to 0.20 (p<0.0001). Conclusions Physical activity in each domain examined was associated with higher peak femoral neck strength relative to load in pre- and early perimenopausal women. PMID:23812598

  15. Cellulite in menopause.

    PubMed

    Leszko, Marta

    2014-10-01

    Menopause is a physiological process related to the increasing insufficiency of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis. The pool of ovarian follicles capable of synthesizing female sex hormones becomes gradually depleted. In response to the sequence of endocrine changes of premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause, systemic somatic and emotional disturbances appear. Skin is the target organ for sex hormones. In women, the trophicity and appearance of the skin are most significantly affected by female sex hormones, estrogens and progesterone. However, this review also emphasizes the influences of other hormones on the skin and subcutaneous tissue. During menopause, a low estrogen concentration is responsible for increased vascular permeability and decreased vascular tone, which lead to microcirculation impairment and are important factors predisposing to the development of cellulite. The effects of estrogen deficiency on the skin connective tissue include a decreased production and topical content of both type I and III collagen and elastin fibers, which also contributes to cellulite. This paper presents diagnostic methods and clinical types of cellulite, as well as principal instrumental and manual treatments used for the reduction of the condition. Preparations containing ingredients which help to improve the metabolism of subcutaneous fat and enhance blood and lymphatic circulation, applied in cosmetology and esthetic medicine practice, have been reviewed. Furthermore, we provide an array of opinions regarding the effectiveness of treatment modalities presented here.

  16. Cellulite in menopause

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Menopause is a physiological process related to the increasing insufficiency of the hypothalamic-hypophyseal-ovarian axis. The pool of ovarian follicles capable of synthesizing female sex hormones becomes gradually depleted. In response to the sequence of endocrine changes of premenopause, perimenopause, and postmenopause, systemic somatic and emotional disturbances appear. Skin is the target organ for sex hormones. In women, the trophicity and appearance of the skin are most significantly affected by female sex hormones, estrogens and progesterone. However, this review also emphasizes the influences of other hormones on the skin and subcutaneous tissue. During menopause, a low estrogen concentration is responsible for increased vascular permeability and decreased vascular tone, which lead to microcirculation impairment and are important factors predisposing to the development of cellulite. The effects of estrogen deficiency on the skin connective tissue include a decreased production and topical content of both type I and III collagen and elastin fibers, which also contributes to cellulite. This paper presents diagnostic methods and clinical types of cellulite, as well as principal instrumental and manual treatments used for the reduction of the condition. Preparations containing ingredients which help to improve the metabolism of subcutaneous fat and enhance blood and lymphatic circulation, applied in cosmetology and esthetic medicine practice, have been reviewed. Furthermore, we provide an array of opinions regarding the effectiveness of treatment modalities presented here. PMID:26327870

  17. Contemporary Alternatives to Plant Estrogens for Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Geller, Stacie E.; Studee, Laura

    2006-01-01

    Objectives Every year, millions of women begin the peri-menopause and may experience a number of symptoms related to this transition. Many women are reluctant to use exogenous hormone therapy for treatment of menopausal symptoms and are turning to botanical and dietary supplements (BDS) for relief. This paper reviews the literature on alternatives to plant estrogens for relief of menopausal symptoms. Methods The MEDLINE database was searched for clinical trials of non-estrogenic plant extracts for menopausal symptoms. To be included, studies had to include peri- or postmenopausal women as subjects. All clinical trials (randomized-controlled trials, open trials, and comparison group studies) were included for this review. Results Black Cohosh appears to be one of the most effective botanicals for relief of vasomotor symptoms, while St. John’s wort can improve mood disorders related to the menopausal transition. Many other botanicals have limited evidence to demonstrate safety and efficacy for relief of symptoms related to menopause. Conclusions A growing body of evidence suggests that some botanicals and dietary supplements could result in improved clinical outcomes. Health care providers should discuss these issues with their patients so they can assist them in managing these alternative therapies through an evidence-based approach. PMID:16884867

  18. A service evaluation of women attending the menopause/premature ovarian failure clinic of a tertiary referral centre.

    PubMed

    Cartwright, B; Holloway, D; Grace, J; Robinson, J; Rymer, J

    2012-05-01

    This service evaluation aimed to characterise the referrals to the premature ovarian failure clinic, including the type of referral and patient needs, in order to plan for future service provision. The majority of women seen in the clinic experienced idiopathic premature ovarian failure, were aged 30-39 and were nulliparous at the time of diagnosis. Our service requires to be tailored to their needs. For many women, this includes a fertility consultation in the clinic and this part of the service is well used. Our data support the long-term follow-up of women both on treatment and those who initially decline treatment. Most women who initially decline treatment accept it after a few clinic visits. This may be due to consistent advice on the benefits of oestrogen treatment or due to yearly bone scans showing a change in bone density. There was a high non-attendance rate in this group: 21% of appointments were not attended. PMID:22519481

  19. Staying Healthy After Menopause

    MedlinePlus

    ... http://womenshealth.gov/menopause/menopause-basics/index.html Staying healthy after menopause may mean making some changes in the way you live. Don't smoke. If you do use any type of tobacco, stop—it's never too late to benefit from quitting smoking. Eat a healthy ...

  20. Evaluation of estradiol administration on the discriminative-stimulus and subject-rated effects of d-amphetamine in healthy pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Lile, Joshua A.; Kendall, Sherie L.; Babalonis, Shanna; Martin, Catherine A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that estradiol might be responsible for the enhanced response to psychostimulants sometimes observed in females. In this study, 10 healthy pre-menopausal women who were using oral, hormone-based birth control learned to discriminate 15 mg/70 kg oral d-amphetamine from placebo. Once a discrimination criterion was met (i.e., ≥ 80% correct responding at the final time point for five consecutive sessions), a range of doses of oral d-amphetamine (0, 3.125, 7.5 and 15 mg/70 kg) was tested alone and in combination with sublingual estradiol (0 and 0.25 mg). Test sessions were conducted during the oral contraception placebo phase when levels of both estradiol and progesterone were at their lowest. d-Amphetamine functioned as a discriminative stimulus and produced prototypical stimulant effects (e.g., increased positive subject-rated drug effects, elevated cardiovascular measures). Estradiol enhanced the discriminative-stimulus effects of the low dose, but not higher doses of d-amphetamine. Estradiol also enhanced d-amphetamine effects on a subset of subjective-report ratings (i.e., VAS Like Drug and total score on the Stimulant subscale of the Adjective-Rating Scale). These findings provide limited support for the notion that estradiol increases sensitivity to the psychostimulant effects of drugs such as d-amphetamine. PMID:17544491

  1. Tongue coating microbiome regulates the changes in tongue texture and coating in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis of Gan-shen deficiency syndrome type.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wenna; Li, Xihai; Li, Yachan; Li, Candong; Gao, Bizheng; Gan, Huijuan; Li, Sumin; Shen, Jianying; Kang, Jie; Ding, Shanshan; Lin, Xuejuan; Liao, Linghong

    2013-11-01

    Tongue inspection is a unique and important method of diagnosis in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). It is a diagnostic approach which involves observing the changes in the tongue proper and tongue coating in order to understand the physiological functions and pathological changes of the body. However, the biological basis of TCM tongue diagnosis remains to be poorly understood and lacks systematic investigation at the molecular level. In this study, we evaluated the effects of tongue coating microbiome on changes in the tongue texture and coating in patients with post-menopausal osteoporosis (PMO) of Gan‑shen deficiency syndrome type. Our aim was to delineate the mechanisms of tongue coating microbiome-induced changes in the tongue texture and coating by investigating the histomorphological changes and performing a bacterial analysis of the tongue coating. We found that the number of intermediate cells in the red tongue with a thin coating was higher, while the number of superficial cells in the red tongue with a thin coating was lower. The maturation value (MV) of tongue exfoliated cells in the red tongue with a thin coating decreased, compared with that in the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. Furthermore, the total bacterial count, oral streptococcus, Gram‑positive (G+) and Gram‑negative (G-) anaerobic bacteria in the red tongue with a thin coating was significantly decreased compared with the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. The results of ultrastructural examination demonstrated that the number of epithelial cells and bacteria in the red tongue with a thin coating decreased compared with that in the pale red tongue with a thin white coating. These observations indicate that the tongue coating microbiome may be an important factor contributing to changes in the tongue in patients with PMO of Gan‑shen deficiency syndrome type.

  2. Use of Menopausal Hormone Therapy and Bioidentical Hormone Therapy in Australian Women 50 to 69 Years of Age: Results from a National, Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Velentzis, Louiza S; Banks, Emily; Sitas, Freddy; Salagame, Usha; Tan, Eng Hooi; Canfell, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal Hormone Therapy (MHT) use in Australia fell by 55% from 2001 to 2005, following the release of large-scale findings on its risks and benefits. Comprehensive national data, including information on overall prevalence of MHT use as well as information on duration of use in Australia have not been reported since the 2004-5 National Health Survey, when 11% of women aged 45+ years were estimated to be current MHT users. No national data are available on prevalence of use of "bioidentical" hormone therapy (BHT). The objective of this study was to determine recent prevalence of MHT and BHT use. A cross-sectional, national, age-stratified, population survey was conducted in 2013. Eligible women, aged 50-69 years, resident in Australia were randomly sampled in 5-year age groups from the Medicare enrolment database (Australia's universal health scheme). The response rate was 22% based on return of completed questionnaires, and analyses were restricted to 4,389 women within the specified age range. The estimated population-weighted prevalence of current use of MHT was 13% (95%CI 12-14), which was broadly similar to the previously reported national figures in 2004-5, suggesting that the use of MHT in Australia has largely stabilised over the past decade. A total of 39% and 20% of current-users with an intact uterus reported use of oestrogen-progestagen MHT and oestrogen-only MHT, respectively, whereas 77% of hysterectomised current-users used oestrogen-only MHT. Almost three-quarters of current-users [population-weighted prevalence 9% (95%CI 8-10)] had used MHT for ≥5 years. In regard to BHT, estimated population-weighted prevalence of ever use was 6% (95%CI 6-7) and 2% (95%CI 2-3) for current use. The population-weighted prevalence of MHT and BHT combined, in current users in their fifties and sixties was 15% (95%CI 14-16). These data provide a recent national "snapshot" of Australian women's use of both conventional MHT and of BHT. PMID:27008039

  3. Lifestyle Interventions Targeting Body Weight Changes during the Menopause Transition: A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Jull, Janet; Stacey, Dawn; Beach, Sarah; Dumas, Alex; Strychar, Irene; Ufholz, Lee-Anne; Prince, Stephanie; Abdulnour, Joseph; Prud'homme, Denis

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To determine the effectiveness of exercise and/or nutrition interventions and to address body weight changes during the menopause transition. Methods. A systematic review of the literature was conducted using electronic databases, grey literature, and hand searching. Two independent researchers screened for studies using experimental designs to evaluate the impact of exercise and/or nutrition interventions on body weight and/or central weight gain performed during the menopausal transition. Studies were quality appraised using Cochrane risk of bias. Included studies were analyzed descriptively. Results. Of 3,564 unique citations screened, 3 studies were eligible (2 randomized controlled trials, and 1 pre/post study). Study quality ranged from low to high risk of bias. One randomized controlled trial with lower risk of bias concluded that participation in an exercise program combined with dietary interventions might mitigate body adiposity increases, which is normally observed during the menopause transition. The other two studies with higher risk of bias suggested that exercise might attenuate weight loss or weight gain and change abdominal adiposity patterns. Conclusions. High quality studies evaluating the effectiveness of interventions targeting body weight changes in women during their menopause transition are needed. Evidence from one higher quality study indicates an effective multifaceted intervention for women to minimize changes in body adiposity. PMID:24971172

  4. Complementary and alternative medicine and physical activity for menopausal symptoms.

    PubMed

    McMillan, Taya L; Mark, Saralyn

    2004-01-01

    Forty percent of all menopausal women seek medical attention to alleviate symptoms of menopause, a natural physiologic process. Severe symptoms and an overall decrease in quality of life have prompted many women to demand additional information and treatment. Although menopausal hormone therapy has been the standard, increasing evidence suggests that women are looking to complementary and alternative therapies for management and treatment of menopausal symptoms. Modalities such as physical activity, diet supplements, body work, and mind-body techniques are often used without evaluation or treatment by conventional health care providers. Many of these treatments may present varying risks and contraindications. Consequently, there is a great need for ongoing education and research to ensure alternative therapy use is not only effective, but also safe. This paper provides a systematic review of current complementary and alternative modalities and of physical activity used in the management and treatment of menopausal symptoms.

  5. The Menopause Time of Life.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Inst. on Aging (DHHS/NIH), Bethesda, MD.

    This pamphlet examines menopause and the changes associated with it. Menopause is briefly described, surgical menopause is explained, and the relationship between menopause and the reproductive cycle is discussed. Signs of menopause are described, including hot flashes and vaginal and urinary tract changes. Postmenopausal osteoporosis is explained…

  6. Complementary and Alternative Approaches to Menopause.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Maida

    2015-09-01

    Given the persistent confusion about the risks and benefits of hormone therapy since 2002 and the first publication from the Women's Health Initiative's primary findings, women and health care providers are increasingly motivated to find effective, nonhormonal approaches to treat menopause-related symptoms. Complementary and alternative medicine has grown increasingly popular in the last decade. A wide array of botanic medicines is offered as an alternative approach to hormone therapy for menopause, but data documenting efficacy and safety are limited. None of the available botanicals is as effective as hormone therapy in the management of vasomotor symptoms. PMID:26316247

  7. Risk of Psychiatric Disorders Following Symptomatic Menopausal Transition

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Li-Yu; Shen, Cheng-Che; Hung, Jeng-Hsiu; Chen, Pan-Ming; Wen, Chun-Hsien; Chiang, Yung-Yen; Lu, Ti

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Menopausal transition is highly symptomatic in at least 20% of women. A higher prevalence of psychiatric symptoms, including depression, anxiety, and sleep disturbance, has been shown in women with symptomatic menopausal transition. However, a clear correlation between symptomatic menopausal transition and psychiatric disorders has not been established. We explored the association between symptomatic menopausal transition and subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia as well as bipolar, depressive, anxiety, and sleep disorders. We investigated women who were diagnosed with symptomatic menopausal transition by an obstetrician-gynecologist according to the data in the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database. A comparison cohort comprised age-matched women without symptomatic menopausal transition. The incidence rate and the hazard ratios of subsequent newly diagnosed psychiatric disorders were evaluated in both cohorts, based on the diagnoses of psychiatrists. The symptomatic menopausal transition and control cohorts each consisted of 19,028 women. The incidences of bipolar disorders (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.69, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.01–2.80), depressive disorders (HR = 2.17, 95% CI = 1.93–2.45), anxiety disorders (HR = 2.11, 95% CI = 1.84–2.41), and sleep disorders (HR = 2.01, 95% CI = 1.73–2.34) were higher among the symptomatic menopausal transition women than in the comparison cohort. After stratifying for follow-up duration, the incidence of newly diagnosed bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders following a diagnosis of symptomatic menopausal transition remained significantly increased in the longer follow-up groups (1–5 and ≥ 5 years). Symptomatic menopausal transition might increase the risk of subsequent newly onset bipolar disorders, depressive disorders, anxiety disorders, and sleep disorders. A prospective study

  8. Progestogens in menopausal hormone therapy

    PubMed Central

    Woroń, Jarosław

    2015-01-01

    Progestogens share one common effect: the ability to convert proliferative endometrium to its secretory form. In contrast, their biological activity is varied, depending on the chemical structure, pharmacokinetics, receptor affinity and different potency of action. Progestogens are widely used in the treatment of menstrual cycle disturbances, various gynaecological conditions, contraception and menopausal hormone therapy. The administration of progestogen in menopausal hormone therapy is essential in women with an intact uterus to protect against endometrial hyperplasia and cancer. Progestogen selection should be based on the characteristics available for each progestogen type, relying on the assessment of relative potency of action in experimental models and animal models, and on the indirect knowledge brought by studies of the clinical use of different progestogen formulations. The choice of progestogen should involve the conscious use of knowledge of its benefits, with a focus on minimizing potential side effects. Unfortunately, there are no direct clinical studies comparing the metabolic effects of different progestogens. PMID:26327902

  9. Flibanserin, a drug intended for treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder in pre-menopausal women, affects spontaneous motor activity and brain neurochemistry in female rats.

    PubMed

    Ferger, Boris; Shimasaki, Makoto; Ceci, Angelo; Ittrich, Carina; Allers, Kelly A; Sommer, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    Flibanserin, a 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist and 5-HT(2A) receptor antagonist, is being developed for the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder (HSDD) in pre-menopausal women. Here, we investigated the effects of acute administration of flibanserin (15 and 45 mg/kg, p.o.) and the selective 5-HT(1A) receptor agonist (+)-8-OH-DPAT (1 mg/kg, i.p.) on neurotransmitter levels in brain areas of female rats. Specifically, levels of dopamine (DA) and serotonin (5-HT) and neurotransmitter metabolites were examined in prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and brain stem using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrochemical detection. In addition, spontaneous motor activity was determined in an automated motor activity system. Flibanserin (45 mg/kg) but not (+)-8-OH-DPAT significantly reduced motor activity, when compared to vehicle controls. Specifically, the DA turnover was significantly increased (279%) in the PFC after flibanserin treatment but less pronounced (159%) after 8-OH-DPAT administration. Serotonin tissue levels were not altered in any of the investigated brain regions upon flibanserin treatment. However, flibanserin produced a significant decrease of the major serotonin metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid and 5-HT turnover in the PFC, nucleus accumbens, hypothalamus and brain stem similar to (+)-8-OH-DPAT. In conclusion, the present study indicates that flibanserin is able to modulate dopaminergic and serotonergic activity in distinct brain areas. The observed effects in the PFC on dopaminergic markers are different from those induced by (+)-8-OH-DPAT and may contribute to its therapeutic efficacy in HSDD. The effects of flibanserin on spontaneous motor behaviour are in agreement with its receptor profile and underscore that flibanserin is devoid of any locomotor hyperactivity inducing properties.

  10. Modulation of the discriminative stimulus effects of triazolam across the menstrual cycle phase in healthy pre-menopausal women

    PubMed Central

    Babalonis, Shanna; Emurian, Cleeve S.; Martin, Catherine A.; Lile, Joshua A.; Kelly, Thomas H.

    2008-01-01

    Preclinical studies indicate that changes in progesterone levels across menstrual cycle phases modulate the behavioral effects of sedative drugs acting at GABAA receptor sites. In this study, seven healthy women learned to discriminate triazolam (0.25 mg/70 kg) from placebo. After acquiring the discrimination, a range of triazolam doses (0.00, 0.06, 0.12 and 0.25 mg/70 kg) was tested during the early follicular and mid-luteal menstrual cycle phases. During the mid-luteal phase, when progesterone levels were elevated, 0.12 mg/70 kg triazolam was identified as the active triazolam training dose (0.25 mg/70 kg), whereas 0.12 mg/70 kg triazolam was identified as placebo during the early follicular phase, when progesterone levels were low. Triazolam engendered prototypical sedative effects on subjective effect, performance and cardiovascular measures that were generally independent of cycle phase. These results suggest that the discriminative stimulus effects of the positive GABAA modulator, triazolam, are sensitive to menstrual cycle phase in healthy adult women. PMID:18178039

  11. POSTPRANDIAL TRIGLYCERIDES AND ADIPOSE TISSUE STORAGE OF DIETARY FATTY ACIDS: IMPACT OF MENOPAUSE AND ESTRADIOL

    PubMed Central

    Bessesen, DH; Cox-York, KA; Hernandez, TL; Erickson, CB; Wang, H; Jackman, MR; Van Pelt, RE

    2014-01-01

    Objective Postprandial lipemia worsens after menopause, but the mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized menopause-related postprandial lipemia would be: 1) associated with reduced storage of dietary fatty acids (FA) as triglyceride (TG) in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT); and 2) improved by short-term estradiol (E2). Design and Methods We studied 23 pre- (mean±SD; 42±4yr) and 22 postmenopausal (55±4yr) women with similar total adiposity. A subset of postmenopausal women (n=12) were studied following 2 weeks of E2 (0.15mg) and matching placebo in a random, cross-over design. A liquid meal containing 14C-oleic acid traced appearance of dietary FA in: serum (postprandial TG), breath (oxidation), and abdominal and femoral SAT (TG storage). Results Compared to premenopausal, healthy lean postmenopausal women had increased postprandial glucose and insulin and trend for higher TG, but similar dietary FA oxidation and storage. Adipocytes were larger in post- compared to premenopausal women, particularly in femoral SAT. Short-term E2 reduced postprandial TG and insulin, but had no effect on oxidation or storage of dietary FA. E2 increased the proportion of small adipocytes in femoral (but not abdominal) SAT. Conclusions Short-term E2 attenuated menopause-related increases in postprandial TG and increased femoral adipocyte hyperplasia, but not through increased net storage of dietary FA. PMID:25354893

  12. Effect of Isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa Extract on Uterine Fibroids in Comparison with Tibolone among Patients of a Recent Randomized, Double Blind, Parallel-Controlled Study in Chinese Women with Menopausal Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Liske, Eckehard; Wang, Shuyu; Liu, Jianli; Zhang, Zhonglan; Geng, Li; Hu, Lina; Zheng, Shurong; Zepelin, Hans-Heinrich Henneicke-von; Bai, Wenpei

    2014-01-01

    Objective. Effect of isopropanolic Cimicifuga racemosa extract (iCR) on uterine fibroid size compared with tibolone. Method. The randomized, double-blind, controlled study in China enrolled 244 patients aged 40–60 years with menopausal symptoms (Kupperman Menopause Index ≥ 15). The participants were treated with either iCR of 40 mg crude drug/day (N = 122) or tibolone 2.5 mg/day (N = 122) orally for 3 months in 2004. Now, we investigated the subset of all women (N = 62) with at least one uterine fibroid at onset of treatment for the effect of iCR (N = 34) on fibroid size compared with tibolone (N = 28) by transvaginal ultrasonography. Results. The median myoma volume decreased upon iCR by as much as −30% (P = 0.016) but increased upon tibolone by +4.7%. The percentage of volume change, mean diameter change and geometric mean diameter change of the iCR group compared to tibolone were statistically significant (P = 0.016, 0.021, 0.016 respectively). Conclusion. Our results suggest that iCR (Remifemin) is a valid herbal medicinal product in patients with uterine myomas as it provides adequate relief from menopausal symptoms and inhibits growth of the myomas in contrast to tibolone. PMID:24719645

  13. Adiposity, inflammation, genetic variants and risk of post-menopausal breast cancer findings from a prospective-specimen-collection, retrospective-blinded-evaluation (PRoBE) design approach.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaowei Sherry; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Chu, Xin; Li, Ling; Colonie, Ryan; Webster, Jessica; Smelser, Diane; Patel, Nikitaban; Prichard, Jeffery; Stark, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Chronic internal inflammation secondary to adiposity is a risk factor for sporadic breast cancer and Post-Menopausal Breast Cancer (PMBC) is largely defined as such. Adiposity is one of the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and is a risk factor for PMBC. We examined SNPs of eight genes implicated in adiposity, inflammation and cell proliferation in a Prospective-specimen-collection, Retrospective-Blinded-Evaluation (PRoBE) design approach. A total of 180 cases and 732 age-matched controls were identified from the MyCode prospective biobank database and then linked to the Clinical Decision Information System, an enterprise-wide data warehouse, to retrieve clinico-demographic data. Samples were analyzed in a core laboratory where the personnel were masked to their status. Results from multivariate logistic regression yielded one SNP (rs2922126) in the GHSR as protective against PMBC among homozygotes for the minor allele (A/A) (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.18-.89, P-value = .02); homozygosity for the minor allele (C/C) of the SNP (rs889312) of the gene MAP3K1 was associated with the risk of PMBC (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.25-4.63 P-value = .008). Advanced age was protective against PMBC (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-0.99, P-value = .02). Family history of breast cancer (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.14-4.43. P = .02), HRT (OR = 3.35; 95% CI 2.15-5.21, P < .001), and MetS (OR = 14.83, 95% CI 5.63-39.08, P < .001) and interaction between HRT and MetS (OR = 39.38, 95% CI 15.71-98.70, P < .001) were associated with the risk of PMBC. We did not detected significant interactions between SNPs or between the SNPs and the clinico-demographic risk factors. Our study further confirms that MetS increases the risk of PMBC and argues in favor of reducing exposure to HRT. Our findings are another confirmation that low penetrance genes involved in the inflammatory pathway, i.e. MAP3KI gene, may have a plausible causative role in

  14. Adiposity, inflammation, genetic variants and risk of post-menopausal breast cancer findings from a prospective-specimen-collection, retrospective-blinded-evaluation (PRoBE) design approach.

    PubMed

    Yan, Xiaowei Sherry; Barnholtz-Sloan, Jill; Chu, Xin; Li, Ling; Colonie, Ryan; Webster, Jessica; Smelser, Diane; Patel, Nikitaban; Prichard, Jeffery; Stark, Azadeh

    2013-01-01

    Chronic internal inflammation secondary to adiposity is a risk factor for sporadic breast cancer and Post-Menopausal Breast Cancer (PMBC) is largely defined as such. Adiposity is one of the clinical criteria for the diagnosis of Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) and is a risk factor for PMBC. We examined SNPs of eight genes implicated in adiposity, inflammation and cell proliferation in a Prospective-specimen-collection, Retrospective-Blinded-Evaluation (PRoBE) design approach. A total of 180 cases and 732 age-matched controls were identified from the MyCode prospective biobank database and then linked to the Clinical Decision Information System, an enterprise-wide data warehouse, to retrieve clinico-demographic data. Samples were analyzed in a core laboratory where the personnel were masked to their status. Results from multivariate logistic regression yielded one SNP (rs2922126) in the GHSR as protective against PMBC among homozygotes for the minor allele (A/A) (OR = 0.4, 95% CI 0.18-.89, P-value = .02); homozygosity for the minor allele (C/C) of the SNP (rs889312) of the gene MAP3K1 was associated with the risk of PMBC (OR = 2.41, 95% CI 1.25-4.63 P-value = .008). Advanced age was protective against PMBC (OR = 0.98, 95% CI 0.95-0.99, P-value = .02). Family history of breast cancer (OR = 2.22, 95% CI 1.14-4.43. P = .02), HRT (OR = 3.35; 95% CI 2.15-5.21, P < .001), and MetS (OR = 14.83, 95% CI 5.63-39.08, P < .001) and interaction between HRT and MetS (OR = 39.38, 95% CI 15.71-98.70, P < .001) were associated with the risk of PMBC. We did not detected significant interactions between SNPs or between the SNPs and the clinico-demographic risk factors. Our study further confirms that MetS increases the risk of PMBC and argues in favor of reducing exposure to HRT. Our findings are another confirmation that low penetrance genes involved in the inflammatory pathway, i.e. MAP3KI gene, may have a plausible causative role in

  15. Menopause and Cancers.

    PubMed

    Einstein, Mark H; Levine, Nanci F; Nevadunsky, Nicole S

    2015-09-01

    Cancer is a disease of aging, and therefore is more prevalent after menopause. Menopausal symptoms resulting from cancer treatments are an important survivorship issue in cancer care. This article reviews the preventive strategies, utilization of health resources, and management of menopausal symptoms after cancer treatment. Preventive screening as informed by genetic and lifestyle risk, and lifestyle modification, may mitigate the risk of cancer and cancer mortality. Despite potential benefits to quality of life, hormone replacement is rarely prescribed to survivors of gynecologic malignancies. Special considerations are needed for the treatment and supportive care of menopausal symptoms in cancer survivors.

  16. Life history evolution: what does a menopausal killer whale do?

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Hal

    2015-03-16

    Menopause evolved in humans and whales, presumably because older females can help their kin. But how do they help? New research shows that post-menopausal female killer whales lead foraging groups. This leadership is most significant when food is scarce. PMID:25784039

  17. Life history evolution: what does a menopausal killer whale do?

    PubMed

    Whitehead, Hal

    2015-03-16

    Menopause evolved in humans and whales, presumably because older females can help their kin. But how do they help? New research shows that post-menopausal female killer whales lead foraging groups. This leadership is most significant when food is scarce.

  18. Treatment of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    PubMed

    Palacios, S; Mejía, A; Neyro, J L

    2015-01-01

    The vagina, vulva, vestibule, labia majora/minora, and bladder trigone have a high concentration of estrogen receptors; therefore, they are a sensitive biological indicator of serum levels of these hormones in women. The estrogen loss in postmenopausal women produces a dysfunction called genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The principal therapeutic goal in the genitourinary syndrome of menopause is to relieve symptoms. Treatment options, as well as local and systemic hormonal treatment are changes in lifestyle and non-hormonal treatments mainly based on the use of moisturizers and lubricants. New treatments that have recently appeared are ospemifeme, the first selective hormone receptor modulator for dyspareunia and vulvovaginal atrophy treatment, and the use of vaginal laser. This review has been written with the intention of giving recommendations on the prevention and treatment of genitourinary syndrome of menopause. PMID:26366797

  19. Altered sexual health and quality of life in women prior to hematopoietic cell transplantation.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Kathryn D; Facione, Noreen; Padilla, Geraldine; Blume, Karl; Dodd, Marylin

    2007-09-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional descriptive study is to define sexual dysfunction and menopausal symptoms in women following cytotoxic or immunosuppressive medication for the treatment of malignant or life-threatening hematolymphoid diseases. These women were preparing to undergo hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) as the next step in their treatment plan. It is assumed that sexual dysfunction and symptoms of premature menopause are more pronounced post-HCT due to the intensity of the preparative regimen on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. This study included 48 pre-menopausal women and 28 spouses/partners. Data were collected using five self-report instruments (demographic and medical, the Female Sexual Function Index, the Menopause-specific Quality of Life, the Psychosocial Adaptation to Illness Scale, and a global quality of life score). The main research variables were female sexual functioning, symptoms of menopause, and quality of life. The findings indicate that 73% of women report decreased libido and 48% report dissatisfaction with their overall sex life. Hot flashes, the most common symptom of menopause are reported by 46% and 27% report the hot flashes moderate to severe in intensity. Vaginal dryness was reported by 35% with 23% reporting the vaginal dryness to be moderate to severe. The mean quality of life (QOL) score in women was 69+/-25 with a range of 2-100 (on a scale of 0-100 with 100 being an excellent QOL). The findings indicate that women treated with standard dose chemotherapy and immunosuppressive therapy for malignant and life-threatening hematolymphoid diseases experience alterations in sexual health and symptoms of premature menopause. The results show that the desire, arousal, and orgasm phase of the sexual response cycle are altered. Additionally, nearly half of the women are experiencing hot flashes, the most common symptom of menopause and over a third report vaginal dryness. There are statistically significant

  20. Reproducibility of 24-h post-exercise changes in energy intake in overweight and obese women using current methodology.

    PubMed

    Brown, Gemma L; Lean, Michael E; Hankey, Catherine R

    2012-07-01

    Direct observation(s) of energy intake (EI) via buffet meals served in the laboratory are often carried out within short-term exercise intervention studies. The reproducibility of values obtained has not been assessed either under resting control conditions or post-exercise, in overweight and obese females. A total of fourteen sedentary, pre-menopausal females (BMI 30.0 (SD 5.1) kg/m²) completed four trials; two exercise and two control. Each trial lasted 24 h spanning over 2 d; conducted from afternoon on day 1 and morning on day 2. An exercise session to expend 1.65 MJ was completed on day 1 of exercise trials, and three buffet meals were served during each trial. Reproducibility of post-exercise changes in energy and macronutrient intakes was assessed at each individual buffet meal by intraclass correlation coefficient (r(i)). Only the r(i) values for post-exercise changes in energy (r(i) 0.44 (95 % CI - 0.03, 0.77), P = 0.03) and fat intake (r(i) 0.51 (95 % CI 0.04, 0.81), P = 0.02) at the lunch buffet meal achieved statistical significance; however, these r i values were weak and had large associated 95 % CI, which indicates a large degree of variability associated with these measurements. Energy and macronutrient intakes at the breakfast and evening buffet meals were not reproducible. This study concludes that the frequently used laboratory-based buffet meal method of assessing EI does not produce reliable, reproducible post-exercise changes in EI in overweight and obese women.

  1. Managing menopause.

    PubMed

    Reid, Robert; Abramson, Beth L; Blake, Jennifer; Desindes, Sophie; Dodin, Sylvie; Johnston, Shawna; Rowe, Timothy; Sodhi, Namrita; Wilks, Penny; Wolfman, Wendy; Fortier, Michel; Reid, Robert; Abramson, Beth L; Blake, Jennifer; Desindes, Sophie; Dodin, Sylvie; Graves, Lisa; Guthrie, Bing; Khan, Aliya; Johnston, Shawna; Rowe, Timothy; Sodhi, Namrita; Wilks, Penny; Wolfman, Wendy

    2014-09-01

    Objectif : Offrir, aux fournisseurs de soins de santé, une mise à jour de la directive clinique quant à la prise en charge de la ménopause chez les femmes asymptomatiques en santé, ainsi que chez les femmes qui présentent des symptômes vasomoteurs ou urogénitaux; cette mise à jour se penche également sur les facteurs associés à la maladie cardiovasculaire, au cancer du sein, à l’urogynécologie et à la sexualité. Issues : Les interventions quant au mode de vie, les médicaments d’ordonnance et les traitements de médecine complémentaire et parallèle sont présentés en fonction de leur efficacité dans la prise en charge des symptômes ménopausiques. Des stratégies de counseling et thérapeutiques en ce qui concerne les préoccupations en matière de sexualité au cours de la périménopause et de la postménopause sont passées en revue. Des approches quant à l’identification et à l’évaluation des femmes exposées à un risque élevé d’ostéoporose (ainsi que des options en matière de prévention et de traitement) sont présentées dans la directive clinique sur l’ostéoporose qui accompagne les présentes. Résultats : La littérature publiée a été récupérée par l’intermédiaire de recherches menées dans PubMed et The Cochrane Library, en août et en septembre 2012, au moyen d’un vocabulaire contrôlé (p. ex. « hormone replacement therapy », « menopause », « cardiovascular diseases » et « sexual function ») et de mots clés (p. ex. « HRT », « perimenopause », « heart disease » et « sexuality »). Les résultats ont été restreints aux directives cliniques, aux analyses systématiques, aux essais comparatifs randomisés / essais cliniques comparatifs et aux études observationnelles. Les résultats ont également été restreints aux documents publiés, en anglais ou en français, à partir de 2009. Les recherches ont été mises à jour de façon régulière et intégrées à la

  2. Hormone therapy for the management of menopause symptoms.

    PubMed

    Collins Fantasia, Heidi; Sutherland, Melissa A

    2014-01-01

    Many women will undergo menopause without incident, but others will experience bothersome effects resulting from declining estrogen levels. Vasomotor symptoms, which manifest as intense feelings of warmth, flushing, and perspiration, are the most common symptoms for which women seek treatment. Hormone therapy is indicated for the relief of vasomotor symptoms related to menopause. We review current Food Drug Administration-approved options for hormone therapy and discuss implications for practice and patient education.

  3. Alternative treatments for the menopause.

    PubMed

    Rees, Margaret

    2009-02-01

    Concerns about the safety of oestrogen-based hormone replacement therapy after publication of the Women's Health Initiative study and Million Women Study has led to women turning to alternative therapies, erroneously believing that they are safer and 'more natural'. Evidence from randomized trials that alternative and complementary therapies improve menopausal symptoms or have the same benefits as conventional pharmacopoeia is poor. There are no recognized international criteria for the design of clinical trials of alternative therapies as there are for standard medicines and medical devices for endpoints of treatment and safety evaluations. Studies may have limitations such as design, sample size and duration. There is a wide range of different preparations, making comparison difficult. The evidence regarding botanicals, homeopathy, steroids, vitamin supplements, dietary changes and functional foods, and physical interventions are discussed in this chapter. Standard pharmacopoeia such as clonidine, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors and progestogens are also examined.

  4. Impairment of granulation tissue formation after menopause.

    PubMed

    Gniadecki, R; Wyrwas, B; Kabala, A; Matecka, J

    1996-04-01

    Formation of connective tissue is an essential step in the process of wound healing. After menopause an atrophy of connective tissues in skin, bone, and reproductive organs takes place. Using a dead-space wound healing model we measured collagen synthesis and deposition, and cell replication in the granulation tissue of 18 premenopausal and 23 peri- and postmenopausal women not receiving any hormonal therapy. In the postmenopausal group collagen synthesis and deposition and cell number in the granulation tissue were diminished. These results document the impairment of the granulation tissue formation after menopause.

  5. Serum Dioxin Concentrations and Age at Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Eskenazi, Brenda; Warner, Marcella; Marks, Amy R.; Samuels, Steven; Gerthoux, Pier ario; Vercellini, Paolo; Olive, David L.; Needham, Larry; Patterson, Donald G.; Mocarelli, Paolo

    2005-01-01

    2,3,7,8-Tetrachlorobenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD), a halogenated compound that binds the aryl hydrocarbon receptor, is a by-product of numerous industrial processes including waste incineration. Studies in rats and monkeys suggest that TCDD may affect ovarian function. We examined the relationship of TCDD and age at menopause in a population of women residing near Seveso, Italy, in 1976, at the time of a chemical plant explosion. We included 616 of the women who participated 20 years later in the Seveso Women’s Health Study. All women were premenopausal at the time of the explosion, had TCDD levels measured in serum collected soon after the explosion, and were ≥ 35 years of age at interview. Using proportional hazards modeling, we found a 6% nonsignificant increase in risk of early menopause with a 10-fold increase in serum TCDD. When TCDD levels were categorized, compared with women in the lowest quintile (< 20.4 ppt), women in quintile 2 (20.4–34.2 ppt) had a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.1 (p = 0.77), quintile 3 (34.3–54.1 ppt) had an HR of 1.4 (p = 0.14), quintile 4 (54.2–118 ppt) had an HR of 1.6 (p = 0.10), and quintile 5 (> 118 ppt) had an HR of 1.1 (p = 0.82) for risk of earlier menopause. The trend toward earlier menopause across the first four quintiles is statistically significant (p = 0.04). These results suggest a nonmonotonic dose-related association with increasing risk of earlier menopause up to about 100 ppt TCDD, but not above. PMID:16002373

  6. Using Community Radio in a Rural Women's Post-Literacy Programme in Nepal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nagaoka, Chizuko; Karki, Manohar

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the literacy and post-literacy needs of rural women in Nepal, describes a pilot study in using community radio to supplement a classroom-based post-literacy programme for these women, analyses the findings of this intervention and considers the implications for similar programmes in other settings.

  7. The Exercise Plus Program for Older Women Post Hip Fracture: Participant Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Resnick, Barbara; Orwig, Denise; Wehren, Lois; Zimmerman, Sheryl; Simpson, Marjorie; Magaziner, Jay

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore the experiences of older women post hip fracture who were exposed to a motivational intervention, the Exercise Plus Program, intended to increase adherence to exercise. Design and Methods: This study used a naturalistic inquiry. We interviewed a total of 70 older women, 12 months post hip fracture,…

  8. Symptoms: Menopause, Infertility, and Sexual Health.

    PubMed

    Barton, Debra L; Ganz, Patricia A

    2015-01-01

    By 2022, the number of survivors is expected to grow to nearly 18 million. Therefore, addressing acute and chronic negative sequelae of a cancer diagnosis and its treatments becomes a health imperative. For women with a history of breast cancer, one of the common goals of treatment and prevention of recurrence is to reduce circulating concentrations of estradiol, especially in women with hormone receptor positive breast cancer. Hormone deprivation after a diagnosis of breast cancer impacts physiological targets other than in the breast tissue and can result in unwanted side effects, all of which can negatively impact quality of life and function and cause distress. Symptoms that are most strongly linked by evidence to hormone changes after cancer diagnosis and treatment include hot flashes, night sweats, sleep changes, fatigue, mood changes, and diminishing sexual function, including vaginal atrophy (decreased arousal, dryness and dyspareunia), infertility, decreased desire and negative self-image. Weight gain and resulting body image changes are often concomitants of the abrupt onset of treatment-induced menopause. The purpose of this chapter is to briefly review what is known about the advent of premature menopause in women treated for breast cancer, menopausal symptoms that are exacerbated by endocrine treatments for breast cancer, and the associated concerns of hot flashes and related menopausal symptoms, sexual health and fertility issues. We will discuss limitations in the current research and propose strategies that address current limitations in order to move the science forward. PMID:26059933

  9. Menopause in the workplace: What employers should be doing.

    PubMed

    Jack, Gavin; Riach, Kathleen; Bariola, Emily; Pitts, Marian; Schapper, Jan; Sarrel, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Large numbers of women transition through menopause whilst in paid employment. Symptoms associated with menopause may cause difficulties for working women, especially if untreated, yet employers are practically silent on this potentially costly issue. This review summarises existing research on the underexplored topic of menopause in the workplace, and synthesises recommendations for employers. Longstanding scholarly interest in the relationship between employment status and symptom reporting typically (but not consistently) shows that women in paid employment (and in specific occupations) report fewer and less severe symptoms than those who are unemployed. Recent studies more systematically focused on the effects of menopausal symptoms on work are typically cross-sectional self-report surveys, with a small number of qualitative studies. Though several papers established that vasomotor (and associated) symptoms have a negative impact on women's productivity, capacity to work and work experience, this is not a uniform finding. Psychological and other somatic symptoms associated with menopause can have a relatively greater negative influence. Physical (e.g., workplace temperature and design) and psychosocial (e.g., work stress, perceptions of control/autonomy) workplace factors have been found to influence the relationship between symptoms and work. Principal recommendations for employers to best support menopausal women as part of a holistic approach to employee health and well-being include risk assessments to make suitable adjustments to the physical and psychosocial work environment, provision of information and support, and training for line managers. Limitations of prior studies, and directions for future research are presented.

  10. Menopause in the workplace: What employers should be doing.

    PubMed

    Jack, Gavin; Riach, Kathleen; Bariola, Emily; Pitts, Marian; Schapper, Jan; Sarrel, Philip

    2016-03-01

    Large numbers of women transition through menopause whilst in paid employment. Symptoms associated with menopause may cause difficulties for working women, especially if untreated, yet employers are practically silent on this potentially costly issue. This review summarises existing research on the underexplored topic of menopause in the workplace, and synthesises recommendations for employers. Longstanding scholarly interest in the relationship between employment status and symptom reporting typically (but not consistently) shows that women in paid employment (and in specific occupations) report fewer and less severe symptoms than those who are unemployed. Recent studies more systematically focused on the effects of menopausal symptoms on work are typically cross-sectional self-report surveys, with a small number of qualitative studies. Though several papers established that vasomotor (and associated) symptoms have a negative impact on women's productivity, capacity to work and work experience, this is not a uniform finding. Psychological and other somatic symptoms associated with menopause can have a relatively greater negative influence. Physical (e.g., workplace temperature and design) and psychosocial (e.g., work stress, perceptions of control/autonomy) workplace factors have been found to influence the relationship between symptoms and work. Principal recommendations for employers to best support menopausal women as part of a holistic approach to employee health and well-being include risk assessments to make suitable adjustments to the physical and psychosocial work environment, provision of information and support, and training for line managers. Limitations of prior studies, and directions for future research are presented. PMID:26857886

  11. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K-dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. To determine the associations betw...

  12. Relationship between essential amino acids and muscle mass, independent of habitual diets, in pre- and post-menopausal US women.

    PubMed

    Andrich, David E; Filion, Marie-Eve; Woods, Margo; Dwyer, Johanna T; Gorbach, Sherwood L; Goldin, Barry R; Adlercreutz, Herman; Aubertin-Leheudre, Mylène

    2011-11-01

    The purpose of this secondary analysis was to examine the relationship between protein and essential amino acids (EAAs) intake with the level of muscle mass (MM) independent of the diet. Twenty-one omnivores, 22 ovo-lacto-vegetarians and 20 vegans were recruited. MM (urinary creatinine), dietary intake (5-day dietary records) and biochemical analyses (urinary and plasma sex hormones) were obtained. We observed no significant difference between groups for MM, total EAA intake, leucine, isoleucine, age and body mass index. However, we observed a significant difference between groups for total dietary protein intake and total energy intake. Despite significant differences in total dietary protein, the EAA intake was not different, indicating that neither the amount nor the quality of protein in these diets was a limiting factor in determining the amount of MM. Thus, each of these diet patterns appears adequate to maintain MM.

  13. Osteocalcin carboxylation is not associated with body weight or percent fat changes during weight loss in post menopausal women

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Osteocalcin (OC) is a vitamin K dependent bone protein used as a marker of bone formation. Mouse models have demonstrated a role for the uncarboxylated form of OC (ucOC) in energy metabolism, including energy expenditure and adiposity, but human data are equivocal. To determine the associations betw...

  14. Endocrine therapy in post-menopausal women with metastatic breast cancer: From literature and guidelines to clinical practice.

    PubMed

    Sini, Valentina; Cinieri, Saverio; Conte, Pierfranco; De Laurentiis, Michelino; Leo, Angelo Di; Tondini, Carlo; Marchetti, Paolo

    2016-04-01

    Current international guidelines recommend endocrine therapy as the initial treatment of choice in hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer. Endocrine therapy has been a mainstay of hormone responsive breast cancer treatment for more than a century. To date it is based on different approaches,such as blocking the estrogen receptor through selective receptor estrogen modulators, depleting extragonadal peripheral estrogen synthesis by aromatase inhibitors or inducing estrogen receptor degradation using selective down-regulators. Despite estrogen and/or progesterone receptor positive status, up to a quarter of patients could be either primarily resistant to hormone therapies or will develop hormone resistance during the course of their disease. Different mechanisms, either intrinsic or acquired, could be implicated in endocrine resistance. In the present work available endocrine therapies and their appropriate sequences have been reviewed, and the most promising strategies to overcome endocrine resistance have been highlighted.

  15. Intensification of menopausal symptoms among female inhabitants of East European countries.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Lyubinets, Oleh; Novotny, Jozef; Stanchak, Yaroslav; Tiszczenko, Evgenii; Owoc, Alfred; Raczkiewicz, Dorota

    2016-07-15

    The objective of the study was analysis of the occurrence and intensity of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women from Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. The study was conducted during the period 2014-2015 among postmenopausal women living in the areas of Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Czech Republic and Slovakia. The degree of menopausal complaints was assessed using the Kupperman Menopausal Index and Greene Climacteric Scale. The respondents were additionally asked about age, educational level, place of residence, marital status and age at last menstrual period. Into the study were enrolled women aged 50-65, minimum 2 years after the last menstrual period, who had a generally good state of health and did not use hormone replacement therapy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. The intensity of all menopausal symptoms measured by the Kupperman Menopausal Index and Greene Climacteric Scale was similar in Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. In these countries, severe, moderate and mild menopausal symptoms measured by Kupperman Menopausal Index occurred with a similar frequency. Similar results were also obtained in the subscales of psychological, somatic and vasomotor symptoms according to the Greene Climacteric Scale. Nearly a half of the women from Belarus did not report symptoms measured by Kupperman Menopausal Index. They obtained significantly lower menopausal complaints in the subscales of psychological and somatic symptoms according to the Greene Climacteric Scale, compared to the inhabitants of the remaining countries. The majority of women from the Ukraine had mild menopausal symptoms as measured by the Kupperman Menopausal Index. They had significantly more severe complaints in the subscales of psychological, somatic and vasomotor symptoms according to the Greene Climacteric Scale, compared to the inhabitants of the remaining countries in the study. The intensity of menopausal symptoms in women from Ukraine and

  16. Intensification of menopausal symptoms among female inhabitants of East European countries.

    PubMed

    Bojar, Iwona; Lyubinets, Oleh; Novotny, Jozef; Stanchak, Yaroslav; Tiszczenko, Evgenii; Owoc, Alfred; Raczkiewicz, Dorota

    2016-09-01

    The objective of the study was analysis of the occurrence and intensity of menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women from Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Czech Republic, Slovakia and Poland. The study was conducted during the period 2014-2015 among postmenopausal women living in the areas of Poland, Belarus, Ukraine, Czech Republic and Slovakia. The degree of menopausal complaints was assessed using the Kupperman Menopausal Index and Greene Climacteric Scale. The respondents were additionally asked about age, educational level, place of residence, marital status and age at last menstrual period. Into the study were enrolled women aged 50-65, minimum 2 years after the last menstrual period, who had a generally good state of health and did not use hormone replacement therapy. The results were subjected to statistical analysis. The intensity of all menopausal symptoms measured by the Kupperman Menopausal Index and Greene Climacteric Scale was similar in Poland, Czech Republic and Slovakia. In these countries, severe, moderate and mild menopausal symptoms measured by Kupperman Menopausal Index occurred with a similar frequency. Similar results were also obtained in the subscales of psychological, somatic and vasomotor symptoms according to the Greene Climacteric Scale. Nearly a half of the women from Belarus did not report symptoms measured by Kupperman Menopausal Index. They obtained significantly lower menopausal complaints in the subscales of psychological and somatic symptoms according to the Greene Climacteric Scale, compared to the inhabitants of the remaining countries. The majority of women from the Ukraine had mild menopausal symptoms as measured by the Kupperman Menopausal Index. They had significantly more severe complaints in the subscales of psychological, somatic and vasomotor symptoms according to the Greene Climacteric Scale, compared to the inhabitants of the remaining countries in the study. The intensity of menopausal symptoms in women from Ukraine and

  17. Menopause and dry eye. A possible relationship.

    PubMed

    Versura, Piera; Campos, Emilio C

    2005-05-01

    The hormonal status and in particular sex steroids play a role in the ocular surface homeostasis and function, during the whole life and in both sexes, accomplished by estrogenic and androgenic receptors located on corneal and conjunctival epithelia and Meibomian gland. The ocular surface is an integrated unit and any dysfunction results in a scarce or unstable preocular tear film which produces dry eye, a chronic inflammatory condition with increasing incidence as people get older but always more frequent among females. In post-menopausal women endocrine changes join the aging effects in the pathogenesis of dry eye, but still it remains controversial whether estrogen or androgen deficiency or their imbalance impair ocular surface function. Another questionable issue concerns the efficacy of hormonal replacement therapy in the amelioration of dry eye symptoms and recovery of tear function, since the scientific literature stands in between a therapeutic or a promoting effect of eye dryness. Therapy of dry eye is usually based upon topical administration of tear substitutes; estrogen or androgen-based eye drops represents a promising innovative treatment based upon important scientific rationale.

  18. Menopause and dry eye. A possible relationship.

    PubMed

    Versura, Piera; Campos, Emilio C

    2005-05-01

    The hormonal status and in particular sex steroids play a role in the ocular surface homeostasis and function, during the whole life and in both sexes, accomplished by estrogenic and androgenic receptors located on corneal and conjunctival epithelia and Meibomian gland. The ocular surface is an integrated unit and any dysfunction results in a scarce or unstable preocular tear film which produces dry eye, a chronic inflammatory condition with increasing incidence as people get older but always more frequent among females. In post-menopausal women endocrine changes join the aging effects in the pathogenesis of dry eye, but still it remains controversial whether estrogen or androgen deficiency or their imbalance impair ocular surface function. Another questionable issue concerns the efficacy of hormonal replacement therapy in the amelioration of dry eye symptoms and recovery of tear function, since the scientific literature stands in between a therapeutic or a promoting effect of eye dryness. Therapy of dry eye is usually based upon topical administration of tear substitutes; estrogen or androgen-based eye drops represents a promising innovative treatment based upon important scientific rationale. PMID:16019376

  19. The endocrine dyscrasia that accompanies menopause and andropause induces aberrant cell cycle signaling that triggers re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into the cell cycle, neurodysfunction, neurodegeneration and cognitive disease.

    PubMed

    Atwood, Craig S; Bowen, Richard L

    2015-11-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "SBN 2014". Sex hormones are physiological factors that promote neurogenesis during embryonic and fetal development. During childhood and adulthood these hormones support the maintenance of brain structure and function via neurogenesis and the formation of dendritic spines, axons and synapses required for the capture, processing and retrieval of information (memories). Not surprisingly, changes in these reproductive hormones that occur with menopause and during andropause are strongly correlated with neurodegeneration and cognitive decline. In this connection, much evidence now indicates that Alzheimer's disease (AD) involves aberrant re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into the cell cycle. Cell cycle abnormalities appear very early in the disease, prior to the appearance of plaques and tangles, and explain the biochemical, neuropathological and cognitive changes observed with disease progression. Intriguingly, a recent animal study has demonstrated that induction of adult neurogenesis results in the loss of previously encoded memories while decreasing neurogenesis after memory formation during infancy mitigated forgetting. Here we review the biochemical, epidemiological and clinical evidence that alterations in sex hormone signaling associated with menopause and andropause drive the aberrant re-entry of post-mitotic neurons into an abortive cell cycle that leads to neurite retraction, neuron dysfunction and neuron death. When the reproductive axis is in balance, gonadotropins such as luteinizing hormone (LH), and its fetal homolog, human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG), promote pluripotent human and totipotent murine embryonic stem cell and neuron proliferation. However, strong evidence supports menopausal/andropausal elevations in the LH:sex steroid ratio as driving aberrant mitotic events. These include the upregulation of tumor necrosis factor; amyloid-β precursor protein processing towards the production of mitogenic Aβ; and

  20. Profile of Breast Diseases in Post Pubertal Women Assessed By Clinical Breast Examination – A Community Based Study in Rural Pondicherry

    PubMed Central

    Kannan, Narayanasamy Subbaraju; Palaniappan, M.; Nandi, Partha

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast diseases in women, whether benign or malignant, are very commonly encountered. Benign diseases are under reported and cancer is one of the leading causes of mortality in women. This study was undertaken with an aim to study the profile of various breast disease in the community. Materials and Methods In this observational study all the post pubertal women residing in the selected village (n=1000) were included. The study was done from September 2013 to August 2015. A thorough history taking was done with the help of a predesigned proforma followed by a clinical breast examination and further investigation at our hospital if necessary. Results It was found in this study that mastalgia, both cyclical and non-cyclical as well as lumps were a common finding in the general population. Significant proportions of women were found to be in the peri-menopausal age group. Median age of menarche was 13 years; menopause was 45 years. The average age at first childbirth was 21 years with 1 year being the median duration of breast-feeding. A total of 128 women (1 in 8) had positive symptomatology with 94 (1 in 11) of them having a breast disease on examination. One was diagnosed with breast cancer. The prevalence of cyclical mastalgia was 1 in 11, non-cyclical mastalgia 1 in 34, fibroadenosis 1 in 23 and fibroadenoma 1 in 100. The awareness regarding risk factors and the availability of screening program was very poor. The average age of presentation of mastalgia was 34 years; fibroadenosis was 35 years and fibroadenoma 29 years. None of the women interacted with or had consulted a practitioner regarding mastalgia as it was not perceived to be a sign of malignancy and did not cause any significant discomfort. Conclusion It was thus concluded from this study that benign breast diseases are a common occurrence in the general population. Breast cancer continues to be diagnosed only at later stages owing to lack of awareness and inadequately structured screening

  1. Organon OD 14 (tibolone) and menopausal dynamic hormone profiles.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, H I; Hart, D M; Lindsay, R; Beastall, G H

    1986-03-01

    Hormonal profiles were studied in 15 post-menopausal women, 7 of whom had been treated with Organon OD 14 (Tibolone) and 8 with placebo tablets for 3 yr. In the Tibolone-treated group, the sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels were significantly lower, while the estimated free testosterone levels, the testosterone/SHBG ratio and the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) response to thyrotrophin-releasing hormone (TRH) were significantly higher than in the placebo group. Prolactin and triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations were lower in the actively treated group, although the differences were not statistically significant. No significant differences were observed with respect to thyroxine (T4), TSH, basal cortisol or cortisol response to synacthen.

  2. The timing hypothesis: Do coronary risks of menopausal hormone therapy vary by age or time since menopause onset?

    PubMed

    Bassuk, Shari S; Manson, JoAnn E

    2016-05-01

    The Women's Health Initiative (WHI), a landmark randomized trial of menopausal hormone therapy (HT) for prevention of chronic disease in postmenopausal women aged 50-79, established that such therapy neither prevents coronary heart disease (CHD) nor yields a favorable balance of benefits and risks in such women as a whole. However, a nuanced look at the data from this trial, considered alongside other evidence, suggests that timing of HT initiation affects the relation between such therapy and coronary risk, as well as its overall benefit-risk balance. Estrogen may have a beneficial effect on the heart if started in early menopause, when a woman's arteries are likely to be relatively healthy, but a harmful effect if started in late menopause, when those arteries are more likely to show signs of atherosclerotic disease. However, even if HT-associated relative risks are constant across age or time since menopause onset, the low absolute risk of CHD in younger or recently menopausal women translates into low attributable risks in this group. Thus, HT initiation for relief of moderate to severe vasomotor symptoms in early menopausal patients who have a favorable coronary profile remains a viable option.

  3. Class, gender and culture in the experience of menopause. A comparative survey in Tunisia and France.

    PubMed

    Delanoë, Daniel; Hajri, Selma; Bachelot, Annie; Mahfoudh Draoui, Dorra; Hassoun, Danielle; Marsicano, Elise; Ringa, Virginie

    2012-07-01

    The experience of menopause can vary strongly from one society to another: frequency of hot flushes, other somatic and psychological symptoms, and changes in family and social relations. Several studies have shown that country of residence, country of birth, ethnicity, and social class all play roles in these variations. But few comparative anthropological studies have analysed the social processes that construct the experience of menopause or considered menopausal women's social and financial autonomy. To study the impact of the social status accorded to menopausal women and their social resources, during 2007 and 2008 we conducted a series of 75 in-depth interviews with women in different sociocultural settings: Tunisian women in Tunisia, Tunisian women in France, and French women in France, all aged from 45 to 70 years. Our methodological approach to the data included content analysis, typology development and socio-demographic analysis. Quite substantial differences appeared, as a function of social class and cultural environment. We identified three principal experiences of menopause. Tunisian working class women, in Tunisia and France, experience menopause with intense symptoms and strong feelings of social degradation. Among Tunisian middle-class women in both countries, menopause was most often accompanied by a severe decline in aesthetic and social value but few symptoms. For most of the French women, menopause involved few symptoms and little change in their social value. The distribution of types of experiences according to social but not geographic or national factors indicates that, in the populations studied here, the differences in symptoms are not biologically determined. Different experiences of menopause are linked to social class and to the degree of male domination. A given level of independence and emancipation allows women an identity beyond their reproductive function and a status unimpaired by menopause.

  4. Hormone replacement therapy diminishes hearing in peri-menopausal mice.

    PubMed

    Price, Katharine; Zhu, Xiaoxia; Guimaraes, Patricia F; Vasilyeva, Olga N; Frisina, Robert D

    2009-06-01

    We recently discovered that progestin in hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for post-menopausal women has detrimental effects on the ear and central auditory system [Guimaraes, P., Frisina, S.T., Mapes, F., Tadros, S.F., Frisina, D.R., Frisina, R.D., 2006. Progestin negatively affects hearing in aged women. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. - PNAS 103, 14246-14249]. To start determining the generality and neural bases of these human findings, the present study examined the effects of combination HRT (estrogen+progestin) and estrogen alone on hearing in peri-menopausal mice. Specifically, auditory brainstem responses (ABRs-sensitivity of the auditory system) and distortion-product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs-cochlear outer hair cell system) were employed. Middle age female CBA mice received either a time-release, subcutaneous implanted pellet of estrogen+progestin, estrogen alone, or placebo. Longitudinal comparisons of ABR threshold data obtained at 4 months of treatment revealed statistically significant declines in auditory sensitivity over time for the combined estrogen+progestin treatment group, with the estrogen only group revealing milder changes at 3, 6 and 32 kHz. DPOAE testing revealed statistically significant differences for the estrogen+progestin treatment group in the high and middle frequency ranges (15-29 and 30-45 kHz) after as early as 2 months of treatment (p<0.01 and p<0.001, respectively). Statistically significant changes were also seen at 4 months of treatment across all frequencies for the combined HRT group. These data suggest that estrogen+progestin HRT therapy of 4 months duration impairs outer hair cell functioning and overall auditory sensitivity. These findings indicate that estrogen+progestin HRT may actually accelerate age-related hearing loss, relative to estrogen monotherapy; findings that are consistent with the clinical hearing loss observed in aging women that have taken combination HRT.

  5. Toward a Biology of Menopause.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Madeleine

    1980-01-01

    Discusses research dealing with the study of menopause. Underscores the problems with the case study method. Discusses two population-based studies and the problems of age adjustment and measurement in menopause research. Highlights alternate research strategies. (MK)

  6. Evaluation of menopausal interventions at a Japanese company.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Hiromi

    2009-03-01

    The purpose of this research was to evaluate the impact of interventions for menopausal symptoms among employees at a newspaper company in Japan and to clarify the role of the occupational health nurse. Since 2000, the company has focused on creating a comfortable work environment for its female employees. As part of this effort, this research study also aimed to evaluate a system to support employees experiencing menopausal symptoms. Methods of evaluation included surveys of current employees or former employees with symptoms of menopause and case studies of three women. As a result of these data, it became clear that differentiating between menopausal disorders and mental health issues was not always easy. However, comparisons before and after implementing changes in the health system revealed that the number of women describing symptoms of menopause decreased from 5 to 0, and the number of women retiring, dying while still employed, or taking more than 4 days of sick leave in a month decreased from 3 to 0. This research revealed that interventions for menopause, similar to mental health interventions, require specific human resources and systemic support.

  7. Women Teachers of Post-Revolutionary Mexico: Feminisation and Everyday Resistance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopez, Oresta

    2013-01-01

    The reflections presented in this article include the process of incorporating women teachers into schools during the post-revolutionary period in Mexico. From one standpoint, women teachers lived in a state of ambiguity throughout this period because they were seen as symbols of national reconstruction following a war that left more than one…

  8. Post-Mao Chinese Literary Women's Rhetoric Revisited: A Case for an "Enlightened" Feminist Rhetorical Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wu, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Identifying the specific complexities and historical context of post-Mao Chinese literary women's rhetoric, along with ways they have been misread, the author argues in general that Western feminist critics need to be cautious about applying their concepts to non-Western women's literature. (Contains 7 notes.)

  9. Post-Secondary Education and Rural Women Enrolled in Liberal Arts Undergraduate Degrees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bourgeois, Monique; Kirby, Dale

    2012-01-01

    The significance of post-secondary education is investigated for rural Newfoundland women enrolled in undergraduate liberal arts degree programs. Data collection for this research involved comprehensive, detailed semi-structured biographical interviews with rural women studying liberal arts disciplines during the 2006-2007 academic year at…

  10. Ginseng for managing menopausal woman's health

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hye Won; Choi, Jiae; Lee, YoungJoo; Kil, Ki-Jung; Lee, Myeong Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: The aim of this systematic review was to update, complete, and critically evaluate the evidence from placebo-controlled randomized clinical trials (RCTs) of ginseng for managing menopausal women's health. Methods: We searched the literature using 13 databases (MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, 6 Korean Medical, and 3 Chinese Databases) from their inception to July 2016 and included all double-blind RCTs that compared any type of ginseng with a placebo control in postmenopausal women. The methodological quality of all studies was assessed using a Cochrane risk of bias tool. Results: Ten RCTs met our inclusion criteria. Most RCTs had unclear risk of bias. One RCT did not show a significant difference in hot flash frequency between Korean red ginseng (KRG) and placebo. The second RCT reported positive effects of KRG on menopausal symptoms. The third RCT found beneficial effects of ginseng (Ginsena) on depression, well-being, and general health. Four RCTs failed to show significant differences in various hormones between KRG and placebo controls except dehydroepiandrosterone. Two other RCTs failed to show effects of KRG on endometrial thickness in menopausal women. The other RCT also failed to show the effects of American ginseng on oxidative stress markers and other antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion: Our systematic review provided positive evidence of ginseng for sexual function and KRG for sexual arousal and total hot flashes score in menopausal women. However, the results of KRG or ginseng failed to show specific effects on hot flash frequency, hormones, biomarkers, or endometrial thickness. The level of evidence for these findings was low because of unclear risk of bias. PMID:27661038

  11. Menopausal bone loss and estrogen replacement.

    PubMed

    Meema, S; Meema, H E

    1976-07-01

    Throughout adult life the bone mineral mass of the radius is greater in males than in females. In males, it decreases after 60 years of age, while in females, it decreases earlier, at approximately 50 years, and the loss is greater. At the average age of 67 years, one half of the normal white female population has less than the normal amount of bone in the radius. Premenopausal women over the age of 50 do not show any decline of bone mineral mass, while in postmenopausal women, regardless of age, there is a loss of bone mass related to the number of years after menopause. Castrated women have significantly less bone mass than premenopausal women of the same average age. No decrease in cortical thickness of the radius was found in oophorectomized women treated with estrogens after castration. In a long-term, follow-up study, untreated postmenopausal women (after a natural or an artifical menopause) showed a significant loss of bone mass, while estrogen-treated, postmenopausal women showed no such loss. Estrogen treatment thus appears to prevent postmenopausal bone loss.

  12. Exploring Australian Aboriginal Women’s experiences of menopause: a descriptive study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women’s understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. Methods The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. Results A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term “change of life” was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. Conclusion There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current

  13. Effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on menopausal quality of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent clinical trials have found an increased risk of health problems in women using menopausal hormone therapy. As a result, women are in search of alternative strategies to improve their quality of life. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of soy isoflavone supplementation on quali...

  14. Reassuring the Woman Facing Menopause: Strategies and Resources.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cobb, Janine O'Leary

    1998-01-01

    Women in menopause require reassurance and reliable information. Based on concerns expressed in letters (N=7,000), women in premenopause want to know what to expect, in perimenopause they want to know whether their experiences are normal, and in postmenopause they need help in making sensible decisions about the use of hormone therapy. (Author/EMK)

  15. Estrogen Deficiency and the Origin of Obesity during Menopause

    PubMed Central

    Lizcano, Fernando; Guzmán, Guillermo

    2014-01-01

    Sex hormones strongly influence body fat distribution and adipocyte differentiation. Estrogens and testosterone differentially affect adipocyte physiology, but the importance of estrogens in the development of metabolic diseases during menopause is disputed. Estrogens and estrogen receptors regulate various aspects of glucose and lipid metabolism. Disturbances of this metabolic signal lead to the development of metabolic syndrome and a higher cardiovascular risk in women. The absence of estrogens is a clue factor in the onset of cardiovascular disease during the menopausal period, which is characterized by lipid profile variations and predominant abdominal fat accumulation. However, influence of the absence of these hormones and its relationship to higher obesity in women during menopause are not clear. This systematic review discusses of the role of estrogens and estrogen receptors in adipocyte differentiation, and its control by the central nervous systemn and the possible role of estrogen-like compounds and endocrine disruptors chemicals are discussed. Finally, the interaction between the decrease in estrogen secretion and the prevalence of obesity in menopausal women is examined. We will consider if the absence of estrogens have a significant effect of obesity in menopausal women. PMID:24734243

  16. Prevalence and correlates of explosive anger among pregnant and post-partum women in post-conflict Timor-Leste

    PubMed Central

    Rees, Susan; Tam, Natalino; Mohsin, Mohammed; Tay, Alvin Kuowei; Tol, Wietse

    2015-01-01

    Background Little is known about explosive anger as a response pattern among pregnant and post-partum women in conflict-affected societies. Aims To investigate the prevalence and correlates of explosive anger among this population in Timor-Leste. Method We assessed traumatic events, intimate partner violence, an index of adversity, explosive anger, psychological distress and post-traumatic stress disorder among 427 women (257 in the second trimester of pregnancy, 170 who were 3–6 months post-partum) residing in two districts of Timor-Leste (response >99%). Results Two-fifths (43.6%) had explosive anger. Levels of functional impairment were related to frequency of explosive anger episodes. Explosive anger was associated with age (>35 years), being married, low levels of education, being employed, traumatic event count, ongoing adversity and intimate partner violence. Conclusions A combination of social programmes and novel psychological therapies may assist in reducing severe anger among pregnant and post-partum women in conflict-affected countries such as Timor-Leste. Declaration of interest None. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703721

  17. 'Chaos, restitution and quest': one woman's journey through menopause.

    PubMed

    Nosek, Marcianna; Kennedy, Holly Powell; Gudmundsdottir, Maria

    2012-09-01

    Menopause, a natural stage in a woman's reproductive life, is not an illness; yet some women experience severe enough symptoms to cause a breakdown in the body similar to illness or other major health disruptions. As part of a larger narrative analysis investigation of distress during menopause, this case study presents one woman's transformational journey through menopause, analysed through Frank's health and illness narratives - chaos, restitution and quest. The narratives were retranscribed using Labov's elements of a true story and Gee's poetic restructuring. This report of one woman's experience of distress during the menopause transition describes a poetic chaos narrative of incessant night sweats resulting in a loss of physicality and a deep-rooted belief in self-healing; a restitution narrative of restored health that mandated the surrender to a new healing discourse, experienced simultaneously as a victory and a defeat; and a quest narrative of seeking meaning, insight and new-found values and identities. PMID:22471763

  18. A Turkish study on menarche and menstrual experiences and their effects on attitudes towards menopause.

    PubMed

    Erbil, Nülüfer; Boyacı, Serap; Kurt, Ipek; Akdoğan, Yasemin; Kaya, Ilknur

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate women's menarche and menstrual experiences and their effects on attitudes towards menopause. This research was planned as cross-sectional. A total of 300 women who had applied for a physical examination at the Maternity and Gynecology and Children's Hospital of Ordu province of Turkey were recruited for the study using the convenience sampling method. The study was conducted between 16 April and 28 May 2008. The research data were gathered using the Menopause Attitude Scale and a questionnaire. The average score for women on the Menopause Attitude Scale was 37.85 ± 10.34. Significant differences were found between attitudes of women towards menopause and the information they had received before menarche about menstruation (P = 0.024), the meaning of menstruation (P = 0.014), the interval time between menstrual periods (P = 0.017), problems experienced before menstruation (P = 0.035) and the desire of some women to continue menstruating and delay menopause (P = 0.005). Results of this study showed that more than half of the women had negative attitudes towards menopause. In order to help girls and women develop positive attitudes about menarche, menstruation and menopause, they need to have access to information during all phases of these important physical changes.

  19. Study of general practice consultations and menopausal problems. Oxford General Practitioners Menopause Study Group.

    PubMed Central

    Barlow, D H; Brockie, J A; Rees, C M

    1991-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To investigate the nature of work related to the menopause in general practice. DESIGN--Questionnaire study over six months among general practitioners after each consultation with a woman aged 40-69 at which issues related to the climacteric had been discussed. SETTING--9 General practices in the Oxford area. SUBJECTS--416 Women who had 572 consultations. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Age, menopausal state, and first or subsequent consultation. Symptoms were classified together with the treatment and the outcome of the consultation. RESULTS--The consultation rate varied greatly between practices, the overall rate being 4.4%. There were many premenopausal women and women in their 60s presenting; women with hysterectomies presented more often--36% (37/103) of women with hysterectomies had more than one consultation compared with 26% (38/144) for premenopausal women and 24% (38/155) for postmenopausal women. 409 women had symptoms and 218 were prescribed oestrogen treatment. 156 of the consultations involved discussion and advice only. Only four women were referred to a local specialist clinic. CONCLUSION--There is a low overall use of hormone replacement therapy in the general postmenopausal population despite the recent media coverage of its benefits in the prevention of osteoporosis and subsequent fractures. PMID:1998795

  20. Fitful Sleep May Take Toll on Older Women's Hearts

    MedlinePlus

    ... html Fitful Sleep May Take Toll on Older Women's Hearts Before and after menopause, less sleep linked ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- The sleep woes that many women suffer during menopause may be more than a ...