Colin, Pieter; Eleveld, Douglas J; Struys, Michel M R F; T'Jollyn, Huybrecht; Bortel, Luc M Van; Ruige, Johannes; De Waele, Jan; Van Bocxlaer, Jan; Boussery, Koen
Introduction Given the ever increasing number of obese patients and obesity related bypass surgery, dosing recommendations in the post-bypass population are needed. Using a population pharmacokinetic (PK) analysis and PK–pharmacodynamic (PD) simulations, we investigated whether adequate moxifloxacin concentrations are achieved in this population. Methods In this modelling and simulation study we used data from a trial on moxifloxacin PK. In this trial, volunteers who had previously undergone bariatric surgery (at least 6 months prior to inclusion), received two doses (intravenous and oral) of 400 mg moxifloxacin administered on two occasions. Results In contrast to other papers, we found that moxifloxacin PK were best described by a three compartmental model using lean body mass (LBM) as a predictor for moxifloxacin clearance. Furthermore, we showed that the probability of target attainment for bacterial eradication against a hypothetical Streptococcus pneumoniae infection is compromised in patients with higher LBM, especially when targeting microorganisms with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 0.5 mg l−1 or higher (probability of target attainment (PTA) approaching zero). When considering the targets for suppression of bacterial resistance formation, even at MIC values as low as 0.25 mg l−1, standard moxifloxacin dosing does not attain adequate levels in this population. Furthermore, for patients with a LBM of 78 kg or higher, the probability of hitting this target approaches zero. Conclusions Throughout our PK–PD simulation study, it became apparent that, whenever optimal bacterial resistance suppression is deemed necessary, the standard moxifloxacin dosing will not be sufficient. Furthermore, our study emphasizes the need for a LBM based individualized dosing of moxifloxacin in this patient population. PMID:24313873
Bak, Melissa; Seibold-Simpson, Susan M; Darling, Rosa
Possible mental health issues for post-bariatric surgery patients include the development of cross-addictions after the rapid weight loss period. No validated screening tool to assess for possible cross-addictions exists. The main purpose of this study was to develop recommendations for modifying an existing addiction screening tool (the Shorter PROMIS Questionnaire) for use by primary care providers. A qualitative descriptive design was used with triangulation of input from the scholarly literature, content experts (CEs), and post-bariatric surgery patients. Three focus groups were conducted with post-bariatric surgery patients (n = 12) with the same questions asked of the CEs (n = 3). Content analysis was used to analyze the transcripts. The following themes regarding addictions after bariatric surgery were identified through consensus: alcohol, gambling, shopping, exercise, food starving/bingeing, and sexuality/relationships. Dissonant themes included caffeine and tobacco by the post-bariatric surgery patients and prescription/illicit medications by the CEs. Targeted screening for early identification of problem behaviors by primary care providers may result in appropriate referral to and management by mental health providers, assisting ongoing success of bariatric surgery. ©2016 American Association of Nurse Practitioners.
Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Köhler, Hinrich; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid
Initial evidence that cognitive function improves after bariatric surgery exists. The post-surgery increase in cognitive control might correspond with a decrease of impulsive symptoms after surgery. The present study investigated cognitive function and nonfood-related impulsivity in patients with substantial weight loss due to bariatric surgery by using a comparative cross-sectional design. Fifty post-bariatric surgery patients (postBS group) who had significant percent weight loss (M = 75.94, SD = 18.09) after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (body mass index, BMI Mpost = 30.54 kg/m2, SDpost = 5.14) were compared with 50 age and gender matched bariatric surgery candidates (preBS group; BMI Mpre = 48.01 kg/m2, SDpre = 6.56). To measure cognitive function the following computer-assisted behavioral tasks were utilized: Iowa Gambling Task, Tower of Hanoi, Stroop Test, Trail Making Test-Part B, and Corsi Block Tapping Test. Impulsive symptoms and behaviors were assessed using impulsivity questionnaires and a structured interview for impulse control disorders (ICDs). No group differences were found with regard to performance-based cognitive control, self-reported impulsive symptoms, and ICDs. The results indicate that the general tendency to react impulsively does not differ between pre-surgery and post-surgery patients. The question of whether nonfood-related impulsivity in morbidly obese patients changes post-surgery should be addressed in longitudinal studies given that impulsive symptoms can be considered potential targets for pre- as well post-surgery interventions. PMID:25566164
Van Gossum, A; Pironi, L; Chambrier, C; Dreesen, M; Brandt, C F; Santarpia, L; Joly, F
Obesity is a worldwide health problem. Bariatric surgery (BS) is becoming one of the most commonly used methods for fighting obesity and its associated comorbidities. However, current BS techniques can be associated with early or late complications that may require nutritional support. The aim of this retrospective observational study was to determine the indications and outcomes for patients on Home parenteral nutrition (HPN) due to post-bariatric surgery complications. A specific questionnaire was designed by the ESPEN HAN/CIF working group and submitted to HPN centers. This questionnaire included: patient demographics, type of surgery, BMI before surgery and at start of HPN, indications for HPN including technical and nutritional complications (early within 2 months after surgery or late), outcome, PN regimen, and HPN complications. Patients were retrospectively included from January 2008 to June 2014. Eighteen HPN centers responded to the survey. A total of 2880 HPN patients were treated during the study period, 77 of whom had BS (65 females; mean age 51 ± 7 years); gastric bypass was performed in 69% of the patients; mean BMI was 44.4 before surgery and 23.2 at the start of HPN. Indications for HPN were early complications in 17 cases and late complications in 60 cases. Early complications were mostly anastomotic leakage/fistula; late complications were hypoalbuminemia, and vitamin and trace element deficiencies. Out of 77 patients, 16 needed a surgical re-intervention, 29 were weaned off HPN, and 6 died (no HPN-related deaths). During the HPN period, 58% of the patients were re-hospitalized and central venous complications were observed in 41%. Diabetes mellitus was described in 17/77 patients. HPN was supportive in 60 patients and exclusive in 17 patients (mean caloric intake: 23 ± 6 kcal/k BW/day and 1.2 g/kBW/day). Only 7/77 patients resumed their professional activities on HPN. This is the largest observational multicenter study describing the
Vilà, Jordi; Balibrea, José María; Oller, Benjamí; Alastrué, Antonio; Poyatos, Jordi Vilà; Balibrea del Castillo, José María; Sales, Benjamí Oller; Vidal, Antonio Alastrué
Post-bariatric, body contouring surgery to treat the sequelae of massive weight loss is an undervalued topic by patients and in most of the literature. The objective of this study was to determine the mean cost per patient of this treatment in a public morbid obesity unit, and compare it with the perception by the patients. Costs were estimated using a specific Diagnosis-Related Group-based method and a questionnaire in a sample of 100 patients who had completed body contouring treatment. This study included 23 men and 77 women with a mean age of 48.5 years, a mean reduction of body mass index of 20.77 kg/m, and a median follow-up of 58 months. These patients had undergone surgery, as needed, as follows: on the lower part of the trunk (109 operations; mean cost, &OV0556;6348.6), cruroplasty (43 operations; mean cost, &OV0556;3490), brachioplasty (28 operations; mean cost &OV0556;3150), and the upper part of the trunk (10 operations; mean cost, &OV0556;4290). The rate of complications has been high (up to 50 percent) and, although the more severe complications are rare (10.5 percent Clavien grade IIIb), these represent high costs (mean, &OV0556;24462.6). Forty-five patients answered the questionnaire. Although they think that this surgery improves their quality of life, they have undervalued its total cost (17.58 percent; &OV0556;2034) (p = 0.16). The average cost of post-bariatric surgery body contouring treatment in this unit is &OV0556;8263.95 (1.66 operations per patient). The severe complications increase by 2.96 times the average cost per patient.
Pena, Maria E; Newaz, Trisha B
With the rise of obesity there has been a concomitant increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). As a result, the term "diabesity" has become a popular disease entity in the past several years. When lifestyle modification and pharmacotherapy fail to achieve successful weight loss and diabetes control, bariatric surgery is a recommended treatment option. Bariatric surgery has been shown to promote sustained T2DM remission in 30-63% of patients and improve other components of metabolic syndrome; thus a preferred term has been "metabolic surgery". As the practice of bariatric surgery for the treatment of T2DM increases, so will the number of patients with T2DM not achieving remission or with T2DM recurrence. There are currently no clear evidence-based guidelines delineating the proper management of T2DM in post-bariatric surgery patients. The focus of this review is to discuss current data on the efficacy of bariatric surgery in promoting T2DM remission, factors that predict T2DM remission and recurrence, and current treatment options for persistent hyperglycemia in post-bariatric surgery patients. To increase long-term T2DM remission and prevent or delay recurrence, post-bariatric surgery patients need close follow up to encourage adherence to healthy nutrition and lifestyle practices that will lead to sustained weight loss. In addition to this, patients need adequate nutritional supplementation and periodic screening for vitamin, mineral and protein deficiencies. Therefore, we will conclude with a brief review of current recommendations for nutritional deficiency screening and supplementation.
Kalarchian, Melissa A; Marcus, Marsha D
Despite positive results overall, a substantial number of patients experience poor long-term outcomes following bariatric surgery. One reason for variability in weight loss may be difficulty in making and sustaining changes in dietary intake and physical activity; post-surgery binge eating has also been associated with poorer weight outcomes. In this paper, we review available evidence on adjunctive psychosocial interventions for bariatric surgery patients. Although the literature is limited, evidence suggests that bariatric surgery patients may benefit from a comprehensive approach targeting diet, activity and psychological factors. We think the optimal time to initiate adjunctive intervention is after surgery, but before significant weight regain has occurred. Adaptive interventions incorporating advances in technology may prove to be effective for promoting behavioural self-management and psychosocial adjustment following bariatric surgery. For some patients, pharmacotherapy and reoperation may also play a role in a personalized approach to post-surgery care.
Fink, Kathryn; Ross, Colin A
Sixty-three inpatients in a psychiatric hospital who had previously undergone bariatric surgery were interviewed by the hospital dietitian. The purpose of the study was to determine the frequency of adverse childhood experiences in this population. Participants completed the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Scale. The average score on the ACE was 5.4 (3.3); 76% of participants reported childhood emotional neglect, 70% childhood verbal abuse, and 64% childhood sexual abuse; only two participants reported no adverse childhood experiences. The participants in the study reported high levels of adverse childhood experiences compared to the general population, which is consistent with prior literature on rates of childhood trauma in post-bariatric surgery patients. The role of adverse childhood experiences in post-bariatric surgery adaptation should be investigated in future research, including in prospective studies.
Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Cassin, Stephanie E; Wnuk, Susan; Du, Chau; Jackson, Timothy; Hawa, Raed; Parikh, Sagar V
This study aimed to determine the feasibility and preliminary efficacy of a post-operative telephone-based cognitive behavioral therapy intervention (Tele-CBT) in improving eating pathology and psychosocial functioning. Six-month post-operative bariatric surgery patients (n = 19) received six sessions of Tele-CBT. Study outcome variables included binge eating (BES), emotional eating (EES), depressive symptoms (PHQ-9), and anxiety symptoms (GAD-7). Retention was 73.7 % post-intervention. Tele-CBT resulted in significant reductions in mean difference scores on BES, EES-Total, EES-Anxiety, EES-Anger, PHQ9, and GAD7. Tele-CBT patients experienced a mean weight loss of 8.62 ± 15.02 kg between 6-months post-surgery (pre-Tele-CBT) and 12-months post-surgery. These preliminary results suggest that post-surgery Tele-CBT is feasible and can improve post-surgery symptoms of psychopathology in this uncontrolled study, supporting the need for a randomized controlled trial.
Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Cassin, Stephanie; Hawa, Raed; Khan, Attia; Wnuk, Susan; Jackson, Timothy; Okrainec, Allan
Attendance at bariatric surgery follow-up appointments has been associated with bariatric surgery outcomes. In this prospective study, we sought to examine psychosocial predictors of attendance at post-operative follow-up appointments. Consecutive bariatric surgery patients (n = 132) were assessed pre-surgery for demographic variables, depressive symptoms, and relationship style. Patients were followed for 12 months post-surgery and, based on their attendance at follow-up appointments, were classified as post-surgery appointment attenders (attenders--attended at least one appointment after post-operative month 6) or post-surgery appointment non-attenders (non-attenders--did not attend at least one appointment after post-operative month 6). Psychosocial and demographic variables were compared between the attender and non-attender groups. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify significant predictors of attendance at post-bariatric surgery follow-up appointments. At 12 months post-surgery, 68.2 % of patients were classified as attenders. The non-attender group was significantly older (p = 0.04) and had significantly higher avoidant relationship style scores (p = 0.02). There was a trend towards patients in the non-attender group living a greater distance from the bariatric center (p = 0.05). Avoidant relationship style was identified as the only significant predictor of post-operative appointment non-attendance in the logistic regression analysis. These findings suggest that avoidant relationship style is an important predictor of post-bariatric surgery appointment non-attendance. Recognition of patients' relationship style by bariatric surgery psychosocial team members may guide the delivery of interventions aimed at engaging this patient group post-surgery.
Vallim, Maria Gabriela Bonilha; Calderoni, Davi Reis; Bueno, Marco Antonio Camargo; Motta, Marcos Matias; Basso, Rafael de Campos Ferreira; Kharmandayan, Paulo
Abdominoplasty procedures have been proven highly valuable in promoting better quality of life for post-bariatric surgery patients. The literature reveals that the aspect of the navel is one of the most problematic issues regarding surgical results and many different surgical techniques have been proposed to obtain a satisfactory outcome. However, little is known about patients' preferences regarding these different techniques and their results. The aim of the present study was to compare evaluations made by plastic surgeons and patients of the results of two different techniques-traditional omphaloplasty and neo-omphaloplasty with lateral flaps. Five plastic surgeons analyzed postoperative pictures of 54 post-bariatric abdominoplasties performed between 2008 and 2013 at the Unicamp Hospital. Pictures of 12 cases were selected and evaluated by 50 patients waiting for a post-bariatric abdominoplasty. A standardized scale was used that contained the following criteria: volume of the abdomen, lateral contour, quality of the scars, umbilicus and skin excess/flaccidity. Surgeons gave the highest scores to 71.6% of neo-omphaloplasty cases and patients to 43.7%. Both surgeons and patients graded navels operated on using this technique higher, although the comparison was not statistically significant for patient evaluations (p = 0.062). The navel aspect was considered the fourth most relevant aspect among those evaluated. Neo-omphaloplasty results were considered better than traditional omphaloplasty for surgeons and patients, although there was not a clear differentiation of results by the latter. The navel postoperative aspect was considered secondarily important by patients to the results of post-bariatric abdominoplasties. This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each submission to which Evidence-Based Medicine rankings are applicable. This excludes Review Articles, Book Reviews, and manuscripts that concern Basic Science, Animal Studies
Mundi, Manpreet S; Vallumsetla, Nishanth; Davidson, Jacob B; McMahon, Megan T; Bonnes, Sara L; Hurt, Ryan T
Bariatric surgery is one of the most effective techniques for achieving sustained weight loss but can be associated with surgical complications or malabsorption so significant that it leads to malnutrition. Parenteral nutrition (PN) may be necessary to help treat surgical complications or malnutrition from these procedures. There are limited data describing this patient population and role for home PN (HPN). A retrospective review of our HPN database was conducted to identify patients who were initiated on HPN between January 1, 2003, and August 31, 2015, and had a history of bariatric surgery. A total of 54 HPN patients (6.3%) had a history of bariatric surgery. Average age was 52.1 ± 12.8 years, and 80% were female. The most common surgical procedure was Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (72%), with malnutrition or failure to thrive being the most common HPN indication (57%). Weight at the time of HPN initiation was 71.9 ± 20.4 kg and significantly increased to 78.9 ± 24.4 kg by the end of treatment (P = .0001). Serum albumin levels rose from 2.8 ± 0.77 g/dL to 3.7 ± 0.58 g/dL by the end of HPN (P < .0001). Forty-five of 54 patients (83.3%) went on to revision surgery. The results of this retrospective review support initiation of HPN in the malnourished post-bariatric surgery patient both nutritionally and as a bridge to revision surgery. © 2016 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition.
Torres, Antonio J; Rubio, Miguel A
Bariatric and metabolic surgery is experiencing a noteworthy increase worldwide in recent years, but protocols and consensus published in the past decade have not yet established clear evidence-based clinical recommendations. The Endocrine Society, with the participation of the European Society of Endocrinology, has promoted the creation of an expert panel to propose a clinical practice guideline for postoperative management of patients, candidates to bariatric surgery, that places a particular emphasis on evidence-based medical aspects. The main arguments reflected in those recommendations are set out in this article and are subject to analysis and discussion from the specific viewpoint of the current European experience.
Boules, Mena; Chang, Julietta; Haskins, Ivy N; Sharma, Gautam; Froylich, Dvir; El-Hayek, Kevin; Rodriguez, John; Kroh, Matthew
Understanding the technical constructs of bariatric surgery is important to the treating endoscopist to maximize effective endoluminal therapy. Post-operative complication rates vary widely based on the complication of interest, and have been reported to be as high as 68% following adjustable gastric banding. Similarly, there is a wide range of presenting symptoms for post-operative bariatric complications, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and weight regain, all of which may provoke an endoscopic assessment. Bleeding and anastomotic leak are considered to be early (< 30 d) complications, whereas strictures, marginal ulcers, band erosions, and weight loss failure or weight recidivism are typically considered late (> 30 d) complications. Treatment of complications in the immediate post-operative period may require unique considerations. Endoluminal therapies serve as adjuncts to surgical and radiographic procedures. This review aims to summarize the spectrum and efficacy of endoscopic management of post-operative bariatric complications. PMID:27668069
Boules, Mena; Chang, Julietta; Haskins, Ivy N; Sharma, Gautam; Froylich, Dvir; El-Hayek, Kevin; Rodriguez, John; Kroh, Matthew
Understanding the technical constructs of bariatric surgery is important to the treating endoscopist to maximize effective endoluminal therapy. Post-operative complication rates vary widely based on the complication of interest, and have been reported to be as high as 68% following adjustable gastric banding. Similarly, there is a wide range of presenting symptoms for post-operative bariatric complications, including abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting, dysphagia, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, and weight regain, all of which may provoke an endoscopic assessment. Bleeding and anastomotic leak are considered to be early (< 30 d) complications, whereas strictures, marginal ulcers, band erosions, and weight loss failure or weight recidivism are typically considered late (> 30 d) complications. Treatment of complications in the immediate post-operative period may require unique considerations. Endoluminal therapies serve as adjuncts to surgical and radiographic procedures. This review aims to summarize the spectrum and efficacy of endoscopic management of post-operative bariatric complications.
Guthrie, H; Tetley, D; Hill, A J
Food cravings are common post-bariatric surgery, suggested as predictors of relapse and weight regain, but relatively unstudied, especially in the longer term. The present study investigated the frequency and nature of food craving experiences after gastric surgery in comparison with non-surgical control participants. Participants were 21 women, 4-38 months post-surgery (mean age = 44 years, 9 following gastric banding, 12 after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass), and two comparison samples of 39 overweight dieters and 33 normal weight non-dieters. They completed a food craving record after every food craving, a daily mood assessment and a food diary over a 7-day period. Over the 299 craving episodes, savoury foods were the most commonly craved (40% of craving events), followed by chocolate (31%). Post-bariatric patients reported more and stronger cravings than normal weight non-dieters but at a similar frequency and strength to overweight dieters. Neither hunger nor negative mood distinguished the food cravings of post-bariatric patients from those of comparison participants, nor did the proportion that led to eating (58%). Food cravings should be anticipated post-bariatric surgery but no more so at 12 months post-surgery than by other overweight or obese individuals. Food cravings are not the product of extreme hunger nor do they have the connection with negative mood seen in disordered eating. In addition, the ability to fulfil cravings by eating the craved food is reduced by the surgery itself, although the duration of surgical restraint is uncertain.
Josbeno, Deborah A.; Kalarchian, Melissa; Sparto, Patrick J.; Otto, Amy D.; Jakicic, John M.
Background A better understanding of the physical activity behavior of individuals who undergo bariatric surgery will enable the development of effective post-surgical exercise guidelines and interventions to enhance weight loss outcomes. This study characterized the physical activity profile and physical function of 40 subjects 2–5 years post-bariatric surgery and examined the association between physical activity, physical function, and weight loss after surgery. Methods Moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA) was assessed with the BodyMedia SenseWear® Pro (SWPro) armband, and physical function (PF) was measured using the physical function subscale of the 36-Item Short Form Health Survey instrument (SF-36PF). Height and weight were measured. Results Percent of excess weight loss (%EWL) was associated with MVPA (r = 0.44, p = 0.01) and PF (r = 0.38, p = 0.02); MVPA was not associated with PF (r = 0.24, p = 0.14). Regression analysis demonstrated that MVPA was associated with %EWL (β = 0.38, t = 2.43, p = 0.02). Subjects who participated in ≥150 min/week of MVPA had a greater %EWL (68.2 ± 19, p = 0.01) than those who participated in <150 min/week (52.5 ± 17.4). Conclusions Results suggest that subjects are capable of performing most mobility activities. However, the lack of an association between PF and MVPA suggests that a higher level of PF does not necessarily correspond to a higher level of MVPA participation. Thus, the barriers to adoption of a more physically active lifestyle may not be fully explained by the subjects’ physical limitations. Further understanding of this relationship is needed for the development of post-surgical weight loss guidelines and interventions. PMID:21153567
Eisenberg, Dan; Lohnberg, Jessica A; Kubat, Eric P; Bates, Cheryl C; Greenberg, Lauren M; Frayne, Susan M
Provision of bariatric surgery in the Veterans Health Administration must account for obese veterans' co-morbidity burden and the geographically dispersed location of patients relative to Veterans Affairs (VA) bariatric centers. To evaluate a collaborative, integrated, interdisciplinary bariatric team of surgeons, bariatricians, psychologists, dieticians, and physical therapists working in a hub-and-spokes care model, for pre- and post-bariatric surgery assessment and management. This is a description of an interdisciplinary clinic and bariatric program at a VA healthcare system and a report on program evaluation findings. Retrospective data of a prospective database was abstracted. For program evaluation, we abstracted charts to characterize patient data and conducted a patient survey. Since 2009, 181 veterans have undergone bariatric surgery. Referrals came from 7 western U.S. states. Mean preoperative body mass index was 46 kg/m(2) (maximum 71). Mean age was 53 years, with 33% aged>60 years; 79% were male. Medical co-morbidity included diabetes (70%), hypertension (85%), and lower back or extremity joint pain (84%). A psychiatric diagnosis was present in 58%. At 12 months, follow-up was 81% and percent excess body mass index loss was 50.5%. Among 54 sequential clinic patients completing anonymous surveys, overall satisfaction with the interdisciplinary team approach and improved quality of life were high (98% and 94%, respectively). The integrated, interdisciplinary team approach using a hub-and-spokes model is well suited to the VA bariatric surgery population, with its heavy burden of medical and mental health co-morbidity and its system of geographically dispersed patients receiving treatment at specialty centers. As the VA seeks to expand the use of bariatric surgery as an option for obese veterans, interdisciplinary models crafted to address case complexity, care coordination, and long-term outcomes should be part of policy planning efforts. Published by
Lu, HuiLing; Fouejeu Wamba, Ponce Cedric; Lapointe, Marc; Poirier, Paul; Martin, Julie; Bastien, Marjorie; Cianflone, Katherine
Vaspin (visceral-adipose-tissue-derived-serine-protease-inhibitor) is a recently identified adipokine with putative insulin-sensitizing properties. Plasma vaspin responses to surgery-induced weight loss are sparse and contradictory. We evaluated changes in vaspin levels and relationship to post-operative outcomes in men (n = 22) and women (n = 55) undergoing biliopancreatic-diversion/duodenal-switch bariatric surgery. Body composition and plasma parameters were measured at baseline, acutely (1 and 5 days) and medium-term (6 and 12 months) post-surgery. Fasting preoperative vaspin concentrations were comparable in men vs women. The distribution was biphasic (both men and women) with a nadir of 2.5 ng/ml. Subjects were divided into high (≥2.5 ng/mL, HI-group) and low (<2.5 ng/mL, LO-group) vaspin level. Both groups had comparable sex distribution, age and BMI, but the HI-vaspin group had lower insulin, HOMA, and triglyceride and higher HDL-cholesterol, acylation stimulating protein (ASP) and IL-6 levels (all p<0.05). Post-operatively, both groups decreased BMI comparably over 12 months; the HI-vaspin group maintained high vaspin levels, while the LO-vaspin group gradually increased their levels with weight loss over 12 months. The HI-vaspin group maintained a better glucose, insulin, HOMA, fructosamine, HDL-cholesterol, and triglyceride profile throughout. The HI-vaspin group also had higher gamma-glutamyltransferase and ASP profiles. Finally, baseline vaspin level inversely correlated significantly with baseline and 12-month insulin, HOMA, triglyceride and positively correlated with HDL and ASP. Twelve-month vaspin also correlated similarly, including an inverse correlation with BMI. Globally, this study supports the concept of vaspin as a beneficial adipokine in obesity, which may potentially lead to possible therapeutic targets.
Edawati, D E; Abigail, J; Mardiana, K; Ming-Cheng, C; Harris, N S
This case report discusses dumping syndrome in the postbariatric mother. Diagnostically a challenge, the symptoms of postprandial hypoglycaemia mimic common early gestation complaints and may go undiagnosed, thus requiring a high index of suspicion. As weight-loss surgery gains traction, it is pertinent to note at booking and followups. The pregnancy is at-risk and multidisciplinary team management is central. The mainstay of management remains diet modification. There have been case reports of successful medical treatment of dumping syndrome in pregnancy with good maternal and fetal outcomes. However, more data is needed regarding the usage of these medical treatments in pregnancy.
Monteiro, Fabiane; Ponce, Diego A N; Silva, Humberto; Pitta, Fabio; Carrilho, Alexandre J F
This study aimed to evaluate physical function (PF), quality of life (QOL), and energy expenditure (EE) during activities of daily living (ADL) in late outcome post-bariatric surgery (BS) patients and to compare them to severe obese individuals and matched controls. Sixty-three subjects were included: 21 patients in post-operative (PO) of BS (3-4 years post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass) with a stable weight for at least 6 months (16 women, 41 ± 11 years old, BMI = 28 ± 4 kg m(-2)) (group PO); 21 obese individuals with BS indication (16 women, 44 ± 9 years old, BMI = 44 ± 6 kg m(-2)) (group OB); and 21 controls matched to PO by gender, age, and BMI (16 women, 42 ± 12 years old, BMI = 27 ± 6 kg m(-2)) (group MC). PF was objectively assessed by the Glittre and modified Glittre ADL-tests. QOL (SF-36), EE (activity monitoring during ADL), and body composition (bioelectrical impedance) were also assessed. OB had worse PF (Glittre ADL-test) compared to PO and MC (OB = 224 ± 76 s; PO = 143 ± 39 s; and MC = 118 ± 17 s; p < 0.0001). The same was observed for QOL (p < 0.05 for all SF-36 domains). OB also had higher total EE in the Glittre ADL-test. However, 63% of the activity time was in low-intensity EE. In the Glittre modified protocol, OB had poorer performance than PO and MC when walking up/downstairs, rising/sitting in a chair, and moving objects on a shelf. Post-BS patients have better PF and QOL and perform activities under lower total EE than obese subjects, very similar to matched controls.
King, Wendy C; Chen, Jia-Yuh; Bond, Dale S; Belle, Steven H; Courcoulas, Anita P; Patterson, Emma J; Mitchell, James E; Inabnet, William B; Dakin, George F; Flum, David R; Cook, Brian; Wolfe, Bruce M
Objective To evaluate change in sedentary behavior (SB) and physical activity (PA) over three years following bariatric surgery. Methods A subset of participants in an observational study (n=473 of 2458; 79% female, median body mass index 45kg/m2) wore an activity monitor pre-surgery and at 1–3 annual post-surgery assessments. Results Over the first year, on average, sedentary time decreased from 573 (95%CI 563–582) to 545 (95%CI 534–555) min/d and moderate-to-vigorous intensity PA (MVPA) increased from 77 (95%CI: 71–84) to 106 (95%CI: 98–116) min/wk, or 7 (95%CI: 5–10) to 24 (95%CI: 18–29) min/wk in MVPA bouts ≥10 minutes. There were no changes in these parameters from years 1 to 3 (P for all>.05). The percentage of participants achieving ≥150 min/wk of bout-related MVPA was not different at year 3 [6.5% (95%CI: 3.1–12.7)] vs. pre-surgery [3.4% (95%CI: 1.8–5.0); p=.45]. Most participants followed SB and PA trajectories that paralleled mean change and were consistent with their pre-surgery position in relation to the group. Conclusions On average, bariatric surgical patients make small reductions in SB and increases in PA during the first post-surgery year, which are maintained through 3 years. Still, post-surgery PA levels fall short of PA guidelines for general health or weight control. PMID:26010326
Cadegiani, Flavio A; Silva, Osvalmir Sá
Objective Acarbose is a glucosidase inhibitor that slows carbohydrate digestion. It could thus be effective to promote remission of dumping syndrome (DS). Previous studies associating acarbose and late dumping, although not early dumping, have been reported. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of acarbose in dumping syndrome prevention and treatment and in resistive exercises resistance in bariatric subjects. Methods Bariatric patients with DS and complete adherence to diet plan and resistive exercises were included (n=25). Number of early and late episodes, self-referred intensity of each episode, and ability to increase intensity of resistive exercise were evaluated, on a 0–10 scale. Acarbose was administered orally (50 mg) for 6 months, 4–5 times a day before meals. Results Acarbose administration was associated with a decrease in the number of early (2.18–0.31) and late (2.79–0.12) episodes per week and intensity of each episode (6.10–1.65) and an increase in the ability to perform resistive exercises (3.03–7.12). Complete remission of DS was seen in 21 patients (84%), which persisted for 6 months with the use of acarbose. Conclusion Acarbose prevented dumping in almost all studied subjects and helped improve exercise capacity. PMID:27994477
Cadegiani, Flavio A; Silva, Osvalmir Sá
Acarbose is a glucosidase inhibitor that slows carbohydrate digestion. It could thus be effective to promote remission of dumping syndrome (DS). Previous studies associating acarbose and late dumping, although not early dumping, have been reported. Herein, we aimed to evaluate the role of acarbose in dumping syndrome prevention and treatment and in resistive exercises resistance in bariatric subjects. Bariatric patients with DS and complete adherence to diet plan and resistive exercises were included (n=25). Number of early and late episodes, self-referred intensity of each episode, and ability to increase intensity of resistive exercise were evaluated, on a 0-10 scale. Acarbose was administered orally (50 mg) for 6 months, 4-5 times a day before meals. Acarbose administration was associated with a decrease in the number of early (2.18-0.31) and late (2.79-0.12) episodes per week and intensity of each episode (6.10-1.65) and an increase in the ability to perform resistive exercises (3.03-7.12). Complete remission of DS was seen in 21 patients (84%), which persisted for 6 months with the use of acarbose. Acarbose prevented dumping in almost all studied subjects and helped improve exercise capacity.
Setchell, Kenneth DR; Kirby, Michelle; Myronovych, Andriy; Ryan, Karen K.; Ibrahim, Samar H.; Berger, Jose; Smith, Kathi; Toure, Mouhamadoul; Woods, Stephen C.; Seeley, Randy J.
Bariatric surgery elevates serum bile acids. Conjugated bile acid administration, such as tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA), improves insulin sensitivity, whereas short-circuiting bile acid circulation through ileal interposition surgery in rats raises TUDCA levels. We hypothesized that bariatric surgery outcomes could be recapitulated by short circuiting the normal enterohepatic bile circulation. We established a model wherein male obese rats underwent either bile diversion (BD) or Sham (SH) surgery. The BD group had a catheter inserted into the common bile duct and its distal end anchored into the middistal jejunum for 4–5 weeks. Glucose tolerance, insulin and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) response, hepatic steatosis, and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress were measured. Rats post-BD lost significantly more weight than the SH rats. BD rats gained less fat mass after surgery. BD rats had improved glucose tolerance, increased higher postprandial glucagon-like peptide-1 response and serum bile acids but less liver steatosis. Serum bile acid levels including TUDCA concentrations were higher in BD compared to SH pair-fed rats. Fecal bile acid levels were not different. Liver ER stress (C/EBP homologous protein mRNA and pJNK protein) was decreased in BD rats. Bile acid gavage (TUDCA/ursodeoxycholic acid [UDCA]) in diet-induced obese rats, elevated serum TUDCA and concomitantly reduced hepatic steatosis and ER stress (C/EBP homologous protein mRNA). These data demonstrate the ability of alterations in bile acids to recapitulate important metabolic improvements seen after bariatric surgery. Further, our work establishes a model for focused study of bile acids in the context of bariatric surgery that may lead to the identification of therapeutics for metabolic disease. PMID:23592746
Gibson, C D; Atalayer, D; Flancbaum, L; Geliebter, A
OBJECTIVE: Body Adiposity Index (BAI), a new surrogate measure of body fat (hip circumference/[height 1.5-18]), has been proposed as a more accurate alternative to BMI. We compared BAI with BMI and their correlations with measures of body fat, waist circumference (WC), and indirect indices of fat pre- and post-Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB). METHODS: Sixteen clinically severe obese (CSO) non-diabetic women (age = 33.9± 7.9 SD; BMI = 46.5±9.5 kg/m(2)) were assessed pre-surgery, and at 2 (n=9) and 5 mo (n=8) post-surgery. Body fat percentage (% fat) was estimated with bioimpedance analysis (BIA), air displacement plethysmography (ADP), and dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). WC, an indicator of central fat, and both plasma leptin (ng/ml) and insulin (mU/l) concentrations were measured as indirect body fat indices. Pre- and post-surgery values were analyzed with Pearson correlations and linear regressions. RESULTS: BAI and BMI correlated significantly with each other pre-surgery and at each time point post surgery. BAI and BMI also correlated significantly with % fat from BIA and ADP; however, only BMI correlated significantly with % fat from DXA pre- and post-RYGB. BMI was the single best predictor of WC and leptin at 2 and 5 mo post-surgery and had significant longitudinal changes correlating with % fat from BIA and DXA as well as with leptin. DISCUSSION: Both BAI and BMI were good surrogates of % fat as estimated from BIA and ADP, but only BMI was a good surrogate of % fat from DXA in CSO women. Thus, BAI may not be a better alternative to BMI.
Bouchard, Simon; Eisendrath, Pierre; Toussaint, Emmanuel; Le Moine, Olivier; Lemmers, Arnaud; Arvanitakis, Marianna; Devière, Jacques
Diverse endoscopic methods, such as placement of temporary self-expandable stents, have proven effective for the treatment of post-bariatric surgery leaks. However, some patients do not respond to the usual endoscopic treatment. This study tested the efficacy of an alternative treatment strategy based on trans-fistulary drainage with double-pigtail plastic stents. We performed a retrospective analysis of patients with abdominal collections following bariatric surgery who were treated by trans-fistulary stenting between May 2007 and February 2015. Clinical success was defined as a sustained (> 4 months) clinical resolution (patient discharged from the hospital without antibiotics and able to resume a normal diet) and radiological response. Patient records, radiological images, and the hospital endoscopy database were reviewed. A total of 33 patients (26 women/7 men, mean age 42 years [SD 11.2]) were included. Collections occurred after sleeve gastrectomy (n = 28) or after gastric bypass (n = 5). Fourteen patients were treated by trans-fistulary stenting as primary treatment, and 19 patients had undergone previous unsuccessful endoscopic treatment. No serious complication occurred during the drainage procedure. Clinical success was achieved in 26 patients (78.8 %). In two successfully treated patients, stents are still in place. Spontaneous stent migration occurred in 12 patients. In 12 patients, the stents were removed, either electively (n = 5) or because of complications (ulcerations n = 3, upper gastrointestinal symptoms n = 3, splenic hematoma n = 1). Trans-fistulary drainage of post-bariatric abdominal collections is safe and associated with high success rates. This technique can be considered in previously untreated patients, when a collection is not properly drained percutaneously, or after failure of other endoscopic treatments. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.
McGrice, Melanie A; Porter, Judi A
There is a paucity of evidence-based dietary management guidelines for patients post-laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding, including no consensus recommendations for macronutrient intake. We examined the macronutrient intake across a multi-centre cohort of post-bariatric surgery patients and compared these intakes to post-bariatric surgery and population-based dietary guidelines. Two hundred and fifteen patients from three bariatric surgery centres in Melbourne, Australia were invited to complete a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire 12 months post-operatively. Energy intakes of the 52 participants ranged from 1,140 to 13,200 kJ/day, with an average of 4,890 kJ/day (±2,360 kJ/day). Many patients did not meet minimum population recommendations for macronutrients. The average fibre intake was only 14 g/day (compared to the recommendations of 25 g for women and 30 g for men). The average diet 1 year post-operatively was 36% total fat compared to the recommendations of 20-25%, with 14% of intake from saturated fat. Patients' dietary intakes vary significantly 1 year post-laparoscopic adjustable band surgery, with many patients not meeting recommendations. These results suggest that patients decrease their total energy intake; however, eating habits may not improve as they consume a diet high in saturated fat. It is recommended that all patients receive dietary education about diet quality post-laparoscopic adjustable gastric band surgery to assist them in improving their diet quality as well as quantity for optimal health and weight loss. Specific international guidelines for nutrient intakes for people undergoing bariatric surgery are needed.
Otto, Mirko; Kautt, Sandra; Kremer, Melanie; Kienle, Peter; Post, Stefan; Hasenberg, Till
After bariatric surgery, the postoperative quality of weight loss is variable. The aim of weight loss treatment is to reduce fat mass while keeping fat free mass, in particular body cell mass (BCM), constant. Detection of low BCM is an important aspect of surgical follow up. Handgrip dynamometry is a rapid and inexpensive test to measure static muscle strength, which is an independent outcome indicator of various medical conditions. The objective of this study is to examine the change in handgrip strength after bariatric surgery and its predictive value for postoperative body composition. Furthermore, this study was carried out at the University Hospital, Germany. Twenty-five patients who underwent a bariatric procedure (laparoskopic Roux-Y gastric bypass n=16 or sleeve resection n=9) were included in this study. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and hand-grip strength were measured preoperatively and repeated every 6 weeks for 4 months. An analysis of variance was performed to observe the changes in these individual parameters. Postoperatively, all patients showed a significant decrease in the body mass index and body fat. The extracellular mass, BCM, and the lean mass of the patients remained constant. Handgrip strength showed no significant changes during the postoperative course. Nevertheless, the preoperative hand-grip strength showed a strong positive correlation with the postoperative body composition. This study showed no changes in the static muscle force after bariatric surgery. The preoperative handgrip strength was strongly correlated with postoperative body composition and may be used to identify patients who need more attention before surgery and in the early postoperative phase.
de Zwaan, Martina; Georgiadou, Ekaterini; Stroh, Christine E.; Teufel, Martin; Köhler, Hinrich; Tengler, Maxi; Müller, Astrid
Background: Massive weight loss (MWL) following bariatric surgery frequently results in an excess of overstretched skin causing physical discomfort and negatively affecting quality of life, self-esteem, body image, and physical functioning. Methods: In this cross-sectional study 3 groups were compared: (1) patients prior to bariatric surgery (n = 79), (2) patients after bariatric surgery who had not undergone body contouring surgery (BCS) (n = 252), and (3) patients after bariatric surgery who underwent subsequent BCS (n = 62). All participants completed self-report questionnaires assessing body image (Multidimensional Body-Self Relations Questionnaire, MBSRQ), quality of life (IWQOL-Lite), symptoms of depression (PHQ-9), and anxiety (GAD-7). Results: Overall, 62 patients (19.2%) reported having undergone a total of 90 BCS procedures. The most common were abdominoplasties (88.7%), thigh lifts (24.2%), and breast lifts (16.1%). Post-bariatric surgery patients differed significantly in most variables from pre-bariatric surgery patients. Although there were fewer differences between patients with and without BCS, patients after BCS reported better appearance evaluation (AE), body area satisfaction (BAS), and physical functioning, even after controlling for excess weight loss and time since surgery. No differences were found for symptoms of depression and anxiety, and most other quality of life and body image domains. Discussion: Our results support the results of longitudinal studies demonstrating significant improvements in different aspects of body image, quality of life, and general psychopathology after bariatric surgery. Also, we found better AE and physical functioning in patients after BCS following bariatric surgery compared to patients with MWL after bariatric surgery who did not undergo BCS. Overall, there appears to be an effect of BCS on certain aspects of body image and quality of life but not on psychological aspects on the whole. PMID:25477839
Kassem, Mahmoud Attia Mohamed; Durda, Michael Andrew; Stoicea, Nicoleta; Cavus, Omer; Sahin, Levent; Rogers, Barbara
Recent studies discussed the benefit of bariatric surgery on obese patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Several factors play an essential role in predicting the impact of bariatric surgery on T2DM, such as ABCD score (age, BMI, C-peptide, and duration of the disease), HbA1c, and fasting blood glucose, incretins [glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP)]. DiaRem score known to include factors such as age, HbA1c, medication, and insulin usage used to predict the remission of T2DM, but it has some limitations. An extensive literature search was conducted on PubMed and Google Scholar using keywords such as gastric bypass, T2DM, bariatric surgery, GLP-1, GIP, and post bariatric hypoglycemia. Restrictive-malabsorptive procedures are most effective in treating T2DM patients based on changes induced in appetite through regulation of gastrointestinal hormones, with decreased hunger and increased satiation. We provide a review of bariatric surgery influence on T2DM and management of post-intervention hypoglycemic events. Post-bariatric surgery hypoglycemia is a serious complication especially when patients develop life-threatening neuroglycopenia with loss of consciousness and seizure. The avoidance of this adverse event may be achieved by strict dietary modification including a restriction on carbohydrates as well as foods with high glycemic index. Further research will provide more information on post-bariatric surgery hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia pathophysiology and management. PMID:28298900
Ye, Zhibin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Weijie; Ren, Qinggui; Zhang, Pin
Background Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. Objective To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. Methods We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function. Outcomes included the pre- and post-bariatric surgery GFR, proteinuria and albuminuria. In obese patients with hyperfiltration, we draw conclusions from studies using measured GFR (inulin or iothalamate clearance) unadjusted for BSA only. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. Results 32 observational studies met our inclusion criteria, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No matter in dichotomous data or in dichotomous data, there were statistically significant reduction in hyperfiltration, albuminuria and proteinuria after bariatric surgery. Limitations The main limitation of this meta-analysis is the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another limitation is the lack of long-term follow-up. Conclusions Bariatric surgery could prevent further decline in renal function by reducing proteinuria, albuminuria and improving glomerular hyperfiltration in obese patients with impaired renal function. However, whether bariatric surgery reverses CKD or delays ESRD progression is still in question, large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed. PMID:27701452
Li, Kun; Zou, Jianan; Ye, Zhibin; Di, Jianzhong; Han, Xiaodong; Zhang, Hongwei; Liu, Weijie; Ren, Qinggui; Zhang, Pin
Obesity is an independent risk factor of development and progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD). Data on the benefits of bariatric surgery in obese patients with impaired kidney function have been conflicting. To explore whether there is improvement in glomerular filtration rate (GFR), proteinuria or albuminuria after bariatric surgery. We comprehensively searched the databases of MEDLINE, Embase, web of science and Cochrane for randomized, controlled trials and observational studies that examined bariatric surgery in obese subjects with impaired kidney function. Outcomes included the pre- and post-bariatric surgery GFR, proteinuria and albuminuria. In obese patients with hyperfiltration, we draw conclusions from studies using measured GFR (inulin or iothalamate clearance) unadjusted for BSA only. Study quality was evaluated using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale. 32 observational studies met our inclusion criteria, and 30 studies were included in the meta-analysis. No matter in dichotomous data or in dichotomous data, there were statistically significant reduction in hyperfiltration, albuminuria and proteinuria after bariatric surgery. The main limitation of this meta-analysis is the lack of randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Another limitation is the lack of long-term follow-up. Bariatric surgery could prevent further decline in renal function by reducing proteinuria, albuminuria and improving glomerular hyperfiltration in obese patients with impaired renal function. However, whether bariatric surgery reverses CKD or delays ESRD progression is still in question, large, randomized prospective studies with a longer follow-up are needed.
Novack, V; Fuchs, L; Lantsberg, L; Kama, S; Lahoud, U; Horev, A; Loewenthal, N; Ifergane, G
The association between migraine and obesity gives the clinician with an exciting possibility to alleviate migraine suffering through weight-reduction gastric-restrictive operations. We hypothesized that bariatric weight-reduction intervention (gastric banding) will be associated with reduction of migraine burden in this population. A total of 105 women between 18 and 50 years of age, admitted for bariatric surgery between April 2006 and February 2007, were screened for migraine. Twenty-nine with diagnosis of migraine were enrolled into the prospective phase. We followed the migraine pattern of these patients for 6 months post bariatric surgery. Baseline median migraine frequency was six headache days a month. Post bariatric surgery, the migraine-suffering women reported of a lower frequency of migraine attacks (p < 0.001), shorter duration of the attacks (p = 0.02), lower medication use during the attack (p = 0.005), less non-migraine pain (44.8 vs. 33%, p = 0.05), and post-bariatric surgery reduction in headache-related disability assessed by the MIDAS and HIT-6 scores. There was a reduction in migraine frequency among both episodic (from four to one episodes a month) and chronic (from 16.8 to 8.5 episodes per month) migraine patient cohorts separately and combined. Among migraine-suffering premenopausal obese women, we found a reduced frequency of migraine attacks and improvement of headache-related disability post bariatric surgery. Our findings should be interpreted cautiously. The absence of a control group and the non-blinded nature of our small study make it difficult to draw firm conclusions about the causal nature of the headache changes observed in this population. Further study is needed to evaluate the possible specific effects of surgical weight loss on migraine in obese women.
Chopra, Teena; Zhao, Jing J; Alangaden, George; Wood, Michael H; Kaye, Keith S
Bariatric surgery for obesity has emerged as an effective and commonly used treatment modality. This paper reviews the surgical site infections (SSIs) that occur post bariatric surgery and SSI prevention. The benefit of bariatric surgery resulting in profound weight loss brings with it consequences in the form of postoperative complications that can have profound effects on morbidity and mortality in these patients. This paper sets out to define different types of SSIs that occur following bariatric surgery and to discuss existing literature on the critical aspects of SSI prevention and the appropriate use of surgical antimicrobial prophylaxis for bariatric surgery. PMID:20545596
Jandali, Zaher; Loh, Charles Yuen Yung; Athanassopoulos, Thanassi; Müller, Klaus
Objective: Following massive weight loss (MWL) medial contouring of the thigh is frequently requested to improve appearance and function. Thigh lifting can be associated with significant complications. We present a case series of post bariatric patients undergoing thigh lift using staged the liposuction, a modified T incision and a buried de-epithelialised dermal flap. Materials and Methods: From January to December 2012, 21 consecutive patients underwent a modified medial thigh lift. A retrospective review of the case notes was performed to assess complications that occurred. Results: There were no major post-operative complications in terms of reoperation, hematoma, thromboembolism and no seromas. Seven patients, all of which were smokers had minor superficial wound healing complications. Aesthetic outcomes were satisfactory for all patients at a minimum follow-up of 6 months. Conclusions: The modified ‘T’ incision with staged liposuction is described. We have found the technique to be useful for a variety of different thighs. It is a reproducible method for contouring the medial thigh in MWL patients. In this series, our overall complications were low, and no seromas occurred. PMID:25190920
Cena, Hellas; De Giuseppe, Rachele; Biino, Ginevra; Persico, Francesca; Ciliberto, Ambra; Giovanelli, Alessandro; Stanford, Fatima Cody
The study evaluated and compared the eating habits and lifestyle of patients with moderate to severe obesity who have undergone Roux-en-Y Gastric Bypass (RYGB) and Sleeve Gastrectomy (SG). Food frequency (FF), food habits (FH), physical activity and life style (PA) as well as smoking habits (SH) were analyzed in 50 RYGB (25 M; aged: 24-64) and 50 SG patients (25 M; aged: 22-63) by means of a validated questionnaire, before (T0) and 6 months (T1) post bariatric surgery. A score for each section (FF, FH, PA, SH) was calculated. ANOVA analysis (age/sex adjusted): FF and FH scores improved at T1 (RYGB and SG: p < 0.001); PA score improved but not significantly; SH score did not change at T1 neither in RYGB nor in SG. Mixed models: FF and PA scores did not correlate with age, gender, weight, BMI, neither in RYGB nor in SG; FH score was negatively correlated both with weight (RYGB: p = 0.002) and BMI (SG: p = 0.003); SH score was positively correlated with age, in SG (p = 0.002); the correlation was stronger in females than in males (p = 0.004). Although dietary habits improved, patients did not change their physical activity level or their smoking habits. Patients should receive adequate lifestyle counseling to ensure the maximal benefit from bariatric surgery.
Brill, Margreke J; van Rongen, Anne; van Dongen, Eric P; van Ramshorst, Bert; Hazebroek, Eric J; Darwich, Adam S; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin; Knibbe, Catherijne A
Bariatric surgery is nowadays commonly applied as treatment for morbid obesity (BMI > 40 kg/m(2)). As information about the effects of this procedure on a drug's pharmacokinetics is limited, we aimed to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of CYP3A probe substrate midazolam after oral and intravenous administration in a cohort of morbidly obese patients that was studied before and 1 year post bariatric surgery. Twenty morbidly obese patients (aged 26-58 years) undergoing bariatric surgery participated in the study of which 18 patients returned 1 year after surgery. At both occasions, patients received 7.5 mg oral and 5 mg intravenous midazolam separated by 160 ± 48 min. Per patient and occasion, a mean of 22 blood samples were collected. Midazolam concentrations were analyzed using population pharmacokinetic modeling. One year after bariatric surgery, systemic clearance of midazolam was higher [0.65 (7%) versus 0.39 (11%) L/min, mean ± RSE (P < 0.01), respectively] and mean oral transit time (MTT) was faster [23 (20%) versus 51 (15%) minutes (P < 0.01)], while oral bioavailability was unchanged (0.54 (9%)). Central and peripheral volumes of distribution were overall lower (P < 0.05). In this cohort study in morbidly obese patients, systemic clearance was 1.7 times higher 1 year after bariatric surgery, which may potentially result from an increase in hepatic CYP3A activity per unit of liver weight. Although MTT was found to be faster, oral bioavailability remained unchanged, which considering the increased systemic clearance implies an increase in the fraction escaping intestinal first pass metabolism.
Moizé, Violeta L; Pi-Sunyer, Xavier; Mochari, Heidi; Vidal, Josep
Life-long nutrition education and diet evaluation are key to the long-term success of surgical treatment of obesity. Diet guidelines provided for bariatric surgery patients generally focus on a progression through dietary stages, from the immediate post-surgical period to 6 months after surgery. However, long-term dietary guidelines for those surgically treated for obesity are not readily available. Therefore, there is a need for dietary recommendations for meal planning and nutritional supplementation for bariatric surgery patients beyond the short-term, post-operative period. The purpose of this paper is to construct an educational tool to provide long-term nutritional and behavioral advice for the post-bariatric patient. The manuscript summarizes the current knowledge on dietary strategies and behaviors associated with beneficial nutritional outcomes in the long term of post-bariatric surgery patients. Dietary and nutritional recommendations are presented in the form of a "bariatric food pyramid" designed to be easily disseminated to patients. The development of educational tools that are easy to understand and follow is essential for effective patient management during the surgery follow-up period. The pyramid can be used as a tool to help both therapists and patients to understand nutrition recommendations and thus promote a healthy long-term post-op dietary pattern based on high-quality protein, balanced with nutrient-dense complex carbohydrates and healthy sources of essential fatty acids.
Jethava, Ashif; Dasanu, Constantin A
Health-care professionals must be aware of the mandatory vitamin supplementation in patients status post bariatric surgery. A recent increase in the number of gastric bypass surgeries in US has been associated with a proportional increase in Wernicke encephalopathy reports. Subtle or atypical neurologic features are not uncommon. Our report is of a female patient with acute Wernicke encephalopathy accompanied by sensorineural hearing loss six weeks after bariatric surgery. The patient had only a partial recovery of her neurologic symptoms eightweeks after vigorous therapy for this condition. Symptomatic thiamine (vitamin B1) and vitamin B12 deficiencies are particularly concerning effects of bariatric procedures, as neurologic and cognitive deficits may be long lasting or even permanent despite aggressive replacement therapy.
Makary, Martin A.; Sexton, J Bryan; Freischlag, Julie A.; Millman, E Anne; Pryor, David; Holzmueller, Christine; Pronovost, Peter J.
Background: Improving patient safety is an increasing priority for surgeons and hospitals since sentinel events can be catastrophic for patients, caregivers, and institutions. Patient safety initiatives aimed at creating a safe operating room (OR) culture are increasingly being adopted, but a reliable means of measuring their impact on front-line providers does not exist. Methods: We developed a surgery-specific safety questionnaire (SAQ) and administered it to 2769 eligible caregivers at 60 hospitals. Survey questions included the appropriateness of handling medical errors, knowledge of reporting systems, and perceptions of safety in the operating room. MANOVA and ANOVA were performed to compare safety results by hospital and by an individual's position in the OR using a composite score. Multilevel confirmatory factor analysis was performed to validate the structure of the scale at the operating room level of analysis. Results: The overall response rate was 77.1% (2135 of 2769), with a range of 57% to 100%. Factor analysis of the survey items demonstrated high face validity and internal consistency (α = 0.76). The safety climate scale was robust and internally consistent overall and across positions. Scores varied widely by hospital [MANOVA omnibus F (59, 1910) = 3.85, P < 0.001], but not position [ANOVA F (4, 1910) = 1.64, P = 0.16], surgeon (mean = 73.91), technician (mean = 70.26), anesthesiologist (mean = 71.57), CRNA (mean = 71.03), and nurse (mean = 70.40). The percent of respondents reporting good safety climate in each hospital ranged from 16.3% to 100%. Conclusions: Safety climate in surgical departments can be validly measured and varies widely among hospitals, providing the opportunity to benchmark performance. Scores on the SAQ can serve to evaluate interventions to improve patient safety. PMID:16632997
Mahmood, Ali; Mahmood, Nadia; Robinson, Robert B
A 31-year-old woman who had successfully undergone bariatric surgery (gastric bypass with Roux-en-Y anastamosis) three years earlier presented with complaints of acute epigastric abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting. Computed tomography (CT) showed small bowel intussusception, and the patient was taken to the operating room. A mass the size and shape of a football was found; the mass consisted of the proximal limb of the Roux-en-Y intussuscepted in a retrograde manner. The bowel was gently reduced, deemed viable, and the Roux-en-Y anastamosis was revised with resection of the lead point. We urge the surgeon to be highly suspicious of acute bowel obstruction in the post-bariatric surgery population and believe that CT is essential in evaluating these patients. We further recommend resection of the lead point to avoid repeat bouts of intussusception from the same focal etiology.
Petasne Nijamkin, Monica; Campa, Adriana; Samiri Nijamkin, Shani; Sosa, Jorge
To evaluate the effect of 2 post-bariatric support interventions on depressive symptoms of Hispanic Americans treated with gastric bypass for morbid or severe obesity. Prospective randomized, controlled trial conducted in a laparoscopic institution. During the Phase 1 clinical trial (from preoperative evaluation to 6 months after surgery), all participants received standard care. During Phase 2 (6-12 months after surgery), participants were randomly assigned to receive either standard care (n = 72) or comprehensive support (n = 72). Comprehensive group participants received 6 educational sessions focused on behavior change strategies and motivation with nutrition counseling. Depression scores and weight change over time. Independent samples t tests and regression analysis assessed relationships among depression scores and excess weight loss. Participants receiving behavioral-motivational intervention scored significantly lower on Beck's Depression Inventory questionnaire scores than those receiving standard care. For those with depressive symptoms at randomization, 24% of participants who received the comprehensive intervention reported no depressive symptoms at 12 months after surgery, compared with 6% of those who received standard care (P < .001). Patients' depressive mood improvement was significantly and positively associated with excess weight loss and attendance at educational sessions (P < .001). Findings support the importance of post-bariatric comprehensive behavioral-motivational nutrition education for decreasing risk for depression and improving weight loss. Copyright © 2013 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Ellison, Jo M; Steffen, Kristine J; Sarwer, David B
Individuals who undergo bariatric surgery generally experience rapid and dramatic weight loss. While the weight loss typically confers significant health benefits, an undesirable consequence is often excessive quantities of hanging, surplus skin. Some patients undergo body-contouring surgery (BCS) in order to improve health, mobility, appearance and psychological adjustment. While the majority of post-bariatric patients desire BCS in one or more body regions, a small percentage of patients receive such surgeries. Lack of knowledge about procedures, cost and (in the USA and several other countries) difficulty obtaining insurance reimbursement likely prevents many patients from undergoing BCS. Those who do undergo BCS appear to be at heightened risk for wound-healing complications. Despite these complications, the majority of patients report satisfactory BCS outcomes. The extant literature in this area provides a great deal of information about these issues; nevertheless, additional research is needed to further inform clinical management and improve patient outcomes. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
Christiansen, René; Kirkevang, Lise-Lotte; Hørsted-Bindslev, Preben; Wenzel, Ann
The aim of the study was to assess patient discomfort following periapical surgery. Forty-two patients with apical periodontitis were allocated to apicectomy with either smoothening of the gutta-percha root filling or a retrograde root filling with mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA). Pooling all patients, VAS score for pain peaked 3 hours postoperatively (mean VAS = 29). The VAS score for swelling peaked 1 day postoperatively (mean VAS = 41). Patients' overall perception of postoperative discomfort was induced by (questions asked at the day for suture removal): Oral awareness (36 yes, 6 no); swelling (30 yes, 12 no); compromised chewing ability (18 yes, 24 no); pain (15 yes, 27 no). There was no correlation between the operating time and VAS scores for pain and swelling (r < or = .25, P > .11). Patients experienced little pain and moderate swelling after periapical surgery. Oral awareness was the most reported reason for postoperative discomfort. The operating time was not a decisive factor in relation to postoperative discomfort.
Fansa, H; Haller, S
Aesthetic surgery is a service which entails a high degree of trust. Service evaluation prior to provision is difficult for the patient. This leads to the question of how to manage the service successfully while still focusing on the medical needs. The decision to undergo an operation is not influenced by the operation itself, but by preoperative events which induce the patient to have the operation done. According to "buying decisions" for products or in service management, the decision for an aesthetic operation is extensive; the patient is highly involved and actively searching for information using different directed sources of information. The real "buying decision" consists of 5 phases: problem recognition, gathering of information, alternative education, purchase decision, and post purchase behaviour. A retrospective survey of 40 female patients who have already undergone an aesthetic operation assessed for problem recognition, which types of information were collected prior to the appointment with the surgeon, and why the patients have had the operation at our hospital. They were also asked how many alternative surgeons they had been seen before. Most of the patients had been thinking about undergoing an operation for several years. They mainly used the web for their research and were informed by other (non-aesthetic) physicians/general practitioners. Requested information was about the aesthetic results and possible problems and complications. Patients came based on web information and because of recommendations from other physicians. 60% of all interviewees did not see another surgeon and decided to have the operation because of positive patient-doctor communication and the surgeon's good reputation. Competence was considered to be the most important quality of the surgeon. However, the attribute was judged on subjective parameters. Environment, office rooms and staff were assessed as important but not very important. Costs of surgery were ranked second
Kung, Jennifer S.; Choi, Daniel Y.; Cheema, Anjum S.; Singh, Kuldev
To summarize the role of cataract surgery in the glaucoma patient, in terms of the effect on intraocular pressure (IOP) as well as diagnostic and therapeutic considerations for those with both conditions. Recent evidence suggests that cataract extraction may produce a significant and sustained IOP reduction in individuals with open-angle glaucoma, ocular hypertension, and angle-closure glaucoma. Cataract removal may improve the practitioner's ability to interpret perimetric testing, and re-establishing perimetric and optic nerve imaging baselines is recommended after cataract surgery. The sequence of cataract surgery relative to glaucoma surgery impacts the likelihood of complications and surgical success. There are multiple benefits to perform cataract surgery prior to glaucoma surgery while cataract surgery after trabeculectomy increases the risk of subsequent filtration failure. As “minimally invasive glaucoma surgeries” continue to improve in terms of efficacy, there is an evolving role for combined cataract and glaucoma surgery in patients with early to moderate stages of glaucoma. PMID:25624668
Fung, Michael; Wharton, Sean; Macpherson, Alison
Objectives. Bariatric surgery has been shown to be an effective intervention for weight loss and diabetes management. Despite this, many patients qualified for bariatric surgery are not interested in undergoing the procedure. The objective of this study is to determine the factors influencing receptivity to bariatric surgery among those who qualify for the procedure. Methods. Patients attending a publicly funded weight management clinic who qualified for bariatric surgery were asked to complete an elective questionnaire between February 2013 and April 2014. Results. A total of 371 patients (72% female) completed the questionnaire. Only 87 of 371 (23%) participants were interested in bariatric surgery. Individuals interested in bariatric surgery had a higher BMI (48.0 versus 46.2 kg/m2, P = 0.03) and believed that they would lose more weight with surgery (51 versus 44 kg, P = 0.0069). Those who scored highly on past weight loss success and financial concerns were less likely to be interested in bariatric surgery, whereas those who scored highly on high receptivity to surgery and positive social support were more likely to be interested in bariatric surgery. Conclusion. Although participants overestimated the effect of bariatric surgery on weight loss, most were still not interested in bariatric surgery. PMID:27516900
Hearing results and complications of surgery were studied in 42 patients with otosclerosis (46 ears operated on) who were over the age of 60 years at the time of stapedectomy. The mean follow-up period was 8 years. The results were compared with those obtained in 275 patients (330 ears operated on) younger than 60 years of age undergoing stapes surgery during the same time period. Large fenestra stapedectomy with fascia seal to the oval window was used in all cases. Hearing results as judged by postoperative air-bone gaps were as good in the older age group as in the younger patients. In contrast to some earlier reports, complications of surgery such as postoperative sensorineural hearing loss occurred not more frequently among elderly patients than in younger patients. It is concluded that stapes surgery should be offered to elderly patients with the same indications as in younger patients with otosclerosis.
Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao
Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients' nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed.
Shao, Li; Zheng, Hong; Jia, Feng-Ju; Wang, Hui-Qin; Liu, Li; Sun, Qi; An, Meng-Ying; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Wen, Hao
Background Keeping abdominal surgery patients warm is common and warming methods are needed in power outages during natural disasters. We aimed to evaluate the efficacy of low-cost, low-power warming methods for maintaining normothermia in abdominal surgery patients. Methods Patients (n = 160) scheduled for elective abdominal surgery were included in this prospective clinical study. Five warming methods were applied: heated blood transfusion/fluid infusion vs. unheated; wrapping patients vs. not wrapping; applying moist dressings, heated or not; surgical field rinse heated or not; and applying heating blankets or not. Patients’ nasopharyngeal and rectal temperatures were recorded to evaluate warming efficacy. Significant differences were found in mean temperatures of warmed patients compared to those not warmed. Results When we compared temperatures of abdominal surgery patient groups receiving three specific warming methods with temperatures of control groups not receiving these methods, significant differences were revealed in temperatures maintained during the surgeries between the warmed groups and controls. Discussion The value of maintaining normothermia in patients undergoing abdominal surgery under general anesthesia is accepted. Three effective economical and practically applicable warming methods are combined body wrapping and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and heating blanket; combined body wrapping, heated moist dressings, and warmed surgical rinse fluid, with or without heating blanket. These methods are practically applicable when low-cost method is indeed needed. PMID:22808045
Chatham, Donn R
This article presents a series of essays from the author with thoughts and opinions pertaining to the practice of facial plastic surgery and how surgeons deal with patients who anticipate often impossible procedures.
Sykes, Jonathan M
This article provides a perspective on the process of interacting with the cosmetic surgery patient preoperatively during the selection process and postoperatively during the healing process. Patient satisfaction requires that the surgeon pay meticulous attention to the psychologic needs of the patient both pre- and postoperatively. This portion of the patient's care certainly is as important as the surgical procedure itself. The author discusses the surgeon's need to evaluate the patient's inner strength and ability to deal with the entire perioperative healing process, both physically and psychologically, and the surgeon's own strength in refusing to perform surgery when warranted.
Sunil, Supreet; Santiago, Vincent A; Gougeon, Lorraine; Warwick, Katie; Okrainec, Allan; Hawa, Raed; Sockalingam, Sanjeev
Vitamin supplementation in bariatric aftercare is essential to prevent nutrient deficiencies; however, rates of vitamin adherence have been as low as 30 % 6 months post-surgery. Preliminary literature suggests non-adherence to prescribed treatments can be linked to demographic and psychological factors. We aimed to determine the relationship between these factors to vitamin adherence in post-bariatric surgery patients. A total of 92 bariatric patients were assessed 6 months post-surgery. Patients were administered a questionnaire collecting demographic information, psychological scores, and self-reported adherence. Nutrient deficiencies were analyzed through serum vitamin levels measured 3 and 6 months after surgery. Wilcoxon rank-sum and chi-square tests were used for analysis. Non-adherence was associated with male sex and full-time employment (p = 0.027, p = 0.015). There were no differences with respect to living situation, education level, or relationship type. Non-adherent patients did not have significantly higher scores for generalized anxiety, depressive symptoms, or avoidant behaviors. However, non-adherent patients displayed greater attachment anxiety than their adherent counterparts (p = 0.0186). Non-adherence was also associated with lower vitamin B12 levels 6 months post-surgery (p = 0.001). Male gender and full-time work have previously been shown to be associated with non-adherence. This is the first study to demonstrate that attachment anxiety is associated with poor multivitamin adherence in the post-surgical bariatric population. This result is concordant with recent literature that has demonstrated attachment anxiety is associated with poor adherence to dietary recommendations in bariatric patients 6 months postoperatively. Presurgical screening for attachment anxiety could facilitate early interventions to promote better bariatric aftercare in this group.
Abdal Raheem, Sulieman; Deen, Omer J; Corrigan, Mandy L; Parekh, Neha; Quintini, Cristiano; Steiger, Ezra; Kirby, Donald F
Obesity is a major chronic disease affecting the U.S. population. Bariatric surgery has consistently shown greater weight loss and improved outcomes compared with conservative therapy. However, complications after bariatric surgery can be catastrophic, resulting in short bowel syndrome with a potential risk of intestinal failure, ultimately resulting in the need for a small bowel transplant. A total of 6 patients became dependent on home parenteral nutrition (HPN) after undergoing bariatric surgery at an outside facility. Four of the 6 patients required evaluation for small bowel transplant; 2 of the 6 patients were successfully managed with parenteral nutrition and did not require further small bowel transplant evaluation. Catheter-related bloodstream infection, a serious complication of HPN, occurred in 3 patients despite extensive patient education on catheter care and use of ethanol lock. Two patients underwent successful small bowel transplantation, 1 died before transplant could be performed, and 1 was listed for a multivisceral transplantation. Surgical procedures to treat morbid obesity are common and growing in popularity but are not without risk of serious complications, including intestinal failure and HPN dependency. Despite methods to prevent complications, failure of HPN may lead to the need for transplant evaluation. In selected cases, the best therapeutic treatment may be a small bowel transplant to resolve irreversible, post-bariatric surgery intestinal failure.
Chapman, C. Richard; Zaslansky, Ruth; Donaldson, Gary W.; Shinfeld, Amihay
Poorly controlled postoperative pain is a longstanding and costly problem in medicine. The purposes of this study were to characterize the acute pain trajectories over the first four postoperative days in 83 cardiac surgery patients with a mixed effects model of linear growth to determine whether statistically significant individual differences exist in these pain trajectories, and to compare the quality of measurement by trajectory with conventional pain measurement practices. The data conformed to a linear model that provided slope (rate of change) as a basis for comparing patients. Slopes varied significantly across patients, indicating that the direction and rate of change in pain during the first four days of recovery from surgery differed systematically across individuals. Of the 83 patients, 24 had decreasing pain after surgery, 24 had increasing pain, and the remaining 35 had approximately constant levels of pain over the four postoperative days. PMID:22448322
Stanford, Fatima Cody; Jones, Daniel B.; Schneider, Benjamin E.; Blackburn, George L.; Apovian, Caroline M.; Hess, Donald T.; Chiodi, Sarah; Robert, Shirley; Bourland, Ashley C.; Wee, Christina C.
Background Ethnic minority adults have disproportionately higher rates of obesity than Caucasians but are less likely to undergo bariatric surgery. Recent data suggest that minorities might be less likely to seek surgery. Whether minorities who seek surgery are also less likely to proceed with surgery is unclear. Methods We interviewed 651 patients who sought bariatric surgery at two academic medical centers to examine whether ethnic minorities are less likely to proceed with surgery than Caucasians and whether minorities who do proceed with surgery have higher illness burden than their counterparts. We collected patient demographics and abstracted clinical data from the medical records. We then conducted multivariable analyses to examine the association between race and the likelihood of proceeding with bariatric surgery within 1 year of initial interview and to compare the illness burden by race and ethnicity among those who underwent surgery. Results Of our study sample, 66 % were Caucasian, 18 % were African-American, and 12 % were Hispanics. After adjustment for socioeconomic factors, there were no racial differences in who proceeded with bariatric surgery. Among those who proceeded with surgery, illness burden was comparable between minorities and Caucasian patients with the exception that African-Americans were underrepresented among those with reflux disease (0.4, 95 % CI 0.2–0.7) and depression (0.4, 0.2–0.7), and overrepresented among those with anemia (4.8, 2.4–9.6) than Caucasian patients. Conclusions Race and ethnicity were not independently associated with likelihood of proceeding with bariatric surgery. Minorities who proceeded with surgery did not clearly have higher illness burden than Caucasian patients. PMID:25492453
Miranda, Benjamin H; Allan, Anna Y; Butler, Daniel P; Cussons, Paul D
Insufficient satisfaction outcome literature exists to assist consultations for scar revision surgery; such outcomes should reflect the patient's perspective. The aim of this study was to prospectively investigate scar revision patient satisfaction outcomes, according to specified patient-selection criteria. Patients (250) were randomly selected for telephone contacting regarding scar revisions undertaken between 2007-2011. Visual analogue scores were obtained for scars pre- and post-revision surgery. Surgery selection criteria were; 'presence' of sufficient time for scar maturation prior to revision, technical issues during or wound complications from the initial procedure that contributed to poor scarring, and 'absence' of site-specific or patient factors that negatively influence outcomes. Patient demographics, scar pathogenesis (elective vs. trauma), underlying issue (functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic) and revision surgery details were also collected with the added use of a real-time, hospital database. Telephone contacting was achieved for 211 patients (214 scar revisions). Satisfaction outcomes were '2% worse, 16% no change, and 82% better'; a distribution maintained between body sites and despite whether surgery was functional/symptomatic vs. cosmetic. Better outcomes were reported by patients who sustained traumatic scars vs. those who sustained scars by elective procedures (91.80% vs. 77.78%, P=0.016) and by females vs. males (85.52% vs. 75.36%, P<0.05), particularly in the elective group where males (36.17%) were more likely to report no change or worse outcomes versus females (16.04%) (P<0.01). Successful scar revision outcomes may be achieved using careful patient selection. This study provides useful information for referring general practitioners, and patient-surgeon consultations, when planning scar revision.
Desserud, K F; Veen, T; Søreide, K
Emergency general surgery in the elderly is a particular challenge to the surgeon in charge of their care. The aim was to review contemporary aspects of managing elderly patients needing emergency general surgery and possible alterations to their pathways of care. This was a narrative review based on a PubMed/MEDLINE literature search up until 15 September 2015 for publications relevant to emergency general surgery in the geriatric patient. The number of patients presenting as an emergency with a general surgical condition increases with age. Up to one-quarter of all emergency admissions to hospital may be for general surgical conditions. Elderly patients are a particular challenge owing to added co-morbidity, use of drugs and risk of poor outcome. Frailty is an important potential risk factor, but difficult to monitor or manage in the emergency setting. Risk scores are not available universally. Outcomes are usually severalfold worse than after elective surgery, in terms of both higher morbidity and increased mortality. A care bundle including early diagnosis, resuscitation and organ system monitoring may benefit the elderly in particular. Communication with the patient and relatives throughout the care pathway is essential, as indications for surgery, level of care and likely outcomes may evolve. Ethical issues should also be addressed at every step on the pathway of care. Emergency general surgery in the geriatric patient needs a tailored approach to improve outcomes and avoid futile care. Although some high-quality studies exist in related fields, the overall evidence base informing perioperative acute care for the elderly remains limited. © 2015 BJS Society Ltd Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Bastos, Emanuelle Cristina Lins; Barbosa, Emília Maria Wanderley Gusmão; Soriano, Graziele Moreira Silva; dos Santos, Ewerton Amorim; Vasconcelos, Sandra Mary Lima
Bariatric surgery leads to an average loss of 60-75% of excess body weight with maximum weight loss in the period between 18 and 24 months postoperatively. However, several studies show that weight is regained from two years of operation. To identify the determinants of weight regain in post-bariatric surgery users. Prospective cross-sectional study with 64 patients who underwent bariatric surgery with postoperative time > 2 years valued at significant weight regain. The variables analyzed were age, sex, education, socioeconomic status, work activity related to food, time after surgery, BMI, percentage of excess weight loss, weight gain, attendance monitoring nutrition, lifestyle, eating habits, self-perception of appetite, daily use of nutritional supplements and quality of life. There were 57 (89%) women and 7 (11%) men, aged 41.76 ± 7.93 years and mean postoperative period of 53.4 ± 18.4 months. The average weight and BMI were respectively 127.48 ± 24.2 kg and 49.56 ± 6.7 kg/m2 at surgery. The minimum weight and BMI were achieved 73.0 ± 18.6 kg and 28.3 ± 5.5 kg/m2, reached in 23.7 ± 12 months postoperatively. Regained significant weight occurred in 18 (28.1%) cases. The mean postoperative period of 66 ± 8.3 months and work activities related to food showed statistical significance (p=000 and p=0.003) for the regained weight. Bariatric surgery promotes adequate reduction of excess body weight, with significant weight regain observed after five years; post-operative time and work activity related to eating out as determining factors for the occurrence of weight regain.
Wheeler, Patrick; Boyd, Kevin; Shipton, Mary
Background: Plantar fasciitis is a common cause of foot pain, and although many episodes are self-limiting with short duration, 10% leave chronic symptoms. Recalcitrant cases can be managed surgically, with studies demonstrating good results in the short term but uncertainties over longer term outcomes. Purpose: To assess the outcome following surgical intervention for patients with plantar fasciitis. Study Design: Case series; Level of evidence, 4. Methods: Seventy-nine patients were identified from operative diaries undergoing plantar fasciotomy surgery between 1993 and 2009. They were contacted to investigate long-term results using self-reported outcome measures. Results: Sixty-eight responses were received (86% response rate), with an average of 7 years (range, 1-15 years) of follow-up. Patients reported an average reduction in pain by visual analog scale of 79%, and 84% of patients were happy with the surgical results. Greater success was achieved in patients with shorter duration of symptoms preoperatively. No deterioration in success was seen over time. Conclusion: Plantar fasciotomy surgery for plantar fasciitis remains controversial, with biomechanical arguments against surgery; however, this article reports good success following surgery over a long follow-up period. The results of current operative techniques need to be fully investigated for longer term success, as do the outcomes of newer nonoperative management strategies. PMID:26535314
Kiecak, Katarzyna; Urbańska, Ewa; Maciejewski, Tomasz; Kaliś, Robert; Pakosiewicz, Waldemar; Kołodziej, Tadeusz; Knapik, Piotr; Przybylski, Roman; Zembala, Marian
Introduction Surgery is an extreme physiological stress for the elderly. Aging is inevitably associated with irreversible and progressive cellular degeneration. Patients above 75 years of age are characterized by impaired responses to operative stress and a very narrow safety margin. Aim To evaluate perioperative complications in patients aged ≥ 75 years who underwent cardiac surgery in comparison to outcomes in younger patients. Material and methods The study was conducted at the Silesian Centre for Heart Diseases in Zabrze in 2009–2014 after a standard of perioperative care in seniors was implemented to reduce complications, in particular to decrease the duration of mechanical ventilation and reduce postoperative delirium. The study group included 1446 patients. Results The mean duration of mechanical ventilation was 13.8 h in patients aged ≥ 75 years and did not differ significantly compared to younger patients. In-hospital mortality among seniors was 3.8%, a value significantly higher than that observed among patients younger than 75 years of age. Patients aged ≥ 75 years undergoing cardiac surgery have significantly more concomitant conditions involving other organs, which affects treatment outcomes (duration of hospital stay, mortality). Conclusions The implementation of a standard of perioperative care in this age group reduced the duration of mechanical ventilation and lowered the rate of postoperative delirium. PMID:28096832
The author's approach has been to present topics that relate to general as well as some specialty applications of patient studies. These topics include all major imaging modes in use today, the commoner endoscopic procedures, and function analyses applicable to most workups of the cardiac, genitourinary, respiratory, gastrointestinal, and neurologic systems. For most of the patient studies described in this book the author has selected procedures that a surgeon is more likely to request directly. Such procedures may be new or well established. This book aims to acquaint the surgeon with some new procedures and to summarize the current status of other test that might be required during the management of a surgical patient.
lateral thoracic, lower abdom- inal, or groin areas are chosen. Since harvesting includes removal of all regenerative dermal layers down to adipose tissue...Understanding and managing burn pain : part 1. Am J Nursing 2009;109:4. 113Reconstructive Surgery in the Thermally Injured Patient
Kufta, Kenneth; Peacock, Zachary S; Chuang, Sung-Kiang; Inverso, Gino; Levin, Lawrence M
The purpose of this study was to compare overall patient satisfaction after orthognathic surgery with the following specific categories: appearance, functional ability, general health, sociability, and patient-clinician communication. A 16-question survey was developed and administered to include patients at either 6 or 12 months after orthognathic surgery between June 2013 and June 2014 at the University of Pennsylvania and Massachusetts General Hospital. The predictor variables included age, sex, type of procedure, medical comorbidities, intra- or postoperative complications, and presence of paresthesia. The outcome variable was patient satisfaction overall and in each category based on a Likert scale (0: not satisfied at all to 5: very satisfied).A total of 37 patients completed the survey and had a high overall rate of satisfaction (100% of responses were 4 or 5 on Likert scale). Overall satisfaction had the highest correlation with appearance (ρ=0.52, P=0.0009) followed by sociability (ρ=0.47, P=0.004), patient-clinician communication (ρ=0.38, P=0.02) functionality (ρ=0.19, P=0.26), and general health (ρ = -0.11, P = 0.51). Patients had high satisfaction scores for orthognathic surgery. Satisfaction with postoperative appearance had the strongest correlation with overall satisfaction.
Shenefelt, Philip D
Patient stress and anxiety are common preoperatively and during dermatologic procedures and surgeries. Stress and anxiety can occasionally interfere with performance of procedures or surgery and can induce hemodynamic instability, such as elevated blood pressure or syncope, as well as producing considerable discomfort for some patients. Detection of excess stress and anxiety in patients can allow the opportunity for corrective or palliative measures. Slower breathing, biofeedback, progressive muscular relaxation, guided imagery, hypnosis, meditation and music can help calm and rebalance the patient's autonomic nervous system and immune functioning. Handheld miniaturized heart rate variability biofeedback devices are now available. The relaxation response can easily be taught. Guided imagery can be recorded or live. Live rapid induction hypnosis followed by deepening and then self-guided imagery requires no experience on the part of the patient but does require training and experience on the part of a provider. Recorded hypnosis inductions may also be used. Meditation generally requires more prior experience and training, but is useful when the patient already is skilled in it. Live, guided meditation or meditation recordings may be used. Relaxing recorded music from speakers or headphones or live performance music may also be employed to ease discomfort and improve the patient's attitude for dermatologic procedures and surgeries.
Lin, Pi-Chu; Lin, Man-Ling; Huang, Li-Ching; Hsu, Hsiu-Chu; Lin, Chiong-Chu
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of music therapy on anxiety, postoperative pain and physiological reactions to emotional and physical distress in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Surgery-related anxiety and pain are the greatest concern of surgical patients, especially for those undergoing major procedures. A quasi-experimental study design was conducted in a medical centre in Taiwan from April-July 2006. Sixty patients were recruited. The study group listened to selected music from the evening before surgery to the second day after surgery. The control group did not listen to music. Patients' levels of anxiety and pain were measured with visual analogue scales (VAS). Physiological measures, including heart rate, blood pressure and 24-hour urinalysis, were performed. The average age of the 60 patients was 62·18 (SD 18·76) years. The mean VAS score for degree of anxiety in the study group was 0·8-2·0, compared with 2·1-5·1 in the control group. The mean VAS score for degree of pain in the study group was 1·7-3·0, compared with 4·4-6·0 in the control group. The differences between the two groups in VAS scores for both anxiety (p = 0·018-0·001) and pain (p = 0·001) were statistically significant. One hour after surgery, the mean blood pressure was significantly lower in the study group than in the control group (p = 0·014), but no significant differences were found between the two groups in urine cortisol (p = 0·145-0·495), norepinephrine (p = 0·228-0·626) or epinephrine values (p = 0·074-0·619). Music therapy has some positive effects on levels of anxiety and pain in patients undergoing spinal surgery. Complementary music therapy can alleviate pain and anxiety in patients before and after spinal surgery. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kokoszka, Malgosia A; McGoldrick, Patricia E; La Vega-Talbott, Maite; Raynes, Hillary; Palmese, Christina A; Wolf, Steven M; Harden, Cynthia L; Ghatan, Saadi
OBJECTIVE The purpose of this study was to report outcomes of epilepsy surgery in 56 consecutive patients with autism spectrum disorder. METHODS Medical records of 56 consecutive patients with autism who underwent epilepsy surgery were reviewed with regard to clinical characteristics, surgical management, postoperative seizure control, and behavioral changes. RESULTS Of the 56 patients with autism, 39 were male, 45 were severely autistic, 27 had a history of clinically significant levels of aggression and other disruptive behaviors, and 30 were considered nonverbal at baseline. Etiology of the epilepsy was known in 32 cases, and included structural lesions, medical history, and developmental and genetic factors. Twenty-nine patients underwent resective treatments (in 8 cases combined with palliative procedures), 24 patients had only palliative treatments, and 3 patients had only subdural electroencephalography. Eighteen of the 56 patients had more than one operation. The mean age at surgery was 11 ± 6.5 years (range 1.5-35 years). At a mean follow-up of 47 ± 30 months (range 2-117 months), seizure outcomes included 20 Engel Class I, 12 Engel Class II, 18 Engel Class III, and 3 Engel Class IV cases. The age and follow-up times are stated as the mean ± SD. Three patients were able to discontinue all antiepileptic drugs (AEDs). Aggression and other aberrant behaviors observed in the clinical setting improved in 24 patients. According to caregivers, most patients also experienced some degree of improvement in daily social and cognitive function. Three patients had no functional or behavioral changes associated with seizure reduction, and 2 patients experienced worsening of seizures and behavioral symptoms. CONCLUSIONS Epilepsy surgery in patients with autism is feasible, with no indication that the comorbidity of autism should preclude a good outcome. Resective and palliative treatments brought seizure freedom or seizure reduction to the majority of patients
The aim of refractive surgery is a good postoperative visual acuity and the satisfaction of the patient. To reach this, a good selection of the patient is important. Each patient has to be evaluated personally and individually at the hand of the next criteria: A complete preoperative examination The motivation and the expectations of each patient The possibilities and the complications of each operative technique. the contra-indications of the refractive surgery and each operative technique. In case of small and moderate myopia, the results of the radial keratotomy and the excimer-laser are similar and comparable with each other. In case of moderate and high myopia, the excimer-laser (PRK and LASIK) is the only valuable operative technique.
Sockalingam, Sanjeev; Hawa, Raed; Wnuk, Susan; Santiago, Vincent; Kowgier, Matthew; Jackson, Timothy; Okrainec, Allan; Cassin, Stephanie
Studies exploring the impact of pre-surgery psychiatric status as a predictor of health related quality of life (QOL) after bariatric surgery have been limited to short-term follow-up and variable use of psychosocial measures. We examined the effect of pre-operative psychiatric factors on QOL and weight loss 2-years after surgery. 156 patients participated in this prospective cohort study, the Toronto Bariatric Psychosocial Cohort Study, between 2010 and 2014. Patients were assessed pre-surgery for demographic factors, weight, psychiatric diagnosis using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview and symptom measures for QOL, depression and anxiety at pre-surgery and at 1 and 2years post-surgery. At 2-years post-bariatric surgery, patients experienced a significant decrease in mean weight (-48.43kg, 95% [-51.1, -45.76]) and an increase only in physical QOL (+18.91, 95% [17.01, 20.82]) scores as compared to pre-surgery. Multivariate regression analysis identified pre-surgery physical QOL score (p<0.001), younger age (p=0.005), and a history of a mood disorder as significant predictors of physical QOL. Only a history of a mood disorder (p=0.032) significantly predicted mental QOL (p=0.006). Pre-surgery weight (p<0.001) and a history of a mood disorder (p=0.047) were significant predictors of weight loss 2-years post-surgery. Bariatric surgery had a sustained impact on physical QOL but not mental QOL at 2-years post-surgery. A history of mood disorder unexpectedly increased physical QOL scores and weight loss following surgery. Further research is needed to determine if these results are due to bariatric surgery candidate selection within this program. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Klinner, W; Bernheim, C; Laiacker, H
107 patients at the age of 80 years or more were operated for coronary or valvular heart disease between 1978 and 1984. The indication for surgery was instable angina in coronary patients and intractable heart failure in such with valvular lesions. 9 coronary and 5 valvular patients died postoperatively, 7 were early postoperative deaths, mainly due to myocardial failure. The majority of cases could be improved for 1 to 2 stages according to NYHA-classification. In this group pulmonary complications were predominant. According to this observation heart operations can also be indicated in the older age patient group without very much more risk than in younger ones.
Francis, Charles W.; Johanson, Norman A.; Curley, Catherine; Dahl, Ola E.; Schulman, Sam; Ortel, Thomas L.; Pauker, Stephen G.; Colwell, Clifford W.
Background: VTE is a serious, but decreasing complication following major orthopedic surgery. This guideline focuses on optimal prophylaxis to reduce postoperative pulmonary embolism and DVT. Methods: The methods of this guideline follow those described in Methodology for the Development of Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis Guidelines: Antithrombotic Therapy and Prevention of Thrombosis, 9th ed: American College of Chest Physicians Evidence-Based Clinical Practice Guidelines in this supplement. Results: In patients undergoing major orthopedic surgery, we recommend the use of one of the following rather than no antithrombotic prophylaxis: low-molecular-weight heparin; fondaparinux; dabigatran, apixaban, rivaroxaban (total hip arthroplasty or total knee arthroplasty but not hip fracture surgery); low-dose unfractionated heparin; adjusted-dose vitamin K antagonist; aspirin (all Grade 1B); or an intermittent pneumatic compression device (IPCD) (Grade 1C) for a minimum of 10 to 14 days. We suggest the use of low-molecular-weight heparin in preference to the other agents we have recommended as alternatives (Grade 2C/2B), and in patients receiving pharmacologic prophylaxis, we suggest adding an IPCD during the hospital stay (Grade 2C). We suggest extending thromboprophylaxis for up to 35 days (Grade 2B). In patients at increased bleeding risk, we suggest an IPCD or no prophylaxis (Grade 2C). In patients who decline injections, we recommend using apixaban or dabigatran (all Grade 1B). We suggest against using inferior vena cava filter placement for primary prevention in patients with contraindications to both pharmacologic and mechanical thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2C). We recommend against Doppler (or duplex) ultrasonography screening before hospital discharge (Grade 1B). For patients with isolated lower-extremity injuries requiring leg immobilization, we suggest no thromboprophylaxis (Grade 2B). For patients undergoing knee arthroscopy without a history
Devereaux, P J; Sessler, Daniel I; Leslie, Kate; Kurz, Andrea; Mrkobrada, Marko; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Villar, Juan Carlos; Sigamani, Alben; Biccard, Bruce M; Meyhoff, Christian S; Parlow, Joel L; Guyatt, Gordon; Robinson, Andrea; Garg, Amit X; Rodseth, Reitze N; Botto, Fernando; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Xavier, Denis; Chan, Matthew T V; Tiboni, Maria; Cook, Deborah; Kumar, Priya A; Forget, Patrice; Malaga, German; Fleischmann, Edith; Amir, Mohammed; Eikelboom, John; Mizera, Richard; Torres, David; Wang, C Y; Vanhelder, Tomas; Paniagua, Pilar; Berwanger, Otavio; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Graham, Michelle; Pasin, Laura; Le Manach, Yannick; Gao, Peggy; Pogue, Janice; Whitlock, Richard; Lamy, André; Kearon, Clive; Chow, Clara; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim
Marked activation of the sympathetic nervous system occurs during and after noncardiac surgery. Low-dose clonidine, which blunts central sympathetic outflow, may prevent perioperative myocardial infarction and death without inducing hemodynamic instability. We performed a blinded, randomized trial with a 2-by-2 factorial design to allow separate evaluation of low-dose clonidine versus placebo and low-dose aspirin versus placebo in patients with, or at risk for, atherosclerotic disease who were undergoing noncardiac surgery. A total of 10,010 patients at 135 centers in 23 countries were enrolled. For the comparison of clonidine with placebo, patients were randomly assigned to receive clonidine (0.2 mg per day) or placebo just before surgery, with the study drug continued until 72 hours after surgery. The primary outcome was a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days. Clonidine, as compared with placebo, did not reduce the number of primary-outcome events (367 and 339, respectively; hazard ratio with clonidine, 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.93 to 1.26; P=0.29). Myocardial infarction occurred in 329 patients (6.6%) assigned to clonidine and in 295 patients (5.9%) assigned to placebo (hazard ratio, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.95 to 1.30; P=0.18). Significantly more patients in the clonidine group than in the placebo group had clinically important hypotension (2385 patients [47.6%] vs. 1854 patients [37.1%]; hazard ratio 1.32; 95% CI, 1.24 to 1.40; P<0.001). Clonidine, as compared with placebo, was associated with an increased rate of nonfatal cardiac arrest (0.3% [16 patients] vs. 0.1% [5 patients]; hazard ratio, 3.20; 95% CI, 1.17 to 8.73; P=0.02). Administration of low-dose clonidine in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery did not reduce the rate of the composite outcome of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction; it did, however, increase the risk of clinically important hypotension and nonfatal cardiac arrest. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes
Chakhtoura, M; Nakhoul, N; Shawwa, K; Mantzoros, C; El Hajj Fuleihan, G
Background Obesity is a public health problem that carries global and substantial social and economic burden. Relative to non-surgical interventions, bariatric surgery has the most substantial and lasting impact on weight loss. However, it leads to a number of nutritional deficiencies requiring long term supplementation. Objectives The aims of this paper are to review 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] status pre and post - bariatric surgery, describe the dose response of vitamin D supplementation, and assess the effect of the surgical procedure on 25(OH)D level following supplementation. Methods We searched Medline, PubMed, the Cochrane Library and EMBASE, for relevant observational studies published in English, from 2000–April 2015. The identified references were reviewed, in duplicate and independently, by two reviewers. Results We identified 51 eligible observational studies assessing 25(OH)D status pre and/or post bariatric surgery. Mean pre-surgery 25(OH)D level was below 30 ng/ml in 29 studies and 17 of these studies showed mean 25(OH)D levels ≤ 20 ng/ml. Mean 25(OH)D levels remained below 30 ng/ml following bariatric surgery despite various vitamin D replacement regimens, with only few exceptions. The increase in postoperative 25(OH)D levels tended to parallel increments in vitamin D supplementation dose but varied widely across studies. An increase in 25(OH)D level by 9–13 ng/ml was achieved when vitamin D deficiency was corrected using vitamin D replacement doses of 1,100–7,100 IU/day, in addition to the usual maintenance equivalent daily dose of 400 – 2,000 IU (total equivalent daily dose 1,500–9,150 IU). There was no difference in mean 25(OH)D level following supplementation between malabsorptive/ combination procedures and restrictive procedures. Conclusion Hypovitaminosisis D persists in obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery, despite various vitamin D supplementation regimens. Further research is needed to determine the optimal vitamin D
Froeder, Leila; Arasaki, Carlos Haruo; Malheiros, Carlos Alberto; Baxmann, Alessandra Calábria
Summary Background and objectives Bariatric surgery (BS) may be associated with increased oxalate excretion and a higher risk of nephrolithiasis. This study aimed to investigate urinary abnormalities and responses to an acute oxalate load as an indirect assessment of the intestinal absorption of oxalate in this population. Design, setting, participants, & measurements Twenty-four–hour urine specimens were collected from 61 patients a median of 48 months after BS (post-BS) as well as from 30 morbidly obese (MO) participants; dietary information was obtained through 24-hour food recalls. An oral oxalate load test (OLT), consisting of 2-hour urine samples after overnight fasting and 2, 4, and 6 hours after consuming 375 mg of oxalate (spinach juice), was performed on 21 MO and 22 post-BS patients 12 months after BS. Ten post-BS patients also underwent OLT before surgery (pre-BS). Results There was a higher percentage of low urinary volume (<1.5 L/d) in post-BS versus MO (P<0.001). Hypocitraturia and hyperoxaluria (P=0.13 and P=0.36, respectively) were more frequent in BS versus MO patients. The OLT showed intragroup (P<0.001 for all periods versus baseline) and intergroup differences (P<0.001 for post-BS versus MO; P=0.03for post-BS versus pre-BS). The total mean increment in oxaluria after 6 hours of load, expressed as area under the curve, was higher in both post-BS versus MO and in post-BS versus pre-BS participants (P<0.001 for both). Conclusions The mean oxaluric response to an oxalate load is markedly elevated in post-bariatric surgery patients, suggesting that increased intestinal absorption of dietary oxalate is a predisposing mechanism for enteric hyperoxaluria. PMID:23024163
Whittle, I R; Midgley, S; Georges, H; Pringle, A-M; Taylor, R
Awake brain tumour surgery allows intraoperative patient assessment and is done to optimise safe tumour removal. It is an established technique but little is known about patient perceptions of the procedure. Fifteen adult patients filled out a dedicated questionnaire to assess 10 aspects of patient perceptions of the procedure. All patients, who were awake for a median of 45 minutes (range 10-105), stated they were adequately prepared for the operation. Most recollected various aspects of the procedure, although 3 patients (20%) had little memory of actually being awake during the surgery despite being cooperative. A minority reported more than minor discomfort (20%), fear (15%) or anxiety (29%), and most felt they coped with the cortical stimulations and functional testing well. Sources of discomfort and pain were the cranial pin holding device, operative position, inadequate infiltration of the cranial wound with local anesthetic, a full bladder causing a desire to micturate and a hard and uncomfortable operating table. These results, are very similar to a previous American report using a different anesthetic technique, in that most patients tolerate awake craniotomy remarkably well if the procedure is explained to them and some simple precautions are taken. Additionally between 8%-37% of patients (95% Confidence Interval, summing data from the two studies, n = 35) will have no recollection of being awake. Ways of minimising discomfort and problems of anxiety in this patient cohort are discussed.
Glebova, Natalia O; Bronsert, Michael; Hammermeister, Karl E; Nehler, Mark R; Gibula, Douglas R; Malas, Mahmoud B; Black, James H; Henderson, William G
Postoperative readmissions are frequent in vascular surgery patients, but it is not clear which factors are the main drivers of readmissions. Specifically, the relative contributions of patient comorbidities vs those of operative factors and postoperative complications are unknown. We sought to study the multiple potential drivers of readmission and to create a model for predicting the risk of readmission in vascular patients. The 2012-2013 American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program data set was queried for unplanned readmissions in 86,238 vascular patients. Multivariable forward selection logistic regression analysis was used to model the relative contributions of patient comorbidities, operative factors, and postoperative complications for readmission. The unplanned readmission rate was 9.3%. The preoperative model based on patient demographics and comorbidities predicted readmission risk with a low C index of .67; the top five predictors of readmission were American Society of Anesthesiologists class, preoperative open wound, inpatient operation, dialysis dependence, and diabetes mellitus. The postoperative model using operative factors and postoperative complications predicted readmission risk better (C index, .78); postoperative complications were the most significant predictor of readmission, overpowering patient comorbidities. Importantly, postoperative complications identified before discharge from the hospital were not a strong predictor of readmission as the model using predischarge postoperative complications had a similar C index to our preoperative model (.68). However, the inclusion of complications identified after discharge from the hospital appreciably improved the predictive power of the model (C index, .78). The top five predictors of readmission in the final model based on patient comorbidities and postoperative complications were postdischarge deep space infection, superficial surgical site infection, pneumonia
Devereaux, P J; Mrkobrada, Marko; Sessler, Daniel I; Leslie, Kate; Alonso-Coello, Pablo; Kurz, Andrea; Villar, Juan Carlos; Sigamani, Alben; Biccard, Bruce M; Meyhoff, Christian S; Parlow, Joel L; Guyatt, Gordon; Robinson, Andrea; Garg, Amit X; Rodseth, Reitze N; Botto, Fernando; Lurati Buse, Giovanna; Xavier, Denis; Chan, Matthew T V; Tiboni, Maria; Cook, Deborah; Kumar, Priya A; Forget, Patrice; Malaga, German; Fleischmann, Edith; Amir, Mohammed; Eikelboom, John; Mizera, Richard; Torres, David; Wang, C Y; VanHelder, Tomas; Paniagua, Pilar; Berwanger, Otavio; Srinathan, Sadeesh; Graham, Michelle; Pasin, Laura; Le Manach, Yannick; Gao, Peggy; Pogue, Janice; Whitlock, Richard; Lamy, André; Kearon, Clive; Baigent, Colin; Chow, Clara; Pettit, Shirley; Chrolavicius, Susan; Yusuf, Salim
There is substantial variability in the perioperative administration of aspirin in patients undergoing noncardiac surgery, both among patients who are already on an aspirin regimen and among those who are not. Using a 2-by-2 factorial trial design, we randomly assigned 10,010 patients who were preparing to undergo noncardiac surgery and were at risk for vascular complications to receive aspirin or placebo and clonidine or placebo. The results of the aspirin trial are reported here. The patients were stratified according to whether they had not been taking aspirin before the study (initiation stratum, with 5628 patients) or they were already on an aspirin regimen (continuation stratum, with 4382 patients). Patients started taking aspirin (at a dose of 200 mg) or placebo just before surgery and continued it daily (at a dose of 100 mg) for 30 days in the initiation stratum and for 7 days in the continuation stratum, after which patients resumed their regular aspirin regimen. The primary outcome was a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction at 30 days. The primary outcome occurred in 351 of 4998 patients (7.0%) in the aspirin group and in 355 of 5012 patients (7.1%) in the placebo group (hazard ratio in the aspirin group, 0.99; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.86 to 1.15; P=0.92). Major bleeding was more common in the aspirin group than in the placebo group (230 patients [4.6%] vs. 188 patients [3.8%]; hazard ratio, 1.23; 95% CI, 1.01, to 1.49; P=0.04). The primary and secondary outcome results were similar in the two aspirin strata. Administration of aspirin before surgery and throughout the early postsurgical period had no significant effect on the rate of a composite of death or nonfatal myocardial infarction but increased the risk of major bleeding. (Funded by the Canadian Institutes of Health Research and others; POISE-2 ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT01082874.).
Pokharel, Krishna; Bhattarai, Balkrishna; Tripathi, Mukesh; Khatiwada, Sindhu; Subedi, Asish
To determine the changes in anxiety level and need for information at three different time points before surgery. Prospective observational study. Ward (T(1)), preoperative holding area (T(2)), and operating room (T(3)) of a university hospital. 201 adult, ASA physical status 1 and 2 patients scheduled for elective operations. Level of anxiety and need for information about surgery and/or anesthesia were assessed with the Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) three times before the start of surgery: in the ward, the preoperative holding area, and the operating room. The psychometric characteristics of the APAIS were similar to its original Dutch version. The frequency of patients with high preoperative anxiety peaked at the preoperative holding area. The median score on need for information decreased from T(1) [4; interquartile range (IR) 2-5] to T(2) (3; IR 2-4) (P < 0.005) and T(3) (3; IR 2-4) (P < 0.01). While the mean anxiety scores for anesthesia were significantly (P < 0.001) higher than for the surgical procedure at all three time points, when patients were still in the ward their need for information about their surgical procedure was significantly (P < 0.05) greater than it was for the anesthesia. Patients who were more desirous of information also were more anxious (P < 0.001). Predictors of high anxiety were female gender [odds ratio (OR) 4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.09-14.94] and need for general anesthesia (OR 7.1; 95% CI 0.93-54.98). The characteristics, general anesthesia (OR 3.3; 95% CI 1.1-10.0), younger age (≤ 30 yrs; OR 2.9; 95% CI 1.3-6.4), education (>12 yrs; OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.4), and no previous surgery (OR 2.6; 95% CI 1.2-5.5), correlated with greater need for information. The frequency of anxious patients is variable at different time points before surgery. The factors correlating with anxiety before surgery are nonmodifiable. Providing information to those individuals is the only modifiable option. Copyright
The pressure on perioperative services to improve quality for health care consumers creates both challenges and opportunities. To make positive changes, many health care organizations contract with Press Ganey (PG), which processes an extensive database of more than 9.5 million surveys annually and provides benchmark reports to same-type organizations. To measure and improve ambulatory surgery patient satisfaction at one health care network in northeastern Pennsylvania, the nursing leaders in the ambulatory surgery center and OR undertook a quality improvement project focused on educating perioperative nurses on the use of PG reports. After we reviewed the PG reports and implemented changes with nursing staff members in perioperative areas, PG patient satisfaction scores improved regarding information about delays (4.1%) and center attractiveness (0.2%).
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective method of sustainable weight loss among morbidly obese patients. The types of bariatric surgeries can be divided into three categories: restrictive procedures, malabsorptive procedures, and combination (restrictive and malabsorption) procedures. In general, patients undergoing restrictive procedures have the least risk for long-term diet-related complications, whereas patients undergoing malabsorptive procedures have the highest risk. For many patients, the benefits of weight loss, such as decreased blood glucose, lipids, and blood pressure and increased mobility, will outweigh the risks of surgical complications. Most diet-related surgical complications can be prevented by adhering to strict eating behavior guidelines and supplement prescriptions. Eating behavior guidelines include restricting portion sizes, chewing foods slowly and completely, eating and drinking separately, and avoiding foods that are poorly tolerated. Supplement prescriptions vary among practitioners and usually involve at least a multivitamin with minerals. Some practitioners may add other supplements only as needed for diagnosed deficiencies; others may prescribe additional prophylactic supplements. The most common nutrient deficiencies are of iron, folate, and vitamin B12. However, deficiencies of fat-soluble vitamins have been reported in patients with malabsorption procedures, and thiamin deficiency has been reported among patients with very poor intake and/or nausea and vomiting. Frequent monitoring of nutrition status for all patients can aid in preventing severe clinical deficiencies.
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
This study assessed sexual abuse/attack histories in 537 bariatric surgery patients using the PsyBari. The prevalence rates found were lower (15.5%, 19.3% of women, 5.2% of men) than other studies that used bariatric surgery patients but consistent with studies that used nonbariatric obese subjects. Furthermore, bariatric surgery patients who…
VIDAL, Eduardo Arevalo; RENDON, Francisco Abarca; ZAMBRANO, Trino Andrade; GARCÍA, Yudoco Andrade; VITERI, Mario Ferrin; CAMPOS, Josemberg Marins; RAMOS, Manoela Galvão; RAMOS, Almino Cardoso
ABSTRACT Background: Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. Aim: To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Methods: Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Results: Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Conclusion: Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. PMID:27683770
Darwich, Adam S; Henderson, Kathryn; Burgin, Angela; Ward, Nicola; Whittam, Janet; Ammori, Basil J; Ashcroft, Darren M; Rostami-Hodjegan, Amin
AIMS To identify the most commonly prescribed drugs in a bariatric surgery population and to assess existing evidence regarding trends in oral drug bioavailability post bariatric surgery. METHODS A retrospective audit was undertaken to document commonly prescribed drugs amongst patients undergoing bariatric surgery in an NHS hospital in the UK and to assess practice for drug administration following bariatric surgery. The available literature was examined for trends relating to drug permeability and solubility with regards to the Biopharmaceutics Classification System (BCS) and main route of elimination. RESULTS No significant difference in the ‘post/pre surgery oral drug exposure ratio’ (ppR) was apparent between BCS class I to IV drugs, with regards to dose number (Do) or main route of elimination. Drugs classified as ‘solubility limited’ displayed an overall reduction as compared with ‘freely soluble’ compounds, as well as an unaltered and increased ppR. CONCLUSION Clinical studies establishing guidelines for commonly prescribed drugs, and the monitoring of drugs exhibiting a narrow therapeutic window or without a readily assessed clinical endpoint, are warranted. Using mechanistically based pharmacokinetic modelling for simulating the multivariate nature of changes in drug exposure may serve as a useful tool in the further understanding of postoperative trends in oral drug exposure and in developing practical clinical guidance. PMID:22463107
Cudennec, Tristan; Goëau-Brissonnière, Olivier; Coscas, Raphaël; Capdevila, Clément; Moulias, Sophi; Coggia, Marc; Teillet, Laurent
The elderly represent a large percentage of patients seen in departments of vascular surgery. Delirium is a frequent perioperative complication in this population and contributes to increased morbidity and mortality. Prevention of problems associated with mental confusion rests in identifying comorbidities, their severity, and the risk factors associated with delirium syndrome. The aging of our population implies management of increasing numbers of older patients who often have concomitant pathologies and, consequently, polypharmacy. Optimization of their management rests on collaboration between surgeons, anesthetists, and geriatrists.
Daniels, Alan H; Kuris, Eren O; Kleinhenz, Dominic T; Palumbo, Mark A
Occupational spine injuries place a substantial burden on employees, employers, and the workers' compensation system. Both temporary and permanent spinal conditions contribute substantially to disability and lost wages. Numerous investigations have revealed that workers' compensation status is a negative risk factor for outcomes after spine injuries and spine surgery. However, positive patient outcomes and return to work are possible in spine-related workers' compensation cases with proper patient selection, appropriate surgical indications, and realistic postoperative expectations. Quality improvement measures aimed at optimizing outcomes and minimizing permanent disability are crucial to mitigating the burden of disability claims.
Aziz, Faisal; Patel, Mayank; Ortenzi, Gail; Reed, Amy B
Unlike general surgery patients, most of vascular and cardiac surgery patients receive therapeutic anticoagulation during operations. The purpose of this study was to report the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) among cardiac and vascular surgery patients, compared with general surgery. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database was queried for all patients who underwent surgical procedures from 2005 to 2010. Patients who developed DVT within 30 days of an operation were identified. The incidence of DVT was compared among vascular, general, and cardiac surgery patients. Risk factors for developing postoperative DVT were identified and compared among these patients. Of total 2,669,772 patients underwent surgical operations in the period between 2005 and 2010. Of all the patients, 18,670 patients (0.69%) developed DVT. The incidence of DVT among different surgical specialties was cardiac surgery (2%), vascular surgery (0.99%), and general surgery (0.66%). The odds ratio for developing DVT was 1.5 for vascular surgery patients and 3 for cardiac surgery patients, when compared with general surgery patients (P < 0.001). The odds ratio for developing DVT after cardiac surgery was 2, when compared with vascular surgery (P < 0.001). The incidence of DVT is higher among vascular and cardiac surgery patients as compared with that of general surgery patients. Intraoperative anticoagulation does not prevent the occurrence of DVT in the postoperative period. These patients should receive DVT prophylaxis in the perioperative period, similar to other surgical patients according to evidence-based guidelines. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Prieto Reyes, M A; Márquez Báez, M A; Reyes Cerezo, M; Redel del Pueyo, J; Solórzano Peck, G; Vázquez Márquez, L; Gordón del Río, A; Arévalo Jiménez, E
Retrospective study of a group of 77 patients subjected to gastrointestinal surgery, who received total parenteral nutrition (TPN) during the postoperative period, During the evolution of the nutrition, 76 cases with technical complications arose, one case of sepsis, 10 cases of metabolic complications and one patient with haematological complications (acute medular failure). Although a higher percentage of metabolic and haematological alterations not requiring medical or surgical treatment for correction was observed, these were indicative of the tendencies of the metabolic and haematological states of the patients. An analysis was also made of the variance, observing a direct relationship between the components of TPN and the variations of the metabolic and haematological values studied, However, these values did not correlate with the number of days during which the patients was on nutrition, and thus the technique and guidelines for administration are the most important factors which determine the presence or absence of complications during TPN.
Nawrocki, J; Chrzanowski, W; Koch, D; Dziegielewski, K
The present paper reports our first results after pars plana vitrectomy in patients with diabetic retinopathy and hemodialysis with a follow-up of 6 to 24 months. Between January 1992 and October 1994 we performed vitreoretinal surgery with silicone oil tamponade in nine eyes of seven patients with diabetic nephropathy on hemodialysis. All patients had had type I diabetes for 19-32 years. Over the observation period the retina was completely attached in eight eyes. Final visual acuity of 0.1-0.7 was attained in four eyes, 0.06 two, hand movements in one eye. Two eyes had no useful final visual acuity because of redetachment of the retina or secondary glaucoma with rubeosis iridis. The small number of complications shows that pars plana vitrectomy can be done in diabetic patients with nephropathy on hemodialysis. This significantly improves their quality of life.
Al Sabah, Salman; Al Haddad, Eliana
A BMI of over 35-45kg/m2 is deemed the upper limit for considering a patient for a renal transplant. Voluntary weight loss attempts are a major concern for patients while on hemodialysis, however, bariatric surgeries have opened up a new door to notable weight loss results, even demonstrating significant improvements of patients' diabetic profile and hypertension. Case of a 52-year-old male with a BMI of 42 in end-stage renal disease, that needed a kidney transplant but was ineligible to be placed on the waiting list due to his weight. A laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) was performed to aid with his weight loss. He also showed major improvements in his hypertension and diabetes profiles. The patient started gaining weight as well as showing deterioration in his diabetic control. He underwent the renal transplant 1.5 years post LSG, after which he showed improvements in his blood results, diabetic and hypertensive control. However, his weight began to increase again, for which he underwent gastric bypass. Since then, the patients' glucose, BUN and creatinine have normalized and his weight continued to drop, reaching a BMI of 31.83kg/m2 2 years post bypass. Bariatric surgery is a safe and effective procedure to assist renal transplant patients in losing weight. In addition, it has proven to be effective in the management of the co-morbidities that are associated with renal failure. Our study was also able to prove that converting form an SG to a bypass in a transplant patient is a safe and feasible option. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Francon, D; Chambrier, C; Sztark, F
The identification of nutritional status is one of the objectives of the anaesthesia consultation often difficult to achieve routinely. It usually requires the use of multiple indicators, which are complex for a non-nutrition specialist. In preoperative period, nutritional assessment should be easy to do in order to identify patients who are malnourished or at risk of malnutrition and relevant information about nutritional risk should be registered in the patient chart. To facilitate this evaluation, we propose a stratification of nutritional risk in four grades (NG) using three types of simple and validated parameters: preoperative nutritional status (BMI, weight loss, eventually serum albumin), comorbidities and kind of surgery. This stratification can develop a tailored nutritional care for each patient.
Littlewood, Keith E
The perioperative management of immunosuppressed patients remains relatively unsophisticated. Rational management involves understanding the normal immune response to injury as modified by the preexisting or imposed abnormalities that immunosuppressed patients manifest on the basis of their disease and/or treatment. Patients with cancer, infected with human immunodeficiency virus, and having had an organ transplant are extreme examples of disordered immunity and it is important to understand the effects of their diseases and treatments. In the future, however, more appropriate management will require anticipation and appreciation of frequent preoperative immunotherapy, a more complete understanding of the immunological response to anesthesia and surgery, the ability to assess immune reserve and stratify risk within the context of that profile, and a better knowledge of the immunological effect of anesthetic agents.
Smith, H B; Jyothi, S B; Mahroo, O A R; Shams, P N; Sira, M; Dey, S; Adewoyin, T; Cheung, V T F; Jones, C A
Purpose It is vital that surgeons undertaking oculoplastic procedures are able to show that the surgery they perform is of benefit to their patients. Not only is this fundamental to patient-centred medicine but it is also important in demonstrating cost effectiveness. There are several ways in which benefit can be measured, including clinical scales, functional ability scales, and global quality-of-life scales. The Glasgow benefit inventory (GBI) is an example of a patient-reported, questionnaire-based, post-interventional quality-of-life scale that can be used to compare a range of different treatments for a variety of conditions. Methods A cross-sectional study was undertaken using the GBI to score patient benefit from four commonly performed oculoplastic procedures. It was completed for 66 entropion repairs, 50 ptosis repairs, 41 ectropion repairs, and 41 external dacryocystorhinostomies (DCR). The GBI generates a scale from −100 (maximal detriment) through zero (no change) to +100 (maximal benefit). Results The total GBI scores of patients undergoing surgery for entropion, ptosis, ectropion, and external DCR were: +25.25 (95% CI 20.00–30.50, P<0.001), +24.89 (95% CI 20.04–29.73, P<0.001), +17.68 (95% CI 9.46–25.91, P<0.001), and +32.25 (95% CI 21.47–43.03, P<0.001), respectively, demonstrating a statistically significant benefit from all procedures. Conclusion Patients derived significant quality-of-life benefits from the four most commonly performed oculoplastic procedures. PMID:22975655
González, David; Cueto, Elías; Chinesta, Francisco
In this paper a new method is described for the generation of computational patient avatars for surgery planning. By "patient avatar" a computational, patient-specific, model of the patient is meant, that should be able to provide the surgeon with an adequate response under real-time restrictions, possibly including haptic response. The method is based on the use of computational vademecums (F. Chinesta et al., PGD-based computational vademecum for efficient design, optimization and control. Arch. Comput. Methods Eng. 20(1):31-59, 2013), that are properly interpolated so as to generate a patient-specific model. It is highlighted how the interpolation of shapes needs for a specialized technique, since a direct interpolation of biological shapes would produce, in general, non-physiological shapes. To this end a manifold learning technique is employed, that allows for a proper interpolation that provides very accurate results in describing patient-specific organ geometries. These interpolated vademecums thus give rise to very accurate patient avatars able to run at kHz feedback rates, enabling not only visual, but also haptic response to the surgeon.
Dowling, Nicki A; Jackson, Alun C; Honigman, Roberta J; Francis, Kate L
The early cosmetic surgery literature suggested that individuals re-presenting for aesthetic surgical procedures (referred to as "insatiable patients") display poorer psychological functioning and satisfaction with surgical outcomes than those who request one procedure. The aim of the study was to compare 284 patients with and without a history of cosmetic procedures on demographic characteristics, appearance concerns, expectations of surgery, psychosocial dysfunction, and postoperative dissatisfaction. There were few differences between the groups, suggesting that the group of patients with a history of aesthetic surgeries did not represent the population that has been described as "surgery insatiable." Post hoc analyses of subgroups of patients with a history of surgeries also revealed few differences except for lower self-esteem and postoperative satisfaction. Further research is required to fully explore the applicability of the "insatiable patient" label in the context of increasing societal acceptance of cosmetic surgery.
Lemanu, Daniel P; Srinivasa, Sanket; Singh, Primal P; Johannsen, Sharon; MacCormick, Andrew D; Hill, Andrew G
Enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) programs have been shown to minimise morbidity in other types of surgery, but comparatively less data exist investigating ERAS in bariatric surgery. This article reviews the existing literature to identify interventions which may be included in an ERAS program for bariatric surgery. A narrative literature review was conducted. Search terms included 'bariatric surgery', 'weight loss surgery', 'gastric bypass', 'ERAS', 'enhanced recovery', 'enhanced recovery after surgery', 'fast-track surgery', 'perioperative care', 'postoperative care', 'intraoperative care' and 'preoperative care'. Interventions recovered by the database search, as well as interventions garnered from clinical experience in ERAS, were used as individual search terms. A large volume of evidence exists detailing the role of multiple interventions in perioperative care. However, efficacy and safety for a proportion of these interventions for ERAS in bariatric surgery remain unclear. This review concludes that there is potential to implement ERAS programs in bariatric surgery.
Lin, Yan; Sun, Qiang; Guan, Heng; Zhou, Wei-xun; Xu, Ying; Wang, Bin
To evaluate the feasibility of optimal surgery for breast cancer in elderly patients. The clinical data of 481 patients aged 70 years and above who were treated in our hospital from 1995 to 2009 were retrospectively analyzed. Based on their general conditions and clinical stages, 481 patients were divided into three groups to received different surgical procedures including modified radical mastectomy (MRM group, n=256), tumor extended resection (ER group, n=173), and simple mastectomy (SM group, n=52). The overall 5-and 10-year survival rates were 63.77%and 46.71%, respectively, and the 5-year (p=0.956) and 10-year (p=0.977) survival rates were not significantly among these three groups. However, patients in the ER group had significantly shorter hospital stay, smaller surgical wound, earlier recovery and less complications. It is feasible for female breast cancer patients over 70 years old choose the optimal surgical procedures according to their general conditions and clinical stages.
Carr, Tracey; Teucher, Ulrich; Mann, Jackie; Casson, Alan G
The aim of this study was to perform a systematic review of the impact of waiting for elective surgery from the patient perspective, with a focus on maximum tolerance, quality of life, and the nature of the waiting experience. Searches were conducted using Medline, PubMed, CINAHL, EMBASE, and HealthSTAR. Twenty-seven original research articles were identified which included each of these three themes. The current literature suggested that first, patients tend to state longer wait times as unacceptable when they experienced severe symptoms or functional impairment. Second, the relationship between length of wait and health-related quality of life depended on the nature and severity of proposed surgical intervention at the time of booking. Third, the waiting experience was consistently described as stressful and anxiety provoking. While many patients expressed anger and frustration at communication within the system, the experience of waiting was not uniformly negative. Some patients experienced waiting as an opportunity to live full lives despite pain and disability. The relatively unexamined relationship between waiting, illness and patient experience of time represents an area for future research. PMID:22110325
Burgio, Kathryn L.; Brubaker, Linda; Richter, Holly E.; Wai, Clifford Y.; Litman, Heather J.; France, Diane Borello; Menefee, Shawn A.; Sirls, Larry T.; Kraus, Stephen R; Johnson, Harry W.; Tennstedt, Sharon L.
Aims To identify predictors and correlates of patient satisfaction 24 months after Burch colpopexy or autologous fascial sling for treatment of stress urinary incontinence (SUI). Methods Participants were the 655 randomized subjects in the Stress Incontinence Surgical Treatment Efficacy Trial (SISTEr). Variables potentially associated with satisfaction were tested in bivariate analysis, including demographics, baseline clinical characteristics of incontinence, and outcomes on validated subjective and objective measures. Satisfaction with treatment was defined as a response of “completely satisfied” or “mostly satisfied” on the Patient Satisfaction Questionnaire (PSQ) at 24 months. Variables significantly related to satisfaction were entered into multivariable regression models to test their independent association with satisfaction. Results At 24 months post-surgery, 480 (73%) participants completed the PSQ. Mean (±SD) age of the sample was 52 (±10) years and 77% were white. Most (82%) were completely or mostly satisfied with their surgery related to urine leakage. In the final multivariable model, patient satisfaction was associated with greater reduction in SUI symptoms (from baseline to 24 months; OR=1.17, 95% CI:1.10, 1.24) and greater reductions in symptom distress (OR=1.16; CI:1.08, 1.24). Lower odds of satisfaction were associated with greater urge incontinence symptoms at baseline (OR=0.09, CI:0.04, 0.22), detrusor overactivity at 24 months (OR=0.29, CI:0.12, 0.69), and a positive stress test at 24 months (OR=0.45, CI:0.22, 0.91). Conclusions Stress incontinent women who also have urge incontinence symptoms may benefit from additional preoperative counseling to set realistic expectations about potential surgical outcomes or proactive treatment of urge incontinence symptoms to minimize their post-operative impact. PMID:20976815
Cobb, A B; Sanchez, N; Miller, D
Mississippi Foundation for Medical Care (MFMC) conducted a review of gallbladder surgery performed on Mississippi Medicare Patients using hospital claims files and limited record review for verification of claims file data. Significant error rates in the surgeon identification number were found in the claims files. It should also be noted that the current ICD-9-CM coding system does not allow for identification of laparoscopic cholecystectomies converted to open procedures. Past studies have attempted to use claims data alone for these types of analyses. These findings demonstrate the importance of using caution by those attempting to use claims data (without verification) to define patterns of hospital utilization, clinical outcomes and/or physician profiling. Claims data must be tested for validity for reliable pattern analysis. In addition, considerable variation was found among providers in elements such as conversion rates, complication and readmission rates. A few surgeons showed patterns for critical variables that were quite different from the universe. There was however, no statistically significant differences associated between volume of cases performed and outcomes. Time frame comparisons over several years show significant (> 80%) increase in gallbladder surgery since the introduction of the laparoscopic procedure.
Swift, Teresa L
This study reports on qualitative research conducted in the UK with people with Parkinson's Disease and their relatives on the subject of "sham surgery." It explores attitudes toward sham surgery and reasoning about hypothetical participation in a sham-controlled trial. Results showed that attitudes toward sham surgery may not necessarily predict trial participation behavior. A small majority of interviewees deemed sham surgery ethically acceptable with certain provisos, but hypothetical participation was driven primarily by disease severity and a lack of standard treatment options, with a preference for receiving the real surgery over sham. Ethical implications for patient equipoise and the autonomy of patients' research participation decisions are discussed.
Lam, Kent; Ho, Tang; Yao, William C
Forehead recontouring is a common part of facial feminization surgery. The procedure, which alters the shape and structure of the frontal bone, is regarded as safe and well tolerated by patients. The occurrence of delayed complications, however, is much less understood. The authors describe a patient involving the development of a sinocutaneous fistula as a delayed complication of forehead recontouring surgery. The clinical presentation and management of this patient are discussed. As facial feminization surgery expands as a cosmetic option for patients who desire more feminine facial features, practitioners should recognize the potential risk of sinonasal complications associated with forehead recontouring surgery.
King-Shier, Kathryn M; LeBlanc, Pamela; Mather, Charles; Sandham, Sarah; Seneviratne, Cydnee; Maitland, Andrew
Obese patients are less likely to have cardiac surgery than normal weight patients. This could be due to physician or patient decision-making. We undertook a qualitative descriptive study to explore the influence of obesity on patients' decision-making to have cardiac surgery. Forty-seven people referred for coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery were theoretically sampled. Twelve people had declined cardiac surgery. Participants underwent in-depth interviews aimed at exploring their decision-making process. Data were analyzed using conventional content analysis. Though patients' weight did not play a role in their decision, their relationship with their cardiologist/surgeon, the rapidity and orchestration of the diagnosis and treatment, appraisal of risks and benefits, previous experience with other illness or others who had cardiac surgery, and openness to other alternatives had an impact. It is possible that there is a lack of comfort or acknowledgment by all parties in discussing the influence of weight on CABG surgery risks.
Vico, Pierre G; De Vooght, Axel; Nokerman, Béatrice
Obesity is a serious global health-care concern, with rates in Europe and North America estimated at about 20-30% of the adult population. Bariatric surgery forms the basis of modified surgical approaches to body-contouring procedures, especially those involving circumferential abdominoplasty. This procedure produces tremendous aesthetic results with very high patient satisfaction. We applied this technique, as an alternative to classic abdominoplasty, on moderately to severely obese patients and on patients with no excess-weight problem but some degree of skin laxity and with no history of bariatric surgery. The first author performed 80 consecutive circumferential abdominoplasties during a 4-year period. The patients consisted of two groups: post-bariatric patients (n=23) and those with no history of bariatric surgery (n=57). Factors such as age, gender, duration of the procedure and hospitalisation, among other relevant ones, are studied and the data are compared between the two groups, with a third group of patients who underwent, during the same period, a classical abdominoplasty (n=38), and with data from the literature. Circumferential abdominoplasty produces excellent aesthetical results with a high degree of satisfaction for patients with no bariatric history. The patients in this group are younger, their preoperative weight loss is lower, operative time shorter and per-operative blood loss lower. There is no statistical difference between the groups in terms either of the body mass index (BMI) at the time of circumferential abdominoplasty or of the resected tissue weight. Morbidity and rate of complications between these groups are not significant statistically, as with the case of data available in the literature. Compared with patients undergoing a classical abdominoplasty, we observe more complications related to delay in wound healing, less haematoma and less combined procedures in cases of circumferential abdominoplasty. Circumferential
Joo, Moon Kyung
As lifestyle and diet patterns have become westernized in East Asia, the prevalence of obesity has rapidly increased. Bariatric surgeries, such as Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB), sleeve gastrectomy (SG), and laparoscopic adjustable gastric banding (LAGB), are considered the first-line treatment option in patients with severe obesity. However, postoperative complications have increased and the proper management of these complications, including the use of endoscopic procedures, has become important. The most serious complications, such as leaks and fistulas, can be treated with endoscopic stent placement and injection of fibrin glue, and a novel full-thickness closure over-the-scope clip (OTSC) has been used for treatment of postoperative leaks. Stricture at the gastrojejunal (GJ) anastomosis site after RYGB or incisura angularis in SG can be managed using stents or endoscopic balloon dilation. Dilation of the GJ anastomosis or gastric pouch may lead to failure of weight loss, and the use of endoscopic sclerotherapy, novel endoscopic suturing devices, and OTSCs have been attempted. Intragastric migration of the gastric band can be successfully treated using various endoscopic tools. Endoscopy plays a pivotal role in the management of post-bariatric complications, and close cooperation between endoscopists and bariatric surgeons may further increase the success rate of endoscopic procedures. PMID:28008162
Song, Angela Y; Rubin, J Peter; Thomas, Veena; Dudas, Jason R; Marra, Kacey G; Fernstrom, Madelyn H
Because post-bariatric surgery patients undergo massive weight loss, the resulting skin excess can lead to both functional problems and profound dissatisfaction with appearance. Correcting skin excess could improve all these corollaries, including body image. Presently, few data are available documenting body image and weight-related quality of life in this population. Eighteen patients who underwent both bariatric surgery and body contouring completed our study. Both established surveys and new surveys designed specifically for the study were used to assess body perception and ideals, quality of life, and mood. Patients were surveyed at the following time-points: pre-body contouring (after massive weight loss) and both 3 and 6 month post-body contouring. Statistical testing was performed using Student's t test and ANOVA. The mean age of the patients was 46 +/- 10 years (standard deviation). Quality of life improved after obesity surgery and was significantly enhanced after body contouring. Three months after body contouring, subjects ascribed thinner silhouettes to both current appearance and ideal body image. Body image also improved with body contouring surgery. Mood remained stable over 6 months. Body contouring after surgical weight loss improved both quality-of-life measurements and body image. Initial body dissatisfaction did not correlate with mood. Body contouring improved body image but produced dissatisfaction with other parts of the body, suggesting that as patients become closer to their ideal, these ideals may shift. We further developed several new assessment methods that may prove useful in understanding these post-surgical weight loss patients.
Sofela, Agbolahan A; Laban, James T; Selway, Richard P
To evaluate patient and staff satisfaction with day of admission surgery in a neurosurgical unit and its effect on theatre start times. Patients were admitted to a Neurosciences admission lounge (NAL) for neurosurgery on the morning of their operation if deemed appropriate by their neurosurgical consultant. All patients in the NAL were asked to complete patient satisfaction questionnaires. Staff members involved in the care of these patients also completed a satisfaction questionnaire. Theatre start times were compared with those whose patients had been admitted prior to the day of surgery. 378 patients admitted on the day of surgery, 16 doctors (5 anaesthetists, 7 neurosurgeons and 4 neuro high dependency unit, HDU doctors) and 5 nurses. Patients completed an anonymised emotional mapping patient satisfaction questionnaire, and short interviews were carried out with staff members. Theatre start times were obtained retrospectively from the theatre database for lists starting with patients admitted on the day of surgery, and lists starting with patients admitted prior to the day of surgery. 83% of patients felt positive on arrival in the NAL and 88% felt positive on being seen by the doctors and nurses prior to surgery. Overall 79% of patients gave positive responses throughout their patient pathway. 90% of staff were positive about day of admission surgery and all staff members were satisfied that there were no negative effects on surgical outcome. Theatre start time was on average 27 minutes earlier in patients admitted on the day of surgery. Neurosurgical patients, appropriately selected, can be admitted on the day of surgery with high staff and patient satisfaction and without delaying theatre start times.
de Vilhena, Ditza; Gambôa, Inês; Duarte, Delfim; Lopes, Gustavo
Introduction and Objectives. Vertigo is a described complication of stapedial surgery. Many studies have been conducted to assess the improvement of hearing loss, but there are few studies that assess vestibular function after stapedial surgery. The aim of this study was to evaluate the presence and characterize the vertigo after stapedial surgery. Methods. We conducted a prospective observational study. Patients undergoing stapedial surgery in our hospital between October 2013 and December 2014 were invited to participate. The vertigo was assessed before and 4 months after surgery, using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. Results. We included 140 patients in the study. 12 patients (8.6%) reported vertigo before surgery, and all of them denied vertigo after surgery. 36 patients (25.7%) reported vertigo four months after surgery, and none of them had vertigo before surgery. Postoperative total scores in patients with vertigo ranged between 2 and 18 points. Conclusion. The study shows that vestibular disorders may remain after the immediate postoperative period and reinforces the need for clarification of the patient in the informed consent act. PMID:26904127
Briner, H R; Simmen, D; Jones, N
The aim of the study was to determine the incidence of olfactory disorders before and following nasal and paranasal sinus surgery. It was a prospective observational study. Over a 6-month period, all patients who had been listed for nasal and paranasal sinus surgery underwent preoperative and postoperative evaluation of their sense of smell. A questionnaire and the 'Smell Diskettes Test' were used to assess olfaction. One hundred and eighty-four patients were studied. Preoperatively, 19 patients (10.3%) had an impaired sense of smell (8.1% before septoplasty, 6.1% before rhinoplasty and 17.1% before endoscopic sinus surgery). Only 16 (84%) of these patients were aware of their impaired sense of smell. Following surgery, four patients (2.5%) who were normal preoperatively developed impaired olfaction on questioning, and this was supported by testing it. In the subgroup that had a septoplasty, no patient developed hyposmia compared to one patient (2.6%) after rhinoplasty and one patient (3%) after endoscopic sinus surgery. No patient developed anosmia. Preoperatively, 10.3% of patients had an altered sense of smell, making it desirable that this is documented in order to avoid postoperative claims that this was caused by surgery. It also helps to audit the results of surgery.
Sellevold, Olav F Münter; Stenseth, Roar
Patients with cardiac disease have a higher incidence of cardiovascular events after non-cardiac surgery than those without such disease. This paper provides an overview of perioperative examinations and treatment. Own experience and systematic literature search through work with European guidelines constitute the basis for recommendations given in this article. Beta-blockers should not be discontinued before surgery. High-risk patients may benefit from beta-blockers administered before major non-cardiac surgery. Slow dose titration is recommended. Echocardiography should be performed before preoperative beta-blockade to exclude latent heart failure. Statins should be considered before elective surgery and coronary intervention (stenting or surgery) before high-risk surgery. Otherwise, interventions should be evaluated irrespective of planned non-cardiac surgery. Patients with unstable coronary syndrome should only undergo non-cardiac surgery on vital indications. Neuraxial techniques are optimal for postoperative pain relief and thus for postoperative mobilization. Thromboprophylaxis is important, but increases the risk of epidural haematoma and requires systematic follow-up with respect to diagnostics and treatment. Little evidence supports the use of different anaesthetic methods in cardiac patients that undergo non-cardiac surgery than in other patients. Stable circulation, sufficient oxygenation, good pain relief, thromboprophylaxis, enteral nutrition and early mobilization are important factors for improving the perioperative course. Close cooperation between anaesthesiologist, surgeon and cardiologist improves logistics and treatment.
Kitzinger, Hugo B; Abayev, Sara; Pittermann, Anna; Karle, Birgit; Bohdjalian, Arthur; Langer, Felix B; Prager, Gerhard; Frey, Manfred
Massive weight loss following bariatric surgery leads to excess skin with functional and aesthetic impairments. Surplus skin can then contribute to problems with additional weight loss or gain. The aims of the current study were to evaluate the frequency of massive soft tissue development in gastric bypass patients, to determine whether males and females experience similar post-bypass body changes, and to learn about the expectations and impairments related to body contouring surgery. A questionnaire addressing information on the satisfaction of body image, quality of life, and expectation of body contouring surgery following massive weight loss was mailed to 425 patients who had undergone gastric bypass surgery between 2003 and 2009. Of these 425 individuals, 252 (59%) patients completed the survey. Ninety percent of women and 88% of men surveyed rated their appearance following massive weight loss as satisfactory, good, or very good. However, 96% of all patients developed surplus skin, which caused intertriginous dermatitis and itching. In addition, patients reported problems with physical activity (playing sports) and finding clothing that fit appropriately. Moreover, 75% of female and 68% of male patients reported desiring body contouring surgery. The most important expectation of body contouring surgery was improved appearance, followed by improved self-confidence and quality of life. Surplus skin resulting from gastric bypass surgery is a common issue that causes functional and aesthetic impairments in patients. Consequently, this increases the desire for body contouring surgery with high expectations for the aesthetic outcome as well as improved life satisfaction.
Brejcha, M; Gumulec, J; Penka, M; Klodová, D; Wróbel, M; Bogoczová, E
The management of warfarin therapy in patients undergoing surgery or other invasive procedures involves a balance between the risk of hemorrhage, and the risk of thrombosis. Risk of hemorrhage and the trombosis depends on the type of procedure and on pre-existing conditions. Procedures with low risk of hemorrhage (dental, dermatologic or ophtalmologic procedures, endoscopy) can be provided with continuing anticoagulant therapy. Surgery with high hemorrhagic risk need stop warfarin and start bridging anticoagulant therapy, such as unfractionated heparin or low molecular weight heparin, prior and after surgery. In patients requiring emergency surgery, vitamin K, prothrombin complex concentrate or fresh frozen plasma can be used to improve coagulation.
Koorevaar, Rinco C T; Haanstra, Tsjitske; Van't Riet, Esther; Lambers Heerspink, Okke F O; Bulstra, Sjoerd K
Patient satisfaction after a surgical procedure is dependent on meeting preoperative expectations. There is currently no patient expectations survey available for patients undergoing shoulder surgery that is validated, reliable, and easy to use in daily practice. The aim of this study was to develop a Patient Expectations of Shoulder Surgery (PESS) survey. In 315 patients, answers to an open-ended question about patient expectations were collected before shoulder surgery to develop the PESS survey. Patients' expectations of the PESS survey were associated with clinical outcome (change of Disabilities of the Arm, Shoulder, and Hand score). Content validity was assessed by a panel of 10 patients scheduled for shoulder surgery, and test-retest reliability was evaluated. Six items were included in the PESS survey: pain relief, improved range of motion, improved ability to perform daily activities, improved ability to perform work, improved ability to participate in recreational activities and sports, and stop shoulder from dislocating. Three of the 6 expectations were significantly associated with clinical outcome after shoulder surgery. Test-retest reliability was high with an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.52-0.92. The PESS survey is a valid and reliable survey that can be used in future clinical research and in daily orthopedic practice. We believe that the preoperative evaluation of patient expectations should be a standard procedure before shoulder surgery. Copyright © 2017 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Briguori, Carlo; Visconti, Gabriella; De Micco, Francesca; Focaccio, Amelia
Background. Treatment of patients who need coronary revascularization before undelayable non-cardiac surgery is challenging. Methods. We assessed the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) using the Avantgarde( TM) Carbostent (CID, Italy) in patients undergoing PCI before undelayable non-cardiac surgery. The Multiplate analyzer point-of-care was used to assess residual platelet reactivity. One major cardiac events (MACE, defined as death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis and major bleeding) were assessed. Results. 42 consecutive patients were analyzed. Total stent length ≥25 mm was observed in 16 (37%) patients. Multivessel stenting was performed in 11 (31.5%) patients. Clopidogrel was interrupted 5 days before surgery in 35 patients, whereas it was stopped the day of the surgery in 7 patients. Surgery was performed after 27 ± 9 (7-42) days from PCI. MACE occurred in one patient (2.4%; 95% confidence interval: 0.01-13%), who had fatal acute myocardial infarction 3 days after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery and 12 days after stent implantation. No case of major bleeding in the postoperative phase was observed. Conclusions. The present pilot study suggests that, although at least 10-14 days of dual antiplatelet therapy remain mandatory, the Avantgarde( TM) stent seems to have a role in patients requiring undelayable surgery.
Briguori, Carlo; Visconti, Gabriella; De Micco, Francesca; Focaccio, Amelia
Background. Treatment of patients who need coronary revascularization before undelayable non-cardiac surgery is challenging. Methods. We assessed the safety and efficacy of percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) using the Avantgarde TM Carbostent (CID, Italy) in patients undergoing PCI before undelayable non-cardiac surgery. The Multiplate analyzer point-of-care was used to assess residual platelet reactivity. One major cardiac events (MACE, defined as death, myocardial infarction, and stent thrombosis and major bleeding) were assessed. Results. 42 consecutive patients were analyzed. Total stent length ≥25 mm was observed in 16 (37%) patients. Multivessel stenting was performed in 11 (31.5%) patients. Clopidogrel was interrupted 5 days before surgery in 35 patients, whereas it was stopped the day of the surgery in 7 patients. Surgery was performed after 27 ± 9 (7–42) days from PCI. MACE occurred in one patient (2.4%; 95% confidence interval: 0.01–13%), who had fatal acute myocardial infarction 3 days after abdominal aortic aneurysm surgery and 12 days after stent implantation. No case of major bleeding in the postoperative phase was observed. Conclusions. The present pilot study suggests that, although at least 10–14 days of dual antiplatelet therapy remain mandatory, the Avantgarde TM stent seems to have a role in patients requiring undelayable surgery. PMID:22448320
Connor, A M; Moshiri, F
Upon analyzing the literature, it becomes apparent that the hard- and soft-tissue norms of blacks differ from those of whites. However, these established black norms are not complete when evaluating potential surgical cases. Therefore, the intent of this study was to establish black norms that will be valuable aids for diagnosis in such cases. Lateral cephalometric radiographs were taken of 50 white adults (25 male, 25 female) and 50 black North American adults (25 male, 25 female). All subjects met the following criteria: 18 to 50 years of age; a normal Class I skeletal and dental relationship without any severe anteroposterior, vertical, or transverse discrepancies; and a balanced profile. The tracings involved 24 measurements that were analyzed with a digitizer. Sexual differentiation was included within each measurement. Significant differences between white and black subjects were found in the following areas: hard tissue (SNA, ANB, mandibular length, and the Wits analysis); dental (anterior dental height [ADH], amount of tooth exposure at rest, upper incisor-palatal plane [UI-PP], and lower incisor-mandibular plane [LI-MP]); and soft tissue (nasolabial angle [NLA], upper lip length [ULL], lower lip length [LLL], throat length [TL], and the lip-chin-throat angle [LCTA]). From a practical point of view, this study can be used by orthodontists and oral surgeons to aid in the diagnosis of black patients contemplating orthognathic surgery.
Mohammadzadeh, Alireza; Babapoursaatlou, Behzad
Patients with hemophilia because of limited lifespan rarely undergo cardiac surgery. Due to improved healthcare and management in these patients, the life expectancy is increasing. Nevertheless, surgical intervention is a new challenge in patients with hemophilia, particularly very old patients. We describe an old patient with hemophilia A, who underwent coronary artery bypass grafting.
Vidal, Eduardo Arevalo; Rendon, Francisco Abarca; Zambrano, Trino Andrade; García, Yudoco Andrade; Viteri, Mario Ferrin; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Ramos, Manoela Galvão; Ramos, Almino Cardoso
Intestinal malrotation is a rare congenital anomaly. In adults is very difficult to recognize due to the lack of symptoms. Diagnosis is usually incidental during surgical procedures or at autopsy. To review the occurrence and recognition of uneventful intestinal malrotation discovered during regular cases of bariatric surgeries. Were retrospectively reviewed the medical registry of 20,000 cases undergoing bariatric surgery, from January 2002 to January 2016, looking for the occurrence of intestinal malrotation and consequences in the intraoperative technique and immediate evolution of the patients. Five cases (0,025%) of intestinal malrotation were found. All of them were males, aging 45, 49, 37,52 and 39 years; BMI 35, 42, 49, 47 and 52 kg/m2, all of them with a past medical history of morbid obesity. The patient with BMI 35 kg/m2 suffered from type 2 diabetes also. All procedures were completed by laparoscopic approach, with no conversions. In one patient was not possible to move the jejunum to the upper abdomen in order to establish the gastrojejunostomy and a sleeve gastrectomy was performed. In another patient was not possible to fully recognize the anatomy due to bowel adhesions and a single anastomosis gastric bypass was preferred. No leaks or bleeding were identified. There were no perioperative complications. All patients were discharged 72 h after the procedure and no immediate 30-day complications were reported. Patients with malrotation can successfully undergo laparoscopic bariatric surgery. May be necessary changes in the surgical original strategy regarding the malrotation. Surgeons must check full abdominal anatomical condition prior to start the division of the stomach. Má-rotação intestinal é rara anomalia congênita em adultos de difícil reconhecimento devido à falta de sintomas. O diagnóstico é feito geralmente incidentalmente durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou durante autópsia. Verificar a ocorrência e reconhecimento não eventual
Li, Haomiao; Cappuccio, Michele; Terzi, Silvia; Paderni, Stefania; Mirabile, Loris
To evaluate the outcome of the excisional surgeries (en bloc/debulking) in spinal metastatic treatment in 10 years. A total of 131 patients (134 lesions) with spinal metastases were studied. The postoperative survival time and the local recurrence rate were calculated statistically. The comparison of the two procedures on the survival time, local recurrence rate, and neurologic change were made. The median survival time of the en bloc surgery and the debulking surgery was 40.93 and 24.73 months, respectively, with no significant difference. The significant difference was shown in the local recurrence rate comparison, but not in neurological change comparison. 19.85% patients combined with surgical complications. The en bloc surgery can achieve a lower local recurrence rate than the debulking surgery, while was similar in survival outcome, neurological salvage, and incidence of complications. The risk of the excisional surgeries is high, however, good outcomes could be expected. PMID:19655177
Nijhawan, Sheetal; Richards, William; O'Hea, Martha F; Audia, Jonathon P; Alvarez, Diego F
Obesity and its attendant comorbidities are an emerging epidemic. Chronic metabolic inflammation (metainflammation) is thought to precipitate obesity-associated morbidities; however, its mechanistic progression is poorly understood. Moreover, although interventions such as diet, exercise, and bariatric surgery can control body weight, their effects on metainflammation are also poorly understood. Recently, metainflammation and the pathobiology of obesity have been linked to mitochondrial dysfunction. Herein we examined the effects of bariatric surgery on mitochondrial respiration as an index of resolving metainflammation in morbidly obese patients. This institutional review board-approved study involved morbidly obese patients (body mass index > 35 kg/m(2)) undergoing sleeve gastrectomy or Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. Mitochondrial respiration was assessed in peripheral blood monocytes and in skeletal muscle samples before surgery and at 12 weeks after surgery. Patient biometrics, homeostasis model assessment-estimated insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) score, C-reactive protein, and lipid profile were analyzed. Twenty patients were enrolled and showed an average percent excess body weight loss of 30.3% weight loss at 12 weeks after surgery. Average HOMA-IR score decreased from 3.0 to 1.2 in insulin-resistant patients. C-reactive protein, an index of metainflammation, showed a modest decrease. Lipid profile remained stable. Intriguingly, mitochondrial basal and maximal respiration rates in peripheral blood monocytes increased after surgery. Basal rates of skeletal muscle mitochondrial respiration were unchanged, but the maximal respiration rate trended toward an increase after surgery. Cellular and tissue mitochondrial respiration increased in a morbidly obese patient cohort after laparoscopic bariatric surgery. These changes were consistent in patients with postsurgical weight loss. Importantly, no significant changes or improvements occurred in canonical indices used to
de Quadros, Luiz Gustavo; Galvão Neto, Manoel Dos Passos; Campos, Josemberg Marins; Kaiser Junior, Roberto Luiz; Grecco, Eduardo; Flamini Junior, Mario; de Santana, Marcelo Falcao; Zotarelli Filho, Idiberto Jose; Almeida Alexandre, Adriano Augusto Tomas Vasconcelos
Between 10 and 20% of all patients undergoing bariatric surgery procedures regain weight secondary to a gastrojejunostomy enlargement. The aim of this study was to validate the interobserver agreement while measuring gastric outlet diameters using a new standard guidewire. We selected thirty-five videos of consecutive endoscopic procedures on patients undergoing esophagogastroduodenoscopy after a Roux-en-Y gastric bypass procedure. All videos were evaluated by four raters: two expert endoscopists and two trainees. We excluded videos having a slipped Fobi ring or a strictured gastric outlet. Anastomosis diameter was measured using a novel device with standardized markings on a guidewire (Hydra jagwire, Boston Scientific, Natick. MA) as well as the current gold standard defined as a calibrated endoscopic measuring instrument (Olympus America, Center Valley, PA). We obtained 272 measurements of the gastric outlet. Overall agreement measured through intra-class correlation coefficients for the gold standard was 0.84 (p < 0.01) and 0.83 (p < 0.01) for the new guidewire. Agreement among experts was 0.699 (p < 0.01), while among trainees it was 0.822 (p < 0.01). The new guidewire demonstrated a high degree of observer reliability, also presenting similar results between expert endoscopists and trainees.
Shaw, Darcy; Ternent, Charles A.
Ambulatory surgery is appropriate for most anorectal pathology. Ambulatory anorectal surgery can be performed at reduced cost compared with inpatient procedures with excellent safety, improved efficiency, and high levels of patient satisfaction. Several perioperative strategies are employed to control pain and avoid urinary retention, including the use of a multimodal pain regimen and restriction of intravenous fluids. Ambulatory anorectal surgery often utilizes standardized order sets and discharge instructions. PMID:26929746
Starks, Bobbie; Harbert, Christy
BACKGROUND Postoperative pneumonia contributes to morbidity and mortality in patients who have open heart surgery. OBJECTIVES To determine if measures to reduce aspiration in patients after cardiothoracic surgery would decrease the occurrence of postoperative pneumonia. METHODS All patients undergoing cardiothoracic surgery from April 2008 through October 2008 were prospectively enrolled in the study. An aspiration prevention protocol was developed and implemented in a 24-bed intensive care unit. The protocol incorporated a bedside swallowing evaluation by a speech therapist and progressive oral intake. RESULTS In the 6 months before development and implementation of the protocol, postoperative pneumonia developed in 11% of patients. After implementation of the protocol, no patients had postoperative pneumonia (P < .01). CONCLUSIONS Implementing an aspiration prevention protocol was effective in reducing the occurrence of postoperative pneumonia in patients who had cardiothoracic surgery.
Verhoye, Jean-Philippe; Abouliatim, Issam; Larralde, Antoine; Beneux, Xavier; Heautot, Jean-François
In the acute stage (less than two weeks), surgery is indicated for Stanford type A aortic dissections. With respect to the initial work-up, surgery consists in replacing the ascending aorta, sometimes the aortic arch (with supra aortic vessels reimplantation), and aortic valve replacement (valve replacement, Bentall valved tube or valve sparing Tyron David technique). Ischemic visceral complications must be searched for and treated by endovascular techniques or surgery. Aneurismal evolution of chronic dissections must be treated surgically. Replacement can encompass the entire aorta. Copyright Â© 2010. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.
Lin, Li-Chun; Chi, Shu-Ching; Pan, Kuei-Ching; Huang, Chin-Kun
The sedentary lifestyle, common to most modern societies, has turned obesity into an increasingly prevalent and universal problem. Obesity correlates positively with many diseases and health risk factors. Medical therapies currently used to treat obesity are generally limited in terms of long-term effectiveness. Bariatric surgery has been demonstrated an effective treatment for morbid obesity. Special nursing care considerations for bariatric surgery include providing wider cuffs for blood pressure checks, preventing deep venous thrombosis and post operation dietary education in order to accommodate changes in the gastrointestinal system. The purposes of this article were to introduce obesity therapy trends as well as to share nursing care principles for those undergoing bariatric surgery.
Mahesh, Balakrishnan; Wells, Francis; Nashef, Samer; Nair, Sukumaran
Functional tricuspid regurgitation (FTR) is frequently present in patients undergoing aortic, and particularly mitral valve, surgery. Untreated FTR may lead to right heart failure. Reoperative cardiac surgery for late FTR is associated with high morbidity and mortality. Therefore, severe FTR has emerged as a Class I indication for concomitant tricuspid valve surgery in patients undergoing left valve surgery. Concomitant tricuspid valve surgery during left heart valve surgery to address moderate and mild FTR is controversial. This review addresses this issue and proposes an algorithm for the treatment of FTR in patients undergoing left heart valve surgery.
Background Patient expectations can be difficult to conceptualise and are liable to change with time, health and environmental factors. Patient expectation is known to influence satisfaction, however little is known about the expectations of patients attending for podiatric surgery. This paper will explore the expectations of a large cohort of patients undergoing elective foot surgery. Methods The UK based podiatric audit of surgery and clinical outcome measurement (PASCOM) audit system was applied to a consecutive cohort of patients undergoing elective podiatric surgery in Doncaster, South Yorkshire between 2004 and 2010. Data was collected relating to the surgical episode and patient expectations. A patient questionnaire was administered at 6 months post intervention. Results A total of 2910 unique surgical admissions were completed and satisfaction questionnaires were returned by 1869 patients. A total of 1430 patients answered question 1 which relates to patient expectations. Pain relief was the most frequent expectation with 1191 counts (52.3%), while footwear and mobility accounted for 16.6% and 16.4% respectively. Cosmesis counts occurred less commonly; 12.2%. 709 patients (49.6%) stated only a single expectation, 599 patients (41.9%) stated two expectations, 114 patients (8%) stated three expectations and 7 patients (0.5%) stated 4 expectations. Pain relief was the dominant expectation accounting for 515 counts (72.6%) of patients who provided only one response. Conclusions This paper demonstrates the expectations of a large cohort of podiatric surgery patients. For the most part patients expect pain relief, improved mobility and improved shoe fitting, while a small number of patients also expect a cosmetic improvement. Further research is required to determine the relationship between patient expectation and health related quality of life, and to determine whether podiatric surgery is successful in addressing the expectations of patients. PMID:22145971
Salazar-Maya, Ángela María; Hoyos-Duque, Teresa Nury; Bojanini-Acevedo, Lucas
The study sought to identify the state of health and quality of life of post-bariatric surgery patients. This was a cross-sectional study conducted in 2012 with the participation of 338 individuals attending the private practice of a bariatric surgeon from Medellín (Colombia). With prior signed informed consent, the survey was filled out by each patient. The information gathered was sociodemographic in nature along with the World Health Organization's Quality of Life Brief Questionnaire (WHOQoL-Bref). It was found that 82.2% were women and mean age was 41 ± 12 years. Gastric bypass was practiced on 79.6% of the cases. Mean weight before surgery was 106.3 ± 17.5 Kg and after surgery it was 73.2 ± 13.4 Kg. Nine of every 10 participants classified their quality of life and state of health between extremely well and quite well. Quality of life was better in men, in those younger than 40 years of age, in those from socio-economic levels 4 to 6, and in those with educational level above the secondary (high school). As a consequence of the important and rapid weight loss occurring during the first months after surgery, most of the participants perceived having a good quality of life and were satisfied with their health status. For nursing, it is a challenge to implement educational programs and projects, bearing in mind the sociocultural diversity of the individuals and communities, through interdisciplinary and inter-sector work, which contributes to the well-being of obese individuals subjected to bariatric surgery and their families.
Baranski, Jan; Sinno, Sammy
Background: Lung cancer is the most common cancer worldwide and the leading cause of cancer death. With the development of targeted therapy against causative driver mutations, some patients have experienced dramatic responses that have converted their disease into a chronic, stable form. Shifting concerns away from survival and back to quality-of-life issues has led some of these patients to seek aesthetic surgery. Methods: Three patient examples are presented to illustrate current lung cancer treatment modalities, disease responses, and subsequent experiences with aesthetic surgical procedures. Two patients presented for blepharoplasty and the third for revisional breast augmentation surgery. Results: Two patients were treated for lung cancer with targeted therapy and a third with more traditional chemotherapy before undergoing aesthetic surgery. All 3 patients experienced a normal recovery from surgery without any untoward results. Two remain free of disease and one has chronic stable disease. All have returned to normal, active lives. Conclusions: Recent developments in lung cancer treatment are transforming this entity into a less formidable diagnosis for some patients, much like breast cancer and prostate cancer. Plastic surgeons should be aware of this paradigm shift. Successfully treated patients should be considered as reasonable candidates for aesthetic surgery, particularly when they have the full support of their oncologist. Beyond the typical psychological benefits that plastic surgery can produce, it also provides affirmation in this patient population of a return to normalcy, thereby imparting hope and optimism for the future. PMID:27826480
Zaballos, M; López-Álvarez, S; Argente, P; López, A
Anesthetic assessment traditionally included a series of laboratory tests intended to detect undiagnosed diseases, and to ensure that the patient undergoes surgery following safety criteria. These tests, without a specific clinical indication, are expensive, of questionable diagnostic value and often useless. In the context of outpatient surgery, recent evidence suggests that patients of any age without significant comorbidity, ASA physical status gradei and grade ii, do not need additional preoperative tests routinely. The aim of the present recommendations is to determine the general indications in which these tests should be performed in ASA gradei and grade ii patients undergoing ambulatory surgery.
Xu, Pingping; Wei, Ye; Xu, Jianmin
The outstanding advantages of robotic surgery include the stable and three-dimension image and the convenience of surgery manipulation. The disadvantages include the lack of factile feedback, high cost and prolonged surgery time. It was reported that robotic surgery was associated with less trauma stress and faster recovery in elderly patients(≥75 years old) when compared with open surgery. Elderly people have a higher incidence of carcinogenesis and also have more comorbidities and reduced functional reserve. Clinical data of patients over 75 years old treated by robotic surgery in Zhongshan Hospital affiliated to Fudan University from March 2011 to October 2014 were analyzed retrospectively. A total of 24 consecutive patients were included with a median age of 77.8 years old. There were 18 male and 6 female patients. Among them, 14 patients were diagnosed with descending and sigmoid colon cancers while 10 with rectal cancers; 19 had tumor size larger than 5 cm; 16 were diagnosed with ulcerative adenocarcinoma. Fourteen patients were complicated with hypertension, 6 with cardiopulmonary diseases, 4 with diabetes mellitus and 3 with cerebrovascular diseases. Twenty-two patients underwent low anterior resection and 2 abdominoperineal resection. The estimated blood loss was 85 ml; the median operation time was (123.1±45.2) min; the median number of retrieved lymph node was 12.4. Postoperative pathologic results showed that 3 patients were stage I, 10 stage II, and 11 stage III. Postoperative complication was observed in 3 patients: urinary infection in 1 case, intraperitoneal infection in 1 case and atria fibrillation in 1 case, respectively. Median time to first postoperative flatus was 2.8 days. Our results indicated that robotic surgery is safe and feasible in the elderly patients. The next generation of robotic system may make up for these deficiencies through new technologies. With the advantage of more advanced surgical simulator, robotic surgery will play a
Ifversen, Anne Kathrine Wewer; Kjaer, Daniel Willy
To assess the outcome of patients treated conservatively vs surgically during their first admission for sigmoid volvulus. We conducted a retrospective study of 61 patients admitted to Aarhus University Hospital in Denmark between 1996 and 2011 for their first incidence of sigmoid volvulus. The condition was diagnosed by radiography, sigmoidoscopy or surgery. Patients treated with surgery underwent either a sigmoid resection or a percutaneous endoscopic colostomy (PEC). Conservatively treated patients were managed without surgery. Data was recorded into a Microsoft Access database and calculations were performed with Microsoft Excel. Kaplan-Meier plotting and Mantel-Cox (log-rank) testing were performed using GraphPad Prism software. Mortality was defined as death within 30 d after intervention or surgery. Among the total 61 patients, 4 underwent emergency surgery, 55 underwent endoscopy, 1 experienced resolution of the volvulus after contrast enema, and 1 died without treatment because of large bowel perforation. Following emergency treatment, 28 patients underwent sigmoid resection (semi-elective n = 18; elective n = 10). Two patients who were unfit for surgery underwent PEC and both died, 1 after 36 d and the other after 9 mo, respectively. The remaining 26 patients were managed conservatively without sigmoid resection. Patients treated conservatively on their first admission had a poorer survival rate than patients treated surgically on their first admission (95%CI: 3.67-14.37, P = 0.036). Sixty-three percent of the 26 conservatively treated patients had not experienced a recurrence 3 mo after treatment, but that number dropped to 24% 2 years after treatment. Eight of the 14 patients with recurrence after conservative treatment had surgery with no 30-d mortality. Surgically-treated sigmoid volvulus patients had a higher long-term survival rate than conservatively managed patients, indicating a benefit of surgical resection or PEC insertion if feasible.
Lakoff, Joshua M.; Ellsmere, James; Ransom, Tom
Background Obesity is associated with increased mortality. Bariatric surgery is becoming an important treatment modality for obesity, with an associated reduction in mortality. There are few data available on the incidence and cause of death in referred patients while they are waiting for bariatric surgery. Methods We retrospectively examined all cases of death in patients who were referred for bariatric surgery assessment but who had not yet undergone bariatric surgery at a tertiary care centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The wait list comprised patients referred for surgery between March 2008 and May 2013. All cases of death were reviewed to determine age, sex, time of referral, time spent on the wait list, cause of death, comorbidities and body mass index (BMI). Results Of the 1399 patients referred, 22 (1.57%) died before receiving surgery. The mean age of these patients was 62.7 (range of 32–70) years. The average time from referral to death was 21.6 months, and the average BMI was 51.5. The most frequent cause of death was cancer, followed by cardiac and infectious causes. Conclusion This study provides useful information about mortality and causes of death among patients awaiting bariatric surgery at our centre. Our results will help guide the development of a judicious system for triage in light of long wait times. PMID:25427334
Lakoff, Joshua M; Ellsmere, James; Ransom, Tom
Obesity is associated with increased mortality. Bariatric surgery is becoming an important treatment modality for obesity, with an associated reduction in mortality. There are few data available on the incidence and cause of death in referred patients while they are waiting for bariatric surgery. We retrospectively examined all cases of death in patients who were referred for bariatric surgery assessment but who had not yet undergone bariatric surgery at a tertiary care centre in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The wait list comprised patients referred for surgery between March 2008 and May 2013. All cases of death were reviewed to determine age, sex, time of referral, time spent on the wait list, cause of death, comorbidities and body mass index (BMI). Of the 1399 patients referred, 22 (1.57%) died before receiving surgery. The mean age of these patients was 62.7 (range of 32-70) years. The average time from referral to death was 21.6 months, and the average BMI was 51.5. The most frequent cause of death was cancer, followed by cardiac and infectious causes. This study provides useful information about mortality and causes of death among patients awaiting bariatric surgery at our centre. Our results will help guide the development of a judicious system for triage in light of long wait times.
Girard, B; Chouard, B; Levy, P; Luquel, L; Seux, M-L; Drunat, O
Evaluation of neuropsychological benefits of cataract surgery for 46 Alzheimer patients on the basis of neuropsychiatric index (NPI), as the principal criterion of analysis of the VIVA study. Prospective, monocentric neuropsychiatric study, performed from 2005 to 2011. All Alzheimer's patients with 10
Malla, Hridayesh Pratap; Kim, Min Ki; Kim, Tae Sung
Parkinson's disease (PD) patients frequently have several spinal deformities leading to postural instabilities including camptocormia, myopathy-induced postural deformity, Pisa syndrome, and progressive degeneration, all of which adversely affect daily life activities. To improve these postural deformities and relieve the related neurologic symptoms, patients often undergo spinal instrumentation surgery. Due to progressive degenerative changes related to PD itself and other complicating factors, patients and surgeons are faced with instrument failure-related complications, which can ultimately result in multiple revision surgeries yielding various postoperative complications and morbidities. Here, we report a representative case of a 70-year-old PD patient with flat back syndrome who had undergone several revision surgeries, including anterior and posterior decompression and fusion for a lumbosacral spinal deformity. The patient ultimately benefitted from a relatively short segment fixation and corrective fusion surgery. PMID:27847583
Patient education is a major concern for perioperative nurses in an ambulatory surgery setting. It has proven difficult to develop formal preoperative teaching programs in this environment, but research has shown that preoperative education can improve patient outcomes and satisfaction with the surgical experience. Typical patient education consists of pamphlets that are given to the patient before surgery and verbal instructions from the physicians and nurses on the day of surgery. Ideally, preoperative patient education should begin in the surgeon's office, continue through preadmission testing, and be completed at admission. Having a well-designed preoperative education program enables perioperative nurses in ambulatory surgery centers to provide a thoughtful approach to perioperative teaching in a limited time. AORN J 90 (September 2009) 381-387. (c) AORN, Inc, 2009.
Salowi, Mohamad Aziz; Goh, Pik-Pin; Lee, Ming-Yueh; Adnan, Tassha Hilda; Ismail, Mariam
To investigate the change in the profile of patients who had cataract surgery at Ministry of Health (MOH) hospitals in Malaysia. Secondary analysis on Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry data. The Malaysian Cataract Surgery Registry, a MOH-initiated registry, collects data on patients who had cataract surgery at the 36 MOH ophthalmology departments including demography, causes of cataract, systemic and ocular comorbidity, preoperative visual acuity (VA), operative details, and postoperative outcomes. This article reviews data on patient profiles from 2002 to 2004 and 2007 to 2011. The coverage of cataract surgery was 91.5% (171,482/185,388). Mean patient age was 64.5 years, and 51.6% were women. A high proportion of patients had hypertension (48.9%), diabetes mellitus (37.1%), and diabetic retinopathy (10.7%). Most had senile cataract (93.4%) and one third had second eye surgery. Most patients (82.0%) had preoperative unaided VA of worse than 6/12. Eyes presenting with unaided VA of worse than 3/60 decreased from 62.6% in 2002 to 47.7% in 2011, whereas those with 6/18 to 3/60 increased from 35.2% to 48.5% (P < 0.001). Patients who had extracapsular cataract extraction had worse preoperative VA than those who had phacoemulsification (81.3% vs 40% had vision worse than 3/60). The obvious change in patient profiles was the decreasing number of eyes presenting with worse than 3/60 vision. Compared with developed countries, patients who had cataract surgery at MOH hospitals in Malaysia were younger and had higher associations with diabetes mellitus and diabetic retinopathy.
Emanuele, B; Bonardi, O; Garrone, C; De Michelis, M; Cantore, R; Viziale, G
The preoperative problem is analysed with proposal of a heart risk index table and assessment of the manifold problems involved. Stress is thenn laid on the importance of careful postoperative treatment, establishing rules of surgical and resuscitatory behaviour to be followed in the general surgery of the heart patient. These rules of behaviour permit prevention of surgical complications, which are fully illustrated. Particular attention is paid to the selection of those conditions of pertinence to general surgery which have treatment of choice prior to heart surgery. Personal experience of 75 general surgery operations between 1977 and 1979 in the Villa Pia Clinic is then reviewed.
Galvin, J W; Freedman, B A; Schoenfeld, A J; Cap, A P; Mok, J M
The optimal timing of surgery for multiply injured patients with operative spinal injuries remains unknown. The purported benefits of early intervention must be weighed against the morbidity of surgery in the early post-injury period. The performance of spine surgery in the Afghanistan theater permits analysis of the morbidity of early surgery on military casualties. The objective is to compare surgical morbidity of early spinal surgery in multiply injured patients versus stable patients. Patients were retrospectively categorized as stable or borderline unstable depending on the presence of at least one of the following: ISS >40, ISS >20 and chest injury, exploratory laparotomy or thoracotomy, lactate >2.5 mEq/L, platelet <110,000/mm(3), or >10 U PRBCs transfused pre-operatively. Surgical morbidity, complications, and neurologic improvement between the two groups were compared retrospectively. 30 casualties underwent 31 spine surgeries during a 12-month period. 16 of 30 patients met criteria indicating a borderline unstable patient. Although there were no significant differences in the procedures performed for stable and borderline unstable patients as measured by the Surgical Invasiveness Index (7.5 vs. 6.9, p = 0.8), borderline unstable patients had significantly higher operative time (4.3 vs. 3.0 h, p = 0.01), blood loss (1,372 vs. 366 mL, p = 0.001), PRBCs transfused intra-op (3.88 vs. 0.14 U, p < 0.001), and total PRBCs transfused in theater (10.18 vs. 0.31 U, p < 0.001). The results indicate that published criteria defining a borderline unstable patient may have a role in predicting increased morbidity of early spine surgery. The perceived benefits of early intervention should be weighed against the greater risks of performing extensive spinal surgeries on multiply injured patients in the early post-injury period, especially in the setting of combat trauma.
Fernandez Lobato, Rosa Carmen; Soria-Aledo, Víctor; Jover Navalón, José María; Calvo Vecino, José María
To assess the magnitude of the different causes of anxiety in patients and families, facing surgery. Cross-sectional multicenter national survey recruiting 1,260 participants between patients and companions, analyzing the impact of 14 areas selected based on scientific publications aimed at the general public, concerning patients and/or companions, focused on concern about surgery. Patient sex, age, type of surgery (minor/major) and expected inpatient or ambulatory surgery were analyzed. For the companions sex and age, and relationship to patient were analyzed. In both cases it was assessed based on a unidimensional scale of 0 to 10, with 0 being be minimal cause for concern and 10, maximum. The most prominent have been the fear of the unknown, possible complications, the impact on quality of life, the accuracy of diagnosis and possible malignancy of the disease, as well as anesthesia and pain control. There are significant differences in the involvement of patients and companions; and are also differences by sex and age of the patient; type of surgery (minor/major) and expected hospital admission or not. The patient faces surgery with a number of fears that can be reduced with increased information. Copyright © 2014 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Iraha, Shiro; Ogawa, Kazuhiko . E-mail: email@example.com; Moromizato, Hidehiko; Shiraishi, Masayuki; Nagai, Yutaka; Samura, Hironori; Toita, Takafumi; Kakinohana, Yasumasa; Adachi, Genki; Tamaki, Wakana; Hirakawa, Makoto; Kamiyama, Kazuya; Inamine, Morihiko; Nishimaki, Tadashi; Aoki, Yoichi; Murayama, Sadayuki
Purpose: To identify the characteristics, risk factors, and clinical outcomes of radiation enterocolitis requiring surgery in patients with gynecologic malignancies. Methods and Materials: The records of 1,349 patients treated with pelvic radiotherapy were retrospectively reviewed. The majority of the patients (88%) were treated with 50 Gy or 50.4 Gy pelvic irradiation in conventional fractionations with anteroposterior fields. Results: Forty-eight patients (3.6%) developed radiation enterocolitis requiring surgery. Terminal ileum was the most frequent site (50%) and most of the lesions had stenosis or perforation. On univariate analysis, previous abdominopelvic surgery, diabetes mellitus (DM), smoking and primary site had an impact on the complications, and on multivariate analysis, abdominopelvic surgery, DM, and smoking were independent predictors of the complications requiring surgery. After the surgical intervention, the frequency of Grade 2 or more bleeding was significantly lower in patients treated with intestinal resection in addition to decompression than those treated with intestinal decompression alone. Conclusions: Severe radiation enterocolitis requiring surgery usually occurred at the terminal ileum and was strongly correlated with previous abdominopelvic surgery, DM, and smoking. Concerning the management, liberal resection of the affected bowel appears to be the preferable therapy.
Girard, B; Chouard, B; Hardy, F
Cataract surgery for 50 Alzheimer patients (55 eyes). Cinquante Alzheimer's patients with 0≤MMS≤25, with bilateral disabling cataracts were included for surgery. The surgical technique is analyzed. The preoperative examination of Alzheimer's patients is time consuming and requires experience in this area, which is important to integrate into the practice of ophthalmology. The type of cataract is unusual, with a predilection for pseudoexfoliation syndrome and zonular fragility that has to be managed during surgery. The procedure may be performed under local anesthesia. Three months after surgery, Alzheimer's patients demonstrated improved visual acuity (P<0.001) with no worsening of their dementia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Carr, Tracey; Teucher, Ulrich C; Casson, Alan G
Research on patients' experiences of wait time for scheduled surgery has centered predominantly on the relative tolerability of perceived wait time and impacts on quality of life. We explored patients' experiences of time while waiting for three types of surgery with varied wait times--hip or knee replacement, shoulder surgery, and cardiac surgery. Thirty-two patients were recruited by their surgeons. We asked participants about their perceptions of time while waiting in two separate interviews. Using interpretative phenomenological analysis (IPA), we discovered connections between participant suffering, meaningfulness of time, and agency over the waiting period and the lived duration of time experience. Our findings reveal that chronological duration is not necessarily the most relevant consideration in determining the quality of waiting experience. Those findings helped us create a conceptual framework for lived wait time. We suggest that clinicians and policy makers consider the complexity of wait time experience to enhance preoperative patient care. © The Author(s) 2014.
Rejeh, Nahid; Vaismoradi, Mojtaba
The purpose of this study was to explore the perspectives and experiences of elective surgery patients regarding pain management. A qualitative design, based on the content analysis approach, was used to collect and analyze the experience of 20 elective surgery patients who all had abdominal surgery in surgical wards in two teaching hospitals in Tehran, Iran. After employing purposeful sampling for the selection of the participants, semistructured interviews were held for data collection. During the data analysis, three main themes emerged: "perceptions of pain management goals", "patients' views of nurses' role in pain management", and "interaction in pain management". It was concluded that understanding the factors that influence pain management after surgery from the patients' viewpoint will contribute to the body of knowledge of nurses in order to promote the quality of nursing care.
Epstein, Nancy E.; Gottesman, Malcolm
Background: Few patients with neurodegenerative disorders (ND) (e.g., Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Postpolio Syndrome (PPS)) require spinal surgery. Typically, their neurological symptoms and signs reflect their underlying neurologic disorders rather than structural spinal pathology reported on magnetic resonance images (MR) or computed tomographic scans (CT). Methods: The first author, a neurosurgeon, reviewed 437 spinal consultations performed over a 20-month period. Of 254 patients seen in first opinion (e.g., had not been seen by a spinal surgeon), 9 had MS, while 2 had ALS. Of 183 patients seen in second opinion (e.g., prior spinal surgeons recommended surgery), 4 had MS, 2 had ALS, and 1 had PPS. We performed this study to establish how often patients with ND, seen in first or second opinion, require spinal surgery. We focused on whether second opinions from spinal surgeons would limit the number of operations offered to these patients. Results: Two of 11 patients with ND seen in first opinion required surgery. The first patient required a C5-7 laminectomy/C2-T2 fusion, followed by a L2-S1 laminectomy/L5S1 fusion. The second patient required a L2-L3 laminectomy/diskectomy/fusion. However, none of the seven patients seen in second opinion, who were previously told by outside surgeons they needed spinal surgery, required operations. Conclusions: Few patients with neurodegenerative syndromes (MS, ALS, PPS) and reported “significant” spondyloitic spinal disease interpreted on MR/CT studies required surgery. Great caution should be exercised in offering patients with ND spinal surgery, and second opinions should be encouraged to limit “unnecessary” procedures. PMID:24843817
Walid, M. Sami; Zaytseva, Nadezhda
Goal: To study the interaction of obesity and age in patients with multiple spine surgeries. Methods: Data on the body mass index (BMI) of 956 patients were collected and classified into four groups: non-obese (BMI <30 kg/m2), obese-class I (BMI ≥30 kg/m2), obese-class II (BMI ≥35 kg/m2) and obese-class III (BMI ≥40 kg/m2). Patients' age was categorized into the following age groups: ≤40, 41–65 and ≥66. T-test and Chi-square test were applied using SPSS v16. Results: In lumbar patients aged ≥66 years with previous spine surgery, the average number of previous spine surgeries significantly increased with increasing obesity from 1.4 in nonobese patients to 1.7, 2.5 and 3.5 in obese class I, II and III patients. In lumbar decompression and fusion patients aged ≥66 years with previous spine surgery, the average number of previous spine surgeries signifi-cantly increased with increasing obesity from 1.7 in nonobese patients to 1.6, 2.0 and 3.5 in obese class I, II and III patients. A similar trend was noted in lumbar microdiskectomy patients aged ≥66 years but it was statistically nonsignificant due probably to small numbers. Conclusion: Obesity is associated with an increased number of previous spine surgeries in patients over 65 years of age undergoing lumbar surgery. PMID:21468327
Nagashima, Mitsugi; Higaki, Takashi; Seike, Yoshimasa; Yokoyama, Yuichiro
Andersen-Tawil syndrome is an uncommon inherited autosomal disorder characterized by a prolonged QT interval, periodic paralysis, and dysmorphic features. The deleterious effects of cardioplegia on periodic paralysis and cardiac arrhythmia are unknown, and no studies have reported the performance of cardiac surgery in patients with Andersen-Tawil syndrome. We present a case of successful cardiac surgery in a patient with Andersen-Tawil syndrome, without using cardioplegia.
Lee, Erica H
Patient satisfaction has increasingly played an important role in quality-of-care reforms and health care delivery. In dermatologic surgery, patient expectations of procedures and the outcomes are important determinants of satisfaction. Identification of the patient's met and unmet expectations through patient-reported outcome measures may enable a better understanding of the patient's perspective and improve communication and the delivery of care. Performance measures report on the quality of care being delivered. Performance measures currently being implemented into dermatologic practices may have a role in demonstrating the "quality" of dermatologic surgery procedures in the near future. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
The indications for bariatric interventions consist of the objectives to improve the quality of life and to prolong survival by remission of obesity-associated comorbidities. Until now the selection criteria for patients to undergo surgery which allow a prediction of therapeutic success are obscure. The aim of the study was to identify the prerequisites for selection of overweight and obese patients to undergo bariatric surgery. Obesity per se is a proven indication for bariatric surgery due to the associated increase in mortality; however, not all obese patients can be considered for weight reduction surgery. A decisive factor for patient selection is the evidence of behavioral change regarding nutrition, composition and frequency of meals as well as increased ambulation. In patients with psychiatric diseases and behavioral disorders responsible for obesity a specific therapy is mandatory as well as intensive counseling and adherence to a lifelong follow-up. It seems that therapeutic success on a long-term basis is only guaranteed by behavioral changes. Preoperative multimodal therapy does not influence the outcome but it seems possible that such treatment may contribute to increased adherence to the behavior necessary for therapeutic success. Nevertheless, such treatment must not constitute a barrier against bariatric surgery. However, patients who are not willing to change their pathological behavior do not qualify for weight-reducing surgery because otherwise therapeutic success is questioned.
Bain, J.; Kelly, H.; Snadden, D.; Staines, H.
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate patients' views on the process and outcome of day surgery in Scotland, and to study patients' satisfaction with care in a range of specific procedures. DESIGN: Questionnaires completed by a census of day case surgery patients within a band of 25 procedures under the umbrella of five broad groups: (1) general surgery; (2) urology; (3) gynaecology; (4) orthopaedics; (5) ear, nose, and throat; ophthalmology. SETTING: 13 hospitals in six health board areas in Scotland. SUBJECTS: During the period 1995-6, 5069 day case patients were asked to complete a questionnaire within two weeks of their operation and discharge from hospital. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Arrangements before admission; immediate postoperative symptoms and complications; problems experienced after discharge; readmission after discharge. RESULTS: A response rate of 68% was obtained from 13 sites ranging from 43% to 82%. The overall satisfaction score was 85. A total of 894 patients (26%) experienced pain after surgery and 783 (23%) had relatively minor medical problems after discharge. In total, 265 (7.8%) patients were readmitted to hospital after discharge. Few notable differences existed between specialties or hospitals in terms of satisfaction scores, although notable pain was experienced more frequently in gynaecology and general surgery patients. Readmission was more common for urological procedures. CONCLUSION: Overall, patient satisfaction with day case surgery was high. Dissatisfaction was largely related to waiting times between admission, operation, and discharge. The amount of pain experienced also had a notable impact on the level of patient satisfaction. Day surgery is not without complications, with 26% of patients experiencing notable degrees of pain; 23% having minor medical problems after discharge; and 8% of respondents having to reattend hospital with problems relating to their original operations. PMID:10557683
Schroeder, Joshua E; Hughes, Alexander; Sama, Andrew; Weinstein, Joseph; Kaplan, Leon; Cammisa, Frank P; Girardi, Federico P
Parkinson disease is the second most common neurodegenerative condition. The literature on patients with Parkinson disease and spine surgery is limited, but increased complications have been reported. All patients with Parkinson disease undergoing lumbar spine surgery between 2002 and 2012 were identified. Patients' charts, radiographs, and outcome questionnaires were reviewed. Parkinson disease severity was assessed with use of the modified Hoehn and Yahr staging scale. Complications and subsequent surgeries were analyzed. Risk for reoperation was assessed. Ninety-six patients underwent lumbar spine surgery. The mean patient age was 63.0 years. The mean follow-up duration was 30.1 months. The Parkinson disease severity stage was <2 in thirteen patients, 2 in thirty patients, 2.5 in twenty-three patients, and ≥3 in thirty patients. The primary indication for surgery was spinal stenosis in seventy-two patients, spondylolisthesis in seventeen patients, and coronal and/or sagittal deformity in seven patients. There were nineteen early complications, including postoperative infections requiring surgical irrigation and debridement and long-term antibiotics in ten patients. The visual analog scale for back pain improved from 7.4 cm preoperatively to 1.8 cm postoperatively (p < 0.001). The visual analog scale for lower-limb pain improved from 7.7 cm preoperatively to 2.3 cm postoperatively (p < 0.001). The Oswestry Disability Index score dropped from 54.1 points to 17.7 points at the time of the latest follow-up (p < 0.001). The Short Form-12 Physical Component Summary score improved from 26.6 points preoperatively to 30.5 points postoperatively (p < 0.05). Twenty patients required revision surgery. Risks for further surgery included a Parkinson disease severity stage of ≥3 (p < 0.05), a history of diabetes mellitus, treatment for osteoporosis, and a combined anterior and posterior approach. Despite a higher rate of complications than in the general population, the
Schmelzeisen, R; Eckardt, A; Knoll, M; Girod, S
In 150 patients 366 (95%) of 385 dental surgery procedures performed prior to organ transplantations were free of complications. In 6 patients circumscribed wound infections occurred, and 5 post-operative hemorrhages as well as 2 injection hematomas were observed. In the group of patients where dental surgery was performed after organ transplantation, all 123 procedures were free of complications. Treatment of transplantation patients in the dental office requires a profound understanding of the complex clinical problems these patients might present, a good coordination of the required measures and close cooperation between the transplantation center and the attending dentist. Special considerations of the treatment of organ transplantation patients and the indications for dental surgery are discussed.
Dunda, Sebastian E.; Bozkurt, Ahmet; Pallua, Norbert; Krapohl, Björn Dirk
Background: An increasing number of patients undergoing reconstructive surgery are immunocompromised due to different reasons and different medical treatments. Some of the used immunosuppressive drugs may affect the process of wound healing and thereby, impair the long-term success of surgical treatment. Therefore, this retrospective analysis aimed at the evaluation of the perioperative treatment and surgical outcome of immunocompromised patients undergoing different reconstructive procedures. Methods: A retrospective review was performed of 8 immunocompromised patients with different primary diseases who needed reconstructive surgery: 2 patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, 1 patient with an acute myeloid leukemia, 1 patient with colitis ulcerosa, 1 patient with liver cirrhosis, 1 patient with chronic polyarthritis, and 2 patients with malignant melanoma. Results: In 7 of our 8 presented cases, multiple operations with wound debridements have been necessary to optimize the granulation of the wound bed before reconstructive surgery. 3 out of these 7 patients required further operations due to wound dehiscence or necrosis, with 2 of them as a result of increased immunosuppressive therapy. 5 out of 8 patients needed no further surgical treatment. Conclusions: Both the perioperative drug therapy and the reconstructive surgery concept need to be determined carefully in each individual case of the immunocompromised patients. Thus, the appropriate point in time of operation to achieve the best possible wound healing as well as the complexity of the procedure will require the consideration of a ‘less is more’ strategy in selected cases. PMID:26734539
Dowling, Nicki A; Honigman, Roberta J; Jackson, Alun C
Plastic surgeons have traditionally perceived male patients as more psychologically disturbed than female patients. This study employed a matched sample design to explore the psychosocial experiences of 50 male and 50 female elective cosmetic surgery and cosmetic dentistry patients. It also aimed to compare male and female patients on preoperative psychosocial dysfunction on standardized measures (psychiatric disturbance, anxiety, depression, low self-esteem, dysmorphic concern, and low body image) and postoperative dissatisfaction. The findings revealed that there were many similarities between the self-reported appearance concerns, motivations for surgery, and expectations of surgery between male and female patients. Although male patients did not report higher levels of preoperative psychosocial dysfunction than their female counterparts, they were more likely to report postoperative dissatisfaction. Preoperative screening is recommended to identify the minority of male patients who will report an unsatisfactory outcome despite a technically good result.
Holinski, Sebastian; Claus, Benjamin; Alaaraj, Nour; Dohmen, Pascal Maria; Neumann, Konrad; Uebelhack, Ralf; Konertz, Wolfgang
Reduction of cognitive function is a possible side effect after the use of cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) during cardiac surgery. Since it has been proven that piracetam is cerebroprotective in patients undergoing coronary bypass surgery, we investigated the effects of piracetam on the cognitive performance of patients undergoing open heart surgery. Patients scheduled for elective open heart surgery were randomized to the piracetam or placebo group in a double-blind study. Patients received 12 g of piracetam or placebo at the beginning of the operation. Six neuropsychological subtests from the Syndrom Kurz Test and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale were performed preoperatively and on day 3, postoperatively. To assess the overall cognitive function and the degree of cognitive decline across all tests after the surgery, we combined the six test-scores by principal component analysis. A total of 88 patients with a mean age of 67 years were enrolled into the study. The mean duration of CPB was 110 minutes. Preoperative clinical parameters and overall cognitive functions were not significantly different between the groups. The postoperative combined score of the neuropsychological tests showed deterioration of cognitive function in both groups (piracetam: preoperative 0.19 ± 0.97 vs. postoperative -0.97 ± 1.38, p <0.0005 and placebo: preoperative -0.14 ± 0.98 vs. postoperative -1.35 ± 1.23, p <0.0005). Patients taking piracetam did not perform better than those taking placebo, and both groups had the same decline of overall cognitive function (p = 0.955). Piracetam had no cerebroprotective effect in patients undergoing open heart surgery. Unlike the patients who underwent coronary surgery, piracetam did not reduce the early postoperative decline of neuropsychological abilities in heart valve patients.
Kulick, Doina; Hark, Lisa; Deen, Darwin
Between 1998 and 2004, the total number of bariatric procedures increased almost 10-fold, from 13,386 procedures in 1998 to 121,055 in 2004. Current estimates suggest the number of bariatric operations will exceed 220,000 in 2010. Bariatric surgery encompasses several surgical techniques classified as restrictive or malabsorptive, based on the main mechanism of weight loss. Clinical studies and meta-analyses show that bariatric surgery decreases morbidity and mortality when compared with nonsurgical treatments. A successful long-term outcome of bariatric surgery is dependent on the patient's commitment to a lifetime of dietary and lifestyle changes. The registered dietitian (RD) is an important member of the bariatric team and provides critical instructions to help patients adhere to the dietary changes consistent with surgery. Referencing current literature, this article outlines the indications, contraindications, and types of bariatric surgery. The role of the RD for preoperative and postoperative nutrition assessment and medical nutrition therapy is highlighted. Management of long-term nutrition issues is also reviewed. The current recommendations include a multivitamin/mineral supplement plus vitamin B-12, calcium, vitamin D-3, iron, and folic acid. Given the increasing prevalence of obesity and bariatric surgery procedures, caring for patients who have undergone surgery will be an expanding role for the RD. Close postoperative follow-up and careful monitoring will improve the odds for successful surgical outcomes, and RDs play a very important part in this process. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dietetic Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Contemporary scholarship examining clinical outcomes in medical travel for cosmetic surgery identifies cases in which patients traveled abroad for medical procedures and subsequently returned home with infections and other surgical complications. Though there are peer-reviewed articles identifying patient deaths in cases where patients traveled abroad for commercial kidney transplantation or stem cell injections, no scholarly publications document deaths of patients who traveled abroad for cosmetic surgery or bariatric surgery. Drawing upon news media reports extending from 1993 to 2011, this article identifies and describes twenty-six reported cases of deaths of individuals who traveled abroad for cosmetic surgery or bariatric surgery. Over half of the reported deaths occurred in two countries. Analysis of these news reports cannot be used to make causal claims about why the patients died. In addition, cases identified in news media accounts do not provide a basis for establishing the relative risk of traveling abroad for care instead of seeking elective cosmetic surgery at domestic health care facilities. Acknowledging these limitations, the case reports suggest the possibility that contemporary peer-reviewed scholarship is underreporting patient mortality in medical travel. The paper makes a strong case for promoting normative analyses and empirical studies of medical travel. In particular, the paper argues that empirically informed ethical analysis of 'medical tourism' will benefit from rigorous studies tracking global flows of medical travelers and the clinical outcomes they experience. The paper contains practical recommendations intended to promote debate concerning how to promote patient safety and quality of care in medical travel. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Harris, KaLynne; Curtis, Julia; Larsen, Brooke; Calder, Scott; Duffy, Keith; Bowen, Glen; Hadley, Michael; Tristani-Firouzi, Payam
To better understand postoperative opioid use after dermatologic surgery. Prospective observational study. Academic dermatology department. The study included 212 adults (1) who were undergoing a single skin excision (including Mohs micrographic surgery), (2) who consented to participate,and (3) who were able to be reached by telephone on postoperative day 3 or 4. Patients who did not meet these criteria and those referred to another physician for further surgical treatment or repair were excluded. The study examined(1) the incidence of opioid prescription after dermatologic surgery, (2) the percentage of prescribed opioid pain medications used in the postoperative period, and (3) patient and surgical characteristics associated with opioid pain medication prescription and use. Opioids were prescribed to 72 of the 212 patients(34%). Twenty-five of the 72 patients (35%) who were prescribed opioids did not use them. Forty-nine of 57 patients (86%) who filled an opioid prescription had leftover pills, and 26 of the 49 patients (53%) planned to keep them. Only maximum pain score was significantly associated with opioid use. Opioids were over prescribed after dermatologic surgery. Patients who had left over opioids did not dispose of them properly, which could lead to potential misuse and abuse.
Walid, M. Sami; Zaytseva, Nadezhda; Porubaiko, Lyudmila; Abbara, Moataz
Introduction: Hospital patient databases are typically used by administrative staff to estimate loss-profit ratios and to help with the allocation of hospital resources. These databases can also be very useful in following rehospitalization. This paper studies the recurrence of spine surgery patients in our hospital population based on administrative data analysis. Methods: Hospital data on 4,958 spine surgery patients operated between 2002 and 2009 were retrospectively reviewed. After sorting the cohort per ascending discharge date, the patient official name, consisting of first, middle and last names, was used as the variable determining duplicate cases in the SPSS statistical program, designating the first case in each group as primary. Yearly recurrence rate and change in procedure distribution were studied. In addition, hospital charges and length of stay were compared using the Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test. Results: Of 4,958 spine surgery patients 364 (7.3%) were categorized as duplicate cases by SPSS. The number of primary cases from which duplicate cases emerged was 327 meaning that some patients had more than two spine surgeries. Among primary patients (N=327) the percentage of excision of intervertebral disk procedures was 33.3% and decreased to 15.1% in recurrent admissions of the same patients (N=364). This decrease was compensated by an increase in lumbar fusion procedures. On the other hand, the rate of cervical fusion remained the same. The difference in hospital charges between primary and duplicate patients was $2,234 for diskectomy, $6,319 for anterior cervical fusion, $8,942 for lumbar fusion – lateral technique, and $12,525 for lumbar fusion – posterior technique. Recurrent patients also stayed longer in hospital, up to 0.9 day in lumbar fusion – posterior technique patients. Conclusion: Spine surgery is associated with an increasing possibility of additional spine surgery with rising invasiveness and cost. PMID:22355279
Dayan, Victor; Stanham, Roberto; Soca, Gerardo; Genta, Fernando; Mariño, Jorge; Lorenzo, Alvaro
Background There are limited data regarding the risks of cardiac surgery early after coronary angiography in patients scheduled for isolated aortic and/or mitral valve replacement. Our aim was to evaluate the risk of early surgery after coronary angiography in these patients. Methods We retrospectively analyzed data of 1044 patients who underwent isolated aortic and/or mitral valve replacement from 2006 to 2014. Baseline, operative, and postoperative variables were collected. The patients were divided into 3 groups based on the interval between coronary angiography and surgery: ≤3 days ( n = 216), 4-7 days ( n = 109), and ≥8 days ( n = 719). We evaluated hospital mortality and postoperative acute kidney injury. Subgroup analysis was performed according to preoperative creatinine clearance. Results Postoperative creatinine clearance was lower in patients who underwent surgery ≤3 days after coronary angiography (63.57 ± 38.52 mL min(-1)) compared to ≥8 days after coronary angiography (74.56 ± 54.25 mL min(-1), p = 0.015). Patients who underwent surgery ≤3 days after coronary angiography had higher hospital mortality when preoperative creatinine clearance was ≤60 mL min(-1) (12% vs. 4% for creatinine clearance ≤and >60 mL min(-1), respectively; p = 0.039). Predictors of hospital mortality were New York Heart Association class and postoperative creatinine clearance. Conclusion Hospital mortality was higher in patients with decreased preoperative renal function who underwent surgery within the first 3 days after coronary angiography. Delaying surgery in this subgroup of patients could be a good strategy.
Zhu, Yaxin; Yan, Tingmei; Qu, Bo
The objective of this study was to assess the competency of surgery residents from the patient perspective in the current healthcare environment in China. The authors performed an assessment of 508 surgery residents in Liaoning province. Seven patients were as a group to complete the self-administered questionnaires on the survey for each individual corresponding resident. A 5-point rating scale with an unable-to-evaluate category was used to assess surgery resident competency by patients. Reliability and validity were assessed by Cronbach alpha (α) and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0. The surveys on 421 residents were valid, and the valid response rate was 82.8%. A total of 2947 questionnaires from patients were analyzed in this study. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.92. The 4 factors emerging in the exploratory factor analysis reached a cumulative contribution rate of 66.98%. The items of "promotes health maintenance (talks about preventive care)" (206/7.0%), "tells me about any side effects of the medicine" (177/6.0%), "spends enough time with me" (189/6.4%), and "answers my questions thoroughly" (168/5.7%) were scored <4 by higher percentage of patients. The instrument provided an acceptable means for patients to evaluate the competency of Chinese surgery residents. Surgery residents should improve their competencies on preventive care, patient safety, and communication skills.
Yang, Hui; Zhao, Xiaoyun; Tang, Shan; Huang, Hua; Zhao, Xiulan; Ning, Zhuohui; Fu, Xiurong; Zhang, Caihong
Laryngeal cancer is a common malignancy; surgery is the preferred treatment. Psychosocial stress is one of the negative impacts on patient recovery. This study aimed to elucidate the effect of probiotics on ameliorating anxiety, and on serum corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in laryngeal cancer patients before surgery. A total 30 patients with laryngeal cancer and 20 healthy volunteers were recruited. During the 2 weeks before surgery, 20 patients were randomly allocated to receive probiotics or placebo twice a day. Heart rate was recorded daily. The degree of anxiety was assessed by the Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAMA). Serum CRF levels in laryngeal cancer patients increased significantly in approaching surgery. After ingestion of probiotics, serum levels of CRF and heart rate did not increase before surgery. In addition, taking probiotics relieved the degree of anxiety of the patients from HAMA 19.8 to 10.2. Probiotics can ameliorate the clinical anxiety and biochemical features of stress in patients scheduled for laryngectomy. © 2014 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Giordano, Salvatore; Victorzon, Mikael
Controversy exists regarding the effectiveness and safety of bariatric/metabolic surgery in elderly patients. We performed a systematic review on this issue in patients aged 60 years or older. MEDLINE, Cochrane Library, Embase, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched until August 2015 for studies on outcomes of bariatric surgery in elderly patients. The results were expressed as pooled proportions (%) with 95% confidence intervals. Heterogeneity across the studies was evaluated by the I (2) test, and a random-effects model was used. Twenty-six articles encompassing 8,149 patients were pertinent with this issue and included data on bariatric surgery outcomes in elderly population. Fourteen patients died during the 30-day postoperative period, with a pooled mortality of 0.01%. Pooled overall complication rate was 14.7%. At 1-year follow-up, pooled mean excess weight loss was 53.77%, pooled diabetes resolution was 54.5%, and pooled hypertension resolution was 42.5%, while pooled lipid disorder resolution was 41.2%. Outcomes and complication rates of bariatric surgery in patients older than 60 years are comparable to those in a younger population, independent of the type of procedure performed. Patients should not be denied bariatric surgery because of their age alone.
Zhu, Yaxin; Yan, Tingmei; Qu, Bo
Abstract The objective of this study was to assess the competency of surgery residents from the patient perspective in the current healthcare environment in China. The authors performed an assessment of 508 surgery residents in Liaoning province. Seven patients were as a group to complete the self-administered questionnaires on the survey for each individual corresponding resident. A 5-point rating scale with an unable-to-evaluate category was used to assess surgery resident competency by patients. Reliability and validity were assessed by Cronbach alpha (α) and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0. The surveys on 421 residents were valid, and the valid response rate was 82.8%. A total of 2947 questionnaires from patients were analyzed in this study. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.92. The 4 factors emerging in the exploratory factor analysis reached a cumulative contribution rate of 66.98%. The items of “promotes health maintenance (talks about preventive care)” (206/7.0%), “tells me about any side effects of the medicine” (177/6.0%), “spends enough time with me” (189/6.4%), and “answers my questions thoroughly” (168/5.7%) were scored <4 by higher percentage of patients. The instrument provided an acceptable means for patients to evaluate the competency of Chinese surgery residents. Surgery residents should improve their competencies on preventive care, patient safety, and communication skills. PMID:28005763
Powers, M K; Meyerowitz, B E; Arrowsmith, P N; Marks, R G
In a psychosocial study of patients who participated in an evaluation of the visual, refractive and keratometric results of radial keratotomy, respondents stated that their primary reasons for electing the operation related to anticipated changes in vision. Improving appearance was not reported as a primary reason for seeking radial keratotomy by these patients. When asked two years after surgery if their vision had improved, remained the same, or worsened, 94.3% reported improvement over preoperative vision. About 40% still wear corrective lens, 26% full time and 14% only part of the time. Most patients (84.1%) reported overall satisfaction with the surgical outcome. Patient satisfaction was strongly related to perceived improvement of vision after surgery, and not to patient self-esteem, to changes in appearance or lifestyle brought about by the operation, or to having a particular physician perform the surgery.
Tan, Kok-Yang; Tan, Phyllis; Tan, Lawrence
We hypothesized that a dedicated collaborative transdisciplinary Geriatric Surgery Service (GSS) will improve care for elderly colorectal surgery patients. Patients older than 75 years of age who underwent major colorectal surgery were included in this study. The Geriatric Surgery Service employed a transdisciplinary, collaborative model of care. There were frequent quality reviews and a patient-centered culture was ensured. Treatment protocols and checklists were instituted. Perioperative outcome data were collected prospectively between 2007 and 2009. These data were compared to those from similar patients not managed by the service. Success and failure of surgical treatment of the two groups were analyzed using CUSUM methodology. Failure was defined as mortality, prolonged hospital stay for any reason, including morbidity, and failure to regain preoperative function by 6 weeks. Twenty-nine patients managed by the GSS were compared to 52 patients who underwent standard treatment. The median age of the patients managed by the GSS was higher but there was no difference in the ASA score and predicted morbidity scores based on the POSSUM model. The GSS achieved lower mortality and major complication rates. A large majority (84.6%) of the patients managed by the GSS returned to preoperative functional status by 6 weeks. The GSS was able to produce a trend of successively desired outcomes consistently leading to the CUSUM curve exhibiting a sustained downward slope. This was in contrast to patients not managed by the GSS. The Geriatric Surgery Service, through its transdisciplinary, collaborative care processes, was able to achieve sustained superior outcomes compared to standard management.
Lessing, Noah L; Edwards, Charles C; Brown, Charles H; Ledford, Emily C; Dean, Clayton L; Lin, Charles; Edwards, Charles C
Spinal anesthesia is increasingly viewed as a reasonable alternative to general anesthesia for lumbar spine surgery. However, the results of spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine decompression and combined decompression and fusion procedures are limited in the literature. The aim of this study was to report a single institution's experience using spinal anesthesia in elderly patients undergoing lumbar spine surgery. A retrospective review was conducted using a prospectively collected database of consecutive lumbar spine surgeries performed under spinal anesthesia in patients 70 years or older at a single center between December 2013 and October 2015. A total of 56 patients were included in the study; 27 patients (48%) underwent lumbar decompression and 29 patients (52%) underwent combined decompression and fusion procedures. Mean operative time was 101 minutes (range, 30-210 minutes), and mean operative blood loss was 187 mL (range, 20-700 mL). Mean maximum inpatient postoperative visual analog scale score was 6.2 (range, 1-10). Nausea occurred in 21% (12 of 56) of the patients. Mean length of stay was 2.4 days (range, 1-6 days). No mortality, stroke, permanent loss of function, or pulmonary embolism occurred. None of the cases required conversion to general anesthesia. All of the patients were ambulatory on either the day of the surgery or the next morning. These results demonstrate that spinal anesthesia is a viable method of anesthesia for patients 70 years and older undergoing lumbar spine surgery. They also demonstrate the safety of this method for patients older than 84 years and for surgeries lasting up to 3½ hours. [Orthopedics. 2017; 40(2):e317-e322.].
Manoly, Imthiaz; McAnelly, Sarah-Louise; Sriskandarajah, Sanjeevan; McLaughlin, Kenneth Edward
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. We addressed the following question: in patients who are diagnosed with carcinoid heart disease (CHD), do valvular surgeries improve their prognosis? Fifty percent of the patients with clinically diagnosed carcinoid syndrome had cardiac involvement which was present either as valvular dysfunction or as cardiac metastases. These patients often require surgery due to their heightened risk of cardiac disease. Altogether 217 relevant papers were identified as a result of the below-mentioned search, of which 10 papers represented the best evidence to answer the question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Of the patients who were identified to have carcinoid heart disease in different studies, 193 patients had valve procedure, mainly replacements at tricuspid, mitral and aortic valve positions and either valvuloplasty or replacement at pulmonary valve. Tricuspid and pulmonary valves represented the majority of the excised valves among patients undergoing valvular surgery for CHD. The pathology of carcinoid valve was attributed to the presence of plaque, causing thickening and retraction. Pure regurgitation was the most common finding in all the valves except pulmonary valve which had both stenosis and insufficiency. Thirty-day mortality was 17% (range 1-63%) and long-term survivors were reported to be alive at an average of 58 months (28-80 months) after the valve surgery. The evidence demonstrates that surgical intervention can lead to improved prognosis and reduce the symptoms of heart failure. Postoperative mortality was mainly due to the carcinoid disease itself and not as a complication of the surgery. Therefore, surgery could be considered for symptomatic palliation in carefully selected individuals.
SILVEIRA-JÚNIOR, Sérgio; de ALBUQUERQUE, Maurício Mendes; do NASCIMENTO, Ricardo Reis; da ROSA, Luisa Salvagni; HYGIDIO, Daniel de Andrade; ZAPELINI, Raphaela Mazon
Background Few studies evaluated the association between nutritional disorders, quality of life and weight loss in patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Aim To identify nutritional changes in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and correlate them with weight loss, control of comorbidities and quality of life. Method A prospective cohort, analytical and descriptive study involving 59 patients undergoing bariatric surgery was done. Data were collected preoperatively at three and six months postoperatively, evaluating nutritional aspects and outcomes using BAROS questionnaire. The data had a confidence interval of 95%. Results The majority of patients was composed of women, 47 (79.7%), with 55.9% of the series with BMI between 40 to 49.9 kg/m². In the sixth month after surgery scores of quality of life were significantly higher than preoperatively (p<0.05) and 27 (67.5 %) patients had comorbidities resolved, 48 (81.3 %) presented BAROS scores of very good or excellent. After three and six months of surgery 16 and 23 presented some nutritional disorder, respectively. There was no relationship between the loss of excess weight and quality of life among patients with or without nutritional disorders. Conclusions Nutritional disorders are uncommon in the early postoperative period and, when present, have little or no influence on quality of life and loss of excess weight. PMID:25861070
Puvanesarajah, Varun; Jain, Amit; Qureshi, Rabia; Carstensen, S Evan; Tyger, Rosemarie; Hassanzadeh, Hamid
Few data are available concerning clinical outcomes in patients with Parkinson disease who undergo elective thoracolumbar spine fusion surgery. The goal of this study is to elucidate complication and revision rates after posterior thoracolumbar fusion surgery in patients with Parkinson disease, with a focus on how Parkinson disease modifies these rates. The PearlDiver database (2005-2012) was queried for patients who underwent posterior approach thoracolumbar fusion from 2006 to 2011. Cohorts of patients with a previous diagnosis of Parkinson disease (n = 4816) and without (n = 280,702) were compared. Multivariate analysis that included various comorbidities and demographics was used to calculate effects of Parkinson disease on development of postoperative infection and major medical complications within 90 days and revision surgery within 1 year. For analyses, significance was set at P < 0.001. Major medical complications were observed in 545 patients (11.3%) for 90 days after the index procedure. Postoperative infection was noted in 91 patients (1.9%) within 90 days, and revision surgeries were performed in 250 patients (5.2%) within 1 year. Multivariate analysis showed that Parkinson disease was significantly associated with an increased risk for medical complications (adjusted odds ratio, 1.22; 95% confidence interval, 1.11-1.34; P < 0.001) and revision surgery (adjusted odds ratio, 1.70; 95% confidence interval, 1.49-1.93; P < 0.001), but not postoperative infection (P = 0.02). Patients with Parkinson disease are more likely to require revision surgery and have higher rates of adverse medical events postoperatively. Patients with Parkinson disease should be appropriately selected to ensure favorable clinical outcomes. Copyright Â© 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.
Ryzí, Michal; Brázdil, Milan; Novák, Zdeněk; Hemza, Jan; Chrastina, Jan; Ošlejšková, Hana; Rektor, Ivan; Kuba, Robert
The primary aim of this study was to analyze the long-term outcomes of patients who were classified as Engel IV one year after resective epilepsy surgery. The secondary objectives were to evaluate the effectiveness of different treatment options and to examine the reasons that the patients did not undergo resective reoperation. Our study was designed as a retrospective open-label investigation of the long-term outcomes of 34 patients (12% of all surgically treated patients) who were classified as Engel IV one year after epilepsy surgery. At the last follow-up visit (average of 7.6 ± 4.2 years after surgery), 12 of the 34 examined patients (35.3%) were still classified as Engel IV; 22 of the 34 patients (64.7%) were improved (Engel I-III). Of the 34 patients, 8 (23.5%) achieved an excellent outcome, classified as Engel I, 3 patients (8.8%) were classified as Engel II, and 11 patients (32.4%) as Engel III. The seizure outcome in the patients classified as Engel I was achieved by resective reoperation in 4; by a change in antiepileptic medication in 3 patients; and by vagus nerve stimulation (VNS) in 1 patient. The seizure outcome of Engel II was achieved by a change in antiepileptic medication in all 3 patients. Of the 34 patients, a total of 6 (17.6%) underwent resective reoperation only. The major reasons for this were the absence of a plausible hypothesis for invasive re-evaluation, the risk of postoperative deficit, and multifocal epilepsy in the rest of patients. Although the reoperation rate was relatively low in our series, we can achieve better or even excellent seizure outcomes using other procedures in patients for whom resective surgery initially failed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Seuk, Ju-Wan; Yang, Moon-Sul; Cheong, Jin-Hwan; Kim, Jae-Min
Objective Pituitary apoplexy is one of the most serious life-threatening complications of pituitary adenoma. The purpose of this study is to investigate the visual outcome after early transsphenoidal surgery for the patients with pituitary apoplexy. Methods We retrospectively reviewed the 31 patients with pituitary apoplexy who were admitted due to acute visual acuity or field impairment and treated by transsphenoidal surgery. Five patients were excluded because of the decreased conscious level. The visual acuity of each individual eye was evaluated by Snellen's chart. Visual fields were also checked using automated perimetry. To compare the visual outcome according to the surgical timing, we divided the patients into 2 groups. The first group, 21 of the patients have been undertaken transsphenoidal approach (TSA) within at least 48 hours after admission. The second group included 8 patients who have been undertaken TSA beyond 48 hours. All patients were monitored at least 12 months after surgery. Results Patients were 21 males and 8 females (M : F=2.6 : 1) with the mean age of 42.4 years. Among the enrolled 29 patients, 26 patients presented with decreased visual acuity and 23 patients revealed the defective visual field respectively. Postoperatively, improvement in the visual acuity was seen in 15 patients (83.3%) who underwent surgery within the first 48 hours of presentation, as compared to those in whom surgery was delayed beyond 48 hours (n=5; 62.5%) (p=0.014). Improvement in the visual field deficits was observed in 15 (88.2%) of patients who had been operated on within the first 48 hours of presentation, as compared to those in whom surgery was delayed beyond 48 hours (n=3; 50.0%) (p=0.037). Conclusion This study suggests that rapid transsphenoidal surgery is effective to recover the visual impairment in patients with pituitary apoplexy. If there are associated abnormalities of visual acuity or visual fields in patients with hemorrhagic pituitary apoplexy
Giridhar, V Usha
Diet, nutrition, and dental health are closely related and have multidirectional impacts. Any oral diseases, may it be congenital, infective, traumatic, inflammatory, or neoplastic, affect routine functions of the oral cavity and even after corrective surgeries done to improve may adversely affect the food and fluid intake and further compromises nutritional status. Unlike other general surgeries, the surgeries done in oral and maxillofacial region impairs normal food intake, especially by mouth which is the preferred commonly used route. This oral cavity being harbored by multiple organisms makes it prone to further infection which again hampers the healing. Oral surgeries include the dentoalveolar region for the treatment of fracture or prosthetic reasons, for maxillofacial trauma, orthognathic surgeries, tumors, cleft lip and palate correction, etc., Nutrition plays a major role in the postoperative recovery and healing. Malnutrition in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) patients increases the postoperative morbidity and mortality rate. Nutrition in jaw fractures treated with intermaxillary fixation is more compromised. Healing is impaired in malnourished, critically ill, elderly, and patients with prolonged stay in hospital and hence nutrition in the form of enteral, parenteral, and oral sip feeding plays a major role in providing nutritional care. Preoperative nutrition and perioperative nutrition influence the postoperative outcome and hence metabolic and nutritional care is important for the uneventful healing. This article provides a basic review of the role of nutrition in the postoperative outcome of OMFS patients based on the search through articles in journal and internet.
Giridhar, V. Usha
Diet, nutrition, and dental health are closely related and have multidirectional impacts. Any oral diseases, may it be congenital, infective, traumatic, inflammatory, or neoplastic, affect routine functions of the oral cavity and even after corrective surgeries done to improve may adversely affect the food and fluid intake and further compromises nutritional status. Unlike other general surgeries, the surgeries done in oral and maxillofacial region impairs normal food intake, especially by mouth which is the preferred commonly used route. This oral cavity being harbored by multiple organisms makes it prone to further infection which again hampers the healing. Oral surgeries include the dentoalveolar region for the treatment of fracture or prosthetic reasons, for maxillofacial trauma, orthognathic surgeries, tumors, cleft lip and palate correction, etc., Nutrition plays a major role in the postoperative recovery and healing. Malnutrition in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery (OMFS) patients increases the postoperative morbidity and mortality rate. Nutrition in jaw fractures treated with intermaxillary fixation is more compromised. Healing is impaired in malnourished, critically ill, elderly, and patients with prolonged stay in hospital and hence nutrition in the form of enteral, parenteral, and oral sip feeding plays a major role in providing nutritional care. Preoperative nutrition and perioperative nutrition influence the postoperative outcome and hence metabolic and nutritional care is important for the uneventful healing. This article provides a basic review of the role of nutrition in the postoperative outcome of OMFS patients based on the search through articles in journal and internet. PMID:28163471
To determine selection and delivery of preoperative verbal information deemed important by nurses to relay to patients immediately prior to day surgery. Elective day-case surgery is expanding, patient turnover is high and nurse-patient contact limited. In the brief time-frame available, nurses must select and precisely deliver information to patients, provide answers to questions and gain compliance to ensure a sustained, co-ordinated patient throughput. Concise information selection is therefore necessary especially given continued day surgery expansion. Electronic questionnaire. A survey investigating nurses' choice of patient information prior to surgery was distributed throughout the UK via email addresses listed on the British Association of Day Surgery member's website (January 2015-April 2015). Participants were requested to undertake the survey within 2-3 weeks, with 137 participants completing the survey giving a 44% response rate. Verbal information deemed most important by nurses preoperatively was checking fasting time, information about procedure/operation, checking medication, ensuring presence of medical records/test results and concluding medical investigations checks. To a lesser extent was theatre environment information, procedure/operation start time and possible time to discharge. Significant differences were established between perceived importance of information and information delivery concerning the procedure/operation and anaesthesia details. Nurses working with competing demands and frequent interruptions, prioritised patient safety information. Although providing technical details during time-limited encounters, efforts were made to individualise provision. A more formal plan of verbal information provision could help ease nurses' cognitive workload and enhance patient satisfaction. This study provides evidence that verbal information provided immediately prior to day surgery may vary with experience. Nurse educators and managers may
Wahl, Michael J; Pinto, Andres; Kilham, Jessica; Lalla, Rajesh V
In a literature review, the incidence and morbidity of bleeding complications after dental surgery in anticoagulated patients was compared with embolic complications when anticoagulation was interrupted. Over 99% of anticoagulated patients had no postoperative bleeding that required more than local hemostatic measures. Of more than 5431 patients undergoing more than 11,381 surgical procedures, with many patients at higher than present therapeutic intenational normalized ratio (INR) levels, only 31 (∼0.6% of patients) required more than local hemostasis to control the hemorrhage; none died due to hemorrhage. Among at least 2673 patients whose warfarin dose was reduced or withdrawn for at least 2775 visits for dental procedures, there were 22 embolic complications (0.8% of cessations), including 6 fatal events (0.2% of cessations). The embolic morbidity risk in patients whose anticoagulation is interrupted for dental surgery exceeds that of significant bleeding complications in patients whose anticoagulation is continued, even when surgery is extensive. Warfarin anticoagulation, therefore, should not be interrupted for most dental surgery.
Campbell, R L; Smith, P B
Two hundred geriatric patients ranging from age 65 to 92 yr (mean age 72 yr) were evaluated for office oral surgery and intravenous sedation. Surgical time ranged from 6 to 129 min. Monitored anesthesia care was utilized for the administration of fentanyl, midazolam or diazepam, and methohexital. No serious complications were seen and no patients were hospitalized.
Pulford, Amanda; Mahon, David; Ferguson, Yasmin; Lewis, Michael PN
Aims This study explored the views and experiences of obese people preparing to undergo laparoscopic gastric banding (LAGB) leading up to the time of surgery. Background Weight loss surgery (WLS) is the most successful intervention available for the treatment of morbid obesity, and LAGB is among the most commonly used procedures in bariatric surgery. So far, the patient experience of deciding to undergo LAGB has been explored rarely and predominantly retrospectively. Design Semi-structured interviews took place with 23 patients about to undergo LAGB between June 2011 and March 2012. Data were analyzed using thematic analysis. Demographic and quality of life data situated the sample within the LAGB patient population. Results Three overarching themes were described. Participants were “living with obesity,” including the physical, social, and psychological challenges and consequences of being obese. These created in them a “desire to change,” expressed in multiple unsuccessful attempts to lose weight, and a quest for information, finally focusing on WLS. Eventually, “expectations toward LAGB” were formed, mainly to hand back a measure of control that enabled them to achieve, as well as ultimately to maintain, weight loss. This active process resulted in the patients' decision to undergo LAGB. When combined, these themes outline a distinct patient journey toward gastric banding. Conclusion Knowledge of the patient journey can inform both selection and care of patients awaiting gastric band surgery and is required by all health professionals working with this patient group. PMID:24761368
Dukatz, Thomas; Sarnthein, Johannes; Sitter, Helmut; Bozinov, Oliver; Benes, Ludwig; Sure, Ulrich; Bertalanffy, Helmut
Symptomatic patients with a brainstem cavernoma are treated surgically with increasing frequency. Generally, the patient's benefit from this difficult surgical intervention is quantified by the assessment of neurological symptoms. To document the beneficial effect of surgery in a larger patient population by assessing the postoperative quality of life (QoL). In a series of 71 surgically treated patients, a detailed neurological status was assessed by Patzold Rating and Karnofsky Performance Status Scale. Patients rated their QoL with the Short Form 36 Health Survey. To document the effect of surgery on QoL, we devised a supplementary questionnaire. The last 24 patients completed Short Form 36 Health Survey pre- and postoperatively. Karnofsky Performance Status Scale improved in 44 of 71 surgical patients (62%), remained unchanged in 19 (27%), and deteriorated in 8 (11%) individuals. Patzold Rating showed a more detailed picture of the neurological symptoms. It correlated significantly with Karnofsky Performance Status Scale, which underscores its usefulness for patients with brainstem lesions. In the Short Form 36 Health Survey score, the Mental Component Summary improved with surgery (paired test, P = .015). In addition, 58 individuals (82%) declared a clear subjective benefit of surgery. The results of this large series support the notion that microsurgical removal of a brainstem cavernoma represents an effective therapy in experienced hands and is generally associated with good clinical outcome, both neurologically and in terms of QoL.
Mazullo Filho, João Batista Raposo; Bonfim, Vânia Jandira Gomes; Aquim, Esperidião Elias
Noninvasive ventilation is routine in acute respiratory failure patients; nevertheless, the literature is controversial for its use in cardiac surgery postoperative period. To evaluate the effectiveness of preventive noninvasive ventilation in the immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery, monitoring its impact until the sixth day of hospitalization. This was a controlled study, where patients in immediate postoperative period of cardiac surgery were randomized into two groups: control (G1) and investigational (G2) which received noninvasive ventilation set on pressure support mode and positive end expiratory pressure, for 2 hours following extubation. Were evaluated ventilatory, hemodynamical and oxygenation variables both immediately after extubation and after noninvasive ventilation in G2. Thirty-two patients completed the study, 18 in G1 and 14 in G2. The mean age was 61±16.23 years for G1 and for G2 61.5 ± 9.4 years. Of the initial twenty-seven patients in G1, nine patients (33.3%) were excluded due to invasive ventilation requirements, and three patients (11.11%) had to go back to invasive mechanical ventilation. None of the 14 G2 patients was reintubated. Patients undergoing early ventilatory support showed better results in the assessments throughout the hospitalization time. Noninvasive post-cardiac surgery ventilation was proven effective, as demonstrated by increased vital capacity, decreased respiratory rate, prevention of post-extubation acute respiratory failure and reduced reintubation rates.
Lemaitre, S; Blumen-Ohana, E; Akesbi, J; Laplace, O; Nordmann, J-P
Preoperative anxiety is often expressed by patients requiring filtration surgery for their glaucoma. So far, there has been no scale for screening this group of patients for preoperative anxiety. The Amsterdam Preoperative Anxiety and Information Scale (APAIS) is a self-evaluation questionnaire which has been used in specialties other than ophthalmology and which makes it possible to identify the adult patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety over an upcoming surgical procedure. The purpose of this study is to estimate the preoperative anxiety in glaucoma patients requiring filtration surgery. We performed a prospective study of 36 adult patients with chronic glaucoma not responding to medical treatment and who were about to undergo filtration surgery (trabeculectomy or deep sclerectomy). The APAIS questionnaire was given to the patients after discussing the indication for surgery. A global anxiety score (ranging from 4 to 20) above 10 defined patients with a high level of preoperative anxiety. We attempted to identify among these patients the factors related to filtration surgery which caused them anxiety (lack of control of intraocular pressure, risk of blindness, presence of the filtering bleb). In our sample of patients, we found that glaucoma was a source of anxiety. That was also true for the surgical procedure, though most patients believe that once the decision had been made, their psychological status was not modified by the upcoming procedure. The patient-clinician relationship is important in any chronic disease, all the more so in glaucoma, since this disease remains asymptomatic for a long time. When filtration surgery is necessary, the patients are going to express less preoperative anxiety if they trust their physician and if individualized information has been given to them The French version of the APAIS is a quick scale, easily completed, that can be recommended for evaluating anxiety and patients' need for information prior to filtering
Dupim Souza, Ana Carolina; Franco, Carolina F; Pataro, André L; Guerra, Tadeu; de Oliveira Costa, Fernando; da Costa, José Eustáquio
Patients undergoing bariatric surgery often complain of bad breath. However, the relationship between bariatric surgery and halitosis is relatively unknown. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate and compare the occurrence of halitosis among patients before and after a specific type of bariatric surgery, Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, and its relationship with the tongue coating index, plaque index, and salivary flow rate. A total of 62 patients with good oral health and in treatment for obesity at the walk-in clinic of Santa Casa Hospital, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, were selected. Of this sample, 31 were bariatric surgery candidates (control group) and 31 had already undergone Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (case group). After completing a questionnaire, all patients underwent an oral clinical examination. Halitosis was measured using an organoleptic scale and a portable sulfide monitor. The Spearman correlation demonstrated a strong positive relation between the organoleptic rates and the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds determined using the sulfide monitor (rs = .58; P = .0001). No difference was found in the prevalence of halitosis between the 2 groups (P = .48). Only the salivary flow rate was significantly reduced in the control group compared with the case group (P = .02). In the case group, the concentration of volatile sulfur compounds correlated negatively with the salivary flow rate (P = .04) and positively with the tongue coating index (P = .005). The tongue coating index was significantly increased in those patients who did not brush the tongue (P < .04) and who had had episodes of vomiting (P = .02). These data suggest that no significant association exists between halitosis and Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. However, they do highlight the possible effect of this surgery on the oral cavity. Copyright © 2013 American Society for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Iribarren, Rafael; Iribarren, Guillermo
Modern cataract surgery by phacoemulsification is a widely accepted procedure with a rapid recovery time. The prescription of specific intraocular lens, implanted during surgery, makes it possible to anticipate whether the patient will need reading glasses after the procedure. The present study analyses a sample of cataract surgery patients to show the frequency of myopic shifts related to nuclear opacity, which can result in clear near vision before surgery. A non-selected sample of consecutive patients who underwent elective cataract surgery in a private clinic was studied retrospectively. The myopic shift in refraction was assessed by comparing the old prescription with the spectacle correction at the time of interviewing.The mean age of the 229 subjects studied was 71.5 ± 10.4 years (109, 47.6%, males). A myopic shift in refraction, defined as at least - 0.5 diopters, was present in 37.1% of subjects (95% CI: 30.8%-43.4%). The mean change in refraction in these subjects was -2.52 ± 1.52 diopters. The percentage of subjects who had developed a myopic shift was significantly greater in those who presented greater nuclear opalescence. There were also differences in the mean myopic shift by refractive group, with the emmetropes having the greatest myopic shift. In this study of patients seeking cataract surgery in a clinical setting, more than one third had myopic shifts in refraction. This must be taken into account in order that patients maintain the benefit of clear near vision after surgery.
Pringle, M; Robins, S; Brown, G
A postal survey sent to 350 patients from two rural practices confirmed that an appreciable minority of patients (17%) were opposed to doctors using computers. The questionnaire distributed had been carefully designed to identify their opposition more specifically. Most of the general concern was accounted for by the 91 patients (31%) who feared that confidentiality of information would be reduced. The sensitive nature of medical information alerts patients to the possibility of diminished security of records and obliges practices considering acquiring a computer to ensure that these fears are not realised. Smaller proportions of patients were found to oppose computers on other grounds--namely, impersonality, economy, and general anxiety. PMID:6419902
Klassen, Anne; Jhanwar, Sabrina; Pusic, Andrea; Roessler, Kirsten K.; Rose, Michael; Sørensen, Jens Ahm
Background: Patient expectations are important in bariatric and body contouring surgery because the goals include improvements in health-related quality of life, appearance, and body image. The aim of this study was to identify patient expectations along the weight loss journey and/or body contouring surgery. Methods: This qualitative study took an interpretive description approach. Between September 2009 and February 2012, 49 patients were interviewed postbody contouring surgery. Data were analyzed using a line-by-line approach whereby expectations were identified and labeled as expected, unexpected, or neutral. Constant comparison was used to ensure coding was done consistently. Interviews continued until no new themes emerged. Results: Participants described expectations according to appearance, health-related quality of life, and patient experience of care. Two areas stood out in terms of unmet expectations and included appearance and physical health, ie, recovery from body contouring surgery. Most participants, who underwent bariatric surgery, expected neither the extent of excess skin after weight loss nor how the excess skin would make them look and feel. For recovery, participants did not expect that it would be as long or as hard as it was in reality. Conclusions: A full understanding of outcomes and expectations for this patient population is needed to enhance patient education and improve shared medical decision making. Education materials should be informed by the collection of evidence-based patient-reported outcome information using measures such as the BODY-Q. A patient-reported outcome scale measuring patient expectations is needed for obese and bariatric patients. PMID:27200256
Parhiscar, Afshin; Rosenfeld, Richard M
Patient satisfaction with treatment decisions is a discrete and measurable component of the satisfaction paradigm, distinct from satisfaction with health care services. The study goal was to determine if the Satisfaction With Decision (SWD) scale, a valid and reliable 6-item survey, can predict patient compliance with surgery proposed by their otolaryngologist. Prospective study using the SWD scale plus measures of office visit satisfaction, provider satisfaction, and disease-specific quality of life. Metropolitan, private nonprofit hospital. The study population consisted of 151 patients scheduled for surgery, with a median age of 5.8 years and an age range of 0.6 to 65.3 years. At the time surgery was scheduled, the decision-maker completed a 12-item questionnaire about satisfaction and quality of life that included the SWD scale. Noncompliant patients were contacted, and the specific reason for cancellation was ascertained. The strongest predictor of surgical cancellation was the SWD survey score, with a median value of 4.8 for patients completing surgery compared with 3.8 for those who cancelled (P < 0.001). Patients with scores <4.0 had a 57% cancellation rate, whereas those with scores > or =4.0 had a 98% completion rate. Patients were also more likely to cancel if it was their first visit with the surgeon (P = 0.004) or if they were responsible for their own decisions (P = 0.007). Cancellations were not associated with office visit satisfaction, patient quality of life, or demographic characteristics of the decision-maker. Patients who are satisfied with their initial decision to undergo surgery are most likely to comply with planned therapy. Conversely, patients who score <4.0 on the SWD scale may benefit from additional preoperative counseling to increase the likelihood of compliance.
Maycock, N; MacGregor, C; Saunders, D A; Parkin, B
Purpose To assess the long term impact of ptosis surgery on health-related quality-of-life using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) patient-reported outcome measure. Patients and methods A retrospective case note review was carried out on all patients who had undergone ptosis surgery (6 November 2008 to 5 December 2010) by one surgeon at Royal Bournemouth Hospital. Patient demographics, surgical technique, and complications were recorded. The GBI questionnaire data was obtained by telephone interview. Results A total of 62 ptosis operations (33 right, 29 left, of which 18 were bilateral) on 44 patients; 20 male, 24 female were included. Median age 77 years (range: 17–95 years). One wound dehiscence occurred, but no redo ptosis procedures were required. GBI data was obtained on 32 patients (45 ptosis procedures) at a mean follow-up period of 42.8 months postoperatively (range 31–67 months). The mean total GBI score for ptosis surgery was +21.36 (range 0–58.33; 95% confidence interval: 17.28–25.43, P<0.05). Conclusion Patients derived a highly significant benefit to their health-related quality-of-life from ptosis surgery measured by the GBI that was maintained for up to 5 years. PMID:25882327
Jagmin, M G
To determine if elderly patients undergoing hip surgery became delirious postoperatively and, if so, whether age and/or time of day were related to delirium. Repeated measures. A convenience sample of 70 hip surgery patients 60 years of age and older at a large Midwestern teaching hospital were studied. Patients were excluded who were unconscious, unable to hear, see, and/or verbally communicate in English. Patients were also excluded who had a known history of dementia, Alzheimer's dementia, addiction to alcohol and/or sedative hypnotics, functional psychosis, or any other psychiatric diagnosis. Of the 70 patients, 37 were female and 33 were male. Mean age of the patients was 72.9 years (S.D. = 8.13). Patients were placed into one of three groups: Group 1--age 60 to 69 years (n = 25); Group 2--age 70 to 79 years (n = 25); or Group 3--80 years and older (n = 20). The most common procedure for all groups was total hip replacement (n = 48). Data were collected primarily by both objective and subjective assessment of the patients. Both the Folstein's Mini Mental Status Exam (MMSE) and the NEECHAM Confusion Tool were used to collect data. Chart reviews provided additional data. Patients were assessed preoperatively to obtain baseline assessment and screen out patients with preexisting confusion. Assessments were then done once in the morning and once in the evening for 5 days following surgery. Delirium, sundowning, sundown syndrome. The MMSE and NEECHAM were found to be highly correlated: Morning NEECHAM vs morning MMSE (Correlation Coefficient = .6515; p = .000), evening NEECHAM vs evening MMSE (Correlation Coefficient = .8301; p = .000). A test of repeated measures was used to examine the data. The Within factor was time, the Between factor was age, and the interaction effect was age by time of day. Dependent variables were total NEECHAM scores and total MMSE scores, in addition to total scores of these tests' subsections. An alpha level of .05 was used for all
Zakkar, Mustafa; Guida, Gustavo; Angelini, Gianni D
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was the impact of modified ultrafiltration on adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery in terms of inflammatory and metabolic changes, blood loss and early clinical outcomes. A total of 155 papers were identified using the search as described below. Of these, six papers presented the best evidence to answer the clinical question as they reported data to reach conclusions regarding the issues of interest for this review. The author, date and country of publication, patient group, study type and weaknesses and relevant outcomes were tabulated. Modified ultrafiltration in adult patients undergoing cardiac surgery seems to attenuate the levels of inflammatory molecules associated with surgery, reduces blood loss and blood transfusion and improves cardiac output, index and systemic vascular resistance. However, this was not translated in any reduction in length of stay in intensive care unit or hospital. Most studies were single-centre prospective non-blinded trials that included a small cohort of elective coronary artery bypass grafting patients, which makes it underpowered to provide unbiased evidence regarding clinical outcomes. Properly designed and conducted prospective randomized studies are required to answer whether the beneficial effect of modified ultrafiltration on systemic inflammatory molecules associated with surgery can translate with improvement in clinical outcome.
Nijveldt, R J; Prins, H A; Siroen, M P; Rauwerda, J A; Teerlink, T; van Leeuwen, P A
Thoracoabdominal aortic surgery is a high-risk procedure and associated with a significant morbidity and mortality. Ischemia reperfusion of visceral organs and lower extremities is one of the most important determinants of this morbidity. Arginine is the precursor of nitric oxide and arginine plasma levels are important in maintaining organ blood flow. Furthermore, arginine is important in wound healing and the immune system. Because of increased utilization of arginine, low arginine plasma levels could be expected after thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. We therefore measured arginine plasma levels in these patients. Six patients with thoracoabdominal aortic aneurysm were included in this study. University Hospital Vrije Universiteit, Department of Surgery, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Six patients undergoing thoracoabdominal aortic surgery. Plasma levels of arginine were measured by high-performance liquid chromatography. Very low arginine plasma levels were seen on the first postoperative day. From day 1 arginine slowly increased, but did not reach normal plasma levels on day 6. A significant decrease of arginine plasma levels was found and because of the fact that arginine has multiple functions, it may be important to keep these arginine plasma levels at normal or even higher levels in patients undergoing major vascular surgery. European Journal of Clinical Nutrition (2000) 54, 615-617.
Karimi, Kian; Adamson, Peter
Advances in health, increased awareness of preventative medicine, and evolution have led to an increasingly older population worldwide. Surgical aesthetic facial rejuvenation has become increasingly popular, more accessible, and has lost much of the stigma that it once carried. This review will discuss proper patient analysis and selection for aging face surgery, including medical, anatomic, and psychosocial factors that are involved. Although the novice facial plastic surgeon typically focuses on facial analysis and operative techniques in aging face surgery, we caution that the patient's expectations, psychosocial comorbidities, and perioperative interpersonal experiences are the most important factors that yield patient satisfaction, which is the prime outcome that is meaningful in elective cosmetic surgery. © Thieme Medical Publishers.
Basora Macaya, M
Iron deficiency in patients with morbid obesity can occur before bariatric surgery due to its inflammatory component and after surgery as the result of implementing the malabsorptive techniques. For patients with morbid obesity, micronutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12, iron and folate, should be suspected. Iron deficiency and other hematinics should be corrected, even when anemia has not been established. Normal ferritin levels do not allow us to rule out a possible iron deficiency, given that ferritin can increase due to the chronic inflammatory condition of obesity. After bariatric surgery, patients should take iron supplements; however, these supplements are frequently poorly tolerated. Rapid and effective correction of hemoglobin levels might require the intravenous administration of iron preparations.
Patel, Kamal V; Darakhshan, Amir A; Griffin, Nyree; Williams, Andrew B; Sanderson, Jeremy D; Irving, Peter M
The majority of patients with Crohn's disease require abdominal surgery during their lifetime, some of whom will require multiple operations. Postoperative complications are seen more frequently in patients requiring abdominal surgery for Crohn's disease than in patients requiring abdominal surgery for other conditions. In this article, we review the evidence supporting preoperative optimization, discussing strategies that potentially improve surgical outcomes and reduce perioperative morbidity and mortality. We discuss the roles of adequate cross-sectional imaging, nutritional optimization, appropriate adjustments of medical therapy, management of preoperative abscesses and phlegmons, smoking cessation and thromboembolic prophylaxis. We also review operation-related factors, and discuss their potential implications with respect to postoperative complications. Overall, the literature suggests that preoperative management has a major effect on postoperative outcomes.
Assis, Cinthia Calsinski; Lopes, Juliana de Lima; Nogueira-Martins, Luiz Antônio; de Barros, Alba Lucia Bottura Leite
This is a randomized clinical trial, aimed to compare the frequency and intensity of symptoms of anxiety in patients of preoperative cardiac surgery who received empathic behavior from nurse or family or those who received no specific type of empathic behavior. The sample consisted of 66 patients in preoperative of cardiac surgery, which were divided in three groups: empathic behavior by nurses, without specific empathic behavior and by family. Anxiety was assessed at two points in time: before and after the intervention. The instrument used was developed and validated by Suriano, comprising 19 defining characteristics of the nursing diagnosis anxiety. It was observed that the reduction of anxiety symptoms was higher in the group receiving empathic behavior of relatives when compared to the other two groups. The results suggested that encouraging the participation of family members can contribute to the reduction of anxiety symptoms in patients in preoperative cardiac surgery.
Vicente Barrero, Mario; Knezevic, Milan; Tapia Martín, Manuel; Viejo Llorente, Aurora; Orengo Valverde, Juan Carlos; García Jiménez, Francisco; López Pérez, Omar; Domínguez Sarmiento, Sergio; Díaz Cremades, Jose Manuel; Castellano Reyes, Juan
There is an evident need for procedural protocol for oral surgery patients who undergo oral anticoagulant treatment (OAT) because of: 1) the possible severity of complications and 2) the growing demand for OAT, which in some cases may be as much as 8% of the oral surgery patients that are referred to the hospital from primary care centers. In this study, the authors define the parameters for creating a proto- col applicable to this group of patients. The conclusion is that it is not necessary to suspend OAT before surgery; rather, these procedures should be performed under multidisciplinary medical control. The authors demonstrate that it is possible to perform oral surgery on OAT patients, without having to sus- pend treatment beforehand. A longitudinal study was performed in OAT patients that required some type of oral surgical procedures. After an INR control, the patient underwent surgery and afterwards the patient was given tranexamic acid as a mouth rinse. Postoperative hemorrhage was classified as slight when it lasted less than 5 minutes, moderate when it lasted longer than five minutes, and severe when it required blood transfusion. The study was performed over a 5-year period (1996-2000), by the maxillofacial surgery department. In that time period, 125 patients with OAT were treated; 90 of them were males and 35 were females. Tooth extraction was per- formed in 229 sessions and a total of 367 teeth were extracted, with an average of 1.6% per session. With regards to postoperative hemorrahage, it was slight in 210 cases (91.7%), moderate in 18 (7.9%) and severe only in one case (0.4%). All the variables were compared and no statistically significant differences were found. We believe that OAT should not be suspended before oral surgery, but it surgery should be performed under multidisciplinary control-especially in the case of the elderly (over 65) or with those patients that have other concomitant illnesses such as renal insufficiency or anemia or other
Kim, Ryungsa; Kawai, Ami; Wakisaka, Megumi; Funaoka, Yuri; Ohtani, Shoichiro; Ito, Mitsuya; Kadoya, Takayuki; Okada, Morihito
Surgery/anesthetic technique-stimulated immunosuppression may be associated with outcome for cancer patients. Here, the immune responses of patients undergoing day surgery versus hospitalization surgery for breast cancer were compared in a prospective study. Between February 2012 and August 2014, 21 breast cancer patients underwent day surgery and 16 breast cancer patients underwent hospitalization surgery. The former group received lidocaine/propofol/pethidine, while propofol/systemic opioid- and sevoflurane/propofol/systemic opioid-based anesthesia were administered to the latter group. Surgical stress response was evaluated based on time of operation and amount of bleeding during operation. Immune function was assessed based on natural killer (NK) cell activity, CD4/8 T cell ratio, and cytokine levels of IL-6 and IL-10 that were detected before surgery, after surgery, and on the first postoperative day. Operation time did not differ between the two groups. Blood loss was significantly less for the hospitalization surgery group. No change in NK cell activity was observed for either group, although the CD4/8 T cell ratio increased transiently following day surgery. Levels of IL-6 increased significantly in both groups following surgery, and these levels tended to be higher in the hospitalization surgery group. One patient who underwent hospitalization surgery had higher levels of IL-10. There were few differences in immune response between the two groups, potentially since a majority of the hospitalization surgery patients received propofol-based anesthesia. We hypothesize that the use of volatile anesthetic/opioid analgesia in hospitalization surgery has a greater influence on immune function in breast cancer patients than local anesthetic/propofol-based anesthesia in day surgery.
Ucuzal, Meral; Kanan, Nevin
The aim of this study was to determine the effect of foot massage on pain after breast surgery, and provide guidance for nurses in nonpharmacologic interventions for pain relief. This was a quasiexperimental study with a total of 70 patients who had undergone breast surgery (35 in the experimental group and 35 in the control group). Patients in the control group received only analgesic treatment, whereas those in the experimental group received foot massage in addition to analgesic treatment. Patients received the first dose of analgesics during surgery. As soon as patients came from the operating room, they were evaluated for pain severity. Patients whose pain severity scored ≥4 according to the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire were accepted into the study. In the experimental group, pain and vital signs (arterial blood pressure, pulse, and respiration) were evaluated before foot massage at the time patients complained about pain (time 0) and then 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes after foot massage. In the control group, pain and vital signs were also evaluated when the patients complained about pain (time 0) and again at 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 minutes, in sync with the times when foot massage was completed in the experimental group. A patient information form was used to collect descriptive characteristics data of the patients, and the Short-Form McGill Pain Questionnaire was used to determine pain severity. Data were analyzed for frequencies, mean, standard deviation, chi-square, Student t, Pillai trace, and Bonferroni test. The results of the statistical analyses showed that patients in the experimental group experienced significantly less pain (p ≤ .001). Especially notable, patients in the experimental group showed a decrease in all vital signs 5 minutes after foot massage, but patients in the control group showed increases in vital signs except for heart rate at 5 minutes. The data obtained showed that foot massage in breast surgery patients was
Imamović, Maida Zonić; Hodzić, Mirsad; Duraković, Suada Kapidzić; Basić, Nedima Kapidzić; Cickusić, Amela; Imamović, Goran
The aim of this study was to determine whether early rehabilitation from the first postoperative day after lumbar disc herniation surgery improved functional status of patients compared to the rehabilitation that started 3 weeks after surgery. Oswestry index was used for functional status assessment before surgery and after rehabilitation in 60 patients divided in 2 groups, i.e., early and control group of rehabilitation strated 3 weeks after surgery, 30 in each. Oswestry index values before surgery and after rehabilitation in the early rehabilitation group were 78.4 +/- 17 and 19.6 +/- 9.9, respectively (p < 0.0001) and in the control group the values were 79 +/- 13 and 37 +/- 14, respectively (p < 0.0001). The difference of Oswestry index before operation and after rehabilitation in the early rehabilitation group was 58.7 +/- 18.9, and in the control group 41.6 +/- 13.2 (p = 0.0001). Onset of rehabilitation from the first post operative day lead to better functional recovery compared to delayed rehabilitation 3 weeks after lumbar disc herniation surgery.
Chu, Michael W; Cook, Julia A; Tholpady, Sunil S; Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Momeni, Arash
Patient education is essential in enhancing the physician-patient therapeutic alliance, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. The American Medical Association and National Institute of Health recommend that information be written at a 6th-grade reading level, but online resources often exceed patient literacy. The purpose of this study is to assess readability of online material for facial plastics procedures presented on academic plastic surgery and otolaryngology websites.An Internet search was performed of all academic institutions that had both plastic surgery and otolaryngology training programs who offered patient information on facial plastic surgery procedures. National society websites for both plastic surgery and otolaryngology were also analyzed. All procedural information was compiled and readability analyses were performed. A 2-tailed Z-test was used to compare scores, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Sixty-three programs were identified; 42 had educational material. The overall average readability for all information was at a 10th-grade reading level. The national plastic surgery website had a significantly higher word count and number of syllables per word compared to the national otolaryngology website (P < 0.001, P = 0.04).The complexity of written resources represents an obstacle to online patient education and efforts to improve readability could benefit patients seeking medical information online. Current online education materials are a potential hindrance to patient education, satisfaction, and decision making. Healthcare institutions should consider writing new materials with simpler language that would be accessible to patients.
Chu, Michael W; Cook, Julia A; Tholpady, Sunil S; Schmalbach, Cecelia E; Momeni, Arash
Patient education is essential in enhancing the physician-patient therapeutic alliance, patient satisfaction, and clinical outcomes. The American Medical Association and National Institute of Health recommend that information be written at a 6th-grade reading level, but online resources often exceed patient literacy. The purpose of this study is to assess readability of online material for facial plastics procedures presented on academic plastic surgery and otolaryngology websites.An Internet search was performed of all academic institutions that had both plastic surgery and otolaryngology training programs who offered patient information on facial plastic surgery procedures. National society websites for both plastic surgery and otolaryngology were also analyzed. All procedural information was compiled and readability analyses were performed. A 2-tailed Z-test was used to compare scores, and statistical significance was set at P < 0.05.Sixty-three programs were identified; 42 had educational material. The overall average readability for all information was at a 10th-grade reading level. The national plastic surgery website had a significantly higher word count and number of syllables per word compared to the national otolaryngology website (P < 0.001, P = 0.04).The complexity of written resources represents an obstacle to online patient education and efforts to improve readability could benefit patients seeking medical information online. Current online education materials are a potential hindrance to patient education, satisfaction, and decision making. Healthcare institutions should consider writing new materials with simpler language that would be accessible to patients.
van Dijk, Martine M.; Klein, Steven; Hoogbergen, Maarten M.
Background: There is an exponential rise of patients with massive weight loss because of bariatric surgery or lifestyle changes. The result is an increase of patients with folds of redundant skin that may cause physical and psychological problems. The lower body lift is a procedure to correct deformities in the abdomen, mons, flanks, lateral thighs, and buttocks. Complication rates are quite high and could negatively affect the positive outcomes. The purpose of this study is to assess complication rates and to identify predictors of complications to optimize outcomes for patients after lower body lift surgery. Methods: A retrospective analysis of 100 patients who underwent a lower body lift procedure was performed. The patients were reviewed for complications, demographic data, comorbidities, smoking, highest lifetime body mass index, body mass index before lower body lift surgery, percentage of excess weight loss, and amount of tissue excised. Results: The overall complication rate was 78%. Twenty-two percent of the patients had major complications and 56% had minor complications. There is a linear relationship between body mass index before lower body lift surgery and complications (P = 0.03). The percentage of excess weight loss (odds ratio [OR] 0.97; 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.92–1.00), highest lifetime body mass index (OR 1.08; 95% CI 1.01–1.15), body mass index before lower body lift surgery (OR 1.17; 95% CI 1.02–1.33), and smoking (OR 7.74; CI 0.98–61.16) are significantly associated with the development of complications. Conclusions: This study emphasizes the importance of a good weight status before surgery and cessation of smoking to minimize the risk of complications. PMID:27757346
Nimeri, Abdelrahman A; Bautista, Jejomar; Ibrahim, Maha; Philip, Ruby; Al Shaban, Talat; Maasher, Ahmed; Altinoz, Ajda
Bariatric surgery patients are at high risk for venous thromboembolism (VTE), and chemoprophylaxis is recommended. Sheikh Khalifa Medical City (SKMC) is an American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) member since 2009. We report the rates of VTE in bariatric surgery patients from 2010 to 2016 compared to ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs before and after switching from heparin to low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), initiating mandatory risk assessment using Caprini scoring for VTE and adopting an aggressive strategy for high-risk patients regarding dosage of LMWH and chemoprophylaxis after discharge. During the study period, there were 1152 cases (laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (LRYGB) 625 and laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy (LSG) 527) at Bariatric & Metabolic Institute (BMI) Abu Dhabi compared to 65,693 cases (LRYGB 32,130 and LSG 33,563) at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs. VTE rates remained stable at ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery programs from 2010 to 2016 (0.45, 0.45, 0.45, 0.25, 0.35, 0.3, and 0.3%). In contrast, VTE rates at BMI Abu Dhabi decreased from 2.2% in 2011 to 0.35% after we adopted an aggressive strategy to VTE without an increase in bleeding complications. LRYGB patients with VTE had higher OR time, leak, collection, and mortality at ACS NSQIP hospitals compared to those at BMI Abu Dhabi. In contrast, rates were similar in LSG patients with VTE. Changing our approach to VTE management led our VTE rates to decrease and become like those of ACS NSQIP bariatric surgery patients in LSG and LRYGB.
Snyder, Allison G
The purpose of this article is to provide an overview of the critical domains assessed during the psychological evaluation of candidates for bariatric surgery. Although no formal standard exists in the literature, there is growing recognition of the important elements to be addressed and the appropriate means for collecting the necessary data to determine psychological readiness for these procedures. Information regarding the components of the clinical interview and the specific measures used for psychological testing are discussed. Given the limited data on predicting success after surgery, determining psychological contraindications for surgery is addressed. Additionally, the multiple functions served by the psychologist during this assessment procedure are highlighted along with the value of this procedure in the patients' preparation for surgery.
Ellison, Lars M; Pinto, Peter A; Kim, Fernando; Ong, Albert M; Patriciu, Alex; Stoianovici, Dan; Rubin, Haya; Jarrett, Thomas; Kavoussi, Louis R
Technologic advances in communications have facilitated the development and diffusion of telemedicine. Most applications have focused on remote outpatient management of medical conditions. We assessed the impact of introducing remote video conferencing during the immediate postoperative period (telerounds) on patient-reported satisfaction with their hospitalization. Between October 2002 and June 2003,85 patients undergoing elective laparoscopic or percutaneous urologic procedures were enrolled in a trial testing the impact of telerounds on patients' satisfaction with their hospitalization. Participants were entered into one of three postoperative care arms: standard once-daily attending bedside rounds; standard once-daily attending level bedside rounds plus one afternoon telerounding visit; or a substitution of one daily bedside round with a robotic telerounding visit. Participants completed a validated patient satisfaction survey 2 weeks after hospital discharge. Eighty-five individuals (100% response rate) completed the questionnaire. With responses dichotomized to "excellent" or "other," patients in the telerounding arm demonstrated statistically substantial improvements in ratings of examination thoroughness, quality of discussions about medical information, postoperative care coordination, and attending physician availability. Patients in the robotic telerounding arm indicated considerably higher satisfaction with regard to physician availability. After adjusting for age differences, ratings of each of the previously listed aspects of care remained notably improved in the telerounding arm. Telerounding either as an additional visit or as a substituted bedside visit is associated with increased patient satisfaction in postoperative care. This type of interaction appears to acceptably facilitate physician communication with hospitalized patients.
Li, Zhikun; Wang, Fei; Xu, Wei; Li, Yifan; Zhu, Xiaodong
Abstract Rationale: Rod breakage during pregnancy and delivery has never been described in a patient who has undergone surgery for congenital scoliosis (CS). Here, we present an unusual but significant case of revision surgery. Patient concerns: A 29-year-old woman presented with low back pain during pregnancy after posterior osteotomy, correction and fusion at T9 to L5 for CS. Radiographs during follow-up, 4 months after the patient gave birth, demonstrated rod breakage. Diagnoses: Rod breakage after orthopaedic surgery of congenital kyphoscoliosis Interventions: The patient was taken into the operating room for replacement of the broken rods, recovery of sagittal balance, bone graft fusion, and improvement of stability by cross-connection. The patient recovered fully by the 3-month postoperative follow-up. Outcomes: In follow-up, the instruments were in good condition, the orthopedic effect was not lost, and low back pain relief was observed. Lessons: We opine that the rod breakage during pregnancy resulted from weight gain and a lack of an anterior approach to the supportive bone graft. Therefore, female patients with spinal surgery should visit the hospital for advice before pregnancy. PMID:27930594
da SILVA, Paola Turchiello; PATIAS, Luciana Dapieve; ALVAREZ, Glauco da Costa; KIRSTEN, Vanessa Ramos; COLPO, Elisângela; de MORAES, Cristina Machado Bragança
Background : Nowadays obesity is a chronic disease considered one of the greatest problems in public healthy. Showing to be effective in a short and long term, the bariatric surgery has emerged as an optional treatment for morbid obesity. Aim: Identify the profile of patients seeking bariatric surgery. Methods: Were interviewed 100 patients in preoperative nutritional monitoring of bariatric surgery. The study was conducted by applying a questionnaire prepared according to the research objectives. Results: From the individuals that were seeking bariatric surgery, 78% were female, 62% were married and 69% reported physical activity. The average age of those surveyed was 37±10.83 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 43.51± 6.25 kg/m². The comorbidity more prevalent in this group was high blood pressure (51%). In previous treatments for weight reduction, 92% have already done hypocaloric diet followed by anorectic drug (83%). The success of these treatments was reported by 92% of patients; however, the weight lost was recovered in less than one year of 75%. Patients with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia had higher BMI values. The patients with comorbidities showed lower levels of BMI. Conclusion: The profile of patients who sought surgical treatment for their obesity were predominantly women with a family background of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus. PMID:26734799
da Silva, Paola Turchiello; Patias, Luciana Dapieve; Alvarez, Glauco da Costa; Kirsten, Vanessa Ramos; Colpo, Elisângela; de Moraes, Cristina Machado Bragança
Nowadays obesity is a chronic disease considered one of the greatest problems in public healthy. Showing to be effective in a short and long term, the bariatric surgery has emerged as an optional treatment for morbid obesity. Identify the profile of patients seeking bariatric surgery. Were interviewed 100 patients in preoperative nutritional monitoring of bariatric surgery. The study was conducted by applying a questionnaire prepared according to the research objectives. From the individuals that were seeking bariatric surgery, 78% were female, 62% were married and 69% reported physical activity. The average age of those surveyed was 37±10.83 years and mean body mass index (BMI) was 43.51± 6.25 kg/m². The comorbidity more prevalent in this group was high blood pressure (51%). In previous treatments for weight reduction, 92% have already done hypocaloric diet followed by anorectic drug (83%). The success of these treatments was reported by 92% of patients; however, the weight lost was recovered in less than one year of 75%. Patients with diabetes mellitus and dyslipidemia had higher BMI values. The patients with comorbidities showed lower levels of BMI. The profile of patients who sought surgical treatment for their obesity were predominantly women with a family background of obesity and obesity-related comorbidities, especially hypertension and diabetes mellitus.
Maycock, N; MacGregor, C; Saunders, D A; Parkin, B
To assess the long term impact of ptosis surgery on health-related quality-of-life using the Glasgow Benefit Inventory (GBI) patient-reported outcome measure. A retrospective case note review was carried out on all patients who had undergone ptosis surgery (6 November 2008 to 5 December 2010) by one surgeon at Royal Bournemouth Hospital. Patient demographics, surgical technique, and complications were recorded. The GBI questionnaire data was obtained by telephone interview. A total of 62 ptosis operations (33 right, 29 left, of which 18 were bilateral) on 44 patients; 20 male, 24 female were included. Median age 77 years (range: 17-95 years). One wound dehiscence occurred, but no redo ptosis procedures were required. GBI data was obtained on 32 patients (45 ptosis procedures) at a mean follow-up period of 42.8 months postoperatively (range 31-67 months). The mean total GBI score for ptosis surgery was +21.36 (range 0-58.33; 95% confidence interval: 17.28-25.43, P<0.05). Patients derived a highly significant benefit to their health-related quality-of-life from ptosis surgery measured by the GBI that was maintained for up to 5 years.
Dieu, Tam; Upjohn, Edward
Anesthetic complications are uncommon in young and healthy patients undergoing cosmetic surgery. We report 2 cases of negative pressure pulmonary edema (NPPE) in young patients, 1 who underwent rhinoplasty and another who underwent augmentation mammaplasty and suction-assisted lipoplasty of the thighs and buttocks This rare and potentially fatal complication requires admission to an intensive-care unit and delayed discharge. Although cases of NPPE have been reported in the medical and anesthetic literature, NPPE in plastic surgery has never been reported previously.
Ratliff, John K; Lebude, Bryan; Albert, Todd; Anene-Maidoh, Tony; Anderson, Greg; Dagostino, Phillip; Maltenfort, Mitchel; Hilibrand, Alan; Sharan, Ashwini; Vaccaro, Alexander R
Definitions of complications in spinal surgery are not clear. Therefore, the authors assessed a group of practicing spine surgeons and, through the surgeons' responses to an online and emailed survey, developed a simple definition of operative complications due to spinal surgery. To validate this assessment, the authors revised their survey to make it appropriate for a lay audience and repeated the assessment with a cohort of patients who underwent spine surgery. The authors surveyed a cohort of practicing spine surgeons via email and a web-based survey. Surgeons were presented with various complication scenarios and were asked to grade the presence or absence of a complication as well as complication severity, with responses limited to "major complication" and "minor complication/adverse event." The authors administered a similar assessment, modified for lay persons, to patients in a spinal surgery clinic. Complete responses were obtained from 229 surgeons; orthopedic surgeons comprised the majority of respondents (73%). The authors obtained completed surveys from 197 patients. Overall, there was consistent agreement between physicians and patients regarding the presence or absence of a complication in the majority of scenarios (8 [73%] of 11 scenarios with agreement that a complication was present). The overall kappa value, evaluating major versus minor complication, and presence or absence of a complication over the entire cohort, was fair (kappa = 0.21). The authors found greater variation between the cohorts when evaluating complication severity. Patients were consistently more critical than physicians in the majority of scenarios in which a difference was evident. In 4 scenarios, patients were more likely than surgeons to deem the scenario a complication and to grade the complication as major versus minor (p < 0.01). In 3 additional scenarios, patients were more likely than physicians to grade a major complication as opposed to minor complication (p < 0
Salehahmadi, Zeinab; Rafie, Seyyed Reza
BACKGROUND Although, there have been extensive research on the motivations driving patient to undergo cosmetic procedures, there is still a big question mark on the persuasive factors which may lead individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery. The present study evaluated various factors affecting patients undergoing cosmetic surgery in Bushehr, Southern Iran. METHODS From 24th March 2011 to 24th March 2012, eighty-one women and 20 men who wished to be operated in Fatemeh Zahra Hospital in Bushehr, Southern Iran and Pars Clinic, Iran were enrolled by a simple random sampling method. They all completed a questionnaire to consider reasons for cosmetic procedures. The collected data were statistically analyzed. RESULTS Demographical, sociological and psychological factors such as age, gender, educational level, marital status, media, perceived risks, output quality, depression and self-improvement were determined as factors affecting tendency of individuals to undergo cosmetic surgery in this region. Trend to undergo cosmetic surgery was more prevalent in educational below bachelor degree, married subjects, women population of 30-45 years age group. Education level, age, marital status and gender were respectively the influential factors in deciding to undergo cosmetic surgery. Among the socio-psychological factors, self-improvement, finding a better job opportunity, rivalry, media, health status as well as depression were the most persuasive factors to encourage people to undergo cosmetic surgery too. Cost risk was not important for our samples in decision making to undergo cosmetic surgery. CONCLUSION We need to fully understand the way in which the combination of demographic, social and psychological factors influence decision-making to undergo cosmetic surgery. PMID:25734051
Herber, S C; Lehman, J A
Orthognathic surgery for the cleft lip and palate patient should be designed to achieve good facial aesthetics and a stable, functional occlusion. Maxillary and mandibular osteotomies, which benefit cleft lip and palate patients with associated dentofacial deformities, should be modified to meet the needs of the individual patient. Soft-tissue correction of the upper lip and nose adds to the overall aesthetic result, but should be performed as a separate procedure.
Shander, Aryeh; Javidroozi, Mazyar; Perelman, Seth; Puzio, Thomas; Lobel, Gregg
Safety and efficacy concerns of allogeneic blood transfusions and their impact on patient outcomes and associated staggering costs and restricted supply have fueled the quest for other modalities and strategies to reduce use of blood components. Patient blood management focuses on multidisciplinary and multimodal preventive measures to reduce or obviate the need for transfusions and ultimately to improve the clinical outcomes of patients. Patient blood management strategies can be applied at every stage of care to surgical and nonsurgical patients, and they generally fall under one of these three categories (the so-called pillars of blood management): optimizing hematopoiesis and appropriate management of anemia, minimizing bleeding and blood loss, and harnessing and optimizing physiological tolerance of anemia through employing all available modalities while treatment is initiated. Several tools and modalities are available to address each of these pillars. Examples include hematinic agents, systemic and topical hemostatic agents, autotransfusion, and blood-sparing perfusion and surgical techniques. Additionally, changes in practice of clinicians (e.g., adherence to restrictive, evidence-based transfusion strategies with emphasis on physiologic indications for transfusion, minimization of iatrogenic blood loss, and adequate planning) play an important role in patient blood management. Emerging evidence supports that appropriate use of these strategies as part of a multimodal program is a safe and effective way of reducing allogeneic transfusions and improving patient outcomes.
Grisoli, Dominique; Million, Matthieu; Edouard, Sophie; Thuny, Franck; Lepidi, Hubert; Collart, Frédéric; Habib, Gilbert; Raoult, Didier
Q fever is a worldwide zoonosis caused by a fastidious bacterium, Coxiella burnetii. A recent major outbreak of which in the Netherlands will most likely lead to the emergence of hundreds of cases of C. burnetii endocarditis during the next decade. Patients undergoing cardiac valve surgery may carry undiagnosed Q fever endocarditis with possible disastrous outcomes, and hence may benefit from a screening strategy. The study aim was to evaluate the frequency of unsuspected latent Q fever endocarditis in patients undergoing routine valve surgery. At the present authors' institution, all resected cardiac valves/prostheses are examined routinely histologically, microbiologically and on a molecular biological basis, in addition to serological testing for fastidious microorganisms. A retrospective review was conducted of data relating to all patients who had unsuspected Q fever endocarditis that had been diagnosed after routine valve/prosthesis replacement/repair between 2000 and 2013 at the authors' institution. Among 6,401 patients undergoing valve surgery, postoperative examinations of the explanted valves/prostheses led to an unexpected diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis in 14 cases (0.2%), who subsequently underwent appropriate medical treatments. Only two of the patients (14%) had intraoperative findings suggestive of endocarditis. On serological analysis of the blood samples, 11 patients (79%) presented an evocative Phase I IgG antibody titer > or =800. Valvular tissue-sample analyses yielded positive cultures and PCR in the same 13 patients (93%), whereas pathological and immunohistochemical examinations alone were suggestive of endocarditis in only seven Cases (50%). This screening strategy led to an unexpected diagnosis of Q fever endocarditis in 0.2% of patients undergoing routine valve surgery, who received subsequent appropriate antibiotic therapy. Systematic serological analysis should be mandatory before performing heart valve surgery in countries where C
Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R
Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented. PMID:26316771
Bartlett, Matthew A; Mauck, Karen F; Daniels, Paul R
Bariatric surgical procedures are now a common method of obesity treatment with established effectiveness. Venous thromboembolism (VTE) events, which include deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, are an important source of postoperative morbidity and mortality among bariatric surgery patients. Due to an understanding of the frequency and seriousness of these complications, bariatric surgery patients typically receive some method of VTE prophylaxis with lower extremity compression, pharmacologic prophylaxis, or both. However, the optimal approach in these patients is unclear, with multiple open questions. In particular, strategies of adjusted-dose heparins, postdischarge anticoagulant prophylaxis, and the role of vena cava filters have been evaluated, but only to a limited extent. In contrast to other types of operations, the literature regarding VTE prophylaxis in bariatric surgery is notable for a dearth of prospective, randomized clinical trials, and current professional guidelines reflect the uncertainties in this literature. Herein, we summarize the available evidence after systematic review of the literature regarding approaches to VTE prevention in bariatric surgery. Identification of risk factors for VTE in the bariatric surgery population, analysis of the effectiveness of methods used for prophylaxis, and an overview of published guidelines are presented.
Prabakar, Cheruba; Nematian, Sepide; Julka, Nitasha; Bhatt, Devika; Bral, Pedram
Objective. To investigate patient knowledge and attitudes toward surgical approaches in gynecology. Design. An anonymous Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved questionnaire survey. Patients/Setting. A total of 219 women seeking obstetrical and gynecological care in two offices affiliated with an academic medical center. Results. Thirty-four percent of the participants did not understand the difference between open and laparoscopic surgeries. 56% of the participants knew that laparoscopy is a better surgical approach for patients than open abdominal surgeries, while 37% thought that laparoscopy requires the surgeon to have a higher technical skill. 46% of the participants do not understand the difference between laparoscopic and robotic procedures. 67.5% of the participants did not know that the surgeon moves the robot's arms to perform the surgery. Higher educational level and/or history of previous abdominal surgeries were associated with the highest rates of answering all the questions correctly (p < 0.05), after controlling for age and race. Conclusions. A substantial percentage of patients do not understand the difference between various surgical approaches. Health care providers should not assume that their patients have an adequate understanding of their surgical options and accordingly should educate them about those options so they can make truly informed decisions. PMID:27840826
Lima, Paula Monique Barbosa; Cavalcante, Hermanny Evanio Freitas; Rocha, Angelo Roncalli Miranda; Brito, Rebeca Taciana Fernandes de
Many strategies to improve services provided by for physiotherapy are based on patients satisfaction. Listen and observe the behavior of patients in a hospital is crucial to understanding and improvement of service and the hospital. This study aimed to identify the patient's perception undergoing cardiac surgery on the physiotherapy service provided to wards of hospitals for heart surgery reference in the city of Maceió, AL, Brazil, and from that information detect what actions are perceived as priorities for which are noteworthy plans for improvements in quality of care. Cross-sectional study, conducted in quality and quantity of reference hospitals in cardiac surgery in the city of Maceio, AL, Brazil, in the period from September to November 2008. The study included 30 users of the Sistema Único de Saúde, of which 12 (40%) female and 18 (60%) males. The average age of this sample was 49.2 ± 11.9 years and most belonged to socioeconomic class D (36.7%). It was found that only 16.7% had contact with the physiotherapist before surgery. Regarding educational guidelines about postoperative period, only 2.9% patients reported having received them. However, 56.8% rated the care as good and 100% of patients reported believing that physiotherapy could improve their health status. We suggest the implementation of preoperative physical therapy protocols with preventive measures and educational as well as new researchs that may characterize the population of users of health plans/private.
Suzuki, S; Suzuki, N; Hattori, A; Hayashibe, M; Konishi, K; Kakeji, Y; Hashizume, M
Robotic systems are increasingly being incorporated into general laparoscopic and thoracoscopic surgery to perform procedures such as cholecystectomy and prostatectomy. Robotic assisted surgery allows the surgeon to conduct minimally invasive surgery with increased accuracy and with potential benefits for patients. However, current robotic systems have their limitations. These include the narrow operative field of view, which can make instrument manipulation difficult. Current robotic applications are also tailored to specific surgical procedures. For these reasons, there is an increasing demand on surgeons to master the skills of instrument manipulation and their surgical application within a controlled environment. This study describes the development of a surgical simulator for training and mastering procedures performed with the da Vinci surgical system. The development of a tele-surgery simulator and the construction of a training center are also described, which will enable surgeons to simulate surgery from or in remote places, to collaborate over long distances, and for off-site expert assistance. Copyright 2005 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Attaran, Saina; Chukwuemeka, Andrew; Punjabi, Prakash P.; Anderson, Jon
A best evidence topic in cardiothoracic surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was ‘do all patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis need surgery?’ Seventeen papers were found using the reported search that represented the best evidence to answer the clinical question. The authors, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes and results of these papers are tabulated. These studies compared the outcome and survival between surgically and non-surgically treated patients with prosthetic valve endocarditis. Of these studies, two were prospective observational studies and the rest were retrospective studies. The results of most of these papers were in accordance with the guidelines of the American College of Cardiology and American Heart association. These studies showed that unless a patient is not a surgical candidate, an operation is the treatment of choice in prosthetic valve endocarditis. Surgery should be performed as soon as possible, particularly in haemodynamically unstable patients and those who develop complications such as heart failure, valvular dysfunction, regurgitation/obstruction, dehiscence and annular abscess. In addition to the above indications and cardiac/valvularrelated complications of prosthetic valve endocarditis, infection with Staphylococcus aureus plays an important role in the outcome, and the presence of this micro-organism should be considered an urgent surgical indication in the treatment of prosthetic valve endocarditis. Surgery should be performed before the development of any cerebral or other complications. In contrast, in stable patients with other micro-organisms, particularly those with organisms sensitive to antibiotic treatment who have no structural valvular damage or cardiac complications, surgery can be postponed. The option of surgical intervention can also be revisited if there is a change in response to the treatment. This
Bellen, Bonno van; Godoy, Ivan de Barros; Reis, Andrea Almeida; Bertevello, Pedro
Morbid obesity is associated with various co-morbidities, including chronic venous insufficiency. Bariatric surgery is the only effective treatment for morbid obesity, but with potential risks and possible complications, including venous thromboembolism. To determine the prevalence of clinical and ultrasonographic signs of chronic venous insufficiency in morbid obese patients in preparation for bariatric surgery and the incidence of post-operative venous thromboembolic disease. Patients on work-up for bariatric surgery of Centro Terapêutico Especializado em Fígado (CETEFI) and Pro-Gastro surgical teams of the Hospital Beneficência Portuguesa de São Paulo were included. The analysed data were pre-operative findings for venous insufficiency (CEAP - clinical, etiological, anatomical, physiopathologic - classification and venous ultrasonographic findings), type of surgery (open or laparoscopic), abdominal circumference, body mass index (BMI) and post-operative ultrasonography search for venous insufficiency and deep venous thrombosis. Between March 2007 and December 2009, 95 patient candidates for bariatric surgery had clinical and duplex scan evaluation of the lower limbs venous system. Of the 95 patients, 53 were submitted to the surgical procedure. There was a predominance of women (77.9%), the average age was 38.5 years, average preoperative weight 124.6 kg and average BMI of 45.5 kg/m2. Regarding obesity, 16.8% were obese, and 83.1% were morbidly obese. In relation to the venous findings, 86.3% of the patients did fit CEAP classification less than 3 and 13.7% greater than or equal to 3. Among the post-operative complications, there were four cases of wound infection. Three patients developed post-operative distal venous thrombosis (7.5%), but no one had clinically manifested pulmonary embolism. No relation between BMI, CEAP classification and venous ultrasonographic findings were found. Although prophylaxis was used in all patients, the incidence of post
Zhu, Yaxin; Yan, Tingmei; Qu, Bo
The objective of this study was to assess the competency of surgery residents from the patient perspective in the current healthcare environment in China. The authors performed an assessment of 508 surgery residents in Liaoning province. Seven patients were as a group to complete the self-administered questionnaires on the survey for each individual corresponding resident. A 5-point rating scale with an unable-to-evaluate category was used to assess surgery resident competency by patients. Reliability and validity were assessed by Cronbach alpha (α) and exploratory factor analysis, respectively. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS 13.0. The surveys on 421 residents were valid, and the valid response rate was 82.8%. A total of 2947 questionnaires from patients were analyzed in this study. The Cronbach α coefficient was 0.92. The 4 factors emerging in the exploratory factor analysis reached a cumulative contribution rate of 66.98%. The items of "promotes health maintenance (talks about preventive care)" (206/7.0%), "tells me about any side effects of the medicine" (177/6.0%), "spends enough time with me" (189/6.4%), and "answers my questions thoroughly" (168/5.7%) were scored <4 by higher percentage of patients. The instrument provided an acceptable means for patients to evaluate the competency of Chinese surgery residents. Surgery residents should improve their competencies on preventive care, patient safety, and communication skills.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-Non Commercial-No Derivatives License 4.0, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.
Lykissas, Marios G; Sturm, Peter F; McClung, Anna; Sucato, Daniel J; Riordan, Mary; Hammerberg, Kim W
Chondrodysplasia punctata (CDP) is a common manifestation of an etiologically heterogenous group of disorders. There is very little data regarding the development and management of spinal deformity in patients with CDP. The purpose of this study was to present a multicenter series of CDP, to describe the surgical outcomes of spinal deformities in CDP patients and to emphasize important considerations that may influence choice of surgical treatment of spinal deformity in this patient population. The medical records and spinal radiographs of patients with the diagnosis of CDP followed in 2 centers between 1975 and 2011 were retrospectively reviewed. Epiphyseal stippling was present on radiographs in all patients who fulfilled the clinical criteria. Among the 17 patients who were diagnosed with CDP, 13 had spinal deformities. The mean age at diagnosis of spinal deformity was 14.6 months (range, 1 wk to 9 y). Males and females were close to equally represented (10 males and 7 females). Twelve patients (92%) required surgery to correct spinal deformity. Patients were followed for a median of 8.4 years (range, 2.8 to 19.5 y). The total number of surgical procedures performed was 17 averaging 1.5 per patient. Four patients required >1 procedure. Eighty percent of the patients who required >1 surgical procedure were females with probable diagnosis of X-linked dominant CDP. Revision surgery was indicated in 50% of the patients treated with combined anterior and posterior fusion and 20% of the patients treated with posterior fusion alone. Spinal deformity in CPD patients may range from significant kyphoscoliosis to minimal deformity that does not require any treatment. For those patients in whom spine surgery was indicated, a high incidence of revision surgery and curve progression after fusion was recorded. Female patients with probable diagnosis of X-linked dominant CDP were more likely to require a second surgical procedure. Isolated posterior fusion showed less favorable
Rao, D Sudhaker; Phillips, Evelyn R; Divine, George W; Talpos, Gary B
Parathyroidectomy is the definitive therapy for patients with symptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism. However, the role of surgery in mild asymptomatic primary hyperparathyroidism remains controversial. Accordingly, we conducted a prospective, randomized, controlled clinical trial of parathyroidectomy to determine the benefits of surgery vs. adverse effects of no surgery. Fifty-three patients were randomly assigned to either parathyroidectomy (n = 25) or regular follow-up (n = 28). Bone mineral density (BMD), biochemical indices of the disease, quality of life, and psychological function were measured at 6- or 12-month intervals for at least 24 months. Twenty-three of the 25 patients randomized to parathyroidectomy had surgery within the specified time of the protocol and three of the 28 patients randomized to regular follow-up had parathyroidectomy during follow-up. After parathyroidectomy, there was an increase in BMD of the spine (1.2%/yr, P < 0.001), femoral neck (0.4%/yr, P = 0.031), total hip (0.3%/yr, P = 0.07), and forearm (0.4%/yr, P < 0.001) and an expected fall in serum total and ionized calcium, serum PTH, and urine calcium (P < 0.001 for all). In contrast, patients followed up without surgery lost BMD at the femoral neck (-0.4%/yr, P = 0.117) and total hip (-0.6%/yr, P = 0.007) but gained at the spine (0.5%/yr; P = ns) and forearm (0.2%/yr, P = 0.047), with no significant changes in biochemical indices of disease. Consequently, a significant effect of parathyroidectomy on BMD was evident only at the femoral neck (a group difference of 0.8%/yr; P = 0.01) and total hip (a group difference of 1.0%/yr; P = 0.001) but not at the spine (a group difference of 0.6%/yr) or forearm (a group difference of 0.2%/yr). Quality-of-life scores as measured by a 36-item short-form health survey showed significant declines in five of the nine domains (social functioning, physical problem, emotional problem, energy, and health perception) in patients followed up without
Weibert, R T
The literature on dental surgery in patients receiving oral anticoagulants is reviewed, and methods of managing anticoagulant therapy to minimize the risk of complications are discussed. Although blood loss during and after oral surgery in patients receiving oral anticoagulant drugs can be substantial, research indicates that most bleeding incidents are not serious and can be controlled by local measures. Studies of 241 anticoagulant-treated patients undergoing more than 500 dental extractions during the 1950s and 1960s showed that only 9 had postoperative bleeding. More recent studies indicate that continued anticoagulation can increase the frequency of prolonged bleeding and delay wound healing. An antifibrinolytic mouthwash containing tranexamic acid can effectively suppress postoperative bleeding. Gelatin sponges, oxidized cellulose, and microcrystalline collagen are other useful hemostatic agents. A reduction in the intensity of anticoagulation therapy has been recommended; the prothrombin time should be measured shortly before the procedure in such patients. In many patients the duration of subtherapeutic anticoagulation must be minimized to reduce the possibility of thromboembolism. An option for high-risk patients is to switch them to heparin. Each patient must be evaluated individually, and the level of risk of the dental procedure and the risk of thromboembolism should be taken into account. In patients taking oral anticoagulants who must undergo dental surgery, careful control of the intensity of anticoagulation and improved methods of local hemostasis can minimize the risk of hemorrhagic complications and thromboembolism.
Abad, Cipriano; Cárdenes, Miguel Angel; Jiménez, Pedro Conrado; Armas, Mario-Vicente; Betancor, Pedro
From January 1991 through December 1999, 5 consecutive patients who were infected with human immunodeficiency virus presented in need of cardiac surgery. All were men; the median age was 44 years. Two of them presented with mitral and aortic infectious valve endocarditis, 1 with tricuspid endocarditis, 1 with prosthetic valve endocarditis, and 1 with pericarditis and pericardial tamponade. Under cardiopulmonary bypass, the 4 patients with endocarditis underwent these procedures: mitral and aortic valve replacement (2), tricuspid valve replacement (1), and aortic valve replacement (reoperation) and concomitant repair of a mycotic ascending aortic aneurysm (1). In the patient who had pericardial effusion, subxifoid pericardiostomy and drainage were performed, and a pericardial window was created. There was no intraoperative mortality. The patient with pericardial effusion died 8 days after surgery; he was in septic shock and had multiple organ failure. Two deaths occurred at 2 and 63 months, due to hemoptysis and sudden death, respectively. The 2 patients who underwent double valve replacement are alive and in good condition after a median follow-up of 71 months. Cardiac surgery is indicated in selected patients infected by the human immunodeficiency virus. These patients are frequently drug abusers or homosexual. Valvular endocarditis is the most common finding. Hospital morbidity and mortality rates are higher than usual in this group of patients. PMID:11198308
Khu, Kathleen Joy; Bernstein, Mark; Midha, Rajiv
Carpal tunnel syndrome and ulnar nerve entrapment at the elbow are the most common entrapment neuropathies seen in adults. Surgery for nerve decompression is a safe and effective treatment option, and is usually performed under local anesthesia and as an outpatient procedure. This study aimed to explore patients' satisfaction and other aspects of the overall experience with this type of surgery. Qualitative research methodology was used. Semi-structured, open-ended interviews were conducted with 30 adult patients who had undergone carpal tunnel release or ulnar nerve decompression at the elbow 6-24 months prior. Interviews were digitally audio recorded and transcribed, and the data subjected to thematic analysis. Four overarching themes emerged from the data: (1) most patients did not perceive their condition to be serious; (2) patients were satisfied with the overall surgical experience; (3) the outcome was more important to patients than the process; and (4) majority of patients had a realistic expectation of outcomes. Patients had a positive experience with carpal tunnel and ulnar nerve decompression surgery, although their level of satisfaction was dependent on the surgical outcome. Areas requiring improvement, specifically information about post-operative care and expectations of recovery, will be implemented in the future care of patients.
Lopez-Delgado, Juan C; Ballus, Josep; Esteve, Francisco; Betancur-Zambrano, Nelson L; Corral-Velez, Vicente; Mañez, Rafael; Betbese, Antoni J; Roncal, Joan A; Javierre, Casimiro
Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis (LC) frequently require non-hepatic abdominal surgery, even before liver transplantation. LC is an important risk factor itself for surgery, due to the higher than average associated morbidity and mortality. This high surgical risk occurs because of the pathophysiology of liver disease itself and to the presence of contributing factors, such as coagulopathy, poor nutritional status, adaptive immune dysfunction, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, and renal and pulmonary dysfunction, which all lead to poor outcomes. Careful evaluation of these factors and the degree of liver disease can help to reduce the development of complications both during and after abdominal surgery. In the emergency setting, with the presence of decompensated LC, alcoholic hepatitis, severe/advanced LC, and significant extrahepatic organ dysfunction conservative management is preferred. A multidisciplinary, individualized, and specialized approach can improve outcomes; preoperative optimization after risk stratification and careful management are mandatory before surgery. Laparoscopic techniques can also improve outcomes. We review the impact of LC on surgical outcome in non-hepatic abdominal surgeries required in this cirrhotic population before, during, and after surgery.
Lopez-Delgado, Juan C; Ballus, Josep; Esteve, Francisco; Betancur-Zambrano, Nelson L; Corral-Velez, Vicente; Mañez, Rafael; Betbese, Antoni J; Roncal, Joan A; Javierre, Casimiro
Patients suffering from liver cirrhosis (LC) frequently require non-hepatic abdominal surgery, even before liver transplantation. LC is an important risk factor itself for surgery, due to the higher than average associated morbidity and mortality. This high surgical risk occurs because of the pathophysiology of liver disease itself and to the presence of contributing factors, such as coagulopathy, poor nutritional status, adaptive immune dysfunction, cirrhotic cardiomyopathy, and renal and pulmonary dysfunction, which all lead to poor outcomes. Careful evaluation of these factors and the degree of liver disease can help to reduce the development of complications both during and after abdominal surgery. In the emergency setting, with the presence of decompensated LC, alcoholic hepatitis, severe/advanced LC, and significant extrahepatic organ dysfunction conservative management is preferred. A multidisciplinary, individualized, and specialized approach can improve outcomes; preoperative optimization after risk stratification and careful management are mandatory before surgery. Laparoscopic techniques can also improve outcomes. We review the impact of LC on surgical outcome in non-hepatic abdominal surgeries required in this cirrhotic population before, during, and after surgery. PMID:26973406
ASSEF, Maurício Saab; MELO, Tiago Torres; ARAKI, Osvaldo; MARIONI, Fábio
Background: Obesity has become epidemic, and is associated with greater morbidity and mortality. Treatment is multidisciplinary. Surgical treatment is a consistent resource in severe obesity. The indication of preoperative upper gastrointestinal endoscopy in asymptomatic patients is controversial; however, most studies recommend its implementation in all patients. Aim: To analyze endoscopic performance in patients who were in preoperative for bariatric surgery and compare them with control group. Method: A series of 35 obese patients in preoperative period for bariatric surgery compared with a control group of 30 patients submitted to upper endoscopy. There were analyzed clinical and endoscopic data. Results: The mean age of the group of patients was 43.54 years. Most individuals in the group of patients were female with median BMI of 47.26kg/m2and in control group 24.21 kg/m2. The majority of patients were asymptomatic. Upper endoscopy was altered in 81.25% of asymptomatic patients. Endoscopic findings in the patient group were 57.1% resulting from peptic ulcer disease and 34.3% associated with GERD. The analysis of endoscopic findings in patients showed no significant difference in relation of the control group. The prevalence of H. pylori infection was 60% in patients. Conclusion: It is recommended that the upper endoscopy should be made in all patients in the preoperative bariatric surgery period, although the degree of obesity is not related to a greater number of endoscopic findings. Obese patients do not have more endoscopic findings that non-obese individuals. PMID:26537272
Chen, Catherine L.; Lin, Grace A.; Bardach, Naomi S.; Clay, Theodore H.; Boscardin, W. John; Gelb, Adrian W.; Maze, Mervyn; Gropper, Michael A.; Dudley, R. Adams
BACKGROUND Routine preoperative testing is not recommended for patients undergoing cataract surgery, because testing neither decreases adverse events nor improves outcomes. We sought to assess adherence to this guideline, estimate expenditures from potentially unnecessary testing, and identify patient and health care system characteristics associated with potentially unnecessary testing. METHODS Using an observational cohort of Medicare beneficiaries undergoing cataract surgery in 2011, we determined the prevalence and cost of preoperative testing in the month before surgery. We compared the prevalence of preoperative testing and office visits with the mean percentage of beneficiaries who underwent tests and had office visits during the preceding 11 months. Using multivariate hierarchical analyses, we examined the relationship between preoperative testing and characteristics of patients, health system characteristics, surgical setting, care team, and occurrence of a preoperative office visit. RESULTS Of 440,857 patients, 53% had at least one preoperative test in the month before surgery. Expenditures on testing during that month were $4.8 million higher and expenditures on office visits $12.4 million higher (42% and 78% higher, respectively) than the mean monthly expenditures during the preceding 11 months. Testing varied widely among ophthalmologists; 36% of ophthalmologists ordered preoperative tests for more than 75% of their patients. A patient’s probability of undergoing testing was associated mainly with the ophthalmologist who managed the preoperative evaluation. CONCLUSIONS Preoperative testing before cataract surgery occurred frequently and was more strongly associated with provider practice patterns than with patient characteristics. (Funded by the Foundation for Anesthesia Education and Research and the Grove Foundation.) PMID:25875258
Rizk, Paul; Morris, William; Oladeji, Philip; Huo, Michael
Postoperative delirium is a serious complication following hip surgery in elderly patients that can adversely affect outcomes in both hip fracture and arthroplasty surgery. Recently, the incidence of hip fracture in the Medicare population was estimated at approximately 500 000 patients per year, with the majority treated surgically. The annual volume of total hip arthroplasty is nearly 450 000 patients and is projected to increase over the next 15 to 20 years. Subsequently, the incidence of postoperative delirium will rise. The incidence of postoperative delirium after hip surgery in the elderly patients ranges between 4% and 53%, and it is identified as the most common surgical complication of older patients. The most common risk factors include advanced age, hip fracture surgery (vs elective hip surgery), and preoperative delirium/cognitive impairment. Exact pathophysiology has not been fully defined. It is hypothesized that imbalances in cortical neurotransmitters or inflammatory cytokine pathway mechanisms contribute to delirium. Development of postoperative delirium is associated with longer hospital stay, increased medical complications, and poorer short-term functional outcome. Patients who develop postoperative delirium are also at increased risk for cognitive decline beyond the acute phase. Following acute care, postoperative delirium is associated with the need for a higher level of care, an additional cost. Management of postoperative delirium centers on prevention and early recognition. Medical prophylaxis has been demonstrated to have limited utility. Utilization of delirium detection methods contributed to early recognition. The most effective means of prevention involved a multidisciplinary team focused on adequate hydration, optimization of analgesia, reduction in polypharmacy, aggressive physiotherapy, and early recognition of the delirium symptoms.
Morris, William; Oladeji, Philip; Huo, Michael
Postoperative delirium is a serious complication following hip surgery in elderly patients that can adversely affect outcomes in both hip fracture and arthroplasty surgery. Recently, the incidence of hip fracture in the Medicare population was estimated at approximately 500 000 patients per year, with the majority treated surgically. The annual volume of total hip arthroplasty is nearly 450 000 patients and is projected to increase over the next 15 to 20 years. Subsequently, the incidence of postoperative delirium will rise. The incidence of postoperative delirium after hip surgery in the elderly patients ranges between 4% and 53%, and it is identified as the most common surgical complication of older patients. The most common risk factors include advanced age, hip fracture surgery (vs elective hip surgery), and preoperative delirium/cognitive impairment. Exact pathophysiology has not been fully defined. It is hypothesized that imbalances in cortical neurotransmitters or inflammatory cytokine pathway mechanisms contribute to delirium. Development of postoperative delirium is associated with longer hospital stay, increased medical complications, and poorer short-term functional outcome. Patients who develop postoperative delirium are also at increased risk for cognitive decline beyond the acute phase. Following acute care, postoperative delirium is associated with the need for a higher level of care, an additional cost. Management of postoperative delirium centers on prevention and early recognition. Medical prophylaxis has been demonstrated to have limited utility. Utilization of delirium detection methods contributed to early recognition. The most effective means of prevention involved a multidisciplinary team focused on adequate hydration, optimization of analgesia, reduction in polypharmacy, aggressive physiotherapy, and early recognition of the delirium symptoms. PMID:27239384
Buchs, Nicolas C; Addeo, Pietro; Bianco, Francesco M; Ayloo, Subhashini; Elli, Enrique F; Giulianotti, Pier C
As the life expectancy of people in Western countries continues to rise, so too does the number of elderly patients. In parallel, robotic surgery continues to gain increasing acceptance, allowing for more complex operations to be performed by minimally invasive approach and extending indications for surgery to this population. The aim of this study is to assess the safety of robotic general surgery in patients 70 years and older. From April 2007 to December 2009, patients 70 years and older, who underwent various robotic procedures at our institution, were stratified into three categories of surgical complexity (low, intermediate, and high). There were 73 patients, including 39 women (53.4%) and 34 men (46.6%). The median age was 75 years (range 70-88 years). There were 7, 24, and 42 patients included, respectively, in the low, intermediate, and high surgical complexity categories. Approximately 50% of patients underwent hepatic and pancreatic resections. There was no statistically significant difference between the three groups in terms of morbidity, mortality, readmission or transfusion. Mean overall operative time was 254 ± 133 min (range 15-560 min). Perioperative mortality and morbidity was 1.4% and 15.1%, respectively. Transfusion rate was 9.6%, and median length of stay was 6 days (range 0-30 days). Robotic surgery can be performed safely in the elderly population with low mortality, acceptable morbidity, and short hospital stay. Age should not be considered as a contraindication to robotic surgery even for advanced procedures.
Miyata, Hiroaki; Motomura, Noboru; Yozu, Ryohei; Kyo, Shunei; Takamoto, Shinichi
Previous studies have developed cardiovascular surgery outcome prediction models using only patient risk factors, but surgery outcomes from the patient's perspective seem to differ between hospitals. We have developed outcome prediction models that incorporate preoperative patient risks, as well as hospital processes and structure. Data were collected from the Japan Cardiovascular Database for patients scheduled for cardiovascular surgery between January 2005 and December 2007. We analyzed 33,821 procedures in 102 hospitals. Logistic regression was used to generate risk models, which were then validated through split-sample validation. Odds ratios, 95% confidence intervals, and P values for structures and processes in the mortality prediction model were as follows: "hospital annual adult cardiac surgery volume (continuous; every 1 procedure increase per year)" (odds ratio, 0.998; confidence interval, 0.997-0.999; P < .001); "recommended staffing and equipment" (odds ratio, 0.75; confidence interval, 0.64-0.87; P < .001); "daily conferences with cardiologists" (odds ratio, 0.79; confidence interval, 0.60-1.02; P = .073); "intensivists involved in postsurgical management" (odds ratio, 0.89; confidence interval, 0.77-1.02; P = .90); "public hospitals" (odds ratio, 0.80; confidence interval, 0.70-0.93; P = .003); "surgeons lacking miscellaneous duties" (odds ratio, 0.80; confidence interval, 0.70-0.93; P = .003); and "surgeons who work no more than 32 hours per week" (odds ratio, 0.55; confidence interval, 0.32-0.95; P = .032). The mortality prediction model had a C-index of 0.85 and a Hosmer-Lemeshow P value of .79. Our models yielded good discrimination and calibration, so they may prove useful for hospital selection based on individual patient risks and circumstances. Improved surgeon work environments were also shown to be important for both surgeons and patients. Copyright © 2011 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights
Pichette, Maxime; Liszkowski, Mark; Ducharme, Anique
Heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery are exposed to significant perioperative complications and high mortality. We herein review the literature concerning preoperative optimization of these patients. Salient findings are that end-organ dysfunction and medication should be optimized before surgery. Specifically: (1) reversible causes of anemia should be treated and a preoperative hemoglobin level of 100 g/L obtained; (2) renal function and volume status should be optimized; (3) liver function must be carefully evaluated; (4) nutritional status should be assessed and cachexia treated to achieve a preoperative albumin level of at least 30 g/L and a body mass index > 20; and (5) medication adjustments performed, such as withholding inhibitors of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system before surgery and continuing, but not starting, β-blockers. Levels of natriuretic peptides (brain natriuretic peptide [BNP] and N-terminal proBNP) provide additional prognostic value and therefore should be measured. In addition, individual patient's risk should be objectively assessed using standard formulas such as the EuroSCORE-II or Society of Thoracic Surgeons risk scores, which are simple and validated for various cardiac surgeries, including left ventricular assist device implantation. When patients are identified as high risk, preoperative hemodynamic optimization might be achieved with the insertion of a pulmonary artery catheter and hemodynamic-based tailored therapy. Finally, a prophylactic intra-aortic balloon pump might be considered in certain circumstances to decrease morbidity and even mortality, like in some high risk heart failure patients who undergo cardiac surgery, whereas routine preoperative inotropes are not recommended and should be reserved for patients in shock, except maybe for levosimendan.
dos Santos, Handerson Nunes; Magedanz, Ellen Hettwer; Guaragna, João Carlos Vieira da Costa; dos Santos, Natalia Nunes; Albuquerque, Luciano Cabral; Goldani, Marco Antonio; Petracco, João Batista; Bodanese, Luiz Carlos
Objective To determine the risk factors related to the development of stroke in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Methods A historical cohort study. We included 4626 patients aged > 18 years who underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, heart valve replacement surgery alone or heart valve surgery combined with coronary artery bypass grafting between January 1996 and December 2011. The relationship between risk predictors and stroke was assessed by logistic regression model with a significance level of 0.05. Results The incidence of stroke was 3% in the overall sample. After logistic regression, the following risk predictors for stroke were found: age 50-65 years (OR=2.11 - 95% CI 1.05-4.23 - P=0.036) and age >66 years (OR=3.22 - 95% CI 1.6-6.47 - P=0.001), urgent and emergency surgery (OR=2.03 - 95% CI 1.20-3.45 - P=0.008), aortic valve disease (OR=2.32 - 95% CI 1.18-4.56 - P=0.014), history of atrial fibrillation (OR=1.88 - 95% CI 1.05-3.34 - P=0.032), peripheral artery disease (OR=1.81 - 95% CI 1.13-2.92 - P=0.014), history of cerebrovascular disease (OR=3.42 - 95% CI 2.19-5.35 - P<0.001) and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes (OR=1.71 - 95% CI 1.16-2.53 - P=0.007). Mortality was 31.9% in the stroke group and 8.5% in the control group (OR=5.06 - 95% CI 3.5-7.33 - P<0.001). Conclusion The study identified the following risk predictors for stroke after cardiac surgery: age, urgent and emergency surgery, aortic valve disease, history of atrial fibrillation, peripheral artery disease, history of cerebrovascular disease and cardiopulmonary bypass time > 110 minutes. PMID:25140462
Stephan, Jean-Marie; Goodheart, Michael J; McDonald, Megan; Hansen, Jean; Reyes, Henry D; Button, Anna; Bender, David
Morbid obesity is a known risk factor for the development of endometrial cancer. Several studies have demonstrated the overall feasibility of robotic-assisted surgical staging for endometrial cancer as well as the benefits of robotics compared with laparotomy. However, there have been few reports that have evaluated robotic surgery for endometrial cancer in the supermorbidly obese population (body mass index [BMI], ≥50 kg/m(2)). We sought to evaluate safety, feasibility, and outcomes for supermorbidly obese patients who undergo robotic surgery for endometrial cancer, compared with patients with lower body mass indices. We performed a retrospective chart review of 168 patients with suspected early-stage endometrial adenocarcinoma who underwent robotic surgery for the management of their disease. Analysis of variance and univariate logistic regression were used to compare patient characteristics and surgical variables across all body weights. Cox proportional hazard regression was used to determine the impact of body weight on recurrence-free and overall survival. The mean BMI of our cohort was 40.9 kg/m(2). Median follow up was 31 months. Fifty-six patients, 30% of which had grade 2 or 3 tumors, were supermorbidly obese with a BMI of ≥50 kg/m(2) (mean, 56.3 kg/m(2)). A comparison between the supermorbidly obese and lower-weight patients demonstrated no differences in terms of length of hospital stay, blood loss, complication rates, numbers of pelvic and paraaortic lymph nodes retrieved, or recurrence and survival. There was a correlation between BMI and conversion to an open procedure, in which the odds of conversion increased with increasing BMI (P = .02). Offering robotic surgery to supermorbidly obese patients with endometrial cancer is a safe and feasible surgical management option. When compared with patients with a lower BMI, the supermorbidly obese patient had a similar outcome, length of hospital stay, blood loss, complications, and numbers of lymph
Crawford, Todd C; Carter, Michael V; Patel, Rina K; Suarez-Pierre, Alejandro; Lin, Sophie Z; Magruder, Jonathan Trent; Grimm, Joshua C; Cameron, Duke E; Baumgartner, William A; Mandal, Kaushik
Sickle cell disease is a life-limiting inherited hemoglobinopathy that poses inherent risk for surgical complications following cardiac operations. In this review, we discuss preoperative considerations, intraoperative decision-making, and postoperative strategies to optimize the care of a patient with sickle cell disease undergoing cardiac surgery. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Jackson, Alun C; Dowling, Nicki A; Honigman, Roberta J; Francis, Kate L; Kalus, Allan M
The role of teasing as a motivator for patients undertaking elective cosmetic surgery was investigated. Pre-operative data were collected, using a range of standardized tests in addition to open ended questions about their experience of teasing, from 449 patients aged 18 to 70 undergoing elective cosmetic surgery in Australia. Just under half of the sample indicated that they had been teased or bullied about their appearance. Teased patients showed significantly higher levels of anxiety, depression and dysmorphic concern; lower levels of physical attractiveness and appearance satisfaction; and lower levels of satisfaction with discrete aspects of their appearance than nonteased patients. Teasing also contributed to longer periods of considering surgery as an answer to body dissatisfaction concerns, even when controlling for age. Prevention education initiatives on appearance-related teasing should be targeted at school students. This, along with earlier detection of the psychological impacts of weight and appearance-related teasing, fewer people, if offered strategies for coping through counseling, may contemplate surgery as a response to this teasing.
Black, N; Sanderson, C
To develop a single, short, acceptable, and validated postal questionnaire for assessing patients' experiences of the process and outcome of day surgery. Interviews and review of existing questionnaires; piloting and field testing of draft questionnaires; consistency and validity checks. Four hospitals, in Coventry (two), Swindon, and Milton Keynes. 373 patients undergoing day surgery in 1990. Postoperative symptoms, complications, health and functional status, general satisfaction, and satisfaction with specific aspects of care. Response rates of 50% were obtained on field testing draft questionnaires preoperatively and one week and one month after surgery. 28% of initial non-responders replied on receiving a postal reminder, regardless of whether or not a duplicate questionnaire was sent; a second reminder had little impact. Many patients who expressed overall satisfaction with their care were nevertheless dissatisfied with some specific aspects. Outcome and satisfaction were related to three aspects of case mix; patient's age, sex, and type of operative procedure. The final questionnaire produced as a result of this work included 28 questions with precoded answers plus opportunities to provide qualitative comments. Several factors (only one, shorter questionnaire to complete, fewer categories of nonresponders, and administration locally) suggested that a response rate of at least 65% (with one postal reminder) could be expected. A validated questionnaire for day surgery was developed, which will be used to establish a national comparative database.
Galvis, Virgilio; Tello, Alejandro; Revelo, Mario L; Paredes, David; Jaramillo, Luis Carlos
We present two cases of patients with corneal lesions compatible with punctate keratopathy of West Indians who underwent photorefractive keratectomy and laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis. Both had good postoperative results. The corneal lesions did not interfere with the refractive surgery. PMID:23355587
Lima, Isabel Flor de; Linda, Filipe; dos Santos, Ângela; Lages, Neusa; Correia, Carlos
We present as an option for epidural analgesia and intravenous opioid infusion a clinical case of transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block, with bilateral placement of catheter for postoperative analgesia after exploratory laparotomy performed in a patient with previous abdominal surgery and heart, kidney and liver failure.
Thiele, Thomas; Kaftan, Holger; Hosemann, Werner; Greinacher, Andreas
Perioperative hemostatic management is increasingly important in the field of otolaryngology. This review summarizes the key elements of perioperative risk stratification, thromboprophylaxis and therapies for bridging of antithrombotic treatment. It gives practical advice based on the current literature with focus on patients undergoing ENT surgery. PMID:26770281
Thompson, P J; Baxendale, S A; McEvoy, A W; Duncan, J S
To examine the cognitive risks of temporal lobe surgery in patients aged 50 years and older. We analysed data from 55 patients who underwent temporal lobe surgery (26 left-sided:29 right sided) from 1988 to 2012 at our centre. Pre-surgical and one year post-operative memory and naming capacity were compared to data obtained from two younger cohorts; 185 aged 18-30 and 220 aged 31-49. Pre-operative memory impairments were most marked for the oldest cohort and were associated with a longer duration of epilepsy. Naming capacity improved with age and better performance was associated with a later age at epilepsy onset. Post-operative declines were largest in older patients, achieving statistical significance for verbal memory, naming and subjective ratings. Left temporal lobe resections carried the greatest risk of memory and naming decline. Cognitive outcomes were unrelated to seizure outcome, VIQ or mood. Our findings indicate the cognitive risks of TLE surgery are greater for older patients. Cognitive outcomes need to be considered when assessing the efficacy of epilepsy surgery in older cohorts and pre-operative performance levels need to be taken into account. Copyright © 2015 British Epilepsy Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Bai, Bin; Li, Yuxin
Objective: To analyze the effect of decompression alone and combined decompression, fusion and internal fixation procedure for degenerative lumbar stenosis in elderly patients. Methods: We reviewed 168 lumbar stenosis patients treated using decompression alone or with combined procedures in the department of orthopaedics of Tianjin 4th Centre Hospital from October 2010 to January 2014. The clinical data including age, gender, procedure type, operation time, follow-up period, blood loss, preoperative and postoperative JOA and ODI scores were recorded. The patients were divided into decompression alone group and combined surgeries group according to the procedure type. Results: The combined surgeries group presented with larger blood loss (p<0.05) and more operation time (p<0.05), compared with the group of decompression alone. The preoperative and postoperative JOA scores were significantly higher (p<0.05), and the ODI scores significantly lower in the decompression alone group (P<0.05), but at the final follow-up, there were no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). The complication rate was lower in the group of decompression alone, but there was no significant difference between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion: Both the decompression alone and combined surgeries can result in a satisfactory effects in elderly patients with degenerative lumbar spinal stenosis, but the combined surgeries presented with a relatively higher complication rate. PMID:27022361
da SILVA, Paulo Roberto Bezerra; de SOUZA, Marcela Ramos; da SILVA, Evane Moises; da SILVA, Silvia Alves
Background The obesity has achieved an alarming increase in recent years, which led this disease to global epidemic condition. Aim To evaluate the nutritional status as well as the quality of life of obese patients undergoing bariatric surgery. Methods A transversal study was conducted with obese adults of both genders who underwent bariatric surgery by Fobi-Capella technique for at least 30 days. It was evaluated: age, gender, marital status, occupation, weight before surgery, current weight, height, preoperative and current BMI, weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages, presence of clinical manifestations and food intolerances. Results The sample consisted of 70 patients, being 81.4% female, 37.1% aged 30 to 39 years, 58.6% were married, 41.4% have undergone the bariatric surgery in the last 12 months. It was observed a reduction in BMI from 37.2 kg/m2 (one to three months) to 28.9 kg/m2 (>12 months) and consequent increase in weight loss and loss of excess weight percentages. The most frequent clinical manifestation was alopecia (62.9%). The most reported food intolerance was on the red meat (24%). According to the Baros questionnaire, 50% of patients were classified as having good quality of life. Conclusion The operation of Fobi-Capella proved to be effective in promoting gradual and lasting weight loss. Quality of life was considered good in most patients, indicating that the operation had a positive impact on their lives. PMID:25409963
Dion, Liza; Rodgers, Nancy; Cutshall, Susanne M.; Cordes, Mary Ellen; Bauer, Brent; Cassivi, Stephen D.; Cha, Stephen
Background: Integrative therapies such as massage have gained support as interventions that improve the overall patient experience during hospitalization. Thoracic surgery patients undergo long procedures and commonly have postoperative back, neck, and shoulder pain. Purpose: Given the promising effects of massage therapy for alleviation of pain, we studied the effectiveness and feasibility of massage therapy delivered in the postoperative thoracic surgery setting. Methods: Patients who received massage in the postoperative setting had pain scores evaluated pre and post massage on a rating scale of 0 to 10 (0 = no pain, 10 = worst possible pain). Results: In total, 160 patients completed the pilot study and received massage therapy that was individualized. Patients receiving massage therapy had significantly decreased pain scores after massage (p ≤ .001), and patients’ comments were very favorable. Patients and staff were highly satisfied with having massage therapy available, and no major barriers to implementing massage therapy were identified. Conclusions: Massage therapy may be an important additional pain management component of the healing experience for patients after thoracic surgery. PMID:21847428
Baimas-George, Maria; Hennings, Dietric L; Al-Qurayshi, Zaid; Emad Kandil; DuCoin, Christopher
The obesity epidemic is associated with a rise in coronary surgeries because obesity is a risk factor for coronary artery disease. Bariatric surgery is linked to improvement in cardiovascular co-morbidities and left ventricular function. No studies have investigated survival advantage in postoperative bariatric patients after coronary surgery. To determine if there is a benefit after coronary surgery in patients who have previously undergone bariatric surgery. National Inpatient Sample. We performed a retrospective, cross-sectional analysis of the National Inpatient Sample database from 2003 to 2010. We selected bariatric surgical patients who later underwent coronary surgery (n = 257). A comparison of postoperative complications and mortality after coronary surgery were compared with controls (n = 1442) using χ(2) tests, linear regression analysis, and multivariate logistical regression models. A subset population was identified as having undergone coronary surgery (n = 1699); of this population, 257 patients had previously undergone bariatric surgery. They were compared with 1442 controls. The majority was male (67.2%), white (82.6%), and treated in an urban environment (96.8%). Patients with bariatric surgery assumed the risk of postoperative complications after coronary surgery that was associated with their new body mass index (BMI) (BMI<25 kg/m(2): odds ratio (OR) 1.01, 95% CI .76-1.34, P = .94; BMI 25 to<35 kg/m(2): OR .20, 95% CI .02-(2).16, P = .19; BMI≥35 kg/m(2): OR>999.9, 95% CI .18 to>999.9, P = .07). Length of stay was significantly longer in postbariatric patients (BMI<25, OR 1.62, 95% CI 1.14-2.30, P = .007). Postoperative bariatric patients have a return to baseline risk of morbidity and mortality after coronary surgery. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Mo, Ji-Hun; Han, Doo Hee; Shin, Hyun-Woo; Cha, Wonjae; Chang, Mun-young; Jin, Hong-Ryul
This study was designed to evaluate the necessity of postoperative nasal packing and to find factors relevant in determining if nasal packing was required after endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS). From January 2007 through June 2007, 64 consecutive patients who underwent ESS were evaluated. The decision whether or not to perform nasal packing depended on the surgeon's judgment of the bleeding after surgery. Demographic characteristics, medical history, disease extent, surgical procedures, and subjective and objective amount of intraoperative bleeding were analyzed. Postoperative symptoms and endoscopic findings were evaluated also. Forty-eight (75%) of the 64 patients included in this study did not have nasal packing after ESS. One patient from the no-packing group needed nasal packing postoperatively because of persistent nasal bleeding. Symptom scores of nasal obstruction and postnasal drip on the 1st postoperative day were lower in the no-packing group. In unilateral ESS cases, subjectively estimated blood loss and mucosal inflammation scores were lower in the no-packing group. It was observed that preoperative steroid use was more frequent in the packing group. All other parameters did not show significant differences between the two groups. Nasal packing can be safely used less frequently to help the patients experience less discomfort after ESS. The need for nasal packing after ESS can be decided by judicious estimation of bleeding during and after the surgery.
Spoor, A B; Öner, F C
Low back pain (LBP) is a common disorder with a lifetime prevalence of 85%. The pathophysiology of LBP can be various depending on the underlying problem. Only in about 10% of the patients specific underlying disease processes can be identified. Patients with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, herniated discs, adjacent disc disease, disc degeneration, failed back surgery syndrome or pseudoartrosis all have symptoms of LBP in different ways. Chronic low back pain patients are advised to stay active, however, there is no strong evidence that exercise therapy is significantly different than other nonsurgical therapies. Not every patient with symptoms of LBP is an appropriate candidate for surgery. Even with thorough systematic reviews, no proof can be found for the benefit of surgery in patients with low back pain, without serious neurologic deficit. And subjects like psychologic and socio-demographic factors also seem to be influencing a patients perception of back pain, expectations of treatment, and outcomes of treatment. Open lumbar fusion procedures are typically lengthy procedures and require a long exposure, which may result in ischemic necrosis of the paraspinal musculature, atrophy, and prolonged back pain. Minimally invasive spine surgery needed to take care of a decrease in muscle injuries due to retraction and avoidance of disruption of the osseotendineous complex of the paraspinal muscles, especially the multifidus attachment to the spinous process and superior articular process. Therefore, effort has been made to develop percutaneous fusion, as well as fixation methods, which avoid the negative effects of open surgery. Several minimally invasive fusion strategies have been described, like anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF), transforaminal lumbar interbody fusion (TLIF) and two lateral approaches (XLIF and DLIF), all with pro's and con's compared to open surgery and each other. The effect of MIS of all type is
Meyer, Dominik C; Wieser, Karl
Elderly patients may be different from the average population in regard to the treatment of shoulder disorders. Challenges are the decreased quality of bone, tendons and cartilage, decreased blood perfusion and a generally aged biology. The advantages however are the often more realistic expectations and more cautious use of the extremity, and the limited life expectancy of prosthetic implants is a less pressing issue. Local pathologies such as in the AC-joint or long head of the biceps may also in the aged patient be treated with infiltration or arthroscopic means. If however large rotator cuff tears and osteoarthritis are present, (reverse) total shoulder implants are the treatment of choice due to the high reliability and uncomplicated rehabilitation.
Chung, Frances; Assmann, Nicole
Occasionally, ambulatory surgical patients present without an escort for their procedure. This creates a dilemma for caregivers, and allowing patients to drive may have an impact on their safety. The Canadian Medical Protective Association is a mutual defense organization for 95% of Canadian physicians. The national database is a unique and extensive repository of medico-legal data. We scanned this database for malpractice patients who were discharged after an ambulatory surgery procedure and allowed to drive home with a poor outcome. From this database, two malpractice cases of patients who were discharged without an escort after an ambulatory surgical procedure were reported. Both had a car accident and sustained serious injuries. Based on this we do not recommend discharge without an escort after general anesthesia, regional anesthesia, monitored anesthesia or sedation. Driving after ambulatory surgery cannot be considered safe and caregivers need to verify a safe ride home.
Ishikawa, Susumu; Koyano, Tetsuya; Takahashi, Toru; Sato, Yasushi; Hasegawa, Yutaka; Ohki, Satoshi; Oshima, Kiyohiro; Oki, Shigeru; Kunimoto, Fumio; Morishita, Yasuo
The predictive factors of surgical outcome were evaluated in compromised patients following cardiovascular surgery. Of 608 patients undergoing cardiovascular surgery between 1991 and 1999, 55 stayed in the intensive care unit for 2 weeks or longer. The mean age of these 55 patients was 56 years. There were 35 survivors and 20 nonsurvivors. Postoperative respiratory failure and gastrointestinal complications were significantly more frequent in those who died. The survival rate was significantly higher in patients who had enteral feeding compared to those who did not (88% versus 43%). Serum cholinesterase and total cholesterol concentrations were higher in the survivors. It was concluded that postoperative respiratory and gastrointestinal conditions influenced the surgical outcome, and serum cholinesterase and total cholesterol concentrations were valuable predictors of survival.
Van der Heyden, Jan; Van Neerven, Danihel; Sonker, Uday; Bal, Egbert T; Kelder, Johannes C; Plokker, Herbert W M; Suttorp, Maarten J
The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and safety of the combined outcome of carotid artery stenting (CAS) and coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery in neurologically symptomatic patients. The risk of perioperative stroke in patients undergoing CABG who report a prior history of transient ischemic attack or stroke has been associated with a 4-fold increased risk as compared to the risk for neurologically asymptomatic patients. It seems appropriate to offer prophylactic carotid endarterectomy to neurologically symptomatic patients who have significant carotid artery disease and are scheduled for CABG. The CAS-CABG outcome for symptomatic patients remains underreported, notwithstanding randomized data supporting CAS for high-risk patients. In a prospective, single-center study, the periprocedural and long-term outcomes of 57 consecutive patients who underwent CAS before cardiac surgery were analyzed. The procedural success rate of CAS was 98%. The combined death, stroke, and myocardial infarction rate was 12.3%. The death and major stroke rate from time of CAS to 30 days after cardiac surgery was 3.5%. The myocardial infarction rate from time of CAS to 30 days after cardiac surgery was 1.5%. This is the first single-center study reporting the combined outcome of CAS-CABG in symptomatic patients. The periprocedural complication rate and long-term results of the CAS-CABG strategy in this high-risk population support the reliability of this approach. In such a high-risk population, this strategy might offer a valuable alternative to the combined surgical approach; however, a large randomized trial is clearly warranted. Copyright © 2011 American College of Cardiology Foundation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Vallés-Torres, J; García-Martín, E; Peña-Calvo, P; Sanjuan-Villarreal, A; Gil-Arribas, L M; Fernández-Tirado, F J
To analyze the effectiveness and usefulness of contact topical anesthesia in strabismus surgery in adult patients. A prospective study was conducted on 20 patients undergoing strabismus surgery using contact topical anesthesia and sedation with remifentanil. The intensity of pain was recorded using a numeric pain rating scale at the time of anesthesia implementation, during the surgical procedure, 30 min afterwards, and during the first postoperative day. The incidence of oculocardiac reflex, postoperative nausea and vomiting, corneal ulcers, patient satisfaction (numerically from 0 to 10) and the degree of residual ocular deviation were also assessed. The operation was performed successfully in all patients. Average pain intensity was 1.40 ± 1.73 during anesthesia implementation, 4.20 ± 2.57 during the surgical procedure, 2.50 ± 2.54 30 min after surgery, and 3.55 ± 2.89 during the first postoperative day. Oculocardiac reflex was observed in 7 patients (35%), postoperative nausea and vomiting in 4 (20%), and corneal ulcer in 4 (20%). The patient satisfaction was 9.53 ± 2.51. More than two-thirds (70%) of patients had a residual ocular deviation less than 10 prism diopters. Contact topical anesthesia is a safe and effective alternative for strabismus surgery in adult patients. Contact topical anesthesia provides adequate pain control, lower incidence of postoperative nausea and vomiting and oculocardiac reflex, and optimal setting of ocular alignment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Anestesiología, Reanimación y Terapéutica del Dolor. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Boule, Marie; Darribère, Véronique; Derouard, Nathalie; Goyenetche, Maryline; Peyroulet, Christel; Coquet, Marie-Monique
In day surgery, the call on the eve of the procedure is a key stage in the patient's care pathway. Systematically carried out by the nurse, it helps to establish a relationship of trust with the nursing team. Through this exchange, the nurse ensures various aspects of the patient management are taken care of and optimises the organisation of the following day's programme. A team from Pau shares its practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yu, Wen-zhou; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Jian-wei; Zou, Chengwei
Noncompaction of the ventricular myocardium (NVM) is exceedingly rare and associated with a high morbidity and mortality. This pathology has been associated with other congenital heart diseases (CHDs). The efficacy of surgical treatment of patients with NVM and other CHDs is largely unknown. The aim of the present study was to describe surgical outcomes of 16 patients. Between April 2009 and October 2011, 16 patients with NVM and CHD were admitted to our hospital. Through a clinical chart review, we analyzed results of surgical treatment of NVM with other CHDs retrospectively. The median age was 3.9 years (range 2 m-11 y). The follow-up time was 23.93 months (range 3 m-36 m). Two patients (12.5%) died after the surgery, the remaining patients (87.5%) had an uneventful postoperative course. An additional patient died due to sudden death three months after surgery. Two patients developed recurrent heart failure after surgery. Congestive heart failure, severe arrhythmias, and the range of NVM may be risk factors for death. At 6 months after the operation, the NYHA functional class was significantly improved (2.38 ± 0.89 vs. 1.62 ± 0.65, p = 0.009). The cardiothoracic ratio was significantly reduced when compared to before the operation (p < 0.001). Surgery in patients with NVM and other CHDs can be effective in relieving heart failure, improving heart function, and decreasing heart size. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Alkan, Erdal; Saribacak, Ali; Ozkanli, Ahmet Oguz; Başar, Mehmet Murad; Acar, Oguz; Balbay, Mevlana Derya
Purpose. To ascertain whether retrograde intrarenal surgery (RIRS) is as effective in patients treated previously with open renal stone surgery (ORSS) on the same kidney as in patients with no previous ORSS. Methods. There were 32 patients with renal stones who had previous ORSS and were treated with RIRS in the study group (Group 1). A total of 38 patients with renal stones who had no previous ORSS and were treated with RIRS were selected as the control group (Group 2). Recorded data regarding preoperative characteristics of the patients, stone properties, surgical parameters, outcomes, SFRs (no fragments or small fragments <4 mm), and complications between groups were compared. Results. Mean age, mean BMI, mean hospital stay, and mean operative time were not statistically different between groups. Mean stone size (10.1 ± 5.6 versus 10.3 ± 4.2; p = 0.551) and mean stone burden (25.4 ± 14.7 versus 23.5 ± 9.9; p = 0.504) were also similar between groups. After the second procedures, SFRs were 100% and 95% in groups 1 and 2, respectively (p = 0.496). No major perioperative complications were seen. Conclusion. RIRS can be safely and effectively performed with acceptable complication rates in patients treated previously with ORSS as in patients with no previous ORSS. PMID:26357570
Demian, Nagi M; Shum, Jonathan W; Kessel, Ivan L; Eid, Ahmed
Oral health care in patients undergoing chemotherapy and/or radiation therapy can be complex. Care delivered by a multidisciplinary approach is timely and streamlines the allocation of resources to provide prompt care and to attain favorable outcomes. A hospital dentist, oral and maxillofacial surgeon, and a maxillofacial prosthodontist must be involved early to prevent avoidable oral complications. Prevention and thorough preparation are vital before the start of chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Oral complications must be addressed immediately and, even with the best management, can cause delays and interruption in treatment, with serious consequences for the outcome and prognosis. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Nagai, Takeshi; Oshiro, Hisashi; Sagawa, Yasukazu; Sakamaki, Kentaro; Terauchi, Fumitoshi; Nagao, Toshitaka
Abstract Despite exhaustive efforts to detect early-stage ovarian cancers, greater than two-thirds of patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage. Although diaphragmatic metastasis is not rare in advanced ovarian cancer patients and often precludes optimal cytoreductive surgery, little is known about the mechanisms and predictive factors of metastasis to the diaphragm. Thus, as an initial step toward investigating such factors, the present study was conducted to characterize the pathological status of ovarian cancer patients who underwent debulking surgery in combination with diaphragmatic surgery. This is a retrospective and cross-sectional study of patients who underwent debulking surgery in combination with diaphragmatic surgery at our institution between January 2005 and July 2015. Clinicopathological data were reviewed by board-certified gynecologists, pathologists, and cytopathologists. The rates of various pathological findings were investigated and compared by Fisher exact test between 2 groups: 1 group that was pathologically positive for diaphragmatic metastasis (group A) and another group that was pathologically negative for diaphragmatic metastasis (group B). Forty-six patients were included: 41 patients pathologically positive and 5 pathologically negative for diaphragmatic metastasis. The rates of metastasis to the lymph node (95.8% vs 20%, P = 0.001) and metastasis to the peritoneum except for the diaphragm (97.6% vs 60.0%, P = 0.028) were significantly increased in group A compared with group B. However, no significant differences between the 2 groups were found for rates of histological subtypes (high-grade serous or non-high-grade serous), the presence of ascites, the presence of malignant ascites, exposure of cancer cells on the ovarian surface, blood vascular invasion in the primary lesion, and lymphovascular invasion in the primary lesion. Our study demonstrated that metastasis to the lymph node and nondiaphragmatic metastasis to the
Joyce, John; Langsjoen, Jessica; Sharadin, Cynthia; Kuehl, Thomas J.
We retrospectively examined prophylactic antibiotic use and documentation of wound classification in patients having gynecologic surgery at a tertiary hospital. Of the 326 cases reviewed, 175 (54%) received prophylactic antibiotics when not indicated according to guidelines of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists. Antibiotic administration varied significantly (P < 0.02) among the different types of surgery, being given in 82% of laparoscopic cases, 35% of nonobstetrical dilation and curettage and operative hysteroscopy procedures, and 51% of open abdominal procedures. There were no recorded episodes of anaphylaxis or pseudomembranous colitis. In conclusion, antibiotic use is high among gynecologic surgeons at a tertiary hospital, but this use was unnecessary. PMID:28127125
Platzer, Patrick; Thalhammer, Gerhild; Jaindl, Manuela; Obradovic, Alexandra; Benesch, Thomas; Vecsei, Vilmos; Gaebler, Christian
Deep venous thrombosis (DVT) and pulmonary embolism (PE) may be significant complications following spinal surgery. The incidence rate ranges from 0.5% to 2.5% in patients with symptomatic thromboembolic disease and up to 15% in patients with non-symptomatic thrombotic complications. We determined the incidence of symptomatic thromboembolism after spinal surgery in patients with postoperative systemic prophylaxis and investigated general and specific risk factors for development of this disease. We analyzed the clinical records of 978 patients who had undergone surgery of the spine because of trauma and who had been admitted to our level-I trauma center between 1980 and 2004. Spinal procedures included anterior and/or posterior spinal fusion, video-assisted thoracoscopic fusion, and spinal decompression. Symptomatic thromboembolic disease was diagnosed when patients showed significant clinical signs or symptoms of DVT or PE. In cases of DVT, diagnosis was confirmed by duplex scan of the lower limbs; in cases of PE, diagnosis was confirmed by CT-scanning of the thorax or at post mortem. The incidence rate of symptomatic thromboembolic complications was 2.2% (n 22). 17 patients showed clinical signs of deep venous thrombosis, with 4 of them developing pulmonary embolism subsequently. The other 5 patients developed pulmonary embolism without prior clinical signs of deep venous thrombosis. 6 patients died because of thromboembolic disease. Thromboembolic complications were more frequent in older patients and among males, as well as in patients with regular tobacco consumption and obesity. Thromboembolic complications were also seen more frequently in patients with surgical procedures at the lumbar spine, in patients with anterior spinal fusion, and in those with motor deficits in the lower extremities. We found a rather low rate of clinically significant thromboembolic complications after spinal surgery because of trauma, compared to the results reported in the
Vohra, Hunaid A; Armstrong, Lesley A; Modi, Amit; Barlow, Clifford W
A best evidence topic in cardiac surgery was written according to a structured protocol. The question addressed was that whether patients who are dependent on chronic dialysis have higher morbidity and mortality rates than the general population when undergoing cardiac surgery. These patients often require surgery in view of their heightened risk of cardiac disease. Altogether 278 relevant papers were identified using the below mentioned search, 16 papers represented the best evidence to answer the question. The author, journal, date and country of publication, patient group studied, study type, relevant outcomes, results and study weaknesses were tabulated. Dialysis-dependent (DD) patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) or valve replacement have higher morbidity but acceptable outcomes. There is some evidence to show that outcomes after off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) are better than after on-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (ONCAB) and that results are worse in DD patients with diabetic nephropathy. Patients undergoing combined procedures have a higher mortality.
Kianfar, Amir Abbas; Ahmadi, Zargham Hossein; Mirhossein, Seyed Mohsen; Jamaati, Hamidreza; Kashani, Babak Sharif; Mohajerani, Seyed Amir; Firoozi, Ehsan; Salehi, Farshid; Radmand, Golnar; Hashemian, Seyed Mohammadreza
Heart transplant surgeries using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) typically requires mechanical ventilation in intensive care units (ICU) in post-operation period. Ultra fast-track extubation (UFE) have been described in patients undergoing various cardiac surgeries. To determine the possibility of ultra-fast-track extubation instead of late extubation in post heart transplant patients. Patients randomly assigned into two groups; Ultra fast-track extubation (UFE) group was defined by extubation inside operating room right after surgery. Late extubation group was defined by patients who were not extubated in operating room and transferred to post operation cardiac care unit (CCU) to extubate. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time was 136.8 ± 25.7 minutes in ultra-fast extubation and 145.3 ± 29.8 minutes in late extubation patients (P > 0.05). Mechanical ventilation duration (days) was 0 days in ultra-fast and 2.31 ± 1.8 days in late extubation. Length of ICU stay was significantly higher in late extubation group (4.2 ± 1.2 days) than the UFE group (1.72 ± 1.5 days) (P = 0.02). In survival analysis there was no significant difference between ultra-fast and late extubation groups (Log-rank test, P = 0.9). Patients undergoing cardiac transplant could be managed with "ultra-fast-track extubation", without increased morbidity and mortality.
Elmowla, Rasha Ali Ahmed Abd; El-Lateef, Zienab Abd; El-khayat, Roshdy
Intracranial surgery means any surgery performed inside the skull to treat problems in the brain and surrounding structures. Aim: Evaluate the impact of nursing educational program on reducing or preventing postoperative complications for patients after intracranial surgery. Subjects and methods: Sixty adult patients had intracranial surgery (burr…
Surbeck, Werner; Hildebrandt, Gerhard; Duffau, Hugues
In the early days of modern neurological surgery, the inconveniences and potential dangers of general anesthesia by chloroform and ether using the so-called "open-drop technique" led to the quest for alternative methods of anesthesia. Besides preventing the feared side effects, the introduction of regional anesthesia revealed another decisive advantage over general anesthesia in neurosurgery: While intraoperative direct cortical stimulation under general anesthesia could only delineate the motor area (by evocation of contralateral muscular contraction), now, the awake patients were able to report sensations elicited by this method. These properties advanced regional anesthesia to the regimen of choice for cranial surgeries in the first half of the 20th century. While technical advances and new drugs led to a progressive return to general anesthesia for neurosurgical procedures, the use of regional anesthesia for epilepsy surgery has only decreased in recent decades. Meanwhile, awake craniotomies regained popularity in oncologically motivated surgeries, especially in craniotomies for diffuse low-grade gliomas. Intraoperative mapping of brain functions using electrical stimulation in awake patients enables not only for increased tumor removal while preserving the functional status of the patients but also opens a window to cognitive neuroscience. Observations during such interventions and their correlation with both pre - and postoperative neuropsychological examinations and functional neuroimaging is progressively leading to new insights into the complex functional anatomy of the human brain. Furthermore, it broadens our knowledge on cerebral network reorganization in the presence of disease-with implications for all disciplines of clinical neuroscience.
Casati, Andrea; Rapotec, Alessandro; Dalsasso, Massimiliano; Barzan, Luigi; Fanelli, Guido; Pellis, Tommaso
Purpose The aim of the study was to compare the efficacy of parecoxib for postoperative analgesia after endoscopic turbinate and sinus surgery with the prodrug of acetaminophen, proparacetamol. Materials and Methods Fifty American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) physical status I-II patients, receiving functional endoscopic sinus surgery (FESS) and endoscopic turbinectomy, were investigated in a prospective, randomized, double-blind manner. After local infiltration with 1% mepivacaine, patients were randomly allocated to receive intravenous (IV) administration of either 40 mg of parecoxib (n = 25) or 2 g of proparacetamol (n = 25) 15 min before discontinuation of total IV anaesthesia with propofol and remifentanil. A blinded observer recorded the incidence and severity of pain at admission to the post anaesthesia care unit (PACU) at 10, 20, and 30 min after PACU admission, and every 1 h thereafter for the first 6 postoperative h. Results The area under the curve of VAS (AUCVAS) calculated during the study period was 669 (28 - 1901) cm·min in the proparacetamol group and 635 (26 - 1413) cm·min in the parecoxib group (p = 0.34). Rescue morphine analgesia was required by 14 patients (56%) in the proparacetamol group and 12 patients (48%) in the parecoxib (p ≥ 0.05), while mean morphine consumption was 5 - 3.5 mg and 5 - 2.0 mg in the proparacetamol groups and parecoxib, respectively (p ≥ 0.05). No differences in the incidence of side effects were recorded between the 2 groups. Patient satisfaction was similarly high in both groups, and all patients were uneventfully discharged 24 h after surgery. Conclusion In patients undergoing endoscopic nasal surgery, prior infiltration with local anaesthetics, parecoxib administered before discontinuing general anaesthetic, is not superior to proparacetamol in treating early postoperative pain. PMID:18581586
Ashfaq, Awais; Vikram, Holenarasipur R; Blair, Janis E; Jaroszewski, Dawn E
The study objective was to evaluate the use of video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery for removal of pulmonary sequelae of the fungal infection coccidioidomycosis. Retrospective chart review of all patients with pulmonary coccidioidomycosis treated surgically at our tertiary care center between January 1, 2009, and August 31, 2012. Of 2166 patients treated for pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, 58 (2.7%) (median age, 52 years [range, 18-84 years]) required surgical treatment. Surgical resection was performed for diagnosis (n=28 [48%]); 17 with positive positron emission tomography findings); persistent or progressive symptoms despite antifungal therapy (n=23 [40%]); or complications (n=7 [12%] of cavity rupture/infection). Of 33 patients (57%) who had serology performed, 23 (70%) had positive results. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery was used for most (95%; n=55) procedures, including 38 (67%) wedge resections, 14 (24%) segmentectomies, and 6 (11%) lobectomies; 4 patients also required additional decortication. Major (8%), including 1 death, and minor (12%) complications occurred in 12 patients postoperatively. Median hospitalization was 3 days (range, 1-8 days). Postoperative antifungal therapy was administered to 50% of patients for a median duration of 2 months. No patient had recurrent coccidioidomycosis at a median follow-up of 19 months. Although rarely necessary for pulmonary coccidioidomycosis, surgical intervention may be indicated. Specific indications include refractory symptomatic disease and complications of the infection, such as cavity rupture. Excisional biopsies also may be required for diagnostic confirmation of indeterminate pulmonary nodules. With video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, diagnostic and therapeutic intervention can be undertaken with a low risk of complications and shorter length of hospital stay. Copyright © 2014 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Canillas, Fernando; Gómez-Ramírez, Susana; García-Erce, José Antonio; Pavía-Molina, José; Gómez-Luque, Aurelio; Muñoz, Manuel
Orthopaedic and trauma surgical procedures (OTS) can lead to significant blood losses and acute postoperative anaemia, which in many cases requires allogeneic blood transfusions (ABT). The clinical, economic and logistical disadvantages of ABT have promoted the development of multidisciplinary and multimodal programs generically known as Patient Blood Management (PBM) programs, which have as their objective to reduce or eliminate the need for ABT and improve clinical outcomes. These programs are supported by the implementation of four groups of perioperative measures: (1) use of restrictive transfusion criteria; (2) stimulation of erythropoiesis; (3) reduction of bleeding; and (4) autologous blood transfusion. In this article, a review is presented of the effectiveness, safety and recommendations of applicable strategies in OTS, as well as the barriers and requirements to the development and implementation of PBM programs in this surgical specialty.
Altschul, David; Kobets, Andrew; Nakhla, Jonathan; Jada, Ajit; Nasser, Rani; Kinon, Merritt D; Yassari, Reza; Houten, John
OBJECTIVE Postoperative urinary retention (POUR) is a common problem leading to morbidity and an increased hospital stay. There are limited data regarding its baseline incidence in patients undergoing spinal surgery and the risk factors with which it may be associated. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of POUR in elective spine surgery patients and determine the factors associated with its occurrence. METHODS The authors retrospectively reviewed the records of patients who had undergone elective spine surgery and had been prospectively monitored for POUR during an 18-month period. Collected data included operative positioning, surgery duration, volume of intraoperative fluid, length of hospital stay, and patient characteristics such as age, sex, and medical comorbidities. Dialysis patients or those with complete urinary retention preoperatively were excluded from analysis. RESULTS Of the 397 patients meeting the study inclusion criteria, 35 (8.8%) developed POUR. An increased incidence of POUR was noted in those who underwent posterior lumbar surgery, those with benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH), those with chronic constipation or prior urinary retention, and those using a patient-controlled analgesia pump postoperatively. An increased incidence of POUR was seen with a longer operative time but not with intraoperative intravenous fluid administration. A significant relationship between the female sex and POUR was noted after controlling for BPH, yet there was no association between POUR and diabetes or intraoperative instrumentation. Postoperative retention significantly prolonged the hospital stay. Three patients developed epidural hematomas necessitating operative reexploration, and while they experienced POUR, they also developed the full constellation of cauda equina syndrome. CONCLUSIONS Awareness of the risk factors for POUR may be useful in perioperative Foley catheter management and in identifying patients who need particular
Heikkinen, Katja; Salanterä, Sanna; Leppänen, Tiina; Vahlberg, Tero; Leino-Kilpi, Helena
A randomised controlled trial was used to evaluate elective ambulatory orthopaedic surgery patients' emotions during internet-based patient education or face-to-face education with a nurse. The internet-based patient education was designed for this study and patients used websites individually based on their needs. Patients in the control group participated individually in face-to-face patient education with a nurse in the ambulatory surgery unit. The theoretical basis for both types of education was the same. Ambulatory orthopaedic surgery patients scored their emotions rather low at intervals throughout the whole surgical process, though their scores also changed during the surgical process. Emotion scores did not decrease after patient education. No differences in patients' emotions were found to result from either of the two different patient education methods.
Nemoto, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kiyomitsu; Nakamura, Katsutoshi; Miyoshi, Yutaka; Sakai, Akira
Carnitine is an essential cofactor for fatty acid (FA) metabolism, the predominant source of ATP in the normal aerobic heart. During myocardial ischemia, FA metabolism is impaired and tissue carnitine levels are depleted. Since the heart cannot synthesize carnitine, plasma carnitine could play an important role in maintaining myocardial carnitine levels during reperfusion. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of abnormal plasma carnitine concentrations in open heart surgery. Blood samples were obtained from eleven patients before, immediately after, and two hours after cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). Total and free carnitine levels were significantly reduced immediately after CPB (p<0.01) and remained depressed until two hours after CPB (p<0.01 vs. pre CPB), while acyl carnitine levels were unchanged over the course of this study. These depressed free carnitine levels might affect cardiac metabolism in the heart after open heart surgery. Carnitine supplement might be a useful adjunct in the therapy after open heart surgery.
Renz, B; Angele, M K; Jauch, K-W; Kasparek, M S; Kreis, M; Müller, M H
During the last years attempts have been made to draw lessons from aviation to increase patient safety in medicine. In particular similar conditions are present in surgery as pilots and surgeons may have to support high physical and mental pressure. The use of a few safety instruments from aviation is feasible in an attempt to increase safety in surgery. First a "root caused" accident research may be established. This is achievable by morbidity and mortality conferences and critical incident reporting systems (CIRS). Second, standard operating procedures may assure a uniform mental model of team members. Furthermore, crew resource management illustrates a strategy and attitude concept, which is applicable in all situations. Safety instruments from aviation, therefore, seem to have a high potential to increase safety in surgery when properly employed. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart ˙ New York.
Spyropoulos, Alex C; Brotman, Daniel J; Amin, Alpesh N; Deitelzweig, Steven B; Jaffer, Amir K; McKean, Sylvia C
Cancer patients, especially those undergoing surgery for cancer, are at extremely high risk for developing venous thromboembolism (VTE), even with appropriate thromboprophylaxis. Anticoagulant prophylaxis in cancer surgery patients has reduced the incidence of VTE events by approximately one-half in placebo-controlled trials, and extended prophylaxis (for up to 1 month) has also significantly reduced out-of-hospital VTE events in clinical trials in this population. Clinical trials show no difference between low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) and unfractionated heparin in VTE prophylaxis efficacy or bleeding risk in this population, although the incidence of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia is lower with LMWH. The risk-benefit profile of low-dose anticoagulant prophylaxis appears to be favorable even in many cancer patients undergoing neurosurgery, for whom pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis has been controversial because of bleeding risks.
Zheng, Jun; Li, Hao; Zhao, He-Xiang; Guo, Rui; Lin, Sen; Dong, Wei; Ma, Lu; Fang, Yuan; Tian, Meng; Liu, Ming; You, Chao
Abstract Spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage (sICH) is one of the most dangerous cerebrovascular diseases, especially when in deep brain. The treatment of spontaneous deep supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage is still controversial. We conducted a retrospective case-control study using propensity score matching to compare the efficacy of surgery and conservative treatment for patients with deep surpatentorial hemorrhage. We observed the outcomes of consecutive patients with spontaneous deep supratentorial hemorrhage retrospectively from December 2008 to July 2013. Clinical outcomes of surgery and conservative treatments were compared in patients with deep sICH using propensity score matching method. The primary outcome was neurological function status at 6 months post ictus. The second outcomes included mortality at 30 days and 6 months, and the incidence of complications. Subgroup analyses of 6-month outcome were conducted. Sixty-three (22.66%) of the 278 patients who received surgery had a favorable neurological function status at 6 months, whereas in the conservative group, 66 of 278 (23.74%) had the same result (P = 0.763). The 30-day mortality in the surgical group was 19.06%, whereas 30.58% in the conservative group (P = 0.002). There was significant difference in the mortality at 6 months after ictus as well (23.38% vs 36.33%, P = 0.001). The subgroup analyses showed significantly better outcomes for the surgical group when hematoma was >40 mL (13.33% vs 0%, P = 0.005) or complicated with intraventricular hemorrhage (16.67% vs 7.27%, P = 0.034). For complications, the risk of pulmonary infection, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, urinary infection, pulmonary embolus, and need for tracheostomy/long term ventilation in the surgical group was higher than the conservative group (31.29% vs 15.47%, P < 0.001; 6.83% vs 3.96%, P = 0.133; 2.88% vs 1.80%, P = 0.400; 1.80% vs 1.08%, P = 0.476; 32.73% vs 23.38%, P = 0
Block, Andrew R
It is now well established that psychosocial factors can adversely impact the outcome of spine surgery. This article discusses in detail one such recently-identified “risk” factor: demoralization. Several studies conducted by the author indicate that demoralization, an emotional construct distinct from depression, is associated with poorer pain reduction, less functional improvement and decreased satisfaction among spine surgery patients. However, there are indications that the adverse impact of risk factors such as demoralization can be mitigated by psychosocial “maximizing” factors—characteristics that propel the patient towards positive surgical results. One of these maximizing factors, patient activation, is discussed in depth. The patient activation measure (PAM), an inventory assessing the extent to which patients are active and engaged in their health care, is associated not only with improved spine surgery results, but with better outcomes across a broad range of medical conditions. Other maximizing factors are discussed in this article. The author concludes that the past research focus on psychosocial risk factors has limited the value of presurgical psychological screening, and that future research, as well as clinical assessment, should recognize that the importance of evaluating patients’ strengths as well as their vulnerabilities. PMID:27417599
Ishibashi, H; Okubo, K
Recentry, surgical candidates have become older and have more surgical risk factors, perioperative patient management become more important than before. In the patients with significant arrhythmia observed in the preoperative period, examination of the baseline heart disease, i.e. myocardial ischemia or congestive heart failure, is mandatory and, if necessary, adequate treatment such as defibrillator, the implantation of a pacemaker, anticoagulation therapy, or other medical therapy should be performed. In the patients with atrial fibrillation, clinical prediction rules such as the congestive heart failure, hypertension, age>75, diabetes, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) [CHADS 2] score have been developed to identify those patients at highest risk for thrombo-embolism and can be used when assessing the need for bridging anticoagulation by heparin prior to surgery. The electrical stimulus from electrocautery may inhibit demand pacemakers or may reprogram the pacemaker. An asynchronous or non-sensing pacemaker mode is recommended in patients who are pacemaker dependent and whose underlying rhythm is unreliable. The device has to be checked to ensure appropriate programming and sensing pacing thresholds after surgery. The implantable cardioverter defibrillator should be turned off during surgery and switched on in the recovery phase before discharge to the ward.
Horie, Hisanaga; Endo, Noriyuki; Sata, Naohiro; Yasuda, Yoshikazu; Nagai, Hideo
In a population of general surgery patients in Western countries, there was a 19% incidence of deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a 1.6% incidence of pulmonary embolism (PE), with 0.9% of patients experiencing fatal PE. In Japan, there was a 15.8% incidence of DVT and a 0.34% incidence of PE, with 0.08% of patients experiencing fatal PE in a population of abdominal surgery patients. The incidences of PE and fatal PE in our department were 0.11% and 0.03%, respectively. We started to use intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) for the prophylaxis of postoperative PE in 1999 and then added elastic stockings in 2002 and low-dose unfractionated heparin (LDUH) in 2003 for prophylaxis. The incidence of PE has dropped and that of fatal PE has become 0% with the use of such prophylactic measures. When the risk of venous thromboembolism of the 15 patients who experienced PE in our department were assessed using the Japanese Guidelines for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism, 13 patients were assessed as high risk and 2 as low risk. The mean age and mean body mass index of the 15 patients were 54 yeas old and 24.8, respectively, and PE was not limited to obese or elderly patients. Such findings appear to indicate the difficulty of risk assessment for PE. Therefore we started to use IPC, elastic stockings, and LDUH for the prophylaxis of PE and DVT for all general surgery patients from April 2004. These prophylactic measures are recommended for the highest-risk patients in the Japanese Guidelines for Prevention of Venous Thromboembolism. There have so far been no serious bleeding complications with the administration of LDUH. We will continue to observe the effects of prophylaxis and the risk of bleeding.
Yang, Yang; Xiao, Feng; Wang, Jin; Song, Bo; Li, Xi-Hui; Li, Jian; He, Zhi-Song; Zhang, Huan; Yin, Ling
Background To investigate the possibility and feasibility of simultaneous cardiac and noncardiac surgery. Methods From August 2000 to March 2015, 64 patients suffering from cardiac and noncardiac diseases have been treated by simultaneous surgeries. Results Two patients died after operations in hospital; thus, the hospital mortality rate was 3.1%. One patient with coronary heart disease, acute myocardial infarction, and a recurrence of bladder cancer accepted emergency simultaneous coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG), bladder cystectomy, and ureterostomy. He died of acute cerebral infarction complicated with multiple organ failure on the 153rd day after operation. The other patient with chronic constrictive pericarditis and right lung cancer underwent pericardial stripping and right lung lower lobectomy, which resulted in multiple organ failure, and the patient died on the tenth day postoperatively. The remaining 62 patients recovered and were discharged. The total operative morbidity was 17.2%: postoperative hemorrhage (n, % [1, 1.6%]), pulmonary infection and hypoxemia (2, 3.1%), hemorrhage of upper digestive tract (1, 1.6%), incisional infection (3, 4.7%), subphrenic abscess (1, 1.6%), and postoperative acute renal failure and hemofiltration (3, 4.7%). Of the 62 patients discharged, 61 patients were followed up. Eleven patients died with 10 months to 10 years during the follow-up. The mean survival time is 116.2±12.4 months. The cumulative survival rate is 50.8%. Conclusion Simultaneous surgeries in patients suffering from both cardiac and noncardiac benign or malignant diseases are safe and possible with satisfactory short-term and long-term survival. PMID:27486311
Patel, Nirav; Pierson, Justine; Lee, Timothy; Mast, Bruce; Lee, Bernard T; Estores, Irene; Singhal, Dhruv
Integrative medicine (IM) is currently used by 40% of Americans. Our objective is to examine the prevalence and perception of IM utilization in patients being evaluated for elective plastic surgery. In July 2014, 402 consecutive patients presenting to plastic surgery clinics at the University of Florida, Veterans Affairs (VA), and Private Practices in Gainesville, Florida were requested to complete a survey regarding utilization of and attitudes towards IM. The survey completion rate was 75.5% (n = 331). The respondents' mean age was 48.5 years, and they were primarily white (75%), married (48%), and educated with at least a college degree (58%). The respondents were distributed between the university (74%), VA (15%), and private practice (11%). There was an equal mix of reconstructive (52%) and cosmetic (48%) visits. Overall IM utilization was 80.0%. Integrative medicine use correlated with having a college degree (P = 0.0002) and being middle age (40-64 years, P < 0.005). A higher utilization rate of IM in the private sector (87.0%) compared with the university (76.1%) and VA (71.0%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.17). Similarly, higher IM utilization in cosmetic patients compared with reconstructive patients (81% vs 74%) was not statistically significant (P = 0.56). The majority of patients stated a strong belief in self-healing techniques (71%, P < 0.005), and they desired (61%) that their physician should be familiar with these techniques (P < 0.005). The IM utilization is highly prevalent among plastic surgery patients regardless of reason for visit (cosmetic versus reconstruction) or practice setting (private versus academic versus VA). Increasing awareness of IM usage and potential impact on outcomes is especially important for academic and VA plastic surgeons. Moreover, an opportunity exists to study how certain aspects of IM can positively impact plastic surgery care.
Perioperative hypothermia is associated with poor outcomes for patients, yet it is preventable in most cases (National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE), 2011a). NICE guideline 65 (2008) provides clear recommendations for avoiding perioperative hypothermia in surgical patients at each stage of their surgical journey, preoperatively, intraoperatively and postoperatively. This article describes the risks for patients at each of the three stages and disseminates the most recent NICE recommendations on how both patients and health professionals can work together to avoid perioperative hypothermia. The Enhanced Recovery after Surgery programme (ERAS) considers patient warming to maintain perioperative normothermia to be a key component in accelerating patient recovery. This article looks at how the NICE guidelines on inadvertent perioperative hypothermia and the ERAS programme complement each other to successfully and significantly improve patient recovery.
Vidot, Denise C; Prado, Guillermo; De La Cruz-Munoz, Nestor; Spadola, Christine; Cuesta, Melissa; Messiah, Sarah E
Current literature is scarce in documenting marijuana use after bariatric weight loss surgery (WLS). The objective of this study was to explore the association among marijuana use patterns, disordered eating, and food addiction behaviors in patients 2 years after WLS. A university hospital in the United States. Participants (N = 50, mean age 28 y, standard deviation = 5.8) were administered a structured assessment that included the Addiction Severity Index, Yale Food Addiction Scale, Eating Disorder Examination Questionnaire, and Disordered Eating Questionnaire. Marijuana use was defined based on the Addiction Severity Index as current use (within 30 d), recent use (use in last year), and increased use (increased use since surgery). Data were analyzed using Fisher's exact tests and linear regression methods adjusting for age, gender, race/ethnicity, time since surgery, and change in body mass index. The majority of the sample was female (76%) and underwent Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (62%). Eighteen percent (18%) of the sample reported current marijuana use; 38% reported recent use; and 21.4% reported increased use post-WLS. A loss of controlled food intake was associated with current (P = .02) and increased post-WLS use (P = .01). Increased use and/or regular marijuana use predicted higher scores on eating disorder subscales compared with respective counterparts (P<.05). Current use did not significantly predict higher scores on the Yale Food Addiction Scale. Findings indicated marijuana use in post-WLS patients despite recommendations against use. A subgroup of WLS patients may be at risk for disordered eating post-WLS, particularly those who used marijuana before surgery, and should be closely monitored for several years post-WLS. Copyright © 2016 American Society for Bariatric Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Linn, John G; Hungness, Eric S; Clark, Sara; Nagle, Alexander P; Wang, Edward; Soper, Nathaniel J
To evaluate resident case volume after discontinuation of a laparoscopic surgery fellowship, and to examine disparities in patient care over the same time period. Resident case logs were compared for a 2-year period before and 1 year after discontinuing the fellowship, using a 2-sample t test. Databases for bariatric and esophageal surgery were reviewed to compare operative time, length of stay (LOS), and complication rate by resident or fellow over the same time period using a 2-sample t test. Increases were seen in senior resident advanced laparoscopic (Mean Fellow Year = 21 operations vs Non Fellow Year = 61, P < 0.01), esophageal (1 vs 11, P < .01) and bariatric volume (9 vs 36, P < .01). Junior resident laparoscopic volume increased (P < 0.05). No difference in LOS or complication rate was seen with resident vs fellow assistant. Operative time was greater for gastric bypass with resident assistant (152 ± 51 minutes vs 138 ± 53, P < .05). Discontinuing a laparoscopic fellowship significantly increases resident case volume in laparoscopic surgery. Operative time for complex operations may increase in the absence of a fellow. Other patient outcomes are not affected by this change. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Kim, Min Sung
Purpose Owing to increased life expectancy, the number of elderly patients with gastric cancer has increased. This study aimed to identify the outcomes of gastric cancer patients aged 80 years or older through comparison of their clinicopathological characteristics, surgical outcomes, and oncologic outcomes. Materials and Methods Between January 2006 and December 2013, the records of 478 patients who underwent surgery for gastric cancer were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups: patients <80 years old (n=446) and patients ≥80 years old (n=32). Results There were no significant differences in sex, body mass index, length of hospital stay, duration of surgery, depth of invasion, nodal metastasis, histologic type, or tumor size between the two groups. However, significant differences were found for the American Society of Anesthesiologist score and the serum albumin level between the two groups. Postoperative morbidity, mortality, disease-free survival, and recurrence rate did not differ between curatively resected patients in the two groups. Conclusions In elderly patients with gastric cancer, active treatment including radical gastrectomy is necessary. PMID:28053812
Richardson, William S.; Plaisance, Amber M.; Periou, Laura; Buquoi, Jennifer; Tillery, Deanna
Bariatric surgery is becoming very common, and most physicians will have contact with bariatric patients. Many aspects to follow-up are not generally known. The objective of this article is to help other physicians understand what follow-up entails to assist them with the care of these patients. It is expected that patients are followed up by the bariatric team for a lifetime, as care is complicated and lifetime follow-up is the key to long-term success. PMID:21603433
Golda, T; Kreisler, E; Mercader, C; Frago, R; Trenti, L; Biondo, S
Immunosuppression is believed to worsen outcomes for patients who require surgery for perforated diverticulitis. The aim of this study was to compare surgical outcomes between immunocompromised and immunocompetent patients undergoing surgery for complicated diverticulitis. All patients who underwent emergency surgery for complicated diverticulitis between 2004 and 2012 in a single unit were studied. Patients were classified as immunosuppressed (group I) or immunocompetent (group II). Operation type and postoperative morbidity and mortality were compared between groups. The impact of operating surgeons' specialization and the Peritonitis Severity Score (PSS) were also evaluated to determine their impact on the restoration of gastrointestinal (GI) continuity. One-hundred and sixteen patients (mean age: 63.7 years), 41.4% women, were included. Fifty-three (45.7%) patients were immunosuppressed (group I): 42 underwent Hartmann's procedure (HP) (79.2%), nine (17.0%) underwent resection and primary anastomosis (RPA) with ileostomy (IL) and two (3.8%) underwent RPA without IL. In group II, 15 HP (23.8%), nine RPA with IL (14.3%) and 39 RPA without IL (61.9%) were performed. Postoperative morbidity and mortality were 79.2% and 26.4%, respectively, in group I and 63.5% and 6.3%, respectively, in group II. The overall mean PSS was 9.5, with a mean PSS of 11.1 in group I and of 8.1 in group II. The decision to perform a primary anastomosis differed significantly between colorectal surgeons and general surgeons in the patients with a PSS of 9-10-11. In immunocompromised patients, RPA with IL can be a safe surgical option, whereas HP should be reserved for patients with a PSS of > 11. Colorectal surgical specialization is associated with higher rates of restoration of GI continuity in patients with perforated diverticulitis, especially in patients with an intermediate PSS score. Evaluation of each patient's PSS facilitates decision making in surgery for perforated
Rechberger, Tomasz; Wrobel, Andrzej; Zietek, Alicja; Rechberger, Ewa; Bogusiewicz, Michal; Miotla, Pawel
Midurethral sling (MUS) surgeries are minimally invasive procedures; however, they are not free of postoperative complications. The aim of the study was to assess the occurrence of lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) (urgency, nocturia, frequency, splitting/spraying, hesitancy, terminal dribbling, and subjective feeling of postvoid residual) in patients suffering from stress (SUI) or mixed (MUI) urinary incontinence with a predominant SUI component before and after transobturator MUS placement. The study group consisted of 88 women with SUI and 18 with MUI who underwent transobturator MUS. All participants were questioned with a self-developed questionnaire before and after surgery regarding the presence of LUTS. Seven days after surgery, 62 patients (58.5%) noted voiding and postmicturition symptoms, whereas 67 (63.2%) reported problems in storage. The more commonly reported LUTS at week 1 after surgery were urgency (52.8%), splitting/spraying (41.5%), and feeling of incomplete bladder emptying (34.0%). Patients perceived that splitting/spraying was the most bothersome. After 6 months, the most common LUTS reported were hesitancy (14.1%), terminal dribbling (10.4%), and splitting/spraying (9.4%). We noticed a decrease in the number of urgency episodes >2.7 times (p < 0.001) compared with baseline. After 6 months, 97 (91.5%) patients reported the lack of incontinence episodes. A vast majority of patients after MUS suffer from LUTS in the early postoperative period; however, the majority of undesired symptoms resolve spontaneously within the first 6 months postsurgery.
Kuppersmith, Ronald B; Holsinger, F Christopher
To review the initial experience of gasless transaxillary robot-assisted endoscopic thyroid surgery in a series of patients and describe modifications of the technique for the North American patients, selection criteria, and other issues related to this technology. Retrospective review of the first 31 consecutive cases at a single institution. Thirty-one patients underwent robotic thyroid surgery. Twenty thyroid lobectomies and 11 total thyroidectomies were performed. Improvements in the length of time to perform components of the procedure were noted from the early group of cases to later group of cases. No major or permanent complications occurred. Robotic thyroid surgery is feasible in North American patients and can be safely performed. The procedure has potential complications and a definite learning curve exists for both surgeons and operating room staff. Training methods need to be validated to ensure safe adoption. More studies need to be performed to further evaluate the relative benefits of this technique. Copyright © 2010 The American Laryngological, Rhinological, and Otological Society, Inc.
Bukvic, Branka; Zivaljevic, Vladan; Sipetic, Sandra; Diklic, Aleksandar; Tausanovic, Katarina; Stojanovic, Dragos; Stevanovic, Dejan; Paunovic, Ivan
The most common causes of hyperthyroidism are Graves disease (GD) and toxic nodular goiter (TNG). GD and TNG might influence patients' quality of life (QoL). The aim of our study was to analyze and compare the QoL of patients with GD with that of TNG patients and to evaluate the influence of surgical treatment on their QoL. A prospective case-control study was conducted at the Center for Endocrine surgery in Belgrade, Serbia. The ThyPRO questionnaire was used in the QoL assessment of the GD and TNG patients (31 and 28, respectively) pre- and post-operatively. All patients were receiving antithyroid drugs, and none of the patients were overtly hyperthyroid at the time of completing the preoperative questionnaire. The QoL of the GD patients was worse than that of the TNG patients, with significant differences in eye symptoms, anxiety, and sex life domains (P < 0.001, P = 0.005, and P = 0.004, respectively), preoperatively, and in eye symptoms, anxiety, emotional susceptibility, and overall QoL (P = 0.001, P = 0.027, P = 0.005 and P = 0.013, respectively), postoperatively. The improvement in QoL in the GD patients was significant after surgical treatment in all ThyPRO domains. In the TNG patients, the improvement was significant in all but one ThyPRO domain, sex life (P = 0.066). The QoL of GD patients is worse than those of TNG patients. Surgery may improve QoL in patients with GD and TNG even if they have achieved satisfying thyroid status with medication treatment, preoperatively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gibbons, Lauren M; Sarwer, David B; Crerand, Canice E; Fabricatore, Anthony N; Kuehnel, Robert H; Lipschutz, Patti E; Raper, Steven E; Williams, Noel N; Wadden, Thomas A
To describe the dieting histories of bariatric surgery candidates. One hundred seventy-seven individuals with extreme obesity who sought bariatric surgery completed the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory, a self-report instrument that assesses several variables, including weight and dieting history. Patients' dieting histories were further explored with an aided recall during a preoperative behavioral/psychological evaluation performed by a mental health professional. Participants who completed the Weight and Lifestyle Inventory reported an average of 4.7 +/- 2.9 successful dieting attempts, defined as those that resulted in a loss of 10 lbs (4.5 kg) or more. These individuals reported a mean total lifetime weight loss of 61.1 +/- 41.3 kg. Despite these efforts, their weight increased from 89.4 +/- 27.4 kg at the time of their first diet (age 21.2 +/- 10.1 years) to 144.5 +/- 30.8 kg at the time they underwent their behavioral/psychological evaluation (age 43.0 +/- 11.0 years). Results of the aided recall revealed that participants had made numerous other efforts to lose weight that were unsuccessful. Self-directed diets and commercial programs were used more frequently. Individuals who sought bariatric surgery reported an extensive history of dieting, beginning in adolescence, that was not successful in halting progressive weight gain. Thus, the recommendation often made by insurance companies that patients delay surgery to attempt more conservative treatment options may be unwarranted, particularly in the presence of significant obesity-related comorbidities. Weight loss histories should be routinely examined during a behavioral evaluation to determine whether additional attempts at non-surgical weight loss are advisable. Future studies also are needed to explore the potential relationship between dieting history and postoperative outcome.
Cheung, D; Gillow, T
The prevalence of reactions against natural rubber latex (NRL) is thought to be increasing in both the general public and healthcare workers. These can vary from mild benign skin reactions to bronchospasm, anaphylactic shock, and death. Difficulties exist for ophthalmic departments wishing to establish protocols in providing 'latex-free environments' for patients undergoing cataract surgery. Currently no legislation exists regarding the labelling of NRL-containing products in the United Kingdom with information on a product's NRL content provided by the manufacturer on a voluntary basis only. It is hoped this review article will act as a basic guide in the management of NRL-sensitive patients undergoing cataract surgery in the United Kingdom.
Fingeret, Michelle Cororve; Nipomnick, Summer; Guindani, Michele; Baumann, Donald; Hanasono, Matthew; Crosby, Melissa
Objectives Body image is a critical issue for cancer patients undergoing reconstructive surgery, as they can experience disfigurement and functional impairment. Distress related to appearance changes can lead to various psychosocial difficulties, and patients are often reluctant to discuss these issues with their healthcare team. Our goals were to design and evaluate a screening tool to aid providers in identifying patients who may benefit from referral for specialized psychosocial care to treat body image concerns. Methods We designed a brief 4-item instrument and administered it at a single time point to cancer patients who were undergoing reconstructive treatment. We used simple and multinomial regression models to evaluate whether survey responses, demographic, or clinical variables predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Results Over 95% of the sample (n = 248) endorsed some concerns, preoccupation, or avoidance due to appearance changes. Approximately one-third of patients were interested in obtaining counseling or additional information to assist with body image distress. Each survey item significantly predicted interest and enrollment in counseling. Concern about future appearance changes was the single best predictor of counseling enrollment. Sex, age, and cancer type were not predictive of counseling interest or enrollment. Conclusions We present initial data supporting use of the Body Image Screener for Cancer Reconstruction. Our findings suggest benefits of administering this tool to patients presenting for reconstructive surgery. It is argued that screening and treatment for body image distress should be provided to this patient population at the earliest possible time point. PMID:25066586
Yilmaz, Cem; Kabatas, Serdar; Gulsen, Salih; Cansever, Tufan; Gurkanlar, Doga; Caner, Hakan; Altinors, Nur
Introduction: Treatment of spontaneous supratentorial intracerebral hemorrhage (SICH) is still controversial. We therefore analyzed the comatose patients diagnosed as having spontaneous SICH and treated by surgery. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed the collected data of 25 comatose patients with initial Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) ≤ 8 diagnosed as having spontaneous SICH and they had been treated by surgical evacuation between 1996 and 2008. The outcome was assessed using Glasgow outcome scale (GOS). The side and location of the hematoma and ventricular extension of the hematoma were recorded. The hematoma volume was graded as mild (<30 cc), moderate (30–60 cc) and massive (>60 cc). Results: Age of the patients ranged from 25 to 78 years (mean: 59.6 ± 15.14 years). Among the 25 patients studied, 11 (44%) were females and 14 (56%) were males. GCS before surgery was <5 in 8 (32%) patients and between 5 and 8 in 17 (68%) patients. The hematoma volume was less than 30 cc in 2 patients, between 30 and 60 cc in 9 patients and more than 60 cc in 14 patients. Fourteen of the patients had no ventricular connection and 11 of the hematomas were connected to ventricle. All the 25 patients were treated with craniotomy and evacuation of the hematoma was done within an average of 2 hours on admission to the emergency department. Postoperatively, no rebleeding occurred in our patients. The most important complication was infection in 14 of the patients. The mortality of our surgical series was 56%. GCS before surgery was one of the strongest factors affecting outcome GCS (oGCS) (P = 0.017). Income GCS (iGCS), however, did not affect GOS (P = 0.64). The volume of the hematoma also affected the outcome (P = 0.037). Ventricular extension of the hematoma did affect the oGCS and GOS (P = 0.002), but not the iGCS of the patients (P = 0.139). Conclusion: Our data suggest that being surgically oriented is very important to achieve successful outcomes in a select group
Braun, Lesley A; Stanguts, Catherine; Casanelia, Lisa; Spitzer, Ondine; Paul, Eldho; Vardaxis, Nicholas J; Rosenfeldt, Franklin
To determine whether massage significantly reduces anxiety, pain, and muscular tension and enhances relaxation compared with an equivalent period of rest time after cardiac surgery. The feasibility of delivering the treatment, effects on heart rate, blood pressure, and respiratory rate, and patient satisfaction were also assessed. Elective cardiac surgery patients were randomized to receive massage or rest time at 2 points after surgery. Visual analog scales were used to measure pain, anxiety, relaxation, muscular tension, and satisfaction. Heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure were measured before and after treatment. Focus groups and feedback were used to collect qualitative data about clinical significance and feasibility. A total of 152 patients (99% response rate) participated. Massage therapy produced a significantly greater reduction in pain (P = .001), anxiety (P < .0001), and muscular tension (P = .002) and increases in relaxation (P < .0001) and satisfaction (P = .016) compared to the rest time. No significant differences were seen for heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood pressure. Pain was significantly reduced after massage on day 3 or 4 (P < .0001) and day 5 or 6 (P = .003). The control group experienced no significant change at either time. Anxiety (P < .0001) and muscular tension (P < .0001) were also significantly reduced in the massage group at both points. Relaxation was significantly improved on day 3 or 4 for both groups (massage, P < .0001; rest time, P = .006), but only massage was effective on day 5 or 6 (P < .0001). Nurses and physiotherapists observed patient improvements and helped facilitate delivery of the treatment by the massage therapists on the ward. Massage therapy significantly reduced the pain, anxiety, and muscular tension and improves relaxation and satisfaction after cardiac surgery. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.
Sciubba, Daniel M; Noggle, Joseph C; Marupudi, Neena I; Bagley, Carlos A; Bookland, Markus J; Carson, Benjamin S; Ain, Michael C; Jallo, George I
Achondroplasia is a hereditary form of dwarfism caused by a defect in endochondral bone formation, resulting in skeletal abnormalities including short stature, shortened limb bones, macrocephaly, and small vertebral bodies. In the pediatric population, symptomatic spinal stenosis occurs at all spinal levels due to the abnormally narrow bone canal. In this study, clinical outcomes were assessed in children with achondroplasia after spinal canal decompression. A retrospective review was conducted involving pediatric patients with heterozygous achondroplasia and symptomatic stenosis after decompressive procedures at the authors' institution within a 9-year period. Measured outcomes included resolution of symptoms, need for repeated surgery, presence of fusion, development of deformity, and complications. Forty-four pediatric patients underwent a total of 60 decompressive procedures. The average patient age at surgery was 12.7 years (range 5-21 years). Forty-nine operations were performed for initial treatment of stenosis, and 11 were performed as revision surgeries on previously operated levels. A large proportion of patients (> 60%) required additional cervicomedullary decompressions, most often preceding the symptoms of spinal stenosis. Of the initial procedures, decompression locations included 32 thoracolumbar (65%), 10 lumbar (20%), four cervical (8%), two cervicothoracic (4%), and one thoracic (2%). Forty-three of the decompressive procedures (72%) included spinal fusion procedures. Of the 11 revisions, five were fusion procedures for progressive deformity at levels previously decompressed but not fused (all thoracolumbar), five were for decompressions of symptomatic junctional stenosis with extension of fusion, and one was for repeated decompression at the same level due to recurrence of symptomatic stenosis. Decompression of the spinal canal in pediatric patients with achondroplasia can be accomplished safely with significant clinical benefit. Patients with a
Hayden, Dana M.; Mora Pinzon, Maria C.; Francescatti, Amanda B.; Saclarides, Theodore J.
Purpose Anastomotic complications following rectal cancer surgery occur with varying frequency. Preoperative radiation, BMI, and low anastomoses have been implicated as predictors in previous studies, but their definitive role is still under review. The objective of our study was to identify patient and operative factors that may be predictive of anastomotic complications. Methods A retrospective review was performed on patients who had sphincter-preservation surgery performed for rectal cancer at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2011. Results 123 patients were included in this study, mean age was 59 (26–86), 58% were male. There were 33 complications in 32 patients (27%). Stenosis was the most frequent complication (24 of 33). 11 patients required mechanical dilatation, and 4 had operative revision of the anastomosis. Leak or pelvic abscess were present in 9 patients (7.3%); 4 were explored, 2 were drained and 3 were managed conservatively. 4 patients had permanent colostomy created due to anastomotic complications. Laparoscopy approach, BMI, age, smoking and tumor distance from anal verge were not significantly associated with anastomotic complications. After a multivariate analysis chemoradiation was significantly associated with overall anastomotic complications (Wall = 0.35, p = 0.05), and hemoglobin levels were associated with anastomotic leak (Wald = 4.09, p = 0.04). Conclusion Our study identifies preoperative anemia as possible risk factor for anastomotic leak and neoadjuvant chemoradiation may lead to increased risk of complications overall. Further prospective studies will help to elucidate these findings as well as identify amenable factors that may decrease risk of anastomotic complications after rectal cancer surgery. PMID:25685338
Tuzuner-Oncul, Aysegul Mine; Kucukyavuz, Zuhal
The failure to maintain a patent airway after the induction of general anesthesia is a major concern for anesthesiologists. For securing the airway, tracheal intubation using direct laryngoscopy remains the method of choice in most cases. However, direct laryngoscopic intubation is difficult in 1% to 4%, and impossible in 0.05% to 0.35%, of patients who have seemingly normal airways. This study sought to determine the prevalence of difficult intubation in maxillofacial surgery patients, and to evaluate the usefulness of various predictive tests for difficult intubation. This study was conducted on 208 patients undergoing maxillofacial surgery. During the preoperative visit, patients were examined in terms of the test of Mallampati et al (Can Anaesth Soc J 32:429, 1985), thyromental distance, sternomental distance, and interincisal distance. Direct laryngoscopic grading, as defined by Cormack and Lehane (Anesthesia 39:1105, 1984), was recorded for each patient. An intubation of "no difficulty" was noted when the tube was inserted into the fully visualized larynx with little effort on the first attempt. Intubation was possible in all patients. Combinations of different predictive tests resulted in higher sensitivity. Among all test types, that of Cormack and Lahene was thought to exhibit the highest sensitivity and positive predictive values when used alone. The prevalence of difficult intubation in our group of maxillofacial surgery patients was 15.4%. It may be concluded that a combination of predictive variables can be used to improve sensitivity. We demonstrated that combining the Mallampati test with other instruments of measurement resulted in higher sensitivity than when either test was used alone.
Ricci, Joseph A; Vargas, Christina R; Chuang, Danielle J; Lin, Samuel J; Lee, Bernard T
Patients increasingly rely on Internet resources for medical information. Well-informed patients are more likely to be active participants in their health care, contributing to higher satisfaction and better overall outcomes. Access to online patient material, however, can be limited by inadequate functional health literacy. The National Institutes of Health and the American Medical Association recommend that educational content be written at a sixth-grade reading level. This study aims to assess the readability of online patient resources for breast augmentation surgery. A Web search for "breast implant surgery" was performed using the largest public search engine. After sponsored results were excluded, the 12 most accessed sites were identified. Patient-directed information from all relevant articles immediately linked from the main site was downloaded and formatted into plain text. The readability of 110 articles was evaluated using 10 established analyses, both overall and by Web site. The overall average readability of the 12 most popular Internet resources for breast augmentation was at a thirteenth-grade reading level (Coleman-Liau, 13.4; Flesch-Kincaid, 12.7; FORCAST, 11.3; Fry, 13; New Dale-Chall, 12.9; New Gunning Fog, 13.8; Raygor Estimate, 15; and Simple Mesaure of Gobbledygook Formula, 14.3). The Flesch Reading Ease index was 41, which falls into a "difficult" reading category. No individual article or Web site was at the recommended sixth-grade level. Online resources for breast augmentation are above recommended reading levels. This may potentially serve as a barrier to patients seeking this type of surgery. Plastic surgeons should be aware of potential gaps in understanding and direct patients toward more appropriate resources.
Tam, Kim-Pong; Ng, Henry Kin-Shing; Kim, Young-Hoon; Yeung, Victoria Wai-Lan; Cheung, Francis Yue-Lok
Cosmetic surgery is increasingly popular globally, but how cosmetic surgery patients are socially evaluated is largely unknown. The present research documents attitudes toward these patients in multiple cultures (Hong Kong, Japan, and the United States). Across these cultures, attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients were predominantly negative: Participants ascribed more negative attributes to cosmetic surgery patients and found cosmetic surgery not acceptable. Also, participants in Hong Kong and Japan were not willing to form social relationships, particularly intimate ones, with these patients. These attitudes were less negative in the United States than in Hong Kong and Japan, partly because social contact, which reduced negativity in attitudes toward cosmetic surgery patients, was more prevalent in the United States. These findings bear important implications for the subjective well-being of cosmetic surgery patients, who very often expect improvement in their social relationships through the surgery.
Honigman, Roberta J; Phillips, Katharine A; Castle, David J
The authors reviewed the literature on psychological and psychosocial outcomes for individuals undergoing cosmetic surgery, to address whether elective cosmetic procedures improve psychological well-being and psychosocial functioning and whether there are identifiable predictors of an unsatisfactory psychological outcome. They conducted a search of appropriate computerized databases for studies that evaluated psychological and psychosocial status both before and after elective cosmetic surgery. They identified 37 relevant studies of varying cosmetic procedures that utilized disparate methodologies. Overall, patients appeared generally satisfied with the outcome of their procedures, although some exhibited transient and some exhibited longer-lasting psychological disturbance. Factors associated with poor psychosocial outcome included being young, being male, having unrealistic expectations of the procedure, previous unsatisfactory cosmetic surgery, minimal deformity, motivation based on relationship issues, and a history of depression, anxiety, or personality disorder. Body dysmorphic disorder was also recognized by some studies as a predictor of poor outcome, a finding reinforced by reference to the psychiatric literature. The authors conclude that although most people appear satisfied with the outcome of cosmetic surgical procedures, some are not, and attempts should be made to screen for such individuals in cosmetic surgery settings.
Sanan, Akshay; Quinn, Candace; Spiegel, Jeffrey H
Plastic surgeons are competing for their share of a growing but still limited market, thus making advertising an important component in a successful plastic surgery practice. The authors evaluate the variables, characteristics, and presentation features that make print advertisements most effectively pique the interest of individuals selecting a plastic surgeon. An online survey was administered to 404 individuals with active interest in plastic surgery from 10 major metropolitan areas. Participants were presented with 5 different advertisements from plastic surgeons throughout the country and were asked a series of both closed- and open-ended questions to assess verity, quality, and marketability of each advertisement. Reponses to open-ended questions were analyzed using the Wordle program (www.wordle.net). The most frequent themes identified for all 5 ads were "Being beautiful is possible" (41%), "I could be beautiful" (24%), "Some people need surgery to be beautiful" (16%), and "Being beautiful is important" (14%). Advertisement 1-featuring 3 women and no pre- or posttreatment photography, no physician photography, and a listing of the 3 physicians' credentials but not a list of the services provided-received the highest overall preference rating. Factors including emotions felt while reading, unique qualities of the advertisement, list of procedures performed, use of models versus actual patients, and pictures of the plastic surgeons were found to contribute to the respondents' overall perception of advertisements used to market a plastic surgery practice.
Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Ius, Tamara; Shallice, Tim; Skrap, Miran
Cognitive effects of brain surgery for the removal of intracranial tumors are still under investigation. For many basic sensory/motor or language-based functions, focal, albeit transient, cognitive deficits have been reported low-grade gliomas (LGGs); however, the effects of surgery on higher-level cognitive functions are still largely unknown. It has recently been shown that, following brain tumors, damage to different brain regions causes a variety of deficits at different levels in the perception and interpretation of emotions and intentions. However, the effects of different tumor histologies and, more importantly, the effects of surgery on these functions have not been examined. The performance of 66 patients affected by high-grade glioma (HGG), LGG, and meningioma on 4 tasks tapping different levels of perception and interpretations of emotion and intentions was assessed before, immediately after, and (for LGG patients) 4 months following surgery. Results showed that HGG patients were generally already impaired in the more perceptual tasks before surgery and did not show surgery effects. Conversely, LGG patients, who were unimpaired before surgery, showed a significant deficit in perceptual tasks immediately after surgery that was recovered within few months. Meningioma patients were substantially unimpaired in all tasks. These results show that surgery can be relatively safe for LGG patients with regard to the higher-level, more complex cognitive functions and can provide further useful information to the neurosurgeon and improve communication with both the patient and the relatives about possible changes that can occur immediately after surgery. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Neuro-Oncology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Campanella, Fabio; Fabbro, Franco; Ius, Tamara; Shallice, Tim; Skrap, Miran
Background Cognitive effects of brain surgery for the removal of intracranial tumors are still under investigation. For many basic sensory/motor or language-based functions, focal, albeit transient, cognitive deficits have been reported low-grade gliomas (LGGs); however, the effects of surgery on higher-level cognitive functions are still largely unknown. It has recently been shown that, following brain tumors, damage to different brain regions causes a variety of deficits at different levels in the perception and interpretation of emotions and intentions. However, the effects of different tumor histologies and, more importantly, the effects of surgery on these functions have not been examined. Methods The performance of 66 patients affected by high-grade glioma (HGG), LGG, and meningioma on 4 tasks tapping different levels of perception and interpretations of emotion and intentions was assessed before, immediately after, and (for LGG patients) 4 months following surgery. Results Results showed that HGG patients were generally already impaired in the more perceptual tasks before surgery and did not show surgery effects. Conversely, LGG patients, who were unimpaired before surgery, showed a significant deficit in perceptual tasks immediately after surgery that was recovered within few months. Meningioma patients were substantially unimpaired in all tasks. Conclusions These results show that surgery can be relatively safe for LGG patients with regard to the higher-level, more complex cognitive functions and can provide further useful information to the neurosurgeon and improve communication with both the patient and the relatives about possible changes that can occur immediately after surgery. PMID:25921022
LeBlanc, Justin; Donnon, Tyrone; Hutchison, Carol; Duffy, Paul
Background In surgery, preoperative handover of surgical trauma patients is a process that must be made as safe as possible. We sought to determine vital clinical information to be transferred between patient care teams and to develop a standardized handover checklist. Methods We conducted standardized small-group interviews about trauma patient handover. Based on this information, we created a questionnaire to gather perspectives from all Canadian Orthopaedic Association (COA) members about which topics they felt would be most important on a handover checklist. We analyzed the responses to develop a standardized handover checklist. Results Of the 1106 COA members, 247 responded to the questionnaire. The top 7 topics felt to be most important for achieving patient safety in the handover were comorbidities, diagnosis, readiness for the operating room, stability, associated injuries, history/mechanism of injury and outstanding issues. The expert recommendations were to have handover completed the same way every day, all appropriate radiographs available, adequate time, all appropriate laboratory work and more time to spend with patients with more severe illness. Conclusion Our main recommendations for safe handover are to use standardized checklists specific to the patient and site needs. We provide an example of a standardized checklist that should be used for preoperative handovers. To our knowledge, this is the first checklist for handover developed by a group of experts in orthopedic surgery, which is both manageable in length and simple to use. PMID:24461220
Westling, Agneta; Bergqvist, David; Boström, Annika; Karacagil, Sadettin; Gustavsson, Sven
The aim of this study was to investigate prospectively the incidence of deep venous thrombosis (DVT) after surgery for morbid obesity. The series comprised 116 consecutive patients undergoing Roux-en-Y gastric bypass. The median age and body mass index were 35 years (range 19-59 years) and 42 kg/m2 (range 32-68 kg/m2), respectively. The patients were examined with duplex ultrasonography pre- and postoperatively. No patient had any symptoms or signs of DVT postoperatively, and ultrasonography showed no signs of thrombosis in iliac, femoral, and popliteal veins in any of the patients. Two patients (1.7%) had a thrombus in the peroneal vein of one leg. Repeated ultrasonographic investigation after 1 week showed complete resolution of both. One patient with a previously unknown activated protein C resistance had an angiographically confirmed minor pulmonary embolus. The incidence of venous thromboembolism after obesity surgery seems to be low, and obesity as a risk factor for thromboembolic disease might have been overestimated in the past.
Telem, Dana A; Talamini, Mark; Shroyer, A Laurie; Yang, Jie; Altieri, Maria; Zhang, Qiao; Gracia, Gerald; Pryor, Aurora D
Sparse data are available on long-term patient mortality following bariatric surgery as compared to the general population. The purpose of this study was to assess long-term mortality rates and identify risk factors for all-cause mortality following bariatric surgery. New York State (NYS) Planning and Research Cooperative System (SPARCS) longitudinal administrative data were used to identify 7,862 adult patients who underwent a primary laparoscopic bariatric surgery from 1999 to 2005. The Social Security Death Index database identified >30-day mortalities. Risk factors for mortality were screened using a univariate Cox proportional hazard (PH) model and analyzed using a multiple PH model. Based on age, gender, and race/ethnicity, actuarial projections for NYS mortality rates obtained from Centers of Disease Control were compared to the actual post-bariatric surgery mortality rates observed. The mean bariatric mortality rate was 2.5 % with 8-14 years of follow-up. Mean time to death ranged from 4 to 6 year and did not differ by operation (p = 0.073). From 1999 to 2010, the actuarial mortality rate predicted for the general NYS population was 2.1 % versus the observed 1.5 % for the bariatric surgery population (p = 0.005). Extrapolating to 2013, demonstrated the actuarial mortality predictions at 3.1 % versus the bariatric surgery patients' observed morality rate of 2.5 % (p = 0.01). Risk factors associated with an earlier time to death included: age, male gender, Medicare/Medicaid insurance, congestive heart failure, rheumatoid arthritis, pulmonary circulation disorders, and diabetes. No procedure-specific or perioperative complication impact for time-to-death was found. Long-term mortality rate of patients undergoing bariatric surgery significantly improves as compared to the general population regardless of bariatric operation performed. Additionally, perioperative complications do not increase long-term mortality risk. This study did identify specific patient
Deschamps, Alain; Denault, André; Rochon, Antoine; Cogan, Jennifer; Pagé, Pierre; D'Antono, Bianca
Autonomic nervous system dysfunction is a well-recognized but rarely evaluated risk factor for patients undergoing cardiac surgery. By measuring autonomic reserves in patients scheduled for cardiac surgery, the authors aimed to identify those with autonomic dysfunction and to evaluate their risk of perioperative complications. This was a prospective, observational study. The study was conducted in a single academic center. Sixty-seven patients completed the study. Autonomic reserves were evaluated using analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) and blood pressure variability (BPV) after a Valsalva maneuver. The patients were divided into 2 groups depending on their response to the autonomic challenge, a group with autonomic reserves (AR, n = 38) and a group with negligible autonomic reserves (NAR, n = 29). The groups were compared for baseline psychologic distress, demographic and medical profiles, autonomic response to morphine premedication and the induction of anesthesia, hemodynamic instability, the occurrence of decreases in cerebral oxygen saturation, and postoperative complications. Patients in the NAR group had significantly higher psychologic distress scores (p < 0.001), a higher baseline parasympathetic tone (p = 0.003), were unable to increase parasympathetic tone with morphine premedication, had more severe hypotension at the induction of anesthesia (p < 0.001), more episodes of decreases in cerebral saturation (p = 0.0485), and a higher overall complication rate (p = 0.0388) independent of other variables studied. Patients with diminished autonomic reserves can be identified before cardiac surgery using analysis of HRV and BPV of the response to the Valsalva maneuver, and some evidence suggests that they may be at increased risk of perioperative complications. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Arame, A; Rivera, C; Borik, W; Mangiameli, G; Abdennahder, M; Pricopi, C; Bagan, P; Badia, A; Le Pimpec Barthes, F; Riquet, M
The incidence of lung cancer is reputed to be higher and prognosis worse in solid organ transplant recipients than in the general population. Our purpose was to review the results of surgery in this group of patients. We retrospectively reviewed 49 male and 6 female patients; mean aged 60.6 years (38-85). Transplanted organ was heart (n = 37), kidney (n=12), liver (n = 5) and both-lungs (n = 1); 48 patients had smoking habits and 42 heavy comorbidities (76.4%). Lung cancer was diagnosed during surveillance (78.2%, n = 43) or because of symptoms (21.8%, n = 12). We reviewed TNM and other main characteristics, among them histology (squamous-cell-carcinoma n = 23, adenocarcinomas n = 24, others n = 8). Surgery consisted of: exploratory thoracotomy (n = 2), wedge resections (n = 6), segmentectomy (n = 1), lobectomy (n = 42), pneumonectomy (n = 4). Postoperative mortality was 7.4% (n = 4) and complication rate 34.5% (n = 19). Five-year survival rate was 46.4% (65.4% for stage I patients, n = 25). Among the 35 dead patients during follow-up, 14 died of their lung cancer (40%). Two had been re-operated from another lung cancer: one after 3 and 8 years who survived 16 years, and the other after 2 years who survived 70 months. Surgery results are good and postoperative events acceptable despite theoretically increased risks. This also supports performing a close follow-up of transplanted patients and particularly those with smoking history in view of detecting lung cancer appearing at an early stage. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Aiello, F; Nasser, Q J; Nucci, C; Angunawela, R I; Gatzioufas, Z; Maurino, V
Keratoconus (KC) is a common ectatic disorder resulting in progressive corneal thinning and irregular astigmatism. It has been observed that patients affected by KC are more likely to develop lens opacities earlier compared to non-keratoconic patients. Intraocular lens (IOL) selection and refractive outcome prediction are among a number of factors that can make cataract surgery in keratoconic patients challenging. Accurate biometry is often difficult to obtain due to unreliable K measurements and lack of dedicated biometric formulae. The use of toric IOLs has also been investigated. Determining the stage of KC, pre-operative patient counselling and the preferred method of refractive correction are all crucial to obtain successful postoperative outcomes and good patient satisfaction. The use of toric IOLs can achieve good results only in selected low-grade keratoconic eyes.
Merrill, W H; Stewart, J R; Frist, W H; Hammon, J W; Bender, H W
Between February 1978 and August 1989, forty patients aged 80 years or older underwent cardiac surgery at this institution. Patient age varied from 80 to 87 years (mean, 82.4 years). Operative indications were angina pectoris or congestive heart failure. Twenty-eight patients underwent coronary artery bypass (CAB) alone and 12 underwent valve replacement(s) with or without CAB. The operative mortality rate was 10%. Postoperative hospitalization averaged 14 days. There were three late cardiac deaths at 13, 36, and 48 months after operation and one late noncardiac death. Thirty-two survivors have been followed from 1 to 86 months (mean, 20 months). All experienced sustained improvement in functional status and minimal late morbidity. All survivors remained in NYHA class 1 or 2. Cardiac surgical procedures in patients older than 80 years can be performed with increased but acceptable mortality and morbidity rates. Most patients achieve sustained symptomatic improvement and excellent long-term survival. PMID:2357139
Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E
Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m(2) and those with BMI > 35 kg/m(2) with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review.
Elrazek, Abd Elrazek Mohammad Ali Abd; Elbanna, Abduh Elsayed Mohamed; Bilasy, Shymaa E
Obesity is a major and growing health care concern. Large epidemiologic studies that evaluated the relationship between obesity and mortality, observed that a higher body-mass index (BMI) is associated with increased rate of death from several causes, among them cardiovascular disease; which is particularly true for those with morbid obesity. Being overweight was also associated with decreased survival in several studies. Unfortunately, obese subjects are often exposed to public disapproval because of their fatness which significantly affects their psychosocial behavior. All obese patients (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) should receive counseling on diet, lifestyle, exercise and goals for weight management. Individuals with BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 and those with BMI > 35 kg/m2 with obesity-related comorbidities; who failed diet, exercise, and drug therapy, should be considered for bariatric surgery. In current review article, we will shed light on important medical principles that each surgeon/gastroenterologist needs to know about bariatric surgical procedure, with special concern to the early post operative period. Additionally, we will explain the common complications that usually follow bariatric surgery and elucidate medical guidelines in their management. For the first 24 h after the bariatric surgery, the postoperative priorities include pain management, leakage, nausea and vomiting, intravenous fluid management, pulmonary hygiene, and ambulation. Patients maintain a low calorie liquid diet for the first few postoperative days that is gradually changed to soft solid food diet within two or three weeks following the bariatric surgery. Later, patients should be monitored for postoperative complications. Hypertension, diabetes, dumping syndrome, gastrointestinal and psychosomatic disorders are among the most important medical conditions discussed in this review. PMID:25429323
All human beings are provided by nature with the ability not only to survive but also to improve the quality of life. A sort of brain plasticity allows us to adapt to new information and circumstances. This also accounts for what is called creativity. Due to its etymological roots in Latin, the word suggests that by means of imagination either a new idea of significant value may be ``created'' or an already existing and valid one may be improved, transformed, and applied so as to serve more purposes. As the German poet Goethe aptly observed, the ``birth'' of something new often requires the ``death,'' or the letting go, of old ideas. In the course of history, creativity has brought about changes, innovations and advances in all aspects of human life. Creativity, accompanied by talent, motivation and interest, patience and perseverance, self-confidence and courage, as well as the determination to overcome obstacles, is highly significant also in the field of medicine, in surgery, and, of course, in Plastic Surgery. Specific techniques and methods, invented by creative individuals and/or the research community, have contributed to a history of great innovations in Plastic Surgery and have also proved useful in other surgical institutions. Cooperation beyond the scope of 1 discipline has always been highly important, as it is the patient who is meant to profit from the products of creative minds in these fields. Two examples from my own experience shall serve to illustrate the vast scope of possibilities in the field of Plastic Surgery: cross-face nerve grafting and total reconstruction of a trachea.
Illuminati, Giulio; Ceccanei, Gianluca; Pacilè, Maria A; Pizzardi, Giulia; Palumbo, Piergaspare; Vietri, Francesco
With the increasing diffusion of percutaneous interventions (PCI), surgeons are often faced with the problem of operating on patients under dual antiplatelet treatment. Replacing dual antiplatelet regiment with low molecular weight heparin may expose to the abrupt thrombosis of coronary stent and massive myocardial infarction. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet treatment. Eleven patients underwent 5 colectomies, 3 nefrectomies, 2 gastrectomies and 1 hysterectomy under aspirin and plavix without any significant perioperative hemorrhage. These preliminary results show that abdominal operations can be safely performed under dual antiplatelet regimen. Abdominal surgery, Dual antiplatelet treatment.
This article provides a summary of currently available information from a broad range of disciplines aimed at guiding the physician caring for the pregnant patient who requires nonobstetric surgery. An understanding of the anatomic and physiologic alterations that occur during pregnancy will allow such procedures to be accomplished with morbidity and mortality approaching those of nonpregnant surgical patients. The presence of the fetus does impose some restraint; however, this should rarely impair appropriate diagnosis and treatment of maternal disease. This obtains from the broad range of diagnostic and therapeutic alternatives available, and from the fact that what is beneficial for maternal health is generally best for the fetus. 64 references.
Benhamou, A C; Kieffer, E; Tricot, J F; Maraval, M; Lethoai, H; Benhamou, M; Boespflug, O; Natali, J
Between 1965 and 1979, 934 patients underwent 1,057 operations for extracranial carotid stenosis at this institute, and over a recent 30-month period 463 patients underwent 511 operations of this type. This number is equal to the total of operations performed during the years 1965-1976. The increase in the frequency of carotid artery surgery has been more marked in patients of over 70 years. The percentage of elderly patients has increased from 17.5% to 27% in the recent period. In the latter group of 511 operations, results were good in 93.17% of cases, while there was a mortality rate of 1.95% (1% of which were directly related to the surgery), in 1.95% the neurologic condition deteriorated and in 3.13% there was no change. In the first period the mortality rate for patients over 70 years of age was 7.69%. In the second it was 3.27% (1.63% of which were due to non-neurologic causes), 4.09% deteriorated, in 2.18% there was no change and good results were obtained in 90.46%.
Morise, A.P.; McDowell, D.E.; Savrin, R.A.; Goodwin, C.A.; Gabrielle, O.F.; Oliver, F.N.; Nullet, F.R.; Bekheit, S.; Jain, A.C.
In an attempt to determine whether noninvasive cardiac testing could be used to assess cardiac risk in patients undergoing surgery for vascular disease, the authors studied 96 patients. Seventy-seven patients eventually underwent major vascular surgery with 11 (14%) experiencing a significant cardiac complication. Thallium imaging was much more likely to be positive (p less than 0.01) in patients with a cardiac complication; however, there was a significant number of patients with cardiac complications who had a positive history or electrocardiogram for myocardial infarction. When grouped by complication and history of infarction, thallium imaging, if negative, correctly predicted low cardiac risk in the group with a history of infarction. Thallium imaging, however, did not provide a clear separation of risk in those without a history of infarction. Age and coronary angiography, on the other hand, did reveal significant differences within the group without a history of infarction. The resting radionuclide ejection fraction followed a similar pattern to thallium imaging. It is concluded that a positive history of myocardial infarction at any time in the past is the strongest risk predictor in this population and that the predictive value of noninvasive testing is dependent on this factor. Considering these findings, a proposed scheme for assessing risk that will require further validation is presented.
Evaristo-Méndez, Gerardo; Rocha-Calderón, César Haydn
The risk of post-operative pneumonia is a latent complication. A study was conducted to determine its risk factors in abdominal surgery. A cross-sectional study was performed that included analysing the variables of age and gender, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and smoking, serum albumin, type of surgery and anaesthesia, emergency or elective surgery, incision site, duration of surgery, length of hospital stay, length of stay in the intensive care unit, and time on mechanical ventilation. The adjusted odds ratio for risk factors was obtained using multivariate logistic regression. The study included 91 (9.6%) patients with pneumonia and 851 (90.4%) without pneumonia. Age 60 years or over (OR=2.34), smoking (OR=9.48), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (OR=3.52), emergency surgery (OR=2.48), general anaesthesia (OR=3.18), surgical time 120 minutes or over (OR=5.79), time in intensive care unit 7 days or over (OR=1.23), time on mechanical ventilation greater than or equal to 4 days (OR=5.93) and length of post-operative hospital stay of 15 days or over (OR=1.20), were observed as independent predictors for the development of postoperative pneumonia. Identifying risk factors for post-operative pneumonia may prevent their occurrence. The length in the intensive care unit of greater than or equal to 7 days (OR=1.23; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.42) and a length postoperative hospital stay of 15 days or more (OR=1.20; 95% CI 1.07 - 1.34) were the predictive factors most strongly associated with lung infection in this study. Copyright © 2015 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Published by Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.
Shoji, Cíntia Yukie; de Figuereido, Luciana Castilho; Calixtre, Eveline Maria; Rodrigues, Cristiane Delgado Alves; Falcão, Antonio Luis Eiras; Martins, Pedro Paulo; dos Anjos, Ana Paula Ragonete; Dragosavac, Desanka
Objectives To analyze patients after cardiac surgery that needed endotracheal reintubation and identify factors associated with death and its relation with the severity scores. Methods Retrospective analysis of information of 1,640 patients in the postoperative period of cardiac surgery between 2007 and 2015. Results The reintubation rate was 7.26%. Of those who were reintubated, 36 (30.3%) underwent coronary artery bypass surgery, 27 (22.7%) underwent valve replacement, 25 (21.0%) underwent correction of an aneurysm, and 8 (6.7%) underwent a heart transplant. Among those with comorbidities, 54 (51.9%) were hypertensive, 22 (21.2%) were diabetic, and 10 (9.6%) had lung diseases. Among those who had complications, 61 (52.6%) had pneumonia, 50 (42.4%) developed renal failure, and 49 (51.0%) had a moderate form of the transient disturbance of gas exchange. Noninvasive ventilation was performed in 53 (44.5%) patients. The death rate was 40.3%, and mortality was higher in the group that did not receive noninvasive ventilation before reintubation (53.5%). Within the reintubated patients who died, the SOFA and APACHE II values were 7.9 ± 3.0 and 16.9 ± 4.5, respectively. Most of the reintubated patients (47.5%) belonged to the high-risk group, EuroSCORE (> 6 points). Conclusion The reintubation rate was high, and it was related to worse SOFA, APACHE II and EuroSCORE scores. Mortality was higher in the group that did not receive noninvasive ventilation before reintubation.
Khalid, Ayesha N.; Mace, Jess C.; Smith, Timothy L
Background Previous outcomes studies of patients with chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) have mostly excluded subjects with immunodeficiency or autoimmune disease. While expert opinion suggests these patients are often refractory to therapy, outcomes following endoscopic sinus surgery (ESS) are not well delineated. Objective We evaluated improvement in objective and quality of life (QoL) measures following endoscopic sinus surgery in adult patients treated in the ambulatory setting with immune dysfunction including immunodeficiency and autoimmune diseases. Methods Patients with CRS associated with immune dysfunction (n=22) were evaluated and matched 1:1 with control subjects from a prospective cohort in a nested case-control design. Preoperative computed tomography (CT) and pre/postoperative endoscopic findings were recorded. Disease-specific QoL instruments (Rhinosinusitis Disability Index (RSDI) and Chronic Sinusitis Survey (CSS)) were administered pre- and postoperatively. Results Mean postoperative follow-up was similar for both cases (18.6±6.6 months) and controls (18.4±8.7 months). Preoperative CT and endoscopy scores (i.e. disease severity) were similar in both cases and controls. Post-operative endoscopy scores were significantly improved for both cases (p<0.001) and controls (p=0.012). Both groups had similar preoperative and postoperative scores on the CSS, however control subjects reported significantly worse RSDI baseline scores. Immunodeficiency and autoimmune cases and CRS controls experienced significant improvement in QoL after surgery (p≤0.041). Conclusion Immunodeficiency and autoimmune cases, in the ambulatory setting, present with similar severity of disease as compared to controls with CRS. We found similar improvements in both objective and QoL outcomes for case subjects and control subjects, suggesting that patients with immune dysfunction may experience similar benefit from ESS. PMID:20537292
González-García, Raúl; Naval-Gías, Luís; Muñoz-Guerra, Mario Fernando; Sastre-Pérez, Jesús; Rodríguez-Campo, Francisco José; Gil-Díez-Usandizaga, José Luís
To evaluate the success of the osseointegration of dental implants in patients with severe maxillary atrophy after sinus lift augmentation and onlay graft surgery with autologous bone grafts. A descriptive and analytic study of 27 patients with severe maxillary atrophy and partial or total edentulism, after 4 years follow-up. All cases underwent to autologous bone graft sinus lift augmentation with or without onlay grafts in the anterior maxillae. After this, reconstruction with osseointegrated implants was performed. After the follow-up period, 89.1% of implants were osseointegrated and loaded. Anterior iliac crest bone graft provides good results with respect to implant osseointegration. The achievement of two surgical procedures for bone grafts surgery and implants surgery, separated 2 or more months, provides better results for osseointegration in comparison to a sole surgical procedure (p<0.01). Implants survival predictability is greater when a second surgical procedure is performed, once bone grafts have experimented an appropriate consolidation. The use of onlay graft and sinus lift augmentation techniques is useful in the resolution of complex problems such as the severe maxillary atrophy.
Hillman, Jennifer B; Miller, Rachel J; Inge, Thomas H
Adolescent obesity has dramatically increased in recent decades, and along with that so have other medical comorbidities, such as hypertension, diabetes, hyperlipidemia, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS), and pseudotumor cerebri. Obesity and related comorbidites may be contraindications to hormonal contraception, making contraception counseling of morbidly obese adolescents more challenging. Obese adolescent females seeking bariatric surgery need effective contraception in the postoperative period. This study is designed to determine the acceptance rate of the levonorgestrel-releasing intrauterine device (IUD) and describe common menstrual problems in obese adolescent bariatric surgery patients. This is a historic cohort study of adolescent females who underwent bariatric surgery over a 2-year period at a tertiary referral center for pediatric obesity. Data were systematically abstracted. The percent of patients with menstrual problems and the acceptance rate for the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD were determined. Twenty-five adolescents met inclusion criteria. The mean age was 17.4 years (standard deviation [SD] 2.6), and the mean body mass index (BMI) was 51.4 (SD 6.3) kg/m(2). Eighty-four percent were white. Twenty-eight percent had menorrhagia, 32% had oligomenorrhea, 40% had dysmenorrhea, and 36% had PCOS. Ninety-two percent (23 of 25) underwent IUD placement. There was a high prevalence of menstrual problems among this sample of severely obese adolescent females. The majority accepted the IUD, indicating it is a viable option among this population.
Weller, M D; Porter, M J; Rowlands, J
We report an audit designed to assess patient satisfaction resulting from pharyngeal pouch surgery using an endoscopic stapler. A personal series of 16 patients all operated on by the senior author over a 3-year period is reported. Information was gathered using a retrospective telephone questionnaire to establish pre- and postoperative symptoms, complications of surgery and patient satisfaction. This showed endoscopic pharyngeal pouch surgery to be successful in the majority of cases. Eighty-seven percent of patients felt better as a result of surgery. Seventy-five percent had no symptoms postoperatively. This series shows that surgery on pharyngeal pouches results in significant improvement in patient symptoms with minimal morbidity and mortality.
Essig, H; Lindhorst, D; Gander, T; Schumann, P; Könü, D; Altermatt, S; Rücker, M
Surgical correction of premature fusion of calvarial sutures involving the fronto-orbital region can be challenging due to the demanding three-dimensional (3D) anatomy. If fronto-orbital advancement (FOA) is necessary, surgery is typically performed using resorbable plates and screws that are bent manually intraoperatively. A new approach using individually manufactured resorbable implants (KLS Martin Group, Tuttlingen, Germany) is presented in the current paper. Preoperative CT scan data were processed in iPlan (ver. 3.0.5; Brainlab, Feldkirchen, Germany) to generate a 3D reconstruction. Virtual osteotomies and simulation of the ideal outer contour with reassembled bony segments were performed. Digital planning was transferred with a cutting guide, and an individually manufactured resorbable implant was used for rigid fixation. A resorbable patient-specific implant (Resorb X-PSI) allows precise surgery for FOA in craniosynostosis using a complete digital workflow and should be considered superior to manually bent resorbable plates.
Chang, Charles; Steinberg, Zoe; Shah, Anup
Abstract The introduction of robotic surgical systems and their integration into minimally invasive procedures have changed the landscape of laparoscopic surgery dramatically. Intuitive Surgical's da Vinci Surgical System was first approved by the Food and Drug Administration for cardiothoracic procedures in the late 1990s. This trend quickly spread through other surgical specialties, with urologists as one of the frontrunners in adoption. Subsequently, pediatric urologists have adopted robot-assisted procedures in selected centers, performing procedures such as pyeloplasty for ureteropelvic junction obstruction, partial and complete nephrectomy, and both intravesical and extravesical ureteral reimplantation. In this article, we will discuss technical considerations related to patient positioning and port placement in pediatric robot-assisted surgery. PMID:24548088
Delay, Jean-Marc; Jaber, Samir
Scheduled and/or thoracic, abdominal surgeries increase the risk of respiratory postoperative complications. In patients with chronic respiratory failure, preoperative evaluation should be performed to evaluate respiratory function in aim to optimize perioperative management. Preoperative gas exchange abnormalities (hypoxemia or hypercapnia) are associated with respiratory postoperative complications. Respiratory physiotherapy and prophylactic non-invasive ventilation should be integrated in a global rehabilitation management for cardiothoracic or abdominal surgery procedures, which are at high risk of postoperative respiratory dysfunction. Stopping tobacco consummation should be benefit, but decease risk of postoperative complications is relevant only after a period for 6 to 8 weeks of cessation. Bronchodilatator aerosol therapy (beta-agonists and atropinics) and inhaled corticotherapy allow a rapid preparation for 24 to 48 h. Systematic preoperative antibiotherapy should not be recommended. Copyright Â© 2011 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.
Yoo, Jae Chul; Lim, Tae Kang; Kim, Dong Hyok; Koh, Kyoung-Hwan
Symptomatic full-thickness rotator cuff (RC) tears are often recommended for surgical repairs. However, some patients decide not to have surgery. The aim of this study was to see if there was any difference in preoperative variables between the two groups. 137 consecutive patients recommended for surgery due to symptomatic full-thickness RC tear were evaluated. At mean 58.1 months after surgery-recommendation, the patients were asked whether they had surgery and their clinical outcome was assessed. Variables at the time of surgery-recommendation including demographics, range-of-motion (ROM), tear size, and fatty infiltration on MRI, and clinical score were compared between the two groups. The 59 men and 78 women had a mean age of 64.4 years. Overall, 104 (75.9%) patients were treated with RC repair and 33 (24.1%) were not. The main three reasons for not having surgery were improvement of symptoms or minimal pain (55%), economic burden (12%), and concern for postoperative long rehabilitation (9%). Demography and ROM measured at the time of surgery-recommendation did not differ. All clinical scores at one year and final follow-up survey showed no difference between the two groups. The Constant and UCLA scores at the time of surgery-recommendation were significantly higher and tear size was smaller in the 'No-surgery' group. Fatty infiltration of supraspinatus (2.0 versus 1.2, p < 0.001) and global fatty degeneration index (1.4 versus 0.8, p = 0.011) were statistically lower in 'No-surgery' group as well. Patients with relatively preserved function and small size tear tend to select non-surgical treatment and lead to relatively good outcome. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Orthopaedic Association. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Background The increasing demand on hospitalisation, either due to elective activity from the waiting lists or due to emergency admissions coming from the Emergency Department (ED), requires looking for strategies that lead to effective bed management. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a surgery admission unit for major elective surgery patients who were admitted for same-day surgery. Methods We included all patients admitted for elective surgery in a university tertiary hospital between the 1st of September and the 31st of December 2006, as well as those admitted during the same period of 2008, after the introduction of the Surgery Admission Unit. The main outcome parameters were global length of stay, pre-surgery length of stay, proportion of patients admitted the same day of the surgery and number of cancellations. Differences between the two periods were evaluated by the T-test and Chi-square test. Significance at P < 0.05 was assumed throughout. Results We included 6,053 patients, 3,003 during 2006 and 3,050 patients during 2008. Global length of stay was 6.2 days (IC 95%:6.4-6) in 2006 and 5.5 days (IC 95%:5.8-5.2) in 2008 (p < 0.005). Pre-surgery length of stay was reduced from 0.46 days (IC 95%:0.44-0.48) in 2006 to 0.29 days (IC 95%:0.27-0.31) in 2008 (p < 0.005). The proportion of patients admitted for same-day surgery was 67% (IC 95%:69%-65%) in 2006 and 76% (IC 95%:78%-74%) in 2008 (p < 0.005). The number of cancelled interventions due to insufficient preparation was 31 patients in 2006 and 7 patients in 2008. Conclusions The implementation of a Surgery Admission Unit for patients undergoing major elective surgery has proved to be an effective strategy for improving bed management. It has enabled an improvement in the proportion of patients admitted on the same day as surgery and a shorter length of stay. PMID:20096114
Hodgson, Luke E.; Murphy, Patrick B.
As a reflection of the increasing global incidence of obesity, there has been a corresponding rise in the proportion of obese patients undergoing major surgery. This review reports the physiological effect of these changes in body composition on the respiratory system and discusses the clinical approach required to maximize safety and minimize the risk to the patient. The changes in respiratory system compliance and lung volumes, which can adversely affect pulmonary gas exchange, combined with upper airways obstruction and sleep-disordered breathing need to be considered carefully in the peri-operative period. Indeed, these challenges in the obese patient have led to a clear focus on the clinical management strategy and development of peri-operative pathways, including pre-operative risk assessment, patient positioning at induction and under anesthesia, modified approach to intraoperative ventilation and the peri-operative use of non-invasive ventilation (NIV) and continuous positive airways pressure. PMID:26101653
Voeltz, Michele D; Manoukian, Steven V
The benefit of long-term dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) in patients with acute coronary syndromes, drug-eluting stents and those at high risk for thromboembolic events has been well established in a number of well-designed randomized controlled studies. Current research in this area has focused on the development of novel antiplatelet agents for clinical use. The BRIDGE trial evaluated the use of cangrelor as a bridge to coronary artery bypass graft surgery in patients receiving extended DAPT. The BRIDGE trial results confirm the efficacy and safety of cangrelor in this population. This study is novel as it attempts to address the lapse in thienopyridine therapy required for many surgical and invasive procedures. The future of antiplatelet agents, particularly cangrelor, must also focus on bridging for high-risk patients undergoing noncoronary artery bypass graft surgical procedures. Overall, the BRIDGE trial represents a significant advance for patients appropriate for long-term DAPT.
Armero-Barranco, David; Ruiz-Mateos, María; Alcaraz-Baños, Miguel; Bernal-Páez, Fernando Luis
We report the case of a 73-year-old man with medical diagnoses of long-standing diabetes mellitus, chronic ischemia of the lower limbs and intermittent claudication, for which the patient had been treated with minimally invasive radiological surgery. On arrival at the radiology unit, the patient had nursing diagnoses of anxiety and fear. Intraoperatively, the client had nursing diagnoses of pain, urine retention and infection risk. At discharge, a collaboration problem was detected and hemorrhagic risk. The patient received individualized nursing care. Interventions were planned following the nursing intervention classification (NIC) and the expected results for these interventions followed the Nursing Outcomes Classification (NOC) taxonomy. The application of an appropriate nursing care plan contributes to making the patient's hospital stay easier, more comfortable and less traumatic.
Tomar, Akhlesh S; Tempe, Deepak K; Banerjee, Amit; Hegde, Radhesh; Cooper, Andrea; Khanna, S K
Blood conservation is an important aspect of care provided to the patients undergoing cardiac operations with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). It is even more important in patients with anticipated prolonged CPB, redo cardiac surgery, patients having negative blood group and in patients undergoing emergency cardiac surgery. In prolonged CPB the blood is subjected to more destruction of important coagulation factors, in redo surgery the separation of adhesions leads to increased bleeding and difficulty in achieving the haemostasis and in patients with negative blood group and emergency operations, the availability of sufficient blood can be a problem. Harvesting the autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) can be a useful method of blood conservation in these patients. The above four categories of patients were prospectively studied, using either autologous whole blood donation or autologous platelet rich plasma (PRP) harvest in the immediate pre-bypass period. Forty two patients were included in the study and randomly divided into two equal groups of 21 each, control group (Group I) in which one unit of whole blood was withdrawn, and PRP group (Group II) where autologous plateletpheresis was utilised. After reversal of heparin, autologous whole blood was transfused in the control group and autologous PRP was transfused in the PRP group. The chest tube drainage and the requirement of homologous blood and blood products were recorded. Average PRP harvest was 643.33 +/- 133.51 mL in PRP group and the mean whole blood donation was 333.75 +/- 79.58 mL in the control group. Demographic, preoperative and intra operative data showed no statistically significant differences between the two groups. The PRP group patients drained 26.44% less (p<0.001) and required 38.5% less homologous blood and blood products (p<0.05), in the postoperative period. Haemoglobin levels on day zero (day of operation) and day three were statistically not different between the two groups. We conclude
Huge, A; Kreis, M E; Zittel, T T; Becker, H D; Starlinger, M J; Jehle, E C
Colonic motility is crucial for the resolution of postoperative ileus. However, few data are available on postoperative colonic motility and no data on postoperative colonic tone. We aimed to characterize postoperative colonic tone and motility in patients. Nineteen patients were investigated with combined barostat and manometry recordings after left colonic surgery. During surgery a combined recording catheter was placed in the colon with two barostat bags and four manometry channels cephalad to the anastomosis. Recordings were performed twice daily from Day 1 to Day 3 after surgery. Manometry showed an increasing colonic motility index, which was a mean (+/- standard error of the mean) of 37 +/- 5 mmHg/minute on Day 1, 87 +/- 19 mmHg/minute on Day 2, and 102 +/- 13 mmHg/minute on Day 3 (P < 0.05 for Day 1 vs. Day 2 and Day 2 vs. Day 3). Low barostat bag volumes indicating a high colonic tone were observed on Day 1 after surgery and increased subsequently (barostat bag I was 19 +/- 4, 32 +/- 6, and 32 +/- 6 ml; barostat bag II was 13 +/- 1, 19 +/- 3, and 22 +/- 5 ml on Days 1, 2, and 3, respectively; for both barostat bags P < 0.05 for Day 1 vs. Day 2 but not Day 2 vs. Day 3). Colonic motility increased during the postoperative course. The low barostat bag volumes indicated a high colonic tone postoperatively which would correspond to a contracted rather than to a distended colon. High colonic tone postoperatively may be relevant for pharmacologic treatment of postoperative ileus.
Bansal, Neha; Simmons, Kristina D; Epstein, Andrew J; Morris, Jon B; Kelz, Rachel R
To evaluate and financially reward general surgery residency programs based on performance, performance must first be defined and measureable. To assess general surgery residency program performance using the objective clinical outcomes of patients operated on by program graduates. A retrospective cohort study was conducted of discharge records from 349 New York and Florida hospitals between January 1, 2008, and December 31, 2011. The records comprised 230,769 patients undergoing 1 of 24 general surgical procedures performed by 454 surgeons from 73 general surgery residency programs. Analysis was conducted from June 4, 2014, to June 16, 2015. In-hospital death; development of 1 or more postoperative complications before discharge; prolonged length of stay, defined as length of stay greater than the 75th percentile when compared with patients undergoing the same procedure type at the same hospital; and failure to rescue, defined as in-hospital death after the development of 1 or more postoperative complications. Patients operated on by surgeons trained in residency programs that were ranked in the top tertile were significantly less likely to experience an adverse event than were patients operated on by surgeons trained in residency programs that were ranked in the bottom tertile. Adjusted adverse event rates for patients operated on by surgeons trained in programs that were ranked in the top tertile and those who were operated on by surgeons trained in programs that were ranked in the bottom tertile were, respectively, 0.483% vs 0.476% for death, 9.68% vs 10.79% for complications, 16.76% vs 17.60% for prolonged length of stay, and 2.68% vs 2.98% for failure to rescue (all P < .001). The differences remained significant in procedure-specific subset analyses. The rankings were significantly correlated among some but not all outcome measures. The magnitude of the effect of the residency program on the outcomes achieved by the graduates decreased with increasing
Mehta, Rajendra H; Leimberger, Jeffrey D; van Diepen, Sean; Meza, James; Wang, Alice; Jankowich, Rachael; Harrison, Robert W; Hay, Douglas; Fremes, Stephen; Duncan, Andra; Soltesz, Edward G; Luber, John; Park, Soon; Argenziano, Michael; Murphy, Edward; Marcel, Randy; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri; Nagpal, Dave; Bozinovski, John; Toller, Wolfgang; Heringlake, Matthias; Goodman, Shaun G; Levy, Jerrold H; Harrington, Robert A; Anstrom, Kevin J; Alexander, John H
Background Levosimendan is an inotropic agent that has been shown in small studies to prevent or treat the low cardiac output syndrome after cardiac surgery. Methods In a multicenter, randomized, placebo-controlled, phase 3 trial, we evaluated the efficacy and safety of levosimendan in patients with a left ventricular ejection fraction of 35% or less who were undergoing cardiac surgery with the use of cardiopulmonary bypass. Patients were randomly assigned to receive either intravenous levosimendan (at a dose of 0.2 μg per kilogram of body weight per minute for 1 hour, followed by a dose of 0.1 μg per kilogram per minute for 23 hours) or placebo, with the infusion started before surgery. The two primary end points were a four-component composite of death through day 30, renal-replacement therapy through day 30, perioperative myocardial infarction through day 5, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5; and a two-component composite of death through day 30 or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device through day 5. Results A total of 882 patients underwent randomization, 849 of whom received levosimendan or placebo and were included in the modified intention-to-treat population. The four-component primary end point occurred in 105 of 428 patients (24.5%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 103 of 421 (24.5%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.00; 99% confidence interval [CI], 0.66 to 1.54; P=0.98). The two-component primary end point occurred in 56 patients (13.1%) assigned to receive levosimendan and in 48 (11.4%) assigned to receive placebo (adjusted odds ratio, 1.18; 96% CI, 0.76 to 1.82; P=0.45). The rate of adverse events did not differ significantly between the two groups. Conclusions Prophylactic levosimendan did not result in a rate of the short-term composite end point of death, renal-replacement therapy, perioperative myocardial infarction, or use of a mechanical cardiac assist device that was lower than the rate
Jayaprakash, Anthoor; McGrath, Christine; McCullagh, Emily; Smith, Frank; Angelini, Gianni; Probert, Christopher
To compare the frequency and outcome of upper gastrointestinal haemorrhage (UGH) patients who had undergone cardiac surgery with a control group of vascular surgery patients. Patients who had undergone cardiac or vascular surgery from January 1999 to December 2000 were identified from departmental records. The inclusion criteria used were haematemesis and/or melaena in the post-operative period. Only 20 of the 2274 (0.9%) cardiac operations were complicated by UGH compared to eight of 708 (1.1%) vascular operations. Among those with UGH, 90% of the cardiac and 43% of the vascular patients were taking aspirin, warfarin or both. The mean interval between surgery and the UGH was 9.6 days (range 1-30) for the cardiac and 6 days (range 0-15) for the vascular patients. Duodenal and gastric ulcers were the most common cause of UGH (60%) in the cardiac group. Despite endoscopic intervention, more than one third of ulcer associated haemorrhages required surgical over-sewing, but none of the patients who had surgery died. The overall mortality on the cardiac surgery patients who experienced UGH was 15%, significantly higher than the 2.3% for the whole cardiac surgery group during the study period (P = 0.00075, OR = 8, 95% confidence interval 2.3-28). However, even this mortality is less than that of general inpatients who suffer UGH (33%). Cardiac and vascular surgical patients have similar low post-operative rate of UGH. Post-operative UGH is associated with increased mortality after primary surgery. Early surgical intervention appears to be life saving in those patients who are too ill to compensate for the haemodynamic disturbance of untreated UGH.
An, Jella Angela; Kasner, Oscar; Samek, Deborah Anne; Lévesque, Valérie
To evaluate efficacy and safety of eyedrop administration after cataract surgery and to identify predictors of better technique in patients without previous eyedrop experience. Department of Ophthalmology, McGill University, Jewish General Hospital, Montreal, Quebec, Canada. Prospective cross-sectional study. Eyedrop-naïve postoperative cataract patients were consecutively recruited the day after cataract surgery. Data were collected using a standardized self-reporting questionnaire and a chart review and by videotaping patients administering the drops in the operated eye. Two independent observers objectively evaluated the instillation technique. Predictors were assessed using odds ratios (ORs) from a logistic regression model. The study enrolled 54 patients. Subjectively, 17 patients (31%) reported difficulty instilling the eyedrops. Sixty-nine percent reported always washing their hands before using the drops, 42% believed that they never missed their eye when instilling drops, and 58.3% believed they never touched their eye with the bottle tip. Objectively, 50 patients (92.6%) showed an improper administration technique, including missing the eye (31.5%), instilling an incorrect amount of drops (64.0%), contaminating the bottle tip (57.4%), or failing to wash hands before drop instillation (78.0%). A better performance score was significantly associated with having received instructions on how to use drops (OR, 11.99; P=.011). Postoperative cataract patients inexperienced with eyedrop use showed a poor instillation technique by failing to wash hands, contaminating bottle tips, missing the eye, and using an incorrect amount of drops. There was a large discrepancy between the patients' perceptions and the observed technique of drop administration. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2014 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Zacà, Valerio; Marcucci, Rossella; Parodi, Guido; Limbruno, Ugo; Notarstefano, Pasquale; Pieragnoli, Paolo; Di Cori, Andrea; Bongiorni, Maria Grazia; Casolo, Giancarlo
The aim of this review is to formulate practical recommendations for the management of antithrombotic therapy in patients undergoing cardiac implantable electronic device (CIED) surgery by providing indications for a systematic approach to the problem integrating general technical considerations with patient-specific elements based on a careful evaluation of the balance between haemorrhagic and thromboembolic risk. Hundreds of thousands patients undergo implantation or replacement of CIEDs annually in Europe, and up to 50% of these subjects receive antiplatelet agents or oral anticoagulants. The rate of CIED-related complications, mainly infective, has also significantly increased so that transvenous lead extraction procedures are, consequently, often required. Cardiac implantable electronic device surgery is peculiar and portends specific intrinsic risks of developing potentially fatal haemorrhagic complications; on the other hand, the periprocedural suspension of antithrombotic therapy in patients with high thromboembolic risk cardiac conditions may have catastrophic consequences. Accordingly, the management of the candidate to CIED surgery receiving concomitant antithrombotic therapy is a topic of great clinical relevance yet controversial and only partially, if at all, adequately addressed in evidence-based current guidelines. In spite of the fact that in many procedures it seems reasonably safe to proceed with aspirin only or without interruption of anticoagulants, restricting to selected cases the use of bridging therapy with parenteral heparins, there are lots of variables that may make the therapeutic choices challenging. The decision-making process applied in this document relies on the development of a stratification of the procedural haemorrhagic risk and of the risk deriving from the suspension of antiplatelet or anticoagulant therapy combined to generate different clinical scenarios with specific indications for optimal management of periprocedural
Obermair, Andreas; Simunovic, Marko; Isenring, Liz; Janda, Monika
Including developing countries, between 20 and 88% of gynecological oncology patients may present with at least mild malnutrition at diagnosis. Significant morbidity and mortality is attributed to malnutrition. Here we reviewed randomized clinical trials of nutritional interventions used to achieve early return to oral diet, enhance recovery from surgery and reduce adverse events in gynecological cancer patients undergoing surgery. Ebscohost (CINAHL+Medline+PsycINFO), Cochrane, Embase, PubMed and Scopus databases were searched for articles published from 2000 onwards. Potentially eligible articles were screened by two reviewers. Length of hospital stay (LOS), postoperative complications, recovery of intestinal function, quality of life (QOL), hematological and immunological parameters were outcome measures of the nutritional interventions. Seven randomized clinical trials were included in the review. Early clear liquid diet, semiliquid diet, regular diet or immune-enhanced enteral diets were all found to be safe as nutritional interventions. In five of the seven trials significantly better outcomes were observed in the intervention group compared to usual care for one of more of the outcomes intestinal recovery time, LOS, postoperative complications and immunological parameters. However, the nutritional interventions varied greatly between the trials, making it difficult to directly compare their findings. Trial quality was low to moderate. Recommended malnutrition screening and assessment tools and guidelines for treatment are reviewed. From the limited findings it would appear that nutritional interventions of early oral feeding and enteral feeding are safe. Receiving nutritional interventions seems to reduce LOS, intestinal recovery time and postoperative complications for some patients. Increasing use of neoadjuvant treatment may reduce the prevalence of patients presenting malnourished for surgery in the future. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier
Butchart, Eric G; Gohlke-Bärwolf, Christa; Antunes, Manuel J; Tornos, Pilar; De Caterina, Raffaele; Cormier, Bertrand; Prendergast, Bernard; Iung, Bernard; Bjornstad, Hans; Leport, Catherine; Hall, Roger J C; Vahanian, Alec
Approximately 50,000 valve replacement operations take place in Europe annually and almost as many valve repair procedures. Previous European guidelines on management of patients after valve surgery were last published in 1995 and were limited to recommendations about antithrombotic prophylaxis. American guidelines covering the broader topic of the investigation and treatment of patients with valve disease were published in 1998 but devoted relatively little space to post-surgical management. This document represents the consensus view of a committee drawn from three European Society of Cardiology (ESC) Working Groups (WG): the WG on Valvular Heart Disease, the WG on Thrombosis, and the WG on Rehabilitation and Exercise Physiology. In almost all areas of patient management after valve surgery, randomized trials and meta-analyses do not exist. Such randomized trials as do exist are very few in number, are narrowly focused with small numbers, have limited general applicability, and do not lend themselves to meta-analysis because of widely divergent methodologies and different patient characteristics. Recommendations are therefore almost entirely based on non-randomized studies and relevant basic science.
Najafi, Mahdi; Faraoni, David
Although red blood cells (RBCs) transfusion is sometimes associated with adverse reactions, anemia could also lead to increased morbidity and mortality in high-risk patients. For these reasons, the definition of perioperative strategies that aims to detect and treat preoperative anemia, prevent excessive blood loss, and define "optimal" transfusion algorithms is crucial. Although the treatment with preoperative iron and erythropoietin has been recommended in some specific conditions, several controversies exist regarding the benefit-to-risk balance associated with these treatments. Further studies are needed to better define the indications, dosage, and route of administration for preoperative iron with or without erythropoietin supplementation. Although restrictive transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery have been shown to effectively reduce the incidence and the amount of RBCs transfusion without increase in side effects, some high-risk patients (e.g., symptomatic acute coronary syndrome) could benefit from higher hemoglobin concentrations. Despite all efforts made last decade, a significant amount of work remains to be done to improve hemoglobin optimization and transfusion strategies in patients undergoing cardiac surgery.
Okuyama, A; Goda, Y; Kawahigashi, H; Takita, K; Okuyama, M; Kubota, M
We had two patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy for noncardiac surgeries. Case 1: A 74-year-old man for right nephrectomy received epidural lidocaine and nitrous oxide combined with 0.2-0.6% isoflurane. During the operation, heart rate and blood pressure were relatively unstable, but he woke up promptly after the operation. Early on the morning of the 2nd post-operative day, he was found dead on his bed. Case 2: A 52-year-old man for gastrectomy was anesthetized with nitrous oxide and halothane with continuous propranolol infusion. Through the operative period, heart rate and blood pressure were stable and postoperative course was uneventful. In these two patients, preoperative Holter ECG showed ventricular tachycardia, which may increase the risk of a sudden death. These cases demonstrate that general anesthesia with nitrous oxide combined with halothane, can be administered with a low risk in patients with HCM for noncardiac surgery and that postoperative intensive care unit monitoring is necessary for these patients for several days to prevent a sudden death.
PINTO, Andressa dos Santos; GRIGOLETTI, Shana Souza; MARCADENTI, Aline
Introduction The abbreviation of perioperative fasting among candidates to elective surgery have been associated with shorter hospital stay and decreased postoperative complications. Objective To conduct a systematic review from randomized controlled trials to detect whether the abbreviation of fasting is beneficial to patients undergoing cancer surgery compared to traditional fasting protocols. Method A literature search was performed in electronic databases: MEDLINE (PubMed), SciELO, EMBASE and Cochrane, without time restriction. Were used the descriptors: "preoperative fasting", "cancer", "diet restriction" and "perioperative period". Randomized trials were included in adults of both sexes, with diagnosis of cancer. Exclusion criteria were: use of parenteral nutrition and publications in duplicate. All analyzes, selections and data extraction were done blinded manner by independent evaluators. Results Four studies were included, with a total of 150 patients, 128 with colorectal cancer and 22 gastric cancer. The articles were published from 2006 to 2013. The main outcome measures were heterogeneous, which impaired the unification of the results by means of meta-analysis. Compared to traditional protocols, patients undergoing fasting abbreviation with the administration of fluids containing carbohydrates had improvements in glycemic parameters (fasting glucose and insulin resistance), inflammatory markers (interleukin 6 and 10) and indicators of malnutrition (grip strength hand and CRP/albumin ratio), and shorter hospital stay. The methodological quality of the reviewed articles, however, suggests that the results should be interpreted with caution. Conclusions The abbreviation of perioperative fasting in patients with neoplasm appears to be beneficial. PMID:25861075
Broekema, Ferdinand I; van Minnen, Baucke; Jansma, Johan; Bos, Rudolf R M
To avoid increasing the risk of thromboembolic events, it is recommended that treatment with anticoagulants should be continued during dentoalveolar operations. We have evaluated the incidence of bleeding after dentoalveolar operations in a prospective study of 206 patients, 103 who were, and 103 who were not, taking anticoagulants. Seventy-one were taking thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors and 32 vitamin K antagonists. Patients were treated according to guidelines developed at the Academic Centre for Dentistry Amsterdam (ACTA), The Netherlands. The operations studied included surgical extraction (when the surgeon had to incise the gingiva before extraction), non-surgical extraction, apicectomy, and placement of implants. Patients were given standard postoperative care and those taking vitamin K antagonists used tranexamic acid mouthwash postoperatively. No patient developed a severe bleed that required intervention. Seven patients (7%) taking anticoagulants developed mild postoperative bleeds. Patients taking vitamin K antagonists reported 3 episodes (9%) compared with 4 (6%) in the group taking thrombocyte aggregation inhibitors. Among patients not taking anticoagulants, two (2%) developed mild bleeding. The differences between the groups were not significant. All bleeding was controlled by the patients themselves with compression with gauze. We conclude that dentoalveolar surgery is safe in patients being treated with anticoagulants provided that the conditions described in the ACTA guidelines are met.
Mercado, M A; Takahashi, T; Rojas, G; Prado, E; Hernández, J; Tielve, M; Orozco, H
A prospective trial of a cohort of patients (N = 94) with portal hypertension and history of bleeding was selected for surgery based on strict clinical and laboratory criteria. All of them were treated with portal blood flow preserving procedures. The following selection criteria were used: good cardiopulmonary function without pulmonary hypertension and good liver function (Child-Pugh A). All patients were operated in an elective fashion and the operations performed were: selective shunts (N = 38) (distal splenorenal and splenocaval), low diameter mesocaval shunts (N = 13) and the esophagogastric devascularization with esophageal transection (Sugiura-Futagawa) (N = 43). Patients were selected for each operation according to their anatomical conditions. Sixty-one of the patients were cirrhotics. Operative mortality was 8% and rebleeding was observed in 5% of the cases. Postoperative encephalopathy was seen in seven patients (three selective shunts, two low diameter mesocaval shunts and two devascularizations). In 13 of 62 patients postoperatively evaluated by means of angiography, portal vein thrombosis was shown (seven selective shunts, two low diameter shunts and four devascularizations). Twenty-two patients with preoperative portal vein thrombosis (and treated with a Sugiura-Futagawa operation) were excluded from postoperative angiographic evaluation. Survival (Kaplan-Meier) was 85% at 60 months. Portal blood flow preserving procedures are the treatment of choice for patients with hemorrhagic portal hypertension and good liver function. The kind of operation is selected according to the individual anatomical status of the patient.
Cheng, Wei-Han; Patel, Haridarshan; Lee, Wan-Ju; Lin, Fang-Ju; Pickard, A Simon
Patient-reported outcomes are increasingly recognized as important to understanding outcomes of medical interventions such as varicose vein surgery (VVS). Our aim was to compare positive outcomes of VVS as defined by several patient-reported measures, and to identify baseline characteristics associated with positive outcomes of VVS. A secondary analysis of the UK Patient-Reported Outcome Measures database was conducted on patients undergoing VVS, in the period 2009-2011 who completed the generic EQ-5D (index and visual analog scale [VAS] summary scores) and disease-specific Aberdeen varicose vein questionnaire (AVVQ). Surgical outcome was defined as positive if pre/post change scores exceeded half a standard deviation of mean baseline scores. Logistic regression models were used to identify significant predictors of positive outcomes, including age, gender, and baseline health. Of 9,113 patients analyzed (71% females, 57% aged >50 years), positive outcomes were identified in 62% using the AVVQ, 43% based on EQ-5D index scores, and 24% according to EQ-VAS; 10% improved on all three measures. Patients with poorer baseline functioning (AVVQ scores ≥ 11) were more likely to have a positive outcome based on the EQ-5D index (odds ratio [OR] 1.23, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11-1.36) and EQ-VAS (OR 1.30, 95% CI 1.14-1.47). Defining surgery as successful will clearly depend on how health-related quality of life (HRQL) is operationalized and the criteria used to identify meaningful change. Across a range of criteria, a consistently greater proportion of patients had positive outcomes in terms of VV-related functioning (via AVVQ) compared with those who improved in terms of generic health (via EQ-index), or self-rated health (EQ-VAS).
Eichler, Christian; Kolsch, Marit; Sauerwald, Axel; Bach, Alexander; Gluz, Oleg; Warm, Mathias
In oncoplastic surgery, post-surgical subjective outcome evaluation is usually performed for patients with breast-conserving surgery and patients with mastectomy. This study attempts to broaden the spectrum by comparing mastopexy (MP) and lumpectomy (BCS). Evaluating this aspect is important, since performing a mastopexy along with tumor removal offers a chance for simultaneous breast enhancement, thus possibly offering a more beneficial subjective outcome. Both procedures were used to remove single-locus tumors. A total of 143 patients, 71 of which answered a questionnaire regarding post-surgical body image, were evaluated. Post-surgical patient evaluation showed the following results: A "very satisfactory" or "satisfactory" outcome was achieved in 87% of BCS cases and 86% of MP cases. No significant difference was established here (p=0.48). Evaluation of overall cosmetic outcome, scar tissue formation, shape and size of the breast and overall quality of life were answered positively in both groups. Regarding the remaining superficial scar tissue, patients answered as being satisfied with the result in 85% of BCS cases and 79% of MP cases. A significant difference was established between the very satisfied (77% BCS/44% MP) and satisfied (8% BCS/35% MP) group (p=0.013). Post-surgical swelling, nipple sensitivity and overall quality of life did not differ significantly. Simple lumpectomy, i.e. classic BCS, leads to less scar tissue and involves a shorter surgical procedure, both of which may be considered as arguments for performing BCS. Scar tissue formation was more positively evaluated in the BCS group, where 77% of patients were "very satisfied" and 8% "satisfied". The other evaluated parameters did not differ significantly. MP may be offered as an option when simultaneous breast enhancement is desired at little cost to post-surgical patient satisfaction.
Diaz, Jose J; Norris, Patrick R; Miller, Richard S; Rodriguez, Philip Andres; Riordan, William P; Collier, Bryan R; May, Addison K; Morris, John A
Acute care surgery programs have demonstrated that trauma patient outcomes have not changed with the addition of emergency general surgery (EGS) responsibilities. EGS patient outcomes and the mentoring of fellows on EGS service have not been previously studied. We hypothesize that EGS patient outcomes would not differ by provider on a service driven by evidence-based medicine (EBM) protocols. Retrospective study of prospectively collected EGS repository. academic level I trauma center, and regional EGS referral center from 2003 to 2007. There were 14 faculty and seven fellows during the study period. EGS coverage is a full week, with weeknight coverage by the in-house trauma/EGS faculty. Fellows are mentored by designated faculty while on service, who discuss patients, assist in the OR, or assume care if necessary. Data collected included age, gender, LOS, ICU LOS, ventilator days, disposition (home/rehab), and infectious complications(IC) (VAP, BSI, UTI, SSI). Primary outcome was mortality. 1769 patients met study criteria. The mean age was 47.1 (+/-18), 47% were males. The average ICU LOS was 2.9 d (+/-7.9), ventilator d 2.6 (+/-7.6); 82.1% were discharged home and 13.7% were referred to rehab. There was no statistical difference in mortality, LOS, ICU LOS, disposition, ventilator d, and IC between faculty and fellow providers. An EGS service with EBM protocols assures consistency in patient outcomes independent of provider level: faculty or fellows. Our model for mentoring fellows did not decrease EGS patient outcomes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Gruner-Labitzke, Kerstin; Claes, Laurence; Bartsch, Merle; Schulze, Mareike; Langenberg, Svenja; Köhler, Hinrich; Marschollek, Michael; de Zwaan, Martina; Müller, Astrid
Our aim was to investigate if physical activity (PA) in bariatric surgery patients is related to temperament. Preoperative (n = 70) and post-operative (n = 73) patients were categorized as being physically 'active' versus 'inactive' on the basis of objective PA monitoring. Assessment included the behavioural inhibition system (BIS)/behavioural activation system (BAS) scales, the effortful control (EC) subscale of the Adult Temperament Questionnaire-Short Form, a numeric pain rating scale and measures for depressive and eating disorder symptoms. 'Active' did not differ from 'inactive' patients with regard to temperament (BIS, BAS, and EC). Regressions with PA grouping as dependent variable (adjusted for age, gender, body mass index (BMI), depressive or eating disorder symptoms, or pain intensity) indicated an association between lower BMI and more PA in the preoperative and the post-operative group. In the post-operative group, in addition to lower BMI, also lower age and higher BIS reactivity contributed to more PA. Furthermore, there was a significant interaction between BMI and BIS suggesting that low BMI was only associated with more PA in post-operative patients with high BIS. The results indicate that temperament per se does not contribute to the level of PA in bariatric surgery patients. However, in post-operative patients, lower BMI was associated with a higher likelihood of being physically active particularly in patients with anxious temperament. These preliminary findings need further investigation within longitudinal studies. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd and Eating Disorders Association.
van Steenbergen, E; Litt, M D; Nanda, R
Orthognathic surgery and orthodontic therapy are most often performed to improve the patient's appearance. However, not all patients are satisfied with the result though the procedure may be considered successful by the orthodontist and the maxillofacial surgeon. It has been suggested that the patient's satisfaction with his or her facial appearance before the surgery can predict later satisfaction with orthognathic procedures. The present study examined the role of several potential predictor variables in satisfaction with facial appearance before orthognathic treatment. The variables, identified in previous research, included severity of facial disharmony, self-concept, psychological distress, gender, age, and socioeconomic status. Questionnaires were gathered from 54 patients in 10 orthodontic practices in Connecticut and New York. Contrary to expectations, gender, age and socioeconomic status failed to predict patients' presurgical satisfaction with appearance. Self-concept, psychological distress, and orthodontists' ratings of total facial appearance (from a lateral view) were bivariate predictors of satisfaction. When all variables were analyzed with a multiple regression analysis, however, only self-concept emerged as a significant independent predictor of satisfaction with appearance. This accounted for 15% of the variance in satisfaction. Orthodontists' ratings of facial views, considered here objective measures of disharmony, were predictive neither of satisfaction with appearance nor of self-concept. It is suggested that self-concept may be a predictor of postsurgical as well as presurgical satisfaction with appearance and that self-concept itself may be unaffected by severity of facial disharmony, at least in young adults. Orthodontists may need to pay special attention to those patients with poor self-concept, because these patients may be more likely to report unsatisfactory surgical outcomes.
... Mattar is also a professor of surgery at Oregon Health and Science University in Portland. For the ... for Metabolic and Bariatric Surgery, and professor, surgery, Oregon Health and Science University, Portland; Feb. 16, 2017, ...
Hancock, Kyle J; Glass, Natalie; Anthony, Chris A; Hettrich, Carolyn M; Albright, John; Amendola, Annunziato; Wolf, Brian R; Bollier, Matthew
The Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System (PROMIS) was developed as an extensive question bank with multiple health domains that could be utilized for computerized adaptive testing (CAT). In the present study, we investigated the use of the PROMIS Physical Function CAT (PROMIS PF CAT) in an otherwise healthy population scheduled to undergo surgery for meniscal injury with the hypotheses that (1) the PROMIS PF CAT would correlate strongly with patient-reported outcome instruments that measure physical function and would not correlate strongly with those that measure other health domains, (2) there would be no ceiling effects, and (3) the test burden would be significantly less than that of the traditional measures. Patients scheduled to undergo meniscal surgery completed the PROMIS PF CAT, Knee injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS), Marx Knee Activity Rating Scale, Short Form-36 (SF-36), and EuroQol-5 Dimension (EQ-5D) questionnaires. Correlations were defined as high (≥0.7), high-moderate (0.61 to 0.69), moderate (0.4 to 0.6), moderate-weak (0.31 to 0.39), or weak (≤0.3). If ≥15% respondents to a patient-reported outcome measure obtained the highest or lowest possible score, the instrument was determined to have a significant ceiling or floor effect. A total of 107 participants were analyzed. The PROMIS PF CAT had a high correlation with the SF-36 Physical Functioning (PF) (r = 0.82, p < 0.01) and KOOS Sport (r = 0.76, p < 0.01) scores; a high-moderate correlation with the KOOS Quality-of-Life (QOL) (r = 0.63, p < 0.01) and EQ-5D (r = 0.62, p < 0.01) instruments; and a moderate correlation with the SF-36 Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), KOOS Symptoms (r = 0.57, p < 0.01), KOOS Activities of Daily Living (ADL) (r = 0.60, p < 0.01), and KOOS Pain (r = 0.60, p < 0.01) scores. The majority (89%) of the patients completed the PROMIS PF CAT after answering only 4 items. The PROMIS PF CAT had no floor or ceiling effects, with 0% of the
Hulzebos, Erik H J; Smit, Yolba; Helders, Paul P J M; van Meeteren, Nico L U
After cardiac surgery, physical therapy is a routine procedure delivered with the aim of preventing postoperative pulmonary complications. To determine if preoperative physical therapy with an exercise component can prevent postoperative pulmonary complications in cardiac surgery patients, and to evaluate which type of patient benefits and which type of physical therapy is most effective. Searches were run on the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL) on the Cochrane Library (2011, Issue 12 ); MEDLINE (1966 to 12 December 2011); EMBASE (1980 to week 49, 2011); the Physical Therapy Evidence Database (PEDro) (to 12 December 2011) and CINAHL (1982 to 12 December 2011). Randomised controlled trials or quasi-randomised trials comparing preoperative physical therapy with no preoperative physical therapy or sham therapy in adult patients undergoing elective cardiac surgery. Data were collected on the type of study, participants, treatments used, primary outcomes (postoperative pulmonary complications grade 2 to 4: atelectasis, pneumonia, pneumothorax, mechanical ventilation > 48 hours, all-cause death, adverse events) and secondary outcomes (length of hospital stay, physical function measures, health-related quality of life, respiratory death, costs). Data were extracted by one review author and checked by a second review author. Review Manager 5.1 software was used for the analysis. Eight randomised controlled trials with 856 patients were included. Three studies used a mixed intervention (including either aerobic exercises or breathing exercises); five studies used inspiratory muscle training. Only one study used sham training in the controls. Patients that received preoperative physical therapy had a reduced risk of postoperative atelectasis (four studies including 379 participants, relative risk (RR) 0.52; 95% CI 0.32 to 0.87; P = 0.01) and pneumonia (five studies including 448 participants, RR 0.45; 95% CI 0.24 to 0.83; P = 0.01) but not of
Stein, I; Schoenfelder, T; Kugler, J
The evaluation of patient satisfaction provides important information about subjective quality indicators from the patient's perspective. In Germany, cataract surgery is mostly done ambulatory in a special surgery or in a hospital. This study examines if there are differences in global patient satisfaction of either outpatient setting and if there are different determinants of global satisfaction with regard to the outpatient settings. The survey comprises ambulatory operated cataract patients in Saxony between 2014 and 2015. A total of 4800 cataract patients sent back a standardized, written questionnaire. Regression analysis identified determinants of global patient satisfaction in both groups. The most influencing parameters for the global satisfaction were satisfaction with the treatment outcome, atmosphere and facilities in the surgery or hospital as well as the staff's level of kindness. Results of the conducted study show most identified determinants of patient satisfaction are associated with service variables, such as atmosphere and facilities in surgery or hospital and waiting time in surgery or hospital. These aspects should be focused on to improve patient satisfaction in cataract patients.
Humber, Nancy; Dickinson, Paul
More than 33% of Canadians live in rural areas. The vulnerability of rural surgical patients makes them particularly sensitive to barriers to accessing health care. This study aims to describe rural patients' experiences accessing local nonspecialist, family physician-surgeon care and regional specialist surgical care when no local surgical care was available. We conducted a qualitative pilot study of self-selected patients. Interviews were analyzed using a modified Delphi technique and NVivo qualitative software. The needs of rural surgical patients were reflective of Maslow's hierarchy of needs: physiologic, safety and security, community belonging and self-esteem/self-actualization. Rural patients expressed a strong desire for individualized care in a familiar environment. When such care was not available, patients found it difficult to meet even basic physiologic needs. Maternity patients and marginalized populations were particularly vulnerable. Rural patients seem to prefer individualized care in a familiar environment to address more of their qualitative emotional, psychological and cultural needs rather than only the physiologic needs of surgery. Larger studies are needed to delineate more clearly the qualitative aspects of surgical care.
Bignami, Elena; Guarnieri, Marcello; Gemma, Marco
Fluid administration is a powerful tool for hemodynamic stabilization as it increases preload and improves cardiac function in fluid-responsive patients. However, there are various types of fluid to choose from. The use of colloids and crystalloids in non-cardiac Intensive Care Units (ICU) has been reported, showing controversial results. Many trials on sepsis in a non-cardiac ICU setting show that colloids, in particular hydroxyethyl starches and gelatins, might have a detrimental effect on kidney function, and on major outcomes such as mortality. Many small randomized clinical trials focusing on coagulation and bleeding show controversial results regarding fluid safety during the perioperative period in cardiac surgery, and in the cardiac ICU. No definitive data are available on the superiority of one fluid compared with another for fluid replacement after cardiac surgery. Only few data are available regarding the impact of fluids on kidney function in the cardiac ICU. On the other hand, there is much evidence showing that fluid administration requires strict protocols and close monitoring. Improved clinical outcomes are evident in protocols for goal-directed therapy. In conclusion, the application of a close monitoring and a pre-defined goal-directed protocol are far more important than the choice of a single fluid. This review examines the available evidence on fluid management in cardiac surgery and in the ICU, and analyzes the key steps of fluid strategy in these settings.
Azimifar, Farhad; Hassani, Kamran; Saveh, Amir Hossein; Tabatabai Ghomshe, Farhad
Free-hand pedicle screw placement is still conventional in surgery, although it has potentially high risks. The surgical procedures such as pedicle screw placement are usually designed based on medical imaging, but during surgery, the procedures are not normally followed due to the fact that some points are missed in two-dimensional images and seen only during surgery. In this regards, some highly accurate computer-assisted systems have been proposed and are currently used. Moreover, it is possible to reduce or completely avoid hand working by applying modern digital technology. Therefore, using these technologies has remarkable advantages. In this study, we have presented a new approach of pedicle screw placement in the lumbar and sacral regions using a specific drill guide template. The template was created by additive manufacturing technology and was verified in a clinical study as well. The main aim of this research includes the following: design, analyze, manufacture and evaluate the accuracy of a new patient-specific drill guide template, for lumbar pedicle screw placement, and compare the template to the free-hand technique under fluoroscopy supervision. Our results show that the incidence of cortex perforation is substantially reduced compared to existing methods. Finally, we believe that this approach remarkably lowers the incidence of cortex perforation and could be potentially used in clinical applications, particularly in certain selected cases.
Wildfeuer, A; Müller, V; Springsklee, M; Sonntag, H G
The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam, a new beta-lactamase inhibitor, were investigated in 16 patients undergoing prosthetic cardiac valve insertion. The combination of 2 g of ampicillin and 1 g of sulbactam was administered as perioperative prophylaxis intravenously over 3 to 6 days. Several serum pharmacokinetic parameters were similar for the two drugs after three intravenous doses were given to patients following surgery. The half-lives of elimination of ampicillin and sulbactam were 79 +/- 4.9 and 88 +/- 5.9 min, the volumes of distribution were 15.6 +/- 1.4 and 17.7 +/- 1.2 liters/70 kg, and the total plasma clearances were 144.4 +/- 14.5 and 147.2 +/- 14.5 ml/min, respectively. The peak concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum were calculated to be 134.3 +/- 1.3 and 58.3 +/- 1.2 micrograms/ml, respectively. Ampicillin and sulbactam rapidly penetrated from the blood into various tissues collected during heart surgery, such as sternum, pericardium, myocardium, and endocardium. The concentrations of ampicillin in tissue ranged from 17.8 +/- 9.9 to 50 +/- 29.5 micrograms/g, and those of sulbactam in tissue ranged from 8.8 +/- 6.2 to 19.6 +/- 10.1 micrograms/g. The concentrations of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and tissue also apparently exceeded the MICs against most beta-lactamase-producing bacteria usually involved in postoperative wound infections and prosthetic valve endocarditis. The ratio of the two compounds was approximately 2:1 in serum and in the various tissues affected by the operation. The pharmacokinetics of ampicillin and sulbactam in serum and investigated tissues suggest that the combination of the two beta-lactams will be effective in the perioperative prophylaxis of patients undergoing heart surgery. PMID:1952846
Redd, John T; Baumbach, Joan; Kohn, William; Nainan, Omana; Khristova, Marina; Williams, Ian
We used molecular epidemiologic techniques to document patient-to-patient transmission of hepatitis B virus (HBV) between 2 outpatient oral surgery patients operated on 161 min apart. Serological testing of 25 (93%) of 27 patients operated on after the source patient revealed that 19 (76%) of 25 were previously immune to HBV; no additional cases were identified. We found no deficiencies in infection control practices. Transmission may have been limited by the high prevalence (64%) of patients vaccinated against HBV. To our knowledge, this is the first documented case of patient-to-patient transmission of a bloodborne pathogen in a dental setting in the United States.
Bakanov, A Iu; Naĭmushin, A V; Mikhaĭlov, A P; Khudonogova, S V; Kadyshkina, E B; Malaia, E Ia; Bel'ianinova, I V; Polianitsa, A V; Shatalkin, I V
Metabolic disturbances, such as changes in blood acid-base balance and electrolytic composition; hyperglycemia and hyperlactatemia, are frequent factors that complicate the early postoperative period in patients after cardiac surgery under extracorporeal circulation. The purpose of the study was to estimate the incidence of hyperlactatemia in the early postoperative period and to reveal the predictors of its occurrence. This prospective study was conducted in our center from November 14, 2006, to September 1, 2007. The study covered 270 patients above 15 years of age, who had been operated on for coronary heart disease, acquired heart diseases, and combined lesions of valves and coronary arteries. Hyperlactatemia was observed in a substantial proportion of patients who had been operated on under extracorporeal circulation. Correlation analysis indicated a significant association between the duration of extracorporeal circulation and the magnitude of hyperlactatemia developing in the early postoperative period. Hyperglycemia with a glucose level of > 9 mmol/l is a predictor of the development of hyperglycemia.
Lee, Bruce Y.; Wiringa, Ann E.; Bailey, Rachel R.; Goyal, Vishal; Lewis, G. Jonathan; Tsui, Becky Y. K.; Smith, Kenneth J.; Muder, Robert R.
Objective To estimate the economic value of preoperative methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening and decolonization for cardiac surgery patients. Study Design Monte Carlo decision-analytic computer simulation model. Methods We developed a computer simulation model representing the decision of whether to perform preoperative MRSA screening and decolonizing those patients with a positive MRSA culture. Sensitivity analyses varied key input parameters including MRSA colonization prevalence, decolonization success rates, the number of surveillance sites, and screening/decolonization costs. Separate analyses estimated the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of the screening and decolonization strategy from the third-party payer and hospital perspectives. Results Even when MRSA colonization prevalence and decolonization success rate were as low as 1% and 25%, respectively, the ICER of implementing routine surveillance was well under $15,000 per quality-adjusted life-year from both the third-party payer and hospital perspectives. The surveillance strategy was economically dominant (less costly and more effective than no testing) for most scenarios explored. Conclusions Our results suggest that routine preoperative MRSA screening of cardiac surgery patients could provide substantial economic value to third-party payers and hospitals over a wide range of MRSA colonization prevalence levels, decolonization success rates, and surveillance costs. Healthcare administrators, infection control specialists, and surgeons can compare their local conditions with our study’s benchmarks to make decisions about whether to implement preoperative MRSA testing. Third-party payers may want to consider covering such a strategy. PMID:20645662
Chuang, Gary S; Leach, Brian C; Wheless, Lee; Lang, Pearon G; Cook, Joel
Dermatologists have championed Mohs micrographic surgery (MMS) for its unsurpassed treatment success for skin cancers, safety profile, cost-effectiveness, and tissue-sparing quality. It is unclear whether patients undergoing MMS also value these characteristics. To evaluate patients' preoperative expectations of MMS and identify the factors that may influence such expectations The study prospectively recruited participants who were newly diagnosed with skin cancer and referred for MMS. A questionnaire listing the characteristics of MMS was given to the participants asking them to score the importance of each characteristic on a 10-point scale. The participants were also asked to provide information regarding their gender, age, subjective health status, education level, family annual income, and their referral source On average, participants placed the highest value, in descending order, on a treatment that yielded the highest cure rate, reconstruction initiation only after complete tumor removal, and the surgeon being a skin cancer specialist. Overall, participants placed high values on characteristics of MMS that dermatologists have long esteemed. Our data corroborate that MMS is a valuable procedure that meets the expectations not just of physicians, but also of patients. The authors have indicated no significant interest with commercial supporters. © 2011 by the American Society for Dermatologic Surgery, Inc.
Orduña Espinosa, R M; Giménez Martínez, R; Luján Selles, J M; Laguna Salguero, J I; Pérez de la Cruz, A J
One of the clearest indications for enteral nutrition is made up by patients who underwent treatment for orofacial pathology. In this way, we have reviewed retrospectively, 321 clinical histories of patients who underwent treatment (orofacial surgery), dividing these according to the pathology; neoplasia or non-neoplasia (173/148), with enteral nutrition 24 hours after the intervention. Data are collected with regard to the tolerance (vomiting, diarrhea), time needed to reach 1.500 kcal/day, need of parenteral nutritional support, transferrin, prealbumin, and albumin quantification at the start of the nutritional therapy, as well as the total duration there of. Globally, the good enteric tolerance of both groups of patients is noted, despite the fact that the oncological group showed a greater degree of protein malnutrition (statistically significant). As for the total duration of the nutrition, this is greater in the neoplasias, probably due to a more aggressive surgery. The results obtained permit modification of the basic enteral nutrition protocol (reduction of the time used to reach the maximum volume), as well as stressing the preoperative and postoperative regulated nutritional evaluation.
Zhang, Junqian; Rosen, Alex; Orenstein, Lauren; Van Voorhees, Abby; Miller, Christopher J; Sobanko, Joseph F; Shin, Thuzar M; Etzkorn, Jeremy R
Biopsy site identification is critical to avoid wrong-site surgery and may impact patient-centered outcomes. We sought to evaluate risk factors for biopsy site misidentification, postponement of surgery, and patient confidence in surgical site selection and to assess the near-miss rate for wrong-site surgeries. This was a prospective observational cohort study. Near-miss wrong-site surgeries were detected and averted in 1.3% (3 of 239) of patients with biopsy site photographs. Risk factors for biopsy site misidentification by patients were 6 weeks or longer between biopsy and surgery (odds ratio [OR] 2.19, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.12-4.27; P = .028) and patient inability to see biopsy site (OR 3.95, 95% CI 1.50-10.37; P = .002). Risk factors for physician misidentification were 6 or more weeks between biopsy and surgery (OR 3.68, 95% CI 1.40-9.66; P = .007) and biopsy specimens from multiple sites (OR 4.39, 95% CI 1.67-11.54; P = .003). Postponement of surgery was associated with absence of a biopsy site photograph (OR 12.5, 95% CI 2.79-62.21; P < .001). Patient confidence in surgical site identification was associated with the presence of a biopsy site photograph (OR 5.48, 95% CI 1.96-15.30; P = .001). This was a single-site observational study. Biopsy site photography is associated with reduced rates of postponed surgeries and improved rates of patient confidence in surgical site selection. Risk factors for biopsy site misidentification should be considered before definitive treatment. Copyright © 2015 American Academy of Dermatology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Bacha, Ivan Leo; Benetti, Fernanda Antico; Greve, Júlia Maria D'Andréa
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the vertical component of the ground reaction force, plantar pressure, contact area of the feet and double-support time using static and dynamic (gait) baropodometry before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: Sixteen individuals with a body mass index of between 35 and 55 were evaluated before and after bariatric surgery. Thirteen patients (81.3%) were female and three (18.8%) male and their average age was 46±10 (21-60) years. An FSCAN system (version 3848) was used for baropodometric analyses (1 km/h and 3 km/h). The peak plantar pressure and ground reaction force were measured for the rear foot and forefoot. The double-support time and foot contact area were measured during gait. RESULTS: There were reductions in the ground reaction force in the forefoot and rear foot and in the foot contact area in all evaluations and of the double-support time at 3 km/h, as well as a significant reduction in the body mass index at six months post-surgery. The peak pressure did not vary at 1 km/h and at 3 km/h, reductions in peak pressure were observed in the left and right rear feet and left forefoot. CONCLUSIONS: Weight loss after bariatric surgery resulted in decreases in the ground reaction force and contact area of the foot. Plantar pressure was decreased at 3 km/h, especially in the forefoot. There was an increase in rhythm because of a reduction in the double-support time at 3 km/h. PMID:26602521
Donata, Ringaitienė; Dalia, Gineitytė; Vaidas, Vicka; Tadas, Žvirblis; Jūratė, Šipylaitė; Algimantas, Irnius; Juozas, Ivaškevičius
Background. Malnutrition (MN) is prevalent in cardiac surgery, but there are no specific preoperative risk factors of MN. The aim of this study is to assess the clinically relevant risk factors of MN for cardiac surgery patients. Materials and methods. The nutritional state of the patients was evaluated one day prior to surgery using a bioelectrical impedance analysis phase angle (PA). Two groups of patients were generated according to low PA: malnourished and well nourished. Risk factors of MN were divided into three clinically relevant groups: psychosocial and lifestyle factors, laboratory findings and disease-associated factors. Variables in each different group were entered into separate multivariate logistic regression models. Results. A total of 712 patients were included in the study. The majority of them were 65-year old men after a CABG procedure. Low PA was present in 22.9% (163) of patients. The analysis of disease-related factors of MN revealed the importance of heart functions (NYHA IV class OR: 3.073, CI95%: 1.416–6.668, p = 0.007), valve pathology (OR: 1.825, CI95%: 1.182–2.819, p = 0.007), renal insufficiency (OR: 4.091, CI95%: 1.995–8.389, p < 0.001) and body mass index (OR: 0.928, CI95%: 0.890–0.968, p < 0.001). Laboratory values related to MN were levels of haemoglobin (OR: 0.967, CI95%: 0.951–0.983, p < 0.001) and C-reactive protein (OR: 1.015, CI95%: 1.002–1.028, p = 0.0279). The lifestyle variables that qualified as risk factors concerned the intake of food (OR: 3.030, CI95%: 1.353–6.757, p = 0.007) and mobility (OR: 2.770, CI95%: 1.067–7.194, p = 0.036). Conclusions. MN risk factors comprise three different clinical groups: psychosocial and lifestyle factors, laboratory findings and disease-associated factors. The patients who are most likely to be malnourished are those with valve pathology, severe imparted heart function, insufficient renal function and high inflammatory markers. Also these patients have decreased mobility
Glance, Laurent G; Osler, Turner; Li, Yue; Lustik, Stewart J; Eaton, Michael P; Dutton, Richard P; Dick, Andrew W
Increasing surgical access to previously underserved populations in the United States may require a major expansion of the use of operating rooms on weekends to take advantage of unused capacity. Although the so-called weekend effect for surgery has been described in other countries, it is unknown whether US patients undergoing moderate-to-high risk surgery on weekends are more likely to experience worse outcomes than patients undergoing surgery on weekdays. The aim of this study was to determine whether patients undergoing surgery on weekends are more likely to die or experience a major complication compared with patients undergoing surgery on a weekday. Using all-payer data, we conducted a retrospective cohort study of 305,853 patients undergoing isolated coronary artery bypass graft surgery, colorectal surgery, open repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, endovascular repair of abdominal aortic aneurysm, and lower extremity revascularization. We compared in-hospital mortality and major complications for weekday versus weekend surgery using multivariable logistic regression analysis. After controlling for patient risk and surgery type, weekend elective surgery [adjusted odds ratio (AOR)=3.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 2.26-4.49; P<0.001] and weekend urgent surgery (AOR=2.11; 95% CI, 1.68-2.66; P<0.001) were associated with a higher risk of death compared with weekday surgery. Weekend elective (AOR=1.58; 95% CI, 1.29-1.93; P<0.001) and weekend urgent surgery (AOR=1.61; 95% CI, 1.42-1.82; P<0.001) were also associated with a higher risk of major complications compared with weekday surgery. Patients undergoing nonemergent major cardiac and noncardiac surgery on the weekends have a clinically significantly increased risk of death and major complications compared with patients undergoing surgery on weekdays. These findings should prompt decision makers to seek to better understand factors, such physician and nurse staffing, which may contribute to the weekend effect.
Loriau, J; Manaouil, C; Montpellier, D; Graser, M; Jarde, O
The religious convictions of the witnesses of Jehovah leads them to refuse transfusion of blood, of its major components and of blood sparing procedures breaking the physical contact between the patient and his blood. We recall the rules of good practice in case of elective surgery concerning exhaustive information of the patient within multidisciplinary team associating anesthetist and surgeon advised by the forensic pathologist. This consultation must, to our point of view, be concluded by a report which summarizes what is accepted or not by the patient. This report will be initialed by the patient. This consultation can never lead the physician to swear to never use a transfusion whatever the circumstances. In case of emergency if and only some conditions are met (everything was made to convince the patient, vital emergency, no therapeutic choice, therapeutic care adapted to the patient heath status), the physician can be brought to overpass the patient's will to not receive blood transfusion. Current jurisprudence has, to date, never recognized as faulty the physicians having practiced such transfusions whenever they took place within a precise framework.
Arribas Blanco, J M; Gil Sanz, M E; Sanz Rodrigo, C; Morón Merchante, I; Muñoz-Quirós Aliaga, S; Lòpez Romero, A; González-Baylín Monje, M L; Laguna Delgado, L; Verdugo Rosado, M
The minor surgery by family physicians increase the primary care competences. The purpose of this work is to prove patients' satisfaction and minor surgery effectiveness practiced by family physicians in health centers with respect to ambulatory's general surgeon. Case-control retrospective study, comparing dermatological surgical procedures performed by 4 family physicians and 8 3rd-year Family Physician residents with surgical procedures wade made by a surgeon over one a year period. Variables analysed include: descriptive samples homogeneity, surgery effectiveness (waiting time, esthetic results, healing time and number of visits, and histopathologic correlation) and patients' satisfaction (with the waiting time, with the results of surgery and with the physician). Minor surgical procedures carried out by 146 family physicians and 61 general surgeons were compared, in congruence with the analyzed descriptive homogeneity's parameters. Family physicians average waiting time was the lower, with a mean of 45 days less than the surgeon. Patient's satisfaction with the physician was higher when family physician were involved (p < 0.001); the same could be applied for the waiting time (p < 0.001). There were no significant differences over the effectiveness and patients' satisfaction. The dermatologic minor surgery by family physician is effective, satisfactory for patients, and has less waiting time. This results justify the introduction of minor surgery in the family physicians office.
Postoperative delirium and short-term cognitive dysfunction occur more frequently in patients undergoing valve surgery with or without coronary artery bypass graft surgery compared with coronary artery bypass graft surgery alone: results of a pilot study.
Hudetz, Judith A; Iqbal, Zafar; Gandhi, Sweeta D; Patterson, Kathleen M; Byrne, Alison J; Pagel, Paul S
The authors tested the hypothesis that patients undergoing valve repair or replacement surgery with or without coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery using cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) had a greater incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction compared with patients undergoing CABG surgery alone. Prospective study. Veterans Affairs medical center. Forty-four age- and education-balanced male patients (≥ 55 years of age) undergoing elective cardiac surgery with CPB (n = 22 valve ± CABG surgery and n = 22 CABG surgery alone) and nonsurgical controls (n = 22) were recruited. None. Delirium was assessed with the Intensive Care Delirium Screening Checklist before and for 5 consecutive days after surgery. Recent verbal and nonverbal memory and executive functions were assessed using a psychometric test battery before and 1 week after cardiac surgery or at 1-week intervals in nonsurgical controls. Intensive care unit stay, hospital stay, and 30-day readmission were significantly (p = 0.03, p = 0.01, and p = 0.04, respectively) longer in patients undergoing valve surgery ± CABG surgery versus CABG surgery alone. Postoperative delirium occurred more frequently (p = 0.01) in patients undergoing valve ± CABG surgery versus CABG surgery alone. Overall cognitive performance (composite z score) after surgery also was impaired significantly (p = 0.004) in patients undergoing valve ± CABG surgery compared with CABG surgery alone. The composite z score after surgery decreased by at least 1.5 standard deviations in 11 patients (50%) versus 1 patient (5%) without valve surgery compared with nonsurgical controls (p = 0.001, Fisher's exact test). The presence of delirium predicted a composite z score decrease of 1.2 points (odds ratio = 0.30; 95% confidence interval, 0.13-0.68). The results indicated that patients undergoing valve surgery with or without CABG surgery have a higher incidence of postoperative delirium and cognitive dysfunction 1 week after
... pleasing to the person than it was originally. Anesthesia Because surgery is typically painful, it is almost ... three types of anesthesia: Local Regional General Local anesthesia and regional anesthesia These types of anesthesia consist ...
... pulmonary disease (COPD) includes two separate lung problems, emphysema and chronic bronchitis. Some people with COPD have ... improve breathing. The surgery takes care of the emphysema component of COPD. Not everyone is a candidate ...
Mothes, A. R.; Lehmann, T.; Kwetkat, A.; Radosa, M. P.; Runnebaum, I. B.
Background: The aim of this study is to compare very elderly female patients with a younger control group after prolapse surgery with regard to co-morbidity and complications. Method: In a case-control design, the consecutive data of patients after prolapse surgery at the age of over 80 years and those of a control group were analysed by means of the Clavien-Dindo (CD) classification of surgical complications, the Charlson Comorbidity Index and the Cumulative Illness Rating Scale Geriatrics (CIRS-G). Statistics: Studentʼs t, Fisherʼs exact and Mann-Whitney U tests. Results: The analysis comprised n = 57 vs. n = 60 operations. In the very elderly patients there was often a grade IV prolapse (p < 0.001), apical fixations were more frequent (p < 0.001), but the operating times were not different. In the very elderly patients 21 % CD II+III complications were observed, in the control group 6.6 % (p = 0.031). No CD IV and V complications occurred in either group, the duration of inpatient stay amounted to 5 (± 1) vs. 4.1 (± 0.8; p < 0.001) days, the very elderly patients needed an inpatient follow-up more frequently (p < 0.001). The co-morbidities of the very elderly patients differed from those of the control group in number (median 2.0 vs. 1.5; p < 0.001), in CIRS-G (4.1 ± 2.2 vs. 2.4 ± 1.7; p < 0.01) and in Charlson Index (1.6 ± 1.6 vs. 0.5 ± 0.7; p < 0.001). Conclusions: A prolapse in very elderly women can be safely managed by surgery. In no case did the complications require intensive care treatment nor were they life-threatening, but they did lead to a longer duration of hospital stay and more frequently to further treatment geriatric or inpatient internal medicine facilities. PMID:27582580
Beauval, J-B; Mazerolles, M; Salomon, L; Soulié, M
To determine the tools of therapeutic decision that push towards surgical treatment in non metastatic prostate cancer eligible to local treatment. The optimized assessment of the disease and eventual comorbidities improves the selection of patients. Patient's files will be presented in the uro-oncological multidisciplinary discussions to validate the customized therapeutic approach proposed. Literature review using Medline (National library of medicine, Pubmed) and Med Science databases based on the scientific pertinence. Research was focused on the diagnosis of prostate cancer, the evaluation of the disease and patient's characteristics, and finally the elements that are with a surgical treatment (past medical history, past surgical history, functional status, patient's comorbidities, and life expectancy). The pretherapeutic oncologic evaluation allows to estimate the risks associated with prostate cancer; it is an essential aspect of therapeutic decision. Several clinical, biological, imaging and pathological criteria allow to guide decision-making according to tumor aggressiveness and risk of recurrence, estimating the results of the different treatments proposed. On the other hand, the evaluation of lower urinary tract symptoms, urinary continence and sexual function, the integration of anatomical data, past medical and past surgical history are all essential for the therapeutic decision, in addition to the comorbidities (Charlson, ASA, ICD). These elements should be taken all together in order to decide for a radical or conservative management of PCa, they guide decision-making in patients candidate for surgery. For example, age plays a key role in the choice of treatment, even in older men at risk of developing high-risk PCa that can affect overall survival. The combined evaluation of the patient and disease characteristics is of utmost importance in oncology, and especially in the treatment of non-metastatic PCa. The role of the anesthesiologist in the
Nassar, Adrienne A; Boyle, Mary E; Seifert, Karen M; Beer, Karen A; Apsey, Heidi A; Schlinkert, Richard T; Stearns, Joshua D; Cook, Curtiss B
To assess perioperative management of patients with diabetes mellitus who were being treated with insulin pump therapy. We reviewed records for documentation of insulin pump status and glucose monitoring during preoperative, intraoperative, and postanesthesia care unit (PACU) phases of surgery. Thirty-five patients (21 men) with insulin pumps underwent surgical procedures between January 1, 2006, and December 31, 2010. Mean age was 56 years, mean diabetes duration was 31 years, and mean duration of insulin pump therapy was 7 years. All patients were white, and 29 had type 1 diabetes mellitus. Of the 50 surgical procedures performed during the study period, 16 were orthopedic, 9 were general surgical, 7 were urologic, and 7 were kidney transplant operations; the remaining 11 procedures were in other surgical specialties. The mean (± standard deviation) time in the preoperative area was 118 ± 75 minutes, mean intraoperative time was 177 ± 102 minutes, and mean PACU time was 170 ± 78 minutes. Of the 50 procedures, status of pump use was documented in 32 cases in the preoperative area, 14 cases intraoperatively, and 30 cases in the PACU. Glucose values were recorded in 47 cases preoperatively, 30 cases intraoperatively, and 48 cases in the PACU. Results showed inconsistent documentation of pump use and glucose monitoring throughout the perioperative period, even for patients with prolonged anesthesia and recovery times. It was often unclear whether the pump was in place and operational during the intraoperative period. Guidelines should be developed for management of insulin pump-treated patients who are to undergo surgery.
Braybrooke, Jason; Ahn, Henry; Gallant, Aimee; Ford, Michael; Bronstein, Yigel; Finkelstein, Joel; Yee, Albert
A prospective observational study was conducted on patients undergoing posterior lumbar spine surgery for degenerative spinal disorders. The study purpose was to evaluate the effect of wait time to surgery on patient derived generic and disease specific functional outcome following surgery. A prolonged wait to surgery may adversely affect surgical outcome. Although there is literature on the effect of wait time to surgery in surgical fields such as oncology, cardiac, opthamologic, and total joint arthroplasty, little is known regarding the effect of wait time to surgery as it pertains to the spinal surgical population. Consecutive patients undergoing elective posterior lumbar spinal surgery for degenerative disorders were recruited. Short-Form 36 and Oswestry disability questionnaires were administered (pre-operatively, and at 6 weeks, 6 months, and 1 year post-operatively). Patients completed a questionnaire regarding their experience with the wait time to surgery. The study cohort consisted of 70 patients with follow-up in 53/70 (76%). Time intervals from the onset of patient symptoms to initial consultation by family physician through investigations, spinal surgical consultation and surgery were quantified. Time intervals were compared to patient specific improvements in reported outcome following surgery using Cox Regression analysis. The effect of patient and surgical parameters on wait time was evaluated using the median time as a reference for those patients who had either a longer or shorter wait. Significant improvements in patient derived outcome were observed comparing post-operative to pre-operative baseline scores. The greatest improvements were observed in aspects relating to physical function and pain. A longer wait to surgery was associated with less improvement in outcome following surgery (SF-36 domains of BP, GH, RP, VT). A longer wait time to surgery negatively influences the results of posterior lumbar spinal surgery for degenerative conditions
Bodunova, N A; Askerkhanov, R G; Khatkov, I E; Sabelnikova, E A; Parfenov, A I; Tkachenko, E V; Varvanina, G G; Feydorov, I Yu
To investigate the impact of bariatric surgery (BS) on the level of vitamins in obese patients. One hundred obese patients (78 women and 22 men) aged 19 to 61 years were examined. Controlled gastric banding (CGB) was carried out in 20 patients (mean body mass index (BMI), 41.3 ± 8.2 kg/m2); gastric sleeve resection (GSR) in 40 patients, and gastric shunting (GS) in 40 (the mean BMI in these groups were 41.1 ± 17.8 and 45.9 ± 6.2 kg/m2, respectively). A control group consisted of 10 apparently healthy individuals (BMI, 24.9 ± 3.2 kg/m2). An enzyme immunoassay was used to determine the serum concentrations of vitamins B1, B2, B5, B6, B9, B12, C, and D, niacin, biotin, and retinol-binding protein (RBP) before and 1 year after surgery. All the three groups showed a considerable decrease in the levels of vitamins C, B5, B6, and D, and RBP both prior to and following BS. More than 50% of the patients who had undergone GSR had also a lower baseline niacin level. A year after CGB, GSR, and GS, the number of patents with deficiency of these vitamins remained the same or increased. The majority of patients with the same level of vitamin B2, niacin, and folic acid (FA) were observed to have its decrease a year postsurgery. The concentration of the other test vitamins was also reduced a year after all operations; however, it remained within the normal range. GS had no substantial impact on the concentrations of FA, vitamins B2, B12, B1, and biotin. The lower serum vitamin levels were not accompanied by clinical symptoms in most patients following BS. In 80% of the patients with obesity, the levels of vitamins C, B6, and D were decreased to a variable degree. After BS, there was a rise in the number of patients with low serum vitamin C, D, B6, B5, niacin, FA, and RBP concentrations, at the same time the number of patients with FA deficiency increased by more than twice. BS did not significantly affect the metabolism of vitamins B1 B2 B12, and biotin.
Rossini, Roberta; Angiolillo, Dominick J; Musumeci, Giuseppe; Capodanno, Davide; Lettino, Maddalena; Trabattoni, Daniela; Pilleri, Annarita; Calabria, Paolo; Colombo, Paola; Bernabò, Paola; Ferlini, Marco; Ferri, Marco; Tarantini, Giuseppe; De Servi, Stefano; Savonitto, Stefano
The aim of the present study was to define the feasibility and clinical impact of complying with national consensus recommendations on perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in patients with coronary stents undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery. There are limited evidence-based recommendations on the perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in stented patients undergoing surgery. The recommendations provided by the national consensus document were applied in a multicenter, prospective registry of consecutive patients with prior coronary stenting undergoing any type of surgery at 19 hospitals in Italy. The primary end-point was in-hospital net adverse clinical events (NACE) represented by the composite of all-cause death, myocardial infarction, probable/definite stent thrombosis and Bleeding Academic Research Consortium (BARC) grade ≥3 bleeding. Patients were followed for 30 days. A total of 1,082 patients were enrolled. Adherence to consensus recommendations occurred in 85% of the cases. Perioperative aspirin and dual antiplatelet therapy were maintained in 69.7 and 10.5% of the cases, respectively. In-hospital NACE rate was 12.7%, being significantly higher in patients undergoing cardiac surgery (36.3% vs. 7.3%, P < 0.01), mainly due to BARC 3 bleeding events (32.3%). At 30 days, MACE rates were similar (3.5% vs. 3.5%, P = NS) in patients undergoing cardiac and noncardiac surgery, whereas BARC ≥3 bleeding events were significantly higher with cardiac surgery (36.3% vs. 5.6%, P < 0.01). The results of this registry demonstrate the safety and feasibility of applying a national consensus document on the perioperative management of antiplatelet therapy in stented patients undergoing surgery. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Coppolino, Giuseppe; Presta, Piera; Saturno, Laura; Fuiano, Giorgio
The incidence of postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery ranges from 7.7% to 28.1% in different studies, probably in relation to the criteria adopted to define AKI. AKI markedly increases mortality risk. However, despite the development of less invasive techniques, cardiac surgery remains the first option in many conditions such as severe coronary artery disease, valve diseases and complex interventions. The risk of postsurgery AKI can be reduced by adopting less invasive approaches, such as off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting or transcatheter aortic valve implantation, but these options cannot be employed in all cases. Thus, since traditional cardiac surgery remains the only option in many cases, it is important to adopt strategies helping the clinician to prevent AKI or diagnose it early. Old age, preprocedural chronic kidney disease, obesity, some comorbidities, wide pulse pressure and some pharmacological regimens represent risk factors for postsurgery AKI and mortality. Important intraoperative factor are use and duration of cardiopulmonary bypass. Postoperative efforts should be aimed toward maximizing cardiac output, avoiding drugs vasoconstricting the renal artery, providing adequate crystalloid infusion and alkalinizing urine. Fluid management should not be based on the measurements for cardiac filling pressures, which are mostly unreliable in these patients. Novel biomarkers such as cystatin C, kidney injury molecule-1 and human neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin have been found to change earlier than creatinine, particularly when measured in combination, so their use in clinical practice can facilitate early diagnosis and treatment of AKI. The occurrence of oliguria despite adequate cardiovascular therapy can be managed with furosemide, possibly using continuous infusion, or renal replacement therapy.
Balsiger, B M; Murr, M M; Poggio, J L; Sarr, M G
Morbid obesity has become a health crisis in the United States. Medical programs developed at nonoperative attempts to lose (and maintain) an adequate weight loss are largely unsuccessful. Bariatric surgery has been proven to be effective at inducing and maintaining a satisfactory weight loss to decrease weight-related comorbidity. Bariatric operations include procedures that decrease mechanically the volume capacitance of the proximal stomach (vertical banded gastroplasty, laparoscopic gastric banding) or decrease the proximal gastric capacitance and establish a partial selective malabsorption (gastric bypass and its modifications, partial biliopancreatic bypass, and duodenal switch with partial biliopancreatic bypass). These operations should induce a loss of at least 50% (or more) of excess body weight. Not all patients are candidates for these procedures, and the best results are obtained by a multidisciplinary team (including nutritionist, physician, dietitian, psychologist or psychiatrist interested in eating disorders, and surgeon).
Kahramanca, Şahin; Kaya, Oskay; Azılı, Cem; Güzel, Hakan; Özgehan, Gülay; İrem, Burak
Objective: Consultation results of patients who were thought to require a surgical intervention and were evaluated in the General Surgery Department for diagnostic support and treatment, upon detection of pathology in clinical and/or laboratory tests. Material and Methods: In a six-months period, 221 patients were retrospectively analyzed. There were 121 male (54.75%) and 100 female (45.25%) patients and the mean age was 46 years (15–102). The departments which requested consultation, the reason for consultation, test and physical examination findings before consultation, required additional tests after consultation and results of consultations were recorded as well as performed interventions. Results: The majority of consultations were from the emergency department (91.9%) and the most frequent reason was abdominal pain (29.9%). No tests were performed before consultation in 21% of cases. Physical examination was completely fulfilled in 100% of judicial cases, but this ratio was 35% in perianal diseases and 30% in patients with bowel obstruction. Additional tests were required in 54.3% of the patients after consults. Out of the whole group with surgical consultation, 21% were operated under general anesthesia, 9% under local anesthesia, while an elective operation was suggested in 3%. Conclusion: Currently, it is mandatory that patient management is carried out with a multidisciplinary approach; however, we believe that consultations should be asked in a more selective manner. PMID:25931837
Johnson, Frank E; Longo, Walter E; Ode, Kenichi; Shariff, Umar S; Papettas, Trifonas; McGarry, Alaine E; Gammon, Steven R; Lee, Paul A; Audisio, Riccardo A; Grossmann, Erik M; Virgo, Katherine S
The follow-up of patients with rectal cancer after potentially curative resection has significant financial and clinical implications for patients and society. The ideal regimen for monitoring patients is unknown. We evaluated the self-reported practice patterns of a large, diverse group of experts. There is little information available describing the actual practice of clinicians who perform potentially curative surgery on rectal cancer patients and follow them after recovery. The 1795 members of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons were asked, via a detailed questionnaire, how often they request 14 discrete follow-up modalities in their patients treated for cure with TNM stage I, II, or III rectal cancer over the first five post-treatment years. 566/1782 (32%) responded and 347 of the respondents (61%) provided evaluable data. Members of the American Society of Colon and Rectal Surgeons typically follow their own patients postoperatively rather than sending them back to their referral source. Office visit and serum CEA level are the most frequently requested items for each of the first five postoperative years. Endoscopy and imaging tests are also used regularly. Considerable variation exists among these highly experienced, highly credentialed experts. The surveillance strategies reported here rely most heavily on relatively simple and inexpensive tests. Endoscopy is employed frequently; imaging tests are employed less often. The observed variation in the intensity of postoperative monitoring is of concern.
Hong, Ji-Suk; Park, Yang-Ho; Kim, Yoon-Ji; Hong, Soon-Min; Oh, Kyung-Min
It has often been hypothesized that mandibular setback surgery causes narrowing of the pharyngeal airway. We examined whether the pharyngeal airway narrowed after orthognathic surgery in patients undergoing either mandibular setback surgery or bimaxillary surgery and whether the amount of narrowing of the pharyngeal airway was any different after mandibular setback surgery or bimaxillary surgery. Cone-beam computed tomography scans were obtained for 21 patients who were assigned to either mandibular setback surgery or bimaxillary surgery. The anteroposterior dimension, lateral width, cross-sectional area, and volume of each subject's pharyngeal airway were measured before and after surgery. The pharyngeal airway showed significant narrowing after both mandibular setback surgery and bimaxillary surgery. The amount of change in the anteroposterior dimension and cross-sectional area on the posterior nasal spine plane and the length of the pharyngeal airway showed significant differences between the 2 groups. The amount of narrowing of the pharyngeal airway was smaller in patients undergoing bimaxillary surgery than in the patients undergoing mandibular setback surgery. Copyright © 2011 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Baca, Christine Bower; Cheng, Eric M; Spencer, Susan S; Vassar, Stefanie; Vickrey, Barbara G
We assessed the nature and frequency of preoperative expectations among patients with refractory epilepsy who were enrolled in a seven-center observational study of epilepsy surgery outcomes. At enrollment, patients responded to open-ended questions about expectations for surgical outcome. With the use of an iterative cutting-and-sorting technique, expectation themes were identified and rank-ordered. Associations of expectations with race/ethnicity were evaluated. Among 391 respondents, the two most frequently endorsed expectations (any rank order) were driving (62%) and job/school (43%). When only the most important (first-ranked) expectation was analyzed, driving (53%) and cognition (17%) were most frequently offered. Nonwhites endorsed job/school and cognition more frequently and driving less frequently than whites (all P0.05), whether expectations of any order or only first-ranked expectations were included. Elucidating the reason for these differences can aid in the clinical decision-making process for resective surgery and potentially address disparities in its utilization.
Gholson, C F; Provenza, J M; Bacon, B R
Patients with liver disease requiring surgical procedures are at increased perioperative risk. In addition, the deleterious effect of anesthesia on hepatocellular function, altered drug pharmacokinetics, aberrant hemostasis, postoperative encephalopathy and infection, with multiorgan failure, all contribute to perioperative morbidity and mortality. Although limited by the lack of widely accepted quantitative liver function tests, preoperative evaluation and risk assessment is imperative. Acute viral hepatitis, alcoholic hepatitis, refractory coagulopathy, Child's class C cirrhosis, and emergent surgery are major risk factors predictive of a poor outcome. In addition, elective abdominal surgical procedures should be avoided in potential candidates for orthotopic liver transplantation. Identification and correction of reversible risk factors via meticulous preoperative definition of the etiology, chronicity, and severity of the patient's liver disease within the confines of surgical urgency is the goal of the preoperative hepatology consultation.
Sherf Dagan, Shiri; Goldenshluger, Ariela; Globus, Inbal; Schweiger, Chaya; Kessler, Yafit; Kowen Sandbank, Galit; Ben-Porat, Tair; Sinai, Tali
Bariatric surgery is currently the most effective treatment for morbid obesity and its associated metabolic complications. To ensure long-term postoperative success, patients must be prepared to adopt comprehensive lifestyle changes. This review summarizes the current evidence and expert opinions with regard to nutritional care in the perioperative and long-term postoperative periods. A literature search was performed with the use of different lines of searches for narrative reviews. Nutritional recommendations are divided into 3 main sections: 1) presurgery nutritional evaluation and presurgery diet and supplementation; 2) postsurgery diet progression, eating-related behaviors, and nutritional therapy for common gastrointestinal symptoms; and 3) recommendations for lifelong supplementation and advice for nutritional follow-up. We recognize the need for uniform, evidence-based nutritional guidelines for bariatric patients and summarize recommendations with the aim of optimizing long-term success and preventing complications.
Hennings, Dietric L; Baimas-George, Maria; Al-Quarayshi, Zaid; Moore, Rachel; Kandil, Emad; DuCoin, Christopher G
Bariatric surgery has been shown to be the most effective method of achieving weight loss and alleviating obesity-related comorbidities. Yet, it is not being used equitably. This study seeks to identify if there is a disparity in payer status of patients undergoing bariatric surgery and what factors are associated with this disparity. We performed a case-control analysis of National Inpatient Sample. We identified adults with body mass index (BMI) greater than or equal to 25 kg/m(2) who underwent bariatric surgery and matched them with overweight inpatient adult controls not undergoing surgery. The sample was analyzed using multivariate logistic regression. We identified 132,342 cases, in which the majority had private insurance (72.8%). Bariatric patients were significantly more likely to be privately insured than any other payer status; Medicare- and Medicaid-covered patients accounted for a low percentage of cases (Medicare 5.1%, OR 0.33, 95% CI 0.29-0.37, p < 0.001; Medicaid 8.7%, OR 0.21, 95% CI 0.18-0.25, p < 0.001). Medicare (OR 1.54, 95% CI 1.33-1.78, p < 0.001) and Medicaid (OR 1.31, 95% CI 1.08-1.60, p = 0.007) patients undergoing bariatric surgery had an increased risk of complications compared to privately insured patients. Publicly insured patients are significantly less likely to undergo bariatric surgery. As a group, these patients experience higher rates of obesity and related complications and thus are most in need of bariatric surgery.
Endocrine ophthalmopathy is the most common cause of acute onset diplopia in middle aged or older individuals. Ocular muscle involvement is characterized by myositis followed by fibrosis: this causes a stiffness and a shortening of the muscles involved with restriction of ocular movements: so the impairment of rotation is due to a mechanical obstacle and not to a paresis. Prisms are rarely useful in relieving diplopia and the majority of symptomatic patients need squint surgery. Timing of surgery is very important and two considerations are to be kept in mind: first, the systemic disease must be in remission and the ocular deviation must be stable for at least six months; second, if more than one surgical procedure is needed for the ophthalmopathy, muscle surgery has its right place after orbital surgery and before lid surgery. Obviously dealing with restrictive disorders, surgery is based on weakening procedures of the affected muscles: identifying the affected muscles is of crucial importance and may be sometime difficult for the presence of misleading signs; great advances have been made in surgical technique with the development of adjustable sutures and of topical anesthesia. Prognosis is usually good with more than 80% of patients recovering a useful field of binocular single vision with one procedure and more than 90% with two or more procedures.
Kristo, Ivan; Riss, Stefan; Argeny, Stanislaus; Maschke, Svenja; Chitsabesan, Praminthra; Stift, Anton
AIM To evaluate frequency and clinical course of incidental adenocarcinoma in patients with stricturing Crohn's disease (CD). METHODS In this study, consecutive patients, who were operated on for stricturing CD between 1997-2012, were included at an academic tertiary referral center. Demographic data and clinical course were obtained by an institutional database and individual chart review. Besides baseline characteristics, intraoperative findings and CD related history were also recorded. Colorectal cancer was classified and staged according to the Union for International Cancer Control (UICC). RESULTS During the study period 484 patients underwent resections due to stricturing CD. Incidental adenocarcinoma was histologically confirmed in 6 (1.2%) patients (4 males, 2 females). Patients diagnosed with colorectal cancer had a median age of 43 (27-66) years and a median history of CD of 16 (7-36) years. Malignant lesions were found in the rectum (n = 4, 66.7%), descending colon (n = 1, 16.7%) and ileocolon (n = 1, 16.7%). According to the UICC classification two patients were stages as I (33.3%), whereas the other patients were classified as stage IIA (16.7%), stage IIIB (16.7%), stage IIIC (16.7%) and stage IV (16.7%), respectively. After a median follow-up of 2 (0.03-8) years only 1 patient is still alive. CONCLUSION The frequency of incidental colorectal cancer in patients, who undergo surgery for stenotic CD, is low but associated with poor prognosis. However, surgeons need to be aware about the possibility of malignancy in stricturing CD, especially if localized in the rectum. PMID:28210083
Pereira, Nayara de Castro; Turrini, Ruth Natalia Teresa; Poveda, Vanessa de Brito
To identify the length of perioperative fasting among patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. Retrospective cohort study, developed by consulting the medical records of 128 patients submitted to gastrointestinal cancer surgeries. The mean of total length of fasting was 107.6 hours. The total length of fasting was significantly associated with the number of symptoms presented before (p=0.000) and after the surgery (p=0.007), the length of hospital stay (p=0.000), blood transfusion (p=0.013), nasogastric tube (p=0.001) and nasojejunal tube (p=0,003), postoperative admission at ICU (p=0.002), postoperative death (p=0.000) and length of preoperative fasting (p=0.000). The length of fasting is associated with complications that affect the quality of the patients' postoperative recovery and nurses' work. The nursing team should be alert to this aspect and being responsible for overseeing the patients' interest, should not permit the unnecessary extension of fasting. Identificar la duración del ayuno perioperatorio entre los pacientes sometidos a cirugías de cáncer gastrointestinal. Estudio de cohorte retrospectivo, por consulta de los registros médicos de 128 pacientes sometidos a cirugías de cáncer gastrointestinal. La media de la duración total del ayuno fue de 107,6 horas. La duración total del ayuno se asoció significativamente con el número de síntomas presentados antes (p=0,000) y después de la cirugía (p=0,007), la duración de la estancia hospitalaria (p=0,000), transfusión de sangre (p=0,013),tubo nasogástrico (P=0,003), ingreso postoperatorio en la UCI (p=0,002), muerte postoperatoria (p=0,000) y duración del ayuno preoperatorio (p=0,000). La duración del ayuno se asocia con complicaciones que afectan la calidad de la recuperación postoperatoria de los pacientes y el trabajo de enfermería. El equipo de enfermería debe estar alerta en relación a este aspecto y ser responsable de supervisar el interés de los pacientes, no
Wasfie, Tarik J; Barber, Kimberly R
Perioperative temperature management is imperative for positive surgical outcomes. This study assessed the clinical and wellbeing benefits of extending normothermia by using a portable warming gown. A total of 94 patients undergoing elective surgery were enrolled. They were randomized pre-operatively to either a portable warming gown or the standard warming procedure. The warming gown stayed with patients from pre-op to operating room to postrecovery room discharge. Core temperature was tracked throughout the study. Patients also provided responses to a satisfaction and comfort status survey. The change in average core temperature did not differ significantly between groups (P = 0.23). A nonsignificant 48% relative decrease in hypothermic events was observed for the extended warming group (P = 0.12). Patients receiving the warming gown were more likely to report always having their temperature controlled (P = 0.04) and significantly less likely to request additional blankets for comfort (P = 0.006). Clinical outcomes and satisfaction were improved for patients with extended warming.
De Haro Marín, S; Torres González, J P; Vela Morales, C; Navarro Arnedo, J M
Between the months of March and June 1997, an extended observational study was carried out on 32 patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit of "Hospital General Universitario" in Alicante for postoperative care after undergoing heart surgery which included extracorporeal circulation. The variables analyzed were of a socio-demographical nature and related to the type of operation in order to homogenize the samples. The main variables under study were pain while resting and pain while carrying out these exercises: coughing, deep breathing, stimulated inspirometer, and clapping; the number of balls the patient could raise; collaboration with the physical therapist and the kind of analgesic administered. The pain measuring instrument was the visual analogous scale. The patients with the highest pain levels when performing the protocolary extubation exercises raised fewer balls in the stimulated inspirometer exercise and did not collaborate with the physical therapist. The patients who receive more doses of sedatives collaborate with the respiratory physical therapist. All those patients who receive an analgesic at a set hour raise one or two balls in the inspirometer exercise and all collaborated with the physical therapist.
Costa, T N; Abdalla, R Z; Santo, M A; Tavares, R R F M; Abdalla, B M Z; Cecconello, I
The introduction of the minimally invasive approach changed the way abdominal surgery was carried out. Open suture and mesh reinforcement in ventral hernia repair used to be the surgeon's choice of procedure. Although the laparoscopic approach, with defect bridging and mesh fixation, has been described since 1993, the procedure remains largely unchanged. Evidence shows that defect closure and retro-muscular mesh positioning have the best outcomes and are the best surgical practice. We therefore aimed to develop and demonstrate a procedure which combined the good results of open surgery using the Rives-Stoppa principles, particularly in terms of recurrence, with all the benefits of minimally invasive surgery. Between October 2012 and February 2014, 15 post-bariatric surgery patients underwent laparoscopic midline incisional hernia repair. The peritoneal cavity was accessed through a 5-mm optical view cannula at the superior left quadrant. A suprapubic and two right and left lower quadrant cannulas were inserted for inferior access and dissection. The defect adhesions were released. The whole midline was closed with an endoscopic linear stapler, including the defect, from the lower abdomen, 4 cm below the umbilicus, until the epigastric region, including posterior sheath mechanical suturing and cutting in the same movement. A retrorectus space was created in which a retro-muscular mesh was deployed. Fixation was done using a hernia stapler against the posterior sheath from the peritoneal cavity to the abdominal wall muscles. Selection was based on xifo-umbilical incisional midline hernias post open bariatric surgery. Pregnant women, cancer patients, or patients with clinical contraindications were excluded. The patients mean age was 51.2 years (range 39-67). Four patients were men and eleven women. Two had well-compensated fibromyalgia, four had diabetes, and five had hypertension. The mean BMI was 29.5 kg/m2 (range 23-31.6). Surgery was performed successfully in all
Friedman, Kelli E; Applegate, Katherine; Portenier, Dana; McVay, Megan A
As many as 3% of bariatric surgery candidates are diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder. 1) To describe differences between patients with bipolar spectrum disorders who are approved and not approved for surgery by the mental health evaluator and 2) to examine surgical outcomes of patients with bipolar spectrum disorders. Academic medical center, United States. A retrospective record review was conducted of consecutive patients who applied for bariatric surgery between 2004 and 2009. Patients diagnosed with bipolar spectrum disorders who were approved for surgery (n = 42) were compared with patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were not approved (n = 31) and to matched control surgical patients without a bipolar spectrum diagnosis (n = 29) on a variety of characteristics and surgical outcomes. Of bariatric surgery candidates diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder who applied for surgery, 57% were approved by the psychologist and 48% ultimately had surgery. Patients with a bipolar spectrum disorder who were approved for surgery were less likely to have had a previous psychiatric hospitalization than those who were not approved for surgery. Bariatric surgery patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder were less likely to attend follow-up care appointments 2 or more years postsurgery compared to matched patients without bipolar disorder. Among patients with available data, those with a bipolar spectrum disorder and matched patients had similar weight loss at 12 months (n = 21 for bipolar; n = 24 for matched controls) and at 2 or more years (mean = 51 mo; n = 11 for bipolar; n = 20 for matched controls). Patients diagnosed with a bipolar spectrum disorder have a high rate of delay/denial for bariatric surgery based on the psychosocial evaluation and are less likely to attend medical follow-up care 2 or more years postsurgery. Carefully screened patients with bipolar disorder who engage in long-term follow-up care may benefit from bariatric
Pencovich, Niv; Korn, Akiva; Constantini, Shlomi
Avoiding iatrogenic neurological injury during spinal cord surgery is crucially important. Intraoperative neurological monitoring (INM) has been widely used in a variety of spinal surgeries as a means of reducing the risk of intraoperative neurological insults. This study evaluates the benefits of INM specifically in spinal procedures for treatment of syringomyelia. Thirteen patients who underwent surgery for syrinx drainage with the assistance of INM were included in this study. In all patients both somatosensory-evoked potentials (SSEP) and motor-evoked potentials (MEP) were monitored. INM data and perioperative neurological evaluations were both recorded and analyzed. Eleven patients underwent syringo-subarachnoid shunt (SSAS) surgery. One patient underwent syrinx drainage and foramen magnum decompression (FMD). One patient underwent syringo-pleural shunt (SPA) surgery. Baseline MEP and SSEP were recordable at the beginning of surgery in 11 patients (>84 %). In the other two cases, baseline data from specific INM modalities were absent, correlating with the antecedent neurologic symptomotology. Two patients exhibited significant intraoperative changes in MEP data that influenced the course of surgery and prompted removal or re-insertion of the shunt. Mild and transient worsening of preoperative symptoms was reported in these instances. No new postoperative neurological deficits were reported in the other 11 patients in whom INM data were preserved throughout surgery. These data support routine use of INM in syringomyelia surgery. INM can alert the surgeon to potential intraoperative threats to the functional integrity of the spinal cord, providing a useful adjunct to spinal cord surgeries for the treatment of syringomyelia.
Montero Ruiz, Eduardo; Barbero Allende, José María; Melgar Molero, Virginia; Rebollar Merino, Ángela; García Sánchez, Marta; López Álvarez, Joaquín
A variable percentage of patients admitted to surgical departments are not operated on for several reasons. Our goal is to check if surgeons have more problems in caring for non-operated hospitalized patients than operated ones. We included all patients aged ≥ 14 years discharged in 2010 from General Surgery, Gynaecology, Urology, and Otolaryngology. The main variables were the length of stay, mortality, readmissions, and number of consultations/referrals requested to medical services. Secondary variables were age, sex, number of emergency admissions, total number of diagnoses, and the Charlson comorbidity index (ICh). Between 8.7% and 22.8% of patients admitted to these surgical departments are not operated on. The non-operated patients had a significantly higher stay, mortality, readmissions and consultations/referrals requests than operated ones, with significantly higher age (except Urology), number of diagnoses, emergency admissions and ICh (except Urology). Patients admitted to surgical departments and are not operated on have higher mortality, readmissions and consultation/referrals requests than those operated on, which may be due to their greater medical complexity and urgency of admission. This suggests a greater difficulty in their care by surgeons. Copyright © 2012 AEC. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.
Pearse, B L; Smith, I; Faulke, D; Wall, D; Fraser, J F; Ryan, E G; Drake, L; Rapchuk, I L; Tesar, P; Ziegenfuss, M; Fung, Y L
Excessive bleeding is a risk associated with cardiac surgery. Treatment invariably requires transfusion of blood products; however, the transfusion itself may contribute to postoperative sequelae. Our objective was to analyse a quality initiative designed to provide an evidenced-based approach to bleeding management. A retrospective analysis compared blood product transfusion and patient outcomes 15 months before and after implementation of a bleeding management protocol. The protocol incorporated point-of-care coagulation testing (POCCT) with ROTEM and Multiplate to diagnose the cause of bleeding and monitor treatment. Use of the protocol led to decreases in the incidence of transfusion of PRBCs (47·3% vs. 32·4%; P < 0·0001), FFP (26·9% vs. 7·3%; P < 0·0001) and platelets (36·1% vs. 13·5%; P < 0·0001). During the intra-operative period, the percentage of patients receiving cryoprecipitate increased (2·7% vs. 5·1%; P = 0·002), as did the number of units transfused (248 vs. 692; P < 0·0001). The proportion of patients who received tranexamic acid increased (13·7% to 68·2%; P < 0·0001). There were reductions in re-exploration for bleeding (5·6% vs. 3·4; P = 0·01), superficial chest wound (3·3% vs. 1·4%; P = 0·002), leg wound infection (4·6% vs. 2·0%; P < 0·0001) and a 12% reduction in mean length of stay from operation to discharge (95%: 9-16%, P < 0·0001). Acquisition cost of blood products decreased by $1 029 118 in the 15-month period with the protocol. The implementation of a bleeding management protocol supported by POCCT in a cardiac surgery programme was associated with significant reductions in the transfusion of allogeneic blood products, improved outcomes and reduced cost. © 2015 International Society of Blood Transfusion.
Jeong, Jin Woon; Kwon, In Gyu; Son, Young-Gil
Purpose The aim of this study was to evaluate tolerance to adjuvant chemotherapy, and to compare survival between treatments using only surgery and using surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy, in elderly patients with advanced gastric cancer who were ≥75 years of age. Materials and Methods Patients ≥75 years of age who were diagnosed with pathological stage II or III gastric cancer were identified retrospectively and categorized into the surgery only and surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy groups. Clinicopathological and survival data were compared between these two groups. Results Among the 130 patients studied, 67 patients underwent curative surgery only, and 63 patients received adjuvant chemotherapy after curative surgery. In the latter group, adverse events were reported in 24 patients (38.1%). The treatments were discontinued in 19 patients (30.2%) owing to any reason. The overall 5-year survival rates of the surgery only and the surgery with adjuvant chemotherapy groups did not differ significantly (44.1% vs. 30.7%, respectively; P=0.804). Among 90 death events, deaths from recurrences of gastric cancer occurred in 42 patients. Multivariate analyses revealed that the American Society of Anesthesiologists score and the depths of tumor invasions were related to survival, and the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy after surgery did not influence survival. Conclusions The decision for the addition of adjuvant chemotherapy for elderly patients should be taken after considering the condition of individual patients and their life expectancies. PMID:28053813
Ostrowska, Lucyna; Hady, Hady Razak; Dadan, Jacek; Konarzewska-Duchnowska, Emilia
Introduction Currently, surgical treatment is considered to be the most efficient method of dealing with morbid obesity. Aim To evaluate changes in nutritional status after surgical treatment of obesity in the early postoperative period. Material and methods The study included 50 patients (30 women and 20 men) treated surgically due to morbid obesity. During the preliminary visit and during control visits measurements of body mass, height, and waist and hip circumference were conducted. Also, analysis of body content was performed and blood was taken for biochemical analysis. Statistical analysis was conducted using the program Statistica 10. Results Six months after the surgery, in the group of women, significant reduction of average body mass, average waist circumference, average hip circumference and average body mass index (BMI) was observed. Also, significant reduction of the percentage of body fat and an increase in the percentage of fat-free body mass were observed. A significant decrease in muscle mass was also noted. Both in women and in men, 6 months after the surgery, a significant decrease in fasting glucose concentration, fasting insulin and triglycerides in blood serum was observed. Conclusions Bariatric procedures lead to significant body mass, BMI, waist and hip circumference reduction. Loss of body mass is caused mainly by the reduction of fat tissue. Application of surgical procedures in morbid obesity treatment also allowed us to achieve improvement in insulin, glucose and lipid metabolism. PMID:25960802
Chandra, Divay; Lipson, David A.; Hoffman, Eric A.; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Sciurba, Frank C.; DeCamp, Malcolm M.; Reilly, John J.; Washko, George R.
Rationale: It is unclear if lung perfusion can predict response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). Objectives: To study the role of perfusion scintigraphy in patient selection for LVRS. Methods: We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of 1,045 of 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who were non–high risk for LVRS and had complete perfusion scintigraphy results at baseline. The median follow-up was 6.0 years. Patients were classified as having upper or non–upper lobe–predominant emphysema on visual examination of the chest computed tomography and high or low exercise capacity on cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline. Low upper zone perfusion was defined as less than 20% of total lung perfusion distributed to the upper third of both lungs as measured on perfusion scintigraphy. Measurements and Main Results: Among 284 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity at baseline, the 202 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS versus medical management (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; P = 0.008) unlike the remaining 82 with high perfusion where mortality was unchanged (RR, 0.97; P = 0.62). Similarly, among 404 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema and high exercise capacity, the 278 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS (RR, 0.70; P = 0.02) unlike the remaining 126 with high perfusion (RR, 1.05; P = 1.00). Among the 357 patients with non–upper lobe–predominant emphysema (75 with low and 282 with high exercise capacity) there was no improvement in survival with LVRS and measurement of upper zone perfusion did not contribute new prognostic information. Conclusions: Compared with optimal medical management, LVRS reduces mortality in patients with upper lobe–predominant emphysema when there is low rather than high perfusion to the upper lung. PMID:20538961
Chandra, Divay; Lipson, David A; Hoffman, Eric A; Hansen-Flaschen, John; Sciurba, Frank C; Decamp, Malcolm M; Reilly, John J; Washko, George R
It is unclear if lung perfusion can predict response to lung volume reduction surgery (LVRS). To study the role of perfusion scintigraphy in patient selection for LVRS. We performed an intention-to-treat analysis of 1,045 of 1,218 patients enrolled in the National Emphysema Treatment Trial who were non-high risk for LVRS and had complete perfusion scintigraphy results at baseline. The median follow-up was 6.0 years. Patients were classified as having upper or non-upper lobe-predominant emphysema on visual examination of the chest computed tomography and high or low exercise capacity on cardiopulmonary exercise testing at baseline. Low upper zone perfusion was defined as less than 20% of total lung perfusion distributed to the upper third of both lungs as measured on perfusion scintigraphy. Among 284 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema and low exercise capacity at baseline, the 202 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS versus medical management (risk ratio [RR], 0.56; P = 0.008) unlike the remaining 82 with high perfusion where mortality was unchanged (RR, 0.97; P = 0.62). Similarly, among 404 of 1,045 patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema and high exercise capacity, the 278 with low upper zone perfusion had lower mortality with LVRS (RR, 0.70; P = 0.02) unlike the remaining 126 with high perfusion (RR, 1.05; P = 1.00). Among the 357 patients with non-upper lobe-predominant emphysema (75 with low and 282 with high exercise capacity) there was no improvement in survival with LVRS and measurement of upper zone perfusion did not contribute new prognostic information. Compared with optimal medical management, LVRS reduces mortality in patients with upper lobe-predominant emphysema when there is low rather than high perfusion to the upper lung.
Rose, Geoffrey E
The dry-eyed patient has both inadequate surface wetting, and a severe inability to clear the ocular surface of extrinsic debris, lid-margin bacteria (and their toxins), and the intrinsic inflammatory mediators secreted from the inflamed conjunctival surface. Tear evaporation compounds the problem of impaired production, this leading to significant concentration of inflammatory mediators on the abnormal ocular surface - this concentration being even greater where tear drainage is impaired. Nasolacrimal duct obstruction is, moreover, associated with a backwash of toxic debris from the lacrimal sac and, in the patient with dry eye, this backwash exacerbates an already compromised ocular surface. Surgery to re-establish tear drainage and eliminate the reservoir within the lacrimal sac may, therefore, improve the ocular status of patients with dry eye: many patients will benefit from external dacryocystorhinostomy, this being combined with retrograde canaliculostomy where there is proximal canalicular blockage. Secondary placement of a canalicular bypass tube may be required where these procedures have failed and tear drainage is needed. Where there is no risk of ocular surface toxicity due to complete stasis of the tear lake, the canaliculi can be ablated with thermal coagulation or canalicular excision. Rarely required as a primary procedure, dacryocystectomy may be used where dacryocystitis occurs in the presence of long-established canalicular occlusion.
Medical imaging evaluations provide valuable information and are often imperative in the care of our patients. Radiation exposure in patients who undergo medical imaging procedures is not routinely monitored and the associated risks are often underestimated. Radiation exposure associated with computed tomography (CT) angiography and coronary intervention is reviewed. Vascular surgeons are often involved in the decision-making process in roughly 30% of CT scans performed that are believed to be unnecessary. Society for Vascular Surgery (SVS) practice guidelines for patients with abdominal aortic aneurysms recommended eliminating a 6-month contrast surveillance CT if no endoleak was observed at 1 month after endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR). Ultrasound and aortic duplex can help eliminate some of the CT scans. Vascular surgeons must remain vigilant in monitoring radiation exposure for their patients who have potential for coronary and vascular imaging with radiation. Judicious use of alternative imaging modalities when possible and maintaining the dose as low as reasonably achievable (ALARA) is the responsibility of vascular surgeons. Published by Mosby, Inc.
Cooke, C. A.; Frazer, D. G.; Jackson, A. J.
Background: Intraocular surgery in patients with intellectual disability can be hazardous. Our aim was to determine the outcomes of surgery on all such patients seen in a consultant-led service, and to assess the overall risks and benefits. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients with moderate to severe intellectual…
Cooke, C. A.; Frazer, D. G.; Jackson, A. J.
Background: Intraocular surgery in patients with intellectual disability can be hazardous. Our aim was to determine the outcomes of surgery on all such patients seen in a consultant-led service, and to assess the overall risks and benefits. Materials and Methods: A retrospective chart review of patients with moderate to severe intellectual…
Bhargava, Rahul; Kumar, Prachi; Sharma, Shiv Kumar; Kumar, Manoj; Kaur, Avinash
AIM To compare the safety and efficacy of phacoemulsification and small incision cataract surgery (SICS) in patients with uveitic cataract. METHODS In a prospective, randomized multi-centric study, consecutive patients with uveitic cataract were randomized to receive phacoemulsification or manual SICS by either of two surgeons well versed with both the techniques. A minimum inflammation free period of 3mo (defined as less than 5 cells per high power field in anterior chamber) was a pre-requisite for eligibility for surgery. Superior scleral tunnel incisions were used for both techniques. Improvement in visual acuity post-operatively was the primary outcome measure and the rate of post-operative complications and surgical time were secondary outcome measures, respectively. Means of groups were compared using t-tests. One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used when there were more than two groups. Chi-square tests were used for proportions. Kaplan Meyer survival analysis was done and means for survival time was estimated at 95% confidence interval (CI). A P value of <0.05 was considered statistically significant. RESULTS One hundred and twenty-six of 139 patients (90.6%) completed the 6-month follow-up. Seven patients were lost in follow up and another six excluded due to either follow-up less than six months (n=1) or inability implant an intraocular lens (IOL) because of insufficient capsular support following posterior capsule rupture (n=5). There was significant improvement in vision after both the procedures (paired t-test; P<0.001). On first postoperative day, uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA) was 20/63 or better in 31 (47%) patients in Phaco group and 26 (43.3%) patients in SICS group (P=0.384). The mean surgically induced astigmatism (SIA) was 0.86±0.34 dioptres (D) in the phacoemulsification group and 1.16±0.28 D in SICS group. The difference between the groups was significant (t-test, P=0.002). At 6mo, corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA) was
Nikhar, Sapna Annaji; Sharma, Ashima; Ramdaspally, Mahesh; Gopinath, Ramachandran
Oral cancer patients have a potentially difficult airway, but if managed properly during the perioperative period, morbidity and mortality can be reduced or avoided. The medical records of 156 patients who were operated for oral cancers were reviewed for airway management during the perioperative period. The surgical procedures ranged from excisions, wide local excisions with split skin graftings, hemiglossectomies and radical neck nodes dissections to pectoralis major myocutaneous or free fibular flaps. Intubation was assessed as difficult in 14.7% of patients because of tumour- or radiation fibrosis-related trismus, restricted neck mobility and prior similar surgeries. Twenty patients had undergone surgery for oral cancer previously and were scheduled for flap reconstruction. Nasotracheal intubation was a preferred route, and 62.8% of patients could be intubated nasotracheally after neuromuscular blockade. Tracheostomy (elective or existing) was utilised for airway control in 19.2% cases. Patients who had undergone prior radiotherapy were more likely to be tracheostomised. McCoy laryngoscopes (13.4%), gum elastic bougies (23.6%), Airtraq devices (0.006%) and fibreoptic bronchoscopes (FOBs) (0.03%) were the additional airway techniques employed. In total, 64 patients (50.7%) could be extubated immediately after surgery. Proper preoperative evaluation and planning help manage difficult airways effectively with minimal need of advanced airway gadgets. Gum elastic bougies and Magill forceps are very useful in airway management and decrease the need of elective tracheostomy in oral cancer patients.
Hospitalization for surgery has a high risk of developing venous thromboembolism, a condition that encompasses both deep-vein thrombosis and its potentially fatal complication, pulmonary embolism. Colorectal surgery implies a specific high risk for postoperative thromboembolic complications relative to other general surgery. This may be a result of pelvic dissection, the perioperative positioning of these patients, or the presence of additional risk factors common to this patient group, such as cancer, advanced age, or inflammatory bowel disease. The potential impact of venous thromboembolism and the need for effective thromboprophylaxis often are underestimated in these patients. Recommendations for thromboprophylaxis in colorectal surgery patients are based on the American College of Chest Physicians guidelines for thrombosis prevention in general surgery patients, with treatment stratified according to the type of surgery and additional venous thromboembolism risk factors present. Prophylaxis with low-molecular-weight heparin or unfractionated heparin is recommended for colorectal surgery patients classified as moderate to high risk. The small number of studies focusing specifically on colorectal patients, or on cancer or abdominal surgery patients with a colorectal subgroup, has shown that both low-molecular-weight heparin and unfractionated heparin can effectively reduce the incidence of venous thromboembolism. Low-molecular-weight heparin has the practical advantage of once-daily administration and shows a lower risk of heparin-induced thrombocytopenia. This review will assess the risk of venous thromboembolism in colorectal surgery patients and discuss current evidence-based guidelines and recommendations for prevention of venous thromboembolism.
Gessler, Florian; Mutlak, Haitham; Tizi, Karima; Senft, Christian; Setzer, Matthias; Seifert, Volker; Weise, Lutz
OBJECTIVE The value of postoperative epidural analgesia after major spinal surgery is well established. Thus far, the use of patient-controlled epidural analgesia (PCEA) has been denied to patients undergoing debridement and instrumentation in spondylodiscitis, with the risk of increased postoperative pain resulting in prolonged recovery. The value of PCEA with special regard to infectious complications remains to be clarified. The present study examined the value of postoperative PCEA in comparison with intravenous analgesia in patients with spondylodiscitis undergoing posterior spinal surgery. METHODS Thirty-two patients treated surgically for spondylodiscitis of the thoracic and lumbar spine were prospectively included in a database and retrospectively reviewed for this study. Postoperative antibiotic treatment, functional capacity, pain levels, side effects, and complications were documented. Sixteen patients were given patient-demanded intravenous analgesia (PIA) followed by 16 patients assigned to PCEA. If PCEA was applied, the insertion of an epidural catheter was performed under the direct visual guidance of the surgeon at the end of the surgery. RESULTS Three patients intended for PCEA treatment were excluded due to predefined exclusion criteria. Postoperative pain was significantly lower in the PCEA group during the first 48 hours after surgery (p = 0.03). As determined by the trunk control test conducted at 8 (p < 0.001), 24 (p = 0.004), 48 (p = 0.015), 72 (p = 0.0031), and 96 hours (p < 0.001), patients in the PCEA treatment group displayed significantly increased mobilization capacity compared with those of the PIA group. Time until normal accomplishment of all mobilization maneuvers was reduced in the PCEA group compared with that in the PIA group (p = 0.04). No differences in complication rates were observed between the 2 groups (p = 0.52). CONCLUSIONS PCEA may reduce postoperative pain and lead to earlier achievement of functional capacity at a low
Afsharkhamseh, Neda; Movahedan, Asadolah; Motahari, Hooman; Djalilian, Ali R.
In this article we review essentials of diagnosis and management of ocular surface disease in patients who undergo cataract surgery. It is clearly shown that dry eye disease worsens following the cataract surgery in patients with prior history of ocular surface disease, Also new cases of dry eye might appear. Current strategies for the timely diagnosis and proper management of dry eye syndrome in the face of cataract surgery patients are mainly emphasized. To achieve the best outcome in cataract surgery, a healthy ocular surface is crucial. While ocular surface preparation is indispensable in patients with established ocular surface disease, it is also helpful in those with minimal signs or symptoms of surface disease. The current approach begins with early diagnosis and drastic management of ocular surface disease before cataract surgery using a stepwise regimen customized to each patient and disease severity. These measures are continued throughout and after the surgery. PMID:25278791
Safarík, L; Novák, K; Závada, J; Bízová, S; Stolz, J; Sedlácek, J; Dvorácek, J; Vraný, M
The paper describes the advantages and disadvantages of the laparoscopic operations, the number of which steadily rises in urology. The laparoscopic surgery is considered to be a benefit regarding the short postoperative hospital stay, painless postoperative course, and virtually non-existing postoperative paralytic ileus. As disadvantage are deemed the long learning curve for the operating personal, and high economical costs, which could be cut down only if short off-work period in productive population is included. In the paper, the pathophysiological guidelines are outlined and emphasized during the laparoscopic operation, which the surgical and anesthesiological teams have to have in mind. On the own cohort of patients, the numbers and types of operations are described, which have been done at our department.
Dhakal, Binod; Eastwood, Daniel; Sukumaran, Sunitha; Hassler, George; Tisol, William; Gasparri, Mario; Choong, Nicholas; Santana-Davila, Rafael
Obesity is a risk factor for increased perioperative morbidity and mortality in surgical patients. There have been limited studies to correlate the morbidity of lung cancer resection with obesity. We performed a retrospective study of patients who underwent surgical resection for lung cancer at the Medical College of Wisconsin, Milwaukee, from 2006 to 2010. Data on patient demographics, weight, pathological findings, and hospital course were abstracted after appropriate institutional review board approval. Perioperative morbidity was defined as atrial fibrillation, heart failure, respiratory failure, pulmonary embolism, or any medical complications arising within 30 days after surgery. The Fisher exact test was used to test the association between body mass index (BMI) and perioperative morbidities. Between 2006 and 2010, 320 lung resections were performed for lung cancer. The median age was 67 (interquartile range, 59-75) years, and 185 (57.8%) were females. A total of 121 (37.8%) of patients had a BMI lower than 25, and 199 (62.18%) patients had a BMI of 25 or higher. The 30-day mortality rate was 1.8% (n = 6) in the whole group; only 2 of these patients had a BMI of 25 or higher. Perioperative morbidity occurred in 28 (23.14%) of patients with a normal BMI and in 47 (23.61%) of patients with a BMI of 25 or higher (P = .54). Specific morbidities encountered by patients with normal versus BMI of 25 or higher were as follows: atrial fibrillation, 11 (9.09%) versus 24 (12.06%) (P = .46); pulmonary embolism, 1 (0.83%) versus 3 (1.51%) (P = 1.0); congestive heart failure, 2 (1.65%) versus 2 (1.01%) (P = .63); renal failure, 4 (3.3%) versus 2 (1.0%) (P = .29); respiratory failure, 12 (9.92%) versus 17 (8.54%) (P = .69); and acute respiratory distress syndrome, 2 (1.65%) versus 1 (0.50%) (P = .55). The median hospital stay was 5 days in the lower BMI group and 4 days in the BMI of 25 or higher group (P = .52). Overweight and normal weight patients do not differ
Ribeiro, Graziela Aparecida Nogueira de Almeida; Giampietro, Helenice Brizolla; Belarmino, Lídia Barbieri; Salgado-Júnior, Wilson
The psychologist who works in bariatric surgery has a role to receive, evaluate, prepare and educate the patient who will undergo the surgical procedure. Psychological evaluation becomes important in so far as allows us to obtain data on personal and familiar history and allow tracing of possible psychopathology. To collect data on psychological evaluations of patients in a bariatric surgery service of a public hospital in order to describe the psychological profile of patients in this service. Data were collected from 827 patients between 2001 and 2015, using data from an interview, Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) and Binge Eating Scale (BES). The mean age of patients before surgery was 39 years+/- 10, the mean BMI was 51 kg/m²+7, and most patients (81%) were female. The average score on the BDI was 14.8+8 and women had significantly higher scores than men. On the BAI the average score was 11+8 and on the ECAP was 14+8, both with no difference between groups. Psychosocial characteristics of the patients points to the significant presence of indicators of depression, with low levels of anxiety and binge eating. O psicólogo que atua na área da cirurgia bariátrica tem papel de acolher, avaliar, preparar e conscientizar o paciente que vai ser submetido ao procedimento cirúrgico. A avaliação psicológica reveste-se de importância na medida em que obtém dados sobre história pessoal e familiar, além do rastreio de possíveis alterações psicopatológicas. Analisar as avaliações psicológicas dos pacientes de um serviço de cirurgia bariátrica de um hospital público, buscando traçar o perfil psicológico dos pacientes deste serviço. Foram coletados dados de 827 pacientes entre 2001 e 2015, utilizando-se dados de uma entrevista, Inventário Beck de Depressão (BDI), Inventário Beck de Ansiedade (BAI) e Escala de Compulsão Alimentar Periódica (ECAP). A idade média dos pacientes antes da operação foi 39 anos+10 e o IMC m
Figueiredo, Marleny Novaes; Campos, Fabio Guilherme; D'Albuquerque, Luiz Augusto; Nahas, Sergio Carlos; Cecconello, Ivan; Panis, Yves
To perform a systematic review focusing on short-term outcomes after colorectal surgery in patients with previous abdominal open surgery (PAOS). A broad literature search was performed with the terms "colorectal", "colectomy", "PAOS", "previous surgery" and "PAOS". Studies were included if their topic was laparoscopic colorectal surgery in patients with PAOS, whether descriptive or comparative. Endpoints of interest were conversion rates, inadvertent enterotomy and morbidity. Analysis of articles was made according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses. From a total of 394 citations, 13 full-texts achieved selection criteria to be included in the study. Twelve of them compared patients with and without PAOS. All studies were retrospective and comparative and two were case-matched. The selected studies comprised a total of 5005 patients, 1865 with PAOS. Among the later, only 294 (16%) had history of a midline incision for previous gastrointestinal surgery. Conversion rates were significantly higher in 3 of 12 studies and inadvertent enterotomy during laparoscopy was more prevalent in 3 of 5 studies that disclosed this event. Morbidity was similar in the majority of studies. A quantitative analysis (meta-analysis) could not be performed due to heterogeneity of the studies. Conversion rates were slightly higher in PAOS groups, although not statistical significant in most studies. History of PAOS did not implicate in higher morbidity rates.
Paris, Marion; Chaux-Bodard, Anne-Gaëlle; Gourmet, René; Fortin, Thomas
Many oral cancer patients (OCPs) are unable to wear conventional prostheses due to the disease and treatment effects, so they are candidates for oral rehabilitation with osseointegrated implants. A guide suitable for OCPs was designed and tested. Image-guided systems based on a custom template for oral implant placement are now widespread among healthy patients, but this has not been extended to OCPs. The EasyGuideT system (Keystone Dental, Burlington, MA, USA) for template stabilization is used on healthy edentulous patients, achieved by bone screws, mini-implants or stereolithography with a bone support. All these systems are invasive and cannot be used in many oral cancer patients. We adapted the EasyGuideT to OCP rehabilitation. The first stage focused on developing a template-positioning system for use on edentulous mandibles that is non-invasive, repeatable, stable on the oral mucosa, consistent with the operating room asepsis, and comfortable for the patient. This repositioning system consists of a cube fiducial marker and an extra-oral support using a facial thermoplastic mask. The mask is linked to the surgical template through the cube. The second stage consisted of direct evaluation of the repositioning system reproducibility, performed on 5 adult cadaver skulls. The translation errors and rotation errors obtained using the modified EasyGuideT system were satisfactory in ex vivo experiments on cadaver skulls. A non-invasive repositioning system for image-guided implant surgery on oral cancer patients is clinically feasible using a cube fiducial marker and extra-oral support with a facial thermoplastic mask.
Fernando, Dinusha K; McIntosh, Anne M; Bladin, Peter F; Wilson, Sarah J
Few studies have investigated the patient experience of unsuccessful medical interventions, particularly in the epilepsy surgery field. The present review aimed to gain insight into the patient experience of seizure recurrence after epilepsy surgery by examining the broader literature dealing with suboptimal results after medical interventions (including epilepsy surgery). To capture the patient experience, the literature search focused on qualitative research of patients who had undergone medically unsuccessful interventions, published in English in scholarly journals. Twenty-two studies were found of patients experiencing a range of suboptimal outcomes, including seizure recurrence, cancer recurrence and progression, unsuccessful joint replacement, unsuccessful infertility treatment, organ transplant rejection, coronary bypass graft surgery, and unsuccessful weight-loss surgery. In order of frequency, the most common patient experiences included the following: altered social dynamics and stigma, unmet expectations, negative emotions, use of coping strategies, hope and optimism, perceived failure of the treating team, psychiatric symptoms, and control issues. There is support in the epilepsy surgery literature that unmet expectations and psychiatric symptoms are key issues for patients with seizure recurrence, while other common patient experiences have been implied but not systematically examined. Several epilepsy surgery specific factors influence patient perceptions of seizure recurrence, including the nature of postoperative seizures, the presence of postoperative complications, and the need for increased postoperative medications. Knowledge of common patient experiences can assist in the delivery of patient follow-up and rehabilitation services tailored to differing outcomes after epilepsy surgery.
Govetto, Andrea; Lorente, Ramón; Vázquez de Parga, Paula; Rojas, Laura; Moreno, Claudio; Lagoa, Fiz; Lorente, Betty
To assess the frequency of pseudoexfoliation syndrome (PXF) in patients scheduled for cataract surgery and to evaluate its association with pupil dilation, lens nucleus hardness, intraocular pressure (IOP), glaucoma, age, and sex. Ourense University Hospital, Ourense, Spain. Cross-sectional study. This study evaluated eyes scheduled for cataract surgery between January 2013 and July 2013. Pseudoexfoliation was diagnosed in phakic eyes that showed central and/or peripheral white deposits on the lens surface, pupillary margin, or both. Dilated pupils were evaluated with a portable pupil chart. Nucleus hardness was assessed according to the Lens Opacities Classification System III. Diagnosis of glaucoma was based on International Society Geographical and Epidemiological Ophthalmology criteria. Of the 1763 eyes (1093 patients) evaluated, 381 (21.6%) were diagnosed with PXF. The frequency of PXF increased with age from 6.0% in people between 50 year and 60 years to 31.66% in those older than 80 years. In PXF eyes, nuclear cataracts were significantly harder than in non-PXF eyes (P < .001). The mean IOP was significantly higher in PXF eyes than in non-PXF eyes (P = .002). The frequency of glaucoma was higher in PXF eyes (17.4%) than in non-PXF eyes (9.4%), with a statistically significant difference (P < .001). In PXF eyes, the pupil was significantly smaller than in non-PXF eyes (P < .001). The frequency of PXF was high in the study population and increased with age. Eyes with PXF were associated with significantly harder nuclear cataracts, smaller pupils, and glaucoma. No author has a financial or proprietary interest in any material or method mentioned. Copyright © 2015 ASCRS and ESCRS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All r