Science.gov

Sample records for post-fire burn severity

  1. Detecting post-fire burn severity and vegetation recovery using multitemporal remote sensing spectral indices and field-collected composite burn index data in a ponderosa pine forest

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chen, Xuexia; Vogelmann, James E.; Rollins, Matt; Ohlen, Donald; Key, Carl H.; Yang, Limin; Huang, Chengquan; Shi, Hua

    2011-01-01

    It is challenging to detect burn severity and vegetation recovery because of the relatively long time period required to capture the ecosystem characteristics. Multitemporal remote sensing data can providemultitemporal observations before, during and after a wildfire, and can improve the change detection accuracy. The goal of this study is to examine the correlations between multitemporal spectral indices and field-observed burn severity, and to provide a practical method to estimate burn severity and vegetation recovery. The study site is the Jasper Fire area in the Black Hills National Forest, South Dakota, that burned during August and September 2000. Six multitemporal Landsat images acquired from 2000 (pre-fire), 2001 (post-fire), 2002, 2003, 2005 and 2007 were used to assess burn severity. The normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), enhanced vegetation index (EVI), normalized burn ratio (NBR), integrated forest index (IFI) and the differences of these indices between the pre-fire and post-fire years were computed and analysed with 66 field-based composite burn index (CBI) plots collected in 2002. Results showed that differences of NDVI and differences of EVI between the pre-fire year and the first two years post-fire were highly correlated with the CBI scores. The correlations were low beyond the second year post-fire. Differences of NBR had good correlation with CBI scores in all study years. Differences of IFI had low correlation with CBI in the first year post-fire and had good correlation in later years. A CBI map of the burnt area was produced using regression tree models and the multitemporal images. The dynamics of four spectral indices from 2000 to 2007 indicated that both NBR and IFI are valuable for monitoring long-term vegetation recovery. The high burn severity areas had a much slower recovery than the moderate and low burn areas.

  2. Rates of post-fire vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation as a function of burn severity and time-since-burn in four western U.S. ecosystems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vegetation recovery and fuel accumulation rates following wildfire are useful measures of ecosystem resilience, yet few studies have quantified these variables over 10 years post-fire. Conventional wisdom is that recovery time to pre-fire condition will be slower as a function of burn severity, as i...

  3. The Effect of Burn Severity on Short-Term Post-Fire Boreal Vegetation Recovery in Interior Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oyler, J. W.; Smithwick, E.; Mack, M. C.

    2008-12-01

    Fire is the dominant disturbance in the interior boreal region of Alaska and is predicted to increase with climate warming. This variation in the boreal fire regime could play a critical role in climate feedbacks by altering forest productivity and succession and, consequently, biogeochemical cycling, carbon sequestration, and surface energy fluxes. Due to limited fine-scale studies, however, it is not known how increased burn severity (i.e.-amount of organic material consumed) alters post-fire recovery of vegetation productivity, nor how the relationship between severity and post-fire recovery varies across heterogeneous landscapes. In examining fires from the 2004 Alaska fire season (n=72), the objective of this research was to determine how between and within fire variation in burn severity and related variables (pre-fire vegetation, elevation, insolation, etc.) mediates short-term post-fire recovery at the regional scale (i.e.-interior Alaska) and at the landscape scale (i.e.-a single fire complex).The Normalized Burn Ratio was used to measure burn severity and MODIS NDVI was used as a proxy for vegetation recovery. For the between fire analysis, remotely sensed data was overlaid on the fire perimeters in a GIS to create a multivariate dataset with variables aggregated by fire. The dependent variables for each fire were percent NDVI growing season change from 2003 to 2005 (i.e.-productivity drop) and from 2005 to 2007 (i.e.-productivity recovery), while the independent variables included mean dNBR, elevation, and insolation, and percentages of pre-fire land cover types. This dataset was explored in a geovisualization application (GeoViz Toolkit) to help interpret a more detailed adjusted R-square multivariate regression.The top 3 models (R-square ~ 0.60) for the productivity drop per fire showed that fires in higher elevations and containing higher percentages of pre-fire conifer forest were correlated with larger drops in NDVI. In contrast, the models for

  4. Does soil burn severity affect the post-fire runoff and interrill erosion response? A review based on meta-analysis of field rainfall simulation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, D. C. S.; Fernández, C.; Vega, J. A.; Keizer, J. J.

    2015-04-01

    Soil burn severity has been widely used to describe the impacts of fire on soils and is increasingly being recognised as a decisive factor controlling post-fire erosion rates. However, there is no unique definition of the term and the relationship between soil burn severity and post-fire hydrological and erosion response has not yet been fully established. The objective of this work was to review the existing literature on the role of soil burn severity on post-fire runoff and erosion ratios. To this end, a meta-analysis was carried out of the runoff and inter-rill erosion data from field rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's) that compared burnt and unburnt conditions. In this study, 109 individual observations were analysed that covered a wide geographical range, various types of land cover (forest, shrubland, and grassland) and two types of fire types (wildfire and prescribed fire). The effect size of the post-fire runoff and erosion response was determined for four key factors: (i) soil burn severity; (ii) time-since-fire; (iii) rainfall intensity; and (iv) bare soil cover. Statistical meta-analysis showed that fire occurrence had a significant effect on the hydrological and erosive response. However, this effect was only significantly higher with increasing soil burn severity for inter-rill erosion, and not for runoff. This study furthermore highlighted the incoherencies between existing burn severity classifications, and proposed an unambiguous classification.

  5. Characterization of post-fire surface cover, soils, and burn severity at the Cerro Grande Fire, New Mexico, using hyperspectral and multispectral remote sensing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kokaly, R.F.; Rockwell, B.W.; Haire, S.L.; King, T.V.V.

    2007-01-01

    Forest fires leave behind a changed ecosystem with a patchwork of surface cover that includes ash, charred organic matter, soils and soil minerals, and dead, damaged, and living vegetation. The distributions of these materials affect post-fire processes of erosion, nutrient cycling, and vegetation regrowth. We analyzed high spatial resolution (2.4??m pixel size) Airborne Visible and Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) data collected over the Cerro Grande fire, to map post-fire surface cover into 10 classes, including ash, soil minerals, scorched conifer trees, and green vegetation. The Cerro Grande fire occurred near Los Alamos, New Mexico, in May 2000. The AVIRIS data were collected September 3, 2000. The surface cover map revealed complex patterns of ash, iron oxide minerals, and clay minerals in areas of complete combustion. Scorched conifer trees, which retained dry needles heated by the fire but not fully combusted by the flames, were found to cover much of the post-fire landscape. These scorched trees were found in narrow zones at the edges of completely burned areas. A surface cover map was also made using Landsat Enhanced Thematic Mapper plus (ETM+) data, collected September 5, 2000, and a maximum likelihood, supervised classification. When compared to AVIRIS, the Landsat classification grossly overestimated cover by dry conifer and ash classes and severely underestimated soil and green vegetation cover. In a comparison of AVIRIS surface cover to the Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) map of burn severity, the BAER high burn severity areas did not capture the variable patterns of post-fire surface cover by ash, soil, and scorched conifer trees seen in the AVIRIS map. The BAER map, derived from air photos, also did not capture the distribution of scorched trees that were observed in the AVIRIS map. Similarly, the moderate severity class of Landsat-derived burn severity maps generated from the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) calculation

  6. The influence of burn severity on post-fire vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in North American boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goetz, S. J.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Goulden, M.

    2011-12-01

    Severity of burning can influence multiple aspects of forest composition, carbon cycling, and climate forcing. We quantified how burn severity affected vegetation recovery and albedo change during early succession in Canadian boreal regions by combining satellite observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the Canadian Large Fire Data Base (LFDB). We used the difference Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and changes in spring albedo derived from MODIS 500m albedo product as measures of burn severity. We found that the most severe burns had the greatest reduction in summer EVI in first year after fire, indicating greater loss of vegetation cover immediately following fire. By 5-7 years after fire, summer EVI for all severity classes had recovered to within 90-110% of pre-fire levels. Burn severity had a positive effect on the increase of post-fire spring albedo during the first 7 years after fire, and a shift from low to moderate or moderate to severe fires led to amplification of the post-fire albedo increase by approximately 30%. Fire-induced increases in both spring and summer albedo became progressively larger with stand age from years 1-7, with the trend in spring albedo likely driven by continued losses of needles and branches from trees killed by the fire (and concurrent losses of black carbon coatings on remaining debris), and the summer trend associated with increases in leaf area of short-stature herbs and shrubs. Our results suggest that increases in burn severity and carbon losses observed in some areas of boreal forests (e.g., Turetsky et al., 2011) may be at least partly offset by increases in negative forcing associated with changes in surface albedo.

  7. Ecohydrologic Implications and Management of Post-fire Soil Water Repellency in Burned Pinon-Juniper Woodlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, Matthew; Zvirzdin, Daniel; Fernelius, Kaitlynn; McMillan, Mica; Kostka, Stanley

    2014-05-01

    Erosion and weed dominance often limit the recovery of piñon-juniper woodlands of western North America after high intensity wildfires. Soil water repellency (SWR) is one factor that may promote overland flow and impede seedling establishment. In spite of these effects, the influence of post-fire SWR on site recovery is poorly understood. Our presentation summarizes data collected within studies on burned piñon-juniper woodlands that provide new insight on: 1) the spatial distribution and severity of SWR, 2) influence of SWR on soil hydrology, nitrogen cycling, and site revegetation, and 3) the suitability of soil surfactants as a post-fire restoration tool. We demonstrate how patterns of SWR are highly correlated to pre-fire woodland canopy structure. At sites where SWR is present, infiltration, soil water content, and plant establishment is significantly less than at non-hydrophobic sites. We show how newly developed soil surfactants can significantly improve ecohydrologic properties required for plant growth by overcoming SWR; thus, increasing the amount and duration of available water for seed germination and plant growth. However, the application of soil surfactants in wildfire-affected ecosystems has been limited due to logistical and economic constraints associated with the standard practice of using large quantities of irrigation water as the surfactant carrier. We have developed a potential solution to this problem by using seed coating technology to use the seed as the carrier for the delivery of soil surfactant. Through this approach, precipitation leaches the surfactant from the seed into the soil where it absorbs onto the soil particles and ameliorates water repellency within the seeds microsite. We present findings from laboratory and field evaluations of surfactant seed coatings, which provide evidence that it may be plausible for the technology to improve post-fire seeding efforts by restoring soil hydrologic function and increasing seedling

  8. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, M. C.; Devito, K. J.; Kettridge, N.; Petrone, R. M.; Waddington, J. M.

    2015-11-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting boreal peatlands, however, little is known about the controls on post-fire peatland vegetation recovery. While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce post-fire moss water availability, high water table (WT) positions following wildfire are also critical to enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). Thus, post-fire moss water availability is also likely a function of landscape-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands in Alberta's Boreal Plains. At all sites, variation in burn severity resulted in a dichotomy between post-fire surface covers that: (1) exhibited low water availability, regardless of WT position, and had minimal (<5%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned feather mosses and severely burned Sphagnum fuscum) or (2) exhibited high water availability, depending on WT position, and had substantial (>50%) moss re-establishment (i.e. lightly burned S. fuscum and where depth of burn was >0.05 m). Notably, hydrogeological setting influenced the spatial coverage of these post-fire surface covers by influencing pre-fire WTs and stand characteristics (e.g., shading). Because feather moss cover is controlled by tree shading, lightly burned feather mosses were ubiquitous (>25%) in drier peatlands (deeper pre-fire WTs) that were densely treed and had little connection to large groundwater flow systems. Moreover, hydrogeological setting also controlled post-fire WT positions, thereby affecting moss re-establishment in post-fire surface covers that were dependent on WT position (e.g., lightly burned S. fuscum). Accordingly, higher recolonization rates were observed in a peatland located in a groundwater flow through

  9. Assessment of Fire Severity and Post-Fire Regeneration Based on Topographical Features Using Multitemporal Landsat Imagery: a Case Study in Mersin, Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tonbul, H.; Kavzoglu, T.; Kaya, S.

    2016-06-01

    Satellite based remote sensing technologies and Geographical Information Systems (GIS) present operable and cost-effective solutions for mapping fires and observing post-fire regeneration. Mersin-Gülnar wildfire, which occurred in August 2008 in Turkey, selected as study site. The fire was devastating and continued 55 days. According to Turkish General Directorate of Forestry reports, it caused two deaths and left hundreds of people homeless. The aim of this study is to determine the fire severity and monitor vegetation recovery with using multitemporal spectral indices together with topographical factors. Pre-fire and post-fire Landsat ETM+ images were obtained to assess the related fire severity with using the widely-used differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm. Also, the Normalized Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Soil Adjusted Vegetation Index (SAVI) were used to determine vegetation regeneration dynamics for a period of six consecutive years. In addition, aspect image derived from Aster Global Digital Elevation Model (GDEM) were used to determine vegetation regeneration regime of the study area. Results showed that 5388 ha of area burned with moderate to high severity damage. As expected, NDVI and SAVI values distinctly declined post-fire and then began to increase in the coming years. Mean NDVI value of burned area changed from 0.48 to 0.17 due to wildfire, whilst mean SAVI value changed from 0.61 to 0.26. Re-growth rates calculated for NDVI and SAVI 57% and 63% respectively, six years after the fire. Moreover, NDVI and SAVI were estimated six consecutive year period by taking into consideration east, south, north and west facing slopes. Analysis showed that north-facing and east-facing slopes have higher regeneration rates in compared to other aspects. This study serves as a window to an understanding of the process of fire severity and vegetation regeneration that is vital in wildfire management systems.

  10. Post-fire vegetation and fuel development influences fire severity patterns in reburns.

    PubMed

    Coppoletta, Michelle; Merriam, Kyle E; Collins, Brandon M

    2016-04-01

    In areas where fire regimes and forest structure have been dramatically altered, there is increasing concern that contemporary fires have the potential to set forests on a positive feedback trajectory with successive reburns, one in which extensive stand-replacing fire could promote more stand-replacing fire. Our study utilized an extensive set of field plots established following four fires that occurred between 2000 and 2010 in the northern Sierra Nevada, California, USA that were subsequently reburned in 2012. The information obtained from these field plots allowed for a unique set of analyses investigating the effect of vegetation, fuels, topography, fire weather, and forest management on reburn severity. We also examined the influence of initial fire severity and time since initial fire on influential predictors of reburn severity. Our results suggest that high- to moderate-severity fire in the initial fires led to an increase in standing snags and shrub vegetation, which in combination with severe fire weather promoted high-severity fire effects in the subsequent reburn. Although fire behavior is largely driven by weather, our study demonstrates that post-fire vegetation composition and structure are also important drivers of reburn severity. In the face of changing climatic regimes and increases in extreme fire weather, these results may provide managers with options to create more fire-resilient ecosystems. In areas where frequent high-severity fire is undesirable, management activities such as thinning, prescribed fire, or managed wildland fire can be used to moderate fire behavior not only prior to initial fires, but also before subsequent reburns.

  11. Hydrogeological controls on post-fire moss recovery in peatlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukenbach, Max; Devito, Kevin; Kettridge, Nicholas; Petrone, Richard; Waddington, James

    2015-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, however, little is known about the spatiotemporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table (WT) positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e. Sphagnum). While small-scale variation in burn severity can reduce capillary flow from the WT and lead to a dry surface after fire, steep WT declines can also limit post-fire moss water availability. As such, post-fire moss water availability is also a function of large-scale controls on peatland WT dynamics, specifically, connectivity to groundwater flow systems (i.e. hydrogeological setting). For this reason, we assessed the interacting controls of hydrogeological setting and burn severity on post-fire moss water availability by measuring peatland WTs, soil tension (Ψ) and surface volumetric moisture content (θ) in three burned, Sphagnum-dominated peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings for three years following wildfire. The effect of burn severity on post-fire moss water availability did not vary with hydrogeological setting, however, the spatial coverage of high and low burn severity did vary between peatlands located in different hydrogeological settings due to its influence on pre-fire fuel loads and species cover. Locations covered by S. fuscum prior to fire exhibited decreasing post-fire water availability with increasing burn severity. In contrast, the lowest water availability (Ψ > 400 cm, θ < 0.02) was observed in feather mosses that underwent low burn severity (residual branches identifiable). Where depth of burn was > 0.05 m (high burn severity) and pre-fire species were not identifiable, water availability was highest (Ψ < 90 cm). Where burn severity did not limit water availability through a reduction of capillary flow, depth to WT (and therefore hydrogeological setting) played a large role in affecting post-fire

  12. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Urretavizcaya, María F.; Gonda, Héctor E.; Defossé, Guillermo E.

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress ( Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  13. Post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment of the area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek Fire near Hailey, central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Skinner, Kenneth D.

    2013-01-01

    A preliminary hazard assessment was developed for debris-flow hazards in the 465 square-kilometer (115,000 acres) area burned by the 2013 Beaver Creek fire near Hailey in central Idaho. The burn area covers all or part of six watersheds and selected basins draining to the Big Wood River and is at risk of substantial post-fire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows. Empirical models derived from statistical evaluation of data collected from recently burned basins throughout the Intermountain Region in Western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence, potential volume of debris flows, and the combined debris-flow hazard ranking along the drainage network within the burn area and to estimate the same for analyzed drainage basins within the burn area. Input data for the empirical models included topographic parameters, soil characteristics, burn severity, and rainfall totals and intensities for a (1) 2-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 2-year storm (13 mm); (2) 10-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 10-year storm (19 mm); and (3) 25-year-recurrence, 1-hour-duration rainfall, referred to as a 25-year storm (22 mm). Estimated debris-flow probabilities for drainage basins upstream of 130 selected basin outlets ranged from less than 1 to 78 percent with the probabilities increasing with each increase in storm magnitude. Probabilities were high in three of the six watersheds. For the 25-year storm, probabilities were greater than 60 percent for 11 basin outlets and ranged from 50 to 60 percent for an additional 12 basin outlets. Probability estimates for stream segments within the drainage network can vary within a basin. For the 25-year storm, probabilities for stream segments within 33 basins were higher than the basin outlet, emphasizing the importance of evaluating the drainage network as well as basin outlets. Estimated debris-flow volumes for the three modeled storms range

  14. Landsat-Based Detection and Severity Analysis of Burned Sugarcane Plots in Tarlac, Philippines Using Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baloloy, A. B.; Blanco, A. C.; Gana, B. S.; Sta. Ana, R. C.; Olalia, L. C.

    2016-09-01

    The Philippines has a booming sugarcane industry contributing about PHP 70 billion annually to the local economy through raw sugar, molasses and bioethanol production (SRA, 2012). Sugarcane planters adapt different farm practices in cultivating sugarcane, one of which is cane burning to eliminate unwanted plant material and facilitate easier harvest. Information on burned sugarcane extent is significant in yield estimation models to calculate total sugar lost during harvest. Pre-harvest burning can lessen sucrose by 2.7% - 5% of the potential yield (Gomez, et al 2006; Hiranyavasit, 2016). This study employs a method for detecting burn sugarcane area and determining burn severity through Differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) using Landsat 8 Images acquired during the late milling season in Tarlac, Philippines. Total burned area was computed per burn severity based on pre-fire and post-fire images. Results show that 75.38% of the total sugarcane fields in Tarlac were burned with post-fire regrowth; 16.61% were recently burned; and only 8.01% were unburned. The monthly dNBR for February to March generated the largest area with low severity burn (1,436 ha) and high severity burn (31.14 ha) due to pre-harvest burning. Post-fire regrowth is highest in April to May when previously burned areas were already replanted with sugarcane. The maximum dNBR of the entire late milling season (February to May) recorded larger extent of areas with high and low post-fire regrowth compared to areas with low, moderate and high burn severity. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) was used to analyse vegetation dynamics between the burn severity classes. Significant positive correlation, rho = 0.99, was observed between dNBR and dNDVI at 5% level (p = 0.004). An accuracy of 89.03% was calculated for the Landsat-derived NBR validated using actual mill data for crop year 2015-2016.

  15. Effects of Post-Fire Plant Cover in the Performance of Two Cordilleran Cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis) Seedling Stocktypes Planted in Burned Forests of Northeastern Patagonia, Argentina.

    PubMed

    Urretavizcaya, María F; Gonda, Héctor E; Defossé, Guillermo E

    2017-03-01

    Cordilleran cypress (Austrocedrus chilensis [D.Don] Pic. Serm. et Bizarri) forests occupy 140,000 ha along a sharp environmental gradient of central Andean-Patagonia in Argentina. Every summer, about 3200 ha of these forests are affected by wildfires, taking thereafter long time to recover. To accelerate forest recovery, we determined in xeric and mesic cypress stands burned 5 and 2 year before whether survival and growth of two planted cypress seedling stocktypes are affected by plant cover and contrasting precipitation conditions. Two experiments were conducted on each site, involving 100 replicates of two seedling stocktypes, having each significantly different morphological attributes. The experiments comprised a dry and humid growing season on each site. Both stocktypes performed similarly within stands, but differently between stands. In the xeric stand, plant cover had neutral effects on seedling survival, favored seedling height growth in the dry season, and was negative on collar diameter and stem growth. In the mesic site, high plant cover favored survival and height growth, but was inconsequential for collar diameter and stem growth. In this short-term post-fire period, and independent of precipitation received during both seasons (dry or humid), plant cover appears as playing a facilitative role, having neutral or even positive effects on survival and growth of planted seedlings. During the early post-fire successional stages, and besides seedling stocktype, there was a synergistic balance between light and soil moisture that seems to benefit planted seedling performance in burned cypress forests, and especially in mesic sites.

  16. Long-term effects of burn severity on non-native plant cover

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Effects of burn severity on non-native plant invasion post-fire is of great concern to managers and researchers, especially given predicted increases in large, high severity fires. However, little else is known about long-term (>10 year) vegetation recovery and non-native plant persistence. We anal...

  17. Modeling post-fire sediment yield based on two burn scenarios at the Sooke Lake Reservoir, BC, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobre, Mariana; Elliot, William J.; Brooks, Erin S.; Smith, Tim

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires can have major adverse effects on municipal water sources. Local governments need methods to evaluate fire risk and to develop mitigation procedures. The Sooke Lake Reservoir is the primary source of water for the city of Victoria, BC and the concern is that sediment delivered from upland burned areas could have a detrimental impact on the reservoir and the water supply. We conducted a sediment delivery modeling pilot study on a portion of the Sooke Lake Reservoir (specifically, the Trestle Creek Management Unit (TCMU)) to evaluate the potential impacts of wildfire on sediment delivery from hillslopes and sub-catchments. We used a process-based hydrologic and soil erosion model called Water Erosion Prediction Project geospatial interface, GeoWEPP, to predict the sediment delivery from specific return period design storms for two burn severity scenarios: real (low-intensity burn severity) and worst (high-intensity burn severity) case scenarios. The GeoWEPP model allows users to simulate streamflow and erosion from hillslope polygons within a watershed. The model requires information on the topographic, soil and vegetative characteristics for each hillslope and a weather file. WEPP default values and several assumptions were necessary to apply the model where data were missing. Based on a 10-m DEM we delineated 16 watersheds within the TCMU area. A long term 100-year daily climate file was generated for this analysis using the CLIGEN model based on the historical observations recorded at Concrete, WA in United States, and adjusted for observed monthly precipitation observed in the Sooke Basin. We ran 100-year simulations and calculated yearly and event-based return periods (for 2, 5, 10, 20, 25, and 50 years) for each of the 16 watersheds. Overall, WEPP simulations indicate that the storms that are most likely to produce the greatest runoff and sediment load in these coastal, maritime climates with relatively low rainfall intensities are likely to occur in

  18. RECOVER - An Automated Burned Area Emergency Response Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Management of Savanna Ecosystems in the Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weber, K.; Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R.; Haskett, G.; Gardner, T.

    2013-12-01

    In partnership with the Department of Interior's Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and the Idaho Department of Lands (IDL), we are building and evaluating the RECOVER decision support system. RECOVER - which stands for Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery - is an automatically deployable, context-aware decision support system for savanna wildfires that brings together in a single application the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making and long-term ecosystem monitoring. RECOVER uses state-of-the-art cloud-based data management technologies to improve performance, reduce cost, and provide site-specific flexibility for each fire. The RECOVER Server uses Integrated Rule-Oriented Data System (iRODS) data grid technology deployed in the Amazon Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2). The RECOVER Client is an Adobe Flex web map application that is able to provide a suite of convenient GIS analytical capabilities. In a typical use scenario, the RECOVER Server is provided a wildfire name and geospatial extent. The Server then automatically gathers Earth observational data and other relevant products from various geographically distributed data sources. The Server creates a database in the cloud where all relevant information about the wildfire is stored. This information is made available to the RECOVER Client and ultimately to fire managers through their choice of web browser. The Server refreshes the data throughout the burn and subsequent recovery period (3-5 years) with each refresh requiring two minutes to complete. Since remediation plans must be completed within 14 days of a fire's containment, RECOVER has the potential to significantly improve the decision-making process. RECOVER adds an important new dimension to post-fire decision-making by focusing on ecosystem rehabilitation in semiarid savannas. A novel aspect of RECOVER's approach involves the use of soil moisture estimates, which are an important but difficult

  19. Remote sensing of fire severity: linking post-fire reflectance data with physiological responses in two western conifer species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sparks, A. M.; Smith, A. M.; Kolden, C.; Apostol, K. G.; Boschetti, L.

    2014-12-01

    Fire is a common disturbance in forested ecosystems in the western U.S. and can be responsible for long-term impacts on vegetation and soil. An improved understanding of how ecosystems recover after fire is necessary so that land managers can plan for and mitigate the effects of these disturbances. Although several studies have attempted to link fire intensity with severity, direct links between spectral indices of severity and key physiological changes in vegetation are not well understood. We conducted an assessment of how two western conifer species respond to four fire radiative energy treatments, with spectra acquired pre- and up to a month post-burn. After transforming the spectral data into Landsat 8 equivalent reflectance, burn severity indices commonly used in the remote sensing community were compared to concurrent physiological measurements including gas exchange and photosynthetic rate. Preliminary results indicate significant relationships between several fire severity indices and physiological responses measured in the conifer seedlings.

  20. Modeling post-fire hydro-geomorphic recovery in the Waldo Canyon Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, Alicia; Nourbakhshbeidokhti, Samira; Chin, Anne

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire can have significant impacts on watershed hydrology and geomorphology by changing soil properties and removing vegetation, often increasing runoff and soil erosion and deposition, debris flows, and flooding. Watershed systems may take several years or longer to recover. During this time, post-fire channel changes have the potential to alter hydraulics that influence characteristics such as time of concentration and increase time to peak flow, flow capacity, and velocity. Using the case of the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire in Colorado (USA), this research will leverage field-based surveys and terrestrial Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) data to parameterize KINEROS2 (KINematic runoff and EROSion), an event oriented, physically-based watershed runoff and erosion model. We will use the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment (AGWA) tool, which is a GIS-based hydrologic modeling tool that uses commonly available GIS data layers to parameterize, execute, and spatially visualize runoff and sediment yield for watersheds impacted by the Waldo Canyon Fire. Specifically, two models are developed, an unburned (Bear Creek) and burned (Williams) watershed. The models will simulate burn severity and treatment conditions. Field data will be used to validate the burned watersheds for pre- and post-fire changes in infiltration, runoff, peak flow, sediment yield, and sediment discharge. Spatial modeling will provide insight into post-fire patterns for varying treatment, burn severity, and climate scenarios. Results will also provide post-fire managers with improved hydro-geomorphic modeling and prediction tools for water resources management and mitigation efforts.

  1. Several Flame Balls Burning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    The Structure of Flameballs at Low Lewis Numbers (SOFBALL) experiments aboard the space shuttle in 1997 a series of sturningly successful burns. This sequence was taken during STS-94, July 12, 1997, MET:10/08:18 (approximate). It was thought these extremely dim flameballs (1/20 the power of a kitchen match) could last up to 200 seconds -- in fact, they can last for at least 500 seconds. This has ramifications in fuel-spray design in combustion engines, as well as fire safety in space. The SOFBALL principal investigator was Paul Ronney, University of Southern California, Los Angeles. The experiment was part of the space research investigations conducted during the Microgravity Science Laboratory-1R mission (STS-94, July 1-17 1997). Advanced combustion experiments will be a part of investigations planned for the International Space Station. (925KB, 9-second MPEG spanning 10 minutes, screen 320 x 240 pixels; downlinked video, higher quality not available) A still JPG composite of this movie is available at http://mix.msfc.nasa.gov/ABSTRACTS/MSFC-0300186.html.

  2. Mapping burn severity in a disease-impacted forest landscape using Landsat and MASTER imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-08-01

    Global environmental change has increased forest vulnerability to the occurrence of interacting disturbances, including wildfires and invasive diseases. Mapping post-fire burn severity in a disease-affected forest often faces challenges because burned and infested trees may exhibit a high similarity in spectral reflectance. In this study, we combined (pre- and post-fire) Landsat imagery and (post-fire) high-spectral resolution airborne MASTER data [MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer)/ASTER (advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer)] to map burn severity in a California coastal forest environment, where a non-native forest disease sudden oak death (SOD) was causing substantial tree mortality. Results showed that the use of Landsat plus MASTER bundle performed better than using the individual sensors in most of the evaluated forest strata from ground to canopy layers (i.e., substrate, shrubs, intermediate-sized trees, dominant trees and average), with the best model performance achieved at the dominant tree layer. The mid to thermal infrared spectral bands (3.0-12.5 μm) from MASTER were found to augment Landsat's visible to shortwave infrared bands in burn severity assessment. We also found that infested and uninfested forests similarly experienced moderate to high degrees of burns where CBI (composite burn index) values were higher than 1. However, differences occurred in the regions with low burn severity (CBI values lower than 1), where uninfested stands revealed a much lower burn effect than that in infested stands, possibly due to their higher resilience to small fire disturbances as a result of higher leaf water content.

  3. Vegetation burn severity mapping using Landsat-8 and WorldView-2

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wu, Zhuoting; Middleton, Barry R.; Hetzler, Robert; Vogel, John M.; Dye, Dennis G.

    2015-01-01

    We used remotely sensed data from the Landsat-8 and WorldView-2 satellites to estimate vegetation burn severity of the Creek Fire on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, where wildfire occurrences affect the Tribe's crucial livestock and logging industries. Accurate pre- and post-fire canopy maps at high (0.5-meter) resolution were created from World- View-2 data to generate canopy loss maps, and multiple indices from pre- and post-fire Landsat-8 images were used to evaluate vegetation burn severity. Normalized difference vegetation index based vegetation burn severity map had the highest correlation coefficients with canopy loss map from WorldView-2. Two distinct approaches - canopy loss mapping from WorldView-2 and spectral index differencing from Landsat-8 - agreed well with the field-based burn severity estimates and are both effective for vegetation burn severity mapping. Canopy loss maps created with WorldView-2 imagery add to a short list of accurate vegetation burn severity mapping techniques that can help guide effective management of forest resources on the San Carlos Apache Reservation, and the broader fire-prone regions of the Southwest.

  4. Burn severity estimation using GeoEye imagery, object-based image analysis (OBIA), and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragozi, E.; Gitas, Ioannis Z.; Stavrakoudis, Dimitris G.; Minakou, C.

    2015-06-01

    Forest fires greatly influence the stability and functions of the forest ecosystems. The ever increasing need for accurate and detailed information regarding post-fire effects (burn severity) has led to several studies on the matter. In this study the combined use of Very High Resolution (VHR) satellite data (GeoEye), Objectbased image analysis (OBIA) and Composite Burn Index (CBI) measurements in estimating burn severity, at two different time points (2011 and 2012) is assessed. The accuracy of the produced maps was assessed and changes in burn severity between the two dates were detected using the post classification comparison approach. It was found that the produced burn severity map for 2011 was approximately 10% more accurate than that of 2012. This was mainly attributed to the increased heterogeneity of the study area in the second year, which led to an increased number of mixed class objects and consequently made it more difficult to spectrally discriminate between the severity classes. Following the post-classification analysis, the severity class changes were mainly attributed to the trees' ability to survive severe fire damage and sprout new leaves. Moreover, the results of the study suggest that when classifying CBI-based burn severity using VHR imagery it would be preferable to use images captured soon after the fire.

  5. Factors affecting plant diversity during post-fire recovery and succession of mediterranean-climate shrublands in California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Baer-Keeley, M.

    2005-01-01

    Plant community diversity, measured as species richness, is typically highest in the early post-fire years in California shrublands. However, this generalization is overly simplistic and the present study demonstrates that diversity is determined by a complex of temporal and spatial effects. Ninety sites distributed across southern California were studied for 5 years after a series of fires. Characteristics of the disturbance event, in this case fire severity, can alter post-fire diversity, both decreasing and increasing diversity, depending on life form. Spatial variability in resource availability is an important factor explaining patterns of diversity, and there is a complex interaction between landscape features and life form. Temporal variability in resource availability affects diversity, and the diversity peak in the immediate post-fire year (or two) appears to be driven by factors different from subsequent diversity peaks. Early post-fire diversity is influenced by life-history specialization, illustrated by species that spend the bulk of their life cycle as a dormant seed bank, which is then triggered to germinate by fire. Resource fluctuations, precipitation in particular, may be associated with subsequent post-fire diversity peaks. These later peaks in diversity comprise a flora that is compositionally different from the immediate post-fire flora, and their presence may be due to mass effects from population expansion of local populations in adjacent burned areas. ?? 2005 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  6. Avian community responses to post-fire forest structure: Implications for fire management in mixed conifer forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    White, Angela M.; Manley, Patricia N.; Tarbill, Gina; Richardson, T.L.; Russell, Robin E.; Safford, Hugh D.; Dobrowski, Solomon Z.

    2015-01-01

    Fire is a natural process and the dominant disturbance shaping plant and animal communities in many coniferous forests of the western US. Given that fire size and severity are predicted to increase in the future, it has become increasingly important to understand how wildlife responds to fire and post-fire management. The Angora Fire burned 1243 hectares of mixed conifer forest in South Lake Tahoe, California. We conducted avian point counts for the first 3 years following the fire in burned and unburned areas to investigate which habitat characteristics are most important for re-establishing or maintaining the native avian community in post-fire landscapes. We used a multi-species occurrence model to estimate how avian species are influenced by the density of live and dead trees and shrub cover. While accounting for variations in the detectability of species, our approach estimated the occurrence probabilities of all species detected including those that were rare or observed infrequently. Although all species encountered in this study were detected in burned areas, species-specific modeling results predicted that some species were strongly associated with specific post-fire conditions, such as a high density of dead trees, open-canopy conditions or high levels of shrub cover that occur at particular burn severities or at a particular time following fire. These results indicate that prescribed fire or managed wildfire which burns at low to moderate severity without at least some high-severity effects is both unlikely to result in the species assemblages that are unique to post-fire areas or to provide habitat for burn specialists. Additionally, the probability of occurrence for many species was associated with high levels of standing dead trees indicating that intensive post-fire harvest of these structures could negatively impact habitat of a considerable proportion of the avian community.

  7. Exploring wildfire impact on post-fire runoff water quality: field and laboratory investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, L.; Acharya, K.; Miller, J.; Berli, M.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have complex effects on physical and chemical properties of soil and post-fire runoff. Water quality issues in the post-fire runoff may have caused catastrophic events in aquatic ecosystem in the Virgin River in Southwestern U.S. To examined the mechanisms of the impact of wildfire on post-fire runoff water quality, field sampling and experiments were conducted on surfaces of various fuel types at a burned site in the Virgin River Watershed. Rainfall simulation tests were performed to generate runoff for water quality test including in-situ DO and pH measurement and laboratory tests on a number of water quality constituents. Soil/ash samples collected from burned surfaces were applied in a laboratory test to produce solutions of different concentrations and DO changes over a 24-hour period were measured. Results confirmed that, for runoff carrying large amounts of sediment or debris, DO values can be substantially reduced to a level close to or lower than 5 mg/L. Fire effects may enhance this trend, but is not necessarily a critical reason for the reduction of DO levels. Laboratory runoff and soil sample analysis show that the post-fire runoff in this watershed may contain a large amount of ammonia (NH3 and NH4+). The concentration of ammonia can be higher than the lethal level to many (if not all) fish species. Fire effects appear to have a significant impact on the ammonia level, which lead to an increase of several times to one order of magnitude in the ammonia concentration in the runoff or soil solution under burned conditions. These results provide information to better understand post-fire water quality in this and similar watersheds.

  8. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: An Online Database to Support Post-fire Erosion Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. E.; Russel, A. M.; Billmire, M.; Endsley, K.; Elliot, W. E.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Renschler, C. S.

    2013-12-01

    Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess risks posed by post-fire runoff and erosion due to fire-induced changes in soil properties and the loss of surface cover. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate risks to downstream areas due to flooding, erosion, and sedimentation are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. One of the first and most important priorities of a BAER team is the development of a burn severity map that reflects the fire-induced changes in both vegetative cover and soils. Currently these maps are known as BARC (Burned Area Reflectance Classification) maps and they are generated from multi-spectral remote sensing data. BAER teams also have access to many erosion modeling tools and datasets, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and they require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models (DEM), soils, and land cover. We are working to make spatially-explicit modeling easier by preparing large-scale spatial data sets that can be rapidly combined with burn severity maps and then used to quickly run more accurate, process-based models for spatially explicit predictions of post-fire erosion and runoff. A prototype database consisting of 30-m DEM, soil, land cover, and Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) maps for Colorado has been created for use in GeoWEPP (Geo-spatial interface for the Water Erosion Prediction Project) with Disturbed WEPP parameters developed for post-fire conditions. Additional soil data layers have been gathered to support a spatial empirical debris flow model that also utilizes BARC maps. Future plans include developing the dataset to support other models commonly used by BAER teams. The importance of preparing spatial data ahead of time can be illustrated with two

  9. Avifaunal responses to fire in southwestern montane forests along a burn severity gradient

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, N.B.; Kennedy, P.L.; Ferree, K.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of burn severity on avian communities are poorly understood, yet this information is crucial to fire management programs. To quantify avian response patterns along a burn severity gradient, we sampled 49 random plots (2001-2002) at the 17 351-ha Cerro Grande Fire (2000) in New Mexico, USA. Additionally, pre-fire avian surveys (1986-1988, 1990) created a unique opportunity to quantify avifaunal changes in 13 pre-fire transects (resampled in 2002) and to compare two designs for analyzing the effects of unplanned disturbances: after-only analysis and before-after comparisons. Distance analysis was used to calculate densities. We analyzed after-only densities for 21 species using gradient analysis, which detected a broad range of responses to increasing burn severity: (I) large significant declines, (II) weak, but significant declines, (III) no significant density changes, (IV) peak densities in low- or moderate-severity patches, (V) weak, but significant increases, and (VI) large significant increases. Overall, 71% of the species included in the after-only gradient analysis exhibited either positive or neutral density responses to fire effects across all or portions of the severity gradient (responses III-VI). We used pre/post pairs analysis to quantify density changes for 15 species using before-after comparisons; spatiotemporal variation in densities was large and confounded fire effects for most species. Only four species demonstrated significant effects of burn severity, and their densities were all higher in burned compared to unburned forests. Pre- and post-fire community similarity was high except in high-severity areas. Species richness was similar pre- and post-fire across all burn severities. Thus, ecosystem restoration programs based on the assumption that recent severe fires in Southwestern ponderosa pine forests have overriding negative ecological effects are not supported by our study of post-fire avian communities. This study illustrates the

  10. Rapid response tools and datasets for post-fire modeling: linking Earth Observations and process-based hydrological models to support post-fire remediation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, M. E.; Billmire, M.; Elliot, W. J.; Endsley, K. A.; Robichaud, P. R.

    2015-04-01

    Preparation is key to utilizing Earth Observations and process-based models to support post-wildfire mitigation. Post-fire flooding and erosion can pose a serious threat to life, property and municipal water supplies. Increased runoff and sediment delivery due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties are of great concern. Remediation plans and treatments must be developed and implemented before the first major storms in order to be effective. One of the primary sources of information for making remediation decisions is a soil burn severity map derived from Earth Observation data (typically Landsat) that reflects fire induced changes in vegetation and soil properties. Slope, soils, land cover and climate are also important parameters that need to be considered. Spatially-explicit process-based models can account for these parameters, but they are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are difficult to set up and require spatially-explicit inputs (digital elevation models, soils, and land cover). Our goal is to make process-based models more accessible by preparing spatial inputs before a fire, so that datasets can be rapidly combined with soil burn severity maps and formatted for model use. We are building an online database (http://geodjango.mtri.org/geowepp /) for the continental United States that will allow users to upload soil burn severity maps. The soil burn severity map is combined with land cover and soil datasets to generate the spatial model inputs needed for hydrological modeling of burn scars. Datasets will be created to support hydrological models, post-fire debris flow models and a dry ravel model. Our overall vision for this project is that advanced GIS surface erosion and mass failure prediction tools will be readily available for post-fire analysis using spatial information from a single online site.

  11. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2015-09-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the Composite Burn Index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a Generalised Linear Mixed Model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire fuel structure. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  12. Vegetation structure and fire weather influence variation in burn severity and fuel consumption during peatland wildfires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davies, G. M.; Domènech, R.; Gray, A.; Johnson, P. C. D.

    2016-01-01

    Temperate peatland wildfires are of significant environmental concern but information on their environmental effects is lacking. We assessed variation in burn severity and fuel consumption within and between wildfires that burnt British moorlands in 2011 and 2012. We adapted the composite burn index (pCBI) to provide semi-quantitative estimates of burn severity. Pre- and post-fire surface (shrubs and graminoids) and ground (litter, moss, duff) fuel loads associated with large wildfires were assessed using destructive sampling and analysed using a generalised linear mixed model (GLMM). Consumption during wildfires was compared with published estimates of consumption during prescribed burns. Burn severity and fuel consumption were related to fire weather, assessed using the Canadian Fire Weather Index System (FWI System), and pre-fire vegetation type. pCBI varied 1.6 fold between, and up to 1.7 fold within, wildfires. pCBI was higher where moisture codes of the FWI System indicated drier fuels. Spatial variation in pre- and post-fire fuel load accounted for a substantial proportion of the variance in fuel loads. Average surface fuel consumption was a linear function of pre-fire fuel load. Average ground fuel combustion completeness could be predicted by the Buildup Index. Carbon release ranged between 0.36 and 1.00 kg C m-2. The flammability of ground fuel layers may explain the higher C release-rates seen for wildfires in comparison to prescribed burns. Drier moorland community types appear to be at greater risk of severe burns than blanket-bog communities.

  13. Using Aerial Hydromulch in Post-fire Chaparral in Southern California: Effectiveness and Consequences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlgemuth, P. M.; Beyers, J. L.; Robichaud, P. R.

    2012-12-01

    High severity wildfire can make landscapes susceptible to accelerated erosion that may retard resource recovery. High levels of erosion can also threaten life, property, and infrastructure in downstream human communities. Land managers often use mitigation measures on the burned hillside slopes to control post-fire sediment fluxes both as the first step in post-fire restoration and to protect off-site human developments. Aerial hydromulch, a slurry of paper or wood fiber with tackifiers and other amendments that dries to a permeable crust, is a relatively new erosion control treatment that has not been rigorously field-tested in wildland settings. Concerns have been raised over the ability of aerial hydromulch to reduce hillslope erosion as well as its potential for negative effects on post-fire ecosystem recovery. Since 2007 we have measured sediment fluxes and vegetation development on plots treated operationally with aerial hydromulch and compared them to untreated controls after three separate wildfires in southern California. These study plots, located on steep slopes with coarse upland soils previously covered with dense mixed chaparral vegetation, were monitored with silt fences to trap eroded sediment. Meter-square quadrats were used to measure ground and vegetation cover. Although dependent on rainfall and site characteristics, surface erosion on untreated plots generally attenuated sharply with years since burning. We found that aerial hydromulch did reduce bare ground on the treated plots and that this cover persisted through the first post-fire winter rainy season. For the initial year after a fire, aerial hydromulch reduced hillslope erosion from small and medium rainstorms, but not during an extremely high intensity rainfall event. Hydromulch had no effect on regrowing plant cover, shrub seedling density, or species richness. Thus, in chaparral ecosystems aerial hydromulch appears to be an effective post-fire erosion control measure that is

  14. Determining relative contributions of vegetation and topography to burn severity from LANDSAT imagery.

    PubMed

    Wu, Zhiwei; He, Hong S; Liang, Yu; Cai, Longyan; Lewis, Bernard J

    2013-10-01

    Fire is a dominant process in boreal forest landscapes and creates a spatial patch mosaic with different burn severities and age classes. Quantifying effects of vegetation and topography on burn severity provides a scientific basis on which forest fire management plans are developed to reduce catastrophic fires. However, the relative contribution of vegetation and topography to burn severity is highly debated especially under extreme weather conditions. In this study, we hypothesized that relationships of vegetation and topography to burn severity vary with fire size. We examined this hypothesis in a boreal forest landscape of northeastern China by computing the burn severity of 24 fire patches as the difference between the pre- and post-fire Normalized Difference Vegetation Index obtained from two Landsat TM images. The vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were evaluated at three fire-size levels of small (<100 ha, n = 12), moderate (100-1,000 ha, n = 9), and large (>1,000 ha, n = 3). Our results showed that vegetation and topography to burn severity relationships were fire-size-dependent. The burn severity of small fires was primary controlled by vegetation conditions (e.g., understory cover), and the burn severity of large fires was strongly influenced by topographic conditions (e.g., elevation). For moderate fires, the relationships were complex and indistinguishable. Our results also indicated that the pattern trends of relative importance for both vegetation and topography factors were not dependent on fire size. Our study can help managers to design fire management plans according to vegetation characteristics that are found important in controlling burn severity and prioritize management locations based on the relative importance of vegetation and topography.

  15. Effects of fire and post-fire salvage logging on avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, N.B.; Hejl, S.J.; Hutto, R.L.; Saab, V.A.; Melcher, C.P.; McFadzen, M.E.

    2002-01-01

    Historically, fire was one of the most widespread natural disturbances in the western United States. More recently, however, significant anthropogenic activities, especially fire suppression and silvicultural practices, have altered fire regimes; as a result, landscapes and associated communities have changed as well. Herein, we review current knowledge of how fire and post-fire salvaging practices affect avian communities in conifer-dominated forests of the western United States. Specifically, we contrast avian communities in (1) burned vs. unburned forest, and (2) unsalvaged vs. salvage-logged burns. We also examine how variation in burn characteristics (e.g., severity, age, size) and salvage logging can alter avian communities in burns. Of the 41 avian species observed in three or more studies comparing early post-fire and adjacent unburned forests, 22% are consistently more abundant in burned forests, 34% are usually more abundant in unburned forests, and 44% are equally abundant in burned and unburned forests or have varied responses. In general, woodpeckers and aerial foragers are more abundant in burned forest, whereas most foliage-gleaning species are more abundant in unburned forests. Bird species that are frequently observed in stand-replacement burns are less common in understory burns; similarly, species commonly observed in unburned forests often decrease in abundance with increasing burn severity. Granivores and species common in open-canopy forests exhibit less consistency among studies. For all species, responses to fire may be influenced by a number of factors including burn severity, fire size and shape, proximity to unburned forests, pre- and post-fire cover types, and time since fire. In addition, post-fire management can alter species' responses to burns. Most cavity-nesting species do not use severely salvaged burns, whereas some cavity-nesters persist in partially salvaged burns. Early post-fire specialists, in particular, appear to prefer

  16. Mapping burn severity, pine beetle infestation, and their interaction at the High Park Fire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Brandon

    North America's western forests are experiencing wildfire and mountain pine beetle (MPB) disturbances that are unprecedented in the historic record, but it remains unclear whether and how MPB infestation influences post-infestation fire behavior. The 2012 High Park Fire burned in an area that's estimated to have begun a MPB outbreak cycle within five years before the wildfire, resulting in a landscape in which disturbance interactions can be studied. A first step in studying these interactions is mapping regions of beetle infestation and post-fire disturbance. We implemented an approach for mapping beetle infestation and burn severity using as source data three 5 m resolution RapidEye satellite images (two pre-fire, one post-fire). A two-tiered methodology was developed to overcome the spatial limitations of many classification approaches through explicit analyses at both pixel and plot level. Major land cover classes were photo-interpreted at the plot-level and their spectral signature used to classify 5 m images. A new image was generated at 25 m resolution by tabulating the fraction of coincident 5 m pixels in each cover class. The original photo interpretation was then used to train a second classification using as its source image the new 25 m image. Maps were validated using k-fold analysis of the original photo interpretation, field data collected immediately post-fire, and publicly available classifications. To investigate the influence of pre-fire beetle infestation on burn severity within the High Park Fire, we fit a log-linear model of conditional independence to our thematic maps after controlling for forest cover class and slope aspect. Our analysis revealed a high co-occurrence of severe burning and beetle infestation within high elevation lodgepole pine stands, but did not find statistically significant evidence that infected stands were more likely to burn severely than similar uninfected stands. Through an inspection of the year-to-year changes in

  17. Post-fire Wind Erosion in a Semiarid Shrub Steppe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glenn, N.; Sankey, J.; Germino, M.

    2007-12-01

    The objective of this project is to determine and describe the effects of fire on the potential for soil erosion by wind in a semiarid shrub steppe in southeastern Idaho. We apply a previously developed method for determining the threshold wind speed (critical threshold) required to initiate saltation of soil particles at several sampling locations within wildfires that burned in summers 2006 and 2007. Sampling locations have data collection stations with anemometers, a piezoelectric sensor mounted at 5 cm above the ground surface that records impacts from saltating soil particles, temperature and relative humidity sensors mounted at ground level, soil moisture sensors, and soil erosion bridges. Analysis is intended to identify key controlling variables of post- wildfire eolian transport with the intention of continued monitoring over longer time periods with the incorporation of LiDAR data for surface characterization. Initial field results indicate substantial differences in wind erosion potential between burned and unburned sites. Saltation activity is greater and more frequently detected at the burned sites in comparison to the unburned sites. Comparison between the burned sites indicates periods of similar saltation activity and threshold wind speeds. Comparison also shows periods when saltation is detected at one burned site but not the other, and periods when greater wind speeds are required at one burned site to initiate saltation. This suggests that within-burn variability exists in wind erosion potential and requires more complete characterization to accurately model and predict post-fire eolian transport. In parallel to the field-based research, we are developing remote sensing techniques to characterize the soil surface and vegetation communities at a scale appropriate for wind erosion modeling. These techniques include hyperspectral and LiDAR analysis of the soil surface and structural information of the vegetation. Soil and vegetation surface

  18. Post-fire succession of ground vegetation of central Siberia in Scots pine forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovaleva, N.; Ivanova, G. A.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Extensive wildfires have affected the Russian region in the last decade. Scots pine forests (Pinus sylvestris L.) are widespread in central Siberia and fire occurrence is high in these forests, whose dominant fire regime is one of frequent surface fires. We studied post- fire succession of ground vegetation has been studied on nine experimental fires of varying severity (from 620 to 5220 kW/m) in middle taiga Scots pine forests of central Siberia (Russia). It proved from our study that all species of the succession process are present from initial stages. We did not find any trend of ground vegetation diversity with the time during 8 years after the fire. Our investigation showed that post- fire recovery of the ground vegetation is determined by initial forest type, fire severity and litter burning depth. Fire severity had a clear effect in initial succession in study area and it clearly had an impact on percentage cover, biomass and structure of ground vegetation. In a lesser degree the small shrubs are damaged during ground fires. The dominating species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) regained the cover values above or close to 6—8 years. The post- fire biomass of ground vegetation 93—100% consists of species (Vaccinium vitis-idaea and V. myrtillus) that survived after the fire and increased in the cover with the time. In pine forests mosses and lichens suffer to a greater degree after ground fires. Lichen layer was completely lost after the fires of any severity. Decrease of mosses species diversity takes place after ground fires. The post- fire cover and species diversity of the green mosses were progressively lower with increasing the fire severity during the observation period. Maximum changes are discovered in the post- fire structure of plant microgroups after the high- severity fire which resulted in intensive invasion by the post- fire mosses (Polytrichum strictum and P. commune). There is a positive trend of green moss microgroups recovery

  19. Post-fire vegetation dynamics in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2009-04-01

    The number of fires and the extent of the burned surface in Mediterranean Europe have increased significantly during the last three decades. This may be due either to modifications in land-use (e.g. land abandonment and fuel accumulation) or to climatic changes (e.g. reduction of fuel humidity), both factors leading to an increase of fire risk and fire spread. As in the Mediterranean ecosystems, fires in Portugal have an intricate effect on vegetation regeneration due to the complexity of landscape structures as well as to the different responses of vegetation to the variety of fire regimes. A thorough evaluation of vegetation recovery after fire events becomes therefore crucial in land management. In the above mentioned context remote sensing plays an important role because of its ability to monitor and characterise post-fire vegetation dynamics. A number of fire recovery studies, based on remote sensing, have been conducted in regions characterised by Mediterranean climates and the use of NDVI to monitor plant regeneration after fire events was successfully tested (Díaz-Delgado et al., 1998). In particular, several studies have shown that rapid regeneration occurs within the first 2 years after the fire occurrences, with distinct recovery rates according to the geographical facing of the slopes (Pausas and Vallejo, 1999). In 2003 Portugal was hit by the most devastating sequence of large fires, responsible by a total burnt area of 450 000 ha (including 280 000 ha of forest), representing about 5% of the Portuguese mainland (Trigo et al., 2006). The aim of the present work is to assess and monitor the vegetation behaviour over Portugal following the 2003 fire episodes. For this purpose we have used the regional fields of the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2008. We developed a methodology to identify large burnt scars in Portugal for the 2003 fire season. The vegetation dynamics was then

  20. Using high spatial resolution satellite imagery to map forest burn severity across spatial scales in a Pine Barrens ecosystem

    DOE PAGES

    Meng, Ran; Wu, Jin; Schwager, Kathy L.; ...

    2017-01-21

    As a primary disturbance agent, fire significantly influences local processes and services of forest ecosystems. Although a variety of remote sensing based approaches have been developed and applied to Landsat mission imagery to infer burn severity at 30 m spatial resolution, forest burn severity have still been seldom assessed at fine spatial scales (≤ 5 m) from very-high-resolution (VHR) data. Here we assessed a 432 ha forest fire that occurred in April 2012 on Long Island, New York, within the Pine Barrens region, a unique but imperiled fire-dependent ecosystem in the northeastern United States. The mapping of forest burn severitymore » was explored here at fine spatial scales, for the first time using remotely sensed spectral indices and a set of Multiple Endmember Spectral Mixture Analysis (MESMA) fraction images from bi-temporal — pre- and post-fire event — WorldView-2 (WV-2) imagery at 2 m spatial resolution. We first evaluated our approach using 1 m by 1 m validation points at the sub-crown scale per severity class (i.e. unburned, low, moderate, and high severity) from the post-fire 0.10 m color aerial ortho-photos; then, we validated the burn severity mapping of geo-referenced dominant tree crowns (crown scale) and 15 m by 15 m fixed-area plots (inter-crown scale) with the post-fire 0.10 m aerial ortho-photos and measured crown information of twenty forest inventory plots. Our approach can accurately assess forest burn severity at the sub-crown (overall accuracy is 84% with a Kappa value of 0.77), crown (overall accuracy is 82% with a Kappa value of 0.76), and inter-crown scales (89% of the variation in estimated burn severity ratings (i.e. Geo-Composite Burn Index (CBI)). Lastly, this work highlights that forest burn severity mapping from VHR data can capture heterogeneous fire patterns at fine spatial scales over the large spatial extents. This is important since most ecological processes associated with fire effects vary at the < 30 m scale and

  1. Establishment of non-native plant species after wildfires: Effects of fuel treatments, abiotic and biotic factors, and post-fire grass seeding treatments

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hunter, M.E.; Omi, Philip N.; Martinson, E.J.; Chong, G.W.

    2006-01-01

    Establishment and spread of non-native species following wildfires can pose threats to long-term native plant recovery. Factors such as disturbance severity, resource availability, and propagule pressure may influence where non-native species establish in burned areas. In addition, pre- and post-fire management activities may influence the likelihood of non-native species establishment. In the present study we examine the establishment of non-native species after wildfires in relation to native species richness, fire severity, dominant native plant cover, resource availability, and pre- and post-fire management actions (fuel treatments and post-fire rehabilitation treatments). We used an information-theoretic approach to compare alternative hypotheses. We analysed post-fire effects at multiple scales at three wildfires in Colorado and New Mexico. For large and small spatial scales at all fires, fire severity was the most consistent predictor of non-native species cover. Non-native species cover was also correlated with high native species richness, low native dominant species cover, and high seeded grass cover. There was a positive, but non-significant, association of non-native species with fuel-treated areas at one wildfire. While there may be some potential for fuels treatments to promote non-native species establishment, wildfire and post-fire seeding treatments seem to have a larger impact on non-native species. ?? IAWF 2006.

  2. Post-fire environments are favourable for plant functioning of seeder and resprouter Mediterranean shrubs, even under drought.

    PubMed

    Parra, Antonio; Moreno, José M

    2017-02-27

    Understanding how drought affects seeder and resprouter plants during post-fire regeneration is important for the anticipation of Mediterranean vegetation vulnerability in a context of increasing drought and fire caused by climate change. A Mediterranean shrubland was subjected to various drought treatments (including 45% rainfall reduction, 7 months drought yr(-1) ), before and after experimental burning, by means of a rainout-shelter system with an irrigation facility. Predawn shoot water potential (Ψpd ), relative growth rate (RGR), specific leaf area (SLA) and bulk leaf carbon isotopic composition (δ(13) C) were monitored in the main woody species during the first 3 yr after fire. Cistus ladanifer seedlings showed higher Ψpd , RGR and SLA, and lower δ(13) C, than unburned plants during the first two post-fire years. Seedlings under drought maintained relatively high Ψpd , but suffered a decrease in Ψpd and RGR, and an increase in δ(13) C, relative to control treatments. Erica arborea, E. scoparia and Phillyrea angustifolia resprouts had higher Ψpd and RGR than unburned plants during the first post-fire year. Resprouters were largely unaffected by drought. Overall, despite marked differences between the two functional groups, post-fire environments were favourable for plant functioning of both seeder and resprouter shrubs, even under the most severe drought conditions implemented.

  3. The Hand Burn Severity (HABS) score: A simple tool for stratifying severity of hand burns.

    PubMed

    Bache, Sarah E; Fitzgerald O'Connor, Edmund; Theodorakopoulou, Evgenia; Frew, Quentin; Philp, Bruce; Dziewulski, Peter

    2017-02-01

    Hand burns represent a unique challenge to the burns team due to the intricate structure and unrivalled functional importance of the hand. The initial assessment and prognosis relies on consideration of the specific site involved as well as depth of the burn. We created a simple severity score that could be used by referring non-specialists and researchers alike. The Hand Burn Severity (HABS) score stratifies hand burns according to severity with a numerical value of between 0 (no burn) and 18 (most severe) per hand. Three independent assessors scored the photographs of 121 burned hands of 106 adult and paediatric patients, demonstrating excellent inter-rater reliability (r=0.91, p<0.0001 on testing with Lin's correlation coefficient). A significant relationship was shown between the HABS score and a reliable binary outcome of the requirement for surgical excision on Mann-Whitney U testing (U=152; Z=9.8; p=0.0001). A receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analysis found a cut off score of 5.5, indicating that those with a HABS score below 6 did not require an operation, whereas those with a score above 6 did. The HABS score was shown to be more sensitive and specific that assessment of burn depth alone. The HABS score is a simple to use tool to stratify severity at initial presentation of hand burns which will be useful when referring, and when reporting outcomes.

  4. Post-fire recolonization of dominant epiphytic lichen species on Quercus hypoleucoides (Fagaceae).

    PubMed

    Romagni, J G; Gries, C

    2000-12-01

    Following a forest fire (27 500 ha) in 1994, post-fire recolonization of Quercus hypoeleucoides by epiphytic lichens was documented as changes in lichen cover, number of small thalli, specific factors that affected reestablishment of lichens, and modes of dispersal. Three sites in the Chiricahua Mountains (Arizona, USA) were chosen according to the severity of fire damage-unburned, moderately burned, and severely burned. From 1994 through 1997, the amount of dead lichen cover significantly increased at the moderately burned site. For the same time period, the amount of live lichen cover significantly increased at the severely burned site. Numbers of new thalli increased significantly at the severely burned site each year but only in the last year (1996-1997) for the moderately burned site. Bark texture and proximity to trees with lichens were among the most important physical factors for recolonization. The most important means of dispersal for Flavopunctelia praesignis was fragmentation. For Punctelia hypoleucites, the primary means of dispersal was spores. Increases in live lichen cover and numbers of new thalli occur faster in severely burned areas probably due to the loss of lichens on tree trunks, which provides space and a lack of competition.

  5. Optimizing burn severity assessments in Alaskan tussock tundra from optical imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Loboda, T. V.; Jenkins, L. K.; French, N. H.; Bourgeau-Chavez, L. L.

    2013-12-01

    relationships with CBI compared to BSI (exceeding R2 of 0.8 in 10 and 4 instances for CBI and BSI, respectively) for single-date assessments. Similarly, for multi-date differenced assessments, the R2 between CBI and various Landsat-based indices exceeded 0.8 in 76 instances compared to only 20 instances for BSI. However, there are considerable differences between the timing of image acquisition post fire when the relationships between satellite observations and CBI or BSI are the closest as well and indices which field assessments of burn severity appear to be best correlated with. CBI produces closest relationships with near infrared, short-wave infrared at 1.5μm, relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio, and Tasseled Cap Greenness indices when the post-fire image is acquired immediately after the fire event irrespective of the pre-burn date selection. In contrast, the relationship between BSI and spectral indices peaks when pre- and post-burn indices are computed from images preceding the full green-up conditions (i.e. late May imagery), with Tasseled Cap Brightness showing the closest relationship. Although on average CBI outperforms BSI, BSI produces closer relationships to spectral indices than CBI indicating that the two field assessments provide complimentary information which can be related to biophysical properties of impacted surface.

  6. Mapping wildfire burn severity in the Arctic Tundra from downsampled MODIS data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kolden, Crystal A.; Rogan, John

    2013-01-01

    Wildfires are historically infrequent in the arctic tundra, but are projected to increase with climate warming. Fire effects on tundra ecosystems are poorly understood and difficult to quantify in a remote region where a short growing season severely limits ground data collection. Remote sensing has been widely utilized to characterize wildfire regimes, but primarily from the Landsat sensor, which has limited data acquisition in the Arctic. Here, coarse-resolution remotely sensed data are assessed as a means to quantify wildfire burn severity of the 2007 Anaktuvuk River Fire in Alaska, the largest tundra wildfire ever recorded on Alaska's North Slope. Data from Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and downsampled Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) were processed to spectral indices and correlated to observed metrics of surface, subsurface, and comprehensive burn severity. Spectral indices were strongly correlated to surface severity (maximum R2 = 0.88) and slightly less strongly correlated to substrate severity. Downsampled MODIS data showed a decrease in severity one year post-fire, corroborating rapid vegetation regeneration observed on the burned site. These results indicate that widely-used spectral indices and downsampled coarse-resolution data provide a reasonable supplement to often-limited ground data collection for analysis and long-term monitoring of wildfire effects in arctic ecosystems.

  7. Are Springs Important in the Post-fire Revegetation of Semiarid, Snow-dominated, Mountainous Watersheds?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsinnajinnie, L.; Frisbee, M. D.; Wilson, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Semiarid, mountainous watersheds are particularly susceptible to wildfires due to their dense forests and dry conditions. These watersheds are critically important sources of water and habitat for human and ecological communities in an otherwise water-scarce environment. Forest fires severely impact these watersheds through loss of vegetation, increases in erosion, decreases in water quality, and decreases in recharge. In addition, soil hydrophobicity, overland runoff, and erosion in post-fire watersheds create conditions where it is difficult for burned areas to re-vegetate within the months following a wildfire. What role do perennial springs play in post-fire re-vegetation? We hypothesize that revegetation originates around perennial springs since the springs and spring-runs are continual sources of water where new seeds can sprout and where burned vegetation can recover. We test this hypothesis in a snow-dominated, semiarid, mountainous watershed in the Chuska Mountains, located on the Navajo Nation in New Mexico and Arizona, following a wildfire that occurred in June 2014. NDVI was estimated in the watershed before and after the June 2014 fire using remotely sensed data. Photographs from digital trail cameras were used to capture the growth of vegetation/absence of growth on burned slopes with/without springs following the fire. The remote sensing data and trail camera photos indicate that revegetation is concentrated around springs. Springs act as "fountains" for regrowth of vegetation in the watershed following wildfires since they are dependable sources of clean water in a post-fire landscape commonly characterized by decreased infiltration and decreased water quality. An improved understanding of the role of springs in post-wildfire revegetation may enhance and prioritize watershed restoration and protection practices following a wildfire.

  8. Analyzing Hydro-Geomorphic Responses in Post-Fire Stream Channels with Terrestrial LiDAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nourbakhshbeidokhti, S.; Kinoshita, A. M.; Chin, A.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfires have potential to significantly alter soil properties and vegetation within watersheds. These alterations often contribute to accelerated erosion, runoff, and sediment transport in stream channels and hillslopes. This research applies repeated Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS) Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) to stream reaches within the Pike National Forest in Colorado following the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire. These scans allow investigation of the relationship between sediment delivery and environmental characteristics such as precipitation, soil burn severity, and vegetation. Post-fire LiDAR images provide high resolution information of stream channel changes in eight reaches for three years (2012-2014). All images are processed with RiSCAN PRO to remove vegetation and triangulated and smoothed to create a Digital Elevation Model (DEM) with 0.1 m resolution. Study reaches with two or more successive DEM images are compared using a differencing method to estimate the volume of sediment erosion and deposition. Preliminary analysis of four channel reaches within Williams Canyon and Camp Creek yielded erosion estimates between 0.035 and 0.618 m3 per unit area. Deposition was estimated as 0.365 to 1.67 m3 per unit area. Reaches that experienced higher soil burn severity or larger rainfall events produced the greatest geomorphic changes. Results from LiDAR analyses can be incorporated into post-fire hydrologic models to improve estimates of runoff and sediment yield. These models will, in turn, provide guidance for water resources management and downstream hazards mitigation.

  9. Predicting Post-fire Flooding and Sediment Delivery at the Watershed Scale: An Urgent Need for Upscaling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lee; Wagenbrenner, Joe; Nelson, Peter; Brogan, Dan

    2013-04-01

    Over the past 10-15 years tremendous advances have been made in understanding the effects of fires on runoff and erosion processes, the effectiveness of various post-fire rehabilitation treatments, and the prediction of these changes. The problem is that nearly all of this work has been done at the plot and hillslope scale, while it is the larger-scale issues of flooding, water quality, and sedimentation that are of primary concern to resource managers and the public. In most cases these larger-scale changes are predicted either by simple lumped models, such as the curve number technique, or by summing up the hillslope-scale responses. These approaches can greatly overestimate the downstream effects because they do not account for the spatial variability of rainfall or the complexities of routing and storage. While post-fire stormflows may be efficiently routed downstream, our observations from fires across the western US indicate very large differences in the amount of sediment delivered to downstream areas. As one example, a large storm after the 2012 High Park fire near Fort Collins generated huge amounts of sediment, but relatively little of this was delivered to the Cache la Poudre River; in the case of the 2002 Hayman fire near Denver even moderate-sized storms delivered enough sand and fine gravel to temporarily dam up the South Platte River and over time around 750,000 m3 of sediment was deposited into Strontia Springs Reservoir. In this paper we hypothesize that relatively simple set of tools can greatly improve our ability to predict post-fire runoff and sediment delivery at the watershed scale (5-100 km2). In areas dominated by convective storms post-fire flood risks should be modified according to the size of those storms relative to the upslope contributing area and extent of high or moderate burn severity. The potential delivery of post-fire sediment can be improved by combining the predicted flood risk with empirical adjustments based on valley

  10. Landscape variation in tree regeneration and snag fall drive fuel loads in 24-year old post-fire lodgepole pine forests.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Kellen N; Turner, Monica G; Romme, William H; Tinker, Daniel B

    2016-12-01

    Escalating wildfire in subalpine forests with stand-replacing fire regimes is increasing the extent of early-seral forests throughout the western USA. Post-fire succession generates the fuel for future fires, but little is known about fuel loads and their variability in young post-fire stands. We sampled fuel profiles in 24-year-old post-fire lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) stands (n = 82) that regenerated from the 1988 Yellowstone Fires to answer three questions. (1) How do canopy and surface fuel loads vary within and among young lodgepole pine stands? (2) How do canopy and surface fuels vary with pre- and post-fire lodgepole pine stand structure and environmental conditions? (3) How have surface fuels changed between eight and 24 years post-fire? Fuel complexes varied tremendously across the landscape despite having regenerated from the same fires. Available canopy fuel loads and canopy bulk density averaged 8.5 Mg/ha (range 0.0-46.6) and 0.24 kg/m(3) (range: 0.0-2.3), respectively, meeting or exceeding levels in mature lodgepole pine forests. Total surface-fuel loads averaged 123 Mg/ha (range: 43-207), and 88% was in the 1,000-h fuel class. Litter, 1-h, and 10-h surface fuel loads were lower than reported for mature lodgepole pine forests, and 1,000-h fuel loads were similar or greater. Among-plot variation was greater in canopy fuels than surface fuels, and within-plot variation was greater than among-plot variation for nearly all fuels. Post-fire lodgepole pine density was the strongest positive predictor of canopy and fine surface fuel loads. Pre-fire successional stage was the best predictor of 100-h and 1,000-h fuel loads in the post-fire stands and strongly influenced the size and proportion of sound logs (greater when late successional stands had burned) and rotten logs (greater when early successional stands had burned). Our data suggest that 76% of the young post-fire lodgepole pine forests have 1,000-h fuel loads that exceed

  11. Post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal based on spot/vegetation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2010-04-01

    A procedure is presented that allows identifying large burned scars and the monitoring of vegetation recovery in the years following major fire episodes. The procedure relies on 10-day fields of Maximum Value Composites of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (MVC-NDVI), with a 1 km×1 km spatial resolution obtained from the VEGETATION instrument. The identification of fire scars during the extremely severe 2003 fire season is performed based on cluster analysis of NDVI anomalies that persist during the vegetative cycle of the year following the fire event. Two regions containing very large burned scars were selected, located in Central and Southwestern Portugal, respectively, and time series of MVC-NDVI analysed before the fire events took place and throughout the post-fire period. It is shown that post-fire vegetation dynamics in the two selected regions may be characterised based on maps of recovery rates as estimated by fitting a monoparametric model of vegetation recovery to MVC-NDVI data over each burned scar. Results indicated that the recovery process in the region located in Central Portugal is mostly related to fire damage rather than to vegetation density before 2003, whereas the latter seems to have a more prominent role than vegetation conditions after the fire episode, e.g. in the case of the region in Southwestern Portugal. These differences are consistent with the respective predominant types of vegetation. The burned area located in Central Portugal is dominated by Pinus Pinaster whose natural regeneration crucially depends on the destruction of seeds present on the soil surface during the fire, whereas the burned scar in Southwestern Portugal was populated by Eucalyptus that may quickly re-sprout from buds after fire. Besides its simplicity, the monoparametric model of vegetation recovery has the advantage of being easily adapted to other low-resolution satellite data, as well as to other types of vegetation indices.

  12. How well does the Post-fire Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) really work?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robichaud, Peter; Elliot, William; Lewis, Sarah; Miller, Mary Ellen

    2016-04-01

    The decision of where, when, and how to apply the most effective postfire erosion mitigation treatments requires land managers to assess the risk of damaging runoff and erosion events occurring after a fire. The Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) was developed to assist post fire assessment teams identify high erosion risk areas and effectiveness of various mitigation treatments to reduce that risk. ERMiT is a web-based application that uses the Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) technology to estimate erosion, in probabilistic terms, on burned and recovering forest, range, and chaparral lands with and without the application of mitigation treatments. User inputs are processed by ERMiT to combine rain event variability with spatial and temporal variabilities of hillslope burn severity and soil properties which are then used as WEPP inputs. Since 2007, the model has been used in making hundreds of land management decisions in the US and elsewhere. We use eight published field study sites in the Western US to compare ERMiT predictions to observed hillslope erosion rates. Most sites experience only a few rainfall events that produced runoff and sediment except for a California site with a Mediterranean climate. When hillslope erosion occurred, significant correlations occurred between the observed hillslope erosion and those predicted by ERMiT. Significant correlation occurred for most mitigation treatments as well as the five recovery years. These model validation results suggest reasonable estimates of probabilistic post-fire hillslope sediment delivery when compared to observation.

  13. Post-fire Sediment Production From Hillslopes in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides-Solorio, J.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2001-12-01

    Post-fire erosion and sediment yields are an important concern in the Colorado Front Range because past fires have adversely affected domestic water supplies, reservoir storage capacity, and coldwater fisheries habitat. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effects of season, fire severity, time since burning, and percent cover on erosion rates at the hillslope scale. Sediment production was monitored for 1-2 years from 48 sediment fences on six different wild and prescribed fires. Sediment production rates varied greatly between seasons, by time since burning, by fire severity, and between years. Summer rainstorms from June-September generally produced 10-50 times more sediment than snowmelt or mixed rain-and-snow events between October and May. The two oldest fires (1994 and 1998) had sediment production rates that were approximately 1-2 orders of magnitude lower than the four more recent fires. Fire severity was an important control on sediment production in the 2000 Bobcat wildfire and the November 1999 Old Flowers prescribed fire. In the case of the Bobcat fire, the high severity sites produced 50 times more sediment than the sites burned at moderate severity, and 500 times more sediment than the sites burned at low severity. There was little difference in sediment production rates between 2000 and 2001 for the Bobcat fire, while the other four more recent fires yielded very different amounts of sediment in 2000 and 2001. For two fires sediment production rates in summer 2000 were approximately seven times greater than in summer 2001, while the reverse was true for two other fires. The observed differences indicate that, at least for the first couple of years after burning, the amount and intensity of summer rainstorms can have a greater effect on sediment yields than time since burning. The decreases in sediment production with decreasing fire severity and increasing time since burning were strongly correlated with percent ground cover, as sites with

  14. ERMiT: Estimating Post-Fire Erosion in Probabilistic Terms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pierson, F. B.; Robichaud, P. R.; Elliot, W. J.; Hall, D. E.; Moffet, C. A.

    2006-12-01

    Mitigating the impact of post-wildfire runoff and erosion on life, property, and natural resources have cost the United States government tens of millions of dollars over the past decade. The decision of where, when, and how to apply the most effective mitigation treatments requires land managers to assess the risk of damaging runoff and erosion events occurring after a fire. The Erosion Risk Management Tool (ERMiT) is a web-based application that estimates erosion in probabilistic terms on burned and recovering forest, range, and chaparral lands. Unlike most erosion prediction models, ERMiT does not provide `average annual erosion rates;' rather, it provides a distribution of erosion rates with the likelihood of their occurrence. ERMiT combines rain event variability with spatial and temporal variabilities of hillslope burn severity, soil properties, and ground cover to estimate Water Erosion Prediction Project (WEPP) model input parameter values. Based on 20 to 40 individual WEPP runs, ERMiT produces a distribution of rain event erosion rates with a probability of occurrence for each of five post-fire years. Over the 5 years of modeled recovery, the occurrence probability of the less erodible soil parameters is increased and the occurrence probability of the more erodible soil parameters is decreased. In addition, the occurrence probabilities and the four spatial arrangements of burn severity (arrangements of overland flow elements (OFE's)), are shifted toward lower burn severity with each year of recovery. These yearly adjustments are based on field measurements made through post-fire recovery periods. ERMiT also provides rain event erosion rate distributions for hillslopes that have been treated with seeding, straw mulch, straw wattles and contour-felled log erosion barriers. Such output can help managers make erosion mitigation treatment decisions based on the probability of high sediment yields occurring, the value of resources at risk for damage, cost, and

  15. Assessing post-fire ground cover in Mediterranean shrublands with field spectrometry and digital photography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montorio Llovería, Raquel; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando; García-Martín, Alberto

    2016-09-01

    Fire severity can be assessed by identifying and quantifying the fractional abundance of post-fire ground cover types, an approach with great capacity to predict ecosystem response. Focused on shrubland formations of Mediterranean-type ecosystems, three burned areas (Ibieca and Zuera wildfires and Peñaflor experimental fire) were sampled in the summers of 2006 and 2007. Two different ground measurements were made for each of the 356 plots: (i) 3-band high spatial resolution photography (HSRP) and (ii) the hemispherical-conical reflectance factor (HCRF) in the visible to near-infrared spectral range (VNIR, 400-900 nm). Stepwise multiple lineal regression (SMLR) models were fitted to spectral variables (HCRF, first derivative spectra or FDS, and four absorption indices) to estimate the fractional cover of seven post-fire ground cover types (vegetation and soil - unburned and charred components - and ash - char and ash, individually and as a combined category). Models were developed and validated at the Peñaflor site (training, n = 217; validation, n = 88) and applied to the samples from the Ibieca and Zuera sites (n = 51). The best results were observed for the abundance estimations of green vegetation (Radj.20.70-0.90), unburned soil (Radj.20.40-0.75), and the combination of ashes (Radj.20.65-0.80). In comparison of spectral data, FDS outperforms reflectance or absorption data because of its higher accuracy levels and, importantly, its greater capacity to yield generalizable models. Future efforts should be made to improve the estimation of intermediate severity levels and upscaling the developed models. In the context of fire severity assessment, our study demonstrates the potential of hyperspectral data to estimate in a quick and objective manner post-fire ground cover fractions and thus provide valuable information to guide management responses.

  16. Is timing of prescribed fire critical for limiting post-fire erosion? Lessons from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shakesby, Richard A.; Ferreira, Carla S. S.; Walsh, Rory P. D.; Ferreira, António J. D.; Urbanek, Emilia; Stoof, Cathelijne R.

    2010-05-01

    The rapid increase in fire activity in parts of the Mediterranean from the 1960s onwards led to a rise in interest in the application of prescribed fire as a method of reducing fuel loads and thereby limiting the likelihood of the occurrence of severe wildfires and the size of the areas affected. The ‘windows of opportunity' for carrying out controlled burning are restricted to comparatively brief periods during the autumn through to late spring when wind direction and strength, air temperature and humidity, and fuel load moisture contents are judged to be appropriate. Given that the most erosive rainfall events are often in the autumn to early winter, delaying prescribed fire until later in the winter might be seen as having advantages in reducing post-fire erosional losses of ash, sediment and nutrients, particularly in wetter regions, as on the Atlantic fringe of the Mediterranean. Burning in late winter or spring might be expected to limit the chances of early post-fire heavy and erosive rainfall events. This would allow good vegetation recovery throughout spring and summer before the intense rainfall events likely to occur from the autumn onwards. As part of the EU-funded DESIRE project investigating ways of mitigating the detrimental effects of wildfire on land degradation, a small (9 ha), steep catchment comprising mainly scrub vegetation with encroaching pines in central Portugal was subjected to experimental fire. Although scheduled for autumn-early winter, delay of burning until February 20th 2009 proved necessary because of persistent rainfall and ground conditions too wet for burning. Sediment losses were monitored before and after the burn at the hillslope scale using a series of sediment fences. These comprise geotextile material supported against a frame made of steel bars forming a trap for sediment eroded from upslope. Knowing the contributing areas for eroded material reaching the fences enables erosion rates to be determined. Early results

  17. Factors Associated With Post-fire Sediment Yields From Hillslope Plots in the Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benavides-Solorio, J.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2003-12-01

    In recent years there has been a large increase in the number and size of wildfires in the mid-elevation zones of the Colorado Front Range. High-intensity rainstorms after these fires have increased erosion rates by several orders of magnitude and severely affected downstream aquatic resources. The objective of this study was to measure sediment production rates at the hillslope scale and determine the key controlling variables. To this end 48 sediment fences have been continuously monitored in three wildfires and three prescribed fires at elevations ranging from 1670 to 3050 m. The most intensively-studied area is the Bobcat fire, which burned 43 km2 in June 2000. Within this fire sediment production rates exceeded 10 Mg ha-1 yr-1 for areas burned at high severity. Prescribed fires produced substantially less sediment than the corresponding wildfires. Sediment production rates from sites burned at high severity were nearly 200 times higher than sites burned at moderate severity. Nearly all of the erosion occurred as a result of summer rainstorms rather than winter snowmelt. Sediment production rates per unit area were 2-3 times higher in swales or small drainages than from planar hillslopes. Data from the older fires indicate that sediment production rates remain elevated for sites burned at high severity for at least three years after burning. When the data from all fires were combined, 77% of the variability in sediment production rates could be explained by fire severity, percent bare soil, rainfall erosivity, soil water repellency, and soil texture. A simpler model using only percent cover and rainfall erosivity had a R2 of 0.62. Various models were tested against an independent data set from the Bobcat fire, and this showed that fire severity, percent bare soil, and rainfall erosivity could successfully predict post-fire erosion rates. The understanding and models developed in this project can help land managers predict the likely impacts from future

  18. Linear Modeling and Evaluation of Controls on Flow Response in Western Post-Fire Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saxe, S.; Hogue, T. S.; Hay, L.

    2015-12-01

    This research investigates the impact of wildfires on watershed flow regimes throughout the western United States, specifically focusing on evaluation of fire events within specified subregions and determination of the impact of climate and geophysical variables in post-fire flow response. Fire events were collected through federal and state-level databases and streamflow data were collected from U.S. Geological Survey stream gages. 263 watersheds were identified with at least 10 years of continuous pre-fire daily streamflow records and 5 years of continuous post-fire daily flow records. For each watershed, percent changes in runoff ratio (RO), annual seven day low-flows (7Q2) and annual seven day high-flows (7Q10) were calculated from pre- to post-fire. Numerous independent variables were identified for each watershed and fire event, including topographic, land cover, climate, burn severity, and soils data. The national watersheds were divided into five regions through K-clustering and a lasso linear regression model, applying the Leave-One-Out calibration method, was calculated for each region. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency (NSE) was used to determine the accuracy of the resulting models. The regions encompassing the United States along and west of the Rocky Mountains, excluding the coastal watersheds, produced the most accurate linear models. The Pacific coast region models produced poor and inconsistent results, indicating that the regions need to be further subdivided. Presently, RO and HF response variables appear to be more easily modeled than LF. Results of linear regression modeling showed varying importance of watershed and fire event variables, with conflicting correlation between land cover types and soil types by region. The addition of further independent variables and constriction of current variables based on correlation indicators is ongoing and should allow for more accurate linear regression modeling.

  19. Post-fire Erosion: Long-term Recovery and Effectiveness of Rehabilitation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Rough, D. T.; Schaffrath, K.

    2007-12-01

    Millions of dollars are spent each year to reduce runoff and erosion rates after high-severity wildfires, but there are relatively few data evaluating their effectiveness over longer time periods relative to natural recovery. In this study we summarize six years of hillslope erosion data from 18 untreated plots and five replicated post-fire rehabilitation treatments applied after the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover wildfires in the ponderosa pine zone in the central Colorado Front Range. The rate of recovery and effectiveness of these treatments are compared to the results from the 2000 Bobcat fire 130 km to the north (Wagenbrenner et al., 2006). On the Hayman fire straw mulching reduced hillslope-scale sediment yields by more than 90% in the first two summers after burning and by 77% in the third summer after burning. By the fourth summer the straw mulch had no significant effect on the amount of ground cover or sediment yields relative to the untreated controls. Aerial hydromulching had a similar effectiveness and longevity, but a ground-based hydromulch treatment was poorly formulated and did not significantly reduce sediment yields. Scarification and seeding did not increase the amount of surface cover or reduce sediment yields. The initial wet application of a polyacylamide appeared to reduce sediment yields, but subsequent applications did not have any significant effect. None of the treatments was effective for more than three summers after burning. The results confirm the fundamental importance of ground cover and are consistent with the mulching and seeding results from the Bobcat fire. The primary difference is the slower vegetative recovery rates for the coarser-textured soils in the Hayman and Schoonover fires, and this has caused post-fire sediment yields to remain elevated for six summers after burning as compared to a maximum of four summers for the Bobcat fire. Land managers must evaluate the duration of treatment effectiveness and post-fire erosion as

  20. Post-fire forest sustainability in north-central Portugal: Assessing the impacts of pre- and post-fire ground preparations, logging and mitigation treatments on post-fire runoff and erosion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malvar, Maruxa; Prats, Sérgio A.; Martins, Martinho A. S.; Gonzalez-Pelayo, Óscar; Keizer, Jacob J.

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires have been reported worldwide as producing strong and sometimes extreme responses in runoff and soil erosion. However, in the case of North-Central Portugal, little research had been carried out regarding the hydrologic and erosive impacts of several land management activities in recently burnt areas (such as ground preparation, post-fire logging or post-fire mitigation treatments). This is the main objective of this research. Several pre- and post-fire ground preparation operations (down-slope rip-ploughed, contour ploughed and terracing), post-fire logging activities, and post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatments (forest residue mulches, polyacrylamide and hydromulch) were assessed from the first to the third post-fire years. Repeated rainfall simulation experiments (RSE's), micro-scale runoff plots and bounded sediment fences were installed immediately after the wildfire in twelve burnt slopes and monitored at weekly-basis intervals. The results for the first post-fire year showed comparable runoff coefficient (20-60%) but lower sediment losses (1.2-10 Mg ha-1) than prior studies in Portugal and worldwide, which corresponded well with the historic intensive land use in the area. Terracing sharply increased soil erosion (up to 30 Mg ha-1) at the micro-plots scale during the first year after a wildfire and terracing. However, sediment limited erosion was measured in all the pre-fire ploughed sites, probably due to the time elapsed since ploughing. Post-fire logging activities enhanced 5- to 10- fold the sediment losses, which was related to the disturbance of the soil surface cover. The mulches (forest residue or hydromulch) were highly effective reducing post-fire soil erosion in more than 80%. The increase on sediment losses of the recently terraced area and the measured sediment exhaustion at all the pre-fire ploughed sites as well as the increasing frequency of ploughing in the forest areas implies the need to consider ploughing as a hazardous

  1. Early Spring Post-Fire Snow Albedo Dynamics in High Latitude Boreal Forests Using Landsat-8 OLI Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Zhuosen; Erb, Angela M.; Schaaf, Crystal B.; Sun, Qingsong; Liu, Yan; Yang, Yun; Shuai, Yanmin; Casey, Kimberly A.; Roman, Miguel O.

    2016-01-01

    Taking advantage of the improved radiometric resolution of Landsat-8 OLI which, unlike previous Landsat sensors, does not saturate over snow, the progress of fire recovery progress at the landscape scale (less than 100 m) is examined. High quality Landsat-8 albedo retrievals can now capture the true reflective and layered character of snow cover over a full range of land surface conditions and vegetation densities. This new capability particularly improves the assessment of post-fire vegetation dynamics across low- to high-burn severity gradients in Arctic and boreal regions in the early spring, when the albedos during recovery show the greatest variation. We use 30 m resolution Landsat-8 surface reflectances with concurrent coarser resolution (500 m) MODIS high quality full inversion surface Bidirectional Reflectance Distribution Functions (BRDF) products to produce higher resolution values of surface albedo. The high resolution full expression shortwave blue sky albedo product performs well with an overall RMSE of 0.0267 between tower and satellite measures under both snow-free and snow-covered conditions. While the importance of post-fire albedo recovery can be discerned from the MODIS albedo product at regional and global scales, our study addresses the particular importance of early spring post-fire albedo recovery at the landscape scale by considering the significant spatial heterogeneity of burn severity, and the impact of snow on the early spring albedo of various vegetation recovery types. We found that variations in early spring albedo within a single MODIS gridded pixel can be larger than 0.6. Since the frequency and severity of wildfires in Arctic and boreal systems is expected to increase in the coming decades, the dynamics of albedo in response to these rapid surface changes will increasingly impact the energy balance and contribute to other climate processes and physical feedback mechanisms. Surface radiation products derived from Landsat-8 data will

  2. Semiarid rangeland is resilient to summer fire and post-fire grazing utilization

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Most wildfires occur during summer in the northern hemisphere, the area burned annually is increasing, and fire effects during this season are least understood. Livestock grazing is a primary use of rangelands affected by wildfire, but post-fire grazing management is not well-supported with dat...

  3. RAPID POST-FIRE HYDROLOGIC WATERSHED ASSESSMENT USING THE AGWA GIS-BASED HYDROLOGIC MODELING TOOL

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rapid post-fire watershed assessment to identify potential trouble spots for erosion and flooding can potentially aid land managers and Burned Area Emergency Rehabilitation (BAER) teams in deploying mitigation and rehabilitation resources.

    These decisions are inherently co...

  4. Analysis of Alaskan burn severity patterns using remotely sensed data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffy, P.A.; Epting, J.; Graham, J.M.; Rupp, T.S.; McGuire, A.D.

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fire is the dominant large-scale disturbance mechanism in the Alaskan boreal forest, and it strongly influences forest structure and function. In this research, patterns of burn severity in the Alaskan boreal forest are characterised using 24 fires. First, the relationship between burn severity and area burned is quantified using a linear regression. Second, the spatial correlation of burn severity as a function of topography is modelled using a variogram analysis. Finally, the relationship between vegetation type and spatial patterns of burn severity is quantified using linear models where variograms account for spatial correlation. These results show that: 1) average burn severity increases with the natural logarithm of the area of the wildfire, 2) burn severity is more variable in topographically complex landscapes than in flat landscapes, and 3) there is a significant relationship between burn severity and vegetation type in flat landscapes but not in topographically complex landscapes. These results strengthen the argument that differential flammability of vegetation exists in some boreal landscapes of Alaska. Additionally, these results suggest that through feedbacks between vegetation and burn severity, the distribution of forest vegetation through time is likely more stable in flat terrain than it is in areas with more complex topography. ?? IAWF 2007.

  5. Do burns increase the severity of terror injuries?

    PubMed

    Peleg, Kobi; Liran, Alon; Tessone, Ariel; Givon, Adi; Orenstein, Arie; Haik, Josef

    2008-01-01

    The use of explosives and suicide bombings has become more frequent since October 2000. This change in the nature of terror attacks has marked a new era in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. We previously reported that the incidence of thermal injuries has since risen. However, the rise in the incidence of burns among victims of terror was proportionate to the rise in the incidence of burns among all trauma victims. This paper presents data from the Israeli National Trauma Registry during the years 1997--2003, to compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) in terror victims with and without burn injuries. We also compare the severity of injuries and outcome (mortality rates) for patients with terror-attack related burns to non terror-attack related burns during the same period. Data was obtained from the Israeli National Trauma Registry for all patients admitted to 8 to 10 hospitals in Israel between 1997 and 2003. We analyzed and compared demographic and clinical characteristics of 219 terror-related burn patients (terror/burn), 2228 terror patients with no associated burns (Terror/no-burn) and 6546 non terror related burn patients (burn/no-terror). Severity of injuries was measured using the injury severity score, and burn severity by total body surface percentage indices. Admission rates to Intensive Care Units (ICU) and total length of hospitalization were also used to measure severity of injuries. In-hospital mortality rates were used to indicate outcome. Of burn/terror patients, 87.2% suffered other accompanying injuries, compared with 10.4% of burn/no-terror patients. Of burn/terror patients, 49.8% were admitted to ICU compared with only 11.9% of burn/no-terror patients and 23.8% of no-burn/terror patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 18.5 days for the terror/burn group compared with 11.1 days for the burn/no-terror group and 9.5 days for the terror/no-burn group. Burn/terror patients had a significantly higher injury severity score

  6. Stem demography and post-fire recruitment of a resprouting serotinous conifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.; Keeley, M.B.; Bond, W.J.

    1999-01-01

    The contribution of resprouts and seedling recruitment to post-fire regeneration of the South African fynbos conifer Widdringtonia nodiflora was compared eight months after wildfires in 1990. Stems on all trees were killed by fire but resprouting success was > 90 % at all but one site. A demographic study of burned skeletons revealed that prior to these fires, nearly all plants were multi-stemmed (4 - 9 stems/plant) and multi-aged, indicating continuous sprout production between fires. All stems were killed by these 1990 fires and at most sites > 90 % of the stems were burned to ground level. All diameter stems were susceptible to such incineration as, at most sites, there was no difference in average diameter of stems burned to ground level and those left standing. Individual genets usually had all ramets incinerated to ground level or all ramets charred, but intact, suggesting certain micro-sites burned hotter, whereas other sites were somewhat protected. Although not true of the 1990 fires, there was evidence that occasionally Widdringtonia stems may survive fire. At one site, four of the 16 plants sampled had a burned stem twice as old as the oldest burned stem on the other 12 plants at the site, suggesting some stems had survived the previous fire (ca. 1970) and this conclusion was supported by fire-scars on these four stems that dated to ca. 1970. Based on the highly significant correlation between stem diameter and cone density left standing after the 1990 fries, we calculated that for most sites > 80 % of the initial cone crop was incinerated by fire. This is important because we observed a strong relationship between size of the canopy cone crop surviving fire and post-fire seedling recruitment. Under these conditions we hypothesize that sprouting confers a selective advantage to genets when fires cause heavy losses of seed. The infrequent occurrence of sprouting in the Cupressaceae suggests the hypothesis that resprouting is an apomorphic or derived trait

  7. Comparing and Linking Post-fire Hillslope Erosion and Channel Change for Different Storm Types

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, Lee; Kampf, Stephanie; Brogan, Dan; Schmeer, Sarah; Nelson, Peter

    2016-04-01

    Moderate and high severity wildfires can greatly reduce infiltration rates, leading to orders of magnitude increases in hillslope-scale runoff and erosion rates. These increases can cause dramatic downstream channel change, with post-fire deposition being most common, but this depends on the number, magnitude and timing of storm events. The objective of this study is to compare post-fire hillslope erosion rates and downstream channel change from two distinct rainfall events approximately one year after burning. The first was a set of relatively typical, higher-intensity convective storms in June-August 2013, and the second was a highly unusual, week-long ~270 mm rainstorm in September 2013. The study was conducted in two ~15 km2 watersheds that had two-thirds of their area burned at high or moderate severity by 2012 High Park Fire in northcentral Colorado, USA. Hillslope erosion was measured with sediment fences at 29 sites grouped into five clusters, with each cluster having an associated tipping bucket rain gage. Downstream channel change was monitored at approximately ten cross-sections in each of the two watersheds, Skin Gulch and Hill Gulch. Twelve summer storms produced an overall mean hillslope erosion of 6 Mg ha-1, with higher rainfall intensities at lower elevations and in Skin Gulch causing higher sediment yields. The higher sediment yields in Skin Gulch caused substantial downstream deposition of up to 0.8 m at most cross-sections. Generally lower rainfall in Hill Gulch resulted in less Horton overland flow and hence lower erosion rates and much less downstream deposition. The September storm had roughly twice as much rainfall as the summer thunderstorms, but there were much lower peak rainfall intensities and hillslope-scale sediment yields except where shallow bedrock induced saturation overland flow. The much longer duration of the September storm resulted in sustained high flows, and these flows plus the lower hillslope erosion caused most of the

  8. Post-Fire Moss Recovery in Northern Peatlands: Separating the Effects of Species and Water Content on Moss Water Repellency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Paul; Lukenbach, Max; Waddington, James Michael

    2016-04-01

    Wildfire is the largest disturbance affecting peatlands, where northern peat reserves are becoming increasingly vulnerable to wildfire as climate change is projected to enhance the length and severity of the fire season. However, little is known about the spatio-temporal variability of post-fire recovery in these ecosystems. High water table positions after wildfire are critical to limit atmospheric carbon losses and enable the re-establishment of keystone peatland mosses (i.e., Sphagnum). Post-fire recovery of the moss surface in Sphagnum-feathermoss peatlands, however, has been shown to be limited where moss type and burn severity interact to result in a water repellent surface. While in situ measurements of moss water repellency in peatlands has been shown to be greater for feathermoss in both a burned and unburned state in comparison to Sphagnum moss, it is difficult to separate effects of water content from species. Consequently, we carried out a drying experiment in the lab where we compared the water repellency of two dominant peatland moss species, Sphagnum and feathermoss, for several burn severity classes as well as for unburned samples. The results suggest that water repellency in moss is primarily controlled by water content, where a sharp threshold exists at gravimetric water contents (GWC) lower than ~3 g g-1. While GWC is shown to be a strong predictor of water repellency, the effect is enhanced by combustion. Based on field GWC, we show that there are significant differences in the frequency distribution of near-surface GWC between moss type and burn severity. The differences in the distributions of field GWC are related to characteristic moisture retention curves of unburned samples measured in the lab, as well as morphological differences between moss type.

  9. Genetic Structure of a Naturally Regenerating Post-Fire Seedling Population: Pinus halepensis As a Case Study

    PubMed Central

    Gershberg, Anna; Ne'eman, Gidi; Ben-Shlomo, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    To study the effects of wildfire on population genetics of a wind pollinated and wind dispersed tree, we have analyzed the genetic structure of a post-fire, naturally regenerating seedling population of Pinus halepensis Miller, on Mt. Carmel, Israel. We tested the existence of spatial genetic structure, which is expected due to the special spatial demographic structure of the post-fire seedling and sapling populations of this species. Explicitly, we asked whether or not seedlings that germinated under large, burned, dead pine trees are also their offspring. The results revealed that the post-fire seedling population is polymorphic, diverse, and reflects the pre-fire random mating system. In contrast to our prediction, we found no division of the post-fire seedling population to distinct sub-populations. Furthermore, as a result of post-fire seed dispersal to longer range than the average pre-fire inter-tree distance, seedlings found under individual burned trees were not necessarily their sole offspring. Although the population as a whole showed a Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, significant excess of heterozygotes was found within each tallest seedlings group growing under single, large, burned pine trees. Our finding indicates the possible existence of intense natural selection for the most vigorous heterozygous genotypes that are best adapted to the special post-fire regeneration niche, which is the thick ash bed under large, dead, pine trees. PMID:27200024

  10. Fire effects on soil properties and post-fire recovery in a Mediterranean area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canu, A.; Arca, B.; Ventura, A.; Ghiglieri, G.; Pittalis, D.; Deroma, M.

    2009-04-01

    Despite the large number of works on fire effects on soil and post-fire recovery in Mediterranean areas, several aspects need to be established. The study area is located in north-western Sardinia. The climate is sub-arid Mediterranean, with a mean annual temperature of about 16.8 °C and mean annual precipitation ranging from 600 mm to 700 mm, with an autumn maximum. The area is mainly covered by the typical shrubland Mediterranean vegetation. The object of this study is: i) to compare burned and unburned soil in order to evaluate the effect of fire on physical and chemical soil properties; ii) to analyse the vegetation recovery of the main Mediterranean maquis species. The analysis was carried out in a human caused fire occurred in North-West Sardinia (Italy) immediately after fire in 2006, and during the 2007 and 2008 summer seasons. Several pedological samples were collected from various depths (0-5, 5-15 and 15-25 cm) and under the canopy of different species (Chamaerops humilis L., Pistacia lentiscus L. and Calycotome spinosa L.), both in burned and in unburned plots. The soil organic matter content, total and available element concentrations, and soil texture were then determined in laboratory. Different statistical parameters were calculated to describe the relationships between soil properties and species composition comparing burned and unburned plots.

  11. Post-Fire Debris-Flow Hazard Assessments at the U.S. Geological Survey - Recent Advances and Future Directions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, D. M.; Kean, J. W.; Smoczyk, G. M.; Negri, J. A.

    2014-12-01

    Wildfire can have profound effects on the hydrologic response of a watershed, and debris-flow activity is among the most destructive consequences of these effects. The continued high likelihood of catastrophic wildfires in the western U. S. and the encroachment of development into fire-prone areas have created the need to develop tools to identify and quantify the potential hazards posed by debris flows generated from burned watersheds. These tools are critically needed by Federal, State, and local agencies to mitigate the impacts of debris flows on people, their property, infrastructure and natural resources. Applied research at the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Landslide Hazards Program is focused on providing timely, science-based assessments of post-fire debris-flow hazard. Formerly, post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments were disseminated by means of the USGS Open-File Report publication series, which included poster-sized maps that predicted the probability, volume, and combined hazard for given watersheds. Feedback from collaborators suggested that 1) the reports were not sufficiently timely for immediate post-fire use, 2) the static maps were difficult to use for site-specific assessments, and 3) individual assessments were often cost-prohibitive. Beginning in January 2014, the USGS has transitioned to a web-based method for disseminating post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments. This new platform addresses the primary concerns of our stakeholders in three ways. First, the turnaround time has been reduced from 1-2 months for a map and written report, to 3-4 days for a web-based map assessment. This allows response teams to incorporate the assessment results into their reports, which are urgently needed immediately after fires. Second, the new website is interactive and accompanied by downloadable geospatial data of predictions for several storm scenarios. These features permit casual (local residents) and power-users (GIS experts) to evaluate site

  12. Management of severe rheumatological disease in the burn center.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Preetham; Ahrenholz, David H; Mohr, William J; Gertner, Elie

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, Burn Center has evolved to become a "wound intensive care unit" treating disease processes other than those due to thermal injury. Recent data have shown that more than 16% of admissions to Burn Centers are for nonburn injuries, particularly severe dermatologic diseases. The role of the Burn Center has been expanded to include treatment of patients with severe cutaneous manifestations of rheumatologic diseases. This approach has not been described before. All collagen vascular disease admissions to the Burn Center from 2005 to 2010 have been reviewed. There were 16 admissions where intensive wound management was a major component of the disease management. Disease processes included systemic lupus erythematosus, progressive systemic sclerosis, Raynaud's phenomenon, antiphospholipid syndrome, and dermatomyositis, among others. The authors describe five of these cases in detail. Comanagement of these patients by the Rheumatology and Burn services led to outstanding, successful outcomes. Collagen vascular diseases represent another area where the Burn Center may be the appropriate site for therapy.

  13. Post-Fire Recovery in Coastal Sage Scrub: Seed Rain and Community Trajectory

    PubMed Central

    Conlisk, Erin; Swab, Rebecca; Martínez-Berdeja, Alejandra; Daugherty, Matthew P.

    2016-01-01

    Disturbance is a primary mechanism structuring ecological communities. However, human activity has the potential to alter the frequency and intensity of natural disturbance regimes, with subsequent effects on ecosystem processes. In Southern California, human development has led to increased fire frequency close to urban areas that can form a positive feedback with invasive plant spread. Understanding how abiotic and biotic factors structure post-fire plant communities is a critical component of post-fire management and restoration. In this study we considered a variety of mechanisms affecting post-fire vegetation recovery in Riversidean sage scrub. Comparing recently burned plots to unburned plots, we found that burning significantly reduced species richness and percent cover of exotic vegetation the first two years following a 100-hectare wildfire. Seed rain was higher in burned plots, with more native forb seeds, while unburned plots had more exotic grass seeds. Moreover, there were significant correlations between seed rain composition and plant cover composition the year prior and the year after. Collectively, this case study suggests that fire can alter community composition, but there was not compelling evidence of a vegetation-type conversion. Instead, the changes in the community composition were temporary and convergence in community composition was apparent within two years post-fire. PMID:27649564

  14. Predictors of Muscle Protein Synthesis after Severe Pediatric Burns

    PubMed Central

    Diaz, Eva C.; Herndon, David N.; Lee, Jinhyung; Porter, Craig; Cotter, Matthew; Suman, Oscar E.; Sidossis, Labros S.; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2015-01-01

    Background Following a major burn, skeletal muscle protein synthesis rate increases, but is often insufficient to compensate for massively elevated muscle protein breakdown rates. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that muscle protein synthesis rate would be chronically elevated in severely burned children. The objectives of this study were to characterize muscle protein synthesis rate of burned children over a period of 24 months post-injury, and identify predictors that influence this response. Study design 87 children with ≥40% total body surface area (TBSA) burn were included. Patients participated in stable isotope infusion studies at 1, 2 and ~ 4 weeks post-burn, and at 6, 12 and 24 months post-injury to determine skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate. Generalized estimating equations with log link normal distribution were applied to account for clustering of patients and control for patient characteristics. Results Patients (8±6 years) had large (62, 51–72% TBSA) and deep (47±21% TBSA third degree) burns. Muscle fractional synthesis rate was elevated throughout the first 12 months post-burn compared to established values from healthy young adults. Muscle fractional synthesis rate was lower in boys, children >3 years old, and when burns were >80% TBSA. Conclusions Muscle protein synthesis is elevated for at least one year after injury, suggesting that greater muscle protein turnover is a component of the long-term pathophysiological response to burn trauma. Muscle protein synthesis is highly affected by gender, age and burn size in severely burned children. These findings may explain the divergence in net protein balance and lean body mass in different populations of burn victims. PMID:25807408

  15. Spatial frequency domain imaging of burn wounds in a preclinical model of graded burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, John Quan; Crouzet, Christian; Mai, Tuan; Riola, Kathleen; Uchitel, Daniel; Liaw, Lih-Huei; Bernal, Nicole; Ponticorvo, Adrien; Choi, Bernard; Durkin, Anthony J.

    2013-06-01

    Frequent monitoring of early-stage burns is necessary for deciding optimal treatment and management. Both superficial and full thickness burns are relatively easy to diagnose based on clinical observation. In between these two extremes are superficial-partial thickness and deep-partial thickness burns. These burns, while visually similar, differ dramatically in terms of clinical treatment and are known to progress in severity over time. The objective of this study was to determine the potential of spatial frequency domain imaging (SFDI) for noninvasively mapping quantitative changes in chromophore and optical properties that may be an indicative of burn wound severity. A controlled protocol of graded burn severity was developed and applied to 17 rats. SFDI data was acquired at multiple near-infrared wavelengths over a course of 3 h. Burn severity was verified using hematoxylin and eosin histology. From this study, we found that changes in water concentration (edema), deoxygenated hemoglobin concentration, and optical scattering (tissue denaturation) to be statistically significant at differentiating superficial partial-thickness burns from deep-partial thickness burns.

  16. Index for characterizing post-fire soil environments in temperate coniferous forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, Theresa B.; Pilliod, David S.; Graham, Russell T.; Lentile, Leigh B.; Sandquist, Jonathan E.

    2012-01-01

    Many scientists and managers have an interest in describing the environment following a fire to understand the effects on soil productivity, vegetation growth, and wildlife habitat, but little research has focused on the scientific rationale for classifying the post-fire environment. We developed an empirically-grounded soil post-fire index (PFI) based on available science and ecological thresholds. Using over 50 literature sources, we identified a minimum of five broad categories of post-fire outcomes: (a) unburned, (b) abundant surface organic matter ( > 85% surface organic matter), (c) moderate amount of surface organic matter ( ≥ 40 through 85%), (d) small amounts of surface organic matter ( < 40%), and (e) absence of surface organic matter (no organic matter left). We then subdivided each broad category on the basis of post-fire mineral soil colors providing a more fine-tuned post-fire soil index. We related each PFI category to characteristics such as soil temperature and duration of heating during fire, and physical, chemical, and biological responses. Classifying or describing post-fire soil conditions consistently will improve interpretations of fire effects research and facilitate communication of potential responses or outcomes (e.g., erosion potential) from fires of varying severities.

  17. Post-fire Gully Rejuvenation - Evidence of Process Thresholds Controlled by Vegetation Disturbance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, K.; Woods, S.

    2011-12-01

    High intensity rainfall may trigger gully rejuvenation on hillslopes recently disturbed by wildfire, leading to debris-laden flows which generally contribute the majority of sediment transported in post-fire erosion events. We investigated the extent to which the occurrence of gully rejuvenation can be predicted based upon burn severity, rainfall data and basin morphometric variables. Field surveys were conducted at six Northern Rockies sites to identify occurrence of gully rejuvenation in first order catchments and to map and characterize the location of gully heads. NEXRAD and rain gage data analysis coupled with field observations characterized rainfall intensity and extent. Building on previous work we quantified burn severity using the Vegetation Disturbance Index (VDI), a continuous metric based upon Burned Area Reflectance Classification (BARC) maps derived from satellite imagery using the dNBR algorithm. GIS analysis combined the VDI with morphometric factors expected to influence hillslope stability. Gully heads marked abrupt transition in channel form. Above gully heads, channels were shallow and U-shaped with gentle transition to the hillslope and fine root hairs intact. Angular edges marked deep gully head incisions which down-cut channel floors from 0.2-0.3 to 1.0 meter or more. Any remaining roots were coarse and the hillslope transition was sharp. Gully heads were located at variable distances below the master rill head of the catchment hollow. Distances were obviously greater where live canopy remained upslope. Gully head morphology strongly suggests flow force transition and exceedance of an erosion process threshold. The variable distance of the gully head below the hollow suggest upslope controls influencing initiation point, possibly degree and spatial pattern of burn severity. Binary logistic regression revealed stronger correlation between gully rejuvenation and VDI than morphometric variables. The statistical strength using the continuous

  18. The alexander surgical technique for the treatment of severe burns

    PubMed Central

    Gasperoni, M.; Neri, R.; Carboni, A.; Purpura, V.; Morselli, P.G.; Melandri, D.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The extensive loss of skin in burned patients is a critical clinical condition, and the choice of an effective technique to cover and protect the damaged area has always been a challenge in the surgical field. Despite its wide clinical use, there is little data in the literature on using the Alexander technique to treat severe burns, while several studies have focused on alternative approaches. The present study aims to evaluate the effectiveness of the Alexander surgical technique on 117 patients with severe burns. The characteristics of the burned patients, factors related to etiology of burns as well as adverse prognostic factors and their incidence in discharged versus deceased patients were also taken into account. Finally, a comparison is made with an alternative surgical procedure described in the literature. Our results show a satisfactory level of survival for patients with severe burns surgically treated with the Alexander technique, accounting for 63% of all clinical cases reported here. This treatment is also less expensive and more rapid than the alternative approach we compared it with. The Alexander technique is a lifesaving method for the treatment of severe burns that provides a satisfactory chance of survival at lower cost than the alternative surgical procedure examined. PMID:28289363

  19. Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2011-05-01

    Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion. The main goals of the present work are (i) to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii) to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii) to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively. The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 yr (1998-2009), at 1 × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In what respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus Pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to recover slower than transitional woodland

  20. Modelling post-fire vegetation recovery in Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; Dacamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2011-12-01

    Wildfires in Mediterranean Europe have been increasing in number and extension over the last decades and constitute one of the major disturbances of these ecosystems. Portugal is the country with more burnt area in the last decade and the years of 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating, the total burned areas of 425 000 and 338 000 ha being several times higher than the corresponding average. The year of 2005 further coincided with one of the most severe droughts since early 20th century. Due to different responses of vegetation to diverse fire regimes and to the complexity of landscape structures, fires have complex effects on vegetation recovery. Remote sensing has revealed to be a powerful tool in studying vegetation dynamics and in monitoring post-fire vegetation recovery, which is crucial to land-management and to prevent erosion. The main goals of the present work are (i) to assess the accuracy of a vegetation recovery model previously developed by the authors; (ii) to assess the model's performance, namely its sensitivity to initial conditions, to the temporal length of the input dataset and to missing data; (iii) to study vegetation recovery over two selected areas that were affected by two large wildfire events in the fire seasons of 2003 and 2005, respectively. The study relies on monthly values of NDVI over 11 years (1998-2009), at 1 km × 1 km spatial resolution, as obtained by the VEGETATION instrument. According to results from sensitivity analysis, the model is robust and able to provide good estimations of recovery times of vegetation when the regeneration process is regular, even when missing data is present. In respect to the two selected burnt scars, results indicate that fire damage is a determinant factor of regeneration, as less damaged vegetation recovers more rapidly, which is mainly justified by the high coverage of Pinus pinaster over the area, and by the fact that coniferous forests tend to recover slower than transitional woodland

  1. Burn Severity Estimation Using MERIS Full Resolution Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oliva, Patricia; De Santis, Angela

    2010-12-01

    This paper presents the first results of Fire Effects Modelling and Mapping (FEMM) project carried out in the framemark of the Changing Earth Science Network. The objective of this study is to test the performance of the inversion of Radiative Transfer Models (RTMs) in ENVISA T-MERIS Full Resolution data to estimate burn severity levels in terms of Composite Burn Index (CBI) levels. Nevertheless, as the RTM model was calibrated in Landsat-TM images, evaluation of its performance in MERIS imagery was needed. We tested the performance of the RTM model in several study sites located in two large fires occurred in Spain during 2009 fire season. The results were validated by comparison with burn severity maps computed from Landsat-TM imagery. The results obtained showed values of the coefficient of determination of 0.92 and 0.95 thus, the estimation of burn severity was accurate and consistent, in spite of the different spatial and spectral resolutions.

  2. Heparin Reduced Mortality and Sepsis in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Zayas, G.J.; Bonilla, A.M.; Saliba, M.J

    2007-01-01

    Summary Objectives. In El Salvador, before 1999, morbidity and mortality in severely burned children were high. In 1998, all children with burns of 40% or larger size died and sepsis was found. With heparin use in 1999, some similarly burned children survived, and sepsis, pain, procedures, and scars were noted to be less. This retrospective study presents the details. Methods. A study was conducted at the National Children's Hospital in El Salvador of all children with burns over 20% size treated in 1998, when no heparin was used, and in 1999, when heparin was added to burns treatment, using an ethics committee approved protocol in use in twelve other countries. Sodium aqueous heparin solution USP from an intestinal source was infused intravenously and applied topically onto burn surfaces and within blisters for the first 1-3 days post-burn. Then heparin, in diminishing doses, was continued only topically until healing. The treatments in 1998 and 1999 were otherwise the same, except that fewer procedures were needed in 1999. Results. There were no significant differences in gender, age, weight, burn aetiology, or burn size between the burned children in 1998 and those in 1999. Burn pain was relieved and pain medicine was not needed in children treated with heparin in 1999. In 1998, one child survived who had a 35% size burn, and the eight children died who had burns of 40% and over. The survival rate was one out of nine (11%). The average burn size was 51.7%. With heparin use in 1999, six of the ten children survived burns of 50.7% average size. The increase in survival with heparin from 11% to 60% and, therefore, the decrease in mortality from 89% to 40% were significant (p < 0.04). Clinical symptoms and positive blood cultures documented bacterial sepsis in the nine children in 1998. In 1999, the blood cultures for sepsis were positive in the four children who died and negative in the six who survived. The nine versus four differences in the incidence of sepsis

  3. Impact of the post fire management in some soil chemical properties. First results.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Francos, Marcos; Pereira, Paulo; Alcañiz, Meritxell; Úbeda, Xavi

    2016-04-01

    Post-fire management after severe wildfires has impact on soil properties. In Mediterranean environments management of fire affected areas is a common practice. This intervention may change soil chemical properties of the soil such as major cations. The aim of this work is to study the impact of different types of forest management in soil extractable calcium, magnesium, sodium and potassium after a severe wildfire. The study area is located in Ódena (Catalonia, Spain). The wildfire occurred at July 27th of 2015 and burned 1235 ha. After the fire an experimental plot was designed 9 plots with 2x2 meters (4 square meters). The different managements were: a) clear-cuted area and wood removed, b) no treatment); and c) clear-cutted. The results of the first sampling showed significant differences among all treatments in extractable calcium, sodium and potassium. The amount of these extractable elements was high in clear-cutted treatment in comparison to the others. No differences were identified in extractable magnesium. Overall, in the immediate period after the fire, burned area management, changed the studied soil properties. We are currently studying the evolution of this soil properties in these plots with the time

  4. Quantifying post-fire ponderosa pine snags using GIS techniques on scanned aerial photographs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kent, Kevin

    Snags are an important component of forest ecosystems because of their utility in forest-nutrient cycling and provision of critical wildlife habitat, as well as associated fuel management concerns relating to coarse woody debris (CWD). Knowledge of snag and CWD trajectories are needed for land managers to plan for long-term ecosystem change in post-fire regimes. This need will likely be exacerbated by increasingly warm and dry climatic conditions projected for the U.S. Southwest. One of the best prospects for studying fire-induced landscape change beyond the plot scale, but still at a resolution sufficient to resolve individual snags, is to utilize the available aerial photography record. Previous field-based studies of snag and CWD loads in the Southwest have relied on regional chronosequences to judge the recovery dynamic of ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) burns. This previous research has been spatially and temporally restricted because of field survey extent limitations and uncertainty associated with the chronosequence approach (i.e., space-for-time substitution), which does not consider differences between specific site conditions and histories. This study develops highly automated methods for remotely quantifying and characterizing the spatial and temporal distribution of large snags associated with severe forest fires from very high resolution (VHR) landscape imagery I obtained from scans of aerial photos. Associated algorithms utilize the sharp edges, shape, shadow, and contrast characteristics of snags to enable feature recognition. Additionally, using snag shadow length, image acquisition time, and location information, heights were estimated for each identified snag. Furthermore, a novel solution was developed for extracting individual snags from areas of high snag density by overlaying parallel lines in the direction of the snag shadows and extracting local maxima lines contained by each snag polygon. Field survey data coincident to imagery coverage

  5. Increasing microbial diversity and nitrogen cycling potential of burnt forest soil in Spain through post-fire management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereg, Lily; Mataix-Solera, Jorge; McMillan, Mary; García-Orenes, Fuensanta

    2016-04-01

    Microbial diversity and function in soils are increasingly assessed by the application of molecular methods such as sequencing and PCR technology. We applied these techniques to study microbial recovery in post-fire forest soils. The recovery of forest ecosystems following severe fire is influenced by post-fire management. The removal of burnt tree stumps (salvage logging) is a common practice in Spain following fire. In some cases, the use of heavy machinery in addition to the vulnerability of soils to erosion and degradation make this management potentially damaging to soil, and therefore to the ecosystem. We hypothesized that tree removal slows down the recovery of soil biological communities including microbial and plant communities and contributes to soil degradation in the burnt affected area. The study area is located in "Sierra de Mariola Natural Park" in Alcoi, Alicante (E Spain). A big forest fire (>500 has) occurred in July 2012. The forest is composed mainly of Pinus halepensis trees with an understory of typical Mediterranean shrubs species such as Quercus coccifera, Rosmarinus officinalis, Thymus vulgaris, Brachypodium retusum, etc. Soil is classified as a Typic Xerorthent (Soil Survey Staff, 2014) developed over marls. In February 2013, salvage logging (SL) treatment, with a complete extraction of the burned wood using heavy machinery, was applied to a part of the affected forest. Plots for monitoring the effects of SL were installed in this area and in a similar nearby control (C) area, where no SL treatment was done. The recovery of soil bacterial and fungal communities post-fire with and without tree removal was analysed by using Next-Generation sequencing and the abundance of functional genes, related to nitrogen cycling, in the soil was estimated using quantitative PCR (qPCR). We will present the methods used and the results of our study in this PICO presentation.

  6. Prediction of spatially explicit rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for post-fire debris-flow generation in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn A.; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.

    2017-02-01

    Early warning of post-fire debris-flow occurrence during intense rainfall has traditionally relied upon a library of regionally specific empirical rainfall intensity-duration thresholds. Development of this library and the calculation of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds often require several years of monitoring local rainfall and hydrologic response to rainstorms, a time-consuming approach where results are often only applicable to the specific region where data were collected. Here, we present a new, fully predictive approach that utilizes rainfall, hydrologic response, and readily available geospatial data to predict rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for debris-flow generation in recently burned locations in the western United States. Unlike the traditional approach to defining regional thresholds from historical data, the proposed methodology permits the direct calculation of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for areas where no such data exist. The thresholds calculated by this method are demonstrated to provide predictions that are of similar accuracy, and in some cases outperform, previously published regional intensity-duration thresholds. The method also provides improved predictions of debris-flow likelihood, which can be incorporated into existing approaches for post-fire debris-flow hazard assessment. Our results also provide guidance for the operational expansion of post-fire debris-flow early warning systems in areas where empirically defined regional rainfall intensity-duration thresholds do not currently exist.

  7. Identifying key climate and environmental factors affecting rates of post-fire big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata) recovery in the northern Columbia Basin, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, Douglas; McIlroy, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Sagebrush steppe of North America is considered highly imperilled, in part owing to increased fire frequency. Sagebrush ecosystems support numerous species, and it is important to understand those factors that affect rates of post-fire sagebrush recovery. We explored recovery of Wyoming big sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata ssp.wyomingensis) and basin big sagebrush (A. tridentata ssp. tridentata) communities following fire in the northern Columbia Basin (Washington, USA). We sampled plots across 16 fires that burned in big sagebrush communities from 5 to 28 years ago, and also sampled nearby unburned locations. Mixed-effects models demonstrated that density of large–mature big sagebrush plants and percentage cover of big sagebrush were higher with time since fire and in plots with more precipitation during the winter immediately following fire, but were lower when precipitation the next winter was higher than average, especially on soils with higher available water supply, and with greater post-fire mortality of mature big sagebrush plants. Bunchgrass cover 5 to 28 years after fire was predicted to be lower with higher cover of both shrubs and non-native herbaceous species, and only slightly higher with time. Post-fire recovery of big sagebrush in the northern Columbia Basin is a slow process that may require several decades on average, but faster recovery rates may occur under specific site and climate conditions.

  8. The impact of severe burns on skeletal muscle mitochondrial function.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Herndon, David N; Sidossis, Labros S; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-09-01

    Severe burns induce a pathophysiological response that affects almost every physiological system within the body. Inflammation, hypermetabolism, muscle wasting, and insulin resistance are all hallmarks of the pathophysiological response to severe burns, with perturbations in metabolism known to persist for several years post injury. Skeletal muscle is the principal depot of lean tissue within the body and as the primary site of peripheral glucose disposal, plays an important role in metabolic regulation. Following a large burn, skeletal muscle functions as and endogenous amino acid store, providing substrates for more pressing functions, such as the synthesis of acute phase proteins and the deposition of new skin. Subsequently, burn patients become cachectic, which is associated with poor outcomes in terms of metabolic health and functional capacity. While a loss of skeletal muscle contractile proteins per se will no doubt negatively impact functional capacity, detriments in skeletal muscle quality, i.e. a loss in mitochondrial number and/or function may be quantitatively just as important. The goal of this review article is to summarise the current understanding of the impact of thermal trauma on skeletal muscle mitochondrial content and function, to offer direction for future research concerning skeletal muscle mitochondrial function in patients with severe burns, and to renew interest in the role of these organelles in metabolic dysfunction following severe burns.

  9. Postfire soil burn severity mapping with hyperspectral image unmixing

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Robichaud, P.R.; Lewis, S.A.; Laes, D.Y.M.; Hudak, A.T.; Kokaly, R.F.; Zamudio, J.A.

    2007-01-01

    Burn severity is mapped after wildfires to evaluate immediate and long-term fire effects on the landscape. Remotely sensed hyperspectral imagery has the potential to provide important information about fine-scale ground cover components that are indicative of burn severity after large wildland fires. Airborne hyperspectral imagery and ground data were collected after the 2002 Hayman Fire in Colorado to assess the application of high resolution imagery for burn severity mapping and to compare it to standard burn severity mapping methods. Mixture Tuned Matched Filtering (MTMF), a partial spectral unmixing algorithm, was used to identify the spectral abundance of ash, soil, and scorched and green vegetation in the burned area. The overall performance of the MTMF for predicting the ground cover components was satisfactory (r2 = 0.21 to 0.48) based on a comparison to fractional ash, soil, and vegetation cover measured on ground validation plots. The relationship between Landsat-derived differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values and the ground data was also evaluated (r2 = 0.20 to 0.58) and found to be comparable to the MTMF. However, the quantitative information provided by the fine-scale hyperspectral imagery makes it possible to more accurately assess the effects of the fire on the soil surface by identifying discrete ground cover characteristics. These surface effects, especially soil and ash cover and the lack of any remaining vegetative cover, directly relate to potential postfire watershed response processes. ?? 2006 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Relations between soil hydraulic properties and burn severity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.; Nyman, Petter; Martin, Deborah A.; Stoof, Cathelijne R.; McKinley, Randy

    2015-01-01

    Wildfire can affect soil hydraulic properties, often resulting in reduced infiltration. The magnitude of change in infiltration varies depending on the burn severity. Quantitative approaches to link burn severity with changes in infiltration are lacking. This study uses controlled laboratory measurements to determine relations between a remotely sensed burn severity metric (dNBR, change in normalised burn ratio) and soil hydraulic properties (SHPs). SHPs were measured on soil cores collected from an area burned by the 2013 Black Forest fire in Colorado, USA. Six sites with the same soil type were selected across a range of burn severities, and 10 random soil cores were collected from each site within a 30-m diameter circle. Cumulative infiltration measurements were made in the laboratory using a tension infiltrometer to determine field-saturated hydraulic conductivity, Kfs, and sorptivity, S. These measurements were correlated with dNBR for values ranging from 124 (low severity) to 886 (high severity). SHPs were related to dNBR by inverse functions for specific conditions of water repellency (at the time of sampling) and soil texture. Both functions had a threshold value for dNBR between 124 and 420, where Kfs and S were unchanged and equal to values for soil unaffected by fire. For dNBRs >~420, the Kfs was an exponentially decreasing function of dNBR and S was a linearly decreasing function of dNBR. These initial quantitative empirical relations provide a first step to link SHPs to burn severity, and can be used in quantitative infiltration models to predict post-wildfire infiltration and resulting runoff.

  11. Does post-fire plant regeneration mode affect the germination response to fire-related cues?

    PubMed

    Ne'eman, Gidi; Ne'eman, Rina; Keith, David A; Whelan, Rob J

    2009-03-01

    Vegetative resprouting, soil or canopy-stored seed banks, post-fire seed dispersal and germination are the major strategies by which plants regenerate after fires. Post-fire regeneration modes of plants are commonly based on the presence or absence of post-fire recruitment as well as the presence or absence of post-fire resprouting. High temperatures, smoke and ash are characteristics of fire and the post-fire environment. We hypothesized that heat, smoke, ash and pH will have differential effects on seed germination depending on species' post-fire regeneration strategies: serotinous vs. nonserotinous (which may have soil seed banks) and resprouters vs. nonresprouters (which may be obligate seeders). Here we examined the effects of these factors on the germination of 27 common east Australian species. Most serotinous species supported our hypothesis by showing no effect or reduced germination in response to heat. However, contrary to our prediction, all nonserotinous nonresprouting species also showed no effect or reduced germination in response to heat. Smoke, contrary to our hypothesis, had a negative or no effect on all serotinous and nonresprouting species, but no clear directional effect on serotinous and resprouting species. Supporting our hypotheses, ash and high pH showed positive or nonsignificant effects on the germination of all serotinous resprouting species, and a negative or no effect on nonserotinous resprouting species. However, contrary to our prediction, it had a negative or no effect on the serotinous nonresprouting species and no clear effect on nonserotinous nonresprouting species. We also discovered large differences in germination responses between conspecific populations that varied in their degree of resprouting. Although our data confirmed several of our predictions, the overall conclusion is that the responses of seeds to heat, smoke, ash and pH are not tightly associated with post-fire regeneration functional types.

  12. Post-fire wood management alters water stress, growth, and performance of pine regeneration in a Mediterranean ecosystem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Castro, Jorge; Querejeta, José Ignacio; Fernandez-Ondono, Emilia; Allen, Craig D.

    2013-01-01

    Extensive research has focused on comparing the impacts of post-fire salvage logging versus those of less aggressive management practices on forest regeneration. However, few studies have addressed the effects of different burnt-wood management options on seedling/sapling performance, or the ecophysiological mechanisms underlying differences among treatments. In this study, we experimentally assess the effects of post-fire management of the burnt wood on the growth and performance of naturally regenerating pine seedlings (Pinus pinaster). Three post-fire management treatments varying in degree of intervention were implemented seven months after a high-severity wildfire burned Mediterranean pine forests in the Sierra Nevada, southeast Spain: (a) “No Intervention” (NI, all burnt trees left standing); (b) “Partial Cut plus Lopping” (PCL, felling most of the burnt trees, cutting off branches, and leaving all the biomass on site without mastication); and (c) “Salvage Logging” (SL, felling the burnt trees, piling up the logs and masticating the fine woody debris). Three years after the fire, the growth, foliar nutrient concentrations, and leaf carbon, nitrogen and oxygen isotopic composition (δ13C, δ18O and δ15N) of naturally regenerating seedlings were measured in all the treatments. Pine seedlings showed greatest vigor and size in the PCL treatment, whereas growth was poorest in SL. The nutrient concentrations were similar among treatments, although greater growth in the two treatments with residual wood present indicated higher plant uptake. Seedlings in the SL treatment showed high leaf δ13C and δ18O values indicating severe water stress, in contrast to significantly alleviated water stress indications in the PCL treatment. Seedling growth and physiological performance in NI was intermediate between that of PCL and SL. After six growing seasons, P. pinaster saplings in PCL showed greater growth and cone production than SL saplings. In summary

  13. Pre- and post-fire pollutant loads in an urban fringe watershed in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burke, M P; Hogue, T S; Kinoshita, A M; Barco, J; Wessel, C; Stein, E D

    2013-12-01

    Post-fire runoff has the potential to be a large source of contaminants to downstream areas. However, the magnitude of this effect in urban fringe watersheds adjacent to large sources of airborne contaminants is not well documented. The current study investigates the impacts of wildfire on stormwater contaminant loading from the upper Arroyo Seco watershed, burned in 2009. This watershed is adjacent to the Greater Los Angeles, CA, USA area and has not burned in over 60 years. Consequently, it acts as a sink for regional urban pollutants and presents an opportunity to study the impacts of wildfire. Pre- and post-fire storm samples were collected and analyzed for basic cations, trace metals, and total suspended solids. The loss of vegetation and changes in soil properties from the fire greatly increased the magnitude of storm runoff, resulting in sediment-laden floods carrying high concentrations of particulate-bound constituents. Post-fire concentrations and loads were up to three orders of magnitude greater than pre-fire values for many trace metals, including lead and cadmium. A shift was also observed in the timing of chemical delivery, where maximum suspended sediment, trace metal, and cation concentrations coincided with, rather than preceded, peak discharge in the post-fire runoff, amplifying the fire's impacts on mass loading. The results emphasize the importance of sediment delivery as a primary mechanism for post-fire contaminant transport and suggest that traditional management practices that focus on treating only the early portion of storm runoff may be less effective following wildfire. We also advocate that watersheds impacted by regional urban pollutants have the potential to pose significant risk for downstream communities and ecosystems after fire.

  14. Post-fire Thermokarst Development Along a Planned Road Corridor in Arctic Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, B. M.; Grosse, G.; Larsen, C. F.; Hayes, D. J.; Arp, C. D.; Liu, L.; Miller, E.

    2015-12-01

    Wildfire disturbance in northern high latitude regions is an important factor contributing to ecosystem and landscape change. In permafrost influenced terrain, fire may initiate thermokarst development which impacts hydrology, vegetation, wildlife, carbon storage and infrastructure. In this study we differenced two airborne LiDAR datasets that were acquired in the aftermath of the large and severe Anaktuvuk River tundra fire, which in 2007 burned across a proposed road corridor in Arctic Alaska. The 2009 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the Alaska Department of Transportation in preparation for construction of a gravel road that would connect the Dalton Highway with the logistical camp of Umiat. The 2014 LiDAR dataset was acquired by the USGS to quantify potential post-fire thermokarst development over the first seven years following the tundra fire event. By differencing the two 1 m resolution digital terrain models, we measured permafrost thaw subsidence across 34% of the burned tundra area studied, and observed less than 1% in similar, undisturbed tundra terrain units. Ice-rich, yedoma upland terrain was most susceptible to thermokarst development following the disturbance, accounting for 50% of the areal and volumetric change detected, with some locations subsiding more than six meters over the study period. Calculation of rugosity, or surface roughness, in the two datasets showed a doubling in microtopography on average across the burned portion of the study area, with a 340% increase in yedoma upland terrain. An additional LiDAR dataset was acquired in April 2015 to document the role of thermokarst development on enhanced snow accumulation and subsequent snowmelt runoff within the burn area. Our findings will enable future vulnerability assessments of ice-rich permafrost terrain as a result of shifting disturbance regimes. Such assessments are needed to address questions focused on the impact of permafrost degradation on physical, ecological, and socio

  15. A project for monitoring trends in burn severity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Eidenshink, Jeffery C.; Schwind, Brian; Brewer, Ken; Zhu, Zhu-Liang; Quayle, Brad; Howard, Stephen M.

    2007-01-01

    Jeff Eidenshink, Brian Schwind, Ken Brewer, Zhi-Liang Zhu, Brad Quayle, and Elected officials and leaders of environmental agencies need information about the effects of large wildfires in order to set policy and make management decisions. Recently, the Wildland Fire Leadership Council (WFLC), which implements and coordinates the National Fire Plan (NFP) and Federal Wildland Fire Management Policies (National Fire Plan 2004), adopted a strategy to monitor the effectiveness of the National Fire Plan and the Healthy Forests Restoration Act (HFRA). One component of this strategy is to assess the environmental impacts of large wildland fires and identify the trends of burn severity on all lands across the United States. To that end, WFLC has sponsored a six-year project, Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS), which requires the U.S. Department of Agriculture Forest Service (USDA-FS) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to map and assess the burn severity for all large current and historical fires. Using Landsat data and the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) algorithm, the USGS Center for Earth Resources Observation and Science (EROS) and USDA-FS Remote Sensing Applications Center will map burn severity of all fires since 1984 greater than 202 ha (500ac) in the east, and 404 ha (1,000 ac) in the west. The number of historical fires from this period combined with current fires occurring during the course of the project will exceed 9,000. The MTBS project will generate burn severity data, maps, and reports, which will be available for use at local, state, and national levels to evaluate trends in burn severity and help develop and assess the effectiveness of land management decisions. Additionally, the information developed will provide a baseline from which to monitor the recovery and health of fire-affected landscapes over time. Spatial and tabular data quantifying burn severity will augment existing information used to estimate risk associated with a range

  16. Linking runoff response to burn severity after a wildfire

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Moody, J.A.; Martin, D.A.; Haire, S.L.; Kinner, D.A.

    2008-01-01

    Extreme floods often follow wildfire in mountainous watersheds. However, a quantitative relation between the runoff response and burn severity at the watershed scale has not been established. Runoff response was measured as the runoff coefficient C, which is equal to the peak discharge per unit drainage area divided by the average maximum 30 min rainfall intensity during each rain storm. The magnitude of the bum severity was expressed as the change in the normalized burn ratio. A new burn severity variable, hydraulic functional connectivity ?? was developed and incorporates both the magnitude of the burn severity and the spatial sequence of the bum severity along hillslope flow paths. The runoff response and the burn severity were measured in seven subwatersheds (0.24 to 0.85 km2) in the upper part of Rendija Canyon burned by the 2000 Cerro Grande Fire Dear Los Alamos, New Mexico, USA. A rainfall-discharge relation was determined for four of the subwatersheds with nearly the same bum severity. The peak discharge per unit drainage area Qupeak was a linear function of the maximum 30 min rainfall intensity I30. This function predicted a rainfall intensity threshold of 8.5 mm h-1 below which no runoff was generated. The runoff coefficient C = Qupeak/I30 was a linear function of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity of the subwatersheds. Moreover, the variability of the mean hydraulic functional connectivity was related to the variability of the mean runoff coefficient, and this relation provides physical insight into why the runoff response from the same subwatershed can vary for different rainstorms with the same rainfall intensity. Published in 2007 by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Post-fire influences of snag attrition on albedo and radiative forcing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Halloran, T. L.; Acker, S. A.; Joerger, V.; Kertis, J.; Law, B. E.

    2014-12-01

    We examine albedo perturbation and associated radiative forcing after a high-severity fire in a mature forest in the Oregon Cascade Range. Correlations between post-fire albedo and seedling, sapling, and standing dead tree (snag) density were investigated across fire severity classes and seasons for years 4-15 after fire. Albedo perturbation was 14 times larger in winter compared to summer and increased with fire severity class for the first several years after fire. Summer and winter albedo perturbation increased approximately linearly over the study period. Albedo correlations were strongest with snags, and significant in all fire classes in both summer and winter. The resulting annual radiative forcing at the top of the atmosphere decreased (became more negative) linearly for the first 15 years after fire. These results suggest that snags, more than recovering vegetation, can control the shortwave energy balance of the burned land surface. As such, the dynamics of snag attrition may need to be included in coupled land-atmosphere models to properly represent the climate impacts of wildfire.

  18. [Research progress in post-fire debris flow].

    PubMed

    Di, Xue-ying; Tao, Yu-zhu

    2013-08-01

    The occurrence of the secondary disasters of forest fire has significant impacts on the environment quality and human health and safety. Post-fire debris flow is one of the most hazardous secondary disasters of forest fire. To understand the occurrence conditions of post-fire debris flow and to master its occurrence situation are the critical elements in post-fire hazard assessment. From the viewpoints of vegetation, precipitation threshold and debris flow material sources, this paper elaborated the impacts of forest fire on the debris flow, analyzed the geologic and geomorphic conditions, precipitation and slope condition that caused the post-fire debris flow as well as the primary mechanisms of debris-flow initiation caused by shallow landslide or surface runoff, and reviewed the research progress in the prediction and forecast of post-fire debris flow and the related control measures. In the future research, four aspects to be focused on were proposed, i. e., the quantification of the relationships between the fire behaviors and environmental factors and the post-fire debris flow, the quantitative research on the post-fire debris flow initiation and movement processes, the mechanistic model of post-fire debris flow, and the rapid and efficient control countermeasures of post-fire debris flow.

  19. Updated logistic regression equations for the calculation of post-fire debris-flow likelihood in the western United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Negri, Jacquelyn A.; Kean, Jason W.; Laber, Jayme L.; Tillery, Anne C.; Youberg, Ann M.

    2016-06-30

    Wildfire can significantly alter the hydrologic response of a watershed to the extent that even modest rainstorms can generate dangerous flash floods and debris flows. To reduce public exposure to hazard, the U.S. Geological Survey produces post-fire debris-flow hazard assessments for select fires in the western United States. We use publicly available geospatial data describing basin morphology, burn severity, soil properties, and rainfall characteristics to estimate the statistical likelihood that debris flows will occur in response to a storm of a given rainfall intensity. Using an empirical database and refined geospatial analysis methods, we defined new equations for the prediction of debris-flow likelihood using logistic regression methods. We showed that the new logistic regression model outperformed previous models used to predict debris-flow likelihood.

  20. Post-Fire Sediment Flux of the Day Fire, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, K. M.; Stock, J. D.; Hanshaw, M. N.

    2007-12-01

    Hillslope transport rates in steeplands often increase dramatically following wildfires. Hillslope material transported by post-fire ravel processes is the primary source for sediment entrained in hazardous debris flows, which tend to initiate during intense rainfall. We used sediment traps to assess post-fire hillslope transport rates in steeplands burned by the 2006 Day fire in the Transverse Ranges of southern California. We installed seven sediment traps flush with the ground surface on relatively planar hillslopes ranging in gradient from 0.3 to 0.76 within two geologic parent materials: Mesozoic plutonic rocks and Miocene conglomerate and sandstone. Traps were installed within 2 to 4 weeks of fire containment while ravel was on-going. In the first month following fire containment, we observed widespread dry ravel and grain flows of cohesionless granular material occurring in response to localized turbulent wind bursts and solar-driven thermal variations. We collected sediment at <1 month intervals between October 2006 and July 2007, air dried samples, and then manually sieved and weighed them for particle size determination. The sediment mass acquired from each trap emptying interval was converted to a sediment flux per unit contour width. A nearby anemometer provided estimates of wind direction and speed. Particle size distribution of sediment accumulated in the traps remained relatively uniform throughout the monitoring period with no apparent immediate spike in post-fire, fine-grained ashy material. Ravel from the Miocene sediment is largely gravelly sand, while that derived from Mesozoic plutonic rocks is a sandy gravel grus. Sediment flux from all seven traps ranges over 2 orders of magnitude from 0.002 to 0.5 m3m-1yr- 1, lower on gentle slopes and higher on steeper slopes, independent of parent material. Plots show an exponential relation between cumulative sediment flux and local hillslope gradient, consistent with a non-linear relation between flux

  1. Outcome after burns: an observational study on burn scar maturation and predictors for severe scarring.

    PubMed

    van der Wal, Martijn B A; Vloemans, Jos F P M; Tuinebreijer, Wim E; van de Ven, Peter; van Unen, Ella; van Zuijlen, Paul P M; Middelkoop, Esther

    2012-01-01

    Long-term outcome of burn scars as well as the relation with clinically relevant parameters has not been studied quantitatively. Therefore, we conducted a detailed analysis on the clinical changes of burn scars in a longitudinal setup. In addition, we focused on the differences in scar quality in relation to the depth, etiology of the burn wound and age of the patient. Burn scars of 474 patients were subjected to a scar assessment protocol 3, 6, and 12 months postburn. Three different age groups were defined (≤5, 5-18, and ≥18 years). The observer part of the patient and observer scar assessment scale revealed a significant (p < 0.001) improvement in scar quality at 12 months compared with the 3- and 6-month data. Predictors for severe scarring are depth of the wound (p < 0.001) and total body surface area burned (p < 0.001). Etiology (p = 0.753) and age (p > 0.230) have no significant influence on scar quality when corrected for sex, total body surface area burned, time, and age or etiology, respectively.

  2. Glucose Variability is Associated With High Mortality After Severe Burn

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-11-01

    ORIGINAL ARTICLE Glucose Variability is Associated With High Mortality After Severe Burn Heather F. Pidcoke, MD, Sandra M. Wanek, MD, Laura S...Rohleder, John B. Holcomb, MD, Steven E. Wolf, MD, and Charles E. Wade, PhD Background: Hyperglycemia is associated with increased mortality in the severely...groups were similar for days of ventilator support, intensive care unit stay, and hospital stay. Mortality in the highly variable group was twice that of

  3. A data-driven approach for modeling post-fire debris-flow volumes and their uncertainty

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    This study demonstrates the novel application of genetic programming to evolve nonlinear post-fire debris-flow volume equations from variables associated with a data-driven conceptual model of the western United States. The search space is constrained using a multi-component objective function that simultaneously minimizes root-mean squared and unit errors for the evolution of fittest equations. An optimization technique is then used to estimate the limits of nonlinear prediction uncertainty associated with the debris-flow equations. In contrast to a published multiple linear regression three-variable equation, linking basin area with slopes greater or equal to 30 percent, burn severity characterized as area burned moderate plus high, and total storm rainfall, the data-driven approach discovers many nonlinear and several dimensionally consistent equations that are unbiased and have less prediction uncertainty. Of the nonlinear equations, the best performance (lowest prediction uncertainty) is achieved when using three variables: average basin slope, total burned area, and total storm rainfall. Further reduction in uncertainty is possible for the nonlinear equations when dimensional consistency is not a priority and by subsequently applying a gradient solver to the fittest solutions. The data-driven modeling approach can be applied to nonlinear multivariate problems in all fields of study. ?? 2011.

  4. Improving rangeland seeding success in post-fire water repellent soil using surfactant seed coating technology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Severe disturbance from catastrophic wildfires often requires that native plant materials be reintroduced through reseeding, but the success rate of these restoration efforts in arid environments is notoriously low. Post-fire soil water repellency can limit reseeding success by decreasing soil moist...

  5. Biogeochemistry and plant physiological traits interact to reinforce patterns of post-fire dominance in boreal forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shenoy, A.; Kielland, K.; Johnstone, J. F.

    2011-12-01

    Increases in the frequency, extent, and severity of fire in the North American boreal region are projected to continue under a warming climate and are likely to be associated with changes in future vegetation composition. In interior Alaska, fire severity is linked to the relative dominance of deciduous versus coniferous canopy species. Severely burned areas have high levels of deciduous recruitment and subsequent stand dominance, while lightly burned areas exhibit black spruce self-replacement. To elucidate potential mechanisms by which differential fire severity results in differential post-fire vegetation development, we examined changes in soil nitrogen (N) supply (NO3- and NH4+) and in situ 15N uptake by young aspen (Populus tremuloides) and black spruce (Picea mariana) trees growing in lightly and severely burned areas. We hypothesized that (a) soil nitrate supply would be higher in severely burned sites and (b) since conifers have been shown to have a reduced physiological capacity for NO3- uptake, aspen would display greater rates of NO3- uptake than spruce in severely burned sites. Our results suggested that the composition and magnitude of inorganic N supply 14 years after the fire was nearly identical in high-severity and low-severity sites, and nitrate represented nearly 50% of the supply. However, both aspen and spruce took up substantially more NH4+-N than NO3- -N regardless of fire severity. Surprisingly, spruce exhibited only a moderately lower rate of NO3- uptake (μg N/g root-1h-1) than aspen. At the stand level, aspen took up nearly an order-of-magnitude more N per hectare in severely burned sites compared to lightly burned sites, while spruce exhibited the opposite pattern of N uptake with respect to fire severity. Whereas ammonium appeared to be preferred by both species, nitrate represented a larger component of N uptake (based on the NO3-:NH4+ uptake ratio) in aspen (0.7) than in spruce (0.4). We suggest that these species

  6. 1984–2010 trends in fire burn severity and area for the conterminous US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Picotte, Joshua J.; Peterson, Birgit E.; Meier, Gretchen; Howard, Stephen M.

    2016-01-01

    Burn severity products created by the Monitoring Trends in Burn Severity (MTBS) project were used to analyse historical trends in burn severity. Using a severity metric calculated by modelling the cumulative distribution of differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and Relativized dNBR (RdNBR) data, we examined burn area and burn severity of 4893 historical fires (1984–2010) distributed across the conterminous US (CONUS) and mapped by MTBS. Yearly mean burn severity values (weighted by area), maximum burn severity metric values, mean area of burn, maximum burn area and total burn area were evaluated within 27 US National Vegetation Classification macrogroups. Time series assessments of burned area and severity were performed using Mann–Kendall tests. Burned area and severity varied by vegetation classification, but most vegetation groups showed no detectable change during the 1984–2010 period. Of the 27 analysed vegetation groups, trend analysis revealed burned area increased in eight, and burn severity has increased in seven. This study suggests that burned area and severity, as measured by the severity metric based on dNBR or RdNBR, have not changed substantially for most vegetation groups evaluated within CONUS.

  7. Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion -- lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, Mark E.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2012-01-01

    We monitored sediment flux at 25 plots located at the northern end of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire (Lake Bonneville Basin, west-central Utah) to examine the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in mitigating risks of wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire. Maximum values were recorded during Mar–Jul 2009 when horizontal sediment fluxes measured with BSNE samplers ranged from 16.3 to 1251.0 g m−2 d−1 in unburned plots (n = 8; data represent averages of three sampler heights per plot), 35.2–555.3 g m−2 d−1 in burned plots that were not treated (n = 5), and 21.0–44,010.7 g m−2 d−1 in burned plots that received one or more rehabilitation treatments that disturbed the soil surface (n = 12). Fluxes during this period exhibited extreme spatial variability and were contingent on upwind landscape characteristics and surficial soil properties, with maximum fluxes recorded in settings downwind of treated areas with long treatment length and unstable fine sand. Nonlinear patterns of wind erosion attributable to soil and fetch effects highlight the profound importance of landscape setting and soil properties as spatial factors to be considered in evaluating risks of alternative post-fire rehabilitation strategies. By Mar–Jul 2010, average flux for all plots declined by 73.6% relative to the comparable 2009 period primarily due to the establishment and growth of exotic annual plants rather than seeded perennial plants. Results suggest that treatments in sensitive erosion-prone settings generally exacerbated rather than mitigated wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire, although long-term effects remain uncertain.

  8. Post-fire land treatments and wind erosion - Lessons from the Milford Flat Fire, UT, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mark E.; Bowker, Matthew A.; Reynolds, Richard L.; Goldstein, Harland L.

    2012-12-01

    We monitored sediment flux at 25 plots located at the northern end of the 2007 Milford Flat Fire (Lake Bonneville Basin, west-central Utah) to examine the effectiveness of post-fire rehabilitation treatments in mitigating risks of wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire. Maximum values were recorded during Mar-Jul 2009 when horizontal sediment fluxes measured with BSNE samplers ranged from 16.3 to 1251.0 g m-2 d-1 in unburned plots (n = 8; data represent averages of three sampler heights per plot), 35.2-555.3 g m-2 d-1 in burned plots that were not treated (n = 5), and 21.0-44,010.7 g m-2 d-1 in burned plots that received one or more rehabilitation treatments that disturbed the soil surface (n = 12). Fluxes during this period exhibited extreme spatial variability and were contingent on upwind landscape characteristics and surficial soil properties, with maximum fluxes recorded in settings downwind of treated areas with long treatment length and unstable fine sand. Nonlinear patterns of wind erosion attributable to soil and fetch effects highlight the profound importance of landscape setting and soil properties as spatial factors to be considered in evaluating risks of alternative post-fire rehabilitation strategies. By Mar-Jul 2010, average flux for all plots declined by 73.6% relative to the comparable 2009 period primarily due to the establishment and growth of exotic annual plants rather than seeded perennial plants. Results suggest that treatments in sensitive erosion-prone settings generally exacerbated rather than mitigated wind erosion during the first 3 years post fire, although long-term effects remain uncertain.

  9. Developing a post-fire flood chronology and recurrence probability from alluvial stratigraphy in the Buffalo Creek watershed, Colorado, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, John G.; Parker, R. S.

    2001-10-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence indicate floods that occur soon after forest fires have been intermittent but common events in many mountainous areas during the past several thousand years. The magnitude and recurrence of these post-fire flood events reflects the joint probability between the recurrence of fires and the recurrence of subsequent rainfall events of varying magnitude and intensity. Following the May 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, forest fire, precipitation amounts and intensities that generated very little surface runoff outside of the burned area resulted in severe hillslope erosion, floods, and streambed sediment entrainment in the rugged, severely burned, 48 km2 area. These floods added sediment to many existing alluvial fans, while simultaneously incising other fans and alluvial deposits. Incision of older fans revealed multiple sequences of fluvially transported sandy gravel that grade upward into charcoal-rich, loamy horizons. We interpret these sequences to represent periods of high sediment transport and aggradation during floods, followed by intervals of quiescence and relative stability in the watershed until a subsequent fire occurred.An alluvial sequence near the mouth of a tributary draining a 0·82 km2 area indicated several previous post-fire flood cycles in the watershed. Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon ages of material in this deposit span approximately 2900 years, and define three aggradational periods. The three general aggradational periods are separated by intervals of approximately nine to ten centuries and reflect a millennium-scale geomorphic response to a closely timed sequence of events: severe and intense, watershed-scale, stand-replacing fires and subsequent rainstorms and flooding. Millennium-scale aggradational units at the study site may have resulted from a scenario in which the initial runoff from the burned watershed transported and deposited large volumes of sediment on downstream alluvial surfaces and

  10. Developing a post-fire flood chronology and recurrence probability from alluvial stratigraphy in the Buffalo Creek watershed, Colorado, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Parker, R.S.

    2001-01-01

    Stratigraphic and geomorphic evidence indicate floods that occur soon after forest fires have been intermittent but common events in many mountainous areas during the past several thousand years. The magnitude and recurrence of these post-fire flood events reflects the joint probability between the recurrence of fires and the recurrence of subsequent rainfall events of varying magnitude and intensity. Following the May 1996 Buffalo Creek, Colorado, forest fire, precipitation amounts and intensities that generated very little surface runoff outside of the burned area resulted in severe hillslope erosion, floods, and streambed sediment entrainment in the rugged, severely burned, 48 km2 area. These floods added sediment to many existing alluvial fans, while simultaneously incising other fans and alluvial deposits. Incision of older fans revealed multiple sequences of fluvially transported sandy gravel that grade upward into charcoal-rich, loamy horizons. We interpret these sequences to represent periods of high sediment transport and aggradation during floods, followed by intervals of quiescence and relative stability in the watershed until a subsequent fire occurred. An alluvial sequence near the mouth of a tributary draining a 0??82 km2 area indicated several previous post-fire flood cycles in the watershed. Dendrochronologic and radiocarbon ages of material in this deposit span approximately 2900 years, and define three aggradational periods. The three general aggradational periods are separated by intervals of approximately nine to ten centuries and reflect a 'millennium-scale' geomorphic response to a closely timed sequence of events: severe and intense, watershed-scale, stand-replacing fires and subsequent rainstorms and flooding. Millennium-scale aggradational units at the study site may have resulted from a scenario in which the initial runoff from the burned watershed transported and deposited large volumes of sediment on downstream alluvial surfaces and

  11. Testing the effectiveness of pine needlecast in reducing post-fire soil erosion using complementary experimental approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bento, C. P. M.; Shakesby, R. A.; Walsh, R. P. D.; Ferreira, C. S. S.; Ferreira, A. J. D.; Urbanek, E.

    2012-04-01

    conditions. In a second phase, a representative amount (8.34 kg) of fermented litter and shrubs from a pine plantation was applied evenly to each of five lysimeters. In a third stage, four of the five treated lysimeters were burned to simulate a low-severity wildfire. After several more rainfall events, pine needles (37.7% cover) were applied to two of the burnt lysimeters. In the final stage, there was 1 lysimeter with bare soil, 1 unburnt with a vegetation cover, 2 burnt and untreated, and 2 burnt with needles. In all the lysimeters, runoff and percolated water were monitored during the entire study, as were the amounts of eroded sediment and organic matter contents for runoff. Calculating the erosion-limiting effect of needles was conducted in a similar fashion to (1) and based on results from stages 3 and 4. The results from both experiments show that the needles reduced erosion by as much as c.60% compared with the corresponding control situation, indicating that a needlecast 'carpet' is likely to be able to provide a highly effective, simple, cheap means of significantly reducing post-fire soil loss in pine forests where the tree canopies have been scorched but not consumed by fire.

  12. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Hydrological Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary Ellen; MacDonald, Lee H.; Billmire, Michael; Elliot, William J.; Robichaud, Pete R.

    2016-04-01

    Rapid response is critical following natural disasters. Flooding, erosion, and debris flows are a major threat to life, property and municipal water supplies after moderate and high severity wildfires. The problem is that mitigation measures must be rapidly implemented if they are to be effective, but they are expensive and cannot be applied everywhere. Fires, runoff, and erosion risks also are highly heterogeneous in space, so there is an urgent need for a rapid, spatially-explicit assessment. Past post-fire modeling efforts have usually relied on lumped, conceptual models because of the lack of readily available, spatially-explicit data layers on the key controls of topography, vegetation type, climate, and soil characteristics. The purpose of this project is to develop a set of spatially-explicit data layers for use in process-based models such as WEPP, and to make these data layers freely available. The resulting interactive online modeling database (http://geodjango.mtri.org/geowepp/) is now operational and publically available for 17 western states in the USA. After a fire, users only need to upload a soil burn severity map, and this is combined with the pre-existing data layers to generate the model inputs needed for spatially explicit models such as GeoWEPP (Renschler, 2003). The development of this online database has allowed us to predict post-fire erosion and various remediation scenarios in just 1-7 days for six fires ranging in size from 4-540 km2. These initial successes have stimulated efforts to further improve the spatial extent and amount of data, and add functionality to support the USGS debris flow model, batch processing for Disturbed WEPP (Elliot et al., 2004) and ERMiT (Robichaud et al., 2007), and to support erosion modeling for other land uses, such as agriculture or mining. The design and techniques used to create the database and the modeling interface are readily repeatable for any area or country that has the necessary topography

  13. Microvascular regeneration in meshed skin transplants after severe burns.

    PubMed

    Meier, T O; Guggenheim, M; Vetter, S T; Husmann, M; Haile, S R; Amann-Vesti, B R

    2011-09-01

    Function of the skin lymphatics as well as blood perfusion of a meshed transplant is crucial for the healing. The lymphatic regeneration and arterial perfusion of skin transplants after severe burns of the extremities had been studied in eight patients by microlymphography, laser doppler perfusion imaging and transcutaneous oxygen pressure measurements 1, 6 and 18 months after transplantation. One month after transplantation, only fragmented as well as many giant lymphatic skin vessels were present in the transplant. After 6 months a normal lymphatic network had developed in all grafts. The extension of the dye in the lymphatics decreased from 4.5 (0-16) at 1 month to 3.0 (1-6) mm after 18 months, indicating improved lymph drainage capacity. The permeability of the lymphatics in the graft was normal. After 1 month, median laser flux in the transplant was 155.6% (105-246%) of the normal skin but it normalised within 18 months. By contrast, transcutaneous oxygen measurement (TcPO(2)) increased from 44 (21-47) to 55 (50-76) mmHg. In meshed transplants used to cover severely burned skin morphological and functional normal lymphatics develop within 6 months and the initially increased laser flux due to inflammatory reaction normalises. Our results provide important insights into the healing process of skin transplants after burn.

  14. Rapid Response Tools and Datasets for Post-fire Erosion Modeling: Lessons Learned from the Rock House and High Park Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Mary Ellen; Elliot, William E.; MacDonald, Lee H.

    2013-04-01

    Once the danger posed by an active wildfire has passed, land managers must rapidly assess the threat from post-fire runoff and erosion due to the loss of surface cover and fire-induced changes in soil properties. Increased runoff and sediment delivery are of great concern to both the pubic and resource managers. Post-fire assessments and proposals to mitigate these threats are typically undertaken by interdisciplinary Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) teams. These teams are under very tight deadlines, so they often begin their analysis while the fire is still burning and typically must complete their plans within a couple of weeks. Many modeling tools and datasets have been developed over the years to assist BAER teams, but process-based, spatially explicit models are currently under-utilized relative to simpler, lumped models because they are more difficult to set up and require the preparation of spatially-explicit data layers such as digital elevation models, soils, and land cover. The difficulty of acquiring and utilizing these data layers in spatially-explicit models increases with increasing fire size. Spatially-explicit post-fire erosion modeling was attempted for a small watershed in the 1270 km2 Rock House fire in Texas, but the erosion modeling work could not be completed in time. The biggest limitation was the time required to extract the spatially explicit soils data needed to run the preferred post-fire erosion model (GeoWEPP with Disturbed WEPP parameters). The solution is to have the spatial soil, land cover, and DEM data layers prepared ahead of time, and to have a clear methodology for the BAER teams to incorporate these layers in spatially-explicit modeling interfaces like GeoWEPP. After a fire occurs the data layers can quickly be clipped to the fire perimeter. The soil and land cover parameters can then be adjusted according to the burn severity map, which is one of the first products generated for the BAER teams. Under a previous project

  15. Predicting the effectiveness of different mulching techniques to reduce post-fire runoff and erosion in Mediterranean pine stands - does cover matter?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Diana; Nunes, João; Prats, Sergio; Serpa, Dalila; Keizer, Jan

    2016-04-01

    Wildfires have become a recurrent threat for many forest ecosystems of the Mediterranean. The characteristics of the Mediterranean climate with its warm and dry summers and mild and wet winters make it prone to wildfire occurrence as well as to post-fire soil erosion. Furthermore, climate change and continuation of current land management practices and planning are generally expected to further increase this threat. The wide recognition of the effects of wildfires to enhance runoff and erosion has created a strong demand for model-based tools for predicting the post-fire hydrological and erosion response and, in particular, for predicting the effectiveness of post-fire forestry operations to mitigate these responses. Such a tool should allow to identify areas with elevated risks of soil erosion and to evaluate which measures should be applied and when to minimize these risks. A key element in evaluating these measures is also their costs, in order to optimize the use of the limited resources that are typically available for post-fire land management. In this study, two "treatments" are compared with control conditions (i.e. doing nothing) after a wildfire with a moderate soil burn severity: (i) 4 erosion plots were treated with hydro-mulch, (ii) 4 erosion plots were untreated but had a high pine needle cover quickly after the fire, due to needle cast from scorched pine crowns (often referred to as "natural mulching") (iii) 4 plots were untreated and had a very reduced protective litter cover . The main objective of this study was to asses if the revised MMF model could effectively predict the impacts of hydro-mulching and natural mulching with pine needle on runoff generation and the associated soil losses. If MMF could predict well the impact of natural mulching, it could be very useful in limiting the areas that should be considered for specific soil mitigation measures, especially in the case of wildfires that affect large areas with moderate severity. The

  16. Drought impact on vegetation in pre and post fire events in Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C.

    2012-04-01

    In 2004/2005, the Iberian Peninsula was stricken by an exceptional drought that affected more than one third of Portugal and part of southern Spain during more than 9 months. This severe drought had a strong negative impact on vegetation dynamics, as it coincided with the period of high photosynthetic activity (Gouveia et al., 2009). Since water availability is a crucial factor in post-fire vegetation recovery, it is desirable to assess the impact that such water-stress conditions had on fire sensitivity and post-fire vegetation recovery. Fire events in the European Mediterranean areas have become a serious problem and a major ecosystem disturbance, increasing erosion and soil degradation. In Portugal, the years 2003 and 2005 were particularly devastating. In 2003 it was registered the maximal burnt area since 1980, with more than 425000 ha burned, representing about 5% of Portuguese mainland. The 2005 fire season registered the highest number of fire occurrences in Portugal and the second year with the greatest number of fires in Spain. The high number of fire events observed during the summer 2005 in the Iberian Peninsula is linked, in part, to the extreme drought conditions that prevailed during the preceding winter and spring seasons of 2004/2005. Vegetation recovery after the 2003 and 2005 fire seasons was estimated using the mono-parametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010), which relies on monthly values of Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), from 1999 to 2009, at 1kmresolution, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument.. This model was further used to evaluate the effect of drought in pre and post vegetation activity. Besides the standard NDVI, the Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI) and the Normalized Difference Drought Index (NDDI) were computed in order to evaluate drought intensity. In the case of the burnt scars of 2003, when data corresponding to the months of drought are removed, recovery times are considerably shorter

  17. Mid-term and scaling effects of forest residue mulching on post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Wagenbrenner, Joseph W; Martins, Martinho António Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2016-12-15

    Mulching is an effective post-fire soil erosion mitigation treatment. Experiments with forest residue mulch have demonstrated that it increased ground cover to 70% and reduced runoff and soil loss at small spatial scales and for short post-fire periods. However, no studies have systematically assessed the joint effects of scale, time since burning, and mulching on runoff, soil loss, and organic matter loss. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of scale and forest residue mulch using 0.25m(2) micro-plots and 100m(2) slope-scale plots in a burnt eucalypt plantation in central Portugal. We assessed the underlying processes involved in the post-fire hydrologic and erosive responses, particularly the effects of soil moisture and soil water repellency. Runoff amount in the micro-plots was more than ten-fold the runoff in the larger slope-scale plots in the first year and decreased to eight-fold in the third post-fire year. Soil losses in the micro-plots were initially about twice the values in the slope-scale plots and this ratio increased over time. The mulch greatly reduced the cumulative soil loss measured in the untreated slope-scale plots (616gm(-2)) by 91% during the five post-fire years. The implications are that applying forest residue mulch immediately after a wildfire can reduce soil losses at spatial scales of interest to land managers throughout the expected post-fire window of disturbance, and that mulching resulted in a substantial relative gain in soil organic matter.

  18. Comparison of post-fire seedling establishment between scrub communities in mediterranean and non-mediterranean climate ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carrington, M.E.; Keeley, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    I Both fire regimes and the conditions under which fires occur vary widely. Abiotic conditions (such as climate) in combination with fire season, frequency and intensity could influence vegetation responses to fire. A variety of adaptations facilitate post-fire recruitment in mediterranean climate ecosystems, but responses of other communities are less well known. We evaluated the importance of climate by comparing sites with mediterranean and subtropical climates. 2 We used paired burned and mature sites in chamise chaparral, mixed chaparral and coastal sage scrub (California), and rosemary scrub, sand pine scrub and sand-hill (Florida), to test whether (i) patterns of pre-fire and post-fire seedling recruitment are more similar between communities within a region than between regions, and (ii) post-fire stimulation of seedling establishment is greater in regions with marked fire-induced contrasts in abiotic site characteristics. 3 Post-fire seedling densities were more similar among sites within climatic regions than between regions. Both seedling densities and proportions of species represented by seedlings after fires were generally higher in California. 4 The only site characteristic showing a pre-fire-post-fire contrast was percentage open canopy, and the effect was greater in California than in Florida. Soil properties were unaffected by fire. 5 Mediterranean climate ecosystems in other regions have nutrient-poor soils similar to our subtropical Florida sites, but show post-fire seedling recruitment patterns more similar to the nutrient-rich sites in California. Climate therefore appears to play a more major role than soil characteristics.

  19. The Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA): Developing Post-Fire Model Parameters Using Precipitation and Runoff Records from Gauged Watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheppard, B. S.; Goodrich, D. C.; Guertin, D. P.; Burns, I. S.; Canfield, E.; Sidman, G.

    2014-12-01

    New tools and functionality have been incorporated into the Automated Geospatial Watershed Assessment Tool (AGWA) to assess the impacts of wildfire on runoff and erosion. AGWA (see: www.tucson.ars.ag.gov/agwa or http://www.epa.gov/esd/land-sci/agwa/) is a GIS interface jointly developed by the USDA-Agricultural Research Service, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the University of Arizona, and the University of Wyoming to automate the parameterization and execution of a suite of hydrologic and erosion models (RHEM, WEPP, KINEROS2 and SWAT). Through an intuitive interface the user selects an outlet from which AGWA delineates and discretizes the watershed using a Digital Elevation Model (DEM). The watershed model elements are then intersected with terrain, soils, and land cover data layers to derive the requisite model input parameters. With the addition of a burn severity map AGWA can be used to model post wildfire changes to a catchment. By applying the same design storm to burned and unburned conditions a rapid assessment of the watershed can be made and areas that are the most prone to flooding can be identified. Post-fire precipitation and runoff records from gauged forested watersheds are now being used to make improvements to post fire model input parameters. Rainfall and runoff pairs have been selected from these records in order to calibrate parameter values for surface roughness and saturated hydraulic conductivity used in the KINEROS2 model. Several objective functions will be tried in the calibration process. Results will be validated. Currently Department of Interior Burn Area Emergency Response (DOI BAER) teams are using the AGWA-KINEROS2 modeling interface to assess hydrologically imposed risk immediately following wild fire. These parameter refinements are being made to further improve the quality of these assessments.

  20. Post-fire vegetation succession in Mediterranean gorse shrublands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Luis, Martin; Raventós, José; González-Hidalgo, José Carlos

    2006-07-01

    In Western Mediterranean areas, forest fires are frequent in forests established on old croplands where post-fire regeneration is limited to obligate-seeder species. This has resulted in the spread of Mediterranean gorse ( Ulex parviflorus) increasing the risk and severity of fires. The aim of this paper is to test the autosuccessional hypothesis on a Mediterranean gorse shrubland dominated by seeders species. Particular objectives are: a) to analyze the effect of fire on seedling emergence, survival and growth on the main species involved on plant regeneration process. b) to identify changes in the relative abundance of species as consequence of fire by using a before-after experiment. Then, after experimental fires, seedling emergence, survival and growth rates were analyzed for the main species present in the vegetation regeneration process. Our results show that Mediterranean gorse communities are dominated by Fabaceae species (64% of individuals, mainly of Ulex parviflorus). However, our study demonstrates that vegetation regeneration after fire does not display an autosuccessional pattern and is produced a change on dominance from Fabaceae (mainly U. parviflorus) to Cistaceae (mainly C. albidus) species. Cistaceae seedlings (mainly Cistus albidus and Helianthemum marifolium) were the most abundant post-fire (63% of total germination) while species of Fabaceae (including U. parviflorus and Ononis fruticosa) represented 25%, and Lamiaceae (restricted to Rosmarinus officinalis) comprised only 3% of total emergences. Seedling survival did not differ significantly from one species to another (25-30% of initial individuals over 3 years) but seedling growth rates were also higher for Cistaceae than for Fabaceae individuals. Then, after fire, in terms of biomass, Fabaceae presence decreased from 78.7% to 13.1% while Cistaceae increase from 8% to 83.4%. Given that fire frequency, intensity or severity is partially controlled by the composition and structure of the

  1. Fire intensity, fire severity and burn severity: A brief review and suggested usage

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Keeley, J.E.

    2009-01-01

    Several recent papers have suggested replacing the terminology of fire intensity and fire severity. Part of the problem with fire intensity is that it is sometimes used incorrectly to describe fire effects, when in fact it is justifiably restricted to measures of energy output. Increasingly, the term has created confusion because some authors have restricted its usage to a single measure of energy output referred to as fireline intensity. This metric is most useful in understanding fire behavior in forests, but is too narrow to fully capture the multitude of ways fire energy affects ecosystems. Fire intensity represents the energy released during various phases of a fire, and different metrics such as reaction intensity, fireline intensity, temperature, heating duration and radiant energy are useful for different purposes. Fire severity, and the related term burn severity, have created considerable confusion because of recent changes in their usage. Some authors have justified this by contending that fire severity is defined broadly as ecosystem impacts from fire and thus is open to individual interpretation. However, empirical studies have defined fire severity operationally as the loss of or change in organic matter aboveground and belowground, although the precise metric varies with management needs. Confusion arises because fire or burn severity is sometimes defined so that it also includes ecosystem responses. Ecosystem responses include soil erosion, vegetation regeneration, restoration of community structure, faunal recolonization, and a plethora of related response variables. Although some ecosystem responses are correlated with measures of fire or burn severity, many important ecosystem processes have either not been demonstrated to be predicted by severity indices or have been shown in some vegetation types to be unrelated to severity. This is a critical issue because fire or burn severity are readily measurable parameters, both on the ground and with

  2. Early and Late Acute Kidney Injury in Severely Burned Patients

    PubMed Central

    Witkowski, Wojciech; Kawecki, Marek; Surowiecka-Pastewka, Agnieszka; Klimm, Wojciech; Szamotulska, Katarzyna; Niemczyk, Stanisław

    2016-01-01

    Background This study evaluated factors influencing early and late occurrence of AKI in severely burned patients and assessed the relationship between time of occurrence of AKI and mortality of AKI patients. Material/Methods Renal function was evaluated at 3 time points: at admission, at the critical point or middle point of hospitalization, and at the endpoint for which death or a discharge from the center was considered. AKI criteria were: decrease in GFR of less than 60 ml/min at admission, decrease in GFR of more than 75% compared to baseline, and decrease in the daily diuresis of less than 500 ml/24 h. Results At admission, 15.1% of the patients had eGFR <60 ml/min. AKI occurred in 38.5% of cases. The occurrence of AKI was associated with: elderly age (p<0.001), female sex (p=0.017), overweight and obesity (p=0.055); extent and depth of burns, respiratory failure, low protein concentration (for all p<0.001), low blood pressure (p=0.014), and high WBC (p=0.010). Early AKI was detected in 28% of patients. Mortality was 100% with the initial GFR ≥60, 100% with the initial GFR <60 and early deterioration of renal function, 80% with the initial GFR <60 and late worsening, and 60% with the initial GFR <60 and no worsening. Late AKI was observed in 10% of patients and mortality in this group was 79.2%. Mortality in the entire group with AKI was 88.0% versus 24.5%. Conclusions The frequent occurrence of AKI, especially early, worsens the prognosis for survival. Assessment of renal function should be included in the prognostic scales for burned patients. PMID:27746455

  3. Contamination of burn wounds by Achromobacter Xylosoxidans followed by severe infection: 10-year analysis of a burn unit population

    PubMed Central

    Schulz, A.; Perbix, W.; Fuchs, P.C.; Seyhan, H.; Schiefer, J.L.

    2016-01-01

    Summary Gram-negative infections predominate in burn surgery. Until recently, Achromobacter species were described as sepsis-causing bacteria in immunocompromised patients only. Severe infections associated with Achromobacter species in burn patients have been rarely reported. We retrospectively analyzed all burn patients in our database, who were treated at the Intensive Care Burn Unit (ICBU) of the Cologne Merheim Burn Centre from January 2006 to December 2015, focusing on contamination and infection by Achromobacter species.We identified 20 patients with burns contaminated by Achromobacter species within the 10-year study period. Four of these patients showed signs of infection concomitant with detection of Achromobacter species. Despite receiving complex antibiotic therapy based on antibiogram and resistogram typing, 3 of these patients, who had extensive burns, developed severe sepsis. Two patients ultimately died of multiple organ failure. In 1 case, Achromobacter xylosoxidans was the only isolate detected from the swabs and blood samples taken during the last stage of sepsis. Achromobacter xylosoxidans contamination of wounds of severely burned immunocompromised patients can lead to systemic lethal infection. Close monitoring of burn wounds for contamination by Achromobacter xylosoxidans is essential, and appropriate therapy must be administered as soon as possible. PMID:28149253

  4. POST-FIRE REVEGETATION AT HANFORD

    SciTech Connect

    ROOS RC; JOHNSON AR; CAUDILL JG; RODRIGUEZ JM; WILDE JW

    2010-01-05

    Range fires on the Hanford Site can have a long lasting effect on native plant communities. Wind erosion following removal of protective vegetation from fragile soils compound the damaging effect of fires. Dust storms caused by erosion create health and safety hazards to personnel, and damage facilities and equipment. The Integrated Biological Control Program (IBC) revegetates burned areas to control erosion and consequent dust. Use of native, perennial vegetation in revegetation moves the resulting plant community away from fire-prone annual weeds, and toward the native shrub-steppe that is much less likely to burn in the future. Over the past 10 years, IBC has revegetated major fire areas with good success. IBC staff is monitoring the success of these efforts, and using lessons learned to improve future efforts.

  5. Effects of sowing native herbaceous species on the post-fire recovery in a heathland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Abascal, I.; Tárrega, R.; Luis-Calabuig, E.; Marcos, E.

    2003-07-01

    Erica australis heathlands in León province (NW Spain) have high resilience to disturbances and their post-fire recovery is very fast. The risk of soil erosion is high in the first few months after fire. The aim of this study is to investigate the effects on post-fire succession of sowing grass ( Agrostis capillaris and Festuca rubra) and legume ( Lotus corniculatus) seeds in a heathland burned by a summer wildfire, and to determine the most suitable native herbaceous species combination for protecting the soil in the first few phases of recovery. Fifteen permanent 4 m 2 plots are established in the burned area; four treatments and a control (unsown) are applied, each with three replicates. Three similar unburned plots are also considered (unburned control). Total cover is significantly higher in the sown plots in relation to the control in the first few months after sowing, but there are no differences after 18 months. Lotus corniculatus appears only in the first year and has no effect on the total cover. F. rubra appears earlier than Agrostis capillaris, but decreases significantly in cover after 18 months. Shrub species have the highest cover in the control plots and the lowest in the Agrostis plots. The correspondence analysis shows that the trend for vegetation in all plots reaches similar species composition by the time of final sampling. The last sampling of sown plots shows greater similarity to the control plots than the sampling of these plots within the first year. The fast initial growth of F. rubra, together with its decrease and subsequent low cover from the second year, make it more preferable than Agrostis capillaris for purposes of soil protection. However, additional research, both species- and site-specific, is necessary, as different responses due to different post-fire conditions and pre-fire species composition can have important implications on community dynamics.

  6. Pre- and Post-Fire Infiltration Rates in a Montane Mixed Conifer Ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopp, E. S.; Pohlmann, M. A.; Jones, C. A.; Chorover, J.; Schaap, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    The NSF-funded Catalina-Jemez Critical Zone Observatory (CZO) studies couplings among hydrologic, lithologic, ecological, and geochemical dynamics in the Southwest U.S. The motivation to study this region is to understand and to develop predictive models of how slow changes and abrupt disturbances affect landscape evolution and water resources for growing urban populations. One of the prevalent disturbances in Southwestern forested ecosystems is fire, which can dramatically alter near surface hydraulic properties and cause large changes in hydrological response in catchments. This poster will present a unique data set of pre- and post-fire infiltration and subsurface data collected before and shortly after the June 2013 Thompson Ridge Fire near Redondo Peak in the Valles Caldera 10 miles north of Jemez Springs, NM. Single ring pre-fire infiltration measurements were taken in July 2011 at 22 different locations with high-precision GPS tags. Similar post-fire infiltration measurements were taken within 1 meter of spatial accuracy of the pre-fire measurements in July 2013. The near-surface soil was analyzed for texture and organic matter content at 53 GPS-referenced locations in 2011, and a more detailed soil analysis is currently being analyzed in the laboratory for the 22 infiltration sites (5 depth increments down to about 50 cm). Because of the recent nature of the burn and subsequent sampling, complete results from data analysis are not yet available, however, the poster will provide a statistical analysis among pre- and post fire infiltration rates, established burn intensity classes, and subsurface changes such as soil texture and organic matter content.

  7. Monitoring the Effects of Forest Restoration Treatments on Post-Fire Vegetation Recovery with MODIS Multitemporal Data

    PubMed Central

    van Leeuwen, Willem J. D.

    2008-01-01

    This study examines how satellite based time-series vegetation greenness data and phenological measurements can be used to monitor and quantify vegetation recovery after wildfire disturbances and examine how pre-fire fuel reduction restoration treatments impact fire severity and impact vegetation recovery trajectories. Pairs of wildfire affected sites and a nearby unburned reference site were chosen to measure the post-disturbance recovery in relation to climate variation. All site pairs were chosen in forested uplands in Arizona and were restricted to the area of the Rodeo-Chediski fire that occurred in 2002. Fuel reduction treatments were performed in 1999 and 2001. The inter-annual and seasonal vegetation dynamics before, during, and after wildfire events can be monitored using a time series of biweekly composited MODIS NDVI (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer - Normalized Difference Vegetation Index) data. Time series analysis methods included difference metrics, smoothing filters, and fitting functions that were applied to extract seasonal and inter-annual change and phenological metrics from the NDVI time series data from 2000 to 2007. Pre- and post-fire Landsat data were used to compute the Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) and examine burn severity at the selected sites. The phenological metrics (pheno-metrics) included the timing and greenness (i.e. NDVI) for the start, peak and end of the growing season as well as proxy measures for the rate of green-up and senescence and the annual vegetation productivity. Pre-fire fuel reduction treatments resulted in lower fire severity, which reduced annual productivity much less than untreated areas within the Rodeo-Chediski fire perimeter. The seasonal metrics were shown to be useful for estimating the rate of post-fire disturbance recovery and the timing of phenological greenness phases. The use of satellite time series NDVI data and derived pheno-metrics show potential for tracking vegetation cover dynamics

  8. Serum CD14 levels in polytraumatized and severely burned patients.

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, C; Schütt, C; Obertacke, U; Joka, T; Müller, F E; Knöller, J; Köller, M; König, W; Schönfeld, W

    1991-01-01

    Recently it has been demonstrated that the CD14 molecule which is expressed on monocytes and macrophages serves as a receptor for lipopolysaccharide (LPS) bound to LPS-binding protein (LBP) and thus mediates LPS-induced tumour necrosis factor (TNF) production. Here we report that CD14 is found as a soluble (s) molecule in serum. In healthy volunteers sCD14 levels (mean +/- s.e.m.) were 3.7 +/- 0.05 micrograms/ml (n = 30, 25-50 years of age) as determined by ELISA (detection limit 20 ng/ml serum) using two monoclonal antibodies in a sandwich technique. In polytraumatized patients (n = 16) significantly decreased levels (1.7 +/- 0.3) were detected immediately after the trauma, which increased to 4.9 +/- 0.3 micrograms/ml within the first 6 days post trauma. sCD14 remained elevated during the first 14 days post trauma in patients with the most severe injuries (injury severity score greater than 45 points), whereas a return to normal levels was observed in patients with an injury score of less than 45 points. In addition, the levels of the high-density lipoproteins that partially inactivate free endotoxin are significantly decreased post trauma. No correlation between parameters of inflammation (C3a and neopterin levels, leucocyte counts, amount of band cells), liver function and sCD14 levels was established. Comparable to polytraumatized patients, increased sCD14 serum levels were observed in five patients with burn trauma (burned area greater than 35%) within the second week post trauma when clinical signs of septicaemia were evident. PMID:1713813

  9. Post-fire water quality in forest catchments: a review with implications for potable water supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Lane, Patrick; Nyman, Petter; Haydon, Shane

    2010-05-01

    In many locations fire-prone forest catchments are utilised for the supply of potable water to small communities up to large cities. For example, in south-eastern Australia, wildfires have burned part or all of forest catchments supplying drinking water to Sydney (2001 wildfire), Canberra (2003), Adelaide (2007), Melbourne (2009), as well as various regional towns. Generally, undisturbed forest catchments are a source of high quality water. However, increases in erosion and sediment flux, runoff generation, and changes to the supply of key constituents after wildfire may result in contamination of water supplies. In this review, we present key physical and chemical constituents from a drinking water perspective that may be generated in burned forest catchments and examine post-fire changes to concentrations of these constituents in streams and reservoirs. The World Health Organisation (WHO) drinking water guideline values were used to assess reported post-fire constituent concentrations. Constituents examined include suspended sediment, ash, nutrients, trace metals, anions (Cl-, SO42-), cyanides, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Constituent concentrations in streams and reservoirs vary substantially following wildfire. In streams, maximum reported total suspended solid concentrations (SSC) in the first year after fire ranged from 11 to 143,000 mg L-1. SSC is often measured in studies of post-fire stream water quality, whereas turbidity is used in drinking water guidelines and more commonly monitored in water supply reservoirs. For burned catchment reservoirs in south-eastern Australia, peak turbidities increased over pre-fire conditions, as did the frequency of exceedance of the turbidity guideline. NO3-, NO2-, and NH4+ may increase after wildfire but maximum recorded concentrations have not exceeded WHO guideline values. Large post-fire increases in total N and total P concentrations in streams and reservoirs have been observed, although there are no

  10. Quantifying post-fire recovery of forest canopy structure and its environmental drivers using satellite image time-series

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khanal, Shiva; Duursma, Remko; Boer, Matthias

    2014-05-01

    Fire is a recurring disturbance in most of Australia's forests. Depending on fire severity, impacts on forest canopies vary from light scorching to complete defoliation, with related variation in the magnitude and duration of post-fire gas exchange by that canopy. Estimates of fire impacts on forest canopy structure and carbon uptake for south-eastern Australia's forests do not exist. Here, we use 8-day composite measurements of the fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active radiation (FPAR) as recorded by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) to characterise forest canopies before and after fire and to compare burnt and unburnt sites. FPAR is a key biophysical canopy variable and primary input for estimating Gross Primary Productivity (GPP). Post-fire FPAR loss was quantified for all forest areas burnt between 2001 and 2010, showing good agreement with independent assessments of fire severity patterns of 2009 Black Saturday fires. A new method was developed to determine the duration of post-fire recovery from MODIS-FPAR time-series. The method involves a spatial-mode principal component analysis on full FPAR time series followed by a K-means clustering to group pixels based on similarity in temporal patterns. Using fire history data, time series of FPAR for burnt and unburnt pixels in each cluster were then compared to quantify the duration of the post-fire recovery period, which ranged from less than 1 to 8 years. The results show that time series of MODIS FPAR are well suited to detect and quantify disturbances of forest canopy structure and function in large areas of highly variable climate and phenology. Finally, the role of post-fire climate conditions and previous fire history on the duration of the post-fire recovery of the forest canopy was examined using generalized additive models.

  11. Predictors of muscle protein synthesis after severe pediatric burns

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives: Following a major burn, muscle protein synthesis rate increases but in most patients, this response is not sufficient to compensate the also elevated protein breakdown. Given the long-term nature of the pathophysiologic response to burn injury, we hypothesized that skeletal muscle prot...

  12. Phenotypic plasticity of post-fire activity and thermal biology of a free-ranging small mammal.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2016-05-15

    Ecosystems can change rapidly and sometimes irreversibly due to a number of anthropogenic and natural factors, such as deforestation and fire. How individual animals exposed to such changes respond behaviourally and physiologically is poorly understood. We quantified the phenotypic plasticity of activity patterns and torpor use - a highly efficient energy conservation mechanism - in brown antechinus (Antechinus stuartii), a small Australian marsupial mammal. We compared groups in densely vegetated forest areas (pre-fire and control) with a group in a burned, open habitat (post-fire). Activity and torpor patterns differed among groups and sexes. Females in the post-fire group spent significantly less time active than the other groups, both during the day and night. However, in males only daytime activity declined in the post-fire group, although overall activity was also reduced on cold days in males for all groups. The reduction in total or diurnal activity in the post-fire group was made energetically possible by a ~3.4-fold and ~2.2-fold increase in the proportion of time females and males, respectively, used torpor in comparison to that in the pre-fire and control groups. Overall, likely due to reproductive needs, torpor was more pronounced in females than in males, but low ambient temperatures increased torpor bout duration in both sexes. Importantly, for both male and female antechinus and likely other small mammals, predator avoidance and energy conservation - achieved by reduced activity and increased torpor use - appear to be vital for post-fire survival where ground cover and refuges have been obliterated.

  13. The role of exercise in the rehabilitation of patients with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Porter, Craig; Hardee, Justin P; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2015-01-01

    Severe burn trauma results in persistent skeletal muscle catabolism and prolonged immobilization. We hypothesize that structured rehabilitative exercise is a safe and efficacious strategy to restore lean body mass and physical function in burn victims. Here, we review the evidence for the utility of rehabilitative exercise training in restoring physiological function in burn survivors.

  14. Determinants of Post-fire Water Quality in the Western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rust, A.; Saxe, S.; Dolan, F.; Hogue, T. S.; McCray, J. E.

    2015-12-01

    Large wildfires are becoming increasingly common in the Western United States. Wildfires that consume greater than twenty percent of the watershed impact river water quality. The surface waters of the arid West are limited and in demand by the aquatic ecosystems, irrigated agriculture, and the region's growing human population. A range of studies, typically focused on individual fires, have observed mobilization of contaminants, nutrients (including nitrates), and sediments into receiving streams. Post-fire metal concentrations have also been observed to increase when fires were located in streams close to urban centers. The objective of this work was to assemble an extensive historical water quality database through data mining from federal, state and local agencies into a fire-database. Data from previous studies on individual fires by the co-authors was also included. The fire-database includes observations of water quality, discharge, geospatial and land characteristics from over 200 fire-impacted watersheds in the western U.S. since 1985. Water quality data from burn impacted watersheds was examined for trends in water quality response using statistical analysis. Watersheds where there was no change in water quality after fire were also examined to determine characteristics of the watershed that make it more resilient to fire. The ultimate goal is to evaluate trends in post-fire water quality response and identify key drivers of resiliency and post-fire response. The fire-database will eventually be publicly available.Large wildfires are becoming increasingly common in the Western United States. Wildfires that consume greater than twenty percent of the watershed impact river water quality. The surface waters of the arid West are limited and in demand by the aquatic ecosystems, irrigated agriculture, and the region's growing human population. A range of studies, typically focused on individual fires, have observed mobilization of contaminants, nutrients

  15. Post-fire grazing management in the Great Basin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasing wildfire size and frequency in the Great Basin call for post-fire grazing management practices that ensure sagebrush steppe communities are productive and resilient to disturbances such as drought and species invasions. We provide guidelines for maintaining productive sagebrush steppe co...

  16. Synthesis of current knowledge on post-fire seeding for soil stabilization and invasive species control

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Beyers, Jan L.; Pyke, David A.; Wirth, Troy

    2015-01-01

    The General Accounting Office has identified a need for better information on the effectiveness of post-fire emergency stabilization and rehabilitation methods used by the U.S. Forest Service and Department of Interior (DOI) agencies. Since reviews were published on treatment effectiveness in the early 2000s, treatment choices have changed and increased monitoring has been done. Greater use of native species has added substantially to burned area emergency response (BAER) treatment costs, for example, but quantitative data on this treatment were scarce in earlier reviews. We synthesized current information on the effectiveness of post-fire seeding for both soil stabilization and for prevention of the spread of invasive species in rangelands. We reviewed published literature (peer-reviewed and “gray”) and agency monitoring reports, as well as compiled and analyzed quantitative data in agency files. Products of this review include a web-accessible database of monitoring reports and published information, a scientific journal paper summarizing findings of scientific studies, an annotated bibliography of peer-reviewed papers, a summary report published as a General Technical Report that will be available online (in progress), and presentations to scientific meetings and BAER/ESR team training sessions and workshops. By combining results from studies done by Forest Service and DOI agency personnel with research studies published since the initial reviews, we presented a comprehensive synthesis of seeding effectiveness knowledge that complements the review of other hillslope treatments published by other researchers. This information will help federal land managers make more cost-effective decisions on post-fire stabilization and rehabilitation treatments.

  17. Predicting post-fire erosion and sedimentation risk on a landscape scale: A case study from Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacDonald, L.H.; Sampson, R.; Brady, D.; Juarros, L.; Martin, D.

    2000-01-01

    Historic fire suppression efforts have increased the likelihood of large wildfires in much of the western U.S. Post-fire soil erosion and sedimentation risks are important concerns to resource managers. In this paper we develop and apply procedures to predict post-fire erosion and sedimentation risks on a pixel-, catchment-, and landscape-scale in central and western Colorado. Our model for predicting post-fire surface erosion risk is conceptually similar to the Revised Universal Soil Loss Equation (RUSLE). One key addition is the incorporation of a hydrophobicity risk index (HY-RISK) based on vegetation type, predicted fire severity, and soil texture. Post-fire surface erosion risk was assessed for each 90-m pixel by combining HYRISK, slope, soil erodibility, and a factor representing the likely increase in soil wetness due to removal of the vegetation. Sedimentation risk was a simple function of stream gradient. Composite surface erosion and sedimentation risk indices were calculated and compared across the 72 catchments in the study area. When evaluated on a catchment scale, two-thirds of the catchments had relatively little post-fire erosion risk. Steeper catchments with higher fuel loadings typically had the highest post-fire surface erosion risk. These were generally located along the major north-south mountain chains and, to a lesser extent, in west-central Colorado. Sedimentation risks were usually highest in the eastern part of the study area where a higher proportion of streams had lower gradients. While data to validate the predicted erosion and sedimentation risks are lacking, the results appear reasonable and are consistent with our limited field observations. The models and analytic procedures can be readily adapted to other locations and should provide useful tools for planning and management at both the catchment and landscape scale.

  18. Modeling hydrologic and geomorphic hazards across post-fire landscapes using a self-organizing map approach

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Friedel, M.J.

    2011-01-01

    Few studies attempt to model the range of possible post-fire hydrologic and geomorphic hazards because of the sparseness of data and the coupled, nonlinear, spatial, and temporal relationships among landscape variables. In this study, a type of unsupervised artificial neural network, called a self-organized map (SOM), is trained using data from 540 burned basins in the western United States. The sparsely populated data set includes variables from independent numerical landscape categories (climate, land surface form, geologic texture, and post-fire condition), independent landscape classes (bedrock geology and state), and dependent initiation processes (runoff, landslide, and runoff and landslide combination) and responses (debris flows, floods, and no events). Pattern analysis of the SOM-based component planes is used to identify and interpret relations among the variables. Application of the Davies-Bouldin criteria following k-means clustering of the SOM neurons identified eight conceptual regional models for focusing future research and empirical model development. A split-sample validation on 60 independent basins (not included in the training) indicates that simultaneous predictions of initiation process and response types are at least 78% accurate. As climate shifts from wet to dry conditions, forecasts across the burned landscape reveal a decreasing trend in the total number of debris flow, flood, and runoff events with considerable variability among individual basins. These findings suggest the SOM may be useful in forecasting real-time post-fire hazards, and long-term post-recovery processes and effects of climate change scenarios. ?? 2011.

  19. Determination of Resting Energy Expenditure After Severe Burn

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    equation. In a recent survey of 65 burn centers, Graves et al10 discovered that the most commonly used for- mulas include the Harris -Benedict formula11...accuracy by Table 1. Equations for estimating daily energy expenditure for subjects with burns Predictive Equations for Energy Expenditure Harris -Benedict...predicted by using nine pre- dictive equations including 30 kcal/kg, 35 kcal/kg, 40 kcal/kg, the Harris -Benedict equation multiplied by an injury factor

  20. Improved survival with an innovative approach to the treatment of severely burned patients: development of a burn treatment manual.

    PubMed

    Morisada, S; Nosaka, N; Tsukahara, K; Ugawa, T; Sato, K; Ujike, Y

    2015-09-30

    The management of severely burned patients remains a major issue worldwide as indicated by the high incidence of permanent debilitating complications and poor survival rates. In April 2012, the Advanced Emergency & Critical Care Medical Center of the Okayama University Hospital began implementing guidelines for severely burned patients, distributed as a standard burn treatment manual. The protocol, developed in-house, was validated by comparing the outcomes of patients with severe extensive burns (SEB) treated before and after implementation of these new guidelines at this institution. The patients included in this study had a burn index (BI) ≥30 or a prognostic burn index (PBI = BI + patient's age) ≥100. The survival rate of the patients with BI ≥30 was 65.2% with the traditional treatment and 100% with the new guidelines. Likewise, the survival rate of the patients with PBI ≥100 was 61.1% with the traditional treatment compared to 100% with the new guidelines. Together, these data demonstrate that the new treatment guidelines dramatically improved the treatment outcome and survival of SEB patients.

  1. Lessons from the fires of 2000: Post-fire heterogeneity in ponderosa pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kotliar, Natasha B.; Haire, Sandra L.; Key, Carl H.; Omni, Phillip N.; Joyce, Linda A.

    2003-01-01

    We evaluate burn-severity patterns for six burns that occurred in the southern Rocky Mountains and the Colorado Plateau in 2000. We compare the results of two data sources: Burned Area Rehabilitations Teams (BAER) and a spatial burnseverity model derived from satellite imagery (the Normalized Burn Ratio; NBR). BAER maps tended to overestimate area of severe burns and underestimate area of moderate-severity burns relative to NBR maps. Low elevation and more southern ponderosa pine burns were predominantly understory burns, whereas burns at higher elevations and farther north had a greater component of high-severity burns. Thus, much, if not most, of the area covered by these burns appears to be consistent with historic burns and contributes to healthy functioning ecosystems.

  2. A Geographic Perspective on Factors Controlling Post-Fire Succession in Boreal Black Spruce Forests in Western North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; Genet, H.; Turetsky, M. R.; ODonnell, J. A.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K.; Baltzer, J. L.

    2014-12-01

    Recent changes to climate and the fire regime have resulted in a number of distinct changes to patterns of post-fire succession in the boreal forest region of western North America. In interior Alaska and Yukon, these responses include a shift from spruce to deciduous dominated forests in black spruce forests that experienced exposure of mineral soils from deep burning of surface organic soils, as well as low seedling recruitment in white spruce forests as a result of moisture stress. In this presentation, we will use a physical geography framework to analyze factors controlling low seedling recruitment in recently burned black spruce forests in Alaska. This approach allows for understanding how changes in the biologic components of black spruce forest ecosystems (e.g., biogeography) are controlled by factors related to geomorphology and climate over multiple spatial and temporal scales. In particular, this framework will be used to examine how the interactions between fire, climate, topography and soil texture influence pre-fire and post-fire permafrost conditions, which interact to have a strong influence on variations in soil moisture. In turn, recent changes to climate combined with variations in soil moisture controlled by differences in permafrost conditions (ground ice content, active layer thickness) can be used to explain variations in post-fire seedling recruitment in black spruce forests, where low recruitment is occurring on the sites with the driest soils. In addition, we will examine the need for further research in other boreal forest regions of western North America where the presence of pine species (jack and lodgepole) that are absent in Alaska, as well as differences in soils and permafrost conditions, are likely resulting in additional patterns of post-fire succession as a result of recent changes to climate and the fire regime.

  3. The role of large woody debris in modulating the dispersal of a post-fire sediment pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Short, Lauren E.; Gabet, Emmanuel J.; Hoffman, Daniel F.

    2015-10-01

    In 2001, a series of post-fire debris flows brought 30,000 m3 of sediment, deposited as fans, to the narrow valley floor of Sleeping Child Creek in western Montana (USA). In 2005, pebble-counts and surveys of the channel in proximity to six of the debris flow fans documented a regular sequence of fine-grained aggradation upstream of the fans, incision through the fans, and coarse-grained aggradation downstream of the fans. These measurements were repeated in 2012. We found that the delivery of large woody debris (LWD) over the intervening 7 years has been a dominant factor in the disposition of the debris-flow material. The amount of LWD in the study reach has increased by as much as 50% in the areas with a high burn severity, leading to the formation of large logjams that interrupt the flow of sediment along the streambed. Nearly all of the surveyed reaches have aggraded since 2005, including those that had initially begun incising through the debris flow deposits, and the streambed has become generally finer. We hypothesize that, over the next few decades, debris flow sediment not colonized and anchored by riparian vegetation will trickle out of the affected reaches as the logjams slowly degrade.

  4. Post-fire surface water quality: comparison of fire retardant versus wildfire-related effects.

    PubMed

    Crouch, Robert L; Timmenga, Hubert J; Barber, Timothy R; Fuchsman, Phyllis C

    2006-02-01

    An understanding of the environmental effects of the use of wildland fire retardant is needed to provide informed decision-making regarding forest management. We compiled data from all post-fire surface water monitoring programs where the fire retardant constituents ammonia, phosphorus, and cyanide were measured, and data were available in the public domain. For streams near four major wildfires, we evaluated whether these chemicals originated primarily from fire or from retardant use. We compared measured concentrations in streams where chemical wildland fire retardant was applied with concentrations in streams draining areas where retardant was not used. Correlations with calcium provided an additional line of evidence, because calcium concentrations in ash are much higher than in retardant. Ammonia, phosphorus, and total cyanide were found in streams in burned areas where retardant was not used, at concentrations similar to those found in areas where retardant was applied. Concentrations of weak acid dissociable cyanide were generally non-detected or very low, whether or not wildland fire retardant was used in the watershed. These results indicate that the application of wildland fire retardant had minimal effects on proximate surface water quality. Cyanide concentrations in post-fire stormwater runoff were not affected by the presence of ferrocyanide in the retardant formulas and were due to pyrogenic sources.

  5. Persistent Effects of Fire Severity on Early Successional Forests in Interior Alaska

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shenoy, Aditi; Johnstone, Jill F.; Kasischke, Eric S.; Kielland, Knut

    2011-01-01

    There has been a recent increase in the frequency and extent of wildfires in interior Alaska, and this trend is predicted to continue under a warming climate. Although less well documented, corresponding increases in fire severity are expected. Previous research from boreal forests in Alaska and western Canada indicate that severe fire promotes the recruitment of deciduous tree species and decreases the relative abundance of black spruce (Picea mariana) immediately after fire. Here we extend these observations by (1) examining changes in patterns of aspen and spruce density and biomass that occurred during the first two decades of post-fire succession, and (2) comparing patterns of tree composition in relation to variations in post-fire organic layer depth in four burned black spruce forests in interior Alaska after 10-20 years of succession.Wefound that initial effects of fire severity on recruitment and establishment of aspen and black spruce were maintained by subsequent effects of organic layer depth and initial plant biomass on plant growth during post-fire succession. The proportional contribution of aspen (Populus tremuloides) to total stand biomass remained above 90% during the first and second decades of succession in severely burned sites, while in lightly burned sites the proportional contribution of aspen was reduced due to a 40- fold increase in spruce biomass in these sites. Relationships between organic layer depth and stem density and biomass were consistently negative for aspen, and positive or neutral for black spruce in all four burns. Our results suggest that initial effects of post-fire organic layer depths on deciduous recruitment are likely to translate into a prolonged phase of deciduous dominance during post-fire succession in severely burned stands. This shift in vegetation distribution has important implications for climate-albedo feedbacks, future fire regime, wildlife habitat quality and natural resources for indigenous subsistence

  6. Effectiveness of Emergency Rehabilitation Treatments in Reducing Post-fire Erosion, Colorado Front Range

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rough, D. T.; MacDonald, L. H.

    2003-12-01

    Daniella T.M. Rough Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Lee H. MacDonald Department of Forest, Rangeland, and Watershed Stewardship, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO Burned area emergency rehabilitation (BAER) treatments are often applied to reduce post-fire flooding and erosion, but few studies have quantified their efficacy. The effectiveness of different BAER treatments in reducing post-fire erosion rates is being studied for three different wildfires in the Colorado Front Range. The treatments being monitored include seeding, contour felling, mulching, scarification with seeding, and a polyacrylamide (PAM). Sediment production rates are being measured at the hillslope scale using sediment fences installed immediately after the June 2000 Bobcat fire and the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover fires. Neither aerial- nor ground-based seeding significantly reduced erosion rates in the first three years after the Bobcat fire. In contrast, 4.5 t ha-1 of straw mulch consistently reduced sediment yields by more than 90%. Contour felling initially reduced erosion rates for small and moderate storms, but was less effective following the largest storms, presumably due to overwhelmed sediment storage capacity. A paired\\-swale design is being used for the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover fires, as this provides a more sensitive evaluation of BAER treatment effectiveness. The ground-based application of straw mulch and the aerial application of hydromulch each reduced sediment yields by more than 95% in both 2002 and 2003. However, the ground-based application of hydromulch in fall 2002 did not significantly reduce sediment yields in 2003. In 2002 the application of 11 kg ha-1 of PAM in an ammonium sulfate solution reduced sediment yields by 66%. In 2003 neither these sites nor three newly treated sites showed a significant reduction in sediment yields. A dry application of 5.6 kg ha-1 PAM had no detectable

  7. Post Fire Vegetation Recovery in Greece after the large Drought event of 2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, Célia M.; Bastos, Ana; DaCamara, Carlos; Trigo, Ricardo

    2013-04-01

    Fire is a natural factor of Mediterranean ecosystems. However, fire regimes in the European Mediterranean areas have been changing in the last decades, mainly due to land-use changes and climate driven factors possibly associated with climatic warming (e.g. decline of precipitation, increasing temperatures but also higher frequency of heatwaves). In Greece, the fire season of 2007 was particularly devastating, achieving the new all-time record of estimated burnt area (225 734 ha), since 1980. Additionally, we must stress that prior to the summer fire season in 2007, Greece suffered an exceptional drought event. This severe drought had a strong negative impact in vegetation dynamics. Since water availability is a crucial factor in post-fire vegetation recovery, it is desirable to assess the impact that such water-stress conditions had on fire sensitivity and post-fire vegetation recovery. Based on monthly values of NDVI, at the 1km×1km spatial scale, as obtained from the VEGETATION-SPOT5 instrument, from 1999 to 2010, large burnt scars are identified in Greece, during 2007 fire season. Vegetation recovery is then assessed based on a mono parametric regression model originally developed by Gouveia et al. (2010) to identify large burnt scars in Portugal during the 2003 fire season and after applied to 2005 fire season (Bastos et al., 2012). Some large burnt areas are selected and the respective NDVI behaviour is monitored throughout the pre and the post fire period. The vegetation dynamics during the pre-fire period is analysed and related to the extreme climatic events that characterised the considered period. An analysis is made of the dependence of recovery rates on land cover types and fire damage. Finally results are compared to results already obtained for Portugal (Gouveia et al. 2010). This work emphasises the use of a simple methodology, when applied to low resolution satellite imagery in order to monitor vegetation recovery after large fires events over

  8. Seawater Immersion Aggravates Burn Injury Causing Severe Blood Coagulation Dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Yan, Hong; Mao, Qingxiang; Ma, Yongda; Wang, Li; Chen, Xian; Hu, Yi; Ge, Hengjiang

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the endothelial function in a canine model of burn injury combined with seawater immersion. The model of burn injury was established. The dogs were randomly divided into four groups including dogs with burn injury (B group), or burn injury combined with seawater immersion (BI group), or only immersion in seawater (I group), or control animals with no injury or immersion (C group). The circulating endothelial cell (CEC) count and coagulation-fibrinolysis parameters were measured. The CEC count in B group increased at 4 h, 7 h, and 10 h after injury and then reduced, whereas it continuously increased to a greater extent in BI group (P < 0.05). The von Willebrand factor (vWF) activity, plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI-1), and the ratio of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) to 6-keto-prostaglandin F1α (6-K-PGF1α ) in BI group had a marked increase after injury, and the tissue-type plasminogen activator (tPA) in the BI group decreased. Microscope observations revealed thrombus formation in lungs of the animals in BI group, but not in C, I, or B groups. Burn injury causes endothelial dysfunction, and seawater immersion lastingly aggravates this injury, leading to a higher risk of developing thrombosis.

  9. Analysis and mapping of post-fire hydrologic hazards for the 2002 Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires, Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elliott, J.G.; Smith, M.E.; Friedel, M.J.; Stevens, M.R.; Bossong, C.R.; Litke, D.W.; Parker, R.S.; Costello, C.; Wagner, J.; Char, S.J.; Bauer, M.A.; Wilds, S.R.

    2005-01-01

    Wildfires caused extreme changes in the hydrologic, hydraulic, and geomorphologic characteristics of many Colorado drainage basins in the summer of 2002. Detailed assessments were made of the short-term effects of three wildfires on burned and adjacent unburned parts of drainage basins. These were the Hayman, Coal Seam, and Missionary Ridge wildfires. Longer term runoff characteristics that reflect post-fire drainage basin recovery expected to develop over a period of several years also were analyzed for two affected stream reaches: the South Platte River between Deckers and Trumbull, and Mitchell Creek in Glenwood Springs. The 10-, 50-, 100-, and 500-year flood-plain boundaries and water-surface profiles were computed in a detailed hydraulic study of the Deckers-to-Trumbull reach. The Hayman wildfire burned approximately 138,000 acres (216 square miles) in granitic terrain near Denver, and the predominant potential hazard in this area is flooding by sediment-laden water along the large tributaries to and the main stem of the South Platte River. The Coal Seam wildfire burned approximately 12,200 acres (19.1 square miles) near Glenwood Springs, and the Missionary Ridge wildfire burned approximately 70,500 acres (110 square miles) near Durango, both in areas underlain by marine shales where the predominant potential hazard is debris-flow inundation of low-lying areas. Hydrographs and peak discharges for pre-burn and post-burn scenarios were computed for each drainage basin and tributary subbasin by using rainfall-runoff models because streamflow data for most tributary subbasins were not available. An objective rainfall-runoff model calibration method based on nonlinear regression and referred to as the ?objective calibration method? was developed and applied to rainfall-runoff models for three burned areas. The HEC-1 rainfall-runoff model was used to simulate the pre-burn rainfall-runoff processes in response to the 100-year storm, and HEC-HMS was used for runoff

  10. Impact of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Severely Burned Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-09-01

    versus nosocomial Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia: clinical features, treatment outcomes, and clinical implication of antimicrobial resistance. J...Impact of Extended Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae Infections in Severely Burned Patients Jason W Bennett, MD, MSPH, Janelle...Significantly higher mortality has been demonstrated in patients who suffer severe burns com- plicated by Klebsiella pneumoniae bacteremia. The specific

  11. Hot soup! Correlating the severity of liquid scald burns to fluid and biomedical properties.

    PubMed

    Loller, Cameron; Buxton, Gavin A; Kerzmann, Tony L

    2016-05-01

    Burns caused by hot drinks and soups can be both debilitating and costly, especially to pediatric and geriatric patients. This research is aimed at better understanding the fluid properties that can influence the severity of skin burns. We use a standard model which combines heat transfer and biomedical equations to predict burn severity. In particular, experimental data from a physical model serves as the input to our numerical model to determine the severity of scald burns as a consequence of actual fluid flows. This technique enables us to numerically predict the heat transfer from the hot soup into the skin, without the need to numerically estimate the complex fluid mechanics and thermodynamics of the potentially highly viscous and heterogeneous soup. While the temperature of the soup is obviously is the most important fact in determining the degree of burn, we also find that more viscous fluids result in more severe burns, as the slower flowing thicker fluids remain in contact with the skin for longer. Furthermore, other factors can also increase the severity of burn such as a higher initial fluid temperature, a greater fluid thermal conductivity, or a higher thermal capacity of the fluid. Our combined experimental and numerical investigation finds that for average skin properties a very viscous fluid at 100°C, the fluid must be in contact with the skin for around 15-20s to cause second degree burns, and more than 80s to cause a third degree burn.

  12. L-Band SAR Backscatter Prospects for Burn Severity Estimation in Boreal Forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanase, Mihai; Santoro, Maurizio; de la Riva, Juan; Kasischke, Eric; Korets, Michael A.

    2010-12-01

    L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) data has been investigated to establish the relationship between backscatter and burn severity in boreal forests. Advanced Land Observation Satellite (ALOS) Phased Array-type L-band Synthetic Aperture Radar (PALSAR) dual polarized images were available for the study of the backscattering coefficient at two locations. Statistical analysis was used to assess the average backscatter coefficient as a function of burn severity level after stratifying the data by local incidence angle. Determination coefficients were used to quantify the relationship between radar data and burn severity estimates. The analysis for a given range of local incidence angle showed that HH and HV polarized backscatter decreases with burn severity for both polarizations when images are acquired under dry environmental conditions. For data acquired under wet conditions HH polarized backscatter increased with burn severity. The higher backscatter of the severely burned areas was explained by the enhanced contribution of the ground component due to higher soil moisture content. Backscatter variation between burned and unburned forest was around 2-3 dB at HH polarization and around 3-6 dB at HV polarization. This study indicates that L- band SAR backscatter trend as a function of burn severity is not significantly different when compared to previously studied mediterranean forests.

  13. Burn Severity Assessment in the Okanogan-Wenatchee Forest Using NASA Satellite Missions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiffman, B.; Newcomer, M.; Delgado, D.; Gantenbein, C.; Wang, T.; Prichard, S.; Schmidt, C.; Skiles, J.

    2008-12-01

    Fire severity is an increasingly critical issue for forest managers. A long history of fire suppression has led to millions of acres of dry western forests and a buildup of hazardous fuels. Satellite imagery offers a cost- effective and feasible tool for fire severity assessment and can provide near real-time data for mitigation measures. This study focused on the Tripod Complex Fire that burned more than 175,000 acres of the Okanogan-Wenatchee Forest in Washington in 2006. Field data were collected in order to calculate the Composite Burn Index (CBI), a ground-based measurement of burn severity which can directly correlate with satellite measurements. These in-situ data were used to calibrate the satellite data from the Landsat TM5 sensor and the MODIS sensor on the NASA TERRA satellite. The satellite data were used to calculate the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) and the relative rNBR. These algorithms use the relationship between the near infrared and the shortwave infrared pixel values to quantify burn severity. After comparing these two algorithms, it was determined that there was no significant difference between dNBR and rNBR. Using the burn severity map created with the dNBR data, an analysis was performed to examine the relationship between burn severity and variables such as slope, aspect, and vegetation type. The results showed that there was no relationship between burn severity and any of the variables in the Tripod Complex Fire.

  14. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés-Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2015-02-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonise soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments 5 years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand, unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation recovery normalises post-fire soil microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors affecting soil properties after 17 years.

  15. Soil microbiological properties and enzymatic activities of long-term post-fire recovery in dry and semiarid Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo, J.; Lucas-Borja, M. E.; Wic, C.; Andrés Abellán, M.; de Las Heras, J.

    2014-10-01

    Wildfires affecting forest ecosystems and post-fire silvicultural treatments may cause considerable changes in soil properties. The capacity of different microbial groups to recolonize soil after disturbances is crucial for proper soil functioning. The aim of this work was to investigate some microbial soil properties and enzyme activities in semiarid and dry Aleppo pine (Pinus halepensis M.) forest stands. Different plots affected by a wildfire event 17 years ago without or with post-fire silvicultural treatments five years after the fire event were selected. A mature Aleppo pine stand unaffected by wildfire and not thinned was used as a control. Physicochemical soil properties (soil texture, pH, carbonates, organic matter, electrical conductivity, total N and P), soil enzymes (urease, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and dehydrogenase activities), soil respiration and soil microbial biomass carbon were analysed in the selected forests areas and plots. The main finding was that long time after this fire event produces no differences in the microbiological soil properties and enzyme activities of soil after comparing burned and thinned, burned and not thinned, and mature plots. Thus, the long-term consequences and post-fire silvicultural management in the form of thinning have a significant effect on the site recovery after fire. Moreover, significant site variation was generally seen in soil enzyme activities and microbiological parameters. We conclude that total vegetation restoration normalises microbial parameters, and that wildfire and post-fire silvicultural treatments are not significant factors of soil properties after 17 years.

  16. Post-Fire Spatial Patterns of Soil Nitrogen Mineralization and Microbial Abundance

    PubMed Central

    Smithwick, Erica A. H.; Naithani, Kusum J.; Balser, Teri C.; Romme, William H.; Turner, Monica G.

    2012-01-01

    Stand-replacing fires influence soil nitrogen availability and microbial community composition, which may in turn mediate post-fire successional dynamics and nutrient cycling. However, fires create patchiness at both local and landscape scales and do not result in consistent patterns of ecological dynamics. The objectives of this study were to (1) quantify the spatial structure of microbial communities in forest stands recently affected by stand-replacing fire and (2) determine whether microbial variables aid predictions of in situ net nitrogen mineralization rates in recently burned stands. The study was conducted in lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta var. latifolia) and Engelmann spruce/subalpine fir (Picea engelmannii/Abies lasiocarpa) forest stands that burned during summer 2000 in Greater Yellowstone (Wyoming, USA). Using a fully probabilistic spatial process model and Bayesian kriging, the spatial structure of microbial lipid abundance and fungi-to-bacteria ratios were found to be spatially structured within plots two years following fire (for most plots, autocorrelation range varied from 1.5 to 10.5 m). Congruence of spatial patterns among microbial variables, in situ net N mineralization, and cover variables was evident. Stepwise regression resulted in significant models of in situ net N mineralization and included variables describing fungal and bacterial abundance, although explained variance was low (R2<0.29). Unraveling complex spatial patterns of nutrient cycling and the biotic factors that regulate it remains challenging but is critical for explaining post-fire ecosystem function, especially in Greater Yellowstone, which is projected to experience increased fire frequencies by mid 21st Century. PMID:23226324

  17. Post-Fire Soil Respiration in Relation to the Burnt Wood Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marañón Jiménez, Sara; Castro, J.; Kowalski, A.; Serrano-Ortiz, P.; Ruiz, B.; Sancez-Canete, Ep; Zamora, R.

    2010-05-01

    Wildfires are the main cause of forests and understory destruction in Mediterranean areas. One of the most dramatic consequences is the perturbation of carbon fluxes. A high percentage of the CO2 emitted by the ecosystem after a wildfire is due to soil respiration, which represents the most important uncertainty in the global carbon cycle. In this study we have quantified the soil respiration and its seasonal variability in reforested pine forests in the National and Natural Park of Sierra Nevada which were burned in September of 2005. Measurement campaigns were carried out along two years in two experimental plots at different altitudinal levels (1500 and 2200 m a.s.l.), in which three post-fire silvicultural treatments of burned wood were established: 1) "Non-Intervention" (NI), leaving all of the burnt trees standing. 2) "Cut plus Lopping" (CL), a treatment where most of the trees were cut and felled, with the main branches also lopped off, but leaving all the cut biomass in situ covering partially the ground surface 3) "Salvage Logging" (SL), all trees were cut and the trunks and branches were removed. Soil respiration was highly determined by the effects derived of the altitudinal level, with the highest values at the lowest altitude. The seasonal precipitation regime had also a key role. Soil respiration kept a basal level during the summer drought, during this period the response to the altitudinal level and post-fire treatments were reduced. On the other hand, soil respiration boosted after rain events, when the differences between treatments became more pronounced. In general, especially under these conditions of absence of water limitation, the post-fire burnt wood treatment with the highest CO2 fluxes was that in which all the burnt wood biomass remained covering partially the soil surface ("Cut plus Lopping") while the lowest values were registered in the treatment in which the soil was bared ("Salvage Logging"). Results of this study are especially

  18. Contributions of Severe Burn and Disuse to Bone Structure and Strength in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Baer, L.A.; Wu, X.; Tou, J. C.; Johnson, E.; Wolf, S.E.; Wade, C.E.

    2012-01-01

    Burn and disuse results in metabolic and bone changes associated with substantial and sustained bone loss. Such loss can lead to an increased fracture incidence and osteopenia. We studied the independent effects of burn and disuse on bone morphology, composition and strength, and microstructure of the bone alterations 14 days after injury. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into four groups: Sham/Ambulatory (SA), Burn/Ambulatory (BA), Sham/Hindlimb Unloaded (SH) and Burn/Hindlimb Unloaded (BH). Burn groups received a 40% total body surface area full-thickness scald burn. Disuse by hindlimb unloading was initiated immediately following injury. Bone turnover was determined in plasma and urine. Femur biomechanical parameters were measured by three-point bending tests and bone microarchitecture was determined by microcomputed tomography (uCT). On day 14, a significant reduction in body mass was observed as a result of burn, disuse and a combination of both. In terms of bone health, disuse alone and in combination affected femur weight, length and bone mineral content. Bending failure energy, an index of femur strength, was significantly reduced in all groups and maximum bending stress was lower when burn and disuse were combined. Osteocalcin was reduced in BA compared to the other groups, indicating influence of burn. The reductions observed in femur weight, BMC, biomechanical parameters and indices of bone formation are primarily responses to the combination of burn and disuse. These results offer insight into bone degradation following severe injury and disuse. PMID:23142361

  19. Long term functional outcomes and quality of life following severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Druery, Martha; Brown, Tim La H; La H Brown, Tim; Muller, Michael

    2005-09-01

    This study was designed to examine functional and psychological outcome of severely burned patients adults. Adult patients (n=38) admitted to the Royal Brisbane hospital with burns >40% TBSA were assessed two years post injury using the Abbreviated BSHS and a supplemental questionnaire relating to specific physiotherapy and occupational health issues. An average return to driving occurred at 36 weeks and return to work at 51 weeks. Involvement of the hands and face significantly altered the physical domain of the questionnaire and the sub-domain examining role. Genital burns altered the sexual sub-domain, but this was not gender dependant. Mobility and self care were significantly altered when a burn was >20% TBSA full thickness. The study demonstrates that these patients can develop functional independence and good quality of life. The long term outlook for patients with large burns is generally positive. Consequently, burn care professionals can be reassured that the effort is worthwhile.

  20. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... if signs of infection develop. These signs include: Drainage or pus from the burned skin Fever Increased pain Red streaks spreading from the burn Swollen lymph nodes Also call a provider right away if ...

  1. Forest Fires and Post - Fire Regeneration in Algeria Analysis with Satellite Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zegrar, Ahmed

    2016-07-01

    The Algerian forests are characterized by a particularly flammable material and fuel. The wind, the relief and the slope facilitates the propagation of fire. The use of remote sensing data multi-­dates, combined with other types of data of various kinds on the environment and forest burned, opens up interesting perspectives for the management of post-­fire regeneration. In this study the use of multi-­temporal remote sensing image Alsat-­1 and Landsat combined with other types of data concerning both background and burned down forest appears to be promising in evaluating and spatial and temporal effects of post fire regeneration. A spatial analysis taking into consideration the characteristics of the burned down site in the North West of Algeria, allowed to better account new factors to explain the regeneration and its temporal and spatial variation. We intended to show the potential use of remote sensing data from satellite ALSAT-­1, of spatial resolution of 32 m. . This approach allows showing the contribution of the data of Algerian satellite ALSAT in the detection and the well attended some forest fires in Algeria.

  2. Influence of patch size and shape on post-fire succession on the Yellowstone plateau

    SciTech Connect

    Turner, M.G.; Gardner, R.H.; Hargrove, W.W. ); Romme, W.H. )

    1994-06-01

    The 1988 Yellowstone fires provided a unique opportunity to examine how the geometry of fire-created patches affects plant reestablishment. We initiated studies in 1990 in small (1 ha), moderated (74-200 ha), and large (480-3698 ha) crown-fire patches in each of 3 areas. Lodgepole pine forest is reestablishing in most burned areas, but seedling density varies by two orders of magnitude. At spatial scales <100 m, lodgepole seedling density declines with distance from the patch edge. Resprouting of herbaceous vegetation led to prompt revegetation in burned patches of all sizes, suggesting within-patch survival is a dominant recovery mechanism for grasses, forbs, and shrubs. Some annuals (e.g., Gayophytum diffusum) achieved greater densities in large vs. small crown-fire patches and colonized large patches more rapidly. Post-fire plant reestablishment in Yellowstone appears rapid and autogenic even in large burns, and the relative importance of factors controlling early postfire succession varies with spatial scale.

  3. The ramp or the staircase? A process-hierarchy in post-fire hydrogeomorphology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheridan, Gary; Langhans, Christoph; Nyman, Petter; Lane, Patrick

    2016-04-01

    Three decades of data show that annual average post-fire erosion rates vary within se Australian forested landscapes over ca. 4 orders of magnitude from <0.01 t ha-1 y-1 to 100 t ha-1 y-1. These differences are currently difficult to predict, and here we propose and explore a new conceptual framework that may assist in post-fire erosion prediction. The dominant erosion processes are observed to depend on infiltration-excess overland flow, and large increases in erosion rates are broadly associated with shifts or "jumps" across erosion process-thresholds. Additional higher- yielding processes are added hierarchically with increased rainfall forcing, starting with raindrop splash, to interill, to rill, to hillslope debris flows, and finally to channel debris flows. In this conceptual framework, the first-order control on the erosion rate results from the combination of system properties and forcing that enables additional erosion processes to be activated in the hierarchy. Second-order controls are process-specific, and explain the remaining variability in erosion rates within each of the processes for a given forcing. Large erosion increases are related to the way in which soil properties, fire severity, hillslope gradient, and channel gradient trigger "jumps" across these process thresholds, which, it is argued, explain the majority of the variability in post-fire erosion rates at headwater catchment scales. The applicability and usefulness of this conceptual framework to erosion prediction in a range of fire affected environments (eg. Western US, Canada, the Mediterranean) will be explored.

  4. Assessing burn severity and comparing soil water repellency, Hayman Fire, Colorado

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Sarah A.; Wu, Joan Q.; Robichaud, Peter R.

    2006-01-01

    An important element of evaluating a large wildfire is to assess its effects on the soil in order to predict the potential watershed response. After the 55 000 ha Hayman Fire on the Colorado Front Range, 24 soil and vegetation variables were measured to determine the key variables that could be used for a rapid field assessment of burn severity. The percentage of exposed mineral soil and litter cover proved to be the best predictors of burn severity in this environment. Two burn severity classifications, one from a statistical classification tree and the other a Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) burn severity map, were compared with measured ground truth burn severity at 183 plots and were 56% and 69% accurate, respectively.This study also compared water repellency measurements made with the water drop penetration time (WDPT) test and a mini-disk infiltrometer (MDI) test. At the soil surface, the moderate and highly burned sites had the strongest water repellency, yet were not significantly different from each other. Areas burned at moderate severity had 1.5 times more plots that were strongly water repellent at the surface than the areas burned at high severity. However, the high severity plots most likely had a deeper water repellent layer that was not detected with our surface tests. The WDPT and MDI values had an overall correlation of r = -0.64(p < 0.0001) and appeared to be compatible methods for assessing soil water repellency in the field. Both tests represent point measurements of a soil characteristic that has large spatial variability; hence, results from both tests reflect that variability, accounting for much of the remaining variance. The MDI is easier to use, takes about 1 min to assess a strongly water repellent soil and provides two indicators of water repellency: the time to start of infiltration and a relative infiltration rate.

  5. Temperature responses in severely burned children during exercise in a hot environment.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Chinkes, David L; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2010-01-01

    The authors have previously described thermoregulatory responses of severely burned children during submaximal exercise in a thermoneutral environment. However, the thermoregulatory response of burned children to exercise in the heat is not well understood and could have important safety implications for rehabilitation. Children (n = 10) with >40% TBSA burns and nonburned children (n = 10) performed a 30-minute bout of treadmill exercise at 75% of their peak aerobic power in a heated environment. Intestinal temperature, burned and unburned skin temperature, and heart rate were recorded pre-exercise, every 2 minutes during exercise, and during recovery. Three of the 10 burned children completed the exercise bout in the heat; however, all the nonburned children completed the 30-minute bout. One burned child reached a core body temperature >39 degrees C at minute 23. Burned children had significantly higher core body temperature through the first 12 minutes of exercise compared with nonburned children. However, nine of 10 (90%) burned children did not become hyperthermic during exercise in the heat. Specific to this study, hyperthermia did not typically occur in burned children, relative to nonburned children. Whether this is due to an intolerance to exercise in the heat or to an inability to generate sufficient heat during exercise needs to be explored further.

  6. Alterations caused to soil organic matter by post-fire rehabilitation actions in a pine forest from doñana national park (southwest Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    González-Pérez, José A.; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Jordán, Antonio; Zavala, Lorena M.; Granged, Arturo J. P.; González-Vila, Francisco J.

    2016-04-01

    Post-fire rehabilitation actions and recovery attempts of burned soils include a range of management practices (tillage, tree logging, reforestation …), in some cases producing an additional damage to that directly caused by fire. Among negative impacts derived from unappropriated rehab practices are the increase soil erosion, loss of soil fertility and alterations in the hydrological cycle. Analytical pyrolysis (Py-GC/MS) is an appropriate technique to study organic matter characteristics within complex matrices. Here this technique is used to study the alterations caused by burning and post-fire rehab plans to soil organic matter (SOM). Fire and post-fire rehab actions impact on SOM is studied in a sandy soil under pine (Pinus pinea) forest that was affected by a severe fire in August 2012 in Doñana National Park (SW Spain). Bulk samples as well as its sieved soil fractions (coarse, 1-2 mm, and fine, <0.05 mm) collected from an undisturbed burned area (B) and in an adjacent burned area after rehab practices (BR) (logging and extraction of burned trees) were studied. An additional adjacent unburned (UB) area was used as a control. Conspicuous differences among bulk samples from the B, BR and UB control areas were found in the relative proportions of the main molecular families obtained by analytical pyrolysis, including alkane/alkene pairs, unspecific aromatic compounds (UAC), peptides, methoxyphenols, fatty acids, carbohydrates, N-compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH). The B site SOM showed lower proportion of lignin methoxyphenols and higher of UAC and PAH than the SOM from the UB site. This indicates that fire produced methoxyphenol de-functionalization, increasing the proportion of recalcitrant compounds. With respect to soil size fractions, in all cases, the coarse fraction showed a high content of carbohydrate-derived compounds and methoxyphenols followed by fatty acids, in line with inputs of new litter from stressed post-fire vegetation

  7. Estimating pre-fire forest structure with stereo imagery and post-fire lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippelli, Steven

    Lidar has become an established tool for mapping forest structure attributes including those used as inputs for fire behavior and effects modelling. However, lidar is rarely available to document pre-fire conditions due to its sparse availability. In contrast, aerial imagery is regularly collected in many regions, and advances in stereo image matching have enabled the creation of dense photogrammetric point clouds similar to those from lidar. As part of a study of the physical and ecological impacts of the 2012 High Park Fire, we generated a photogrammetric point cloud from pre-fire aerial imagery collected in 2008 and calculated forest height using a digital terrain model generated from a 2013 post-fire lidar collection. A suite of canopy height and density metrics were created from both the pre-fire photogrammetry and the post-fire lidar point clouds. These metrics were compared to each other and to forest structure attributes measured in the field. For unburned areas, we found strong relationships between corresponding lidar and photogrammetry height and density metrics with biases that were consistent with known differences in each sensor's method of sampling the canopy. Regressions models of field-measured forest structure attributes incorporating both lidar and photo metrics demonstrated that a single equation could estimate some forest structure attributes without significant intercept or slope bias due to the source of the metrics (i.e. photo or lidar). Models of aboveground biomass on unburned plots had similar root mean square errors for lidar (29.3%), photogrammetry (31.0%), and combined data sources (RMSE = 29.1% and source intercept bias = 34.64 Mg ha-1 and slope bias = -0.28). Similar results were obtained for Lorey's height, basal area, and canopy bulk density. Models of structure in burned areas derived from post-fire lidar had lower performance than photogrammetry due to the fire's consumption of canopy materials which generally reduced the

  8. M2b monocytes predominated in peripheral blood of severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Makiko; Jeschke, Marc G; Shigematsu, Kenji; Asai, Akira; Yoshida, Shohei; Herndon, David N; Suzuki, Fujio

    2010-12-15

    Severely burned patients were shown to be carriers of M2 monocytes, and all of the monocytes isolated from peripheral blood of severely burned patients (19 of 19 patients) were demonstrated as M2b monocytes (IL-12(-)IL-10(+)CCL1(+) monocytes). Low levels of M2a (IL-12(-)IL-10(+)CCL17(+) monocytes) and M2c monocytes (IL-12(-)IL-10(+)CXCL13(+) monocytes) were demonstrated in peripheral blood of severely burned patients (M2a, 2 of 19 patients; M2c, 5 of 19 patients). M2b, M2a, and M2c monocytes were not detected in peripheral blood of healthy donors. However, M2b monocytes appeared when healthy donor monocytes were cultured in media supplemented with burn patient serum (15%). CCL2 was detected in sera of all burn patients, and M2b monocytes were not generated from healthy donor monocytes cultured with media containing 15% burn patient sera that were previously treated with anti-CCL2 mAb. In addition, M2b monocytes were generated from healthy donor monocytes in cultures supplemented with rCCL2. These results indicate that M2b monocytes are predominant in peripheral blood of severely burned patients who are carriers of CCL2 that functions to stimulate monocyte conversion from resident monocytes to M2b monocytes.

  9. AmeriFlux US-An1 Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn

    DOE Data Explorer

    Hobbie, John [Marine Biological Laboratory; Rocha, Adrian [Marine Biological Laboratory; Shaver, Gaius [Marine Biological Laboratory

    2016-01-01

    This is the AmeriFlux version of the carbon flux data for the site US-An1 Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn. Site Description - The Anaktuvuk River fire on the North Slope of Alaska started on July 16, 2007 by lightning. It continued until the end of September when nearby lakes had already frozen over and burned >256,000 acres, creating a mosaic of patches that differed in burn severity. The Anaktuvuk River Severe Burn, Moderate Burn, and Unburned sites are 40 km to the west of the nearest road and were selected in late May 2008 to determine the effects of the fire on carbon, water, and energy exchanges during the growing season. Because the fire had burned through September of the previous year, initial deployment of flux towers occurred prior to any significant vegetative regrowth, and our sampling campaign captured the full growing season in 2008. The Severe Burn site consisted of a large area in which all of the green vegetation were consumed in the fire and some of the organic matter had burnt to the mineral soil in many places. A bear damaged the tower during the last week of August 2008, and it was repaired shortly after.

  10. Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype predicts pain severity in hospitalized burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Orrey, Danielle C.; Bortsov, Andrey V.; Hoskins, Janelle M.; Shupp, Jeffrey W.; Jones, Samuel W.; Cicuto, Bryan J.; Hwang, James; Jordan, Marion H.; Holmes, James H.; Haith, Linwood R.; Roane, Brandon M.; Diatchenko, Luda; Cairns, Bruce A.; McLean, Samuel A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Increasing evidence suggests that stress system activation after burn injury may contribute to burn-related pain. If this is the case, then genetic variations influencing the function of important stress system components, such as the enzyme catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT), may predict pain severity after thermal burn injury. Methods We evaluated the association between COMT genotype and pain intensity in 57 individuals hospitalized after thermal burn injury. Consenting participants at four burn centers were genotyped and completed daily 0-10 numeric rating scale pain assessments on two consecutive days including evaluation of waking, least, and worst pain. The association between COMT genotype and individual pain outcomes was calculated using a linear mixed model adjusting for sociodemographic and burn injury characteristics. Results Overall pain (combination of least, worst, and waking pain scores) was significantly higher in patients with a COMT pain vulnerable genotype (6.3 (.4) vs. 5.4 (.4), p=.037). Individuals with a COMT pain vulnerable genotype also had significantly higher “least pain” scores (3.8 (.5) vs. 2.6 (.4), p=.017) and significantly higher pain on awakening (6.8 (.5) vs. 5.3 (.4), p=.004). Differences in worst pain according to genotype group were not significant. COMT pain vulnerable genotype was a stronger predictor of overall pain severity than burn size, burn depth, or time from admission to pain interview assessment. Conclusions These findings suggest that genetic factors influencing stress system function may have an important influence on pain severity after burn injury. Further studies of genetic predictors of pain after burn injury are needed. PMID:22210062

  11. [The intermingled transplantation used in severe burn patients after eschar excision].

    PubMed

    Liao, Zhen-jiang

    2008-10-01

    In the early developing stage of burn surgery, severe burn patients with large and deep burn wound often died of complications because of shortage of auto-skin. The method of intermingled transplantation composed of a large sheet of partial thickness allo-skin with punched holes for in laying small pieces of partial thickness auto-skin was first advocated by Chinese doctors (Ruijin Hospital) in 1960's. This intermingled transplantation method has saved many severe burn patients with extensive full-thickness burn wound. The mortality rate of severe burn patients has decreased and the survival rate has increased remarkably since the intermingled transplantation treatment method used in the burn units. In this paper we review the process of formation of intermingled transplantation and the mechanisms of success of this Chinese method in repairing the large wound surface area after eschar excision. We will focus our discussion on the low systemic immunological reaction, the effect of auto-skin islet, local immunological tolerance induced by in layed auto skin, the balance of Th1 and Th2 cells and the effects of some cytokines such as IL-10 in local immunological tolerance and etc. after intermingled transplantation.

  12. Post-fire regeneration patterns in the eastern Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pausas, Juli G.; Carbó, Ester; Neus Caturla, Rosa; Gil, José M.; Vallejo, Ramon

    1999-09-01

    Post-fire regeneration patterns (plant cover and richness) in the Valencia region (eastern Iberian Peninsula) are studied by analysing data from two different samplings after two periods of large fires (1991 and 1994). Emphasis is given to comparing different environmental conditions (thermo-Mediterranean vs. meso-Mediterranean; south facing vs. north facing slopes) and different bedrock types (limestone vs. marls). Results suggest that the highest post-fire cover and species richness is reached in thermo-Mediterranean conditions on limestone, and the main species are the resprouters Quercus coccifera and Brachypodium retusum. North-facing sites have higher plant cover than south-facing ones, and most life forms (trees, shrubs, grasses) have higher cover in these sites. Species richness is higher on north-facing sites than on the south-facing ones at the small scale (1 to 200 m 2), but differences were not significant at the highest scale studied (1 000 m 2). Plant species richness with increasing sampling area follows the classical log-log relationship; however, when species are segregated by life forms (woody species and herbs), different species-area relationships were found.

  13. Fire frequency, area burned, and severity: A quantitative approach to defining a normal fire year

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lutz, J.A.; Key, C.H.; Kolden, C.A.; Kane, J.T.; van Wagtendonk, J.W.

    2011-01-01

    Fire frequency, area burned, and fire severity are important attributes of a fire regime, but few studies have quantified the interrelationships among them in evaluating a fire year. Although area burned is often used to summarize a fire season, burned area may not be well correlated with either the number or ecological effect of fires. Using the Landsat data archive, we examined all 148 wildland fires (prescribed fires and wildfires) >40 ha from 1984 through 2009 for the portion of the Sierra Nevada centered on Yosemite National Park, California, USA. We calculated mean fire frequency and mean annual area burned from a combination of field- and satellite-derived data. We used the continuous probability distribution of the differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (dNBR) values to describe fire severity. For fires >40 ha, fire frequency, annual area burned, and cumulative severity were consistent in only 13 of 26 years (50 %), but all pair-wise comparisons among these fire regime attributes were significant. Borrowing from long-established practice in climate science, we defined "fire normals" to be the 26 year means of fire frequency, annual area burned, and the area under the cumulative probability distribution of dNBR. Fire severity normals were significantly lower when they were aggregated by year compared to aggregation by area. Cumulative severity distributions for each year were best modeled with Weibull functions (all 26 years, r2 ??? 0.99; P < 0.001). Explicit modeling of the cumulative severity distributions may allow more comprehensive modeling of climate-severity and area-severity relationships. Together, the three metrics of number of fires, size of fires, and severity of fires provide land managers with a more comprehensive summary of a given fire year than any single metric.

  14. SENTINEL-2A red-edge spectral indices suitability for discriminating burn severity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernández-Manso, Alfonso; Fernández-Manso, Oscar; Quintano, Carmen

    2016-08-01

    Fires are a problematic and recurrent issue in Mediterranean ecosystems. Accurate discrimination between burn severity levels is essential for the rehabilitation planning of burned areas. Sentinel-2A MultiSpectral Instrument (MSI) record data in three red-edge wavelengths, spectral domain especially useful on agriculture and vegetation applications. Our objective is to find out whether Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge wavelengths are suitable for burn severity discrimination. As study area, we used the 2015 Sierra Gata wildfire (Spain) that burned approximately 80 km2. A Copernicus Emergency Management Service (EMS)-grading map with four burn severity levels was considered as reference truth. Cox and Snell, Nagelkerke and McFadde pseudo-R2 statistics obtained by Multinomial Logistic Regression showed the superiority of red-edge spectral indices (particularly, Modified Simple Ratio Red-edge, Chlorophyll Index Red-edge, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index Red-edge) over conventional spectral indices. Fisher's Least Significant Difference test confirmed that Sentinel-2A MSI red-edge spectral indices are adequate to discriminate four burn severity levels.

  15. Burn Severities, Fire Intensities, and Impacts to Major Vegetation Types from the Cerro Grande Fire

    SciTech Connect

    Balice, Randy G.; Bennett, Kathryn D.; Wright, Marjorie A.

    2004-12-15

    The Cerro Grande Fire resulted in major impacts and changes to the ecosystems that were burned. To partially document these effects, we estimated the acreage of major vegetation types that were burned at selected burn severity levels and fire intensity levels. To accomplish this, we adopted independently developed burn severity and fire intensity maps, in combination with a land cover map developed for habitat management purposes, as a basis for the analysis. To provide a measure of confidence in the acreage estimates, the accuracies of these maps were also assessed. In addition, two other maps of comparable quality were assessed for accuracy: one that was developed for mapping fuel risk and a second map that resulted from a preliminary application of an evolutionary computation software system, called GENIE.

  16. [Preclinical treatment of severe burn trauma due to an electric arc on an overhead railway cable].

    PubMed

    Spelten, O; Wetsch, W A; Hinkelbein, J

    2013-09-01

    Severe burns due to electrical accidents occur rarely in Germany but represent a challenge for emergency physicians and their team. Apart from extensive burns cardiac arrhythmia, neurological damage caused by electric current and osseous injury corresponding to the trauma mechanism are also common. It is important to perform a survey of the pattern of injuries and treat acute life-threatening conditions immediately in the field. Furthermore, specific conditions related to burns must be considered, e.g. fluid resuscitation, thermal management and analgesia. In addition, a correct strategy for further medical care in an appropriate hospital is essential. Exemplified by this case guidelines for the treatment of severe burns and typical pitfalls are presented.

  17. Circulating Microvesicles Are Elevated Acutely following Major Burns Injury and Associated with Clinical Severity

    PubMed Central

    Tirlapur, Nikhil; Katbeh, Umar; Singh, Suveer; Handy, Jonathan M.; Takata, Masao

    2016-01-01

    Microvesicles are cell-derived signaling particles emerging as important mediators and biomarkers of systemic inflammation, but their production in severe burn injury patients has not been described. In this pilot investigation, we measured circulating microvesicle levels following severe burns, with severe sepsis patients as a comparator group. We hypothesized that levels of circulating vascular cell-derived microvesicles are elevated acutely following burns injury, mirroring clinical severity due to the early onset and prevalence of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) in these patients. Blood samples were obtained from patients with moderate to severe thermal injury burns, with severe sepsis, and from healthy volunteers. Circulating microvesicles derived from total leukocytes, granulocytes, monocytes, and endothelial cells were quantified in plasma by flow cytometry. All circulating microvesicle subpopulations were elevated in burns patients on day of admission (day 0) compared to healthy volunteers (leukocyte-microvesicles: 3.5-fold, p = 0.005; granulocyte-microvesicles: 12.8-fold, p<0.0001; monocyte-microvesicles: 20.4-fold, p<0.0001; endothelial- microvesicles: 9.6-fold, p = 0.01), but decreased significantly by day 2. Microvesicle levels were increased with severe sepsis, but less consistently between patients. Leukocyte- and granulocyte-derived microvesicles on day 0 correlated with clinical assessment scores and were higher in burns ICU non-survivors compared to survivors (leukocyte MVs 4.6 fold, p = 0.002; granulocyte MVs 4.8 fold, p = 0.003). Mortality prediction analysis of area under receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.92 (p = 0.01) for total leukocyte microvesicles and 0.85 (p = 0.04) for granulocyte microvesicles. These findings demonstrate, for the first time, acute increases in circulating microvesicles following burns injury in patients and point to their potential role in propagation of sterile SIRS-related pathophysiology

  18. Burn severity and non-native species in Yosemite National Park, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kaczynski, Kristen M.; Beatty, Susan W.; van Wagtendonk, Jan W.; Marshall, Kristin N.

    2011-01-01

    We examined non-native species density three years after the Tuolumne Fire, which burned 1540 ha in upper montane forest in California, USA. We sampled 60 plots, stratified by burn severity (low, moderate, or high severity) and landscape position (lowland or upland). We detected non-native species in 8 of 11 (73 %) of high severity lowland sites and in 5 of 10 (50 %) of moderate severity lowland sites but, overall, richness and abundance was low. We detected only five non-native species, of which bull thistle (Cirsium vulgare [Savi] Ten.) was the most common. Although non-native abundance is currently low, we recommend continued low intensity monitoring, especially on high severity burned lowland sites.

  19. Fire behavior, weather, and burn severity of the 2007 anaktuvuk river tundra fire, North Slope, Alaska

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jones, B.; Kolden, C.; Jandt, R.; Abatzoglou, J.; Urban, F.; Arp, C.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Anaktuvuk River Fire (ARF) became the largest recorded tundra fire on the North Slope of Alaska. The ARF burned for nearly three months, consuming more than 100,000 ha. At its peak in early September, the ARF burned at a rate of 7000 ha d-1. The conditions potentially responsible for this large tundra fire include modeled record high summer temperature and record low summer precipitation, a late-season high-pressure system located over the Beaufort Sea, extremely dry soil conditions throughout the summer, and sustained southerly winds during the period of vegetation senescence. Burn severity mapping revealed that more than 80% of the ARF burned at moderate to extreme severity, while the nearby Kuparuk River Fire remained small and burned at predominantly (80%) low severity. While this study provides information that may aid in the prediction of future large tundra fires in northern Alaska, the fact that three other tundra fires that occurred in 2007 combined to burn less than 1000 ha suggests site specific complexities associated with tundra fires on the North Slope, which may hamper the development of tundra fire forecasting models.

  20. Vulnerability and Resilience of Temperate Forest Landscapes to Broad-Scale Deforestation in Response to Changing Fire Regimes and Altered Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tepley, A. J.; Veblen, T. T.; Perry, G.; Anderson-Teixeira, K. J.

    2015-12-01

    In the face of on-going climatic warming and land-use change, there is growing concern that temperate forest landscapes could be near a tipping point where relatively small changes to the fire regime or altered post-fire vegetation dynamics could lead to extensive conversion to shrublands or savannas. To evaluate vulnerability and resilience to such conversion, we develop a simple model based on three factors we hypothesize to be key in predicting temperate forest responses to changing fire regimes: (1) the hazard rate (i.e., the probability of burning in the next year given the time since the last fire) in closed-canopy forests, (2) the hazard rate for recently-burned, open-canopy vegetation, and (3) the time to redevelop canopy closure following fire. We generate a response surface representing the proportions of the landscape potentially supporting closed-canopy forest and non-forest vegetation under nearly all combinations of these three factors. We then place real landscapes on this response surface to assess the type and magnitude of changes to the fire regime that would drive extensive forest loss. We show that the deforestation of much of New Zealand that followed initial human colonization and the introduction of a new ignition source ca. 750 years ago was essentially inevitable due to the slow rate of forest recovery after fire and the high flammability of post-fire vegetation. In North America's Pacific Northwest, by contrast, a predominantly forested landscape persisted despite two periods of widespread burning in the recent past due in large part to faster post-fire forest recovery and less pronounced differences in flammability between forests and the post-fire vegetation. We also assess the factors that could drive extensive deforestation in other regions to identify where management could reduce this potential and to guide field and modeling work to better understand the responses and ecological feedbacks to changing fire regimes.

  1. Melatonin prevents acute kidney injury in severely burned rats via the activation of SIRT1

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiao-Zhi; He, Ting; Gao, Jian-Xin; Liu, Yang; Liu, Jia-Qi; Han, Shi-Chao; Li, Yan; Shi, Ji-Hong; Han, Jun-Tao; Tao, Ke; Xie, Song-Tao; Wang, Hong-Tao; Hu, Da-Hai

    2016-01-01

    Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a common complication after severe burns. Melatonin has been reported to protect against multiple organ injuries by increasing the expression of SIRT1, a silent information regulator that regulates stress responses, inflammation, cellular senescence and apoptosis. This study aimed to investigate the protective effects of melatonin on renal tissues of burned rats and the role of SIRT1 involving the effects. Rat severely burned model was established, with or without the administration of melatonin and SIRT1 inhibitor. The renal function and histological manifestations were determined to evaluate the severity of kidney injury. The levels of acetylated-p53 (Ac-p53), acetylated-p65 (Ac-p65), NF-κB, acetylated-forkhead box O1 (Ac-FoxO1), Bcl-2 and Bax were analyzed to study the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggested that severe burns could induce acute kidney injury, which could be partially reversed by melatonin. Melatonin attenuated oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis accompanied by the increased expression of SIRT1. The protective effects of melatonin were abrogated by the inhibition of SIRT1. In conclusion, we demonstrate that melatonin improves severe burn-induced AKI via the activation of SIRT1 signaling. PMID:27599451

  2. Burns

    MedlinePlus

    ... cause swelling, blistering, scarring and, in serious cases, shock, and even death. They also can lead to infections because they damage your skin's protective barrier. Treatment for burns depends on the cause of the ...

  3. Prognostic significance of early cardiac index measurements in severely burned patients.

    PubMed

    Bernard, F; Gueugniaud, P Y; Bertin-Maghit, M; Bouchard, C; Vilasco, B; Petit, P

    1994-12-01

    Invasive monitoring during early resuscitation was performed. To compare the heamodynamic results of severely burned patients, the results of 38 patients hospitalized between 1988 and 1991 in the burn centre of Lyon were retrospectively reviewed. Survivors and non-Survivors' data were compared. No difference existed between the two groups in age, unit burn score, fluid requirement and dose of dobutamine. Survivors had a significantly higher cardiac index, O2 delivery and systolic blood pressure index than non-survivors. It is suggested that the ability to sustain a high cardiac index in response to the burn injury plays a role in the outcome of the patients. There is an indication that dobutamine could have a beneficial effect in this way. Further studies are needed to confirm the benefit of the maintenance of high cardiac index levels by the pressors.

  4. Sediment-driven mercury transport in post-fire storm runoff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burke, M. P.; Ferreira, M.; Hogue, T. S.; Jay, J.; Rademacher, L. K.

    2009-12-01

    Wildfire alters terrestrial stores of mercury (Hg) within a watershed, releasing Hg to the atmosphere and creating conditions that can be conducive to Hg export in streamwater. Hg transport to terrestrial waters is often associated with suspended sediments and organic matter, and particulate-bound Hg delivery to downstream water bodies may be enhanced following wildfire. Burned watersheds experience increased overland flow, soil erosion, sediment transport, and, consequently, transport of sediment bound contaminants during early post-fire storm events. Southern California’s September 2006 Day Fire consumed 660km2 and almost 50% of the 512km2 Piru Creek watershed. Piru Creek drains into Pyramid Lake, a storage reservoir for the California State Water Project, which provides drinking water for Los Angeles. Streamwater was collected from Piru Creek watershed over a 1.5 year period following the Day Fire, on a monthly basis during low flow periods, and every two hours during storm events using an automated sampler. Samples were analyzed for both dissolved and total Hg, total suspended solids, and basic anions and cations. Low Hg concentrations (> 1ng Hg/ L dissolved and > 5ng Hg/L total) were measured in inter-storm samples. The first winter (2006-07) following the Day Fire was one of the driest on record, with precipitation totals (130mm) less than one third of normal. The only significant storm measured total Hg concentrations just slightly higher than the inter-storm samples, while no change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations. However, these total Hg concentrations were well correlated to TSS measurements (r2 = 0.91) and followed the storm hydrograph. The following winter (2007-08) brought higher precipitation totals (370mm) and more intense storms. Elevated, turbid stream flow was observed in Piru Creek during many of the 2007-08 storms. Little change was observed in the dissolved Hg concentrations of the storm samples; however, a two-order magnitude

  5. Severe burn injuries caused by bioethanol-design fireplaces-an overview on recreational fire threats.

    PubMed

    Kraemer, Robert; Knobloch, Karsten; Lorenzen, Johan; Breuing, Karl H; Koennecker, Soeren; Rennekampff, Hans-Oliver; Vogt, Peter M

    2011-01-01

    Commercially available bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become increasingly popular additions for interior home decoration in Europe and more recently in the United States. These fireplaces are advertised as smokeless, ecologically friendly, and do not require professional installation, formal gas lines, or venting. Although manufacturers and businesses promote their safety, recent presentations of injuries have alerted the authors to the relevant danger bioethanol fireplaces can pose for the incautious user. Are bioethanol fireplaces going to become the future threat in domestic burn accidents beside common barbeque burns? A Medline literature search on barbeque and domestic fireplace accidents was performed to compare and stratify the injury patterns reported and to identify a risk profile for contemporary bioethanol-fueled fireplaces. To exemplify, two representative clinical cases of severe burn accidents caused by bioethanol-fueled fireplaces, both treated in the burn unit of the authors, are being presented. Design fireplaces are being recognized as an increasing source of fuel and fire-related danger in the home. This risk may be underestimated by the uninformed customer, resulting in severe burn injuries. Because bioethanol-fueled fireplaces have become more commonplace, they may overtake barbecue-related injury as the most common domestic burn injury.

  6. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah.

    PubMed

    Lerch, Andrew P; Pfammatter, Jesse A; Bentz, Barbara J; Raffa, Kenneth F

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks.

  7. Mountain Pine Beetle Dynamics and Reproductive Success in Post-Fire Lodgepole and Ponderosa Pine Forests in Northeastern Utah

    PubMed Central

    Lerch, Andrew P.; Pfammatter, Jesse A.

    2016-01-01

    Fire injury can increase tree susceptibility to some bark beetles (Curculionidae, Scolytinae), but whether wildfires can trigger outbreaks of species such as mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins) is not well understood. We monitored 1173 lodgepole (Pinus contorta var. latifolia Doug.) and 599 ponderosa (Pinus ponderosa Doug. ex Law) pines for three years post-wildfire in the Uinta Mountains of northeastern Utah in an area with locally endemic mountain pine beetle. We examined how the degree and type of fire injury influenced beetle attacks, brood production, and subsequent tree mortality, and related these to beetle population changes over time. Mountain pine beetle population levels were high the first two post-fire years in lodgepole pine, and then declined. In ponderosa pine, populations declined each year after initial post-fire sampling. Compared to trees with strip or failed attacks, mass attacks occurred on trees with greater fire injury, in both species. Overall, a higher degree of damage to crowns and boles was associated with higher attack rates in ponderosa pines, but additional injury was more likely to decrease attack rates in lodgepole pines. In lodgepole pine, attacks were initially concentrated on fire-injured trees, but during subsequent years beetles attacked substantial numbers of uninjured trees. In ponderosa pine, attacks were primarily on injured trees each year, although these stands were more heavily burned and had few uninjured trees. In total, 46% of all lodgepole and 56% of ponderosa pines underwent some degree of attack. Adult brood emergence within caged bole sections decreased with increasing bole char in lodgepole pine but increased in ponderosa pine, however these relationships did not scale to whole trees. Mountain pine beetle populations in both tree species four years post-fire were substantially lower than the year after fire, and wildfire did not result in population outbreaks. PMID:27783632

  8. Thrombocytopenia induces multiple intracranial hemorrhages in patients with severe burns: A review of 16 cases

    PubMed Central

    ZHOU, JIANDA; LIU, JINYAN; LUO, CHENGQUN; HU, FENG; LIU, RUI; CHEN, ZIZI; CHEN, YAO; XIONG, WU; XIE, JIANFEI; HE, QUANYONG; YIN, CHAOQI; WANG, SHAOHUA; ZHANG, YANWEN; ZENG, SAINAN

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the etiology and diagnosis of multiple intracranial hemorrhages (ICHs) following severe burns, with a retrospective review of 16 cases of severe burns further complicated by multiple ICHs. Using cranial CT scans of the brains, we identified that all patients presented with low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities prior to intracranial hemorrhaging. Following conventional treatment and various supporting treatments, five cases succumbed following a progressive reduction in blood platelet levels and the ICHs were cured in 11 cases following the restoration of normal platelet levels. We conclude that low platelet counts and coagulation abnormalities may cause multiple ICHs following severe burns and early diagnosis and treatment is the key to successful treatment. PMID:23935750

  9. Application of thermal analysis to measure the spatial heterogeneity of organic matter degradation after wildfire: implications for post-fire rehabilitation treatments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, Agustin; Fonturbel, M. Teresa; Vega, Jose A.

    2015-04-01

    Severe wildfires can cause drastic changes in SOM content and quality with important implications for soil conservation and global C balance. Soil heating usually leads to loss of the most labile SOM compounds (e.g. carbohydrates, lipids and peptides) and to generation of aromatic substances. However, these fire-related damages are not uniform over large areas, because of the spatial heterogeneity of different factors such as fire type and environmental conditions. Rapid diagnosis of soil burn severity is required to enable the design of emergency post-fire rehabilitation treatments. The study was conducted in soils from NW Spain, an Atlantic-climate zone that is particularly prone to wildfires. Intact soil cores (forest floor and uppermost mineral soil layer) were taken from a soil developed under granitic rock and subjected to experimental burning (in a bench positioned at the outlet of a wind tunnel). Soil temperature during fire was monitorised and five visual levels of soil burn severity (SBS) were recorded immediately after fire. Solid-state 13C CP-MAS NMR spectroscopy analyses were performed in an Agilent (Varian) VNMRS-500-WB spectrometer. The samples were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry (TGA/DSC, Mettler-Toledo Intl. Inc.). The analyses were performed with 4 mg of samples placed in open aluminium pans under dry air (flow rate, 50 mL-1) and at a scanning rate of 10 °C min-1. The temperature ranged between 50 and 600 °C. In the organic layer, the temperature reached during fire influenced the formation and characteristics of charred material. These materials showed an increasing degree of carbonization/aromatization in relation to the increase of temperature during burning. Burning also led to compounds of higher thermal recalcitrance (increases in T50 values -the temperature at which 50% of the energy stored in SOM is released-). However, values recorded in some samples were lower than those measured in highly

  10. Environmental and climatic variables as potential drivers of post-fire cover of cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum) in seeded and unseeded semiarid ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shinneman, D.J.; Baker, W.L.

    2009-01-01

    Cheatgrass, a non-native annual grass, dominates millions of hectares in semiarid ecosystems of the Intermountain West (USA). Post-fire invasions can reduce native species diversity and alter ecological processes. To curb cheatgrass invasion, land managers often seed recently burned areas with perennial competitor species. We sampled vegetation within burned (19 years post-fire) and nearby unburned (representing pre-fire) pionjuniper (Pinus edulisJuniperus osteosperma) woodland and sagebrush (Artemisia sp.) in western Colorado to analyze variables that might explain cheatgrass cover after fire. A multiple regression model suggests higher cheatgrass cover after fire with: (1) sagebrush v. pionjuniper; (2) higher pre-fire cover of annual forbs; (3) increased time since fire; (4) lower pre-fire cover of biological soil crust; and (5) lower precipitation the year before fire. Time since fire, which coincided with higher precipitation, accounts for most of the variability in cheatgrass cover. No significant difference was found in mean cheatgrass cover between seeded and unseeded plots over time. However, negative relationships with pre-fire biological soil crust cover and native species richness suggest livestock-degraded areas are more susceptible to post-fire invasion. Proactive strategies for combating cheatgrass should include finding effective native competitors and restoring livestock-degraded areas. ?? 2009 IAWF.

  11. Prediction of spatially explicit rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for post-fire debris-flow generation in the western United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staley, Dennis; Negri, Jacquelyn; Kean, Jason

    2016-04-01

    burned areas. Our approach synthesizes the two methods by incorporating measured rainfall intensity into each model variable (based on measures of topographic steepness, burn severity and surface properties) within the logistic regression equation. This approach provides a more realistic representation of the relation between rainfall intensity and debris-flow likelihood, as likelihood values asymptotically approach zero when rainfall intensity approaches 0 mm/h, and increase with more intense rainfall. Model performance was evaluated by comparing predictions to several existing regional thresholds. The model, based upon training data collected in southern California, USA, has proven to accurately predict rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for other areas in the western United States not included in the original training dataset. In addition, the improved logistic regression model shows promise for emergency planning purposes and real-time, site-specific early warning. With further validation, this model may permit the prediction of spatially-explicit intensity-duration thresholds for debris-flow generation in areas where empirically derived regional thresholds do not exist. This improvement would permit the expansion of the early-warning system into other regions susceptible to post-fire debris flow.

  12. Post-fire recovery of acorn production by four oak species in southern ridge sandhill association in south-central Florida.

    PubMed

    Abrahamson, Warren G; Layne, James N

    2002-01-01

    We examined post-fire recovery of two components of acorn production (percentage of bearing ramets [stems] and number of acorns per bearing ramet) for four species of oaks in southern ridge sandhill vegetation in south-central peninsular Florida. Annual counts of acorns on two white oaks (Quercus chapmanii and Q. geminata) and two red oaks (Q. laevis and Q. myrtifolia) were conducted annually (except in 1991) on two 2.7-ha grids from 1969 to 1998. A prescribed burn was conducted on one of the grids in May 1993. Newly sprouted ramets of both white oaks produced acorns during the first year following the fire, whereas red oaks required 3 yr (Q. myrtifolia) or 4 yr (Q. laevis) to produce acorns. The difference in the timing of post-fire acorn production between the white and red oak species reflected the difference in the number of years from flower bud initiation to mature acorns in the two groups, with the additional year-long lag in Q. laevis probably attributable to the fact that it is typically a tree rather than a shrub species. The data suggested that percentage of bearing ramets in the smallest size class of the two white oak species was markedly lower in the burned than unburned grid in the first year of post-fire acorn production and higher in the fifth year, but these trends were not evident for the red oaks. Among all four species, differences between mean number of acorns in burned and unburned grids were significant in only two cases (the largest size class of both white oak species in the fifth year). There was no evidence of recruitment from acorns on the burned grid, possibly due to the rapid redevelopment of the shrub layer because of low mortality of the extensive clonal root systems. Rapid post-fire recovery of acorn production in xeric fire-prone habitats is presumably the result of selection to increase the probability of recovery and persistence following sufficiently intense fires that result in high oak mortality. The timing and magnitude of

  13. Quality of life and predictors of long-term outcome after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Schulze, Julian; Seehausen, Annika; Weiler, Matthias; Wind, Gerhard; Hartmann, Bernd; Germann, Günter; Liedl, Alexandra

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to identify the long-term quality of life after severe burn injury. In a prospective longitudinal design, N = 265 burn patients were examined 6, 12, 24, and 36 months after burn injury. A multilevel approach was used to measure stability and change in self-reported health status. Besides injury-related variables, self-report instruments included measures of quality of life, psychological distress, personality, and specific burn outcome measures. Fitting of unconditional growth models indicated that there was significant intra- and inter-individual variation in self-reported physical and mental health short form-12. Over the course of 3 years, participants reported on average a slight improvement of physical quality of life. Physical health was mainly predicted by mobility and level of burn severity. Variance in mental health status was mainly predicted by gender, mobility, neuroticism, level of depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)-related avoidance. Thus mobility (i.e., simple abilities) seems a crucial variable for overall quality of life. An early identification and treatment of patients with high levels of depression and PTSD-related avoidance may contribute to better mental health.

  14. The Impact of Muscle Disuse on Muscle Atrophy in Severely Burned Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-01

    Herrick RE, Baldwin KM. Effect of anabolic steroids on skeletal muscle mass during hindlimb suspension. J Appl Physiol 1987;63(5):2122–2127. [PubMed...physical activity also shows advantages in enhancing and improving recovery from muscle catabolism after severe burn [49]. Similarly, both anabolic

  15. Monitoring Post-Fire Vegetation Rehabilitation Projects: A Common Approach for Non-Forested Ecosystems

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2007-01-01

    Emergency Stabilization and Rehabilitation (ES&R) and Burned Area Emergency Response (BAER) treatments are short-term, high-intensity treatments designed to mitigate the adverse effects of wildfire on public lands. The federal government expends significant resources implementing ES&R and BAER treatments after wildfires; however, recent reviews have found that existing data from monitoring and research are insufficient to evaluate the effects of these activities. The purpose of this report is to: (1) document what monitoring methods are generally used by personnel in the field; (2) describe approaches and methods for post-fire vegetation and soil monitoring documented in agency manuals; (3) determine the common elements of monitoring programs recommended in these manuals; and (4) describe a common monitoring approach to determine the effectiveness of future ES&R and BAER treatments in non-forested regions. Both qualitative and quantitative methods to measure effectiveness of ES&R treatments are used by federal land management agencies. Quantitative methods are used in the field depending on factors such as funding, personnel, and time constraints. There are seven vegetation monitoring manuals produced by the federal government that address monitoring methods for (primarily) vegetation and soil attributes. These methods vary in their objectivity and repeatability. The most repeatable methods are point-intercept, quadrat-based density measurements, gap intercepts, and direct measurement of soil erosion. Additionally, these manuals recommend approaches for designing monitoring programs for the state of ecosystems or the effect of management actions. The elements of a defensible monitoring program applicable to ES&R and BAER projects that most of these manuals have in common are objectives, stratification, control areas, random sampling, data quality, and statistical analysis. The effectiveness of treatments can be determined more accurately if data are gathered using

  16. The management of pain associated with wound care in severe burn patients in Spain

    PubMed Central

    Mendoza, Antonio; Santoyo, Fernando L; Agulló, Alberto; Fenández-Cañamaque, José L; Vivó, Carmen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To describe the management of pain prevention associated with burn care. Methods: Multi-centre, observational, cross-sectional, descriptive study performed in 4 burn units in Spain. Results: A total of 55 patients undergoing 64 procedures were analysed. Burns were classified as severe (90.4%), third-degree (78.2%) and caused by thermal agents (81.8%). Background analgesia consisted of non-opioid drugs (87.5%) and opioids (54.7%) [morphine (20.3%), morphine and fentanyl (14.1%) or fentanyl monotherapy (15.6%)]. Burn care was performed by experienced nurses (96.9%); 36.5% followed guidelines. The mean duration of procedures was 44 minutes (Statistical Deviation, SD: 20.2) and the mean duration of pain was 27 minutes (SD: 44.6). Procedural pain was primarily managed with opioid analgesics: fentanyl monotherapy and in combination (84%) and fentanyl monotherapy (48%) administered sublingually (89.1%). Patients described pain as different to usual baseline pain (97%), with a mean maximum intensity score of 4.2 points (SD: 3.3) on the VAS scale and a 34% increase in the intensity of pain. The mean patient and healthcare professional satisfaction score per procedure was 6/10 (SD: 1.9) and 5.5/10 (SD: 1.7), respectively. Conclusion: The results of the study describe the management of pain associated with burn care in clinical practice, helping optimise pain control. PMID:27069760

  17. Post-fire vegetation behaviour in large burnt scars from 2005 fire season in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastos, A.; Gouveia, C. M.; DaCamara, C. C.; Trigo, R. M.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfires have a wide diversity of impacts on landscape which, in turn, depend on the interaction of fire regimes (e.g. intensity, extent, frequency) and the response of vegetation to them in short and long-terms. The increase in erosion rates and the loss of nutrients by runoff in the first months following the fire are among the major impacts of wildfires. A minimum of 30% of vegetation cover is enough to protect soils against erosion but vegetation may require a long period to reach this threshold after severe fires. Since erosion risk is strongly linked to vegetation recovery rates, post-fire vegetation monitoring becomes crucial in land management. Fire regimes in the Mediterranean have been changing in the past decades due to modifications in both socio-economic and climate patterns. Although many vegetation species in Mediterranean ecosystems are adapted to wildfires, changes in fire regime characteristics affect the ability of ecosystems to recover to their previous state. In Spain, fire is an important driver of changes in landscape composition, leading to dominance of shrubland following fire and to a major decrease of pine woodlands (Viedma et al., 2006). Remote sensing is a powerful tool in land management, allowing vegetation monitoring on large spatial scales for relatively long periods of time. In order to assess vegetation dynamics, monthly NDVI data from 1998-2009 from SPOT/VEGETATION at 1km spatial resolution over the Iberian Peninsula were used. This work focuses on 2005 fire season in Spain, which registered the highest amount of burnt area since 1994, with more than 188000 ha burnt. Burnt scars in this fire season were identified by cluster analysis. Post-fire vegetation recovery was assessed based on the monoparametric model developed by Gouveia et al. (2010) that was applied to four large scars located in different geographical settings with different land cover characteristics. While the two northern regions presented fast recovery, in the

  18. RECOVER: An Automated, Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Post-Fire Rehabilitation Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schnase, J. L.; Carroll, M. L.; Weber, K. T.; Brown, M. E.; Gill, R. L.; Wooten, M.; May, J.; Serr, K.; Smith, E.; Goldsby, R.; Newtoff, K.; Bradford, K.; Doyle, C.; Volker, E.; Weber, S.

    2014-11-01

    RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resource protection, and site recovery. These burned area emergency response (BAER) plans are a crucial part of our national response to wildfire disasters and depend heavily on data acquired from a variety of sources. Final plans are due within 21 days of control of a major wildfire and become the guiding document for managing the activities and budgets for all subsequent remediation efforts. There are few instances in the federal government where plans of such wide-ranging scope and importance are assembled on such short notice and translated into action more quickly. RECOVER has been designed in close collaboration with our agency partners and directly addresses their high-priority decision-making requirements. In response to a fire detection event, RECOVER uses the rapid resource allocation capabilities of cloud computing to automatically collect Earth observational data, derived decision products, and historic biophysical data so that when the fire is contained, BAER teams will have a complete and ready-to-use RECOVER dataset and GIS analysis environment customized for the target wildfire. Initial studies suggest that RECOVER can transform this information-intensive process by reducing from days to a matter of minutes the time required to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

  19. RECOVER: An Automated Cloud-Based Decision Support System for Post-fire Rehabilitation Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schnase, John L.; Carroll, Mark; Weber, K. T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Wooten, Margaret; May J.; Serr, K.; Smith, E.; Goldsby, R.; Newtoff, Kiersten; Bradford, Kathryn; Doyle Colin S.; Volker, Emily; Weber, Samuel J.

    2014-01-01

    RECOVER is a site-specific decision support system that automatically brings together in a single analysis environment the information necessary for post-fire rehabilitation decision-making. After a major wildfire, law requires that the federal land management agencies certify a comprehensive plan for public safety, burned area stabilization, resource protection, and site recovery. These burned area emergency response (BAER) plans are a crucial part of our national response to wildfire disasters and depend heavily on data acquired from a variety of sources. Final plans are due within 21 days of control of a major wildfire and become the guiding document for managing the activities and budgets for all subsequent remediation efforts. There are few instances in the federal government where plans of such wide-ranging scope and importance are assembled on such short notice and translated into action more quickly. RECOVER has been designed in close collaboration with our agency partners and directly addresses their high-priority decision-making requirements. In response to a fire detection event, RECOVER uses the rapid resource allocation capabilities of cloud computing to automatically collect Earth observational data, derived decision products, and historic biophysical data so that when the fire is contained, BAER teams will have a complete and ready-to-use RECOVER dataset and GIS analysis environment customized for the target wildfire. Initial studies suggest that RECOVER can transform this information-intensive process by reducing from days to a matter of minutes the time required to assemble and deliver crucial wildfire-related data.

  20. Emotional distress and psychosocial resources in patients recovering from severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Wallis, Hanna; Renneberg, Babette; Ripper, Sabine; Germann, Günter; Wind, Gerhard; Jester, Andrea

    2006-01-01

    Emotional distress as well as psychosocial resources in 55 patients with burn injuries was assessed during acute and follow-up treatment. Results showed significantly greater values of emotional distress among patients when compared with norms of the general population. As well as higher levels of general psychopathology, particularly prevalent were anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic symptoms. However, patients also reported high levels of resources such as general optimism, self-efficacy, and perceived social support. Within the sample, no significant correlation between severity of emotional distress and severity of burn injury was found. By psychological assessments a subgroup of highly distressed patients was identified. These patients were highly emotionally distressed while having objective injury severity comparable with the other patients in the sample. Reactions to burn accidents vary individually. The results demonstrate the importance of routine screenings of psychological symptoms. An early identification of patients at-risk allows for tailored psychotherapeutic interventions and can thus help to improve quality of life and general well-being of burn patients on a long-term basis.

  1. [Surgical therapy and critical care medicine in severely burned patients - Part 2: the basics in definite care].

    PubMed

    Deisz, Robert; Kauczok, Jens; Dembinski, Rolf; Pallua, Norbert; Marx, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    Critical care medicine in severely burned patients should be adapted to the different pathophysiological phases. Accordingly, surgical and non-surgical therapy must be coordinated adequately. Initial stabilization of the burn victim during the first 24 hours (Surgical therapy and critical care medicine in severely burned patients - Part 1: the first 24 ours, AINS 9/12) is followed by a long lasting reconstructive period. During this time calculated fluid replacement to compensate evaporative losses by large bourn wounds is as essential as reconstruction of the integrity of the skin and the modulation of metabolic consequences following severe burn injury. Special attention has to be paid to local and systemic infections.

  2. [Surgical therapy and critical care medicine in severely burned patients - Part 1: the first 24 ours].

    PubMed

    Dembinski, Rolf; Kauczok, Jens; Deisz, Robert; Pallua, Norbert; Marx, Gernot

    2012-09-01

    Critical care medicine in severely burned patients should be adapted to the different pathophysiological phases. Accordingly, surgical and non-surgical therapy must be coordinated adequately. Initial wound care comprises topical treatment of less severely injured skin and surgical debridement of severely burned areas. The first 24 hours of intensive care are focused on calculated fluid delivery to provide stable hemodynamics and avoid progression of local edema formation. In the further course wound treatment with split-thickness skin grafts is the major aim of surgical therapy. Critical care is focused on the avoidance of complications like infections and ventilator associated lung injury. Therefore, lung-protective ventilation strategies, weaning and sedation protocols, and early enteral nutrition are important cornerstones of the treatment.

  3. Effects of Exercise on Soleus in Severe Burn and Muscle Disuse Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Saeman, Melody R.; DeSpain, Kevin; Liu, Ming-Mei; Carlson, Brett A.; Song, Juquan; Baer, Lisa A.; Wade, Charles E.; Wolf, Steven E.

    2015-01-01

    Background Muscle loss is a sequela of severe burn and critical illness with bed rest contributing significantly to atrophy. We hypothesize that exercise will mitigate muscle loss after burn with bed rest. Materials and Methods Male rats were assigned to sham ambulatory (S/A), burn ambulatory (B/A), sham hindlimb unloading (S/H), or burn hindlimb unloading (B/H). Rats received a 40% scald burn or sham and were ambulatory or placed in hindlimb unloading, a model of bed rest. Half performed twice-daily resistance climbing. Hindlimb isometric forces were measured on day 14. Results Soleus mass and muscle function were not affected by burn alone. Mass was significantly lower in hindlimb unloading (79 vs.139 mg, p<0.001) and no exercise (103 vs.115 mg, p<0.01). Exercise significantly increased soleus mass in B/H (86 vs. 77mg, p<0.01). Hindlimb unloading significantly decreased muscle force in the twitch (31 vs. 12g, p<0.001), tetanic (55 vs. 148 g, p<0.001), and specific tetanic measurements (12 vs. 22 N/cm2, p<0.001). Effects of exercise on force depended on other factors. In B/H, exercise significantly increased twitch (14 vs. 8 g, p<0.05) and specific tetanic force (14 vs. 7 N/cm2, p<0.01). Fatigue index was lower in ambulatory (55%) and exercise (52%) versus hindlimb (69%, p=0.03) and no exercise (73%, p=0.002). Conclusions Hindlimb unloading is a significant factor in muscle atrophy. Exercise increased the soleus muscle mass, twitch, and specific force in this model. However, the fatigue index decreased with exercise in all groups. This suggests exercise contributes to functional muscle change in this model of disuse and critical illness. PMID:26104324

  4. Impact of Stress-Induced Diabetes on Outcomes in Severely Burned Children

    PubMed Central

    Finnerty, Celeste C.; Ali, Arham; McClean, Josef; Benjamin, Nicole; Clayton, Robert P.; Andersen, Clark R.; Mlcak, Ronald P.; Suman, Oscar E.; Meyer, Walter; Herndon, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Background Post-burn hyperglycemia leads to graft failure, multiple organ failure, and death. A hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp is used to keep serum glucose between 60-110mg/dL. Because of frequent hypoglycemic episodes, a less stringent sliding scale insulin protocol is used to maintain serum glucose levels between 80-160mg/dL following elevations above 180mg/dL. Study Design We randomized pediatric patients with massive burns into two groups – patients receiving sliding scale insulin to lower blood glucose levels (n=145) and those receiving no insulin (n = 98) to determine the differences in morbidity and mortality. Patients 0-18 years old with burns covering ≥30% of the total body surface area and not randomized to receive anabolic agents were included in this study. Endpoints included glucose levels, infections, resting energy expenditure (REE), lean body mass, bone mineral content (BMC), fat mass, muscle strength, and serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes. Results Maximal glucose levels occurred within 6 days of burn injury. Blood glucose levels were age dependent with older children requiring more insulin, p<0.05. Daily maximum and daily minimum, but not 6am,glucose levels were significantly different based on treatment group, p<0.05. Insulin significantly increased REE and improved BMC, p<0.05. Each additional wound infection increased incidence of hyperglycemia, p=0.004. There was no mortality in patients not receiving insulin, only in patients who received insulin (p<0.004). Muscle strength was increased in patients receiving insulin (p<0.05). Conclusions A subset of severely burned children develops burn-induced hyperglycemia. Length of stay was reduced in the no insulin group, and there were no deaths in this group. Administration of insulin positively impacted BMC and muscle strength, but increased REE, hypoglycemic episodes, and mortality. New glucose-lowering strategies may be needed. PMID:24655871

  5. Impacts of Boreal Forest Fires and Post-Fire Succession on Energy Budgets and Climate in the Community Earth System Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rogers, B. M.; Randerson, J. T.; Bonan, G. B.

    2011-12-01

    Vegetation compositions of boreal forests are determined largely by recovery patterns after large-scale disturbances, the most notable of which is wildfire. Forest compositions exert large controls on regional energy and greenhouse gas budgets by affecting surface albedo, net radiation, turbulent energy fluxes, and carbon stocks. Impacts of boreal forest fires on climate are therefore products of direct fire effects, including charred surfaces and emitted aerosols and greenhouse gasses, and post-fire vegetation succession, which affects carbon and energy exchange for many decades after the initial disturbance. Climate changes are expected to be greatest at high latitudes, leading many to project increases in boreal forest fires. While numerous studies have documented the effects of post-fire landscape on energy and gas budgets in boreal forests, to date no continental analysis using a coupled model has been performed. In this study we quantified the effects of boreal forest fires and post-fire succession on regional and global climate using model experiments in the Community Earth System Model. We used 20th century climate data and MODIS vegetation continuous fields and land cover classes to identify boreal forests across North America and Eurasia. Historical fire return intervals were derived from a regression approach utilizing the Canadian and Alaskan Large Fire Databases, the Global Fire Emissions Database v3, and land cover and climate data. Succession trajectories were derived from the literature and MODIS land cover over known fire scars. Major improvements in model-data comparisons of long-term energy budgets were observed by prescribing post-fire vegetation succession. Global simulations using historical and future burn area scenarios highlight the potential impacts on climate from changing fire regimes and provide motivation for including vegetation succession in coupled simulations.

  6. Absence of exertional hyperthermia in a 17-year-old boy with severe burns.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Lee, Jong O; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2009-01-01

    An important safety concern when exercising burned patients is the potential for an excessive increase in core body temperature (hyperthermia=body core temperature>39 degrees C) during exercise. We examined the thermoregulatory response to exercise in the heat (31 degrees C, relative humidity 40%) in a 17-year-old boy with a 99% TBSA burn. A 30-minute exercise test was performed at an intensity of 75% of his peak aerobic capacity. Intestinal temperature was assessed via telemetry with an ingestible capsule. Intestinal temperature was measured before, during, and postexercise. The patient completed 12 minutes of the 30-minute exercise test. Starting core temperature was 36.98 degrees C and increased 0.69 degrees C during exercise. After exercise, intestinal temperature continued to increase, but no hyperthermia was noted. It has been reported that burned children can safely exercise at room temperature; however, the response in the heat is unknown. This patient did not develop exertional hyperthermia, which we propose is due to his low-fitness level and heat intolerance. However, the potential for hyperthermia would be increased if he was forced to maintain a high relative workload in the heat. We propose that severely burned individuals should be able to safely participate in physical activities. However, the decision to stop exercising should be accepted to avoid development of exertional hyperthermia.

  7. A soil burn severity index for understanding soil-fire relations in tropical forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jain, T.B.; Gould, W.A.; Graham, R.T.; Pilliod, D.S.; Lentile, L.B.; Gonzalez, G.

    2008-01-01

    Methods for evaluating the impact of fires within tropical forests are needed as fires become more frequent and human populations and demands on forests increase. Short- and long-term fire effects on soils are determined by the prefire, fire, and postfire environments. We placed these components within a fire-disturbance continuum to guide our literature synthesis and develop an integrated soil burn severity index. The soil burn severity index provides a set of indicators that reflect the range of conditions present after a fire. The index consists of seven levels, an unburned level and six other levels that describe a range of postfire soil conditions. We view this index as a tool for understanding the effects of fires on the forest floor, with the realization that as new information is gained, the index may be modified as warranted. ?? Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences 2008.

  8. Quantifying Post-Fire Forest Biomass Recovery in Northeastern Siberia using Hierarchical Multi-Sensor Satellite Imagery and Field Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berner, L.; Beck, P. S.; Loranty, M. M.; Alexander, H. D.; Mack, M. C.; Goetz, S. J.

    2011-12-01

    Russian forests are the largest vegetation carbon pool outside of the tropics, with larch dominating northeastern Siberia where extreme temperatures, permafrost and wildfire currently limit persistence of other tree species. These ecosystems have experienced rapid climate warming over the past century and model simulations suggest that they will undergo profound changes by the end of the century if warming continues. Understanding the responses of these unique deciduous-conifer ecosystems to current and future climate is important given the potential changes in disturbance regimes and other climate feedbacks. The climate implications of changes in fire severity and return interval, as predicted under a warmer and drier climate, are not well understood given the trade-off between storage of C in forest biomass and post-fire surface albedo. We examined forest biomass recovery across a burn chronosequence near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, in far northeastern Siberia. We used high-quality Landsat imagery to date and map fires that occurred between 1972 and 2009, then complemented this data set using tree ring measurements to map older fires. A three stage approach was taken to map current biomass distribution. First, tree shadows were mapped from 50 cm panchromatic WorldView 1 imagery covering a portion of the region. Secondly, the tree shadow map was aggregated to 30 m resolution and used to train a regression-tree model that ingested mosaiced Landsat data. The model output correlated with allometry-based field estimates of biomass, allowing us to transform the model output to a map of regional aboveground biomass using a regression model. When combined with the fire history data, the new biomass map revealed a chronosequence of forest regrowth and carbon sequestration in aboveground biomass after fire. We discuss the potential for future carbon emissions from fires in northeastern Siberia, as well as carbon sequestration during recovery based on the observed biomass

  9. [Psychiatric sequelae of severe burn injuries: emotional distress and resources of occupationally versus non occupationally insured patients 1 year after burn injury].

    PubMed

    Ripper, S; Stolle, A; Seehausen, A; Klinkenberg, M; Germann, G; Hartmann, B; Renneberg, B

    2010-11-01

    Severe burn injuries are traumatic events and can have serious impact on all areas of life frequently causing high emotional distress. In a multicentre study resources and emotional distress of patients with serious burn injuries were assessed during the first hospitalization and at 6 and 12 months follow-up. Patients with severe burn injuries after accidents in a private environment (NBG patients) and patients after occupational accidents covered by the German Social Accident Insurance (BG patients) were compared. All patients reported marked emotional impairment, particularly during the hospitalization. At follow-up a reduction of emotional distress was detected. Nearly half of the patients received a diagnosis of one or more mental disorders according to DSM-IV criteria. When treating patients with burns, special attention should be given to their mental health. They should be offered psychological support to cope with the aftermath of the accident, especially after discharge from hospital when returning to their normal surroundings.

  10. Thoracic Duct Chylous Fistula Following Severe Electric Injury Combined with Sulfuric Acid Burns: A Case Report.

    PubMed

    Chang, Fei; Cheng, Dasheng; Qian, Mingyuan; Lu, Wei; Li, Huatao; Tang, Hongtai; Xia, Zhaofan

    2016-10-11

    BACKGROUND As patients with thoracic duct injuries often suffer from severe local soft tissue defects, integrated surgical treatment is needed to achieve damage repair and wound closure. However, thoracic duct chylous fistula is rare in burn patients, although it typically involves severe soft tissue damage in the neck or chest. CASE REPORT A 32-year-old male patient fell after accidentally contacting an electric current (380 V) and knocked over a barrel of sulfuric acid. The sulfuric acid continuously poured onto his left neck and chest, causing combined electrical and sulfuric acid burn injuries to his anterior and posterior torso, and various parts of his limbs (25% of his total body surface area). During treatment, chylous fistula developed in the left clavicular region, which we diagnosed as thoracic duct chylous fistula. We used diet control, intravenous nutritional support, and continuous somatostatin to reduce the chylous fistula output, and hydrophilic silver ion-containing dressings for wound coverage. A boneless muscle flap was used to seal the left clavicular cavity, and, integrated, these led to resolution of the chylous fistula. CONCLUSIONS Patients with severe electric or chemical burns in the neck or chest may be complicated with thoracic duct injuries. Although conservative treatment can control chylous fistula, wound cavity filling using a muscle flap is an effective approach for wound healing.

  11. Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs

    PubMed Central

    Haitao, L.; Dajun, Y.; Kaifa, W.; Xiuwu, B.; Jiansen, S.; Zongchen, Y.

    2005-01-01

    Summary The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn. PMID:21990986

  12. Application of a Four-dimensional Mathematical Model in the Establishment of an Early Post-burn Cerebral Oedema Model in Severely Burned Dogs.

    PubMed

    Haitao, L; Dajun, Y; Kaifa, W; Xiuwu, B; Jiansen, S; Zongchen, Y

    2005-06-30

    The aim of this study was to explore the spatiotemporal development of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn (50% TBSA, third degree), using a four-dimensional (4D) mathematical model. Twenty-six male mongrel dogs were randomly divided into control and 6, 12, 18, and 24 post-burn hour (PBH) groups. The manifestation of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and histopathology, changes of brain water content, and intracranial pressure were observed in each group respectively. A 4D mathematical model was established on the basis of the results of MRI scanning. Two turning points (6 and 18 PBH) and three phases of pathological change were displayed by the 4D mathematical model of cerebral oedema in the early stage of severe burn. The first phase was in the subclinical period, and effective treatment should therefore be performed as quickly as possible in order to prevent deterioration of post-burn cerebral oedema. The second phase (6-18 PBH), with pathological characteristics of cytotoxic cerebral oedema, was in the apoptosis period. The third stage (18-24 PBH) was the danger period of cerebral oedema. Intracranial pressure increased rapidly owing to the limitation of the cranial cavity. As a result, cerebral hernia could easily occur. An S-shape curve in the pathological process of cerebral oedema occurred in the early post-burn stage following severe burn.

  13. Exploring functional relationships between post-fire soil water repellency, soil structure and physico-chemical properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quarfeld, Jamie; Brook, Anna; Keestra, Saskia; Wittenberg, Lea

    2016-04-01

    composition in determining wettability rather than quantity, as evidenced both by the high variation observed in the field and the strong presence of aliphatic functional groups in the absence of WR; and (ii) commonly proposed mechanisms affecting soil aggregate properties - albeit with differing temperature thresholds and longer exposure times employed in this study. Namely, these mechanisms tend to involve: (i) soil OM and WR reduction at low to moderate temperatures, and (ii) thermal fusion of particles within moderate to high temperatures. Overall, results suggest a positive influence of management on soil properties as well as high soil resilience to moderate severity fire disturbance in the studied areas. However, the specific changes in soil OM and mineral composition that are responsible for destruction of WR and subsequent changes in AS remain poorly understood. Based on these results, a key next step within this study will entail a closer examination of OC ratios and their potential links with certain mineral species known to influence soil aggregation and soil WR. Noting the importance of soil OM-mineralogical interactions on run-off and erosion processes, results may contribute to better prediction of post-fire responses in the future and improve the ability to fine-tune site specific management approaches accordingly.

  14. Use of spectral channels and vegetation indices from satellite VEGETATION time series for the Post-Fire vegetation recovery estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coluzzi, Rosa; Lasaponara, Rosa; Montesano, Tiziana; Lanorte, Antonio; de Santis, Fortunato

    2010-05-01

    Satellite data can help monitoring the dynamics of vegetation in burned and unburned areas. Several methods can be used to perform such kind of analysis. This paper is focused on the use of different satellite-based parameters for fire recovery monitoring. In particular, time series of single spectral channels and vegetation indices from SPOT-VEGETATION have investigated. The test areas is the Mediterranean ecosystems of Southern Italy. For this study we considered: 1) the most widely used index to follow the process of recovery after fire: normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) obtained from the visible (Red) and near infrared (NIR) by using the following formula NDVI = (NIR_Red)/(NIR + Red), 2) moisture index MSI obtained from the near infrared and Mir for characterization of leaf and canopy water content. 3) NDWI obtained from the near infrared and Mir as in the case of MSI, but with the normalization (as the NDVI) to reduce the atmospheric effects. All analysis for this work was performed on ten-daily normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) image composites (S10) from the SPOT- VEGETATION (VGT) sensor. The final data set consisted of 279 ten-daily, 1 km resolution NDVI S1O composites for the period 1 April 1998 to 31 December 2005 with additional surface reflectance values in the blue (B; 0.43-0.47,um), red (R; 0.61-0.68,um), near-infrared (NIR; 0.78-0.89,um) and shortwave-infrared (SWIR; 1.58-1.75,um) spectral bands, and information on the viewing geometry and pixel status. Preprocessing of the data was performed by the Vlaamse Instelling voor Technologisch Onderzoek (VITO) in the framework of the Global Vegetation Monitoring (GLOVEG) preprocessing chain. It consisted of the Simplified Method for Atmospheric Correction (SMAC) and compositing at ten-day intervals based on the Maximum Value Compositing (MVC) criterion. All the satellite time series were analysed using the Detrended Fluctuation Analysis (DFA) to estimate post fire vegetation recovery

  15. The impact of non-severe burn injury on cardiac function and long-term cardiovascular pathology

    PubMed Central

    O’Halloran, Emily; Shah, Amit; Dembo, Lawrence; Hool, Livia; Viola, Helena; Grey, Christine; Boyd, James; O’Neill, Tomas; Wood, Fiona; Duke, Janine; Fear, Mark

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injury significantly affects cardiovascular function for up to 3 years. However, whether this leads to long-term pathology is unknown. The impact of non-severe burn injury, which accounts for over 80% of admissions in developed countries, has not been investigated. Using a rodent model of non-severe burn injury with subsequent echocardiography we showed significantly increased left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD) and ventricular wall thickness at up to 3 months post-injury. Use of propranolol abrogated the changes in cardiac measures observed. Subsequently we investigated changes in a patient cohort with non-severe injury. Echocardiography measured at baseline and at 3 months post-injury showed increased LVESD at 3 months and significantly decreased posterior wall diameter. Finally, 32 years of Western Australian hospital records were used to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease admissions after burn injury. People who had experienced a burn had increased hospital admissions and length of stay for cardiovascular diseases when compared to a matched uninjured cohort. This study presents animal, patient and population data that strongly suggest non-severe burn injury has significant effects on cardiovascular function and long-term morbidity in some burn patients. Identification of patients at risk will promote better intervention and outcomes for burn patients. PMID:27694999

  16. The impact of non-severe burn injury on cardiac function and long-term cardiovascular pathology.

    PubMed

    O'Halloran, Emily; Shah, Amit; Dembo, Lawrence; Hool, Livia; Viola, Helena; Grey, Christine; Boyd, James; O'Neill, Tomas; Wood, Fiona; Duke, Janine; Fear, Mark

    2016-10-03

    Severe burn injury significantly affects cardiovascular function for up to 3 years. However, whether this leads to long-term pathology is unknown. The impact of non-severe burn injury, which accounts for over 80% of admissions in developed countries, has not been investigated. Using a rodent model of non-severe burn injury with subsequent echocardiography we showed significantly increased left ventricular end systolic diameter (LVESD) and ventricular wall thickness at up to 3 months post-injury. Use of propranolol abrogated the changes in cardiac measures observed. Subsequently we investigated changes in a patient cohort with non-severe injury. Echocardiography measured at baseline and at 3 months post-injury showed increased LVESD at 3 months and significantly decreased posterior wall diameter. Finally, 32 years of Western Australian hospital records were used to investigate the incidence of cardiovascular disease admissions after burn injury. People who had experienced a burn had increased hospital admissions and length of stay for cardiovascular diseases when compared to a matched uninjured cohort. This study presents animal, patient and population data that strongly suggest non-severe burn injury has significant effects on cardiovascular function and long-term morbidity in some burn patients. Identification of patients at risk will promote better intervention and outcomes for burn patients.

  17. Contrasting long-term survival of two outplanted Mojave Desert perennials for post-fire revegetation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scoles-Sciulla, Sara J.; Defalco, Lesley A.; Esque, Todd C.

    2015-01-01

    Post-fire recovery of arid shrublands is typically slow, and planting greenhouse-raised seedlings may be a means of jump-starting this process. Recovery can be further accelerated by understanding the factors controlling post-planting survival. In fall 2007 and 2009, we outplanted seedlings of two contrasting native evergreen shrubs—fast-growing Nevada jointfir and slow-growing blackbrush—across five burned sites in the Mojave Desert. To increase soil moisture and optimize seedling survival, we experimentally applied and evaluated soil amendments and supplemental watering. We also evaluated two herbicides that reduce competitive invasive annual grasses and two types of herbivore protection. Survival of jointfir outplanted in 2007 was 61% after 43 months, and site largely influenced survival, while herbicide containing imazapic applied more than one year after outplanting reduced survival. Reduced survival of jointfir outplanted in 2009 coincided with delayed seasonal precipitation that intensified foliar damage by small mammals. In contrast, blackbrush survival was 4% after 43 months, and was influenced by site, type of herbivore protection, and greenhouse during the 2007 outplanting, and soil amendment during 2009. Counter to expectations, we found that supplemental watering and soil amendments did not influence long-term survival of either blackbrush or jointfir. Shrub species with rapid growth rates and broad environmental tolerances, such as jointfir, make ideal candidates for outplanting, provided that seedlings are protected from herbivores. Re-introduction of species with slow growth rates and narrow environmental tolerances, such as blackbrush, requires careful consideration to optimize pre- and post-planting conditions.

  18. Evaluating Post-fire Ecosystem Effects in Tussock Tundra of the Seward Peninsula: Characterizing Above-ground Biomass Accumulation, Soil Nutrient Pools, and Foliar Nitrogen.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollingsworth, T. N.; Mack, M. C.; Breen, A. L.

    2014-12-01

    Over the last century in the circumpolar north, changes in vegetation include shrub cover expansion and shifts in tree line. Invasion of tundra by trees and shrubs may be further facilitated by wildfire disturbance, which creates opportunities for establishment where recruitment is otherwise rare. Even moderate increases in warm-season temperatures are predicted to increase the likelihood of tundra fires. Understanding the consequences of a change in fire regime are complicated by the fact that there are relatively few large recent fires to study. However, the Seward Peninsula is a region that currently experiences more frequent and large fires than other tundra regions in Arctic Alaska. In this tundra region, there are areas of overlapping burns dating back to the 1970s. Using a chronosequence approach, we looked at post-fire biomass accumulation as well as foliar and soil C and N. Our experimental design incorporated sites that showed no evidence of recent burning, sites that burned in 1971, 1997, 2002, and 2011 as well as sites that burned multiple times over the last 30 years. We found that fire had a significant effect on total biomass and shrub basal area in tussock tundra. Our site that burned in 2011 had the lowest total biomass, about half of the biomass of our unburned site. However, our results indicated the site that burned in 1971 had over double the aboveground biomass and more soil N than the unburned site. We found that sites that repeatedly burned since 1971 were very similar in biomass to unburned tundra. This suggests that repeat fires keep a post-fire site at unburned levels of biomass. However, in these repeat fire sites, foliar C/N was ~25% greater and soil C and N was ~50% less than in unburned tundra. These results indicate that repeat fires are potentially causing nitrogen loss that not likely to be replenished into the system. As tundra fires become more frequent prediction of post-fire ecosystem effects is critical due to impacts on

  19. Severe burn and disuse in the rat independently adversely impact body composition and adipokines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Severe trauma is accompanied by a period of hypermetabolism and disuse. In this study, a rat model was used to determine the effects of burn and disuse independently and in combination on body composition, food intake and adipokines. Methods Male rats were assigned to four groups 1) sham ambulatory (SA), 2) sham hindlimb unloaded (SH), 3) 40% total body surface area full thickness scald burn ambulatory (BA) and 4) burn and hindlimb unloaded (BH). Animals designated to the SH and BH groups were placed in a tail traction system and their hindlimbs unloaded. Animals were followed for 14 days. Plasma, urine, fecal and tissue samples were analyzed. Results SA had a progressive increase in body mass (BM), SH and BA no change and BH a reduction. Compared to SA, BM was reduced by 10% in both SH and BA and by 17% when combined in BH. Compared to SA, all groups had reductions in lean and fat body mass with BH being greater. The decrease in lean mass was associated with the rate of urinary corticosterone excretion. The loss in fat mass was associated with decreases in plasma leptin and adiponectin and an increase in ghrelin. Following the acute response to injury, BH had a greater food intake per 100 g BM. Food intake was associated with the levels of leptin, adiponectin and ghrelin. Conclusions The effects of the combination of burn and disuse in this animal model were additive, therefore in assessing metabolic changes with severe trauma both injury and disuse should be considered. Furthermore, the observed changes in adipokines, corticosterone and ghrelin provide insights for interventions to attenuate the hypermetabolic state following injury, possibly reducing catabolism and muscle loss and subsequent adverse effects on recovery and function. PMID:24099533

  20. Object-based assessment of burn severity in diseased forests using high-spatial and high-spectral resolution MASTER airborne imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Gang; Metz, Margaret R.; Rizzo, David M.; Dillon, Whalen W.; Meentemeyer, Ross K.

    2015-04-01

    Forest ecosystems are subject to a variety of disturbances with increasing intensities and frequencies, which may permanently change the trajectories of forest recovery and disrupt the ecosystem services provided by trees. Fire and invasive species, especially exotic disease-causing pathogens and insects, are examples of disturbances that together could pose major threats to forest health. This study examines the impacts of fire and exotic disease (sudden oak death) on forests, with an emphasis on the assessment of post-fire burn severity in a forest where trees have experienced three stages of disease progression pre-fire: early-stage (trees retaining dried foliage and fine twigs), middle-stage (trees losing fine crown fuels), and late-stage (trees falling down). The research was conducted by applying Geographic Object-Based Image Analysis (GEOBIA) to MASTER airborne images that were acquired immediately following the fire for rapid assessment and contained both high-spatial (4 m) and high-spectral (50 bands) resolutions. Although GEOBIA has gradually become a standard tool for analyzing high-spatial resolution imagery, high-spectral resolution data (dozens to hundreds of bands) can dramatically reduce computation efficiency in the process of segmentation and object-based variable extraction, leading to complicated variable selection for succeeding modeling. Hence, we also assessed two widely used band reduction algorithms, PCA (principal component analysis) and MNF (minimum noise fraction), for the delineation of image objects and the subsequent performance of burn severity models using either PCA or MNF derived variables. To increase computation efficiency, only the top 5 PCA and MNF and top 10 PCA and MNF components were evaluated, which accounted for 10% and 20% of the total number of the original 50 spectral bands, respectively. Results show that if no band reduction was applied the models developed for the three stages of disease progression had relatively

  1. Normalized burn ratios link fire severity with patterns of avian occurrence

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rose, Eli T.; Simons, Theodore R.; Klein, Rob; McKerrow, Alexa

    2016-01-01

    ContextRemotely sensed differenced normalized burn ratios (DNBR) provide an index of fire severity across the footprint of a fire. We asked whether this index was useful for explaining patterns of bird occurrence within fire adapted xeric pine-oak forests of the southern Appalachian Mountains.ObjectivesWe evaluated the use of DNBR indices for linking ecosystem process with patterns of bird occurrence. We compared field-based and remotely sensed fire severity indices and used each to develop occupancy models for six bird species to identify patterns of bird occurrence following fire.MethodsWe identified and sampled 228 points within fires that recently burned within Great Smoky Mountains National Park. We performed avian point counts and field-assessed fire severity at each bird census point. We also used Landsat™ imagery acquired before and after each fire to quantify fire severity using DNBR. We used non-parametric methods to quantify agreement between fire severity indices, and evaluated single season occupancy models incorporating fire severity summarized at different spatial scales.ResultsAgreement between field-derived and remotely sensed measures of fire severity was influenced by vegetation type. Although occurrence models using field-derived indices of fire severity outperformed those using DNBR, summarizing DNBR at multiple spatial scales provided additional insights into patterns of occurrence associated with different sized patches of high severity fire.ConclusionsDNBR is useful for linking the effects of fire severity to patterns of bird occurrence, and informing how high severity fire shapes patterns of bird species occurrence on the landscape.

  2. Soil geochemistry controls fire severity: A soil approach to improved understanding of forest fire consequences in southwest Montana.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Callahan, R.; Hartshorn, T.

    2014-12-01

    Fire severity can be defined using satellite imagery to ratio mid (~2.2 um) to near (~0.8 um) infrared reflectance values. We examined how lithology and topography affected burn severity, and how post-fire soils data could be used to ground-truth burn severity at two sites in southwestern Montana. A burned area reflectance classification (BARC), lithology, and terrain attributes were used to predict burn severity for the Millie Fire, which was triggered two years ago by lightning and burned ~4,000 ha. Burn severity showed a strong dependence on lithology: the ratio of areas with high burn severity vs. low or moderate burn severities was 2.9 for gneiss (vs. 0.3 for volcanics). The high-severity burn area for the gneiss was larger than the volcanics, despite the latter lithology covering ~270% greater area (~2,600 ha). Aspect and elevation also influenced burn severity with lower severity at higher elevations (2,600-3,000 m) and higher severity at lower elevations (1,800-2,400 m). Southern and western aspects burned more severely than northern and eastern aspects. To clarify whether post-fire soil geochemical changes might predict ground-based estimates of fire severity, a lab experiment was carried out . We expected residual enrichment of trace metal concentrations, as soil organic matter (SOM) was combusted, which we quantified as loss on ignition (LOI). To test this approach, burned and unburned soils were sampled from the ~6000 ha Beartrap 2 fire, which also burned two years. We simulated differing fire severities on unburned soil using a muffle furnace factorially (duration [5, 15, 30, 45, or 60 minutes] x temperature [50, 100, 200, 300, 400, or 500ºC]). Consistent with expectations, unburned samples had a lower mean (±1SD) concentrations for 23 of 30 elements than field-burned samples. For example, barium concentrations ([Ba]) in unburned samples were (708±37μg/g), 16% lower than field-burned [Ba] (841±7 μg/g). Simulated burning yielded smaller [Ba] (732

  3. Comparing the Influence of Wildfire and Prescribed Burns on Watershed Nitrogen Biogeochemistry Using 15N Natural Abundance in Terrestrial and Aquatic Ecosystem Components

    PubMed Central

    Stephan, Kirsten; Kavanagh, Kathleen L.; Koyama, Akihiro

    2015-01-01

    We evaluated differences in the effects of three low-severity spring prescribed burns and four wildfires on nitrogen (N) biogeochemistry in Rocky Mountain headwater watersheds. We compared paired (burned/unburned) watersheds of four wildfires and three spring prescribed burns for three growing seasons post-fire. To better understand fire effects on the entire watershed ecosystem, we measured N concentrations and δ15N in both the terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems components, i.e., soil, understory plants in upland and riparian areas, streamwater, and in-stream moss. In addition, we measured nitrate reductase activity in foliage of Spiraea betulifolia, a dominant understory species. We found increases of δ15N and N concentrations in both terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem N pools after wildfire, but responses were limited to terrestrial N pools after prescribed burns indicating that N transfer from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystem components did not occur in low-severity prescribed burns. Foliar δ15N differed between wildfire and prescribed burn sites; the δ15N of foliage of upland plants was enriched by 2.9 ‰ (difference between burned and unburned watersheds) in the first two years after wildfire, but only 1.3 ‰ after prescribed burns. In-stream moss δ15N in wildfire-burned watersheds was enriched by 1.3 ‰, but there was no response by moss in prescription-burned watersheds, mirroring patterns of streamwater nitrate concentrations. S. betulifolia showed significantly higher nitrate reductase activity two years after wildfires relative to corresponding unburned watersheds, but no such difference was found after prescribed burns. These responses are consistent with less altered N biogeochemistry after prescribed burns relative to wildfire. We concluded that δ15N values in terrestrial and aquatic plants and streamwater nitrate concentrations after fire can be useful indicators of the magnitude and duration of fire effects and the fate of post-fire

  4. Predicting the delivery of sediment and associated nutrients from post-fire debris flows in small upland catchments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nyman, Petter; Sheridan, Gary; Smith, Hugh; Lane, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Post-fire debris flows are extreme erosion events that can dominate the long term supply of sediment from headwaters to streams in upland catchments. Predicting the location, frequency and magnitude of debris flows is therefore important for understanding sediment dynamics in upland catchments and providing a basis on which to manage hydro-geomorphic risk in burned areas. In this study we survey 10 post-fire debris flow events in southeast Australia with aims to i) identify rainfall conditions underlying the debris flow response, ii) quantify erosion rates in hillslope and channel source areas, and iii) estimate the delivery of sediment and water quality constituents to receiving waterways. Rainfall events that triggered debris flows had an annual exceedance probability ranging from 0.1 to 0.6, and 30-minute intensities, I30, ranging from 17-60 mm h-1. Sediment delivery by debris flows (100-200 t ha-1) is similar to that which has been reported for similar events in the western US and Spain. In terms of eroded volume, there was on average an equal contribution from hillslopes and channels to debris flows, which is in agreement with the calculations of surface and subsurface source contributions obtained from radionuclide concentrations. In terms of the potential water quality impacts from post-fire debris flows, the hillslopes had much higher concentration of constituents such as fine clay and silt, plant available phosphorous and total carbon. The data on debris flow magnitude was used to evaluate two different approaches for predicting sediment delivery from debris flows. A statistical debris flow model developed by the US Geological Surveys and parameterized for catchments in western US performed well (R2 = 0.92) in terms of predicting the overall volume of material delivered at the catchment outlet. An alternative modeling approach, using local slope and contributing area as predictors of erosion, also produced good results, and could be used to obtain more

  5. [A propose to suspend the use of hydroxyethyl starch for fluid resuscitation in shock phase of severe burns].

    PubMed

    Luo, Gao-xing; Peng, Yi-zhi; Wu, Jun

    2013-10-01

    Based on the result of randomized controlled trials and meta-analysis recently, the infusion of hydroxyethyl starch (HES) was not shown to over match routine crystalline solution in exerting resuscitation effect against hypovolemia of patients with burn shock, severe systematic infection, or other critical conditions, on the other hand, it may induce renal toxicity and other toxic and side effects. Since the pathological mechanism underlying hypovolemia during shock phase after burn is similar to that of severe systemic infection, we propose to suspend the use of HES for fluid resuscitation during the shock phase of severe burn until further elucidation.

  6. Early fluid resuscitation with hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch 200/0.5 (10%) in severe burn injury

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Despite large experience in the management of severe burn injury, there are still controversies regarding the best type of fluid resuscitation, especially during the first 24 hours after the trauma. Therefore, our study addressed the question whether hyperoncotic hydroxyethyl starch (HES) 200/0.5 (10%) administered in combination with crystalloids within the first 24 hours after injury is as effective as 'crystalloids only' in severe burn injury patients. Methods 30 consecutive patients were enrolled to this prospective interventional open label study and assigned either to a traditional 'crystalloids only' or to a 'HES 200/0.5 (10%)' volume resuscitation protocol. Total amount of fluid administration, complications such as pulmonary failure, abdominal compartment syndrome, sepsis, renal failure and overall mortality were assessed. Cox proportional hazard regression analysis was performed for binary outcomes and adjustment for potential confounders was done in the multivariate regression models. For continuous outcome parameters multiple linear regression analysis was used. Results Group differences between patients receiving crystalloids only or HES 200/0.5 (10%) were not statistically significant. However, a large effect towards increased overall mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 7.12; P = 0.16) in the HES 200/0.5 (10%) group as compared to the crystalloids only group (43.8% versus 14.3%) was present. Similarly, the incidence of renal failure was 25.0% in the HES 200/0.5 (10%) group versus 7.1% in the crystalloid only group (adjusted hazard ratio 6.16; P = 0.42). Conclusions This small study indicates that the application of hyperoncotic HES 200/0.5 (10%) within the first 24 hours after severe burn injury may be associated with fatal outcome and should therefore be used with caution. Trial registration NCT01120730. PMID:20584291

  7. Modeling Fire Severity in Black Spruce Stands in the Alaskan Boreal Forest Using Spectral and Non-Spectral Geospatial Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E. S.; McGuire, A. D.; Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (pb0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (pb0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (N200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the surface

  8. Modeling fire severity in black spruce stands in the Alaskan boreal forest using spectral and non-spectral geospatial data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barrett, K.; Kasischke, E.S.; McGuire, A.D.; Turetsky, M.R.; Kane, E.S.

    2010-01-01

    Biomass burning in the Alaskan interior is already a major disturbance and source of carbon emissions, and is likely to increase in response to the warming and drying predicted for the future climate. In addition to quantifying changes to the spatial and temporal patterns of burned areas, observing variations in severity is the key to studying the impact of changes to the fire regime on carbon cycling, energy budgets, and post-fire succession. Remote sensing indices of fire severity have not consistently been well-correlated with in situ observations of important severity characteristics in Alaskan black spruce stands, including depth of burning of the surface organic layer. The incorporation of ancillary data such as in situ observations and GIS layers with spectral data from Landsat TM/ETM+ greatly improved efforts to map the reduction of the organic layer in burned black spruce stands. Using a regression tree approach, the R2 of the organic layer depth reduction models was 0.60 and 0.55 (p < 0.01) for relative and absolute depth reduction, respectively. All of the independent variables used by the regression tree to estimate burn depth can be obtained independently of field observations. Implementation of a gradient boosting algorithm improved the R2 to 0.80 and 0.79 (p < 0.01) for absolute and relative organic layer depth reduction, respectively. Independent variables used in the regression tree model of burn depth included topographic position, remote sensing indices related to soil and vegetation characteristics, timing of the fire event, and meteorological data. Post-fire organic layer depth characteristics are determined for a large (> 200,000 ha) fire to identify areas that are potentially vulnerable to a shift in post-fire succession. This application showed that 12% of this fire event experienced fire severe enough to support a change in post-fire succession. We conclude that non-parametric models and ancillary data are useful in the modeling of the

  9. Clinical Trial of Imipenem/Cilastatin in Severely Burned and Infected Patients

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-07-01

    parainfluenzae ventricular F contractions (slight) for one day 7 ...... 43.0 Positive Broncho- Proteus vulgaris , 3 9 Improved Reduced in None 27 pneumonia...34"OT FILE CO.Y CLINICAL TRIAL OF IMIPENEM/CILASTATIN IN SEVERELY BURNED AND INFECTED PATIENTS Gary R. Culbertson, M.D., Albert T. McManus, PH.D., D T...antibiotic nary, two urinary tract, one wound and one bacte re- mia. Treatment was clinically successful in 13patie-; resistant organisms in the

  10. Polyacrylamide application versus forest residue mulching for reducing post-fire runoff and soil erosion.

    PubMed

    Prats, Sergio Alegre; Martins, Martinho António Dos Santos; Malvar, Maruxa Cortizo; Ben-Hur, Meni; Keizer, Jan Jacob

    2014-01-15

    For several years now, forest fires have been known to increase overland flow and soil erosion. However, mitigation of these effects has been little studied, especially outside the USA. This study aimed to quantify the effectiveness of two so-called emergency treatments to reduce post-fire runoff and soil losses at the microplot scale in a eucalyptus plantation in north-central Portugal. The treatments involved the application of chopped eucalyptus bark mulch at a rate of 10-12 Mg ha(-1), and surface application of a dry, granular, anionic polyacrylamide (PAM) at a rate of 50 kg ha(-1). During the first year after a wildfire in 2010, 1419 mm of rainfall produced, on average, 785 mm of overland flow in the untreated plots and 8.4 Mg ha(-1) of soil losses. Mulching reduced these two figures significantly, by an average 52 and 93%, respectively. In contrast, the PAM-treated plots did not differ from the control plots, despite slightly lower runoff but higher soil erosion figures. When compared to the control plots, mean key factors for runoff and soil erosion were different in the case of the mulched but not the PAM plots. Notably, the plots on the lower half of the slope registered bigger runoff and erosion figures than those on the upper half of the slope. This could be explained by differences in fire intensity and, ultimately, in pre-fire standing biomass.

  11. 78 FR 57486 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-19

    .... Additionally, a copy of the rulemaking and its impact analysis are available on VA's Web site at http://www1.va...; certification. * * * * * (b) * * * (4) Severe burn injury: Deep partial thickness or full thickness...

  12. Burned

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlowicz, Michael

    After three months of investigation, NASA and the Agenzia Spaziale Italiana (ASI) have concluded in a report that the tether connecting the TSS-1R satellite to the space shuttle Columbia broke because unexpected electrical arcing severed it. Presenting its findings on June 4, the independent review panel led by Kenneth Szalai of NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center noted that something punctured the tether and allowed electrical current to breach the insulation and jump to a nearby electrical ground.

  13. Bacterial Respiratory Tract Infections are Promoted by Systemic Hyperglycemia after Severe Burn Injury in Pediatric Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kraft, Robert; Herndon, David N; Mlcak, Ronald P; Finnerty, Celeste C; Cox, Robert A; Williams, Felicia N; Jeschke, Marc G

    2014-01-01

    Background Burn injuries are associated with hyperglycemia leading to increased incidence of infections with pneumonia being one of the most prominent and adverse complication. Recently, various studies in critically ill patients indicated that increased pulmonary glucose levels with airway/blood glucose threshold over 150 mg/dl lead to an overwhelming growth of bacteria in the broncho-pulmonary system, subsequently resulting in an increased risk of pulmonary infections. The aim of the present study was to determine whether a similar cutoff value exists for severely burned pediatric patients. Methods One-hundred six severely burned pediatric patients were enrolled in the study. Patients were divided in two groups: high (H) defined as daily average glucose levels >75% of LOS >150 mg/dl), and low (L) with daily average glucose levels >75% of the LOS <150 mg/dl). Incidences of pneumonia, atelectasis, and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) were assessed. Incidence of infections, sepsis, and respiratory parameters were recorded. Blood was analyzed for glucose and insulin levels. Statistical analysis was performed using Student’s t-test and chi-square test. Significance was set at p<0.05. Results Patient groups were similar in demographics and injury characteristics. Pneumonia in patients on the mechanical ventilation (L: 21% H: 32%) and off mechanical ventilation (L: 5% H: 15%), as well as ARDS were significantly higher in the high group (L: 3% H: 19%), p<0.05, while atelectasis was not different. Patients in the high group required significantly longer ventilation compared to low patients (p<0.05). Furthermore, incidence of infection and sepsis were significantly higher in the high group, p<0.05. Conclusion Our results indicate that systemic glucose levels over 150 mg/dl are associated with a higher incidence of pneumonia confirming the previous studies in critically ill patients. PMID:24074819

  14. Contributions of microbial activity and ash deposition to post-fire nitrogen availability in a pine savanna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ficken, Cari D.; Wright, Justin P.

    2017-01-01

    Many ecosystems experience drastic changes to soil nutrient availability associated with fire, but the magnitude and duration of these changes are highly variable among vegetation and fire types. In pyrogenic pine savannas across the southeastern United States, pulses of soil inorganic nitrogen (N) occur in tandem with ecosystem-scale nutrient losses from prescribed burns. Despite the importance of this management tool for restoring and maintaining fire-dependent plant communities, the contributions of different mechanisms underlying fire-associated changes to soil N availability remain unclear. Pulses of N availability following fire have been hypothesized to occur through (1) changes to microbial cycling rates and (2) direct ash deposition. Here, we document fire-associated changes to N availability across the growing season in a longleaf pine savanna in North Carolina. To differentiate between possible mechanisms driving soil N pulses, we measured net microbial cycling rates and changes to soil δ15N before and after a burn. Our findings refute both proposed mechanisms: we found no evidence for changes in microbial activity, and limited evidence that ash deposition could account for the increase in ammonium availability to more than 5-25 times background levels. Consequently, we propose a third mechanism to explain post-fire patterns of soil N availability, namely that (3) changes to plant sink strength may contribute to ephemeral increases in soil N availability, and encourage future studies to explicitly test this mechanism.

  15. [The correction of metabolic disorders in severely burned patients by enteral hyperalimentation].

    PubMed

    Zaets, T L; Tarasov, A V

    1992-01-01

    An investigation was carried out of the metabolic processes, and some procedures for standardizing them, for patients with severe burns receiving uniformly distributed dosified high-calorie catheter alimentation, i.e. enteral hyperalimentation, in addition to the hospital's daily diet. Fifteen types of mixtures of Combustal were used, made and preserved ad hoc, and two commercial probe alimentation liquid products--Biosorbin-MCT (Pfrimmer-Kabi) and Fresubin (Fresenius AG). The average period taken to normalize the nitrogen balance was sixteen days counted from commencement of hyperalimentation. While it shifted the nitrogen balance figures from negative to positive, it was also seen to reduce A and C phospholipase activities in serum, while the level of excretion of nitrogenated amino acids and creatine remained high. During this time, pseudocholinesterase activity dropped, with the concentration of fibronectine in serum, which indicates low levels of biosynthetic processes and insufficiency in the reticuloendothelial system. The average value for the determination of lipids in general remained normal throughout the catheter feeding period. To ensure complete normalization of the metabolic process in patients suffering severe burns, enteral hyperalimentation must be extended for at least one month.

  16. Novel chitosan wound dressing loaded with minocycline for the treatment of severe burn wounds.

    PubMed

    Aoyagi, Shuichi; Onishi, Hiraku; Machida, Yoshiharu

    2007-02-07

    Novel wound dressings composed of chitosan (CH) film and minocycline hydrochloride (MH) were prepared using commercial polyurethane film (Tegaderm) as a backing. CHs with deacetylation degrees of 67%, 83% and 96% (mol/mol), named CH67, CH83 and CH96, respectively, were used. Wound dressing with a large piece of Tegaderm film (4 cm x 4 cm), named CH-MH-N, and wound dressing prepared by cutting CH-MH-N to the wound size, named CH-MH-A, were developed. As CH67-MH-N and CH83-MH-N showed the sustained release of minocycline in vitro, CH67 and CH83 were used as chitosan in the in vivo studies. Various formulations were applied to severe burn wounds in rats in the early stage, and the wound status and change in the wound surface area were examined. The use of 10mg of MH and complete sealing with Tegaderm had a negative effect. MH ointment was not effective, but Geben cream was fairly effective. However, CH83-MH-A containing 2mg of MH (CH83-MH2-A) and CH83 film showed an excellent effect. Considering the elimination of pus, CH83-MH2-A tended to be better than CH83 film. CH83-MH2-A is suggested as a useful formulation for the treatment of severe burn wounds.

  17. TSG-6 secreted by human umbilical cord-MSCs attenuates severe burn-induced excessive inflammation via inhibiting activations of P38 and JNK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingying; Song, Huifeng; Duan, Hongjie; Chai, Jiake; Yang, Jing; Li, Xiao; Yu, Yonghui; Zhang, Xulong; Hu, Xiaohong; Xiao, Mengjing; Feng, Rui; Yin, Huinan; Hu, Quan; Yang, Longlong; Du, Jundong; Li, Tianran

    2016-01-01

    The hMSCs have become a promising approach for inflammation treatment in acute phase. Our previous study has demonstrated that human umbilical cord-MSCs could alleviate the inflammatory reaction of severely burned wound. In this study, we further investigated the potential role and mechanism of the MSCs on severe burn-induced excessive inflammation. Wistar rats were randomly divided into following groups: Sham, Burn, Burn+MSCs, Burn+MAPKs inhibitors, and Burn, Burn+MSCs, Burn+Vehicle, Burn+siTSG-6, Burn+rhTSG-6 in the both experiments. It was found that MSCs could only down-regulate P38 and JNK signaling, but had no effect on ERK in peritoneal macrophages of severe burn rats. Furthermore, suppression of P38 and JNK activations significantly reduced the excessive inflammation induced by severe burn. TSG-6 was secreted by MSCs using different inflammatory mediators. TSG-6 from MSCs and recombinant human (rh)TSG-6 all significantly reduced activations of P38 and JNK signaling induced by severe burn and then attenuated excessive inflammations. On the contrary, knockdown TSG-6 in the cells significantly increased phosphorylation of P38 and JNK signaling and reduced therapeutic effect of the MSCs on excessive inflammation. Taken together, this study suggested TSG-6 from MSCs attenuated severe burn-induced excessive inflammation via inhibiting activation of P38 and JNK signaling. PMID:27444207

  18. Simulating Local and Intercontinental Pollutant Effects of Biomass Burning: Integration of Several Remotely Sensed Datasets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chatfield, Robert B.; Vastano, John A.; Guild, Liane; Hlavka, Christine; Brass, James A.; Russell, Philip B. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    Burning to clear land for crops and to destroy pests is an integral and largely unavoidable part of tropical agriculture. It is easy to note but difficult to quantify using remote sensing. This report describes our efforts to integrate remotely sensed data into our computer model of tropical chemical trace-gas emissions, weather, and reaction chemistry (using the MM5 mesoscale model and our own Global-Regional Atmospheric Chemistry Simulator). The effects of burning over the continents of Africa and South America have been noticed in observations from several satellites. Smoke plumes hundreds of kilometers long may be seen individually, or may merge into a large smoke pall over thousands of kilometers of these continents. These features are related to intense pollution in the much more confined regions with heavy burning. These emissions also translocate nitrogen thousands of kilometers in the tropical ecosystems, with large fixed-nitrogen losses balanced partially by locally intense fertilization downwind, where nitric acid is rained out. At a much larger scale, various satellite measurements have indicated the escape of carbon monoxide and ozone into large filaments which extend across the Tropical and Southern Atlantic Ocean. Our work relates the source emissions, estimated in part from remote sensing, in part from conventional surface reports, to the concentrations of these gases over these intercontinental regions. We will mention work in progress to use meteorological satellite data (AVHRR, GOES, and Meteosat) to estimate the surface temperature and extent and height of clouds, and explain why these uses are so important in our computer simulations of global biogeochemistry. We will compare our simulations and interpretation of remote observations to the international cooperation involving Brazil, South Africa, and the USA in the TRACE-A (Transport and Atmospheric Chemistry near the Equator - Atlantic) and SAFARI (Southern Africa Fire Atmosphere Research

  19. Clinical Impact of Sample Interference on Intensive Insulin Therapy in Severely Burned Patients: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Tran, Nam K.; Godwin, Zachary R.; Bockhold, Jennifer C.; Passerini, Anthony G.; Cheng, Julian; Ingemason, Morgan

    2013-01-01

    Objective Severely burned patients benefit from intensive insulin therapy (IIT) for tight glycemic control (TGC). We evaluated the clinical impact of automatic correction of hematocrit and ascorbic acid interference for bedside glucose monitoring performance in critically ill burn patients. Methods The performance of two point-of-care glucose monitoring systems (GMS): (a) GMS1, an autocorrecting device, and (b) GMS2, a non-correcting device were compared. Sixty remnant arterial blood samples were collected in a prospective observational study to evaluate hematocrit and ascorbic acid effects on GMS1 vs. GMS2 accuracy paired against a plasma glucose reference. Next we enrolled 12 patients in a pilot randomized controlled trial (RCT). Patients were randomized 1:1 to receive IIT targeting a TGC interval of 111–151 mg/dL and guided by either GMS1 or GMS2. GMS bias, mean insulin rate, and glycemic variability were calculated. Results In the prospective study, GMS1 results were similar to plasma glucose results (mean bias: −0.75[4.0] mg/dL, n=60, P=0.214). GMS2 results significantly differed from paired plasma glucose results (mean bias: −5.66[18.7] mg/dL, n=60, P=0.048). Ascorbic acid therapy elicited significant GMS2 performance bias (29.2[27.2], P<0.001). RCT results reported lower mean bias (P<0.001), glycemic variability (P<0.05), mean insulin rate (P<0.001), and frequency of hypoglycemia (P<0.001) in the GMS1 group than the GMS2 group. Conclusions Anemia and high dose ascorbic acid therapy negatively impact GMS accuracy and TGC in burn patients. Automatic correction of confounding factors improves glycemic control. Further studies are warranted to determine outcomes associated with accurate glucose monitoring during IIT. PMID:23884048

  20. Central American biomass burning smoke can increase tornado severity in the U.S.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S. N.; Pierce, R. B.; Otkin, J. A.; Schaack, T. K.; Heidinger, A. K.; Silva, A. M.; Kacenelenbogen, M.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2015-02-01

    Tornadoes in the Southeast and central U.S. are episodically accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in central America. Analysis of the 27 April 2011 historical tornado outbreak shows that adding smoke to an environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development can increase the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence. Numerical experiments indicate that the presence of smoke during this event leads to optical thickening of shallow clouds while soot within the smoke enhances the capping inversion through radiation absorption. The smoke effects are consistent with measurements of clouds and radiation before and during the outbreak. These effects result in lower cloud bases and stronger low-level wind shear in the warm sector of the extratropical cyclone generating the outbreak, two indicators of higher probability of tornadogenesis and tornado intensity and longevity. These mechanisms may contribute to tornado modulation by aerosols, highlighting the need to consider aerosol feedbacks in numerical severe weather forecasting.

  1. Impact of a modern firefighting protective uniform on the incidence and severity of burn injuries in New York City firefighters.

    PubMed

    Prezant, D J; Kelly, K J; Malley, K S; Karwa, M L; McLaughlin, M T; Hirschorn, R; Brown, A

    1999-06-01

    The New York City Fire Department (FDNY) is the largest fire department in the United States, with over 11,000 firefighters. In 1994, FDNY changed to a modern firefighting protective uniform. The major difference between traditional and modern uniforms is that modern uniforms include both protective over-coat and over-pant, whereas traditional uniforms include only the over-coat. Furthermore, modern uniforms are manufactured using improved thermal protective textiles that meet or exceed current National Fire Protection Association standards for structural firefighting. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of the modern uniform on the incidence and severity of FDNY burn injuries. We also evaluated the incidence and severity of other non-burn injuries to determine whether there was serious adverse impact. The number of lower-extremity burns decreased by 85% when 2 years' experience while wearing the modern uniform was compared with 2 years while wearing the traditional uniform. Upper-extremity burns and head burns decreased by 65% and 40%, respectively. Severity indicators (days lost to medical leave, hospital admissions, and skin grafts) for lower- and upper-extremity burn injuries were all substantially reduced. This occurred without significant change in the incidence or severity of trunk burns, heat exhaustion, inhalation injuries (actually decreased), or cardiac events. The reduction in the incidence and severity of burn injuries, the major occupational injury affecting this workforce, has been so dramatic and without untoward effects that the introduction of the modern uniform must be characterized as a sentinel event in the history of firefighter health and safety.

  2. A Novel Means to Classify Response to Resuscitation in the Severely Burned: Derivation of the KMAC Value

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Possenti PP, Pineau M, D’Aiuto M. Intra-abdominal hypertension and abdominal compartment syndrome in burn patients. J Trauma 2000;49:387–91. [10] Sheridan...A novel means to classify response to resuscitation in the severely burned : Derivation of the KMAC value§,§§ Joseph F. Kelly a, Daniel F. McLaughlin...Research, United States bDepartment of Surgery, University of Texas Health Science Center – Houston, United States cDivision of Burn , Trauma, and

  3. Topographic Controls on Southern California Ecosystem Function and Post-fire Recovery: a Satellite and Near-surface Remote Sensing Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azzari, George

    Southern Californian wildfires can influence climate in a variety of ways, including changes in surface albedo, emission of greenhouse gases and aerosols, and the production of tropospheric ozone. Ecosystem post-fire recovery plays a key role in determining the strength, duration, and relative importance of these climate forcing agents. Southern California's ecosystems vary markedly with topography, creating sharp transitions with elevation, aspect, and slope. Little is known about the ways topography influences ecosystem properties and function, particularly in the context of post-fire recovery. We combined images from the USGS satellite Landsat 5 with flux tower measurements to analyze pre- and post-fire albedo and carbon exchanged by Southern California's ecosystems in the Santa Ana Mountains. We reduced the sources of external variability in Landsat images using several correction methods for topographic and bidirectional effects. We used time series of corrected images to infer the Net Ecosystem Exchange and surface albedo, and calculated the radiative forcing due to CO2 emissions and albedo changes. We analyzed the patterns of recovery and radiative forcing on north- and south-facing slopes, stratified by vegetation classes including grassland, coastal sage scrub, chaparral, and evergreen oak forest. We found that topography strongly influenced post-fire recovery and radiative forcing. Field observations are often limited by the difficulty of collecting ground validation data. Current instrumentation networks do not provide adequate spatial resolution for landscape-level analysis. The deployment of consumer-market technology could reduce the cost of near-surface measurements, allowing the installation of finer-scale instrument networks. We tested the performance of the Microsoft Kinect sensor for measuring vegetation structure. We used Kinect to acquire 3D vegetation point clouds in the field, and used these data to compute plant height, crown diameter, and

  4. TLR4 and TNF-α polymorphisms are associated with an increased risk for severe sepsis following burn injury

    PubMed Central

    Barber, R; Aragaki, C; Rivera-Chavez, F; Purdue, G; Hunt, J; Horton, J

    2004-01-01

    Context: Sepsis, organ failure, and shock remain common among patients with moderate to severe burn injuries. The inability of clinical factors to identify at-risk patients suggests that genetic variation may influence the risk for serious infection and the outcome from severe injury. Objective: Resolution of genetic variants associated with severe sepsis following burn injury. Patients: A total of 159 patients with burns ⩾20% of their total body surface area or any smoke inhalation injury without significant non-burn related trauma (injury severity score (ISS)⩾16), traumatic or anoxic brain injury, or spinal cord injury and who survived more than 48 h post-admission. Methods: Candidate single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) within bacterial recognition (TLR4 +896, CD14 –159) and inflammatory response (TNF-α –308, IL-1ß –31, IL-6 –174) loci were evaluated for association with increased risk for severe sepsis (sepsis plus organ dysfunction or septic shock) and mortality. Results: After adjustment for age, full-thickness burn size, ethnicity, and gender, carriage of the TLR4 +896 G-allele imparted at least a 1.8-fold increased risk of developing severe sepsis following a burn injury, relative to AA homozygotes (adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 6.4; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.8 to 23.2). Carriage of the TNF-α –308 A-allele imparted a similarly increased risk, relative to GG homozygotes (aOR = 4.5; 95% CI 1.7 to 12.0). None of the SNPs examined were significantly associated with mortality. Conclusions: The TLR4 +896 and TNF-α –308 polymorphisms were significantly associated with an increased risk for severe sepsis following burn trauma. PMID:15520404

  5. Effectiveness of post-fire seeding at the Fitzner-Eberhardt Arid Land Ecology Reserve, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wirth, Troy A.; Pyke, David A.

    2011-01-01

    survival rates that warrant further testing; however, transplants located closer to washes tended to have the highest survival rates. Overall, the low-elevation aerial and drill seedings, and the high-elevation drill seedings resulted in significant numbers of seedlings. Further research is needed on methods that provide land managers with critical information about whether or not to seed post-fire areas including status of pre-fire vegetation and estimates of plant mortality due to fire.

  6. Combining Ketamine and Virtual Reality Pain Control During Severe Burn Wound Care: One Military and One Civilian Patient

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    Case Reports Combining Ketamine and Virtual Reality Pain Control During Severe Burn Wound Care: One Military and One Civilian Patientpme_1091 673...patients are treated at the US Army Institute of Surgical Research. Burn patients expe- rience extrem pain during wound care, and they typi- cally...receive opioid analgesics and anxiolytics for debridement. Virtual Reality (VR) has been applied as an adjunct to opioid analgesics for procedural pain

  7. Distribution and relative abundance of forest birds in relation to burn severity in southeastern Arizona

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kirkpatrick, C.; Conway, C.J.; Jones, P.B.

    2006-01-01

    The frequency of wild and prescribed fires in montane forests of the southwestern United States has increased after a century of fire suppression and subsequent fuels accumulation. To assess the effects of recent fires (median time since fire = 6 yr) on the montane forest bird community, we surveyed birds in 8 Sky Island mountain ranges in southeastern Arizona, USA, and examined how the distribution (i.e., presence-absence) of 65 species and relative abundance of 16 species correlated with evidence of severe and less severe fire at >1,500 survey points. We detected associations between fire and bird presence-absence for 17% of the 65 species analyzed and between fire and bird relative abundance for 25% of the 16 species analyzed. Most species (73%) were positively associated with burned areas and displayed stronger associations (i.e., more extreme odds ratios) with survey points that had evidence of severe as opposed to less severe fire. Positive associations with severe fire were strong (>3 to 1 odds) for western wood-pewee (Contopus sordidulus) and house wren (Troglodytes aedon), and negative associations with severe fire were strong for warbling vireo (Vireo gilvus) and red-breasted nuthatch (Sitta canadensis). Although recent fires appear to have had a positive effect on the distribution and relative abundance of several montane forest bird species in the region, these species are not the open-woodland birds that we would have expected to have benefited from fire based on previous research. Nevertheless, our results confirm associations between fire and bird presence-absence and relative abundance reported previously for 7 species of birds. Our results also provide new information for Grace's warbler (Dendroica graciae) and greater pewee (C. pertinax), 2 species for which fire data were formerly lacking. Managers can use these data to make and test predictions about the effects of future fires, both severe and less severe, on montane forest birds in the

  8. Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: Changes in diversity, density, cover and biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2001-01-01

    For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

  9. Early post-fire succession in California chaparral: changes in diversity, density, cover, and biomass

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guo, Q.

    2001-01-01

    For four consecutive years, following the fires in November 1993, temporal variations in species richness, cover and biomass of component plant groups in early post-fire chaparral succession were monitored on different aspects at the Stunt Ranch Santa Monica Mountains Reserve, southern California. Plant groups were categorized based on growth form, life form, ability to fix nitrogen, geographic origin and regeneration strategies. North-facing slopes exhibited higher species richness, higher species turnover rate over time and faster vegetation recovery in terms of biomass accumulation and return to pre-fire species composition. This was probably due to higher species richness and biomass of nitrogen-fixing species found on north-facing slopes in comparison to south-facing slopes. On both north- and south-facing slopes, annuals had the highest species turnover rate, followed by herbaceous perennials and shrubs. In the first four post-fire years, annual species were the largest floristic group, but herbaceous perennials and shrubs were the major contributors to community biomass. Nitrogen-fixing species and exotics contributed significantly to early post-fire community structure. Although the general trends in post-fire succession are clear in terms of temporal changes in the relative proportions of different plant groups, environmental variation and the nature of plant life histories of component species, especially dominant species, could alter such trends significantly.

  10. Effects of post-fire soil hydrophobicity on inorganic soil nitrogen and sulfur cycling

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fire plays an important role in many native ecosystems, and its suppression has increased woody encroachment across the globe. Restoring native herbaceous communities following fire in encroached systems is often challenging. Post-fire soil hydrophobicity is one factor that may further limit site re...

  11. A low-cost method to measure the timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows relative to rainfall

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Leeper, Robert J.; Schmidt, Kevin Michael; Gartner, Joseph E.

    2012-01-01

    Data on the specific timing of post-fire flash floods and debris flows are very limited. We describe a method to measure the response times of small burned watersheds to rainfall using a low-cost pressure transducer, which can be installed quickly after a fire. Although the pressure transducer is not designed for sustained sampling at the fast rates ({less than or equal to}2 sec) used at more advanced debris-flow monitoring sites, comparisons with high-data rate stage data show that measured spikes in pressure sampled at 1-min intervals are sufficient to detect the passage of most debris flows and floods. Post-event site visits are used to measure the peak stage and identify flow type based on deposit characteristics. The basin response timescale (tb) to generate flow at each site was determined from an analysis of the cross correlation between time series of flow pressure and 5-min rainfall intensity. This timescale was found to be less than 30 minutes for 40 post-fire floods and 11 post-fire debris flows recorded in 15 southern California watersheds ({less than or equal to} 1.4 km2). Including data from 24 other debris flows recorded at 5 more instrumentally advanced monitoring stations, we find there is not a substantial difference in the median tb for floods and debris flows (11 and 9 minutes, respectively); however, there are slight, statistically significant differences in the trends of flood and debris-flow tb with basin area, which are presumably related to differences in flow speed between floods and debris flows.

  12. Utilizing Remote Sensing Information to Improve Post-fire Rainfall-runoff Predictions after the 2010 Bull Fire in the Sequoia National Forest, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinoshita, A. M.; Hale, B.; Hogue, T. S.

    2012-12-01

    Post-fire management decisions are guided by rainfall-runoff predictions, which ultimately influence downstream treatment and mitigation costs. The current study investigates evolving rainfall-runoff partitioning at the watershed scale over a two-year period after the 2010 Bull Fire which occurred in the southern Sequoia National Forest in California. Stage height was measured at five-minute intervals using pressure transducers, tipping buckets were installed for rainfall duration and intensity, and channel cross-sections were measured approximately every two months to detail sediment deposition or scour. We also utilize remotely sensed vegetation data to evaluate vegetation recovery in the studied watersheds and the corresponding relationship to storm runoff. Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI), a measure of vegetation greenness, is evaluated for its potential use as a key recovery indicator. Preliminary results focus on alterations in annual and seasonal precipitation and discharge relationships using in-situ data and Landsat NDVI values for the period of study. NDVI values are consistent with a comprehensive burn, with an acute decrease observed in the initial post-fire period. However, vegetation recovery is highly variable in the studied systems and influenced by shorter-term biomass pulses (grasses) while longer-term recovery of other species (chaparral and pine) is ongoing. Runoff ratios are elevated during early storms and show some recovery in the later part of the study period. The ability to accurately and confidently predict post-fire runoff and longer-term recovery is critical for monitoring values-at-risk, reducing mitigation costs, and improving warnings to downstream public communities.

  13. [Standardisation of the Initial Treatment of Severely Burned Patients: The Necessary Transfer of Concepts from Trauma Care].

    PubMed

    Münzberg, M; Harbers, T; Kneser, U; Grützner, P A; Reichert, B; Kremer, T; Wölfl, C G; Horter, J; Hirche, C

    2016-12-01

    The initial treatment of severely burned patients remains a huge challenge for first responders in emergency services as well as emergency doctors who do not work in a centre for severe burn injuries. The reason for this is the low number of cases in developed countries and a lack of training concepts for the specific aspects of the initial treatment of severe burn injuries. Because of guidelines with limited evidence (S1, S2k) and a lack of structured treatment approaches, uncertainties with respect to initial treatment are still visible. Even within the professional societies and on international comparison, controversial aspects remain. In contrast, optimised and standardised procedures are available for the treatment of severely injured (trauma) patients, based on PHTLS® (Pre Hospital Trauma Life Support) for preclinical and ATLS® (Advanced Trauma Life Support) for in-hospital first aid. This article takes stock of the current structure of care and the relevant evidence for the initial treatment of severe burns. Also it discusses a possible transfer and further development of concepts for primary trauma care by all disciplines involved. Nine essential steps in the primary care of burned patients are identified and evaluated. The need for the introduction of a uniform treatment algorithm is illustrated. The treatment algorithm presented in this article addresses all first responders who are faced with initial treatment in the first 24 hours outside of burn centres. As an essential, new aspect, it offers a transfer and adaptation of concepts from trauma care to standardise the care of severely burned patients.

  14. In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kean, Jason W.; Staley, Dennis M.; Cannon, Susan H.

    2011-12-01

    Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows.

  15. In situ measurements of post-fire debris flows in southern California: Comparisons of the timing and magnitude of 24 debris-flow events with rainfall and soil moisture conditions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kean, J.W.; Staley, D.M.; Cannon, S.H.

    2011-01-01

    Debris flows often occur in burned steeplands of southern California, sometimes causing property damage and loss of life. In an effort to better understand the hydrologic controls on post-fire debris-flow initiation, timing and magnitude, we measured the flow stage, rainfall, channel bed pore fluid pressure and hillslope soil-moisture accompanying 24 debris flows recorded in five different watersheds burned in the 2009 Station and Jesusita Fires (San Gabriel and Santa Ynez Mountains). The measurements show substantial differences in debris-flow dynamics between sites and between sequential events at the same site. Despite these differences, the timing and magnitude of all events were consistently associated with local peaks in short duration (< = 30 min) rainfall intensity. Overall, debris-flow stage was best cross-correlated with time series of 5-min rainfall intensity, and lagged the rainfall by an average of just 5 min. An index of debris-flow volume was also best correlated with short-duration rainfall intensity, but found to be poorly correlated with storm cumulative rainfall and hillslope soil water content. Post-event observations of erosion and slope stability modeling suggest that the debris flows initiated primarily by processes related to surface water runoff, rather than shallow landslides. By identifying the storm characteristics most closely associated with post-fire debris flows, these measurements provide valuable guidance for warning operations and important constraints for developing and testing models of post-fire debris flows. copyright. 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  16. Effects of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation on myocardial damage and cardiac function in rats after severe burn injury.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yong; Yan, Hong; Lv, Shang-Gun; Wang, Lin; Liang, Guang-Ping; Wan, Qian-Xue; Peng, Xi

    2013-01-01

    Glutamine decreases myocardial damage in ischemia/reperfusion injury. However, the cardioprotective effect of glutamine after burn injury remains unclear. Present study was to explore the protective effect of glycyl-glutamine dipeptide on myocardial damage in severe burn rats. Seventy-two Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups: normal control (C), burned control (B) and glycyl-glutamine dipeptide-treated (GG) groups. B and GG groups were inflicted with 30% total body surface area of full thickness burn. The GG group was given 1.5 g/kg glycyl-glutamine dipeptide per day and the B group was given the same dose of alanine via intraperitoneal injection for 3 days. The serum CK, LDH, AST, and, blood lactic acid levels, as well as the myocardium ATP and GSH contents, were measured. The indices of cardiac contractile function and histopathological change were analyzed at 12, 24, 48, and 72 post-burn hours (PBH). The serum CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels increased, and the myocardium ATP and GSH content decreased in both burned groups. Compared with B group, the CK, LDH, AST and blood lactic acid levels reduced, myocardium ATP and GSH content increased in GG group. Moreover, the inhibition of cardiac contractile function and myocardial histopathological damage were reduced significantly in GG group. We conclude that myocardial histological structure and function were damaged significantly after burn injury, glycyl-glutamine dipeptide supplementation is beneficial to myocardial preservation by improving cardiocyte energy metabolism, increasing ATP and glutathione synthesis.

  17. Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of Burned Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the burn, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of area in Alaska that burns in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual burning which remains after a front has passed through. Residual burning is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large burned areas and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of burned area. In large burns, unburned areas within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These areas may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".

  18. Resilience of Mediterranean terrestrial ecosystems and fire severity in semiarid areas: Responses of Aleppo pine forests in the short, mid and long term.

    PubMed

    González-De Vega, S; De Las Heras, J; Moya, D

    2016-12-15

    In recent decades, the fire regime of the Mediterranean Basin has been disturbed by various factors: climate change; forest management policies; land cover; changed landscape. Size and severity have notably increased, which in turn have increased large fires events with >500ha burned (high severity). In spite of Mediterranean ecosystems' high resilience to fire, these changes have implied more vulnerability and reduced natural recovery with irreparable long-term negative effects. Knowledge of the response of ecosystems to increasing severity, mainly in semiarid areas, is still lacking, which is needed to rehabilitate and restore burned areas. Our approach assessed the resilience concept by focusing on the recovery of ecosystem functions and services, measured as changes in the composition and diversity of plant community vegetation and structure. This will be validated in the long term as a model of ecosystem response. Also, depending on the pre-fire characteristics of vegetation, fire severity and the post-fire management, this approach will lead to tools that can be applied to implement post-fire restoration efforts in order to help decision making in planning activities. Regarding Mediterranean ecosystems' ability to recover after wildfires, this study concludes that pre-fire communities are resilient in these fire-prone areas, but the window for natural recovery in semiarid areas of Aleppo pine forest in SE Iberian Peninsula varied from 3 to 15 post-fire years. Fire severity was also key for effects on the ecosystem: the vegetation types of areas burned with low and medium severity recovered naturally, while those areas with a high-severity burn induced shrublands. We concluded that very strong regeneration activity exists in the short term, and that the negative effects of medium- and high-severity fire are evidenced in the mid and long term, which affect natural recovery. Adaptive forest management to rehabilitate and restore burned Mediterranean ecosystems

  19. Wind erosion from a sagebrush steppe burned by wildfire: Measurements of PM10 and total horizontal sediment flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, Natalie S.; Germino, Matthew J.; Lamb, Brian K.; Robichaud, Peter R.; Foltz, Randy B.

    2013-09-01

    Wind erosion and aeolian transport processes are under studied compared to rainfall-induced erosion and sediment transport on burned landscapes. Post-fire wind erosion studies have predominantly focused on near-surface sediment transport and associated impacts such as on-site soil loss and site fertility. Downwind impacts, including air quality degradation and deposition of dust or contaminants, are also likely post-fire effects; however, quantitative field measurements of post-fire dust emissions are needed for assessment of these downwind risks. A wind erosion monitoring system was installed immediately following a desert sagebrush and grass wildfire in southeastern Idaho, USA to measure wind erosion from the burned landscape. This paper presents measurements of horizontal sediment flux and PM10 vertical flux from the burned area. We determined threshold wind speeds and corresponding threshold friction velocities to be 6.0 and 0.20 m s-1, respectively, for the 4 months immediately following the fire and 10 and 0.55 m s-1 for the following spring months. Several major wind erosion events were measured in the months following the July 2010 Jefferson Fire. The largest wind erosion event occurred in early September 2010 and produced 1495 kg m-1 of horizontal sediment transport within the first 2 m above the soil surface, had a maximum PM10 vertical flux of 100 mg m-2 s-1, and generated a large dust plume that was visible in satellite imagery. The peak PM10 concentration measured on-site at a height of 2 m in the downwind portion of the burned area was 690 mg m-3. Our results indicate that wildfire can convert a relatively stable landscape into one that is a major dust source.

  20. Analyzing post-fire topography at the hillslope-channel interface with terrestrial LiDAR: contrasting geomorphic responses from the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire of Colorado and the 2013 Springs Fire of California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storesund, R.; Chin, A.; Florsheim, J. L.; O'Hirok, L.; Williams, K.; Austin, K. E.

    2014-12-01

    Mountains areas are increasingly susceptible to wildfires because of warming climates. Although knowledge of the hydro-geomorphological impacts of wildfire has advanced in recent years, much is still unknown regarding how environmental fluxes move through burned watersheds. Because of the loss of vegetation and hydrophobic soils, flash floods often accompany elevated runoff events from burned watersheds, making direct process measurements challenging. Direct measurements are also only partly successful at capturing the spatial variations of post-fire effects. Coupled with short temporal windows for observing such responses, opportunities are often missed for collecting data needed for developing predictive models. Terrestrial LiDAR scanning (TLS) of burned areas allows detailed documentation of the post-fire topography to cm-level accuracy, providing pictures of geomorphic responses not previously possible. This paper reports a comparative study of hillslope-channel interactions, using repeat TLS, in two contrasting environments. Burned by the 2012 Waldo Canyon Fire and 2013 Springs Fire, in Colorado and California respectively, the study sites share many similarities including steep erosive slopes, small drainage areas, and step-pool channel morphologies. TLS provided a tool to test the central hypothesis that, dry ravel, distinct in the California Mediterranean environment, would prompt a greater sedimentological response from the Springs Fire compared to the Waldo Canyon Fire. At selected sites in each area, TLS documented baseline conditions immediately following the fire. Repeat scanning after major storms allowed detection of changes in the landscape. Results show a tendency for sedimentation in river channels in the study sites interacting with dry ravel on hillslopes, whereas erosion dominated the response from the Waldo Canyon Fire with an absence of dry ravel. These data provide clues to developing generalizations for post-fire effects at regional scales

  1. Fungal role in post-fire ecosystem recovery in Sierra Nevada National Park (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bárcenas-Moreno, Gema; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Mataix-Beneyto, Jorge; Martín Sánchez, Ines

    2016-04-01

    Fire effect on soil microorganisms has been studies for decades in several ecosystems and different microbial response can be found in the bibliography depending on numerous intrinsic and extrinsic soil factors. These factors will determine preliminary soil microbial community composition, subsequent pos-fire initial colonizers and even post-fire growth media characteristics that microbial community will find to start recolonisation. Fire-induced soil bacterial proliferation is a common pattern found after fire, usually related to pH and C availability increased. But when original soil pH is not altered by fire in acid soils, microbial response can be different and fungal response can be crucial to ecosystem recovery. In this study we have compile data related to high mountain soil from Sierra Nevada National park which was affected by a wildfire in 2006 and data obtained by laboratory heating experiment, trying to elucidate the ecological role of fungi in this fragile ecosystem. On the one hand we can observe fire-induced fungal abundance proliferation estimated by plate count method 8 and 32 months after wildfire and even in a short-term (21 d) after laboratory heating at 300 °C. Six years after fire, fungal abundance was similar between samples collected in burnt and unburnt-control area but we found higher proportion of species capable to degrade PAHs (lacase activity) in burnt soil than I the unburnt one. This finding evidences the crucial role of fungal enzymatic capacities to detoxify burnt soils when fire-induced recalcitrant and even toxic carbon compounds could be partially limiting total ecosystem recovery.

  2. Signals from Fat After Injury: Plasma Adipokines and Ghrelin Concentrations in the Severely Burned

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-09-26

    single burn ICU , 17 burn patients with an expected stay >14 days were studied. Study period began within 14 days of admission. Over 7 days, plasma...critical illness in response to inflammation and inadequacy of nutritional support [4]. Adiponec- tin is reduced in ICU patients and associated with...admitted to a single burn ICU and a comparison control group of non-fasted healthy volunteers were enrolled in the study. All subjects enrolled in this

  3. Computerized Decision Support System Improves Fluid Resuscitation Outcomes Following Severe Burns: An Original Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-01-01

    stantial plasma volume deficit during the initial 48 hrs post burn, which engenders hypovolemic shock and generalized edema formation (4). These include a...3). Burn manage- ment requires specialized expertise and treatment options that may not normally be available at nonburn centers. In addi- tion...principal fluid shift into the surrounding interstitial space (i.e., third-spacing) that has to be treated to avoid burn shock conditions (5–6). *See

  4. Plasma proteome response to severe burn injury revealed by 18O-labeled "universal" reference-based quantitative proteomics.

    PubMed

    Qian, Wei-Jun; Petritis, Brianne O; Kaushal, Amit; Finnerty, Celeste C; Jeschke, Marc G; Monroe, Matthew E; Moore, Ronald J; Schepmoes, Athena A; Xiao, Wenzhong; Moldawer, Lyle L; Davis, Ronald W; Tompkins, Ronald G; Herndon, David N; Camp, David G; Smith, Richard D

    2010-09-03

    A burn injury represents one of the most severe forms of human trauma and is responsible for significant mortality worldwide. Here, we present the first quantitative proteomics investigation of the blood plasma proteome response to severe burn injury by comparing the plasma protein concentrations of 10 healthy control subjects with those of 15 severe burn patients at two time-points following the injury. The overall analytical strategy for this work integrated immunoaffinity depletion of the 12 most abundant plasma proteins with cysteinyl-peptide enrichment-based fractionation prior to LC-MS analyses of individual patient samples. Incorporation of an 18O-labeled "universal" reference among the sample sets enabled precise relative quantification across samples. In total, 313 plasma proteins confidently identified with two or more unique peptides were quantified. Following statistical analysis, 110 proteins exhibited significant abundance changes in response to the burn injury. The observed changes in protein concentrations suggest significant inflammatory and hypermetabolic response to the injury, which is supported by the fact that many of the identified proteins are associated with acute phase response signaling, the complement system, and coagulation system pathways. The regulation of approximately 35 proteins observed in this study is in agreement with previous results reported for inflammatory or burn response, but approximately 50 potentially novel proteins previously not known to be associated with burn response or inflammation are also found. Elucidating proteins involved in the response to severe burn injury may reveal novel targets for therapeutic interventions as well as potential predictive biomarkers for patient outcomes such as multiple organ failure.

  5. Role of Central American biomass burning smoke in increasing tornado severity in the US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saide, P. E.; Spak, S.; Pierce, R.; Otkin, J.; Rabin, R.; Schaack, T.; Heidinger, A. K.; da Silva, A.; Kacenelenbogen, M. S.; Redemann, J.; Carmichael, G. R.

    2013-12-01

    Violent tornadoes in the Southeast and Central US during spring are often accompanied by smoke from biomass burning in Central America. We analyzed the effect of smoke on a historic severe weather outbreak that occurred 27 April 2011 using a coupled aerosol, chemistry and weather model (WRF-Chem) and a suite of satellite and ground-based observations. Smoke from Central American biomass burning was present in the boundary layer and lower free troposphere before and during the storm outbreak. Simulations show that adding smoke to the environment already conducive to severe thunderstorm development increases the likelihood of significant tornado occurrence, which is assessed by analyzing effects of smoke on meteorological conditions (tornado parameters) used by prediction centers to forecast tornado occurrence and severity. Smoke effects generate slightly lower rain rates and cloud top heights, indicating no evidence of storm invigoration for these storms and instead pointing towards convection inhibition. Further analysis shows that there are two mechanisms responsible for the parameter intensification: First, through indirect effects, stratiform clouds present during and before the outbreak became optically thicker, which reduced the amount of solar radiation reaching the ground and produced more stable conditions and higher low-level shear in the mixed layer. Second, through semi-direct effects, soot contained in the smoke heated the aerosol layer stabilizing the atmosphere and enhancing cloud cover below the aerosol layer, producing a more stable boundary layer and conditions leading to higher probability of violent tornadoes. The inclusion of aerosol-cloud-radiation interactions in weather forecasts may help improve the predictability of these extreme events, which can improve the timeliness and accuracy of severe weather alerts within future operational forecast systems. Left panel: Back trajectories from the beginning of violent tornado tracks, with circles

  6. Multispectral imaging burn wound tissue classification system: a comparison of test accuracies between several common machine learning algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Squiers, John J.; Li, Weizhi; King, Darlene R.; Mo, Weirong; Zhang, Xu; Lu, Yang; Sellke, Eric W.; Fan, Wensheng; DiMaio, J. Michael; Thatcher, Jeffrey E.

    2016-03-01

    The clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons is currently the standard on which diagnostic and therapeutic decisionmaking regarding burn injuries is based. Multispectral imaging (MSI) has the potential to increase the accuracy of burn depth assessment and the intraoperative identification of viable wound bed during surgical debridement of burn injuries. A highly accurate classification model must be developed using machine-learning techniques in order to translate MSI data into clinically-relevant information. An animal burn model was developed to build an MSI training database and to study the burn tissue classification ability of several models trained via common machine-learning algorithms. The algorithms tested, from least to most complex, were: K-nearest neighbors (KNN), decision tree (DT), linear discriminant analysis (LDA), weighted linear discriminant analysis (W-LDA), quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA), ensemble linear discriminant analysis (EN-LDA), ensemble K-nearest neighbors (EN-KNN), and ensemble decision tree (EN-DT). After the ground-truth database of six tissue types (healthy skin, wound bed, blood, hyperemia, partial injury, full injury) was generated by histopathological analysis, we used 10-fold cross validation to compare the algorithms' performances based on their accuracies in classifying data against the ground truth, and each algorithm was tested 100 times. The mean test accuracy of the algorithms were KNN 68.3%, DT 61.5%, LDA 70.5%, W-LDA 68.1%, QDA 68.9%, EN-LDA 56.8%, EN-KNN 49.7%, and EN-DT 36.5%. LDA had the highest test accuracy, reflecting the bias-variance tradeoff over the range of complexities inherent to the algorithms tested. Several algorithms were able to match the current standard in burn tissue classification, the clinical judgment of expert burn surgeons. These results will guide further development of an MSI burn tissue classification system. Given that there are few surgeons and facilities specializing in burn care

  7. Do Wildfires Promote Woody Species Invasion in a Fire-Adapted Ecosystem? Post-fire Resprouting of Native and Non-native Woody Plants in Central Argentina.

    PubMed

    Herrero, M Lucrecia; Torres, Romina C; Renison, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We asked whether prescribed fire could be a useful management tool to reduce invasion by non-native plants in an ecosystem where native plants are supposed to be adapted to fires. Specifically, we compare the post-fire resprouting response of native and non-native woody species in Chaco Serrano forest of central Argentina. The measurements were carried out in five burnt areas where we selected ten native and seven non-native species. Our response variables were (1) post-fire survival, (2) types of resprouts, and (3) the growth of the resprouts. Our main results show that one year after the fire, survivals of native and non-native species were 0.84 and 0.89, respectively, with variances in survival seven times smaller in the native species group. Type of resprout was also less variable in native species, while growth of the resprouts was similar in native and non-native groups. We interpret that in most cases, the burning a forest with mixed native and non-native plants through prescribed fires will not differentially stop the invasion by non-native woody species even in ecosystems which are presumed to be relatively resistant to fires such as our study area.

  8. Do Wildfires Promote Woody Species Invasion in a Fire-Adapted Ecosystem? Post-fire Resprouting of Native and Non-native Woody Plants in Central Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero, M. Lucrecia; Torres, Romina C.; Renison, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    We asked whether prescribed fire could be a useful management tool to reduce invasion by non-native plants in an ecosystem where native plants are supposed to be adapted to fires. Specifically, we compare the post-fire resprouting response of native and non-native woody species in Chaco Serrano forest of central Argentina. The measurements were carried out in five burnt areas where we selected ten native and seven non-native species. Our response variables were (1) post-fire survival, (2) types of resprouts, and (3) the growth of the resprouts. Our main results show that one year after the fire, survivals of native and non-native species were 0.84 and 0.89, respectively, with variances in survival seven times smaller in the native species group. Type of resprout was also less variable in native species, while growth of the resprouts was similar in native and non-native groups. We interpret that in most cases, the burning a forest with mixed native and non-native plants through prescribed fires will not differentially stop the invasion by non-native woody species even in ecosystems which are presumed to be relatively resistant to fires such as our study area.

  9. Emergency assessment of post-fire debris-flow hazards for the 2013 Powerhouse fire, southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis M.; Smoczyk, Gregory M.; Reeves, Ryan R.

    2013-01-01

    Wildfire dramatically alters the hydrologic response of a watershed such that even modest rainstorms can produce dangerous flash floods and debris flows. Existing empirical models were used to predict the probability and magnitude of debris-flow occurrence in response to a 10-year recurrence interval rainstorm for the 2013 Powerhouse fire near Lancaster, California. Overall, the models predict a relatively low probability for debris-flow occurrence in response to the design storm. However, volumetric predictions suggest that debris flows that occur may entrain a significant volume of material, with 44 of the 73 basins identified as having potential debris-flow volumes between 10,000 and 100,000 cubic meters. These results suggest that even though the likelihood of debris flow is relatively low, the consequences of post-fire debris-flow initiation within the burn area may be significant for downstream populations, infrastructure, and wildlife and water resources. Given these findings, we recommend that residents, emergency managers, and public works departments pay close attention to weather forecasts and National-Weather-Service-issued Debris Flow and Flash Flood Outlooks, Watches, and Warnings and that residents adhere to any evacuation orders.

  10. Severe childhood burns in the Czech Republic: risk factors and prevention

    PubMed Central

    Čelko, Alexander Martin; Dáňová, Jana; Barss, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Objective To assess risk factors for paediatric burn injuries in the Czech Republic and to suggest preventive measures. Methods This study included all children aged 0–16 years hospitalized during 1993–2000 at the Prague Burn Centre and data from the Czech Ministry of Health on national paediatric burn hospitalizations during 1996–2006. Personal, equipment and environmental risk factors were identified from hospital records. Findings The incidence of burn admissions among 0–14 year-olds increased from 85 to 96 per 100 000 between 1996 and 2006, mainly due to a 13% increase among 1–4 year-olds. Between 1993–2000 and 2006, the proportion of burn victims in the country hospitalized at the Prague Burn Centre increased from 9% to 21%. Detailed data were available on 1064 children (64% boys). Around 31% of all burn hospitalizations were in 1 year-olds. Some 79% of burns occurred at home: 70% in the kitchen, 14% in the living room or bedroom and 11% in the bathroom. Of the 18% occurring outdoors, 80% involved boys. Scalds from hot liquids accounted for 70% of all burns. The mean hospital stay was 22 days for boys and 18 days for girls. Conclusion Most burns involved scalds from hot liquids at home: beverages in kitchens and water in bathrooms. There is a need for passive preventive measures, such as redesigned domestic cooking and eating areas, safer electrical kettles and temperature control devices for bathrooms. Educational programmes should be developed for parents and caregivers. A national plan for child burn prevention with specific targets would be helpful. PMID:19551256

  11. Long-term skeletal muscle mitochondrial dysfunction is associated with hypermetabolism in severely burned children

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The long-term impact of burn trauma on skeletal muscle bioenergetics remains unknown. Here, we determined respiratory capacity and function of skeletal muscle mitochondria in healthy individuals and in burn victims for up to two years post-injury. Biopsies were collected from the m. vastus lateralis...

  12. Protective effect of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) on intestinal tissues after severe burn in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhanke; Liu, Longyan; Hu, Tian; Lei, Wansheng; Wan, Fusheng; Zhang, Ping; Wang, Zhen; Xu, Jinsong; Zhu, Haohao; Zhu, Zhongzhen; Yang, Yang; Hu, Xiaolu; Xu, Linshui; Wang, Shiliang

    2012-09-01

    Intestinal barrier damage after scald and burns, other trauma or major operations result in severe intestinal infections that cause serious consequences. Therefore, it is important to develop methods to protect intestinal barrier after severe burns. This study used rats that had full-thickness burn of approximately 30% of the total body surface area to investigate the effect and mechanism of glucose-insulin-potassium (GIK) and provide experimental evidence for application of GIK in protecting the intestine after burns or other trauma and major surgeries. The results show that the degree of intestinal damage and plasma diamine oxidase (DAO) levels in GIK (the concentrations of glucose, insulin, sodium chloride and potassium chloride were 100 g l(-1), 70 U l(-1), 9 g l(-1) and 5 g l(-1), respectively) and insulin (30 IU l(-1)) treatment groups were significantly lower than that in control group; the status of anti-inflammatory and pro-inflammatory cytokines and the ratio between them in GIK and insulin groups also significantly improved compared to those in control group; intestinal tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα), nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) and interleukin-10 (IL-10) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and IL10/TNFα in GIK and insulin groups 2 days after the injury were also improved significantly compared to those in control group. All the indices including body weight detected in GIK group were improved to those in insulin group. Taken together, these results show that GIK and insulin show protective effect on intestine after severe burn, which may relate to controlling hyperglycaemia and regulating intestinal expression of NFκB and pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokine genes by GIK and insulin; the protective effect of GIK on intestinal tissue after severe burn is superior to that of using insulin alone, which may attribute to improving the nutritional status by glucose supplement and the relatively higher dose of insulin in the GIK group.

  13. Soil heating and impact of prescribed burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoof, Cathelijne

    2016-04-01

    Prescribed burning is highly uncommon in the Netherlands, where wildfire awareness is increasing but its risk management does not yet include fuel management strategies. A major exception is on two military bases, that need to burn their fields in winter and spring to prevent wildfires during summer shooting practice. Research on these very frequent burns has so far been limited to effects on biodiversity, yet site managers and policy makers have questions regarding the soil temperatures reached during these burns because of potential impact on soil properties and soil dwelling fauna. In March 2015, I therefore measured soil and litter temperatures under heath and grass vegetation during a prescribed burn on military terrain in the Netherlands. Soil and litter moisture were sampled pre- and post-fire, ash was collected, and fireline intensity was estimated from flame length. While standing vegetation was dry (0.13 g water/g biomass for grass and 0.6 g/g for heather), soil and litter were moist (0.21 cm3/cm3 and 1.6 g/g, respectively). Soil heating was therefore very limited, with maximum soil temperature at the soil-litter interface remaining being as low as 6.5 to 11.5°C, and litter temperatures reaching a maximum of 77.5°C at the top of the litter layer. As a result, any changes in physical properties like soil organic matter content and bulk density were not significant. These results are a first step towards a database of soil heating in relation to fuel load and fire intensity in this temperate country, which is not only valuable to increase understanding of the relationships between fire intensity and severity, but also instrumental in the policy debate regarding the sustainability of prescribed burns.

  14. Modelling threats to water quality from fire suppression chemicals and post-fire erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Kevin; Ziemniak, Chris; Elliot, William; Samuels, William

    2014-05-01

    Misapplication of fire retardant chemicals into streams and rivers may threaten aquatic life. The possible threat depends on the contaminant concentration that, in part, is controlled by dispersion within flowing water. In the event of a misapplication, methods are needed to rapidly estimate the chemical mass entering the waterway and the dispersion and transport within the system. Here we demonstrate a new tool that calculates the chemical mass based on aircraft delivery system, fire chemical type, and stream and intersect geometry. The estimated mass is intended to be transferred into a GIS module that uses real-time stream data to map and simulate the dispersion and transport downstream. This system currently accounts only for aqueous transport. We envision that the GIS module can be modified to incorporate sediment transport, specifically to model movement of sediments from post-fire erosion. This modification could support assessment of threats of post-fire erosion to water quality and water supply systems.

  15. The importance of mammalian torpor for survival in a post-fire landscape.

    PubMed

    Stawski, Clare; Körtner, Gerhard; Nowack, Julia; Geiser, Fritz

    2015-06-01

    Wildfires have increased in frequency and intensity worldwide with climate change as a main driving factor. While a number of studies have focused on population changes in regard to fires, there are essentially no quantitative data on behavioural and physiological adjustments that are vital for the persistence of individuals during and after fires. Here we show that brown antechinus, a small insectivorous marsupial mammal, (i) endured a prescribed fire in situ, (ii) remained in their scorched home range despite unburned areas nearby, and (iii) substantially increased post-fire torpor use and thus reduced foraging requirements and exposure to predators. Hence, torpor is a physiological adaptation that, although not quantified in this context previously, appears to play a key role in post-fire survival for this and other heterothermic species.

  16. Long-term post-fire effects on spatial ecology and reproductive output of female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) at a wind energy facility near Palm Springs, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lovich, Jeffrey E.; Ennen, Joshua R.; Madrak, Sheila V.; Loughran, Caleb L.; Meyer, Katherin P.; Arundel, Terence R.; Bjurlin, Curtis D.

    2011-01-01

    We studied the long-term response of a cohort of eight female Agassiz’s desert tortoises (Gopherus agassizii) during the first 15 years following a large fire at a wind energy generation facility near Palm Springs, California, USA. The fire burned a significant portion of the study site in 1995. Tortoise activity areas were mapped using minimum convex polygons for a proximate post-fire interval from 1997 to 2000, and a long-term post-fire interval from 2009 to 2010. In addition, we measured the annual reproductive output of eggs each year and monitored the body condition of tortoises over time. One adult female tortoise was killed by the fire and five tortoises bore exposure scars that were not fatal. Despite predictions that tortoises would make the short-distance movements from burned to nearby unburned habitats, most activity areas and their centroids remained in burned areas for the duration of the study. The percentage of activity area burned did not differ significantly between the two monitoring periods. Annual reproductive output and measures of body condition remained statistically similar throughout the monitoring period. Despite changes in plant composition, conditions at this site appeared to be suitable for survival of tortoises following a major fire. High productivity at the site may have buffered tortoises from the adverse impacts of fire if they were not killed outright. Tortoise populations at less productive desert sites may not have adequate resources to sustain normal activity areas, reproductive output, and body conditions following fire.

  17. 77 FR 70389 - Eligibility of Disabled Veterans and Members of the Armed Forces With Severe Burn Injuries for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Severe Burn Injuries for Financial Assistance in the Purchase of an Automobile or Other Conveyance and... financial assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment. The... assistance in the purchase of an automobile or other conveyance and adaptive equipment. Pursuant to...

  18. Taxonomic and Functional Responses to Fire and Post-Fire Management of a Mediterranean Hymenoptera Community

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  19. Taxonomic and functional responses to fire and post-fire management of a Mediterranean hymenoptera community.

    PubMed

    Mateos, Eduardo; Santos, Xavier; Pujade-Villar, Juli

    2011-11-01

    Fire is one of the commonest disturbances worldwide, transforming habitat structure and affecting ecosystem functioning. Understanding how species respond to such environmental disturbances is a major conservation goal that should be monitored using functionally and taxonomically diverse groups such as Hymenoptera. In this respect, we have analyzed the taxonomic and functional response to fire and post-fire management of a Hymenoptera community from a Mediterranean protected area. Thus, Hymenoptera were sampled at fifteen sites located in three burnt areas submitted to different post-fire practices, as well as at five sites located in peripheral unburnt pine forest. A total of 4882 specimens belonging to 33 families, which were classified into six feeding groups according to their dietary preferences, were collected. ANOVA and Redundancy Analyses showed a taxonomic and functional response to fire as all burnt areas had more Hymenoptera families, different community composition and higher numbers of parasitoids than the unburnt area. Taxonomic differences were also found between burnt areas in terms of the response of Hymenoptera to post-fire management. In general the number of parasitoids was positively correlated to the number of potential host arthropods. Parasitoids are recognized to be sensitive to habitat changes, thus highlighting their value for monitoring the functional responses of organisms to habitat disturbance. The taxonomic and functional responses of Hymenoptera suggest that some pine-forest fires can enhance habitat heterogeneity and arthropod diversity, hence increasing interspecific interactions such as those established by parasitoids and their hosts.

  20. The increasing wildfire and post-fire debris-flow threat in western USA, and implications for consequences of climate change

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cannon, Susan H.; DeGraff, Jerry

    2009-01-01

    In southern California and the intermountain west of the USA, debris flows generated from recently-burned basins pose significant hazards. Increases in the frequency and size of wildfires throughout the western USA can be attributed to increases in the number of fire ignitions, fire suppression practices, and climatic influences. Increased urbanization throughout the western USA, combined with the increased wildfire magnitude and frequency, carries with it the increased threat of subsequent debris-flow occurrence. Differences between rainfall thresholds and empirical debris-flow susceptibility models for southern California and the intermountain west indicate a strong influence of climatic and geologic settings on post-fire debris-flow potential. The linkages between wildfires, debris-flow occurrence, and global warming suggests that the experiences in the western United States are highly likely to be duplicated in many other parts of the world, and necessitate hazard assessment tools that are specific to local climates and physiographies.

  1. Oxandrolone induced lean mass gain during recovery from severe burns is maintained after discontinuation of the anabolic steroid.

    PubMed

    Demling, Robert H; DeSanti, Leslie

    2003-12-01

    Weight loss and lean mass loss from burn induced catabolism can be more rapidly restored when the anabolic steroid oxandrolone is added to optimum nutrition compared to nutrition alone. Our purpose in this study was to determine whether the regained lean body mass (LBM) is retained 6 months after stopping oxandrolone. Forty-five severe burn patients, entering the recovery phase were randomized into a nutrition group alone or with the addition of oxandrolone, 20mg per day upon admission to the acute burn rehabilitation (RH) unit. Oxandrolone was discontinued after at least 80% of the involuntary weight loss occurring in the acute burn period, was restored. Body composition was measured using bioelectric impedence analysis (BIA). We found that patients receiving oxandrolone, in the rehabilitation unit, regained weight and lean mass two to three times faster than with nutrition alone. The difference was statistically significant (P<0.05). All patients were discharged from RH on a nutrition and exercise program and monitored in the outpatient burn center. After 6 months, body weight and body composition were again measured. We found that the body weight and lean mass which was restored during RH, was maintained 6 months after discontinuation of oxandrolone. Lost lean mass was not yet restored in the nutrition alone group. We can conclude that body weight and lean mass which is lost, due to burn induced catabolism, can be effectively restored in the post-burn recovery period with oxandrolone. The body weight and lost lean mass which is regained, is maintained 6 months after stopping the drug.

  2. Soils Data Related to the 1999 FROSTFIRE Burn

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Manies, K.L.; Harden, J.W.; Ottmar, R.

    2011-01-01

    This report describes the sample collection and processing for U.S. Geological Survey efforts at FROSTFIRE, an experimental burn that occurred in Alaska in 1999. Data regarding carbon, water, and energy dynamics pre-fire, during, and post-fire were obtained in this landscape-scale prescribed burn. U.S. Geological Survey investigators measured changes in the stocks of carbon (C), nitrogen (N), mercury (Hg), and other components in pre- and post-burn soils of this watershed.

  3. Comparison of systemic inflammation response and vital organ damage induced by severe burns in different area

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Lingying; Li, Xiao; Yang, Jing; Chai, Jiake; Yu, Yonghui; Duan, Hongjie; Song, Huifeng; Feng, Rui; Wang, Tongming; Yin, Huinan; Hu, Quan; Wang, Shaoxia; Du, Jundong

    2015-01-01

    Background: In this study, we will establish a stable and optimized rat model that can meet strictly diagnosed criteria and serve as a tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutics in this preclinical model through comparative analysis of systemic alterations, levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in serum and infiltrated numbers of inflammatory cells in distant organ between 30% and 50% TBSA with a full-thickness burn. Materials and methods: The adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into the following groups: control group, 30% TBSA with a full-thickness burn group, and 50% TBSA with a full-thickness burn group. The blood and serum samples in the 3 groups were collected and detected by blood routine examination and biochemical detection at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post burn. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in serum were detected by ELISA. The sections of lung, renal, liver and heart were analyzed by H&E and immunohistochemical staining detection. Results: Our results showed that temperature in 50% TBSA with a full-thickness burn group was always hypothermia, and lower than 36°C at defined timepoints post burn, that was in 30% TBSA with a full-thickness burn group was lower than 36°C only at 48 h post burn. The levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 were significantly increased in 30% and 50% groups at 6 h, 12 h, 24 h and 48 h post burn. The apoptosis in distant organs and the biochemical parameters such as ALT, AST, troponin, CK, CK-MB, LDH, urea and creatinine in 30% and 50% groups were also increased at different degrees at defined timepoints after burn, but changes in 50% group were more obvious than that in 30% group. Conclusion: We choose 50% TBSA with a full-thickness burn to establish a stable and optimized rat model that can meet strictly diagnosed criteria and serve as a tool to investigate the potential of novel therapeutics in this preclinical model. PMID:26261512

  4. Targeted Prevention or Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm Infections of Severe Burns and Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-04-01

    highly predictable settings, thus lending it to preventive strategies. References Cited 1. Church, D ., S. Elsayed, O. Reid, B. Winston, and R. Lindsay...2006. Burn wound infections. Clin Microbiol Rev 19(2):403-34. 2. Suber, F., M. C. Carroll, and F. D . Moore, Jr. 2007. Innate response to self...12 neutrophils. Infect Immun 73(6): 3693 -701. 4. Moskowitz, S. M., J. M. Foster, J. Emerson, and J. L. Burns. 2004. Clinically feasible biofilm

  5. Targeted Prevention or Treatment of Bacterial Biofilm Infections of Severe Burns and Wounds

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-10-01

    to preventive strategies. 9 References Cited 1. Church, D ., S. Elsayed, O. Reid, B. Winston, and R. Lindsay. 2006. Burn wound infections. Clin...Microbiol Rev 19(2):403-34. 2. Suber, F., M. C. Carroll, and F. D . Moore, Jr. 2007. Innate response to self-antigen significantly exacerbates burn wound...M. L. Vasil, and J. A. Nick. 2005. Enhanced Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm development mediated by human neutrophils. Infect Immun 73(6): 3693 -701. 4

  6. Drought impacts on vegetation in the pre- and post-fire events over Iberian Peninsula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gouveia, C. M.; Bastos, A.; Trigo, R. M.; DaCamara, C. C.

    2012-10-01

    The present work aims to study the combined effect of drought and large wildfires in the Iberian Peninsula relying on remotely sensed data of vegetation dynamics and leaf moisture content, in particular monthly NDVI, NDWI and NDDI time series from 1999-2009, derived from VEGETATION dataset. The impact of the exceptional 2004/2005 drought on vegetation was assessed for vegetation recovering from the extraordinary fire season of 2003 and on the conditions that contributed to the onsetting of the fire season of 2005. Drought severity was estimated by the cumulative negative effect on photosynthetic activity (NDVI) and vegetation dryness (NDDI), with about 2/3 of Iberian Peninsula presenting vegetative stress and low water availability conditions, in spring and early summer of 2005. Furthermore, NDDI has shown to be very useful to assess drought, since it combines information on vegetation and water conditions. Moreover, we show that besides looking at the inter-annual variability of NDVI and NDDI, it is useful to evaluate intra-annual changes (δNDVI and δNDDI), as indicators of change in vegetation greenness, allowing a detailed picture of the ability of the different land-cover types to resist to short-term dry conditions. In order to assess drought impact on post-fire regeneration, recovery times were evaluated by a mono-parametric model based on NDVI data and values corresponding to drought months were set to no value. Drought has shown to delay recovery times for several months in all the selected scars from 2003. The analysis of vegetation dynamics and fire selectivity in 2005 suggests that fires tended to occur in pixels presenting lower vegetative and water stress conditions during spring and early summer months. Additionally, pre-fire vegetation dynamics, in particular vegetation density and water availability during spring and early summer, has shown to influence significantly the levels of fire damage. These results stress the role of fuel availability in

  7. Ecohydrological Response to Severe Disturbance by Wildfire and Salvage Logging in Oligotrophic Rocky Mountain Watersheds: Nutrient Loading, Plant Productivity, and Benthic Macroinvertebrate Community Response.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silins, U.; Bladon, K. D.; Esch, E.; Spence, J. R.; Stone, M.; Emelko, M. B.; Wagner, M. J.; Williams, C.; Tichkowsky, I.; Boon, S.; Devito, K. J.; Mendoza, C. A.

    2008-12-01

    This study examined the initial magnitude and post-disturbance recovery of watershed hydrology and ecology after the 2003 Lost Creek wildfire in Southern Alberta's Rocky Mountains. Ecohydrological linkages between phosphorus (P) production and response of stream algal and benthic macroinvertebrate communities were studied for four years after this severe wildfire (2004-2007) to describe the early trajectory of post-disturbance recovery. Wildfire and salvage logging resulted in 3- to 12-times greater total phosphorus (TP) production with higher concentrations evident in salvage logged watersheds (p<0.001). Phosphorus recovery has been slow with strong differences in relationships between P and stream discharge still evident four years after the fire (p<0.001). Because particulate P comprised the dominant form of TP, coupled P and sediment interactions are likely implicated in the slow recovery of P production (particularly in salvage logged watersheds). Post-fire P loading was associated with strong ecological responses in stream biota in both burned and salvage logged watersheds. Large increases in algal productivity were observed in both burned and post-fire salvage logged streams immediately after the fire with 7- to 60-times greater biomass production and chlorophyll-a concentration than in reference streams (p<0.001). Algal productivity co-varied strongly with slow recovery in P production as high algal productivity persisted for four years. Elevated algal production was, in turn, associated with strong differences in benthic macroinvertebrate community structure four years after the fire, including higher invertebrate densities, shifts in species composition, and increased species diversity in the burned and post-fire salvage logged watersheds. Contrary to expectations based on River Continuum Theory, carbon and nitrogen isotopes indicated increased utilization of allochthonous (terrestrial) food sources by invertebrate communities after the fire, suggesting

  8. Primary triage of mass burn casualties with associated severe traumatic injuries.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B; Gunn, S William A; Dibo, S

    2013-03-31

    A key aim in any mass disaster event is to avoid diverting resources by overwhelming specialized tertiary centers with minor casualties. The most crucial aspect of an effective disaster response is pre-hospital triage at the scene. Unfortunately, many triage systems have serious shortcomings in their methodologies and no existing triage system has enough scientific evidence to justify its universal adoption. Moreover, it is observed that the optimal approach to planning is by no means clear-cut and that each new incident involving burns appears to produce its own unique problems not all of which were predictable. In most major burns disasters, victims mostly have combined trauma burn injuries and form a heterogeneous group with a broad range of devastating injuries. Are these victims primarily burn patients or trauma patients? Should they be taken care of in a burn center or in a trauma center or only in a combined burns-trauma center? Who makes the decision? The present review is aimed at answering some of these questions.

  9. Nutritional and Pharmacological Modulation of the Metabolic Response of Severely Burned Patients: Review of the Literature (Part II)*.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Dibo, S A

    2008-09-30

    Severe burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiological stress and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. Increased energy expenditure to cope with this insult necessitates mobilization of large amounts of substrate from fat stores and active muscle for repair and fuel, leading to catabolism. The hypermetabolic response can last for as long as nine months to one year after injury and is associated with impaired wound healing, increased infection risks, erosion of lean body mass, hampered rehabilitation, and delayed reintegration of burn survivors into society. Reversal of the hypermetabolic response by manipulating the patient's physiological and biochemical environment through the administration of specific nutrients, growth factors, or other agents, often in pharmacological doses, is emerging as an essential component of the state of the art in severe burn management. Early enteral nutritional support, control of hyperglycaemia, blockade of catecholamine response, and use of anabolic steroids have all been proposed to attenuate hypermetabolism or to blunt catabolism associated with severe burn injury. The present study is a literature review of the proposed nutritional and metabolic therapeutic measures in order to determine evidence-based best practice. Unfortunately, the present state of our knowledge does not allow the formulation of clear-cut guidelines. Only general trends can be outlined which will certainly have some practical applications but above all will dictate future research in the field.

  10. Nutritional and pharmacological modulation of the metabolic response of severely burned patients: review of the literature (part 1).

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Dibo, S A

    2008-06-30

    Severe burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiological stress and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. Increased energy expenditure to cope with this insult necessitates mobilization of large amounts of substrate from fat stores and active muscle for repair and fuel, leading to catabolism. The hypermetabolic response can last for as long as nine months to one year after injury and is associated with impaired wound healing, increased infection risks, erosion of lean body mass, hampered rehabilitation, and delayed reintegration of burn survivors into society. Reversal of the hypermetabolic response by manipulating the patient's physiological and biochemical environment through the administration of specific nutrients, growth factors, or other agents, often in pharmacological doses, is emerging as an essential component of the state of the art in severe burn management. Early enteral nutritional support, control of hyperglycaemia, blockade of catecholamine response, and use of anabolic steroids have all been proposed to attenuate hypermetabolism or to blunt catabolism associated with severe burn injury. The present study is a literature review of the proposed nutritional and metabolic therapeutic measures in order to determine evidence-based best practice. Unfortunately, the present state of our knowledge does not allow the formulation of clear-cut guidelines. Only general trends can be outlined which will certainly have some practical applications but above all will dictate future research in the field.

  11. Nutritional and Pharmacological Modulation of the Metabolic Response of Severely Burned Patients: Review of the Literature (Part III)*.

    PubMed

    Atiyeh, B S; Gunn, S W A; Dibo, S A

    2008-12-31

    Severe burn patients are some of the most challenging critically ill patients, with an extreme state of physiological stress and an overwhelming systemic metabolic response. Increased energy expenditure to cope with this insult necessitates mobilization of large amounts of substrate from fat stores and active muscle for repair and fuel, leading to catabolism. The hypermetabolic response can last for as long as nine months to one year after injury and is associated with impaired wound healing, increased infection risks, erosion of lean body mass, hampered rehabilitation, and delayed reintegration of burn survivors into society.Reversal of the hypermetabolic response by manipulating the patient's physiological and biochemical environment through the administration of specific nutrients, growth factors, or other agents, often in pharmacological doses, is emerging as an essential component of the state of the art in severe burn management. Early enteral nutritional support, control of hyperglycaemia, blockade of catecholamine response, and use of anabolic steroids have all been proposed to attenuate hypermetabolism or to blunt catabolism associated with severe burn injury. The present study is a literature review of the proposed nutritional and metabolic therapeutic measures in order to determine evidence-based best practice. Unfortunately, the present state of our knowledge does not allow the formulation of clear-cut guidelines. Only general trends can be outlined which will certainly have some practical applications but above all will dictate future research in the field.

  12. Five-Year Outcomes after Oxandrolone Administration in Severely Burned Children: A Randomized Clinical Trial of Safety and Efficacy

    PubMed Central

    Porro, Laura J; Herndon, David N; Rodriguez, Noe A; Jennings, Kristofer; Klein, Gordon L; Mlcak, Ronald P; Meyer, Walter; Lee, Jong; Suman, Oscar E; Finnerty, Celeste C

    2012-01-01

    Background Oxandrolone, an anabolic agent, has been administered for 1 year post burn with beneficial effects in pediatric patients. However, the long-lasting effects of this treatment have not been studied. This single-center prospective trial determined the long-term effects of 1 year of oxandrolone administration in severely burned children; assessments were continued for up to 4 years post-therapy. Study Design Patients 0–18 years old with burns covering >30% of the total body surface area were randomized to receive placebo (n=152) or oxandrolone, 0.1 mg/kg twice daily for 12 months (n=70). At hospital discharge, patients were randomized to a 12 week exercise program or to standard of care. Resting energy expenditure (REE), standing height, weight, lean body mass, muscle strength, bone mineral content (BMC), cardiac work, rate pressure product (RPP), sexual maturation, and concentrations of serum inflammatory cytokines, hormones, and liver enzymes were monitored. Results Oxandrolone significantly decreased REE, RPP, and increased IGF-1 secretion during the first year after burn injury, and in combination with exercise significantly increased lean body mass and muscle strength. Oxandrolone-treated children exhibited improved height percentile and BMC content compared to controls. The maximal effect of oxandrolone was found in children aged 7–18 years. No deleterious side effects were attributed to long-term administration. Conclusions Administration of oxandrolone improves the long-term recovery of severely burned children in height, BMC, cardiac work and muscle strength; the increase in BMC is likely to occur by means of IGF 1. These benefits persist for up to 5 years post burn. PMID:22463890

  13. Burn me twice, shame on who? Interactions between successive forest fires across a temperate mountain region.

    PubMed

    Harvey, Brian J; Donato, Daniel C; Turner, Monica G

    2016-09-01

    Increasing rates of natural disturbances under a warming climate raise important questions about how multiple disturbances interact. Escalating wildfire activity in recent decades has resulted in some forests re-burning in short succession, but how the severity of one wildfire affects that of a subsequent wildfire is not fully understood. We used a field-validated, satellite-derived, burn-severity atlas to assess interactions between successive wildfires across the US Northern Rocky Mountains a 300,000-km(2) region dominated by fire-prone forests. In areas that experienced two wildfires between 1984 and 2010, we asked: (1) How do overall frequency distributions of burn-severity classes compare between first and second fires? (2) In a given location, how does burn severity of the second fire relate to that of the first? (3) Do interactions between successive fires vary by forest zone or the interval between fires? (4) What factors increase the probability of burning twice as stand-replacing fire? Within the study area, 138,061 ha burned twice between 1984 and 2010. Overall, frequency distributions of burn severity classes (low, moderate, high; quantified using relativized remote sensing indices) were similar between the first and second fires; however burn severity was 5-13% lower in second fires on average. Negative interactions between fires were most pronounced in lower-elevation forests and woodlands, when fire intervals were <10 yr, and when burn severity was low in the first fire. When the first fire burned as high severity and fire intervals exceeded 10-12 yr, burn-severity interactions switched from negative to positive, with high-severity fire begetting subsequent high-severity fire. Locations most likely to experience successive stand-replacing fires were high-elevation forests, which are adapted to high-severity fire, and areas conducive to abundant post-fire tree regeneration. Broadly similar severities among short-interval "re-burns" and other

  14. Short and Long-term Effects of High-severity Fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, L. H.; Larsen, I. J.; Schaffrath, K. R.; Eccleston, D.; Welsh, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Forests are subject to a wide variety of natural and anthropogenic disturbances, including extreme rainstorms, beetle kill, forest harvest, windthrow, and fires. Here we show that: (1) erosion and sedimentation following high-severity fires is more important and persistent than commonly believed; (2) these post-fire effects have feedbacks that that can alter the rates of other key processes; and (3) the post-fire erosion and feedback effects need to be accounted for in landscape-scale modeling. Hillslope-scale surface erosion measurements were initiated in unmanaged and managed mid-elevation forests in the Colorado Front Range in summer 2001, and half of these sites burned in the 2002 Hayman and Schoonover wildfires. Similarly, cross-sections and a flume were installed in a 2.3 and a 6.0 km2 watershed in 2001-02, and about 60% of these watersheds were subsequently burned in June 2002. Continued monitoring of these and other sites through summer 2006 has resulted in a unique pre- and post-fire dataset. For the unburned managed and unmanaged hillslopes, measurable erosion occurred for only three of the 222 hillslope-years of data, even when rainfall intensities exceeded 60 mm/hr. In contrast, sediment was produced from each of the severely-burned hillslopes for each of the first three years after burning, and the cumulative mean six-year sediment yield was 32 Mg/ha. Severe armoring has developed on the burned hillslopes while there is no comparable armor layer on the unburned hillslopes. The numerous rills and gullies developed after the fire are expected to slowly fill in, but the downstream deposition of coarse post-fire sediment in the smaller watershed has changed the runoff from surface to subsurface flow. The loss of forest cover, hillslope armoring, and change to subsurface flow are projected to cause long-term changes in hillslope erosion and downstream sediment transport rates. These fire-induced changes in processes and boundary conditions can have

  15. Post-fire stand structure impacts carbon storage within Siberian larch forests

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexander, H. D.; Natali, S.; Loranty, M. M.; Mack, M. C.; Davydov, S. P.; Zimov, N.

    2015-12-01

    Increased fire severity within boreal forests of the Siberian Arctic has the potential to alter forest stand development thereby altering carbon (C) accumulation rates and storage during the post-fire successional interval. One potential change is increased stand density, which may result from fire consumption of the soil organic layer and changes to the seedbed that favor germination and establishment of larch trees during early succession. In this study, we evaluated above- and belowground C pools across 12 stands of varying tree density within a single 75-year old fire scar located near Cherskii, Sakha Republic, Russia. In each stand, we inventoried the size and density of larch trees and large shrubs (Salix and Betula spp.), and in combination with with allometric equations, estimated aboveground contribution to C pools. We quantified woody debris C pools using the line intercept method. We sampled belowground C pools in the soil organic layer + upper (0-10 cm) mineral soil and coarse roots (> 2 mm diameter) using sediment cores and 0.25 x 0.25-m trenches, respectively. We found that high density stands store ~ 20% more C (~7,500 g C m-2) than low density stands (~5,800 g C m-2). In high density stands, about 35% more C is stored aboveground within live larch trees (1650 g C m-2) compared to low density stands (940 g C m-2), and about 15% more C is stored in the soil organic layer and upper mineral soil. Coarse root C was 20% higher in high density stands (~475 g C m-2) compared to those with low density (~350 g C m-2). Less C was stored in large shrubs in high density stands, both in aboveground portions and coarse roots, but these amounts were relatively small (< 10% of total C pools). A fire-driven shift to denser larch stands could increase C storage, leading to a negative feedback to climate, but the combined effects of density on C dynamics, summer and winter albedo, and future fire regimes will interact to determine the magnitude of any vegetation

  16. Perspectives on disconnects between scientific information and management decisions on post-fire recovery in Western US.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaoli; Emery, Nathan; Garcia, Elizabeth S; Hanan, Erin J; Hodges, Heather E; Martin, Tyronne; Meyers, Matthew A; Peavey, Lindsey E; Peng, Hui; Santamaria, Jaime Sainz; Uyeda, Kellie A; Anderson, Sarah E; Tague, Christina

    2013-12-01

    Environmental regulations frequently mandate the use of "best available" science, but ensuring that it is used in decisions around the use and protection of natural resources is often challenging. In the Western US, this relationship between science and management is at the forefront of post-fire land management decisions. Recent fires, post-fire threats (e.g. flooding, erosion), and the role of fire in ecosystem health combine to make post-fire management highly visible and often controversial. This paper uses post-fire management to present a framework for understanding why disconnects between science and management decisions may occur. We argue that attributes of agencies, such as their political or financial incentives, can limit how effectively science is incorporated into decision-making. At the other end of the spectrum, the lack of synthesis or limited data in science can result in disconnects between science-based analysis of post-fire effects and agency policy and decisions. Disconnects also occur because of the interaction between the attributes of agencies and the attributes of science, such as their different spatial and temporal scales of interest. After offering examples of these disconnects in post-fire treatment, the paper concludes with recommendations to reduce disconnects by improving monitoring, increasing synthesis of scientific findings, and directing social-science research toward identifying and deepening understanding of these disconnects.

  17. Perspectives on Disconnects Between Scientific Information and Management Decisions on Post-fire Recovery in Western US

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Emery, Nathan; Garcia, Elizabeth S.; Hanan, Erin J.; Hodges, Heather E.; Martin, Tyronne; Meyers, Matthew A.; Peavey, Lindsey E.; Peng, Hui; Santamaria, Jaime Sainz; Uyeda, Kellie A.; Anderson, Sarah E.; Tague, Christina

    2013-12-01

    Environmental regulations frequently mandate the use of "best available" science, but ensuring that it is used in decisions around the use and protection of natural resources is often challenging. In the Western US, this relationship between science and management is at the forefront of post-fire land management decisions. Recent fires, post-fire threats (e.g. flooding, erosion), and the role of fire in ecosystem health combine to make post-fire management highly visible and often controversial. This paper uses post-fire management to present a framework for understanding why disconnects between science and management decisions may occur. We argue that attributes of agencies, such as their political or financial incentives, can limit how effectively science is incorporated into decision-making. At the other end of the spectrum, the lack of synthesis or limited data in science can result in disconnects between science-based analysis of post-fire effects and agency policy and decisions. Disconnects also occur because of the interaction between the attributes of agencies and the attributes of science, such as their different spatial and temporal scales of interest. After offering examples of these disconnects in post-fire treatment, the paper concludes with recommendations to reduce disconnects by improving monitoring, increasing synthesis of scientific findings, and directing social-science research toward identifying and deepening understanding of these disconnects.

  18. EPA calls outdoor burn bans for several Northwest Indian Reservations beginning Friday

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    (Seattle -- November 25, 2015) The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is calling a ban on outdoor burning for the following Indian reservations in Washington State due to stagnant air conditions and high air quality monitor readings in parts of our regio

  19. Reverse-flow anterolateral thigh perforator: an ad hoc flap for severe post-burn knee contracture.

    PubMed

    Ismail, H A; El-Bassiony, L E

    2016-03-31

    We evaluate function outcomes of the reverse-flow ALT perforator flap to reconstruct severe post-burn knee contracture. Between October 2012 and December 2014, 10 patients with severe post-burn knee contracture were subjected to reconstruction with 10 ipsilateral reversed-flow ALT perforator flaps. All the patients were male. Ages ranged from 15 to 47 years (mean = 32 years). Time from burn injury to patient presentation ranged from 2-8 months. All patients demonstrated post-burn flexion contracture of the knee joint, ranging from 35 to 75 degrees. Flap sizes ranged from 8×16 to 12×26 cm. The flaps and skin grafts were carried out without major complications. Only minor complications occurred, such as transient, mild congestion immediately after inset in two flaps. Two flaps developed superficial necrosis at the distal edge. One case sustained partial skin graft loss due to haematoma. One case complained of skin hyperpigmentation and hypertrophic scars around the graft. Secondary debulking procedures were required in two cases. The entire donor sites were closed by partial thickness skin graft with acceptable appearance, except one case that was closed primarily. Eight out of ten patients (80%) demonstrated gradual improvement in range of knee motion after a specialized rehabilitation program. Two patients (20%) did not get back full range of motion. RALT perforator flap is the cornerstone for the reconstruction of soft-tissue defects around the knee with acceptable aesthetic and functional results provided that the following items are fulfilled: inclusion of muscle cuff around the pedicle, the pivot point, prevention of pedicle compression after transfer and early surgical intervention on the post-burn knee contracture.

  20. Self-perceptions of young adults who survived severe childhood burn injury.

    PubMed

    Russell, William; Robert, Rhonda S; Thomas, Christopher R; Holzer, Charles E; Blakeney, Patricia; Meyer, Walter J

    2013-01-01

    The transition of pediatric burn survivors into adulthood is accompanied by a reformulation of their self-concept. To anticipate the need for and guide development of appropriate psychosocial interventions, this study examines how young adults who were burned as children perceive themselves and how this perception might affect their self-esteem. Eighty-two young adult burn survivors (45 male, 37 female) were assessed using the Tennessee Self-Concept Scale, 2nd edition (TSCS2) to determine how the participants perceive themselves and their interaction with society. To gain insight into the possible effects of these self-concept scores, relationships were analyzed between self-concept, a behavioral assessment (Young Adult Self-Report [YASR]), and a psychiatric symptom assessment (Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders [SCID I]). This group of burn survivors scored significantly lower in self-concepts, reflected in TSCS2 subscale scores of physical function, appearance, and sexuality, moral conduct, personal values, academics and work, and identity, than did the reference population. Pearson correlation coefficients showed that as moral, personal, family, and social aspects of self-concept decreased, clinical problems endorsed on the YASR subscales increased, including anxiety, somatic, attention, intrusive, and aggressive. Persons with lower self-concept scores on the TSCS2 personal, family, and social scales were more withdrawn on the YASR. Similarly, those with lower TSCS2 scores on the personal and family scales endorsed significantly more thought problems on the YASR. TSCS2 total self-concept, personal, and all of the supplementary scale scores were significantly lower for the group with an affective disorder. Those whose SCID I scores were consistent with a current anxiety disorder had significantly lower scores for the TSCS2 total self-concept and personal. Lower self-concept was associated with endorsement of SCID symptoms. In summary, the

  1. How do geomorphic effects of rainfall vary with storm type and spatial scale in a post-fire landscape?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kampf, Stephanie K.; Brogan, Daniel J.; Schmeer, Sarah; MacDonald, Lee H.; Nelson, Peter A.

    2016-11-01

    In post-fire landscapes, increased runoff and soil erosion can cause rapid geomorphic change. We examined how different types of rainfall events in 2013 affected hillslope-scale erosion and watershed-scale channel change in two 14-16 km2 watersheds within the 2012 High Park Fire burn area in northern Colorado, USA. The first set of rainfall events was a sequence of 12 short, spatially variable summer convective rain storms, and the second was a > 200 mm week-long storm in September. We compared rainfall characteristics, hillslope sediment yields, stream stage, and channel geometry changes from the summer storms to those from the September storm. The summer storms had a wide range of rainfall intensities, and each storm produced erosion primarily in one study watershed. The September storm rainfall had less spatial variability, covered both watersheds, and its total rainfall depth was 1.5 to 2.5 times greater than the total summer rainfall. Because rainfall intensities were highest during some summer storms, average hillslope sediment yields were higher for summer storms (6 Mg ha- 1) than for the September storm (3 Mg ha- 1). Maximum storm rainfall intensities were good predictors of hillslope sediment yield, but sediment yield correlated most strongly with total depths of rainfall exceeding 10-30 mm h- 1 intensity thresholds. The combined summer storms produced relatively small changes in mean channel bed elevation and cross section area, with no clear pattern of incision or aggradation. In contrast, the sustained rain across the entire study area during the September storm led to extensive upstream incision and downstream aggradation. Because of different spatial coverage of storms, summer storms produced more total hillslope erosion, whereas the September storm produced the greatest total channel changes. At both scales, high intensity rainfall above a threshold was responsible for inducing most of the geomorphic change.

  2. Assessment of vitamin and trace element supplementation in severely burned patients undergoing long-term parenteral and enteral nutrition.

    PubMed

    Perro, G; Bourdarias, B; Cutillas, M; Higueret, D; Sanchez, R; Iron, A

    1995-10-01

    The efficacy of an oral supplement of vitamins and trace elements during a longterm artificial parenteral and enteral nutrition was investigated for 3 months in patients with extensive burns. Thirty severely burned patients (22 male, 8 female, age 41 +/- 18 years, range 23-59 years, 33 +/- 12% total body surface area burn, 22% +/- 8 full thickness burn surface area) were included. Every 10 days, from day 10 until day 90, we determined serum levels of: *vitamins B1, B12, A, E, *folic acid, *copper, zinc, iron, *transferrin, albumin, prealbumin, total proteins, *fibronectin, retinol binding protein (RBP), *calcium, *phosphorus, *triglycerides, *total cholesterol, *C reactive protein (CRP), *erythrocyte folic acid. The mean daily nutritional support was 60 Kcals and 0.4 g N per kg of body weight, 70% enterally and 30% parenterally administered, with enteral vitamin and trace element supplementation. On day 10, there was a decrease of the serum level of 19/20 parameters. For 8 parameters (vitamin A, total cholesterol, iron, transferrin, fibronectin, phosphorus, RBP, total proteins), the level was lower than usual. Between day 10 and day 20, a significant normalization of 6 of them was noted, the average levels of transferrin and iron remaining below normal values until day 50. There was a significant decrease in C-reactive protein levels, however above normal limits. No deficiency in vitamins or trace elements was found. Cyclic variations of serum levels occurred which may be more related to volemic, hydroelectrolytic, endocrine and inflammatory disorders than to nutritional problems.

  3. Severe post-burn neck contracture release and skin graft harvest using tumescent local anaesthesia as the sole anesthetic technique.

    PubMed

    Prasad, Mukesh Kumar; Puneet, Pulak; Rani, Kanchan; Shree, Divya

    2012-02-01

    Severe post-burn contractures in the neck often cause anatomical distortion and restriction of neck movements, resulting in varying degrees of difficulty in airway management. Any mode of anesthesia that may obviate the need for imperative airway control may be desirable in such situations in which a difficult airway may be anticipated. Here we present one such situation where tumescent local anesthesia was employed to manage a case of severe post-burn neck contractures posted for contracture release and split-skin grafting. The other benefits of this method were minimal blood loss and excellent postoperative analgesia. In conclusion, it can be emphasized that the application of tumescent anesthesia is an important anesthetic tool in patients with predicted difficult airway management.

  4. Mapping Fire Severity Using Imaging Spectroscopy and Kernel Based Image Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasad, S.; Cui, M.; Zhang, Y.; Veraverbeke, S.

    2014-12-01

    Improved spatial representation of within-burn heterogeneity after wildfires is paramount to effective land management decisions and more accurate fire emissions estimates. In this work, we demonstrate feasibility and efficacy of airborne imaging spectroscopy (hyperspectral imagery) for quantifying wildfire burn severity, using kernel based image analysis techniques. Two different airborne hyperspectral datasets, acquired over the 2011 Canyon and 2013 Rim fire in California using the Airborne Visible InfraRed Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS) sensor, were used in this study. The Rim Fire, covering parts of the Yosemite National Park started on August 17, 2013, and was the third largest fire in California's history. Canyon Fire occurred in the Tehachapi mountains, and started on September 4, 2011. In addition to post-fire data for both fires, half of the Rim fire was also covered with pre-fire images. Fire severity was measured in the field using Geo Composite Burn Index (GeoCBI). The field data was utilized to train and validate our models, wherein the trained models, in conjunction with imaging spectroscopy data were used for GeoCBI estimation wide geographical regions. This work presents an approach for using remotely sensed imagery combined with GeoCBI field data to map fire scars based on a non-linear (kernel based) epsilon-Support Vector Regression (e-SVR), which was used to learn the relationship between spectra and GeoCBI in a kernel-induced feature space. Classification of healthy vegetation versus fire-affected areas based on morphological multi-attribute profiles was also studied. The availability of pre- and post-fire imaging spectroscopy data over the Rim Fire provided a unique opportunity to evaluate the performance of bi-temporal imaging spectroscopy for assessing post-fire effects. This type of data is currently constrained because of limited airborne acquisitions before a fire, but will become widespread with future spaceborne sensors such as those on

  5. Seedling establishment along post-fire succession in Mediterranean shrublands dominated by obligate seeders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santana, Victor M.; Baeza, M. Jaime; Maestre, Fernando T.

    2012-02-01

    Seedlings are expected to be particularly sensitive to the environmental conditions at the time of establishment. Within succession, environmental conditions vary over time and a species will have a better chance to regenerate on a particular place depending on the intrinsic traits that determine its regeneration niche. We examined the regeneration niche and the pattern of seedling establishment along succession of the main species present in a Mediterranean shrubland. The establishment of Cistus albidus, Rosmarinus officinalis and Ulex parviflorus was monitored for three years using seasonal cohorts in three different stages along a successional gradient (post-fire, building and mature). There was a flush of establishment immediately after fire in all species. After this event, there was a decline in establishment as succession progressed, until practically no seedling establishment was found at mature stages. The presence of a thick litter layer probably precluded seedling establishment at this stage. The establishment of Cistus was very closely tied to the post-fire environment, while recruitment of Rosmarinus and Ulex also occurred in the building stage. In contrast to what has been reported in other Mediterranean shrublands, recruitment in our study area was not restricted solely to post-fire stages, and shrubs also recruited opportunistically when open gaps in the canopy were available along succession. The differences in preferred micro-sites for the establishment suggest a differentiation in regeneration niches and a particular set of environmental conditions where the different species would be particularly competitive through succession. Thus, Cistus regenerates mostly in highly perturbed environments, whereas Ulex and Rosmarinus benefit from environments with longer inter-fire periods.

  6. A New Application to Facilitate Post-Fire Recovery and Rehabilitation in Savanna Ecosystems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Carroll, Mark L.; Schnase, John L.; Weber, Keith T.; Brown, Molly E.; Gill, Roger L.; Haskett, George W.; Gardner, Tess A.

    2013-01-01

    The U.S. government spends an estimated $3billion per year to fight forest fires in the United States. Post-fire rehabilitation activities represent a small but essential portion of that total. The Rehabilitation Capability Convergence for Ecosystem Recovery (RECOVER) system is currently under development for Savanna ecosystems in the western U.S. The prototype of this system has been built and will have realworld testing during the summer 2013 fire season. When fully deployed, the RECOVER system will provide the emergency rehabilitation teams with critical and timely information for management decisions regarding stabilization and rehabilitation strategies.

  7. The largest forest fires in Portugal: the constraints of burned area size on the comprehension of fire severity.

    PubMed

    Tedim, Fantina; Remelgado, Ruben; Martins, João; Carvalho, Salete

    2015-01-01

    Portugal is a European country with highest forest fires density and burned area. Since beginning of official forest fires database in 1980, an increase in number of fires and burned area as well as appearance of large and catastrophic fires have characterized fire activity in Portugal. In 1980s, the largest fires were just a little bit over 10,000 ha. However, in the beginning of 21st century several fires occurred with a burned area over 20,000 ha. Some of these events can be classified as mega-fires due to their ecological and socioeconomic severity. The present study aimed to discuss the characterization of large forest fires trend, in order to understand if the largest fires that occurred in Portugal were exceptional events or evidences of a new trend, and the constraints of fire size to characterize fire effects because, usually, it is assumed that larger the fire higher the damages. Using Portuguese forest fire database and satellite imagery, the present study showed that the largest fires could be seen at the same time as exceptional events and as evidence of a new fire regime. It highlighted the importance of size and patterns of unburned patches within fire perimeter as well as heterogeneity of fire ecological severity, usually not included in fire regime description, which are critical to fire management and research. The findings of this research can be used in forest risk reduction and suppression planning.

  8. Which of the abbreviated burn severity index variables are having impact on the hospital length of stay?

    PubMed

    Andel, Dorothea; Kamolz, Lars-Peter; Niedermayr, Monika; Hoerauf, Klaus; Schramm, Wolfgang; Andel, Harald

    2007-01-01

    Quality control is an important tool ensuring continuous medical efficacy. Outcome scores, however, are unfavorable from a statistical point of view, are not meaningful for less severely injured patients, and may put the treating physicians under pressure to limit therapeutic efforts. In this study the variables of the abbreviated burn severity index (ABSI), primarily an outcome score, were used to predict length of hospital stay (HLS), a continuous quantitative variable reflecting treatment costs and incidence of complications even in less severely injured patients. For 365 patients a multiple linear regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of the ABSI variables on HLS. Among survivors, age and total body surface area burned (TBSA) contributed significantly to HLS, whereas for nonsurvivors only TBSA significantly influenced HLS. Neither gender nor presence of full-thickness burn or inhalation injury showed a significant influence on HLS. The impact of age and TBSA on HLS might be used as a benchmarking system to evaluate quality of care. However, although HLS is probably widely dependent on regional health care systems, TBSA and age proved to be the only variables of the ABSI to correlate with HLS.

  9. Prone Positioning Improves Oxygenation in Adult Burn Patients with Severe Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Burn Inten- sive Care Unit ( ICU ) is a 16-bed unit within a tertiary academic military teaching hospital and Level I trauma center. It serves active-duty...position on a standard ICU bed. All pron- ing procedures were performed under the direct supervision of an intensivist with prior PP experience. Wound care...PP initiation; and at 6, 12, 24, 36, and 48 hours after PP initiation. Compli- cations related to PP and to the patient’s ICU course were identified

  10. Severe Burn and Disuse in the Rat Independently Adversely Impact Body Composition and Adipokines

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-10-07

    injury when oxygen and nutrient delivery to tissue increases, allowing for a further increase in metabolic activity [1]. The burn-induced imbalance of...leptin, resistin and adiponectin, were analyzed, as well as the gut de- rived hormone ghrelin. Leptin, which plays a role in the regulation of energy...0.00001, n = 35) (Figure 6a). Adiponectin, a protein hormone , modulates glucose regulation and fatty acid catabolism. Significant differ- ences were

  11. Incidence of Systemic Fungal Infection and Related Mortality Following Severe Burns

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-01-01

    improved fungal care. It has been shown that identification of pathogens purely by histopathogic diagnosis is inadequate due to varying fungal genus and...of 57.5% (range, 1–97), and median full-thickness burn of 35.5% (range, 0–92). Identification of fungus in autopsied patients is shown in Figs. 1 and 2...had Mucor, 7 patients had Fusarium, 3 patients had Alternaria, 4 patients had Penicillium , 2 patients had Cladosporium, 2 patients had Trichsoporon, 1

  12. Role of the Duff Layer in Post-fire Soil Hydrology and Erosion: Field and Modelling Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Y. E.; Johnson, E. A.; Gallaway, J.

    2010-12-01

    Wildfires are generally thought to result in increased propensity for overland flow and soil erosion in the immediate years following the disturbance. Despite documentation of significant post-fire soil erosion in certain well-studied regional settings, the relevance of such findings to other regions remains questionable. In studies with notable post-fire soil erosion, the duff layer may be removed and hydrophobicity may develop, thus increasing the likelihood of soil erosion. Unfortunately, scenarios of negligible post-fire erosion most often go unreported by land managers and researchers, making it difficult to evaluate the pervasiveness of post-fire soil erosion and the environmental conditions under which notable post-fire soil erosion does and does not occur. A field study was designed to measure post-fire soil erosion in response to a high-intensity crown fire that occurred in the summer of 2003 within a closed canopy, boreal forest in Kootenay National Park, British Columbia, Canada. Measured soil erosion was very low in 2004 and 2005, although significant rainfall events did occur. We put forth the suggestion that a likely cause of our low erosion rates is the existence of notable post-fire duff coverage (duff includes both fermentation and humus soil organic layers) at our field site. The role of duff in soil hydrology is often ignored, perhaps because it is most often not seen as a limiting factor in soil infiltration. However, the duff layer provides a zone of detention storage for precipitation, thus enhancing infiltration into the underlying mineral soil. Furthermore, the duff layer presents a physical barrier to soil entrainment. Duff may thus help to effectively buffer the soil against the effects of high rainfall intensities. Few studies have explicitly highlighted the role of post-fire duff coverage in influencing soil erosional response. A widely held perception is that high-intensity crown fires remove most or all of the duff layer. In fact, this

  13. Post fire organic matter biodegradation in permafrost soils: Case study after experimental heating of mineral horizons.

    PubMed

    Masyagina, O V; Tokareva, I V; Prokushkin, A S

    2016-12-15

    Periodical ground fires of high frequency in permafrost forest ecosystems of Siberia (Russian Federation) are essential factors determining quantitative and qualitative parameters of permafrost soil organic matter. Specific changes in physical and chemical parameters and microbial activity of permafrost soil mineral horizons of northern taiga larch stands were revealed after heating at high temperatures (150-500°C) used for imitation of different burn intensities. Burning at 150-200°C resulted in decreasing of soil pH, whilst heating at 300-500°C caused increase of pH compare to unheated soils. Water-soluble organic carbon concentration in permafrost soils heated at 150-200°C was much higher than that of unheated soils. All these changes determined soil microbial activity in heated soils. In particular, in soils heated at 300-500°C there was momentary stimulating effect on substrate-induced respiration registered and on basal respiration values in soils burned at 150°C and 300-400°C. Four-month laboratory incubation of permafrost soils heated at different temperatures showed stimulation of microbial activity in first several days after inoculation due to high substrate availability after heating. Then soon after that soil microbial community started to be depleted on substrate because of decreasing water-soluble organic carbon, C and N content and it continued to the end of incubation.

  14. TNF-α/IL-10 Ratio Correlates with Burn Severity and May Serve as a Risk Predictor of Increased Susceptibility to Infections

    PubMed Central

    Tsurumi, Amy; Que, Yok-Ai; Ryan, Colleen M.; Tompkins, Ronald G.; Rahme, Laurence G.

    2016-01-01

    Severe burn injury renders patients susceptible to multiple infection episodes; however, identifying specific patient groups at high risk remains challenging. Burn-induced inflammatory response dramatically modifies the levels of various cytokines. Whether these changes could predict susceptibility to infections remains unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the early changes in the pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratio and investigate its ability to predict susceptibility to repeated infections after severe burn trauma. The patient population consisted of 34 adult patients having early (≤48 h since injury) blood draws following severe (≥20% total burn surface area (TBSA)) burn injury and suffering from a first infection episode at least 1 day after blood collection. Plasma TNF-α and IL-10 levels were measured to explore the association between the TNF-α/IL-10 ratio, hypersusceptibility to infections, burn size (TBSA), and common severity scores (Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHEII), Baux, modified Baux (R-Baux), Ryan Score, and Abbreviated Burn Severity Index (ABSI)). TNF-α/IL10 plasma ratio measured shortly after burn trauma was inversely correlated with burn size and the injury severity scores investigated, and was predictive of repeated infections (≥3 infection episodes) outcome (AUROC [95%CI] of 0.80 [0.63–0.93]). Early measures of circulating TNF-α/IL10 ratio may be a previously unidentified biomarker associated with burn injury severity and predictive of the risk of hypersusceptibility to repeated infections. PMID:27761434

  15. Burn sepsis and burn toxin

    PubMed Central

    Allgöwer, Martin; Städtler, Karl; Schoenenberger, Guido A

    1974-01-01

    The salient steps of a 20-year programme of research into the nature of burn disease are described. By burn disease we mean the late mortality and morbidity following burns. We have isolated a burn toxin which is derived from a thermal polymerization of cell membrane lipoproteins within the dermis and have studied its influence on the effects of sepsis. We have also used it in the development of active and passive immunization therapy of severe burns. ImagesFig. 2Fig. 5Fig. 6Fig. 7Fig. 8Fig. 9 PMID:4429330

  16. Facing drought in a Mediterranean post-fire community: tissue water relations in species with different life traits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borghetti, Marco; Magnani, F.; Fabrizio, A.; Saracino, A.

    2004-03-01

    Bulk shoot water potential, the osmotic component and the bulk modulus of elasticity were measured throughout one growing season in four species co-occurring in a post-fire Mediterranean community in southern Italy: Pinus halepensis, Phillyrea latifolia, Cistus salvifolius and Rosmarinus officinalis. A severe drought occurred throughout the measurement period. Large seasonal fluctuations have been observed for both predawn and afternoon water potential in all species. Although minimum values down to -4 MPa have been measured, plant water potential always recovered to less negative values after drought. Daily amplitude of water potential decreased with increasing plant water stress in all species. In Cistus and Rosmarinus less ability for short-term control of plant water status has been assessed. Osmotic potential at full turgor did not display clear seasonal patterns, with no consistent ranking of species by their osmotic values. In most cases, no osmotic adjustment (lowering of osmotic potentials) and no change in tissue elastic properties were observed in response to increasing summer drought and intensity of water stress.

  17. Using NASA EOS to Assess Burn Severity and Perform Fire Risk Mapping of the 2011 North Carolina Wildfire Season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gleason, J. L.; Ehlen, A.

    2012-12-01

    Since the beginning of 2011 North Carolina has experienced dry conditions and high winds, which has increased the fuel load on the ground. This extreme weather led to several periods of severe wildfires which burned nearly 100,000 acres, caused significant damage to the Coastal Plains region's ecosystem, and greatly affected the livelihoods of many North Carolinians. Utilizing NASA's Earth Observing Systems (EOS), burn severity, real-time drought severity, and fire- risk mapping were conducted on the two largest fires in North Carolina during the 2011 wildfire season, the Pains Bay Fire in Dare County and the Juniper Road Fire in Pender County. In order to show the impact of fires on the ecosystem and the extent of ecological change the fires caused, burn severity maps were created using Landsat 5 TM and the Relative difference Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR). To assess drought conditions, the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI) were derived from Landsat 5TM data to show changes in vegetation cover and moisture. In addition, MODIS Daily Surface Reflectance product (MOD09GA/MYD09GA) with the Normalized Multi-band Drought Index (NMDI) was utilized to estimate real-time drought severity of vegetation and soil moisture. Finally, Landsat 5 TM and various ancillary sources were used to create a fire risk map utilizing a Multi-criteria Evaluation (MCE) method with the new Fuzzification method in ArcGIS. Multiple variables were inserted into the MCE including soil survey data, Normalized Difference Moisture Index (NDMI), slope data obtained from ASTER Global DEM, land cover/fuel data, and proximity to roads. Methodologies using NASA EOS to acquire all end products were provided to project partners, the Alligator River National Wildlife Refuge (ARNWR) and the North Carolina Forest Service (NCFS), in the form of a user tutorial to allow for a better understanding of how remote sensing can be applied to analyze wildfires

  18. Biomass burning in boreal forests and peatlands: Effects on ecosystem carbon losses and soil carbon stabilization as black carbon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turetsky, M. R.; Kane, E. S.; Benscoter, B.

    2011-12-01

    Climate change has increased both annual area burned and the severity of biomass combustion in some boreal regions. For example, there has been a four-fold increase in late season fires in boreal Alaska over the last decade relative to the previous 50 years. Such changes in the fire regime are expected to stimulate ecosystem carbon losses through fuel combustion, reduced primary production, and increased decomposition. However, biomass burning also will influence the accumulation of black carbon in soils, which could promote long-term soil carbon sequestration. Variations in slope and aspect regulate soil temperatures and drainage conditions, and affect the development of permafrost and thick peat layers. Wet soil conditions in peatlands and permafrost forests often inhibit combustion during wildfires, leading to strong positive correlations between pre- and post- fire organic soil thickness that persist through multiple fire cycles. However, burning can occur in poorly drained ecosystems through smouldering combustion, which has implications for emission ratios of CO2:CH4:CO as well as black carbon formation. Our studies of combustion severity and black carbon concentrations in boreal soils show a negative relationship between concentrations of black carbon and organic carbon in soils post-fire. Relative to well drained stands, poorly drained sites with thick peat layers (such as north-facing stands) had less severe burning and low concentrations of black carbon in mineral soils post-fire. Conversely, drier forests lost a greater proportion of their organic soils during combustion but retained larger black carbon stocks following burning. Overall, we have quantified greater black carbon concentrations in surface mineral soil horizons than in organic soil horizons. This is surprising given that wildfires typically do not consume the entire organic soil layer in boreal forests, and could be indicative of the vulnerability of black carbon formed in organic horizons

  19. Diversity and persistence of ectomycorrhizal fungi and their effect on nursery-inoculated Pinus pinaster in a post-fire plantation in Northern Portugal.

    PubMed

    Franco, Albina R; Sousa, Nadine R; Ramos, Miguel A; Oliveira, Rui S; Castro, Paula M L

    2014-11-01

    Ectomycorrhizal fungi (ECMF) play an important role in forest ecosystems, often mitigating stress factors and increasing seedling performance. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of a nursery inoculation on Pinus pinaster growth and on the fungal communities established when reforesting burned areas. Inoculated P. pinaster saplings showed 1.5-fold higher stem height than the non-inoculated controls after a 5 year growth period, suggesting that fungal inoculation could potentiate tree growth in the field. Ordination analysis revealed the presence of different ECMF communities on both plots. Among the nursery-inoculated fungi, Laccaria sp., Rhizopogon sp., Suillus bovinus and Pisolithus sp. were detected on inoculated Pinus saplings on both sampling periods, indicating that they persisted after field establishment. Other fungi were also detected in the inoculated plants. Phialocephala sp. was found on the first assessment, while Terfezia sp. was detected on both sampling periods. Laccaria sp. and Rhizopogon sp. were identified in the control saplings, belonging however to different species than those found in the inoculated plot. Inocybe sp., Thelephora sp. and Paxillus involutus were present on both sampling periods in the non-inoculated plots. The results suggest that ECMF inoculation at nursery stage can benefit plant growth after transplantation to a post-fire site and that the inoculated fungi can persist in the field. This approach has great potential as a biotechnological tool to aid in the reforestation of burned areas.

  20. Resuscitation after severe burn injury using high-dose ascorbic acid: a retrospective review.

    PubMed

    Kahn, Steven Alexander; Beers, Ryan J; Lentz, Christopher W

    2011-01-01

    Resuscitation of burn victims with high-dose ascorbic acid (vitamin C [VC]) was reported in Japan in the year 2000. Benefits of VC include reduction in fluid requirements, resulting in less tissue edema and body weight gain. In turn, these patients suffer less respiratory impairment and reduced requirement for mechanical ventilation. Despite these results, few burn centers resuscitate patients with VC in fear that it may increase the risk of renal failure. A retrospective review of 40 patients with greater than 20% TBSA between 2007 and 2009 was performed. Patients were divided into two groups: one received only lactated Ringer's (LR) solution and another received LR solution plus 66 mg/kg/hr VC. Both groups were resuscitated with the Parkland formula to maintain stable hemodynamics and adequate urine output (>0.5 ml/kg/hr). Patients with >10-hour delay in transfer to the burn center were excluded. Data collected included age, gender, weight, %TBSA, fluid administered in the first 24 hours, urine output in the first 24 hours, and Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II score. PaO2 in millimeters mercury:%FIO2 ratio and positive end-expiratory pressure were measured at 12-hour intervals, and hematocrit was measured at 6-hour intervals. Comorbidities, mortality, pneumonia, fasciotomies, and renal failure were also noted. After 7 patients were excluded, 17 patients were included in the VC group and 16 in the LR group. VC and LR were matched for age (42 ± 16 years vs 50 ± 20 years, P = .2), burn size (45 ± 21%TBSA vs 39 ± 15%TBSA, P = .45), Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (17 ± 7 vs 18 ± 8, P = .8), and gender. Fluid requirements in the first 24 hours were 5.3 ± 1 ml/kg/%TBSA for VC and 7.1 ± 1 ml/kg/%TBSA for LR (P < .05). Urine output was 1.5 ± 0.4 ml/kg/hr for VC and 1 ± 0.5 ml/kg/hr for LR (P < .05). Vasopressors were needed in four VC patients and nine LR patients (P = .07). VC patients required vasopressors to maintain mean

  1. Moderate drop in water table increases peatland vulnerability to post-fire regime shift.

    PubMed

    Kettridge, N; Turetsky, M R; Sherwood, J H; Thompson, D K; Miller, C A; Benscoter, B W; Flannigan, M D; Wotton, B M; Waddington, J M

    2015-01-27

    Northern and tropical peatlands represent a globally significant carbon reserve accumulated over thousands of years of waterlogged conditions. It is unclear whether moderate drying predicted for northern peatlands will stimulate burning and carbon losses as has occurred in their smaller tropical counterparts where the carbon legacy has been destabilized due to severe drainage and deep peat fires. Capitalizing on a unique long-term experiment, we quantify the post-wildfire recovery of a northern peatland subjected to decadal drainage. We show that the moderate drop in water table position predicted for most northern regions triggers a shift in vegetation composition previously observed within only severely disturbed tropical peatlands. The combined impact of moderate drainage followed by wildfire converted the low productivity, moss-dominated peatland to a non-carbon accumulating shrub-grass ecosystem. This new ecosystem is likely to experience a low intensity, high frequency wildfire regime, which will further deplete the legacy of stored peat carbon.

  2. Regional constraints to biological nitrogen fixation in post-fire forest communities.

    PubMed

    Yelenik, Stephanie; Perakis, Steven; Hibbs, David

    2013-03-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key ecological process that can restore nitrogen (N) lost in wildfire and shape the pace and pattern of post-fire forest recovery. To date, there is limited information on how climate and soil fertility interact to influence different pathways of BNF in early forest succession. We studied asymbiotic (forest floor and soil) and symbiotic (the shrub Ceanothus integerrimus) BNF rates across six sites in the Klamath National Forest, California, USA. We used combined gradient and experimental phosphorus (P) fertilization studies to explore cross-site variation in BNF rates and then related these rates to abiotic and biotic variables. We estimate that our measured BNF rates 22 years after wildfire (6.1-12.1 kg N x ha(-1) x yr(-1)) are unlikely to fully replace wildfire N losses. We found that asymbiotic BNF is P limited, although this is not the case for symbiotic BNF in Ceanothus. In contrast, Ceanothus BNF is largely driven by competition from other vegetation: in high-productivity sites with high potential evapotranspiration (Et), shrub biomass is suppressed as tree biomass increases. Because shrub biomass governed cross-site variation in Ceanothus BNF, this competitive interaction led to lower BNF in sites with high productivity and Et. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of nutrients play a larger role in driving asymbiotic than symbiotic fixation across our post-fire sites. However, because symbiotic BNF is 8-90x greater than asymbiotic BNF, it is interspecific plant competition that governs overall BNF inputs in these forests.

  3. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, H. G.; Sheridan, G. J.; Nyman, P.; Child, D.; Lane, P. N.; Hotchkis, M.

    2011-12-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 μm) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in proportional hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%. No systematic change in the proportional source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the tracing analysis with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and fine sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine

  4. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh G.; Sheridan, Gary J.; Nyman, Petter; Child, David P.; Lane, Patrick N. J.; Hotchkis, Michael A. C.; Jacobsen, Geraldine E.

    2012-02-01

    Fine sediment supply has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides ( 137Cs, 210Pb ex and 239,240Pu) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (< 10 μm) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While 137Cs and 210Pb ex have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The ranges in estimated proportional hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment were 22-69% and 32-74%. The greater susceptibility of 210Pb ex to apparent reductions in the ash content of channel deposits relative to hillslope sources resulted in its exclusion from the final analysis. No systematic change in the proportional source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the tracing analysis with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and fine sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly

  5. Quantifying sources of fine sediment supplied to post-fire debris flows using fallout radionuclide tracers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Hugh; Sheridan, Gary; Nyman, Petter; Child, David; Lane, Patrick; Hotchkis, Michael

    2013-04-01

    The supply of fine sediment and ash has been identified as an important factor contributing to the initiation of runoff-generated debris flows after fire. However, despite the significance of fines for post-fire debris flow generation, no investigations have sought to quantify sources of this material in debris flow affected catchments. In this study, we employ fallout radionuclides (Cs-137, excess Pb-210 and Pu-239,240) as tracers to measure proportional contributions of fine sediment (<10 μm) from hillslope surface and channel bank sources to levee and terminal fan deposits formed by post-fire debris flows in two forest catchments in southeastern Australia. While Cs-137 and excess Pb-210 have been widely used in sediment tracing studies, application of Pu as a tracer represents a recent development and was limited to only one catchment. The estimated range in hillslope surface contributions of fine sediment to individual debris flow deposits in each catchment was 22-69% and 32-74%, respectively. No systematic change in the source contributions to debris flow deposits was observed with distance downstream from channel initiation points. Instead, spatial variability in source contributions was largely influenced by the pattern of debris flow surges forming the deposits. Linking the sediment tracing with interpretation of depositional evidence allowed reconstruction of temporal sequences in sediment source contributions to debris flow surges. Hillslope source inputs dominated most elevated channel deposits such as marginal levees that were formed under peak flow conditions. This indicated the importance of hillslope runoff and sediment supply for debris flow generation in both catchments. In contrast, material stored within channels that was deposited during subsequent surges was predominantly channel-derived. The results demonstrate that fallout radionuclide tracers may provide unique information on the changing source contributions of fine sediment during debris

  6. Physiological and morphological responses of pine and willow saplings to post-fire salvage logging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millions, E. L.; Letts, M. G.; Harvey, T.; Rood, S. B.

    2015-12-01

    With global warming, forest fires may be increasing in frequency, and post-fire salvage logging may become more common. The ecophysiological impacts of this practice on tree saplings remain poorly understood. In this study, we examined the physiological and morphological impacts of increased light intensity, due to post-fire salvage logging, on the conifer Pinus contorta (pine) and deciduous broadleaf Salix lucida (willow) tree and shrub species in the Crowsnest Pass region of southern Alberta. Photosynthetic gas-exchange and plant morphological measurements were taken throughout the summer of 2013 on approximately ten year-old saplings of both species. Neither species exhibited photoinhibition, but different strategies were observed to acclimate to increased light availability. Willow saplings were able to slightly elevate their light-saturated rate of net photosynthesis (Amax) when exposed to higher photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD), thus increasing their growth rate. Willow also exhibited increased leaf inclination angles and leaf mass per unit area (LMA), to decrease light interception in the salvage-logged plot. By contrast, pine, which exhibited lower Amax and transpiration (E), but higher water-use efficiency (WUE = Amax/E) than willow, increased the rate at which electrons were moved through and away from the photosynthetic apparatus in order to avoid photoinhibition. Acclimation indices were higher in willow saplings, consistent with the hypothesis that species with short-lived foliage exhibit greater acclimation. LMA was higher in pine saplings growing in the logged plot, but whole-plant and branch-level morphological acclimation was limited and more consistent with a response to decreased competition in the logged plot, which had much lower stand density.

  7. Regional constraints to biological nitrogen fixation in post-fire forest communities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Yelenik, Stephanie; Perakis, Steven S.; Hibbs, David

    2013-01-01

    Biological nitrogen fixation (BNF) is a key ecological process that can restore nitrogen (N) lost in wildfire and shape the pace and pattern of post-fire forest recovery. To date, there is limited information on how climate and soil fertility interact to influence different pathways of BNF in early forest succession. We studied asymbiotic (forest floor and soil) and symbiotic (the shrub Ceanothus integerrimus) BNF rates across six sites in the Klamath National Forest, California, USA. We used combined gradient and experimental phosphorus (P) fertilization studies to explore cross-site variation in BNF rates and then related these rates to abiotic and biotic variables. We estimate that our measured BNF rates 22 years after wildfire (6.1–12.1 kg N·ha-1·yr-1) are unlikely to fully replace wildfire N losses. We found that asymbiotic BNF is P limited, although this is not the case for symbiotic BNF in Ceanothus. In contrast, Ceanothus BNF is largely driven by competition from other vegetation: in high-productivity sites with high potential evapotranspiration (Et), shrub biomass is suppressed as tree biomass increases. Because shrub biomass governed cross-site variation in Ceanothus BNF, this competitive interaction led to lower BNF in sites with high productivity and Et. Overall, these results suggest that the effects of nutrients play a larger role in driving asymbiotic than symbiotic fixation across our post-fire sites. However, because symbiotic BNF is 8–90x greater than asymbiotic BNF, it is interspecific plant competition that governs overall BNF inputs in these forests.

  8. Assessment of post-fire changes of hydrological regime of watersheds based on the analysis of remote sensing data and standard hydrometeorological observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semenova, Olga; Mikheeva, Anna; Nesterova, Natalia; Lebedeva, Luidmila

    2016-04-01

    Forest fires are regular at large territories of Siberia. Fire occurrence is expected to increase in the future due to climate change and anthropogenic influence. Though there are many studies on vegetation and landscapes transformation after fire the analysis of associated hydrological and geomorphologic changes in permafrost environments in Russia are rare. Broadening our previous study on fire impact on hydrology in remote area of the Baikal region (Semenova et al., 2015a, b; Lebedeva et al., 2014) the following objectives for this study were set up: i) describe changes in streamflow after extensive 2003 forest fire in several middle-size river basins in Siberian permafrost zone ii) assess change in sediment flux after the fire in the same catchments iii) attribute found responses to dominating landscapes and the level of vegetation disturbance and other factors, iv) analyze the mechanisms of those changes using the analysis of ground and remote sensing data. Following severe drought 2002-2003 extensive fires occurred in spring and summer of 2003 in the southeast part of Russia when more than 20 million ha were affected by disaster. Vast remote regions in Transbaikal region lack any special observations on fire impact of 2003 on hydrological regime of disturbed areas. Therefore hydrological data on water and suspended sediment flow from standard network of Russian Hydrometeorological Service was used combined with remote sensing data analysis to assess post-fire changes. Six watersheds in the upstreams of the Vitim River located at the Vitim Plateau are chosen for this study. In our analysis we used daily river discharge data for 6 gauges and 10-days average suspended sediment discharge for 3 gauges. Semenova et al. (2015a, b) detected short-term impact of fire on runoff manifested in significant increase (up to 40-50 %) of summer flow after the fire. The analysis of suspended sediment data revealed that the impact of fire on sediment flow regime can be traced

  9. Global analysis of the persistence of the spectral signal associated with burned areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melchiorre, A.; Boschetti, L.

    2015-12-01

    Systematic global burned area maps at coarse spatial resolution (350 m - 1 km) have been produced in the past two decades from several Earth Observation (EO) systems (including MODIS, Spot-VGT, AVHRR, MERIS), and have been extensively used in a variety of applications related to emissions estimation, fire ecology, and vegetation monitoring (Mouillot et al. 2014). There is however a strong need for moderate to high resolution (10-30 m) global burned area maps, in order to improve emission estimations, in particular on heterogeneous landscapes and for local scale air quality applications, for fire management and environmental restoration, and in support of carbon accounting (Hyer and Reid 2009; Mouillot et al. 2014; Randerson et al. 2012). Fires causes a non-permanent land cover change: the ash and charcoal left by the fire can be visible for a period ranging from a few weeks in savannas and grasslands ecosystems, to over a year in forest ecosystems (Roy et al. 2010). This poses a major challenge for designing a global burned area mapping system from moderate resolution (10-30 m) EO data, due to the low revisit time frequency of the satellites (Boschetti et al. 2015). As a consequence, a quantitative assessment of the permanence of the spectral signature of burned areas at global scale is a necessary step to assess the feasibility of global burned area mapping with moderate resolution sensors. This study presents a global analysis of the post-fire reflectance of burned areas, using the MODIS MCD45A1 global burned area product to identify the location and timing of burning, and the MO(Y)D09 global surface reflectance product to retrieve the time series of reflectance values after the fire. The result is a spatially explicit map of persistence of burned area signal, which is then summarized by landcover type, and by fire zone using the subcontinental regions defined by Giglio et al. (2006).

  10. Topography and climate are more important drivers of long-term, post-fire vegetation assembly than time-since-fire in the Sonoran Desert, US

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Shryock, Daniel F.; Esque, Todd C.; Chen, Felicia

    2015-01-01

    We find substantial evidence that environmental filters, rather than TSF, drive the majority of variability in long-term, post-fire vegetation assembly within the Sonoran Desert. Careful consideration of spatial variability in abiotic conditions may benefit post-fire vegetation modelling, as well as fire management and restoration strategies.

  11. Field Evidence for Differences in Post-Fire Aeolian Transport Related to Vegetation Type in Semi-Arid Grasslands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Disturbances such as wildfires, which cause a temporary reduction in vegetation cover, can greatly accelerate soil erosion by wind and promote dust emissions. Enhanced erosion leads to a reduction in soil fertility and the post-fire mobilization of soil and associated emissions of dust represent a s...

  12. Post-fire recovery of sagebrush communities: Assessment using SPOT5 and very large-scale aerial imagery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Much interest lies in the long-term recovery rates of sagebrush communities after fire in the western USA as sagebrush communities comprise millions of hectares of rangelands and important wildlife habitat. Little is known about post-fire changes in sagebrush canopy cover over time, especially at a...

  13. Are post-fire silvicultural treatments a useful tool to fight the climate change threat in terms of plant diversity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hedo de Santiago, Javier; Esteban Lucasr Borja, Manuel; de las Heras, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Adaptative forest management demands a huge scientific knowledge about post-fire vegetation dynamics, taking into account the current context of global change. We hypothesized that management practices should be carry out taking into account the climate change effect, to obtain better results in the biodiversity maintenance across time. All of this with respect to diversity and species composition of the post-fire naturally regenerated Aleppo pine forests understory. The study was carried out in two post-fire naturally regenerated Aleppo pine forests in the Southeastern of the Iberian Peninsula, under contrasting climatic conditions: Yeste (Albacete) shows a dry climate and Calasparra (Murcia) shows a semiarid climate. Thinning as post-fire silvicultural treatment was carried out five years after the wildfire event, in the year 1999. An experiment of artificial drought was designed to evacuate 15% of the natural rainfall in both sites, Yeste and Calasparra, to simulate climate change. Taking into account all the variables (site, silvicultural treatment and artificial drought), alpha diversity indices including species richness, Shannon and Simpson diversity indices, and plant cover, were analyzed as a measure of vegetation abundance. The results showed that plant species were affected by thinning, whereas induced drought affected total cover and species, with lower values at Yeste. Significant site variation was also observed in soil properties, species richness and total plant cover, conversely to the plant species diversity indices. We conclude that the plant community shows different responses to a simulated environment of climate change depending on the experimental site.

  14. Post-fire seeding of great basin native plants using conventional and minimum-till rangeland drills

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objectives of post-fire seeding in the Great Basin include reestablishment of perennial cover, suppression of exotic annual weeds, and increasingly restoration of diverse plant communities. Non-conventional seeding techniques may be required when seeding mixes of grasses, forbs and shrubs containing...

  15. Aquatic ecological risks due to cyanide releases from biomass burning.

    PubMed

    Barber, Timothy R; Lutes, Christopher C; Doorn, Michiel R J; Fuchsman, Phyllis C; Timmenga, Hubert J; Crouch, Robert L

    2003-01-01

    Aquatic toxicity due to the creation and mobilization of chemical constituents by fire has been little studied, despite reports of post-fire fish kills attributed to unspecified pyrogenic toxicants. We examined releases of cyanides from biomass burning and their effect on surface runoff water. In laboratory test burns, available cyanide concentrations in leachate from residual ash were much higher than in leachate from partially burned and unburned fuel and were similar to or higher than the 96-h median lethal concentration (LC50) for rainbow trout (45 microg/l). Free cyanide concentrations in stormwater runoff collected after a wildfire in North Carolina averaged 49 microg/l, again similar to the rainbow trout LC50 and an order of magnitude higher than in samples from an adjacent unburned area. Pyrogenic cyanide inputs, together with other fire-related stressors, may contribute to post-fire fish mortalities, particularly those affecting salmonids.

  16. Differential response of bird functional traits to post-fire salvage logging in a boreal forest ecosystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azeria, Ermias T.; Ibarzabal, Jacques; Hébert, Christian; Boucher, Jonathan; Imbeau, Louis; Savard, Jean-Pierre L.

    2011-05-01

    The concept of functional trait-environment relationship posits that species in a local community should possess similar traits that match the selective environment. The present study examines species trait-habitat (using Fourth-corner and RLQ analyses) and habitat occupancy patterns (logistic regression models) of bird assemblages in boreal forest stands following disturbances by forest fire and salvage logging. The stands differed in the amount and composition of residual tree retention, salvage- and aquatic-edges, degree of burn severity (all measured at 100 and 500 m buffers), as well as landscape-level variables such as distance to previously burned forests. Tests of trait-habitat relationships showed that canopy-nesters and bark- and foliage- insectivores required high levels of residual trees of low burn severity, with the feeding guilds showing affinity for different stand composition. In contrast, ground-nesters and omnivores thrived in salvaged areas and associated edges. In addition, cavity-nesting and ground-foragers were associated with severely burned stands. The species' habitat occupancy patterns were commensurate with trait requirements, which also appeared to be scale-dependent. For example, some fire-associated species had high occupancy probability in severely burned stands at small-scale (100 m buffer), which was consistent with their cavity-nesting trait. This pattern, however, was not evident at large-scale, where their feeding requirement (bark-insectivores) for low-severity burns dominated. Our study suggests that trait-habitat relationships can provide critical information to the complex ways species' relate to key habitat factors following natural and anthropogenic disturbances.

  17. Influence of vegetation spatial heterogeneity on soil enzyme activity in burned Mediterranean areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayor, Á. G.; Goirán, S.; Bautista, S.

    2009-04-01

    Mediterranean ecosystems are commonly considered resilient to wildfires. However, depending on fire severity and recurrence, post-fire climatic conditions and plant community type, the recovery rate of the vegetation can greatly vary. Often, the post-fire vegetation cover remains low and sparsely distributed many years after the wildfire, which could have profound impacts on ecosystem functioning. In this work, we studied the influence of vegetation patchiness on soil enzyme activity (acid phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease), at the patch and landscape scales, in degraded dry Mediterranean shrublands affected by wildfires. At the patch scale, we assessed the variation in soil enzyme between bare soils and vegetation patches. At the landscape scale, we studied the relationships between soil enzyme activity and various landscape metrics (total patch cover, average interpatch length, average patch width, and patch density). The study was conducted in 19 sites in the Valencia Region (eastern Spain), which had been affected by large wildfires in 1991. Site selection aimed at capturing a wide range of the variability of post-fire plant recovery rates in Mediterranean areas. The activities of the three enzymes were significantly higher in soils under the vegetation canopies than in adjacent bare areas, which we attributed to the effect of plants on the soil amount of both enzyme substrates and enzymes. The differences between bare and plant microsites were larger in the case of the acid phosphatase and less marked for urease. The activity of acid phosphatase was also higher under patches of resprouter species than under patches of seeder species, probably due to the faster post-fire recovery and older age of resprouter patches in fire-prone ecosystems. Soil enzyme activities of β-glucosidase and urease in both bare soils and vegetation patches showed no relationships with any of the landscape metrics analysed. However, the activity of acid phosphatase increased

  18. Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration in Severely Burned Patients with Acute Kidney Injury: A Cohort Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    FiO2: fraction of inspired oxygen; IHD: intermittent hemodialysis ; IQR: interquartile range; ISS: injury severity score; MODS: multiple organ...were compared. Definitions During the period after November 2005 our staff intensivists utilized the RIFLE (Risk, Injury, Failure, Loss, End-stage...for acute renal fail- ure which included: fluid resuscitation, minimization of nephro- toxic agents, and utilization of hemodialysis if classic

  19. Interactive effects of burn severity and canopy cover on ecophysiology of tree seedlings in boreal forests

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Wildfires are an important disturbance because they improve habitat conditions for establishing plants. Fires of differing severity can have dramatically different impacts on habitat, particularly when coupled with canopy-level disturbances. In a boreal forest, we outplanted seedlings of four specie...

  20. SIRT1 protects rat lung tissue against severe burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating the apoptosis of PMVECs via p38 MAPK signaling

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Xiaozhi; Fan, Lei; He, Ting; Jia, Wenbin; Yang, Longlong; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Yang; Shi, Jihong; Su, Linlin; Hu, Dahai

    2015-01-01

    Silent information regulator type-1 (SIRT1) has been reported to be involved in the cardiopulmonary protection. However, its role in the pathogenesis of burn-induced remote acute lung injury (ALI) is currently unknown. The present study aims to investigate the role of SIRT1 in burn-induced remote ALI and the involved signaling pathway. We observed that SIRT1 expression in rat lung tissue after burn injury appeared an increasing trend after a short period of suppression. The upregulation of SIRT1 stimulated by resveratrol exhibited remission of histopathologic changes, reduction of cell apoptosis, and downregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines in rat pulmonary tissues suffering from severe burn. We next used primary pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) challenged by burn serum (BS) to simulate in vivo rat lung tissue after burn injury, and found that BS significantly suppressed SIRT1 expression, increased cell apoptosis, and activated p38 MAPK signaling. The use of resveratrol reversed these effects, while knockdown of SIRT1 by shRNA further augmented BS-induced increase of cell apoptosis and activation of p38 MAPK. Taken together, these results indicate that SIRT1 might protect lung tissue against burn-induced remote ALI by attenuating PMVEC apoptosis via p38 MAPK signaling, suggesting its potential therapeutic effects on the treatment of ALI. PMID:25992481

  1. Carbon And Nitrogen Storage Of A Mediterranean-Type Shrubland In Response To Post-Fire Succession And Long-Term Experimental Nitrogen Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vourlitis, G. L.; Hentz, C. S.

    2015-12-01

    Mediterranean-type shublands are subject to periodic fire and high levels of atmospheric nitrogen (N) deposition. Little is known how N inputs interact with post-fire secondary succession to affect ecosystem carbon (C) and N storage and cycling. Thus, a field experiment was conducted in a chaparral stand located in NE San Diego County, USA that burned during a wildfire in July 2003 to test the hypotheses that rates of C and N storage would significantly increase in response to experimental N addition. The experimental layout consists of a randomized design where four-10 x 10 m plots received 5 gN m-2 (added N) in the fall of each year since 2003 and four-10 x 10 m plots served as un-manipulated controls. Aboveground biomass C and N pools and fluxes, including biomass and litter C and N pool size, litter production, net primary production (NPP), N uptake, and litter C and N mineralization were measured seasonally (every 3 months) for a period of 10 years. Belowground surface (0-10 cm) soil extractable N, pH, and total soil N and C pools and surface root biomass C and N pools were also measured seasonally for a period of 10 years, while N losses from leaching were measured over a shorted (8 year) period of time. Added N led to a rapid increase in soil extractable N and a decline in soil pH; however, total soil C and N storage have yet to be affected by N input. Added N plots initially had significantly lower C and N storage than control plots; however, rates of aboveground N and C storage became significantly higher added N plots after 4-5 years of exposure. N losses from leaching continue to be significantly higher in added N plots even with an increase in aboveground C and N storage. The impact of N enrichment on ecosystem C and N storage varied depending on the stage of succession, but the eventual N-induced increase in NPP has implications for fuel buildup and future fire intensity. While N enrichment acted to increase aboveground C and N storage, plots exposed

  2. Development of a Test Protocol for Spacecraft Post-Fire Atmospheric Cleanup and Monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuniga, David; Hornung, Steven D.; Haas, Jon P.; Graf, John C.

    2009-01-01

    Detecting and extinguishing fires, along with post-fire atmospheric cleaning and monitoring, are vital components of a spacecraft fire response system. Preliminary efforts focused on the technology evaluation of these systems under realistic conditions are described in this paper. While the primary objective of testing is to determine a smoke mitigation filter s performance, supplemental evaluations measuring the smoke-filled chamber handheld commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) atmospheric monitoring devices (combustion product monitors) are also conducted. The test chamber consists of a 1.4 cubic meter (50 cu. ft.) volume containing a smoke generator. The fuel used to generate the smoke is a mixture of polymers in quantities representative of materials involved in a circuit board fire as a typical spacecraft fire. Two fire conditions were examined: no flame and flame. No flame events are produced by pyrolyzing the fuel mixture in a quartz tube furnace with forced ventilation to produce a white, lingering-type smoke. Flame events ignite the smoke at the outlet of the tube furnace producing combustion characterized by a less opaque smoke with black soot. Electrochemical sensor measurements showed carbon monoxide is a major indicator of each fire. Acid gas measurements were recorded, but cross interferents are currently uncharacterized. Electrochemical sensor measurements and sample acquisition techniques from photoacoustic sensors are being improved. Overall, this research shows fire characterization using traditional analytical chemistry techniques is required to verify measurements recorded using COTS atmospheric monitoring devices.

  3. Can pore-clogging by ash explain post-fire runoff?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stoof, Cathelijne R.; Gevaert, Anouk I.; Baver, Christine; Hassanpour, Bahareh; Morales, Veronica L.; Zhang, Wei; Martin, Deborah; Giri, Shree K.; Steenhuis, Tammo S.

    2016-01-01

    Ash plays an important role in controlling runoff and erosion processes after wildfire and has frequently been hypothesised to clog soil pores and reduce infiltration. Yet evidence for clogging is incomplete, as research has focussed on identifying the presence of ash in soil; the actual flow processes remain unknown. We conducted laboratory infiltration experiments coupled with microscope observations in pure sands, saturated hydraulic conductivity analysis, and interaction energy calculations, to test whether ash can clog pores (i.e. block pores such that infiltration is hampered and ponding occurs). Although results confirmed previous observations of ash washing into pores, clogging was not observed in the pure sands tested, nor were conditions found for which this does occur. Clogging by means of strong attachment of ash to sand was deemed unlikely given the negative surface charge of the two materials. Ponding due to washing in of ash was also considered improbable given the high saturated conductivity of pure ash and ash–sand mixtures. This first mechanistic step towards analysing ash transport and attachment processes in field soils therefore suggests that pore clogging by ash is unlikely to occur in sands. Discussion is provided on other mechanisms by which ash can affect post-fire hydrology.

  4. Functional activity of soil microbial communities in post-fire pine stands of Tolyatti, Samara oblast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maksimova, E. Yu.; Kudinova, A. G.; Abakumov, E. V.

    2017-02-01

    The state of microbial communities in gray-humus soils (Eutric Fluvic Arenosols (Ochric)) of pine stands in the city of Tolyatti after forest fires of 2010 is analyzed. It is shown that fires exert negative effects on the structure and metabolic activity of microbial communities in the postpyrogenic soils. The content of the carbon of microbial biomass and the intensity of microbial respiration in the upper organic horizons of the post-fire plots decrease by 6.5 and 3.4 times, respectively, in comparison with those in the soils of background plots. However, the fire has not affected the studied microbiological parameters of the soils at the depths of more than 10 cm. The maximum content of the carbon of microbial biomass carbon and the maximum intensity of microbial respiration have been found in the subsurface AY2 and AC horizons two-three years the fire. An increase in the microbial metabolic quotient (the ratio of soil respiration to microbial biomass) attests to the disturbance of the ecophysiological state of soil microbial communities after the pyrogenic impact.

  5. Isotopic evidence indicates saprotrophy in post-fire Morchella in Oregon and Alaska.

    PubMed

    Hobbie, Erik A; Rice, Samuel F; Weber, Nancy S; Smith, Jane E

    2016-01-01

    We assessed the nutritional strategy of true morels (genus Morchella) collected in 2003 and 2004 in Oregon and Alaska, 1 or 2 y after forest fires. We hypothesized that the patterns of stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(15)N) in the sporocarps would match those of saprotrophic fungi and that radiocarbon (Δ(14)C) analyses would indicate that Morchella was assimilating old carbon not current-year photosynthate. We compared radiocarbon and stable isotopes in Morchella with values from concurrently collected foliage, the ectomycorrhizal Geopyxis carbonaria (Alb. & Schwein.) Sacc., the saprotrophic Plicaria endocarpoides (Berk.) Rifai, and with literature to determine isotopic values for ectomycorrhizal or saprotrophic fungi. Geopyxis, Plicaria and Morchella, respectively, were 3‰, 5‰ and 6‰ higher in 13C than foliage and 5‰, 7‰ and 7‰ higher in (15)N. High (15)N enrichment in Morchella indicated that recent litter was not the primary source for Morchella nitrogen, and similar (13)C and (15)N enrichments to Plicaria suggest that Morchella assimilates its carbon and nitrogen from the same source pool as this saprotrophic fungus. From radiocarbon analyses Morchella averaged 11 ± 6 y old (n = 19), Plicaria averaged 17 ± 5 y old (n = 3), foliage averaged 1 ± 2 y old (n = 8) and Geopyxis (n = 1) resembled foliage in Δ(14)C. We conclude that morels fruiting in post-fire environments in our study assimilated old carbon and were saprotrophic.

  6. A randomized controlled trial to compare the effects of liquid versus powdered recombinant human growth hormone in treating patients with severe burns

    PubMed Central

    CHEN, GUOXIAN; SHAO, HUAWEI; PAN, XUANLIANG

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human growth hormone (rhGH) promotes protein utilization and synthesis, and is widely used as a therapy to treat severe burns. The present randomized controlled trial evaluated the effects of different forms of rhGH on patients with severe burns. A total of 29 adult severe burns patients were enrolled between February 2009 and November 2011, and randomly assigned to either treatment group (T, liquid rhGH) or control group (C, powder rhGH). From days 5 to 7 following the infliction of burns, both patient groups received rhGH at 0.067 mg/kg/d, once for 10 days. Median serum pre-albumin levels increased in both groups following treatment, the elevation from baseline was significantly higher in the T group on day 10 compared to the C group (88 mg/l vs. 65 mg/l, P=0.046). C-reactive protein, fasting plasma glucose and body weight decreased in both groups. Body weight was significantly lower in the T compared to the C group at baseline, Day 5 and Day 10 (P=0.046, P=0.018 and P=0.006, respectively), however the decrease from baseline levels were not significantly different. Wound healing time was similar between groups (P=0.270). In conclusion the early use of liquid rather than powder rhGH may be more beneficial for treating adult patients with severe burns. PMID:27123246

  7. Effect of gamma-hydroxybutyrate on keratinocytes proliferation: A preliminary prospective controlled study in severe burn patients

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Bargues, Laurent; Bever, Hervé Le; Vest, Philippe; Cavalier, Etienne; Ledoux, Didier; Piérard, Gérald E.; Damas, Pierre

    2014-01-01

    Background: Hypermetabolism and hyposomatotropism related to severe burns lead to impaired wound healing. Growth hormone (GH) boosts wound healing notably following stimulation of the production of insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1), a mitogen factor for keratinocytes. Gamma-hydroxybutyrate (GHB) stimulates endogenous GH secretion. Aim: To assess effects of GHB sedation on keratinocytes proliferation (based on immunohistochemical techniques). Design: Monocentric, prospective, controlled trial. Materials and Methods: Patients (aging 18-65 years, burn surface area >30%, expected to be sedated for at least one month) were alternately allocated, at the 5th day following injury, in three groups according to the intravenous GHB dose administered for 21 days: Evening bolus of 50 mg/kg (Group B), continuous infusion at the rate of 10 mg/kg/h (Group C), or absence of GHB (Group P). They all received local standard cares. Immunohistochemistry (Ki67/MIB-1, Ulex europaeus agglutinin-1 and Mac 387 antibodies) was performed at D21 on adjacent unburned skin sample for assessing any keratinocyte activation. Serum IGF1 levels were measured at initiation and completion of the protocol. Statistical Analysis: Categorical variables were compared with Chi-square test. Comparisons of medians were made using Kruskal-Wallis test. Post hoc analyses were performed using Mann-Whitney test with Bonferroni correction for multiple comparisons. A P < 0.05 was considered to be statistically significant. Results: A total of 14 patients completed the study (Group B: n = 5, Group C: n = 5, Group P: n = 4). Continuous administration of GHB was associated with a significant higher Ki67 immunolabeling at D21 (P = 0.049) and with a significant higher increase in the IGF1 concentrations at D21 (P = 0.024). No adverse effects were disclosed. Conclusions: Our preliminary data support a positive effect of GHB on keratinocyte proliferation and are encouraging enough to warrant large prospective studies. PMID

  8. Lineage -CD34+CD31+ cells that appear in association with severe burn injury are inhibitory on the production of antimicrobial peptides by epidermal keratinocytes.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Shohei; Lee, Jong O; Nakamura, Kiwamu; Suzuki, Sumihiro; Hendon, David N; Kobayashi, Makiko; Suzuki, Fujio

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides are major host defense effectors against Pseudomonas aeruginosa skin infections. Due to the lack of such peptide production, severely burned hosts are greatly susceptible to P. aeruginosa burn wound infection. β-Defensin (HBD) production by normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEK) was inhibited by lineage(-)CD34(+) cells isolated from peripheral blood of severely burned patients. Lineage(-)CD34(+) cells obtained from severely burned patients were characterized as CD31(+), while healthy donor lineage(-)CD34(+) cells were shown to be CD31(-) cells. Lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(-) cells did not show any inhibitory activities on HBD-1 production by NHEK. CCL2 and IL-10 released from lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(+) cells were shown to be inhibitory on the peptide production by NHEK, while these soluble factors were not produced by lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(-) cells. After treatment with a mixture of mAbs for CCL2 and IL-10, the culture fluids of lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(+) cells did not show any inhibitory activities on HBD-1 production by NHEK. Lineage(-)CD34(+)CD31(+) cells that appear in association with burn injuries play a role on the inhibition of antimicrobial peptide production by skin keratinocytes through the production of CCL2 and IL-10.

  9. Investigation of Biomass Combustion Rate of Fire Radiative Energy Using Multiple-Satellite-observed Active Fires and Landsat TM Burn Severities across the Continental United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, F.; Zhang, X.; Kondragunta, S.

    2015-12-01

    Biomass burning is a major source of atmospheric aerosol and greenhouse gases that substantially influence climate and regional air quality. However, the accuracy of biomass burning emissions estimated using traditional method is limited by large uncertainties in burned area and fuel loading. Alternatively, fire radiative energy (FRE) has recently been demonstrated to be linearly related to biomass combustion, which potentially improves the estimation of biomass burning emissions. The FRE-based combustion rate is 0.368-0.453 kg/MJ according to field controlled experiments while it varies from 1.37-4.5 kg/MJ derived from satellite-based bottom-up and top-down aerosol optical thickness estimates. Here we investigate the FRE combustion rate in over 1000 burn scars from 2011 to 2012 across the Continental United States (CONUS). Specifically, FRE was calculated by combining the high spatial observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) and the high temporal observations from the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES). Biomass consumption in burn scars was modeled using Landsat TM 30m burn severities, 30m fuel loading from Fuel Characteristic Classification System, and combustion completeness compiled from recent literatures. The combustion rate was then investigated by correlating FRE to biomass consumption across CONUS and Bailey's ecoregions. Our results show that the combustion rate can be extracted from the linear relationship between biomass consumption and FRE. The combustion rate is 0.415±10% kg/MJ across CONUS, which is similar to the rate derived from field experiments. However, it varies from 0.18-1.9 kg/MJ among ecoregions. This implies that a single combustion rate could produce large uncertainty in the estimation of biomass consumption at large scales. We suggest that ecoregion specified combustion rates should help to improve the accuracy of quantifying biomass burning emissions regionally and globally.

  10. The efficacy of acute administration of pamidronate on the conservation of bone mass following severe burn injury in children: a double-blind, randomized, controlled study.

    PubMed

    Klein, Gordon L; Wimalawansa, Sunil J; Kulkarni, Gayathri; Sherrard, Donald J; Sanford, Arthur P; Herndon, David N

    2005-06-01

    Bone loss is a known complication of severe burn injury. It is, in part, due to increased endogenous glucocorticoids that contribute to the reduction in bone formation and osteoblast differentiation, hypercalciuria secondary to hypoparathyroidism, and vitamin D deficiency. In this study we attempted to prevent post-burn bone loss by acute intravenous administration of the bisphosphonate pamidronate. We enrolled 43 children, with burns of > 40% total body surface area, in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study, administering the study drug within 10 days of burn injury and again 1 week later. Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry was performed prior to drug therapy, at hospital discharge and at 6 months post-burn. Urine specimens were obtained at baseline and discharge for determination of calcium and free deoxypyridinoline. Blood was obtained along with the urine specimens for measurement of intact parathyroid hormone (iPTH) and ionized calcium (Ca) levels. Following doxycycline labeling, intra-operative iliac crest bone biopsies were obtained, and bone histomorphometry was determined. At time of discharge there were no differences in total body bone mineral content (BMC), but lumbar spine BMC was significantly higher in the pamidronate group (P < 0.005). By 6 months post-burn the differences in lumbar spine BMC persisted, but, now, total body BMC was significantly higher in the pamidronate group (P < 0.05). Bone histomorphometry and levels of urine Ca and free deoxypyridinoline failed to show significant increases in bone formation or decreases in bone resorption. Pamidronate did not exacerbate the hypocalcemia in burn patients. In summary, acute intravenous pamidronate administration following burns may help to preserve bone mass, perhaps by inhibiting the glucocorticoid-induced apoptosis of osteoblasts and osteocytes.

  11. Foliar stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes in woody Mediterranean species with different life form and post-fire regeneration.

    PubMed

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire is an important ecological disturbance factor in most Mediterranean ecosystems. In the Mediterranean Basin, most shrub species can regenerate after fire by resprouting or seeding. Here, we hypothesize that post-fire regenerative syndromes may potentially co-vary with traits directly related to functional properties involved in resource use. Thus, seeders with a shorter life span and smaller size would have lower water-use efficiency (WUE) than re-sprouting species and would take up nutrients such as nitrogen from more superficial parts of the soil. To test this hypothesis, we compared leaf (13)C and (15)N signatures from 29 co-existing species with different post-fire regeneration strategies. We also considered life form as an additional explanatory variable of the differences between post-fire regenerative groups. Our data support the hypothesis that seeder species (which mostly evolved in the Quaternary under a Mediterranean climate) have lower WUE and less stomatal control than non-seeders (many of which evolved under different climatic conditions in the Tertiary) and consequently greater consumption of water per unit biomass. This would be related to their smaller life forms, which tend to have lower WUE and shorter life and leaf lifespan. Differences in (15)N also support the hypothesis that resprouters have deeper root systems than non-resprouters. The study supports the hypothesis of an overlap between plant functional traits and plant attributes describing post-disturbance resilience.

  12. Hardening by cooling rate control and post-firing heat treatment in Pd-Ag-Sn alloy for bonding porcelain.

    PubMed

    Yu, Young-Jun; Seol, Hyo-Joung; Cho, Mi-Hyang; Kim, Hyung-Il; Kwon, Yong Hoon

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the hardening effect by controlling the cooling rate during the porcelain firing process and performing an additional post-firing heat treatment in a Pd-Ag-Sn alloy. The most effective cooling rate for alloy hardening was determined by cooling the specimens at various cooling rates after oxidation treatment. A subsequent porcelain firing simulation followed by cooling at the selected cooling rate was performed. A post-firing heat treatment was then done at 600°C in a porcelain furnace. The hardening mechanism was characterized by a hardness test, X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Alloy softening occurred during the porcelain firing process followed by cooling at a controlled cooling rate. A post-firing heat treatment allowed apparent precipitation hardening. It is advisable to perform a postfiring heat treatment at 600°C in a porcelain furnace by annealing metal substructure after porcelain fusing.

  13. Effects of Post-Fire Salvage Logging on Erosion Rates at Multiple Scales

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagenbrenner, J. W.; Robichaud, P. R.; MacDonald, L. H.; Brown, R. E.

    2014-12-01

    Forest managers sometimes harvest burned trees after wildfires to realize economic value, reduce fuel loads, or achieve other operational goals. This logging can be controversial because some ecosystem effects are negative, yet the potential impacts on erosion rates have not been clearly identified. Our objectives were to quantify hillslope-scale erosion rates and compare the hillslope erosion rates to rates from larger (swale) and smaller (rill) scales. Soil characteristics, vegetative regrowth, and erosion rates were measured in logged areas and unlogged controls at seven severely burned sites in the western US. One site had replicated measurements at all three scales, five sites had only hillslope or swale scale measurements, and one site had only rill measurements. Erosion rates from hillslopes (70-170 m2) and swales (0.1-2.6 ha) were measured with sediment fences. Rill erosion rates were measured with rill experiments, where water was applied to a hillslope at five flow rates for 12 min each; water samples were collected at a point 9 m downslope. At the hillslope scale the passage of heavy logging equipment reduced soil water repellency, compacted the soil, reduced vegetative regrowth rates, and generally increased erosion rates by one or two orders of magnitude relative to the controls. The rill experiments also showed greater rates of rill incision and erosion from the areas disturbed by heavy logging equipment relative to the controls. At the swale scale erosion rates were higher in the logged areas than the controls when measurements were replicated and simultaneous but there was no detectable change in the other study areas. Overall, the absolute erosion rates from both logged and unlogged areas tended to decline over time while the relative difference in erosion tended to increase due to the slower vegetative recovery in the more heavily disturbed areas. The potential adverse effects of salvage logging can be minimized by reducing compaction and

  14. Post-fire hydrologic response in Central Portugal. A four years study at microplot scale.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vieira, Diana; Malvar, Maruxa; Martins, Martinho; Machado, Ana; Nunes, João; Keizer, Jacob

    2014-05-01

    Wildfires are a natural phenomenon in regions with a Mediterranean-type climate. However, their present-day widespread occurrence in southern Europe is unprecedented and strongly reflects human activity such as ignition, land-use changes, land abandonment and introduction of highly flammable plantations. Besides wildfires, post-fire management practices such as plowing, terracing, clearcutting and logging should also be considered, since their occurrence is getting increasingly common. And, in a long-term period these practices seem to be executed intercalated with repeated fire occurrences in the same site, sharing the impacts together with fire in an escalated degradational effect. In this sense, the work presented here concerns four years of runoff and erosion data at microplot scale after the wildfire, comparing different land management practices that occurred before the fire. Preliminary results indicate that in four years of monitoring, runoff is constantly higher in plowed sites than in the unplowed ones, with the exception of the first year. Regarding soil losses the plowed plots present always higher sediment rates than the unplowed ones. The comparison between two unplowed sites with different land uses, indicate higher runoff and erosion risk for pine comparatively to the eucalypt ones, however the reduced soil depth in the first can have an important role in these differences. Following these facts, the aim of the present work is to answer the following research questions: i) Do these four years of observations fit with the window of disturbance model presented by Prosser and Williams (1998). or the alternative version by Wittenberg and Inbar (2009)?; ii) Does pre-fire disturbances (wildfire, land use changes and land management practices) still have repercussions after wildfire?; In what sense does four years of intensive monitoring provides that one year couldn't provide?

  15. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify preferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pelt, R.; Zobeck, T. M.; Barnes, M. A.; Baddock, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2011-12-01

    abrader was added to the wind tunnel flow and a second test of 10 minutes with abrader added to the flow. At the end of the first four tests, the wind tunnel cooling system broke and due to the extent of necessary repairs, the last two plots were tested two weeks later. Three paired aeolian sediment samples were collected for each plot tested. The results indicated that in desert grassland, a disproportionate amount of the post-fire sediment is entrained from areas under grass clumps and in grassland-shrubland ecotones, the soil under shrubs is the primary source of entrained sediment followed by areas under grass clumps. The bare surfaces between vegetation produced the least sediment. REEs appear to be a powerful tool for investigating spatial patterns of aeolian processes.

  16. Biomass burning emissions estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E. A.; Ivanova, G. A.; Soja, A. J.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-04-01

    Wildfire is the main boreal forest disturbance and can burn 10-30 million hectares annually, thus modifying the global carbon budget through direct fire emissions, postfire biogenic emissions, and by maintaining or altering ecosystems through establishing the beginning and end of successional processes. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russian boreal forests vary substantially due to differences in ecosystems types, burned area calculations, and the amount of fuel consumed. There is an urgent need to obtain more accurate and impartial fire carbon loss estimates in the boreal forests of Siberia due to their considerable contribution to the regional and global carbon balance. We examined uncertainties in estimates of carbon emissions. Area burned in the Siberian region was analyzed and compared using distinct methodologies. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Carbon emissions from fires vary annually and interannually and can increase several times in extreme fire years in comparison to normal fire years. Climate change and increasing drought length have increased the probability of high-severity fire occurrences. This would result in greater carbon losses and efflux to the atmosphere. This research was supported by NASA LCLUC Program, Fulbright

  17. Amino acid infusion fails to stimulate skeletal muscle protein synthesis up to one year post injury in children with severe burns

    PubMed Central

    Cotter, Matthew; Diaz, Eva C; Jennings, Kristofer; Herndon, David N; Børsheim, Elisabet

    2013-01-01

    Background Burn injury results in increased skeletal muscle protein turnover, where the magnitude of protein breakdown outweighs synthesis resulting in muscle wasting. The impact of increased amino acid (AA) provision on skeletal muscle fractional synthesis rate (FSR) in severely burned patients during their convalescence after discharge from hospital is not known. Subsequently, the purpose of this study was to determine skeletal muscle FSR in response to AA infusion in severely burned pediatric patients at discharge from hospital, and at six and twelve months post injury. Methods Stable isotope infusion studies were performed in the postprandial state and during intravenous AA infusion. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained and isotope enrichment determined in order to calculate skeletal muscle FSR. Patients were studied at discharge from hospital (n=11), and at six (n=15), and twelve months (n=14) post injury. Results The cohorts of patients studied at each time point post injury were not different with regards to age, body mass or burn size. AA infusion failed to stimulate FSR above basal values at discharge from hospital (0.27±0.04 vs. 0.26±0.06 %·hr−1), six months post injury (0.20±0.04 vs. 0.22±0.03 %·hr−1), and twelve months post injury (0.16±0.03 vs. 0.15±0.05 %·hr−1). Daily FSR was numerically lower at six months post burn (5.51±0.79 %·day−1) and significantly (P<0.05) lower at 12 months post burn (3.67±0.65 %·day−1) relative to discharge group (6.32±1.02 %·day−1). Discussion The findings of the current study suggest that the deleterious impact of burn injury on skeletal muscle AA metabolism persists for up to one year post injury. In light of these findings, nutritional and pharmacological strategies aimed at attenuating muscle protein breakdown post burn may be a more efficacious approach to maintaining muscle mass in severely burned patients. PMID:23694875

  18. Structural adjustments in resprouting trees drive differences in post-fire transpiration.

    PubMed

    Nolan, Rachael H; Mitchell, Patrick J; Bradstock, Ross A; Lane, Patrick N J

    2014-02-01

    Following disturbance many woody species are capable of resprouting new foliage, resulting in a reduced leaf-to-sapwood area ratio and altered canopy structure. We hypothesized that such changes would promote adjustments in leaf physiology, resulting in higher rates of transpiration per unit leaf area, consistent with the mechanistic framework proposed by Whitehead et al. (Whitehead D, Jarvis PG, Waring RH (1984) Stomatal conductance, transpiration and resistance to water uptake in a Pinus sylvestris spacing experiment. Can J For Res 14:692-700). We tested this in Eucalyptus obliqua L'Hér following a wildfire by comparing trees with unburnt canopies with trees that had been subject to 100% canopy scorch and were recovering their leaf area via resprouting. In resprouting trees, foliage was distributed along the trunk and on lateral branches, resulting in shorter hydraulic path lengths. We evaluated measurements of whole-tree transpiration and structural and physiological traits expected to drive any changes in transpiration. We used these structural and physiological measurements to parameterize the Whitehead et al. equation, and found that the expected ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area between resprouting and unburnt trees was 3.41. This is similar to the observed ratio of transpiration per unit leaf area, measured from sapflow observations, which was 2.89 (i.e., resprouting trees had 188% higher transpiration per unit leaf area). Foliage at low heights (<2 m) was found to be significantly different to foliage in the tree crown (14-18 m) in a number of traits, including higher specific leaf area, midday leaf water potential and higher rates of stomatal conductance and photosynthesis. We conclude that these post-fire adjustments in resprouting trees help to drive increased stomatal conductance and hydraulic efficiency, promoting the rapid return of tree-scale transpiration towards pre-disturbance levels. These transient patterns in canopy transpiration have

  19. ISSR and AFLP analysis of the temporal and spatial population structure of the post-fire annual, Nicotiana attenuata, in SW Utah

    PubMed Central

    Bahulikar, Rahul A; Stanculescu, Dominic; Preston, Catherine A; Baldwin, Ian T

    2004-01-01

    Background The native annual tobacco, Nicotiana attenuata, is found primarily in large ephemeral populations (typically for less than 3 growing seasons) after fires in sagebrush and pinyon-juniper ecosystems and in small persistent populations (for many growing seasons) in isolated washes typically along roadsides throughout the Great Basin Desert of the SW USA. This distribution pattern is due to its unusual germination behavior. Ephemeral populations are produced by the germination of dormant seeds from long-lived seed banks which are stimulated to germinate by a combination of unidentified positive cues found in wood smoke and the removal of inhibitors leached from the unburned litter of the dominant vegetation. Persistent populations may result where these inhibitors do not exist, as in washes or along disturbed roadsides. To determine if this germination behavior has influenced population structure, we conducted an AFLP (244 individuals), ISSR (175 individuals) and ISSR+ AFLP (175 individuals) analysis on plants originating from seed collected from populations growing in 11 wash and burns over 11 years from the SW USA. Results Genetic variance as measured by both ISSR and AFLP markers was low among sites and comparatively higher within populations. Cluster analysis of the Utah samples with samples collected from Arizona, California, and Oregon as out-groups also did not reveal patterns. AMOVA analysis of the combined AFLP and ISSR data sets yielded significantly low genetic differentiation among sites (Φct), moderate among populations within sites (Φsc) and higher genetic differentiation within populations (Φst). Conclusions We conclude that the seed dormancy of this post-fire annual and its resulting age structure in conjunction with natural selection processes are responsible for significantly low among sites and comparatively high within-population genetic variation observed in this species. PMID:15350209

  20. Effects of prescribed burning on ecophysiological, anatomical and stem hydraulic properties in Pinus pinea L.

    PubMed

    Battipaglia, Giovanna; Savi, Tadeja; Ascoli, Davide; Castagneri, Daniele; Esposito, Assunta; Mayr, Stefan; Nardini, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Prescribed burning (PB) is a widespread management technique for wildfire hazard abatement. Understanding PB effects on tree ecophysiology is key to defining burn prescriptions aimed at reducing fire hazard in Mediterranean pine plantations, such as Pinus pinea L. stands. We assessed physiological responses of adult P. pinea trees to PB using a combination of dendroecological, anatomical, hydraulic and isotopic analyses. Tree-ring widths, xylem cell wall thickness, lumen area, hydraulic diameter and tree-ring δ(13)C and δ(18)O were measured in trees on burned and control sites. Vulnerability curves were elaborated to assess tree hydraulic efficiency or safety. Despite the relatively intense thermal treatment (the residence time of temperatures above 50 °C at the stem surface ranged between 242 and 2239 s), burned trees did not suffer mechanical damage to stems, nor significant reduction in radial growth. Moreover, the PB did not affect xylem structure and tree hydraulics. No variations in (13)C-derived water use efficiency were recorded. This confirmed the high resistance of P. pinea to surface fire at the stem base. However, burned trees showed consistently lower δ(18)O values in the PB year, as a likely consequence of reduced competition for water and nutrients due to the understory burning, which increased both photosynthetic activity and stomatal conductance. Our multi-approach analysis offers new perspectives on post-fire survival strategies of P. pinea in an environment where fires are predicted to increase in frequency and severity during the 21st century.

  1. A European hospital survey to determine the extent of psychological services offered to patients with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Van Loey, N E; Faber, A W; Taal, L A

    2001-02-01

    Analogous to a hospital survey in North America (the US and Canada) a survey in Europe was performed to determine the extent of psychological services offered in burn units. The questionnaire used to acquire this information was exactly the same in both continents. One hundred and seventy questionnaires and self-addressed stamped envelopes were sent to the medical manager of the European burn units with the request to pass the questionnaire to the person who provides psychological care to patients in the burn units. The questionnaire was translated into four other languages. Response was 103 (62.8%). The questions posed inquired after what percentage of patients received psychological testing, psychological therapy, displayed symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress, what percentage is given referral and if emotional follow-up is arranged. Also questions about whether staff members of the burn unit displayed symptoms of depression and post-traumatic stress were enclosed. Results indicated that few burn units in Europe provide formal psychological testing for their patients and in half of the European hospitals, less than 20% of the patients receive psychological therapy or counselling during their stay in the hospital. Aftercare services are also capable of improvement. Compared with North America, Europe provided less psychological services. No statistical differences were found between countries within Europe.

  2. Effect of aspect on sagebrush steppe recovery post-fire juniper woodlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Restoration of sagebrush after controlling encroaching western juniper with fire in mountain big sagebrush communities is needed to improve wildlife habitat. We evaluated seeding mountain and Wyoming big sagebrush on north and south aspects after juniper control with prescribed burning. We included...

  3. Fuel loads, fire regimes, and post-fire fuel dynamics in Florida Keys pine forests

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sah, J.P.; Ross, M.S.; Snyder, J.R.; Koptur, S.; Cooley, H.C.

    2006-01-01

    In forests, the effects of different life forms on fire behavior may vary depending on their contributions to total fuel loads. We examined the distribution of fuel components before fire, their effects on fire behavior, and the effects of fire on subsequent fuel recovery in pine forests within the National Key Deer Refuge in the Florida Keys. We conducted a burning experiment in six blocks, within each of which we assigned 1-ha plots to three treatments: control, summer, and winter burn. Owing to logistical constraints, we burned only 11 plots, three in winter and eight in summer, over a 4-year period from 1998 to 2001. We used path analysis to model the effects of fuel type and char height, an indicator of fire intensity, on fuel consumption. Fire intensity increased with surface fuel loads, but was negatively related to the quantity of hardwood shrub fuels, probably because these fuels are associated with a moist microenvironment within hardwood patches, and therefore tend to resist fire. Winter fires were milder than summer fires, and were less effective at inhibiting shrub encroachment. A mixed seasonal approach is suggested for fire management, with burns applied opportunistically under a range of winter and summer conditions, but more frequently than that prevalent in the recent past. ?? IAWF 2006.

  4. Anchor chaining’s influence on soil hydrology and seeding success in burned piñon-juniper woodlands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Broadcast seeding is one of the most commonly used rehabilitation treatments for the restoration of burned piñon (Pinus ssp.) and juniper (Juniperus spp.) woodlands, but the success rate of this treatment is notoriously low. In piñon-juniper woodlands, post-fire soil water repellency can impair rese...

  5. Post-fire albedo change and the associated radiative forcing in northern and southern Canadian boreal forest

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jin, Y.; Randerson, J. T.; Goulden, M. L.

    2009-12-01

    Boreal forest occupies %77 of Canada’s forested land, bordered to the north by treeless arctic tundra and to the south by grassland and mixed hardwood trees. Three ecologically and structurally distinct zones can be identified along the gradient: northern woodland with widely spaced coniferous trees carpeted with lichens, main closed crown forest with closely spaced evergreen and deciduous trees beneath which mosses and herbs/shrubs thrive, and southern boreal zone containing occasional temperate trees. Fire disturbance drives the patterns of vegetation structure and composition and carbon dynamics in this region. We examined the differences of fire patterns between the northern and southern zones, and between the protected areas and non-reserved areas within each zone, using the Large Fire Database (LFDB) from 1959 from Canadian Forest Service. Time series of post-fire vegetation indices and structural index from MODIS data during 2000-2009 in both regions and prairie-forest transition zone were analyzed to identify different vegetation recovery trajectories. The post-fire albedo change was found to be associated with vegetation succession. The magnitude of post-fire albedo change increased from northern to southern boreal forest, especially in winter, reflecting the increasing trend of tree density from north to south. Towards the southern boarder, the ratio of deciduous vs. evergreen trees increases, and thus the albedo change decreases. We built fire chronosequences of surface albedo in each zone and calculated the seasonal and annual radiative forcing. The radiative forcing due to fire-induced albedo change is a trade-off between albedo change, snow season length (decrease), and incoimg solar radiation (increase) along the vegetation gradient.

  6. Superthin Abdominal Wall Glove-Like Flap Combined With Vacuum-Assisted Closure Therapy for Soft Tissue Reconstruction in Severely Burned Hands or With Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fei; Liu, Sheng; Qiu, Le; Ma, Ben; Wang, Jian; Wang, Yong-Jie; Peszel, April; Chen, Xu-Lin

    2015-12-01

    Severe burn and infection to hands always involves the deep structures, such as tendons, joints, and bones. These wounds cannot be closed immediately and therefore creates a high risk for complication. We presented 9 cases with deep dermal burns to the dorsal of the hand (6 electrical burns and 3 thermal crush injuries) with wound infections in 2 cases. The vacuum-assisted closure system was used continuously until the flap reconstruction was performed. A random pattern and superthin abdominal wall skin flap-like glove was designed. The flap was transferred to the defected portion of the dorsum of the hand and resected from the abdominal wall about 3 weeks later. The flaps in 8 of the patients treated by this technique survived completely and partial necrosis of the distal flap occurred in 1 patient. The defect resolved after operative treatment and the function of the hands and fingers were successfully salvaged. All patients resulted in having a satisfactory aesthetic outcome with no or minor discomfort at the abdominal donor area. Integration of the vacuum-assisted closure system and the superthin abdominal wall glove-like flap reconstruction appeared to be successful and should be considered in patients with severely burned hands.

  7. Fire impact and assessment of post-fire actions of a typical Mediterranean forest from SW Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiménez-González, Marco A.; María De la Rosa, José; Jiménez-Morillo, Nicasio T.; Zavala, Lorena M.; Knicker, Heike

    2015-04-01

    Wildfires may cause significant changes in soil physical and chemical properties. In addition, soil organic matter (SOM) content and chemical properties are usually affected by fire. Fire impacts may negatively affect soil health and quality, and induce or enhance runoff generation and, thereby, soil erosion risk and cause damages to the habitat of species. This fact is especially dramatic in Mediterranean ecosystems, where forest fires are a frequent phenomenon and restoration strategies are a key issue. The goals of this study are to determine: i) the immediate effects of fire on soil properties, including changes occurred in the quantity and quality of SOM and ii) the effect of post-fire actions on soil properties. In August 2012, a wildfire affected a forest area of approx. 90 ha in Montellano (Seville, SW Spain; longitude 37.00 °, latitude -5.56 °). This area is dominated by pines (Pinus pinaster and Pinus halepensis), and eucalypts (Eucaliptus globulus) with a Mediterranean climate. Dominant soil types are Rendzic Leptosols and Calcaric Haplic Regosols. It is a poorly limestone-developed soil (usually swallower than 25 cm). Four soil subsamples were collected 1 month and 25 months after fire within an area of approximately 200 m2. Subsamples were mixed together, homogenized, air-dried, crushed and sieved (2 mm). One control sample was collected in an adjacent area. The litter layer was removed by hand and studied separately. Branches, stems, bushes and plant residues on the fire-affected area were removed 16 months after the fire using heavy machinery as part of the post-fire management. The present research focuses on the study of the elemental composition (C, H and N) and physical properties (pH, water holding capacity, electrical conductivity) of bulk soil samples, and on the spectroscopic analysis (FT-IR, 13C NMR) and analytical pyrolysis data obtained from bulk the oils and from the humic acid fraction. immediate effects of fire, including the charring

  8. Post-fire salvage logging alters species composition and reduces cover, richness, and diversity in Mediterranean plant communities.

    PubMed

    Leverkus, Alexandro B; Lorite, Juan; Navarro, Francisco B; Sánchez-Cañete, Enrique P; Castro, Jorge

    2014-01-15

    An intense debate exists on the effects of post-fire salvage logging on plant community regeneration, but scant data are available derived from experimental studies. We analyzed the effects of salvage logging on plant community regeneration in terms of species richness, diversity, cover, and composition by experimentally managing a burnt forest on a Mediterranean mountain (Sierra Nevada, S Spain). In each of three plots located at different elevations, three replicates of three treatments were implemented seven months after the fire, differing in the degree of intervention: "Non-Intervention" (all trees left standing), "Partial Cut plus Lopping" (felling 90% of the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ), and "Salvage Logging" (felling and piling the logs, and masticating the woody debris). Plant composition in each treatment was monitored two years after the fire in linear point transects. Post-fire salvage logging was associated with reduced species richness, Shannon diversity, and total plant cover. Moreover, salvaged sites hosted different species assemblages and 25% lower cover of seeder species (but equal cover of resprouters) compared to the other treatments. Cover of trees and shrubs was also lowest in Salvage Logging, which could suggest a potential slow-down of forest regeneration. Most of these results were consistent among the three plots despite plots hosting different plant communities. Concluding, our study suggests that salvage logging may reduce species richness and diversity, as well as the recruitment of woody species, which could delay the natural regeneration of the ecosystem.

  9. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    PubMed

    Baker, William L

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984-2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984-2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046-2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire in

  10. Are High-Severity Fires Burning at Much Higher Rates Recently than Historically in Dry-Forest Landscapes of the Western USA?

    PubMed Central

    Baker, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Dry forests at low elevations in temperate-zone mountains are commonly hypothesized to be at risk of exceptional rates of severe fire from climatic change and land-use effects. Their setting is fire-prone, they have been altered by land-uses, and fire severity may be increasing. However, where fires were excluded, increased fire could also be hypothesized as restorative of historical fire. These competing hypotheses are not well tested, as reference data prior to widespread land-use expansion were insufficient. Moreover, fire-climate projections were lacking for these forests. Here, I used new reference data and records of high-severity fire from 1984–2012 across all dry forests (25.5 million ha) of the western USA to test these hypotheses. I also approximated projected effects of climatic change on high-severity fire in dry forests by applying existing projections. This analysis showed the rate of recent high-severity fire in dry forests is within the range of historical rates, or is too low, overall across dry forests and individually in 42 of 43 analysis regions. Significant upward trends were lacking overall from 1984–2012 for area burned and fraction burned at high severity. Upward trends in area burned at high severity were found in only 4 of 43 analysis regions. Projections for A.D. 2046–2065 showed high-severity fire would generally be still operating at, or have been restored to historical rates, although high projections suggest high-severity fire rotations that are too short could ensue in 6 of 43 regions. Programs to generally reduce fire severity in dry forests are not supported and have significant adverse ecological impacts, including reducing habitat for native species dependent on early-successional burned patches and decreasing landscape heterogeneity that confers resilience to climatic change. Some adverse ecological effects of high-severity fires are concerns. Managers and communities can improve our ability to live with high-severity fire

  11. Use of a pediatric oxygenator integrated in a veno-venous hemofiltration circuit to remove CO2: a case report in a severe burn patient with refractory hypercapnia.

    PubMed

    Rousseau, Anne-Françoise; Damas, Pierre; Renwart, Ludovic; Amand, Théo; Erpicum, Marie; Morimont, Philippe; Dubois, Bernard; Massion, Paul B

    2014-11-01

    Acute respiratory distress syndrome management is currently based on lung protective ventilation. Such strategy may lead to hypercapnic acidosis. We report a case of refractory hypercapnia in a severe burn adult, treated with simplified veno-venous extracorporeal carbon dioxide removal technique. We integrated a pediatric oxygenator in a continuous veno-venous hemofiltration circuit. This technique, used during at least 96h, was feasible, sure and efficient with carbon dioxide removal rate up to 32%.

  12. Molecular pathology of brain edema after severe burns in forensic autopsy cases with special regard to the importance of reference gene selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qi; Ishikawa, Takaki; Michiue, Tomomi; Zhu, Bao-Li; Guan, Da-Wei; Maeda, Hitoshi

    2013-09-01

    Brain edema is believed to be linked to high mortality incidence after severe burns. The present study investigated the molecular pathology of brain damage and responses involving brain edema in forensic autopsy cases of fire fatality (n = 55) compared with sudden cardiac death (n = 11), mechanical asphyxia (n = 13), and non-brain injury cases (n = 22). Postmortem mRNA and immunohistochemical expressions of aquaporins (AQPs), claudin5 (CLDN5), and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) were examined. Prolonged deaths due to severe burns showed an increase in brain water content, but relative mRNA quantification, using different normalization methods, showed inconsistent results: in prolonged deaths due to severe burns, higher expression levels were detected for all markers when three previously validated reference genes, PES1, POLR2A, and IPO8, were used for normalization, higher for AQP1 and MMP9 when GAPDH alone was used for normalization and higher for MMP9, but lower for MMP2 when B2M alone was used for normalization. Additionally, when B2M alone was used for normalization, higher expression of AQP4 was detected in acute fire deaths. Furthermore, the expression stability values of these five reference genes calculated by geNorm demonstrated that B2M was the least stable one, followed by GAPDH. In immunostaining, only AQP1 and MMP9 showed differences among the causes of death: they were evident in most prolonged deaths due to severe burns. These findings suggest that systematic analysis of gene expressions using real-time PCR might be a useful procedure in forensic death investigation, and validation of reference genes is crucial.

  13. Effects of a 12-week Rehabilitation Program with Music & Exercise Groups on Range of Motion in Young Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared to standard of care. To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the standard of care alone. METHODS This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages two and six years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared to 9 patients who received standard of care. RESULTS Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving standard of care showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. CONCLUSION Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the standard of care alone. PMID:18849852

  14. Effects of a 12-week rehabilitation program with music & exercise groups on range of motion in young children with severe burns.

    PubMed

    Neugebauer, Christine Tuden; Serghiou, Michael; Herndon, David N; Suman, Oscar E

    2008-01-01

    Previous studies indicate that rehabilitation programs supplemented with a strength and endurance-based exercise program improve lean body mass, pulmonary function, endurance, strength, and functional outcomes in severely burned children over the age of 7-years when compared with standard of care (SOC). To date, supplemental exercise programming for severely burned children under the age of 7-years has not yet been explored. The purpose of this study was to determine if a 12-week rehabilitation program supplemented with music & exercise, was more effective in improving functional outcomes than the SOC alone. This is a descriptive study that measured elbow and knee range of motion (ROM) in 24 severely burned children between ages 2 and 6 years. Groups were compared for demographics as well as active and passive ROM to bilateral elbows and knees. A total of 15 patients completed the rehabilitation with supplemental music and exercise, and data was compared with 9 patients who received SOC. Patients receiving the 12-week program significantly improved ROM in all joints assessed except for one. Patients receiving SOC showed a significant improvement in only one of the joints assessed. Providing a structured supplemental music and exercise program in conjunction with occupational and physical therapy seems to improve both passive and active ROM to a greater extent than the SOC alone.

  15. Five-Lumen Antibiotic-Impregnated Femoral Central Venous Catheters in Severely Burned Patients: An Investigation of Device Utility and Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection Rates.

    PubMed

    Friedman, Bruce C; Mian, Mohammad A H; Mullins, Robert F; Hassan, Zaheed; Shaver, Joseph R; Johnston, Krystal K

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the catheter-related bloodstream infection (CRBSI) rate in a severely burned patient population, many of whom required prolonged use of central venous catheters (CVCs). Between January 2008 and June 2012, 151 patients underwent placement of 455 five-lumen minocycline/rifampin-impregnated CVCs. CRBSI was defined as at least one blood culture (>100,000 colonies) and one simultaneous roll-plate CVC tip culture (>15 colony forming units) positive for the same organism. Most patients had accidental burns (81.5%) with a mean TBSA of 50%. A mean of three catheters were inserted per patient (range, 1-25). CVCs were inserted in the femoral vein (91.2%), subclavian vein (5.3%), and internal jugular vein (3.3%). Mean overall catheter indwell time was 8 days (range, 0-39 days). The overall rate of CRBSI per 1000 catheter days was 11.2; patients with a TBSA >60% experienced significantly higher rates of CRBSI than patients with a TBSA ≤60% (16.2 vs 7.3, P = .01). CVCs placed through burned skin were four times more likely to be associated with CRBSI than CVCs placed through intact skin. The most common infectious organism was Acinetobacter baumannii. Deep venous thrombosis developed in eleven patients (7%). The overall rate of CRBSI was 11.2, consistent with published rates of CRBSI in burn patients. Thus, femoral placement of 5-lumen CVCs did not result in increased CRBSI rates. These data support the safety of femoral CVC placement in burn patients, contrary to the Centers for Disease Control recommendation to avoid femoral CVC insertion.

  16. Molecular composition and size distribution of sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids in airborne particles during a severe urban haze event caused by wheat straw burning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Gehui; Chen, Chunlei; Li, Jianjun; Zhou, Bianhong; Xie, Mingjie; Hu, Shuyuan; Kawamura, Kimitaka; Chen, Yan

    2011-05-01

    Molecular compositions and size distributions of water-soluble organic compounds (WSOC, i.e., sugars, sugar-alcohols and carboxylic acids) in particles from urban air of Nanjing, China during a severe haze event caused by field burning of wheat straw were characterized and compared with those in the summer and autumn non-haze periods. During the haze event levoglucosan (4030 ng m -3) was the most abundant compound among the measured WSOC, followed by succinic acid, malic acid, glycerol, arabitol and glucose, being different from those in the non-haze samples, in which sucrose or azelaic acid showed a second highest concentration, although levoglucosan was the highest. The measured WSOC in the haze event were 2-20 times more than those in the non-hazy days. Size distribution results showed that there was no significant change in the compound peaks in coarse mode (>2.1 μm) with respect to the haze and non-haze samples, but a large difference in the fine fraction (<2.1 μm) was found with a sharp increase during the hazy days mostly due to the increased emissions of wheat straw burning. Molecular compositions of organic compounds in the fresh smoke particles from wheat straw burning demonstrate that sharply increased concentrations of glycerol and succinic and malic acids in the fine particles during the haze event were mainly derived from the field burning of wheat straw, although the sources of glucose and related sugar-alcohols whose concentrations significantly increased in the fine haze samples are unclear. Compared to that in the fresh smoke particles of wheat straw burning an increase in relative abundance of succinic acid to levoglucosan during the haze event suggests a significant production of secondary organic aerosols during transport of the smoke plumes.

  17. Can Charcoal Provide Information About Fire Effects and Fire Severity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belcher, Claire; Hudpsith, Victoria; Doerr, Stefan; Santin, Cristina

    2016-04-01

    Building an understanding of the impact of a wildfire is critical to the management of ecosystems. Aspects of fire severity such as the amount of soil heating, can relate to post-fire ecosystem recovery. Yet, there is no quantitative measure of this in current post-burn fire severity assessments, which are mostly qualitative ground-based visual assessments of organic matter loss, and as such can be subjective and variable between ecosystems. In order to develop a unifying fire severity assessment we explore the use of charcoal produced during a wildfire, as a tool. Charcoal has been suggested to retain some information about the nature of the fire in which it was created and one such physical property of charcoal that can be measured post-fire is its ability to reflect light when studied under oil using reflectance microscopy. The amount of light reflected varies between charcoals and is thought to be explained by the differential ordering of graphite-like phases within the char however, to what aspects of a fire's nature this alteration pertains is unknown. We have explored the formation of charcoal reflectance in 1) laboratory-based experiments using an iCone calorimeter and in 2) experimental forest scale and natural wildland fires occurring in Canada in spring 2015. In our laboratory experiments we assessed the formation and evolution of charcoal reflectance during pre-ignition heating, peak fire intensity through to the end of flaming and the transition to oxidative/smoldering heating regimes. In the prescribed and natural wildland fires we positioned the same woods used in our laboratory experiments, rigged with thermocouples in the path of oncoming fires in order to assess the resulting charcoal reflectance in response to the heating regime imposed by the fire on the samples. In this presentation we will outline our approach, findings and discuss the potential for charcoal reflectance to provide a tool in post-fire assessments seeking to determine levels of

  18. Application of Adipose-Derived Stem Cells on Scleral Contact Lens Carrier in an Animal Model of Severe Acute Alkaline Burn

    PubMed Central

    Espandar, Ladan; Caldwell, Delmar; Watson, Richard; Blanco-Mezquita, Tomas; Zhang, Shijia; Bunnell, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To evaluate the therapeutic effect of human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) overlaid on a scleral contact lens (SCL) carrier in a rabbit model of ocular alkaline burn. Materials and Methods After inducing alkaline burn in 11 New Zealand white rabbits, hASCs cultured on SCLs were placed on the right eye of 5 rabbits, SCLs without cells were used in 5, and no treatment was applied in 1 eye. Each eye was examined and photographed for corneal vascularization, opacities, and epithelial defect in week 1, 2, and 4 after surgery. After 1 month, rabbits were killed and the corneas were removed and cut in half for electron and light microscopy examination. Results Human adipose-derived stem cells were attached to SCL surface and confluent easily. Human adipose-derived stem cells on SCL eyes showed smaller epithelial defect, less corneal opacity, corneal neovascularization relative to SCL eyes. Both groups showed no symblepharon. However, the cornea in the untreated eye was melted in 2 weeks and developed severe symblepharon. Conclusion Human adipose-derived stem cells on SCL can reduce inflammation and corneal haziness in severe ocular alkaline burn injury in rabbits. PMID:24901976

  19. Evaluation of post-fire strength of concrete flexural members reinforced with glass fiber reinforced polymer (GFRP) bars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ellis, Devon S.

    Owing to their corrosion resistance and superior strength to weight ratio, there has been, over the past two decades, increased interest in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) reinforcing bars in reinforced concrete structural members. The mechanical behavior of FRP reinforcement differs from that of steel reinforcement. For example, FRP reinforcement exhibit a linear stress-strain behavior until the bar ruptures and the strength, stiffness and bond properties of FRP reinforcement are affected more adversely by elevated temperatures. All structures are subject to the risk of damage by fire and fires continue to be a significant cause of damage to structures. Many structures do not collapse after being exposed to fire. The safety of the structure for any future use is dependent on the ability to accurately estimate the post-fire load capacity of the structure. Assuming that the changes, due to fire exposure, in the mechanical behavior of the GFRP reinforcing bar and concrete, and the bond between the reinforcing bar and the concrete are understood, an analytical procedure for estimating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete flexural elements can be developed. This thesis investigates the changes in: a) tensile properties and bond of GFRP bars; and b) the flexural behavior of GFRP reinforced concrete beams flexural after being exposed to elevated temperatures up to 400°C and cooled to ambient temperature. To this end, twelve tensile tests, twelve pullout bond tests and ten four-point beam tests were performed. The data from the tests were used to formulate analytical procedures for evaluating the post-fire strength of GFRP reinforced concrete beams. The procedure produced conservative results when compared with the experimental data. In general, the residual tensile strength and modulus of elasticity of GFRP bars decrease as the exposure temperature increases. The loss in properties is however, smaller than that observed by other researchers when

  20. Calibration and validation of the relative differenced Normalized Burn Ratio (RdNBR) to three measures of fire severity in the Sierra Nevada and Klamath Mountains, California, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.D.; Knapp, E.E.; Key, C.H.; Skinner, C.N.; Isbell, C.J.; Creasy, R.M.; Sherlock, J.W.

    2009-01-01

    Multispectral satellite data have become a common tool used in the mapping of wildland fire effects. Fire severity, defined as the degree to which a site has been altered, is often the variable mapped. The Normalized Burn Ratio (NBR) used in an absolute difference change detection protocol (dNBR), has become the remote sensing method of choice for US Federal land management agencies to map fire severity due to wildland fire. However, absolute differenced vegetation indices are correlated to the pre-fire chlorophyll content of the vegetation occurring within the fire perimeter. Normalizing dNBR to produce a relativized dNBR (RdNBR) removes the biasing effect of the pre-fire condition. Employing RdNBR hypothetically allows creating categorical classifications using the same thresholds for fires occurring in similar vegetation types without acquiring additional calibration field data on each fire. In this paper we tested this hypothesis by developing thresholds on random training datasets, and then comparing accuracies for (1) fires that occurred within the same geographic region as the training dataset and in similar vegetation, and (2) fires from a different geographic region that is climatically and floristically similar to the training dataset region but supports more complex vegetation structure. We additionally compared map accuracies for three measures of fire severity: the composite burn index (CBI), percent change in tree canopy cover, and percent change in tree basal area. User's and producer's accuracies were highest for the most severe categories, ranging from 70.7% to 89.1%. Accuracies of the moderate fire severity category for measures describing effects only to trees (percent change in canopy cover and basal area) indicated that the classifications were generally not much better than random. Accuracies of the moderate category for the CBI classifications were somewhat better, averaging in the 50%-60% range. These results underscore the difficulty in

  1. Post-fire changes in sediment transport connectivity from pedon to watershed scale. The Navalón wildfire in Eastern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerdà, Artemi; Bodí, Merche B.; González, Óscar; Mataix Solera, Jorge; Doerr, Stefan Helmut

    2015-04-01

    ., Sheridan, G. J., Smith, H. G., Lane, P. N. J. (2012). Surface runoff and erosion after prescribed burning and the effect of different fire regimes in forests and shrublands: a review. International Journal of Wildland Fire, 21(7), 857-872. Cerdà, A., Lasanta, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 1. Water and sediment yield. Catena, 60, 59-80. Doerr, S., Cerdà, A. 2005. Fire effects on soil system functioning: new insights and future challenges International Journal of Wildland Fire Preface. International Journal of Wildland Fire 14(4) 339-342 Guénon, R., Vennetier, M., Dupuy, N., Roussos, S., Pailler, A., Gros, R. 2013. Trends in recovery of Mediterranean soil chemical properties and microbial activities after infrequent and frequent wildfires. Land Degradation & Development, 24: 115- 128. DOI 10.1002/ldr.1109 Kaiho, K., Yatsu, S., Oba, M., Gorjan, P., Casier, J. G., Ikeda, M. (2013). A forest fire and soil erosion event during the Late Devonian mass extinction. Palaeogeography, Palaeoclimatology, Palaeoecology, 392, 272-280. Lasanta, A., Cerdà, A. 2005. Long-term erosional responses after fire in the Central Spanish Pyrenees: 2. Solute release. Catena, 60, 80-101. Pérez-Cabello, F., Cerdà, A., de la Riva, J., Echeverría, M.T., García-Martín, A., Ibarra, P., Lasanta, T., Montorio, R., Palacios, V. 2012. Micro-scale post-fire surface cover changes monitored using high spatial resolution photography in a semiarid environment: A useful tool in the study of post-fire soil erosion processes, Journal of Arid Environments, 76: 88-96. 10.1016/j.jaridenv.2011.08.007 Prats, S.A., Malvar, M.C., Simões-Vieira, D.C., MacDonald, L., Keizer, J.J. 2015. Effectiveness of hydro- mulching to reduce runoff and erosion in a recently burnt pine plantation in central Portugal. Land Degradation & Development, DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2236.

  2. dNBR imagery and xeric pine-oak forest stand characteristics for fires of different severity in Great Smoky Mountains National Park

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abla, Scott A.

    Fire suppression has changed forest structure and composition on xeric sites in the southern Appalachians from open, pine-oak dominated stands to closed canopy, mixed hardwood stands. Improved understanding of fire-related tools and ecological responses will improve effectiveness of fire management aimed at restoring pre-fire suppression forest communities on these xeric sites. Although occurrence of fire is known to be related to ecosystem functioning, vegetation responses to multi-severity fires are not as well understood in the southern Appalachians. Additionally, the relationship between satellite imagery and ground-based methods for designating burn severity (post-fire term describing fire severity) are not established for the Great Smoky Mountains National Park (GSMNP). The purpose of my study was to (1) determine if burn severity designations were consistent between satellite imagery and ground-based methods, and (2) evaluate vegetation responses to different burn severities on xeric sites dominated by pine (Pinus) and oak ( Quercus) species in the GSMNP. Plots were randomly located using satellite-based (dNBR) burn severity maps. For part (1) of my study these sites were ground-truthed using the FIREMON Composite Burn Index (CBI). Initial scatter plots between CBI and dNBR indicated a saturated growth relationship and square-root transformed dNBR data were overall strongly correlated to ground-based ratings (CBI) for 169 total plots (p<0.001, R2=0.90). Strong relationships were found between CBI and dNBR across different xeric forest types and time since burn categories. For part (2) of my study, variables related to stand regeneration were measured at the ground, mid-story, and overstory layers across different burn severities for 48 plots. Differences in post-fire forest structure and composition across burn severity classifications were tested using analyses of variance and relationships between stand variables were evaluated using linear regression

  3. Effects of a Hospital Based Wellness and Exercise Program on Quality of Life of Children with Severe Burns

    PubMed Central

    Rosenberg, Marta; Celis, Mario M; Meyer, Walter; Tropez-Arceneaux, Lisa; McEntire, Serina J.; Fuchs, Helen; Richardson, Lisa; Holzer, Charles; Herndon, David N.; Suman, Oscar E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the effect of a 12-week Wellness and Exercise (W&E) program on the quality of life of pediatric burn survivors with burns of ≥ 40% total body surface area. We hypothesized this comprehensive regimen would improve physical and psychosocial outcomes. Methods Children were recruited for participation upon their discharge from the ICU. They were not taking anabolic/cardiovascular agents. Seventeen children participated in the W&E group and 14 children in the Standard of Care (SOC) group. Quality of life was assessed with the Child Health Questionnaire (CHQ) at discharge and 3 months. Children completed the CHQ-CF 87 and caregivers completed the CHQ-PF 28. Results The mean age of children in the W&E group was 14.07y±3.5 and mean TBSA was 58%±11.8. The mean age of children in the SOC group was 13.9y±3.1 and mean TBSA was 49%±7.8. ANOVA did not reveal statistically significant differences between the groups. Matched paired t-tests revealed that parents with children in the W&E group reported significant improvements with their children’s physical functioning, role/social physical functioning, mental health, overall physical and psychosocial functioning post-exercise. Conclusions These results are clinically relevant in that a comprehensive W&E program may be beneficial in promoting physical and psychosocial outcomes. PMID:22985974

  4. Preliminary results from the comparison of simple limbal epithelial transplantation with conjunctival limbal autologous transplantation in severe unilateral chronic ocular burns

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ritu; Dokania, Pallavi; Manudhane, Aditi; Goyal, Jawahar Lal

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: To compare the safety, efficacy, and clinical outcomes of simple limbal epithelial transplantation (SLET) with conjunctival-limbal autologous transplantation (CLAU) in severe unilateral ocular chemical burns. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients of unilateral chronic ocular burns with more than 270° limbal stem cell deficiency and a healthy fellow eye were divided into two groups – ten patients of Group A underwent SLET while ten patients of Group B were operated for CLAU. Patients were followed up for 6 months and assessed for a stable epithelialized ocular surface, extent of reduction in vascularization and forniceal reconstruction, improvement in corneal clarity and visual acuity. Results: A stable epithelialized corneal surface was obtained in all patients, with a significant reduction in the mean clock hours of vascularization in both the groups (P < 0.001). The mean symblepharon score showed a statistically significant reduction from 1.80 ± 1.14 to 0.30 ± 0.63 in Group A and 1.70 ± 1.06 to 0.15 ± 0.24 in Group B at 6 months. Corneal clarity, as well as best-corrected visual acuity, showed a statistically significant improvement in both the groups. Conclusion: Both the procedures, SLET and CLAU, were equally effective in achieving a stable ocular surface, forniceal reconstruction, and regression of corneal vascularization. The requirement of minimal donor tissue in SLET makes it a preferred option over CLAU in cases of uniocular chronic ocular burns. PMID:28300738

  5. Salvage Logging Versus the Use of Burnt Wood as a Nurse Object to Promote Post-Fire Tree Seedling Establishment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Castro, J.; Allen, C.D.; Molina-Morales, M.; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Sanchez-Miranda, A.; Zamora, R.

    2011-01-01

    Intense debate surrounds the effects of post-fire salvage logging (SL) versus nonintervention policies on forest regeneration, but scant support is available from experimental studies. We analyze the effect of three post-fire management treatments on the recruitment of a serotinous pine (Pinus pinaster) at a Mediterranean mountain. Treatments were applied 7 months after the fire and differ in the degree of intervention, ranging from "no intervention" (NI, all trees left standing) to "partial cut plus lopping" (PCL, felling most of the trees, cutting the main branches, and leaving all the biomass in situ without mastication), and "SL" (felling and piling the logs, and masticating the woody debris). Seedling survival after 3 years was the highest in PCL (47.3% versus 38.7% in SL). This was associated with the amelioration of microclimatic conditions under the scattered branches, which reduced radiation and soil temperature while increasing soil moisture. Seedling density after 2 years was approximately 5.5 times higher in PCL than in SL, as in SL a large fraction of seedlings was lost as a consequence of mechanized mastication. The NI treatment showed the lowest seedling survival (17.3%). Nevertheless, seedling density was similar to SL. Seedling growth scarcely differed among treatments. Our results show that branches left onsite acted as nurse objects that improved key microclimatic conditions for seedling recruitment. This creates a facilitative interaction ideal for seedling establishment in moisture-deficient ecosystems, as it provides the benefit of a shading overstory but without underground competition. ?? 2010 Society for Ecological Restoration International.

  6. Adaptation to boreal forest wildfire in herbs: Responses to post-fire environmental cues in two Pulsatilla species

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalamees, Rein; Püssa, Kersti; Tamm, Sirli; Zobel, Kristjan

    2012-01-01

    Although boreal forests are biomes which are characterized by periodical forest wildfires, very little is known about adaptations to fire in forest herbs. We investigated whether a putatively fire-dependent herbaceous species - Pulsatilla patens - demonstrated adaptive responses to environmental cues that reflect differences in pre-fire and post-fire environments (the presence of ericoid litter and charcoal, and light levels). For comparison, we included in the experiment a close congeneric species that is less bound to forest ecosystems ( Pulsatilla pratensis) and a morphologically similar mesic grassland species from the same family ( Ranunculus polyanthemos), as examples of species for which adaptations to fire should be of lower value, or of no value at all, respectively. The addition of ericoid litter to the soil generally enhanced plant growth, suggesting that its negative effect on plant germination and growth is not as widespread as previously thought. In both Pulsatilla species charcoal without forest litter retarded plant growth, but in combination with ericoid litter the negative effect disappeared or was even replaced by a slightly positive effect. Such an interactive effect was absent in the grassland species R. polyanthemos. The response of Pulsatilla species to different post-fire signals may be explained by adaptive down-regulation of growth after high-intensity fire - small plant size can be advantageous in sparse and well illuminated field-layer vegetation - and intense growth in the more competitive situation following weak fire. An additional experiment demonstrated that the effects of fire-related treatments were not mediated by differential AM infection.

  7. Effects of post-fire wood management strategies on vegetation recovery and land surface temperature (LST) estimated from Landsat images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlassova, Lidia; Pérez-Cabello, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    The study contributes remote sensing data to the discussion about effects of post-fire wood management strategies on forest regeneration. Land surface temperature (LST) and Normalized Differenced Vegetation Index (NDVI), estimated from Landsat-8 images are used as indicators of Pinus halepensis ecosystem recovery after 2008 fire in areas of three post-fire treatments: (1) salvage logging with wood extraction from the site on skidders in suspended position (SL); (2) snag shredding in situ leaving wood debris in place (SS) performed two years after the event; and (3) non-intervention control areas (CL) where all snags were left standing. Six years after the fire NDVI values ∼0.5 estimated from satellite images and field radiometry indicate considerable vegetation recovery due to efficient regeneration traits developed by the dominant plant species. However, two years after management activities in part of the burnt area, the effect of SL and SS on ecosystem recovery is observed in terms of both LST and NDVI. Statistically significant differences are detected between the intervened areas (SL and SS) and control areas of non-intervention (CL); no difference is registered between zones of different intervention types (SL and SS). CL areas are on average 1 °C cooler and 10% greener than those corresponding to either SL or SS, because of the beneficial effects of burnt wood residuals, which favor forest recovery through (i) enhanced nutrient cycling in soils, (ii) avoidance of soil surface disturbance and mechanical damage of seedlings typical to the managed areas, and (iii) ameliorated microclimate. The results of the study show that in fire-resilient ecosystems, such as P. halepensis forests, NDVI is higher and LST is lower in areas with no management intervention, being an indication of more favorable conditions for vegetation regeneration.

  8. Objective definition of rainfall intensity-duration thresholds for the initiation of post-fire debris flows in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis; Kean, Jason W.; Cannon, Susan H.; Schmidt, Kevin M.; Laber, Jayme L.

    2012-01-01

    Rainfall intensity–duration (ID) thresholds are commonly used to predict the temporal occurrence of debris flows and shallow landslides. Typically, thresholds are subjectively defined as the upper limit of peak rainstorm intensities that do not produce debris flows and landslides, or as the lower limit of peak rainstorm intensities that initiate debris flows and landslides. In addition, peak rainstorm intensities are often used to define thresholds, as data regarding the precise timing of debris flows and associated rainfall intensities are usually not available, and rainfall characteristics are often estimated from distant gauging locations. Here, we attempt to improve the performance of existing threshold-based predictions of post-fire debris-flow occurrence by utilizing data on the precise timing of debris flows relative to rainfall intensity, and develop an objective method to define the threshold intensities. We objectively defined the thresholds by maximizing the number of correct predictions of debris flow occurrence while minimizing the rate of both Type I (false positive) and Type II (false negative) errors. We identified that (1) there were statistically significant differences between peak storm and triggering intensities, (2) the objectively defined threshold model presents a better balance between predictive success, false alarms and failed alarms than previous subjectively defined thresholds, (3) thresholds based on measurements of rainfall intensity over shorter duration (≤60 min) are better predictors of post-fire debris-flow initiation than longer duration thresholds, and (4) the objectively defined thresholds were exceeded prior to the recorded time of debris flow at frequencies similar to or better than subjective thresholds. Our findings highlight the need to better constrain the timing and processes of initiation of landslides and debris flows for future threshold studies. In addition, the methods used to define rainfall thresholds in this

  9. Bat response to differing fire severity in mixed-conifer forest California, USA.

    PubMed

    Buchalski, Michael R; Fontaine, Joseph B; Heady, Paul A; Hayes, John P; Frick, Winifred F

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts.

  10. Bat Response to Differing Fire Severity in Mixed-Conifer Forest California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Heady, Paul A.; Hayes, John P.; Frick, Winifred F.

    2013-01-01

    Wildlife response to natural disturbances such as fire is of conservation concern to managers, policy makers, and scientists, yet information is scant beyond a few well-studied groups (e.g., birds, small mammals). We examined the effects of wildfire severity on bats, a taxon of high conservation concern, at both the stand (<1 ha) and landscape scale in response to the 2002 McNally fire in the Sierra Nevada region of California, USA. One year after fire, we conducted surveys of echolocation activity at 14 survey locations, stratified in riparian and upland habitat, in mixed-conifer forest habitats spanning three levels of burn severity: unburned, moderate, and high. Bat activity in burned areas was either equivalent or higher than in unburned stands for all six phonic groups measured, with four groups having significantly greater activity in at least one burn severity level. Evidence of differentiation between fire severities was observed with some Myotis species having higher levels of activity in stands of high-severity burn. Larger-bodied bats, typically adapted to more open habitat, showed no response to fire. We found differential use of riparian and upland habitats among the phonic groups, yet no interaction of habitat type by fire severity was found. Extent of high-severity fire damage in the landscape had no effect on activity of bats in unburned sites suggesting no landscape effect of fire on foraging site selection and emphasizing stand-scale conditions driving bat activity. Results from this fire in mixed-conifer forests of California suggest that bats are resilient to landscape-scale fire and that some species are preferentially selecting burned areas for foraging, perhaps facilitated by reduced clutter and increased post-fire availability of prey and roosts. PMID:23483936

  11. IGF-I/IGFBP-3 equilibrates ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines, which are predictors for organ function in severely burned pediatric patients.

    PubMed Central

    Jeschke, Marc G.; Barrow, Robert E.; Suzuki, Fujiyo; Rai, Jyoti; Benjamin, Deb; Herndon, David N.

    2002-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We hypothesized that ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines can be associated with hepatic, cardiac, and renal function after a severe trauma and can be used as predictors for clinical outcome. Furthermore, insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) in combination with its principle binding protein (IGFBP-3) equilibrates pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokine ratios and improves homeostasis of severely burned pediatric patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Seventeen severely burned children were given a continuous infusion of IGF-I/BP-3 for 5 days after wound excision and grafting; seven were given saline during the same time period to serve as controls. Patient demographics and mortality were determined. Five days after excision and grafting, cardiac function was determined and blood samples were taken for serum levels of IGF-I, IGFBP-3, creatinine, pre-albumin, cholinesterase, pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1beta, IL-6, and TNF), and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-2, IL-4, IL-10 and IFN-gamma). RESULTS: There were no differences between IGF-I/BP-3 and controls in age, gender, burn size, or mortality. Serum IGF-I in burned children given the IGF-I/BP-3 complex increased from 102 + 15 to 433 + 33 microg/ml and IGFBP-3 increased from 1.5 + 0.2 to 3.0 + 0.2 microg/ml (p < 0.05). Serum pre-albumin and cholinesterase increased with IGF-I/BP-3, whereas serum creatinine decreased when compared to controls (p < 0.05). IGF-I/BP-3 increased cardiac index by 16% and stroke volume index by 15% (p < 0.05). These improvements in organ homeostasis were associated with decreased ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines in the IGF-I/BP-3 group when compared to controls (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Increased ratios of pro- to anti-inflammatory cytokines may indicate a higher risk for the incidence of multi-organ failure. We therefore suggest that ratios of pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory cytokines can be used to predict organ function. We further conclude that IGF

  12. Leaf and Shoot Water Content and Leaf Dry Matter Content of Mediterranean Woody Species with Different Post-fire Regenerative Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Saura-Mas, S.; Lloret, F.

    2007-01-01

    Background and Aims Post-fire regeneration is a key process in Mediterranean shrubland dynamics, strongly determining the functional properties of the community. In this study, a test is carried out to deteremine whether there is co-variation between species regenerative types and functional attributes related to water use. Methods An analysis was made of the seasonal variations in leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf moisture (LM) and live fine fuel moisture (LFFM) in 30 woody species of a coastal shrubland, with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeding, resprouting or both). Key Results RWC results suggest that the studied resprouters have more efficient mechanisms to reduce water losses and maintain water supply between seasons. In contrast, seeders are more drought tolerant. LDMC is higher in resprouters over the course of the year, suggesting a more efficient conservation of nutrients. The weight of the phylogenetic constraint to understand differences between regenerative strategies tends to be important for LDMC, while it is not the case for variables such as RWC. Conclusions Groups of species with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeders and resprouters) have different functional traits related to water use. In addition to the role of phylogenetical constraints, these differences are also likely to be related to the respective life history characteristics. Therefore, the presence and abundance of species with different post-fire regenerative responses influence the functional properties of the communities. PMID:17237213

  13. Post-fire demography of resprout and seedling establishment by Adenostoma fasciculatum in the California chaparral

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rundel, P.W.; Baker, G.A.; Parsons, D.J.; Stohlgren, T.J.

    1987-01-01

    Adenostoma fasciculatum (chamise) forms the dominant element of chaparral ecosystems in California. This evergreen, ericoid-leaved shrub occurs as a codominant in mixed chaparral or an overwhelming dominant in chamise chaparral, being present in over 70% of the chaparral stands in the state (Hanes 1971). No other chaparral shrub approaches A. fasciculatum in community importance. Unlike the majority of chaparral shrubs which respond to fire by either resprouting or reseeding, A. fasciculatum, utilizes both reproductive strategies (Wells 1969; Keeley and Zedler 1978; see also Hilbert in this volume). Although there have been numerous studies of succession in chamise chaparral (Horton and Kraebel 1955; Hanes 1971), no research to date has focused on the important questions of the demography of resprouting and seedling establishment by A. fasciculatum in the first few years following chaparral fires. Is there significant mortality of chamise burls during fires? How do fire seasonality and intensity affect resprout survival and growth? How do chamise seedlings compete with resprouts for establishment in postfire stands? What factors limit chamise seedling survival and growth? These are all important questions. In this paper we present results of a three-year study of the demographics of resprout mortality and growth and of seedling establishment for A. fasciculatum following burn and clip treatments at two seasons of the year in mature stands of chamise chaparral in the southern Sierra Nevada, California.

  14. Reduced predation risk for melanistic pygmy grasshoppers in post-fire environments

    PubMed Central

    Karpestam, Einat; Merilaita, Sami; Forsman, Anders

    2012-01-01

    The existence of melanistic (black) color forms in many species represents interesting model systems that have played important roles for our understanding of selective processes, evolution of adaptations, and the maintenance of variation. A recent study reported on rapid evolutionary shifts in frequencies of the melanistic forms in replicated populations of Tetrix subulata pygmy grasshoppers; the incidence of the melanistic form was higher in recently burned areas with backgrounds blackened by fire than in nonburned areas, and it declined over time in postfire environments. Here, we tested the hypothesis that the frequency shifts of the black color variant were driven, at least in part, by changes in the selective regime imposed by visual predators. To study detectability of the melanistic form, we presented human “predators” with images of black grasshoppers and samples of the natural habitat on computer screens. We demonstrate that the protective value of black coloration differs between burnt and nonburnt environments and gradually increases in habitats that have been more blackened by fire. These findings support the notion that a black color pattern provides improved protection from visually oriented predators against blackened backgrounds and implicate camouflage and predation as important drivers of fire melanism in pygmy grasshoppers. PMID:23139879

  15. Phenology, productivity, and nutrient accumulation in the post-fire chaparral shrub Lotus scoparius.

    PubMed

    Nilsen, Erik Tallak; Schlesinger, William H

    1981-08-01

    Lotus scoparius is a drought-deciduous shrub which is an early and abundant colonizer of sites following fire in southern California chaparral. Productivity, seasonal nutrient concentrations, nutrient accumulations and phenology were studied in a 4-year-old burn site in Adenostoma chaparral in which L. scoparius had established 49% cover. Net aboveground primary production for L. scoparius was 105 g m(-2) y(-1); leaves accounted for 40% of the annual production. The true increment to biomass was only 17 g m(-2) y(-1); 83% of the net production entered the litter layer or standing dead components. In response to the Mediterranean climatic regime, most of the annual net production and plant activity occurred from May through June when photoperiod and temperatures were favorable and moisture was available. In July leaf abscission occurred in response to the summer drought conditions. Correlation and principal component analysis suggested consistent seasonal behavior in the foliar concentrations of N, P, Zn, and Mn. Nitrogen, P, K, and Zn were strongly reabsorbed from leaf tissues before abscission. Calcium, Mg, and Fe formed a second functional group of elements which increased in concentration throughout leaf maturation and which were not reabsorbed from senescing foliage. The seasonal pattern of nitrogen-containing organic compounds (chlorophylls and proteins) was most associated with the leaf phenology and water stress. The rapid growth of Lotus scoparius plays a role in conserving nutrients that might be lost through runoff and erosion after fire in the chaparral.

  16. Fire Emissions Estimates in Siberia: Evaluation of Uncertainties in Area Burned, Land Cover, and Fuel Consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukavskaya, E.; Soja, A. J.; Ivanova, G. A.; Petkov, A.; Ponomarev, E. I.; Conard, S. G.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is one of the main disturbance factors in the boreal zone of Russia. Fires in the Russian boreal forest range from low-severity surface fires to high-severity crown fires. Estimates of carbon emissions from fires in Russia vary substantially due to differences in ecosystem classification and mapping, burned area calculations, and estimates of fuel consumption. We examined uncertainties in different parameters used to estimate biomass burning emissions. Several fire datasets (Institute of Forest burned area product, MCD45, MCD64, MOD14/MYD14, official data) were compared to estimate uncertainties in area burned in Siberia. Area burned was found to differ significantly by data source, with satellite data being by an order of magnitude greater than ground-based data. Differences between mapped ecosystems were also compared and contrasted on the basis of five land cover maps (GLC-2000, Globcover-2009, MODIS Collection 4 and 5 Global Land Cover, and the Digitized Ecosystem map of the Former Soviet Union) to evaluate the potential for error resulting from disparate vegetation structure and fuel consumption estimates. The examination of land cover maps showed that estimates of relative proportion of fire by ecosystem type varied substantially for the same year from map to map. Fuel consumption remains one of the main uncertainties in estimates of biomass burning emissions in Siberia. Accurate fuel consumption estimates are obtained in the course of fire experiments with pre- and post-fire biomass measuring. Our large-scale experiments carried out in the course of the FIRE BEAR (Fire Effects in the Boreal Eurasia Region) Project provided quantitative and qualitative data on ecosystem state and carbon emissions due to fires of known behavior in major forest types of Siberia that could be used to verify large-scale carbon emissions estimates. Global climate change is expected to result in increase of fire hazard and area burned, leading to impacts on global air

  17. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California

    PubMed Central

    Burton, Carmen A.; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life. PMID:27144270

  18. Trace elements in stormflow, ash, and burned soil following the 2009 station fire in southern California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burton, Carmen; Hoefen, Todd M.; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.; Baumberger, Katherine L.; Backlin, Adam R.; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N.

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life.

  19. Trace Elements in Stormflow, Ash, and Burned Soil following the 2009 Station Fire in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Burton, Carmen A; Hoefen, Todd M; Plumlee, Geoffrey S; Baumberger, Katherine L; Backlin, Adam R; Gallegos, Elizabeth; Fisher, Robert N

    2016-01-01

    Most research on the effects of wildfires on stream water quality has focused on suspended sediment and nutrients in streams and water bodies, and relatively little research has examined the effects of wildfires on trace elements. The purpose of this study was two-fold: 1) to determine the effect of the 2009 Station Fire in the Angeles National Forest northeast of Los Angeles, CA on trace element concentrations in streams, and 2) compare trace elements in post-fire stormflow water quality to criteria for aquatic life to determine if trace elements reached concentrations that can harm aquatic life. Pre-storm and stormflow water-quality samples were collected in streams located inside and outside of the burn area of the Station Fire. Ash and burned soil samples were collected from several locations within the perimeter of the Station Fire. Filtered concentrations of Fe, Mn, and Hg and total concentrations of most trace elements in storm samples were elevated as a result of the Station Fire. In contrast, filtered concentrations of Cu, Pb, Ni, and Se and total concentrations of Cu were elevated primarily due to storms and not the Station Fire. Total concentrations of Se and Zn were elevated as a result of both storms and the Station Fire. Suspended sediment in stormflows following the Station Fire was an important transport mechanism for trace elements. Cu, Pb, and Zn primarily originate from ash in the suspended sediment. Fe primarily originates from burned soil in the suspended sediment. As, Mn, and Ni originate from both ash and burned soil. Filtered concentrations of trace elements in stormwater samples affected by the Station Fire did not reach levels that were greater than criteria established for aquatic life. Total concentrations for Fe, Pb, Ni, and Zn were detected at concentrations above criteria established for aquatic life.

  20. Biomass Burning

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2015-07-27

    Projects:  Biomass Burning Definition/Description:  Biomass Burning: This data set represents the geographical and temporal distribution of total amount of biomass burned. These data may be used in general circulation models (GCMs) and ...

  1. Burn Institute

    MedlinePlus

    ... Programs - Fire and Burn Prevention - - Fire Safe Kids - - Senior Smoke Alarm Program - - National Scald Campaign - - Community Services - Burn Survivor Support - - Camp Beyond the Scars - - Retreats - - Burn Survivor & Caregiver Support Groups - - Scholarship Program - - Emergency Needs & Special Assistance Fund - - Red ...

  2. The media glorifying burns: a hindrance to burn prevention.

    PubMed

    Greenhalgh, David G; Palmieri, Tina L

    2003-01-01

    The media have a profound influence on the actions of children and adults. Burns and burn prevention tend to be ignored or even mocked. The purpose of this presentation is to reveal the callousness of the media in its dealings with burns and burn prevention. Printed materials with a relationship to burns, risk of burning, or disrespect for the consequences of burns were collected. The materials were tabulated into four categories: comics, advertisements (ads), articles that made light of burns, and television shows that portrayed behavior that would risk burn injury. Most burn-related materials were found in comics or advertisements. Several comics made light of high-risk behavior with flames, scald injury, contact injury, or burns. In addition, several advertisements showed people on fire or actions that could easily lead to burns. Several articles and televisions shows portrayed high-risk behavior that, in some instances, led to copycat injuries. Flames are frequently used to sell items that target adolescent boys or young men. The high incidence injuries that frequent this population parallel the high-risk behaviors portrayed by the media. The media portrays flames and high-risk behavior for burn injury as being cool, funny, and without consequence. The use of flames on clothing and recreational equipment (skateboards, hot rods) particularly targets the high-risk adolescent male. The burn community should make the media aware of the harm it causes with its callous depiction and glorification of burns.

  3. [The pain from burns].

    PubMed

    Latarjet, J

    2002-03-01

    The painful events associated with the treatment of a severe burn can, because of their long-lasting and repetitive characteristics, be one of the most excruciating experiences in clinical practice. Moreover, burn pain has been shown to be detrimental to burn patients. Although nociception and peripheral hyperalgesia are considered the major causes of burn pain, the study of more hypothetical mechanisms like central hyperalgesia and neuropathic pain may lead to a better understanding of burn pain symptoms and to new therapeutic approaches. Continuous pain and intermittent pain due to therapeutic procedures are two distinct components of burn pain. They have to be evaluated and managed separately. Although continuous pain is by far less severe than intermittent pain, the treatment is, in both cases, essentially pharmacological relying basically on opioids. Because of wide intra- and inter-individual variations, protocols will have to leave large possibilities of adaptation for each case, systematic pain evaluation being mandatory to achieve the best risk/benefit ratio. Surprisingly, the dose of medication decreases only slowly with time, a burn often remaining painful for long periods after healing. Non pharmacological treatments are often useful and sometimes indispensable adjuncts; but their rationale and their feasibility depends entirely on previous optimal pharmacological control of burn pain. Several recent studies show that burn pain management is inadequate in most burn centres.

  4. Post-Fire Evapotranspiration and Net Ecosystem Exchange over A Semi-Arid Grassland in Arizona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishnan, P.; Meyers, T. P.; Heuer, M.

    2015-12-01

    The seasonal and interannual variability of evapotranspiration (E) and net ecosystem exchange (NEE) following a fire disturbance over a semi -arid grassland located on the Audubon Research Ranch in south western Arizona (31.5907N, 110.5104W, elevation 1496 m), USA, and their relationships to environmental variables were examined using continuous measurements of water vapour and CO2 fluxes made from first week of June 2002 to 2009 using the eddy covariance technique. The research ranch was established in 1969 as an ecological research preserve and it is now one of the largest ungrazed, privately managed grassland sites in Arizona. A wild fire occurred in April - May 2002, and burned all the standing vegetation and litter on in research ranch (~38,000 acres) including 500 acres of grassland. The mean annual temperature and precipitation (P) at this site were ~16 deg C and ~370 mm, respectively. More than 60% of the annual P was received during the North American monsoon period (July-September) with the lowest annual P in the drought years of 2004 and 2009. Drastic changes in albedo, vegetation growth and evapotranspiration occurred following the onset of the monsoon season in July. The ecosystem was mostly a carbon sink during monsoon period. Daily total evapotranspiration during July-August increased from 2 mm d-1 in 2002 to >3 mm d-1 in 2007. The mean annual E over the site was during 2003 -2009 was 352 ±75 mm. With the onset of monsoon the ecosystem turned to carbon sink in 2002, with daily total net ecosystem exchange (NEE) varying up to ~<-2 g C m-2, by mid-July to August 2002. It was followed by one of the driest monsoon period on the record (2003) with <50% of normal July-September P. Because of this, the recovery of the ecosystem was delayed. During 2002-2009, the ecosystem was mostly a carbon source except in 2006 an year with high growing season Normalized-difference vegetation index, longest monsoon growing season and the highest annual and July

  5. Patch to landscape patterns in post fire recruitment of a serotinous conifer

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ne'eman, G.; Fotheringham, C.J.; Keeley, J.E.

    1999-01-01

    in that cypress recruited best within the shadow of burned canopies and cypress were weak invaders of adjacent shrublands.

  6. Factors affecting the abundance of leaf-litter arthropods in unburned and thrice-burned seasonally-dry Amazonian forests.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Juliana M; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-09-21

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae). In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance.

  7. Factors Affecting the Abundance of Leaf-Litter Arthropods in Unburned and Thrice-Burned Seasonally-Dry Amazonian Forests

    PubMed Central

    Silveira, Juliana M.; Barlow, Jos; Louzada, Julio; Moutinho, Paulo

    2010-01-01

    Fire is frequently used as a land management tool for cattle ranching and annual crops in the Amazon. However, these maintenance fires often escape into surrounding forests, with potentially severe impacts for forest biodiversity. We examined the effect of experimental fires on leaf-litter arthropod abundance in a seasonally-dry forest in the Brazilian Amazon. The study plots (50 ha each) included a thrice-burned forest and an unburned control forest. Pitfall-trap samples were collected at 160 randomly selected points in both plots, with sampling stratified across four intra-annual replicates across the dry and wet seasons, corresponding to 6, 8, 10 and 12 months after the most recent fire. Arthropods were identified to the level of order (separating Formicidae). In order to better understand the processes that determine arthropod abundance in thrice-burned forests, we measured canopy openness, understory density and litter depth. All arthropod taxa were significantly affected by fire and season. In addition, the interactions between burn treatment and season were highly significant for all taxa but Isoptera. The burned plot was characterized by a more open canopy, lower understory density and shallower litter depth. Hierarchical partitioning revealed that canopy openness was the most important factor explaining arthropod order abundances in the thrice-burned plot, whereas all three environmental variables were significant in the unburned control plot. These results reveal the marked impact of recurrent wildfires and seasonality on litter arthropods in this transitional forest, and demonstrate the overwhelming importance of canopy-openness in driving post-fire arthropod abundance. PMID:20877720

  8. Tree Growth and Competition in a Betula platyphylla–Larix cajanderi Post-fire Forest in Central Kamchatka

    PubMed Central

    DOLEŽAL, JIŘÍ; ISHII, HIROAKI; VETROVA, VALENTINA P.; SUMIDA, AKIHIRO; HARA, TOSHIHIKO

    2004-01-01

    • Background and Aims Fire is the dominant disturbance in central Kamchatka boreal forests, yet patterns and mechanisms of stand recovery have not been investigated. • Methods Measurements were made of 1433 stems ≥1·3 m height and annual radial increments of 225 randomly selected trees in a 0·4-ha plot of a 53-year-old fire-origin mixed-species stand to examine the spatio-temporal variation in establishment, growth, size inequality and the mode of competition among individual trees. Growth variations were related to tree size, age and local interference with neighbours. • Key Results Betula platyphylla formed the main canopy following a fire in 1947, with Larix cajanderi and Pinus pumila progressively reinvading the lower tree and shrub stratum. Most B. platyphylla originated from sprouts in small patches (polycormons) during the first 15 post-fire years. Betula platyphylla had normal distributions of diameter and age classes, but negatively skewed height distribution, as expected from shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Larix cajanderi had fewer tall and many short individuals. The smaller and younger B. platyphylla grew disproportionately more in diameter than larger trees from 1950 to 1975, and hence stem size inequalities decreased. The reverse trend was observed from 1995 to 2000: larger trees grew more, indicating an increasing asymmetry of competition for light. Betula platyphylla had steady diameter growth in the first 25 post-fire years, after which the growth declined in smaller trees. Neighbourhood analysis showed that the decline resulted from increased competition from taller neighbours. • Conclusions The observed growth patterns suggest that mode of interactions altered during stand development from early stages of weak competition for soil resources released by fire to later stages of asymmetric competition for light. Asymmetric crown competition started later than reported in other studies, which can be attributed to the lower stem

  9. Feedbacks between climate, fire severity, and differential permafrost degradation in Alaskan black spruce forests - implications for carbon cycling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasischke, E. S.; Kane, E. S.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Christensen, N. L.; Mitchell, S. R.; Turetsky, M. R.; Hayes, D. J.; Hoy, E.; Barrett, K. M.; McGuire, A. D.; Yuan, F.

    2011-12-01

    Black spruce forests are the dominant forest cover type in the boreal region of Alaska and Canada In the northern portion of its range, permafrost is common to sites occupied by black spruce forest, which in turn, leads topromotes the accumulation of large reservoirs of organic carbon in mineral and organic soils. Another important trait of black spruce forests is the high occurrence of fire which is enhanced by the presence of flammable foliage, surface litter (duff), dead stems, aboreal lichens, and understory vegetation that is highly flammable during the dry conditions found during the summer fire season. In turn, fire plays an important role in carbon cycling in black spruce forests through direct burning of vegetation and organic soils, initiation of secondary succession, and alteration of the ambient environmental conditions, in particular, the permafrost and the soil thermal regimes, including permafrost stability. The spatial and temporal characteristics of permafrost (e.g. ice content and, seasonal deepening thawing of the active layer) not only control fire severity in terms of depth of burning of the active layer, but also the level of permafrost degradation that occurs in the post-fire environment. Fire severity, in combination with soil thermal properties (e.g. temperature, moisture, permafrost state), moisture and temperature conditions controlled by rates of permafrost warming and drying then controls the biological processes (plant succession and growth and heterotrophic respiration), thus regulating post-fire re-accumulation of carbon in biomass. In this paper, we will review research that investigates the interactions between fire and permafrost regimes that influence and how they influence carbon cycling in black spruce forests in interior Alaska.

  10. Moving beyond the cambium necrosis hypothesis of post-fire tree mortality: cavitation and deformation of xylem in forest fires.

    PubMed

    Michaletz, S T; Johnson, E A; Tyree, M T

    2012-04-01

    • It is widely assumed that post-fire tree mortality results from necrosis of phloem and vascular cambium in stems, despite strong evidence that reduced xylem conductivity also plays an important role. • In this study, experiments with Populus balsamifera were used to demonstrate two mechanisms by which heat reduces the hydraulic conductivity of xylem: air seed cavitation and conduit wall deformation. Heat effects on air seed cavitation were quantified using air injection experiments that isolate potential temperature-dependent changes in sap surface tension and pit membrane pore diameters. Heat effects on conduit wall structure were demonstrated using air conductivity measurements and light microscopy. • Heating increased vulnerability to cavitation because sap surface tension varies inversely with temperature. Heating did not affect cavitation via changes in pit membrane pore diameters, but did cause significant reductions in xylem air conductivity that were associated with deformation of conduit walls (probably resulting from thermal softening of viscoelastic cell wall polymers). • Additional work is required to understand the relative roles of cavitation and deformation in the reduction of xylem conductivity, and how reduced xylem conductivity in roots, stems, and branches correlates and interacts with foliage and root necroses to cause tree mortality. Future research should also examine how heat necrosis of ray parenchyma cells affects refilling of embolisms that occur during and after the fire event.

  11. Karrikins Identified in Biochars Indicate Post-Fire Chemical Cues Can Influence Community Diversity and Plant Development

    PubMed Central

    Kochanek, Jitka; Flematti, Gavin R.

    2016-01-01

    Background Karrikins are smoke-derived compounds that provide strong chemical cues to stimulate seed germination and seedling growth. The recent discovery in Arabidopsis that the karrikin perception system may be present throughout angiosperms implies a fundamental plant function. Here, we identify the most potent karrikin, karrikinolide (KAR1), in biochars and determine its role in species unique plant responses. Methods Biochars were prepared by three distinct commercial-scale pyrolysis technologies using systematically selected source material and their chemical properties, including karrikinolide, were quantified. Dose-response assays determined the effects of biochar on seed germination for two model species that require karrikinolide to break dormancy (Solanum orbiculatum, Brassica tourneforttii) and on seedling growth using two species that display plasticity to karrikins, biochar and phytotoxins (Lactuca sativa, Lycopersicon esculentum). Multivariate analysis examined relationships between biochar properties and the plant phenotype. Findings and Conclusions Results showed that karrikin abundant biochars stimulated dormant seed germination and seedling growth via mechanisms analogous to post-fire chemical cues. The individual species response was associated with its sensitivity to karrikinolide and inhibitory compounds within the biochars. These findings are critical for understanding why biochar influences community composition and plant physiology uniquely for different species and reaffirms that future pyrolysis technologies promise by-products that concomitantly sequester carbon and enhance plant growth for ecological and broader plant related applications. PMID:27536995

  12. Postwildfire debris flows hazard assessment for the area burned by the 2011 Track Fire, northeastern New Mexico and southeastern Colorado

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tillery, Anne C.; Darr, Michael J.; Cannon, Susan H.; Michael, John A.

    2011-01-01

    In June 2011, the Track Fire burned 113 square kilometers in Colfax County, northeastern New Mexico, and Las Animas County, southeastern Colorado, including the upper watersheds of Chicorica and Raton Creeks. The burned landscape is now at risk of damage from postwildfire erosion, such as that caused by debris flows and flash floods. This report presents a preliminary hazard assessment of the debris-flow potential from basins burned by the Track Fire. A pair of empirical hazard-assessment models developed using data from recently burned basins throughout the intermountain western United States were used to estimate the probability of debris-flow occurrence and volume of debris flows at the outlets of selected drainage basins within the burned area. The models incorporate measures of burn severity, topography, soils, and storm rainfall to estimate the probability and volume of post-fire debris flows following the fire. In response to a design storm of 38 millimeters of rain in 30 minutes (10-year recurrence-interval), the probability of debris flow estimated for basins burned by the Track fire ranged between 2 and 97 percent, with probabilities greater than 80 percent identified for the majority of the tributary basins to Raton Creek in Railroad Canyon; six basins that flow into Lake Maloya, including the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins; two tributary basins to Sugarite Canyon, and an unnamed basin on the eastern flank of the burned area. Estimated debris-flow volumes ranged from 30 cubic meters to greater than 100,000 cubic meters. The largest volumes (greater than 100,000 cubic meters) were estimated for Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins, which drain into Lake Maloya. The Combined Relative Debris-Flow Hazard Ranking identifies the Segerstrom Creek and Swachheim Creek basins as having the highest probability of producing the largest debris flows. This finding indicates the greatest post-fire debris-flow impacts may be expected to Lake Maloya

  13. Burn Wound Infections

    PubMed Central

    Church, Deirdre; Elsayed, Sameer; Reid, Owen; Winston, Brent; Lindsay, Robert

    2006-01-01

    Burns are one of the most common and devastating forms of trauma. Patients with serious thermal injury require immediate specialized care in order to minimize morbidity and mortality. Significant thermal injuries induce a state of immunosuppression that predisposes burn patients to infectious complications. A current summary of the classifications of burn wound infections, including their diagnosis, treatment, and prevention, is given. Early excision of the eschar has substantially decreased the incidence of invasive burn wound infection and secondary sepsis, but most deaths in severely burn-injured patients are still due to burn wound sepsis or complications due to inhalation injury. Burn patients are also at risk for developing sepsis secondary to pneumonia, catheter-related infections, and suppurative thrombophlebitis. The introduction of silver-impregnated devices (e.g., central lines and Foley urinary catheters) may reduce the incidence of nosocomial infections due to prolonged placement of these devices. Improved outcomes for severely burned patients have been attributed to medical advances in fluid resuscitation, nutritional support, pulmonary and burn wound care, and infection control practices. PMID:16614255

  14. Empirical models to predict the volumes of debris flows generated by recently burned basins in the western U.S.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gartner, J.E.; Cannon, S.H.; Santi, P.M.; deWolfe, V.G.

    2008-01-01

    Recently burned basins frequently produce debris flows in response to moderate-to-severe rainfall. Post-fire hazard assessments of debris flows are most useful when they predict the volume of material that may flow out of a burned basin. This study develops a set of empirically-based models that predict potential volumes of wildfire-related debris flows in different regions and geologic settings. The models were developed using data from 53 recently burned basins in Colorado, Utah and California. The volumes of debris flows in these basins were determined by either measuring the volume of material eroded from the channels, or by estimating the amount of material removed from debris retention basins. For each basin, independent variables thought to affect the volume of the debris flow were determined. These variables include measures of basin morphology, basin areas burned at different severities, soil material properties, rock type, and rainfall amounts and intensities for storms triggering debris flows. Using these data, multiple regression analyses were used to create separate predictive models for volumes of debris flows generated by burned basins in six separate regions or settings, including the western U.S., southern California, the Rocky Mountain region, and basins underlain by sedimentary, metamorphic and granitic rocks. An evaluation of these models indicated that the best model (the Western U.S. model) explains 83% of the variability in the volumes of the debris flows, and includes variables that describe the basin area with slopes greater than or equal to 30%, the basin area burned at moderate and high severity, and total storm rainfall. This model was independently validated by comparing volumes of debris flows reported in the literature, to volumes estimated using the model. Eighty-seven percent of the reported volumes were within two residual standard errors of the volumes predicted using the model. This model is an improvement over previous models in

  15. Divergent patterns of abundance and age-class structure of headwater stream tadpoles in burned and unburned watersheds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hossack, B.R.; Corn, P.S.; Fagre, D.B.

    2006-01-01

    Wildfire is a potential threat to many species with narrow environmental tolerances like the Rocky Mountain tailed frog (Ascaphus montanus Mittleman and Myers, 1949), which inhabits a region where the frequency and intensity of wildfires are expected to increase. We compared pre- and post-fire counts of tadpoles in eight streams in northwestern Montana to determine the effects of wildfire on A. montanus. All streams were initially sampled in 2001, 2 years before four of them burned in a large wildfire, and were resampled during the 2 years following the fire. Counts of tadpoles were similar in the two groups of streams before the fire. After the fire, tadpoles were almost twice as abundant in unburned streams than in burned streams. The fire seemed to have the greatest negative effect on abundance of age-1 tadpoles, which was reflected in the greater variation in same-stream age-class structure compared with those in unburned streams. Despite the apparent effect on tadpoles, we do not expect the wildfire to be an extirpation threat to populations in the streams that we sampled. Studies spanning a chronosequence of fires, as well as in other areas, are needed to assess the effects of fires on streams with A. montanus and to determine the severity and persistence of these effects.

  16. Evaluating Post-Fire Forest Resilience Using GIS and Multi-Criteria Analysis: An Example from Cape Sounion National Park, Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arianoutsou, Margarita; Koukoulas, Sotirios; Kazanis, Dimitrios

    2011-03-01

    Forest fires are one of the major causes of ecological disturbance in the mediterranean climate ecosystems of the world. Despite the fact that a lot of resources have been invested in fire prevention and suppression, the number of fires occurring in the Mediterranean Basin in the recent decades has continued to markedly increase. The understanding of the relationship between landscape and fire lies, among others, in the identification of the system's post-fire resilience. In our study, ecological and landscape data are integrated with decision-support techniques in a Geographic Information Systems (GIS) framework to evaluate the risk of losing post-fire resilience in Pinus halepensis forests, using Cape Sounion National Park, Central Greece, as a pilot case. The multi-criteria decision support approach has been used to synthesize both bio-indicators (woody cover, pine density, legume cover and relative species richness and annual colonizers) and geo-indicators (fire history, parent material, and slope inclination) in order to rank the landscape components. Judgments related to the significance of each factor were incorporated within the weights coefficients and then integrated into the multicriteria rule to map the risk index. Sensitivity analysis was very critical for assessing the contribution of each factor and the sensitivity to subjective weight judgments to the final output. The results of this study include a final ranking map of the risk of losing resilience, which is very useful in identifying the "risk hotspots", where post-fire management measures should be applied in priority.

  17. Burning mouth syndrome and secondary oral burning.

    PubMed